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Sample records for adriamycin protective role

  1. Lisinopril Protects Against the Adriamycin Nephropathy and Reverses the Renalase Reduction: Potential Role of Renalase in Adriamycin Nephropathy

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    Pengxun Han

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To investigate the potential role of renalase in adriamycin nephropathy and the effect of lisinopril on the regulation of renalase. Methods: Adriamycin nephropathy was induced in male Wistar rats (n=12 by a single injection of adriamycin at 2 mg/kg body weight. Rats were then randomly assigned to a model group or a treatment group, to which were administered distilled water or the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril, respectively, for 12 weeks. Six normal rats served as controls. At the end of study, physiological parameters and systolic blood pressure were measured. Glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial injury were assessed by histopathology Renalase protein expression in kidney was quantified by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. The serum concentration and urinary excretion of renalase were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: In model group rats, proteinuria and systolic blood pressure were elevated. Increased serum renalase concentration was observed; however, renalase protein expression in the kidney was significantly decreased. Compared with the model group, decreased proteinuria, lower systolic blood pressure, and fewer morphologic lesions were detected in the treatment group. Although levels of serum renalase were similar, accumulation of renalase in urine and kidney tissue increased notably in the treatment group compared with the model group. Conclusions: This study suggests that renalase may be involved in the process of adriamycin-induced renal injuries. Lisinopril may attenuate adriamycin-induced kidney injury by controlling blood pressure, which may be partially attributed to the renalase expression and secretion.

  2. Protection against adriamycin (doxorubicin-induced toxicity in mice by several clinically used drugs.

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    Shinozawa,Shinya

    1987-02-01

    Full Text Available Protective effects of clinically used drugs against adriamycin (ADM-induced toxicity were studied in ICR mice. The control mice, which were administered 15 mg/kg of ADM twice, survived 7.48 +/- 1.99 days (mean +/- S.D.. The survival times of mice treated with the following drugs, expressed as a percent of that of the control group, were 293.6% for coenzyme Q10 (Co Q10, 2 mg/kg, 402.2% for dextran sulfate (MDS, 300 mg/kg, 121.6% for flavin adenine dinucleotide (20 mg/kg, 236.3% for adenosine triphosphate disodium (50 mg/kg, 213.7% for reduced glutathione (100 mg/kg, 121.6% for phytonadione (50 mg/kg, 155.2% for inositol nicotinate (Ino-N, 500 mg/kg, 335.5% for nicomol (1000 mg/kg, 157.5% for nicardipine (10 mg/kg and 123.3% for dipyridamol (50 mg/kg. Anti-hyperlipemic agents such as MDS, nicomol, Ino-N and Co Q10 strongly protected against the ADM-induced toxicity, and the mice administered these drugs lived significantly longer than the control mice. The mechanism of the protective effect was discussed.

  3. The protective effects of methyl jasmonate against adriamycin--induced hepatic and renal toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosoko, A M; Molokwu, C J; Farombi, E O; Ademowo, O G

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the protective effect of methyl jasmonate (MJ) in adriamycin (ADR) induced hepatic and renal toxicities. 36 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into control, ADR (20 mg/kg), MJ (50 mg/kg) only, MJ (100 mg/kg) only, MJ (50 mg/ kg) + ADR, MJ (100 mg/kg) + ADR groups (n = 6). The 2 doses of MJ was administered for 7 days in MJ only groups, ADR was administered intraperitoneally on the 8th day after pretreatment with the 2 different doses of MJ while ADR was administered on the 8th day only for the ADR only group. The malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), H2O2 generation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea and creatinine in the liver, kidneys and serum samples as applicable were estimated. Tissue MDA, H2O2 generation, and GST activity were markedly elevated while GSH content, CAT and SOD activities were significantly reduced in the tissues when compared to the control (p inhibition of tissue peroxidative damage might contribute to this beneficial effect. PMID:23678646

  4. Hepatopathy following irradiation and adriamycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes two cases of hepatopathy following irradiation and adriamycin at doses and volumes of irradiation ordinarily considered within the tolerance of hepatic function. In one case, fatal hepatopathy followed 2400 rad/17 fractions/28 days to the entire liver with preceding and concurrent adriamycin. In the second case moderate clinical changes occurred after treatment in which much of the right lobe of the liver was shielded following 2500 rad/23 fractions/32 days with adriamycin administered before, during, and after irradiation. The locally enhancing effects of adriamycin on hepatic tolerance to irradiation are discussed

  5. Adriamycin--irradiation cutaneous complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four cases of abnormally severe skin reactions including an instance of skin necrosis occurred in patients with breast cancer who were treated with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin and irradiation concurrently following mastectomy. These unusual skin reactions apparently resulted from the interaction of radiation with adriamycin and prompted us to modify both the radiation dose and the timing of administration of chemotherapy. To date, no unusual or severe skin reactions have been observed in 14 patients who have received chemotherapy with adriamycin plus radiation in accord with this modified treatment plan

  6. Reversal of acquired resistance to adriamycin in CHO cells by tamoxifen and 4-hydroxy tamoxifen: role of drug interaction with alpha 1 acid glycoprotein.

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, M.; Harris, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    Tamoxifen and 4-OH tamoxifen were used to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) in CHO cells with acquired resistance to adriamycin (CHO-Adrr). Because alpha 1 acid glycoprotein (AAG) can bind a range of calcium channel blockers that also reverse MDR and rises in malignancy, its interactions with tamoxifen and 4-OH tamoxifen were also studied. Tamoxifen decreased the IC50 of 10 microM adriamycin 4.8-fold in the parent CHO-K1 cell line and 16-fold in CHO-Adrr. Similarly 4-OH tamoxifen decreased t...

  7. Adriamycin-induced fetal hydronephrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Gonçalves; Willy G. França; Suzana G. Moraes; Luis A.V. Pereira; Lourenço Sbragia

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: At the end of pregnancy, the amniotic fluid (AF) depends basically on renal function, corresponding to fetal urine. Changes in AF, especially oligohydramnios, are reported in association with fetal hydronephrosis (FH). The experimental model using adriamycin in pregnant female rats has a teratogenic effect and has been classically employed to study esophageal atresia. Nevertheless, adriamycin promotes FH with high frequency as well. In the present study, using this animal model,...

  8. Adriamycin-induced fetal hydronephrosis

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    Anderson Gonçalves

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: At the end of pregnancy, the amniotic fluid (AF depends basically on renal function, corresponding to fetal urine. Changes in AF, especially oligohydramnios, are reported in association with fetal hydronephrosis (FH. The experimental model using adriamycin in pregnant female rats has a teratogenic effect and has been classically employed to study esophageal atresia. Nevertheless, adriamycin promotes FH with high frequency as well. In the present study, using this animal model, we tried to identify the incidence and microscopic changes of FH, as well as its correlation with AF weight. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight Spreague-Dawley pregnant female rats received adriamycin 2.2 mg/kg on the 8th and 9th gestational days (considering term gestation = 22 days. Those fetuses that received adriamycin (Adriamycin Group were compared with fetuses from 2 female rats (Control Group, which received 0.9% saline solution. On the 21.5 gestational day, the fetuses were collected by cesarean incision, sacrificed, and examined for macro and microscopic changes in kidneys and ureters. Fetuses with bilateral hydronephrosis formed the Hydronephrosis Group. AF weight was determined as well. RESULTS: Hydronephrosis occurred in 70 (95% of the 74 fetuses in the adriamycin group against none of the 21 fetuses from the control group. The amniotic fluid weight was increased in the adriamycin group in relation to the control group (p < 0.001. The histomorphometric study revealed dilation of the renal pelvis and reduction of renal parenchyma in the hydronephrosis group in relation to the control group. Severe cortical atrophy, cortical tubular atrophy and medullar atrophy were observed in the hydronephrosis group. CONCLUSIONS: Slight renal lesions were in agreement with changes in AF weight, since they suggest that there was production of urine with the maintenance of AF.

  9. Toxicity of Magnetic Albumin Microspheres Bearing Adriamycin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic albumin microspheres bearing adriamycin (ADM-MAM) is a novel chemotherapeutic compound with site-specific drug delivery characteristics. The acute and subacute toxic tests of the compound, local irritating test and anaphylactic test were performed on mice and guinea pigs. The results showed there was no macroscopically and microscopically direct cytotoxic injuries of the compound to the animal organs or to the cells. The LD50 value of the compound was higher than that of the single used adriamycin, indicating that the compound was less toxic than the single adriamycin and quite safe in its therapeutic dosage. Furthermore, there was also no side effects or toxic reactions to be observed on clinical patients with advanced carcinoma or gastric cancer.

  10. Multiple impairments of cutaneous nociceptor function induced by cardiotoxic doses of Adriamycin in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boros, Krisztina; Jancsó, Gábor; Dux, Mária; Fekécs, Zoltán; Bencsik, Péter; Oszlács, Orsolya; Katona, Márta; Ferdinandy, Péter; Nógrádi, Antal; Sántha, Péter

    2016-09-01

    Besides their deleterious action on cardiac muscle, anthracycline-type cytostatic agents exert significant neurotoxic effects on primary sensory neurons. Since cardiac sensory nerves confer protective effects on heart muscle and share common traits with cutaneous chemosensitive nerves, this study examined the effects of cardiotoxic doses of adriamycin on the function and morphology of epidermal nerves. Sensory neurogenic vasodilatation, plasma extravasation, and the neural CGRP release evoked by TRPV1 and TRPA1 agonists in vitro were examined by using laser Doppler flowmetry, the Evans blue technique, and ELISA, respectively. Carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia was assessed with the Hargreaves method. Immunohistochemistry was utilized to study cutaneous innervation. Adriamycin treatment resulted in profound reductions in the cutaneous neurogenic sensory vasodilatation and plasma extravasation evoked by the TRPV1 and TRPA1 agonists capsaicin and mustard oil, respectively. The in vitro capsaicin-, but not high potassium-evoked neural release of the major sensory neuropeptide, CGRP, was markedly attenuated after adriamycin treatment. Carrageenan-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia was largely abolished following the administration of adriamycin. Immunohistochemistry revealed a substantial loss of epidermal TRPV1-expressing nociceptive nerves and a marked thinning of the epidermis. These findings indicate impairments in the functions of TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors expressed on cutaneous chemosensitive nociceptive nerves and the loss of epidermal axons following the administration of cardiotoxic doses of adriamycin. Monitoring of the cutaneous nociceptor function in the course of adriamycin therapy may well be of predictive value for early detection of the deterioration of cardiac nerves which confer protection against the deleterious effects of the drug. PMID:27342418

  11. Normalizing renal reducing ability prevents adriamycin-induced proteinuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactive oxygen species play an important role in adriamycin (ADR) nephropathy. We showed by in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) that renal reducing ability (RRA) declined on the 7th day after ADR administration. Proteinuria appeared after the decline in RRA. The aim of this study was to prove by in vivo EPR whether the decline in RRA is altered by scavengers such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and dimethylthiourea (DMTU) and that it is this change which is responsible for the proteinuria in ADR nephropathy. By showing that DMSO and DMTU ameliorate the RRA, we demonstrate that the decline in RRA is related to ADR-induced proteinuria

  12. ENEA's role in environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1990-1994 Five-Year Plan of ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) stipulates that the Agency must reconcile its objectives related to energy with those related to the environment by aiming at a more efficient and rational exploitation of energy sources. This necessity has been reiterated in Italian Law 282/91 which assigns ENEA the task of providing technical and scientific support to the Ministry of the Environment. The aims, work schedule and financing of this task have been laid down in an environmental protection program whose main goals include: the protection and use rationalization of water supplies; the development of waste processing and disposal systems which incorporate energy and materials recovery systems; and the setting up of environmental monitoring networks. Within the framework of these activities, this paper reports on the management and organization aspects of five integrated projects which involve research efforts on: the reduction of the environmental impact of industrial activities; the characterization, status and dynamics of the environment; the interrelationships between environmental quality and the health of human populations; the effects of agricultural-industrial activities on global climate; the effects of human activities on the environmental quality of the Mediterranean Sea

  13. Adriamycin increases podocyte permeability: evidence and molecular mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓忠; 袁海涛; 张学光

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the increased podocyte permeability by evidence of adriamycin (AD) and its molecular mechanism.Methods In this study, we explored the direct effects of AD on cultured mouse podocytes and the potential protection effects of Dexamethasome (Dex).Results After 24-hour AD (5×10-7 mol/L) treatment, albumin passage through podocyte monolayers was increased by 2.27-fold (P<0.01). AD caused a 62% decrease in Zonula Occluden -1 (ZO-1) protein (P<0.05), suggesting that AD might increase podocyte permeability by disrupting tight junctions. Dex (1×10-6 mol/L), co-administered with AD, protected podocytes from AD-induced increased albumin passage. This may be linked with an increased P-cadherin protein level to 1.93 fold of control (P<0.01).Conclusions AD has a direct, detrimental effect on podocyte permeability, probably through disrupting tight junctions; Dex could protect against AD-induced high podocyte permeability by upregulating adherent protein P-cadherin.

  14. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 reduces hypothalamic excitation in rats with adriamycin-induced heart failure.

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    Min Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The paraventricular nucleus (PVN of the hypothalamus plays an important role in the progression of heart failure (HF. We investigated whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibition in the PVN attenuates the activities of sympathetic nervous system (SNS and renin-angiotensin system (RAS in rats with adriamycin-induced heart failure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Heart failure was induced by intraperitoneal injection of adriamycin over a period of 2 weeks (cumulative dose of 15 mg/kg. On day 19, rats received intragastric administration daily with either COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (CLB or normal saline. Treatment with CLB reduced mortality and attenuated both myocardial atrophy and pulmonary congestion in HF rats. Compared with the HF rats, ventricle to body weight (VW/BW and lung to body weight (LW/BW ratios, heart rate (HR, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP, left ventricular peak systolic pressure (LVPSP and maximum rate of change in left ventricular pressure (LV±dp/dtmax were improved in HF+CLB rats. Angiotensin II (ANG II, norepinephrine (NE, COX-2 and glutamate (Glu in the PVN were increased in HF rats. HF rats had higher levels of ANG II and NE in plasma, higher level of ANG II in myocardium, and lower levels of ANP in plasma and myocardium. Treatment with CLB attenuated these HF-induced changes. HF rats had more COX-2-positive neurons and more corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH positive neurons in the PVN than did control rats. Treatment with CLB decreased COX-2-positive neurons and CRH positive neurons in the PVN of HF rats. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that PVN COX-2 may be an intermediary step for PVN neuronal activation and excitatory neurotransmitter release, which further contributes to sympathoexcitation and RAS activation in adriamycin-induced heart failure. Treatment with COX-2 inhibitor attenuates sympathoexcitation and RAS activation in adriamycin-induced heart failure.

  15. Adriamycin induces H2AX phosphorylation in human spermatozoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Xiang Li; Ting-Ting Wang; Yan-Ting Wu; Chen-Ming Xu; Min-Yue Dong; Jian-Zhong Sheng; He-Feng Huang

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether adriamycin induces DNA damage and the formation of γH2AX (the phosphorylated form of histone H2AX) foci in mature spermatozoa. Methods: Human spermatozoa were treated with adriamycin at different concentrations. γH2AX was analyzed by immunofluorescent staining and flow cytometry and double- strand breaks (DSB) were detected by the comet assay. Results: The neutral comet assay revealed that the treatment with adriamycin at 2 μg/mL for different times (0.5, 2, 8 and 24 h), or for 8 h at different concentrations (0.4, 2 and 10 μg/mL), induced significant DSB in spermatozoa. Immunofluorent staining and flow cytometry showed that the expression of γH2AX was increased in a dose-dependent and time-dependant manner after the treatment of adriamycin. Adriamycin also induced the concurrent appearance of DNA maintenance/repair proteins RAD50 and 53BP1 with γH2AX in spermatozoa. Wortmannin, an inhibitor of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) family, abolished the co-appearance of these two proteins with γH2AX. Conclusion: Human mature spermatozoa have the same response to DSB-induced H2AX phosphorylation and subsequent recruitment of DNA maintenance/repair proteins as somatic cells.

  16. Effects of adriamycin and x irradiation on the murine duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of a single dose of irradiation at various times following a single dose of Adriamycin have been evaluated at the cellular level (duodenal crypt cell survival) and whole-animal level (LD/sub 50/6/; the dose required to kill 50% of the animals in 6 days). Qualitatively, the 10-clone doses (the x-ray dose required to reduce crypt survival to 10) parallel the data for the effects of Adriamycin on the rate of DNA synthesis. In contrast, changes in the slopes s(D0) of the survival curves for the combined treatments do not correlate with the ADR-induced inhibition of DNA synthesis. The LD/sub 50/6/ doses for the combined treatments also parallel the cellular toxicity data initially but for intervals from 2 to 14 days, when the cellular parameters are back to normal, there is still evidence for an Adriamycin-enhanced radiotoxicity. The discrepancy between the Adriamycin-enhanced duodenal cellular radiotoxicity and whole-body radiotoxicity is not surprising with a systemic drug like Adriamycin; however, neither the specific tissue(s) affected nor the specific underlying molecular and cellular mechanism(s) are evident in the studies to date

  17. Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs

  18. Effect of hepatic irradiation on the toxicity and pharmacokinetics of adriamycin in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of hepatic irradiation on adriamycin toxicity and pharmacokinetics was studied in 10 children who received adriamycin with concurrent abdominal irradiation for Wilms' tumor. Hepatic irradiation to 2400 to 2700 rad at 100 to 150 rad per fraction did not alter the clinical toxicity or plasma pharmacokinetics of adriamycin

  19. Radiation protection - radiographer's role and responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ever since discovery of x-rays, radiographers has been the prime user of radiation. With the passage of time, the harmful effects of radiation were detected. Some of radiographers, radiologists and public were affected by radiation, but today with enough knowledge of radiation, the prime responsibility of radiation protection lies with the radiographers only. The radiologist and physicist are also associated with radiation protection to some extent

  20. Climate protection policy. On Germany's pioneer role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a downward trend of many years Germany's energy-related CO2 emissions have risen again slightly over the past two years. This increase has prompted the federal government to initiate a new climate protection action campaign. After almost 30 years of experience in the field of climate protection policy there is every reason for Germany to be more consistent in using its political scope to act on the unrestrained increase in global greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. Radio-protective role of antioxidant agents

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    Alireza Shirazi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation interacts with biological systems to produce reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species which attack various cellular components. Radio-protectors act as prophylactic agents to shield healthy cells and tissues from the harmful effects of radiation. Past research on synthetic radio-protectors has brought little success, primarily due to the various toxicity-related problems. Results of experimental research show that antioxidant nutrients, such as vitamin E and herbal products and melatonin, are protective against the damaging effects of radiation, with less toxicity and side effects. Therefore, we propose that in the future, antioxidant radio-protective agents may improve the therapeutic index in radiation oncology treatments.

  2. Role of Scientific Education in Civil Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D.

    2009-04-01

    Education and training can be considered as fundamental means of professionalising civil protection services. A model of the processes involved is presented and its implications are explored. The fragmentary nature of knowledge and expertise in civil protection is discussed. The traditional structure of scientific endeavour has inhibited the growth of a trans-disciplinary approach well able to solve practical problems in a complex emergency environment. New means of breaking down the barriers between disciplines are required, as are new forms of dialogue between researchers and practitioners. In this context, a template for the standardisation of courses and curricula is presented and evaluated in terms of its positive and negative connotations. The warning process is given as an example of the need to strengthen links between the technical, administrative and social processes at work in civil protection. Sustainable disaster preparedness, a form of resiliency, requires sustained input from the earth science community, but of a kind that is sensitive to the needs, objectives and cultures of the other participants in the process. There is always a need for scientific input into safety and security policy, but one needs to be sure that the policy-making objectives are sound, as scientific results can be used to back up diverse approaches. Hence the moral and ethical aspects of resiliency are fundamentally important to policy formulation and its use of science.

  3. Protective role of plants against harmful radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Ionizing radiations produces deleterious effects in the living organisms. Widespread use of radiation in diagnosis therapy, industry, energy sector and inadvertent exposure during air and space travel, nuclear accidents and nuclear terror attacks requires safeguard against human exposures. Lead shielding and other physical measures can be used in such situations but with difficulty to manage; thus pharmacological intervention could be the most prudent strategy to protect humans against the harmful effect of ionizing radiations. These pharmacological agents are radioprotectives; The development of radioprotective agents has been the subject of intense research in view of their potential for use within a radiation environment. However, no ideal, safe synthetic radio protectors are available to date, so the search for alternative sources including plants has been ongoing. In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine, several plants have been used to treat free radical-mediated ailments and, therefore, it is logical to expect that such plants may also render some protection against radiation damage. This all is due to antioxidant enzymes, nitroxides, and melatonin, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory. haemopoitic and immunostimulant compounds. Some of the plants which are found to be radioprotective are Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Podophyllurn hexandrum, Tinospora cordifolia, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, etc. So there is an urgent need to identify and characterize the many of the plants in relation to the radioprotection. Besides these medicinal plants there are also some fruits and vegetables which are having good response against harmful radiations such as Kiwifruit Actinidia deliciosa (Actinidaceae), Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana (Solanaceae). They protect against the radiation-induced damage by

  4. Manufacturers’ Role in Medical Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability and complexity of medical equipment continues to increase and from its use, the dose to the population from medical exposures has also risen. Optimization of exposures requires that operators understand the equipment they use and that the image quality is consistent with the clinical need. Educating operators on optimization is a responsibility of professional bodies and manufacturers alike, and this should be updated throughout the lifetime of the equipment. The role of regulators is more limited. (author)

  5. China's key role in climate protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China is in the process of becoming the fourth main global player in the world economy, together with the US, the EU, and Japan. Due to an energy mix with 75% dependence on coal, a high energy intensity and low energy prices, it is, after the US, the world's second largest emitter of CO2. China's recoverable fossil fuel reserves have a CO2 emission potential of some 225 Gt (the current global CO2 emission is about 22 Gt/yr). Under a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, all of it would be released to the atmosphere by 2040. This emission may cause a significant disruption of the climate system, resulting in severe adverse climatic and ecological impacts on China and the world. To avoid this outcome, an equitable climate-protection strategy is introduced to explore an alternative energy/climate future. Using a macroeconomic approach, it is shown that under BAU conditions, the year 2100 emissions of CO2 will increase above 1990 levels by 370 and 96% for China and the US, respectively. In contrast, for the climate-protection conditions required by the Climate Convention, CO2 emissions must decrease by 36% for China and by 90% for the US below 1990 levels. Using a macroeconomic-engineering approach, the total CO2 reduction potential is found to be about 4600 Mt for 13 specific measures over a 10-yr period. The incremental costs range from US$ 0.09 to 18.55 per ton of CO2 reduction for coal-saving stoves and solar cookers, respectively. The total reduction costs for China would be about US$ 2 billion per year or ∼ 0.4% of the 1994 GDP of China. This estimate does not allow for benefits from saved resources and avoided damages. We conclude with a discussion of various avenues for obtaining needed technological and financial support for China. (author)

  6. CdS Quantum Dots as Fluorescence Probes for Detection of Adriamycin Hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Water-soluble CdS quantum dots (CdS-QDs) capped with thioglycolic acid were easily prepared, and a detection method of adriamycin was presented based on the fluorescence quenching of CdS-QDs. It was found that a complex could be formed between cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide(CTAB) and CdS-QDs by using electrostatic interaction in Britton-Robinson(BR) buffer at pH = 7. 00, and the strong fluorescence emission of the complex was observed at 500nm when the complex was excited at 378 nm. The presence of adriamycin, however, could strongly quench the fluorescence through hydrophobic interaction. The overall quenching percentage as a function of adriamycin concentration matches the Stern-Volmer equation very well. These properties make CdS-QDs a potential fluorescence probe for the detection of adriamycin. The detection limit(3σ) of adriamycin is approximately 10-9 mol/L.

  7. Protecting Financial Market Integrity: Roles and Responsibilities of Auditors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.M. Diekman (Peter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWaarom heeft u nog vertrouwen in een bank? En waarom vertrouwt u uw geld nog toe aan banken? Deze vragen staan centraal in de oratie ‘Protecting Financial Market Integrity. Roles and Responsibilities of Auditors' van prof.dr. Peter A.M. Diekman RA. Hij stelt dat zowel de intern als de op

  8. A limited sampling procedure for estimating adriamycin pharmacokinetics in cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Launay, M. C.; Milano, G.; Iliadis, A.; Frenay, M.; Namer, N.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find a procedure allowing estimation of individual pharmacokinetic parameters for adriamycin with minimal cost and disturbance for the patient. Twenty-five patients with breast cancer were treated by short infusion of adriamycin at a dose of 12 mg m-2 week-1 (41 courses). Population characteristics were determined on 15 randomly chosen courses (10 patients, group I) in order to define two optimal sampling times (26 min and 24 h) and to perform Bayesian estimation ...

  9. Protective role of vitamin E in biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packer, L. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1991-04-01

    Vitamin E is well accepted as nature's most effective lipid-soluble, chain-breaking antioxidant, protecting cell membranes from peroxidative damage. Free-radical-mediated pathology has been implicated in the development over time of degenerative diseases and conditions. This paper reviews the current research on the protective role and requirements for vitamin E and the other antioxidants in preventing or minimizing free-radical damage associated with specific diseases and lifestyle patterns and processes, including cancer, aging, circulatory conditions, arthritis, cataract, pollution, and strenuous exercise. While awaiting results of further human studies, research evidence suggests that an adequate intake of vitamin E and the other antioxidants can provide protection from the increasingly high free-radical concentrations caused by air pollutants and current lifestyle patterns.66 references.

  10. Phytoestrogens: epidemiology and a possible role in cancer protection.

    OpenAIRE

    Adlercreutz, H.

    1995-01-01

    Because many diseases of the Western Hemisphere are hormone-dependent cancers, we have postulated that the Western diet, compared to a vegetarian or semivegetarian diet, may alter hormone production, metabolism, or action at the cellular level by some biochemical mechanisms. Recently, our interest has been mainly focused on the cancer-protective role of some hormonelike diphenolic phytoestrogens of dietary origin, the lignans and the isoflavonoids. The precursors of the biologically active co...

  11. The role of privacy protection in healthcare information systems adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chien-Lung; Lee, Ming-Ren; Su, Chien-Hui

    2013-10-01

    Privacy protection is an important issue and challenge in healthcare information systems (HISs). Recently, some privacy-enhanced HISs are proposed. Users' privacy perception, intention, and attitude might affect the adoption of such systems. This paper aims to propose a privacy-enhanced HIS framework and investigate the role of privacy protection in HISs adoption. In the proposed framework, privacy protection, access control, and secure transmission modules are designed to enhance the privacy protection of a HIS. An experimental privacy-enhanced HIS is also implemented. Furthermore, we proposed a research model extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology by considering perceived security and information security literacy and then investigate user adoption of a privacy-enhanced HIS. The experimental results and analyses showed that user adoption of a privacy-enhanced HIS is directly affected by social influence, performance expectancy, facilitating conditions, and perceived security. Perceived security has a mediating effect between information security literacy and user adoption. This study proposes several implications for research and practice to improve designing, development, and promotion of a good healthcare information system with privacy protection. PMID:24014266

  12. Ionizing radiation protection regulation in Canada: the role of the Federal Provincial Territorial Radiation Protection Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada has one of the broadest and most mature nuclear industries in the world, and is a world leader in uranium mining, and in the production of medical radioisotopes. The Canadian nuclear industry also includes: uranium milling, refining, and fuel fabrication facilities; nuclear generating stations; research reactors and related facilities; waste management facilities; and the use of radioactive materials in medicine and industry. Regulation of this broad and dynamic industry is a complex and challenging task. Canada has a cooperative system for the regulation of ionizing radiation protection covering federal, provincial, territorial, and military jurisdictions. A Federal/Provincial/Territorial Radiation Protection Committee (FPTRPC) exists to aid in cooperation between the various agencies. Their mandate encompasses regulation and guidance on all aspects of radiation protection: federal and provincial; NORM and anthropogenic; ionizing and non-ionizing. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is the federal nuclear regulator whose mandate includes radiation protection regulation of most occupational and public exposures. The CNSC does not regulate medical (patient) exposures, some aspects of NORM, or military applications. Provincial authorities are the primary regulators with respect to doses to patients and occupational doses arising from X-rays. Health Canada plays a role in X-ray device certification, development of national guidance (e.g. on radon) and direct regulation of certain federal facilities. NORM is regulated provincially, with varying regulatory mechanisms across the provinces and territories. Radiation protection regulation for National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces is performed by the Director General Nuclear Safety. This paper gives an overview of the structure of the regulation of ionizing radiation protection in Canada, and shares lessons learned, particularly with respect to the usefulness of the FPTRPC in helping coordinate and

  13. Erythropoietin and cerebral vascular protection: role of nitric oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anantha Vijay R SANTHANAM; Zvonimir S KATUSIC

    2006-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a major clinical problem causing cerebral ischemia and infarction.The pathogenesis of vasospasm is related to a number of pathological processes including endothelial damage and alterations in vasomotor function leading to narrowing of artefial diameter and a subsequent decrease in cerebral blood flow.Discovery of the tissue protective effects of erythropoietin (EPO) stimulated the search for therapeutic application of EPO for the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular disease.Recent studies have identified the role of EP0 in vascular protection mediated by the preservation of endothelial cell integrity and stimulation of angiogenesis.In this review, we discuss the EPO-induced activation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase and its contribution to the prevention of cerebral vasospasm.

  14. Role of the IAEA in the radiological protection of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the role of the IAEA in relation to the radiological protection of patients. Within the IAEA there are two major programmes which have an impact on the protection of the patient. Firstly, patient protection is part of the programme on radiation safety; secondly, the human health programme contains a number of activities related to quality assurance (QA), and these also contribute to the protection of patients. A function of the IAEA, as stipulated in its Statute, is 'to establish or adopt, in consultation and, where appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned, standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' and to provide for the application of these standards...'. There are three different levels of the IAEA Safety Standards: Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. The Standards are supported by other documents such as Safety Reports. There are five means used by the IAEA in providing for the application of the Standards: co-ordinating research, promoting education and training, providing assistance, fostering information exchange and rendering services to its Member States. All these means are used in the programme on radiological protection of patients as described in the paper. The IAEA is assisting its Member Sates in the development and implementation of QA programmes. These activities help disseminate not only the technical knowledge but also the basic ingredients of the QA culture. The IAEA assistance is directed at: (1) national regulatory bodies for the establishment of a regulatory framework which complies with the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources; (2) standards laboratories for metrological traceability; and (3) end users at medical institutions for the development and implementation of QA programmes

  15. Co-induction of glucose regulated proteins and adriamycin resistance in Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glucose deprivation, anoxia, calcium ionophore A23187 or 2-deoxyglucose all inducers of glucose regulated proteins (grps), also lead to a significant induction of resistance to the drug adriamycin. In the case of anoxia, A23187 and 2-deoxyglucose, the induction of resistance correlates with both the application of the inducing stress and the induction of grps. In the case of glucose deprivation, the onset of resistance correlates with the onset of glucose deprivation and precedes grp induction. Removal of each grp including condition results in the rapid disappearance of this resistance in a manner which correlates with the repression of the grps. This drug resistance can be induced in confluent cells or in actively proliferating cells, although the effect is greater in the more sensitive proliferating cells. Induction of heat shock proteins (hsps) does not appear to lead to any major change in adriamycin resistance. Grp induced cells retain less adriamycin than do controls with the greatest reduction occurring during anoxia, which is also the strongest inducer of grps and resistance. The authors propose that the application of a grp inducing stress leads to a concurrent induction in drug resistance, possibly via the translocation of grps in the cell. Finally, they also observed that adriamycin itself can induce both hsps and grps. It is possible that adriamycin exposure may correspondingly induce auto-resistance

  16. NMR spectroscopy analysis of phosphorus metabolites and the effect of adriamycin on these metabolite levels in an adriamycin-sensitive and -resistant human small cell lung carcinoma cell line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Steven; Mulder, N H; de Vries, Liesbeth; Robillard, G T

    1991-01-01

    P-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of cells and of cell extracts revealed high levels of phosphorylcholine (PC) and phosphocreatine (PCr) in an adriamycin-resistant human small cell lung carcinoma cell line (GLC4/ADR) and the adriamycin-sensitive parental cell line (GLC4). PCr levels in e

  17. Interactions between copper deficiency, selenium deficiency and adriamycin toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J.; Tackett, R.; Johnson, M.A. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (United States))

    1991-03-15

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that there are interactions between copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) status, and adriamycin (ADR) toxicity. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed Cu,Se adequate; Cu deficient, Se adequate ({minus}Cu); Cu adequate, Se deficient; or Cu,Se deficient diets for 38-41 days. ADR or saline (SAL) were administered weekly for the last 4 weeks of the study. Cu deficiency was confirmed by a 3-fold decrease in liver Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase and liver Cu, and a 5-fold decrease in RBC Cu,Zn-SOD. Se deficiency was confirmed by a 10-fold decrease in liver glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). ADR, Cu deficiency and Se deficiency all caused EKG abnormalities. However, Cu and Se deficiencies did not enhance ADR's influence on EKGs. ADR increased lipid peroxidation in liver by 15% and in heart by 18% (NS). Cu deficiency decreased ADR-induced lipid peroxidation in heart tissue by 25%. ADR influenced Se status by significantly increasing heart GSH-Px, and Cu status by increasing liver Cu, plasma ceruloplasmin and liver Cu, Zn-SOD. These elevations in Cu,Zn-SOD and GSH-Px may be a consequence of the increased lipid peroxidation initiated by ADR. In {minus}Cu rats, ADR caused severe hemolytic anemia characterized by a 19% decrease in hematocrit and a 17-fold increase in splenic Fe. These data suggest that there are numerous interactions between ADR toxicity and Cu and Se status.

  18. Manufacturers’ Role In Medical Radiation Protection: The End Users’ Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human body anatomy and disease pattern is universal. The clinical methods for disease diagnosis and treatment are also universal. Physicians all over the world can discuss any disease process without physical contact with the patient. The essence of radiological imaging in health care is to accrue maximum benefits against the radiation risk. The advance in technology has resulted in improved imaging information acquisition and a great desire for good quality diagnostic images. Radiologists play a crucial role as gate-keepers for radiological protection of patients, personnel and the public. The gate-keeper role is between justification and optimization of radiation protection of patients. Radiological imaging does not obey the socioeconomic status of the patient, nor the economic dynamics of the times. Once you are declared as a patient or you need an investigation due to altered body physiology, then you become a subject of different types of imaging. A radiological survey in Kenya has revealed that the majority of patients undergo a general radiography examination. The statistics indicate that per million people, there are 26 sets of X ray equipment, 5 radiographers, 3 radiologists and 0.41 medical physicists. One set of equipment would be used to perform 4000 examinations annually. Thus, each radiographer and each radiologist would perform 189 300 and 325 000 examinations per year. An X ray procedure would be performed on 82 per 1000 in the population per year. These figures send an alarming message about the percentage of the population exposed to radiation risk and calls for an urgent international response to protect the patient, imaging personnel and the general public

  19. Protective role of heme oxygenase-1 in atrial remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yung-Hsin; Hsu, Lung-An; Chen, Ying-Hwa; Kuo, Chi-Tai; Chang, Gwo-Jyh; Chen, Wei-Jan

    2016-09-01

    Structural and electrical remodeling in the atrium constitutes the main feature of atrial fibrillation (AF), which is characterized by increased oxidative stress. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a potent anti-oxidant system that may provide protection against various oxidative stress-related diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate whether HO-1 has a protective effect on AF-related remodeling. Cultured atrium-derived myocytes (HL-1 cell line) were used to evaluate tachypacing-induced oxidative stress, structural, and electrical remodeling. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) was utilized to assess collagen (a main fibrosis-related protein) expression in atrial fibroblasts. Tachypacing in HL-1 myocytes and treatment of atrial fibroblasts with TGF-β enhanced the expression of HO-1, both of which were mediated by the activation of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2. Over-expression of HO-1 in HL-1 cells attenuated tachypacing-induced oxidative stress, myofibril degradation, down-regulation of L-type calcium channel, and shortening of action potential duration. Furthermore, HO-1 over-expression in atrial fibroblasts blocked the up-regulation of collagen by TGF-β, implicating a protective role of HO-1 in structural and electrical remodeling in the atrium. In vivo, HO-1(-/-) mice exhibited a higher degree of oxidative stress, myofibril degradation, and collagen deposit in their atria than wild-type mice. Moreover, burst atrial pacing induced a greater susceptibility to AF in HO-1(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice. In conclusion, a negative-feedback regulation of HO-1 in activated atrial myocytes and fibroblasts may provide protection against AF-related remodeling and AF development. PMID:27562817

  20. Protective roles of DMP1 in high phosphate homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Rangiani

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Dmp1 (dentin matrix protein1 null mice (Dmp1(-/- display hypophosphatemic rickets with a sharp increase in fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23. Disruption of Klotho (the obligatory co-receptor of FGF23 results in hyperphosphatemia with ectopic calcifications formed in blood vessels and kidneys. To determine the role of DMP1 in both a hyperphosphatemic environment and within the ectopic calcifications, we created Dmp1/Klotho compound deficient (Dmp1(-/-kl/kl mice. PROCEDURES: A combination of TUNEL, immunohistochemistry, TRAP, von Kossa, micro CT, bone histomorphometry, serum biochemistry and Scanning Electron Microscopy techniques were used to analyze the changes in blood vessels, kidney and bone for wild type control, Dmp1(-/-, Klotho deficient (kl/kl and Dmp1(-/-kl/kl animals. FINDINGS: Interestingly, Dmp1(-/-kl/kl mice show a dramatic improvement of rickets and an identical serum biochemical phenotype to kl/kl mice (extremely high FGF23, hyperphosphatemia and reduced parathyroid hormone (PTH levels. Unexpectedly, Dmp1(-/-kl/kl mice presented elevated levels of apoptosis in osteocytes, endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells in small and large blood vessels, and within the kidney as well as dramatic increase in ectopic calcification in all these tissues, as compared to kl/kl. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that DMP1 has an anti-apoptotic role in hyperphosphatemia. Discovering this novel protective role of DMP1 may have clinical relevance in protecting the cells from apoptosis in high-phosphate environments as observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD.

  1. Enhanced sympathetic activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in rats with heart failure induced by adriamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujuan; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Haijian; Zhou, Yebo; Han, Ying

    2012-11-01

    Our previous studies have shown that the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex is enhanced in rats with chronic heart failure (CHF) induced by coronary artery ligation and contributes to the over-excitation of sympathetic activity. We sought to determine whether sympathetic activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex were enhanced in adriamycin-induced CHF and whether angiotensin II (Ang II) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was involved in enhancing sympathetic activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex. Heart failure was induced by intraperitoneal injection of adriamycin for six times during 2 weeks (15 mg/kg). Six weeks after the first injection, the rats underwent anesthesia with urethane and α-chloralose. After vagotomy and baroreceptor denervation, cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex was evaluated by renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure (MAP) response to epicardial application of capsaicin (1.0 nmol). The response of MAP to ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium in conscious rats was performed to evaluate sympathetic activity. The renal sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex were enhanced in adriamycin rats and the maximum depressor response of MAP induced by hexamethonium was significantly greater in adriamycin rats than that in control rats. Bilateral PVN microinjection of angiotensin II (Ang II) caused larger responses of the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex, baseline renal sympathetic nerve activity and MAP in adriamycin rats than control rats. These results indicated that both sympathetic activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex were enhanced and Ang II in the PVN was involved in the enhanced sympathetic activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in rats with adriamycin-induced heart failure. PMID:23554781

  2. Effects of steroid sex hormones and adriamycin on human bladder cancer cells in culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimoto,Jun

    1982-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of steroid sex hormones on the established cell lines derived from human urinary bladder cancer, T24, and from human transitional cell cancer of the urinary tract, 253J, were examined using the colony formation method. Of the seven kinds of steroid hormones tested, estradiol-17 beta was intensively cytotoxic for both cells. The cytotoxic effect was depended on the dose and time of treatment. The combined effect of Adriamycin and estradiol-17 beta on T24 cells could be recognized at low concentrations of Adriamycin (less than or equal to 10(-3 micrograms/ml after exposure for 24 h.

  3. Role of Brazilian Amazon protected areas in climate change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Moutinho, Paulo; Nepstad, Daniel; Anderson, Anthony; Rodrigues, Hermann; Garcia, Ricardo; Dietzsch, Laura; Merry, Frank; Bowman, Maria; Hissa, Letícia; Silvestrini, Rafaella; Maretti, Cláudio

    2010-06-15

    Protected areas (PAs) now shelter 54% of the remaining forests of the Brazilian Amazon and contain 56% of its forest carbon. However, the role of these PAs in reducing carbon fluxes to the atmosphere from deforestation and their associated costs are still uncertain. To fill this gap, we analyzed the effect of each of 595 Brazilian Amazon PAs on deforestation using a metric that accounts for differences in probability of deforestation in areas of pairwise comparison. We found that the three major categories of PA (indigenous land, strictly protected, and sustainable use) showed an inhibitory effect, on average, between 1997 and 2008. Of 206 PAs created after the year 1999, 115 showed increased effectiveness after their designation as protected. The recent expansion of PAs in the Brazilian Amazon was responsible for 37% of the region's total reduction in deforestation between 2004 and 2006 without provoking leakage. All PAs, if fully implemented, have the potential to avoid 8.0 +/- 2.8 Pg of carbon emissions by 2050. Effectively implementing PAs in zones under high current or future anthropogenic threat offers high payoffs for reducing carbon emissions, and as a result should receive special attention in planning investments for regional conservation. Nevertheless, this strategy demands prompt and predictable resource streams. The Amazon PA network represents a cost of US$147 +/- 53 billion (net present value) for Brazil in terms of forgone profits and investments needed for their consolidation. These costs could be partially compensated by an international climate accord that includes economic incentives for tropical countries that reduce their carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. PMID:20505122

  4. PROTECTION ROLE OF CALCIUM THERAPY IN IRRADIATED MALE ALBINO RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free oxygen radicals and insufficiency of antioxidant enzymes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of radiation syndrome. The trace elements are functioning as co-factors in antioxidant enzymes. The antioxidant system and trace elements have been investigated in many different studies including tissue repair processes but this study deal with radiation injury in male albino rats.The study was carried out to investigate the beneficial role of the used metallo element as radio-protector due to its ability for chelating free radicals produced by ionizing radiation. The efficacy of daily oral treatment of rats with calcium glubionate (daily 6 mg/kg body wt) for 6 successive days to control many of the damaging effects of ionizing radiation when these rats subjected to 6 Gy whole body gamma ray were studied. The activity of catalase (CAT) and levels of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum were determined. In addition, CAT activity and contents of reduced glutathione (GSH) and MDA in liver, kidney and spleen tissues of control, calcium treated, irradiated and protected rat groups were evaluated. Samples were collected from animals 24 hours after end of the Ca- glubionate treatment or exposure to gamma radiation. The data obtained revealed that, radiation exposure caused significant alterations in all tissues and serum biochemistry. On the contrary, neutralization was occurred in these biochemical aspects in protected animal groups due to Ca-glubionate treatment. In conclusion, Ca-glubionate could protect rats against biochemical alterations associated with gamma ray oxidative stress. These effects were explained in the light of the presumed different mechanisms of Ca-glubionate

  5. Glutathione, glutathione S-transferases, and related redox enzymes in Adriamycin-resistant cell lines with a multidrug resistant phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schisselbauer, J C; Crescimanno, M; D'Alessandro, N; Clapper, M; Toulmond, S; Tapiero, H; Tew, K D

    1989-01-01

    Friend erythroleukemia cells (FLC) selected by exposure to Adriamycin (doxorubicin) express an approximate 2.5-fold (ARN1) or 13-fold (ARN2) resistance to the drug with various degrees of cross-resistance to other anthracyclines, vinca alkaloids, and epipodophyllotoxins. Because the redox cycling of the quinone moiety of Adriamycin is known to produce oxidative stress, however, an analysis of glutathione (GSH) and related enzyme systems was undertaken in the wild-type and selected resistant cells. In ARN1 and ARN2, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities were slightly decreased, intracellular GSH and GSH reductase were essentially unchanged, and total GSH peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase (GST), and DT-diaphorase activities were slightly elevated. In each case there was no stoichiometric relationship between degree of resistance and level of activity. GST isozymes were purified from each cell line by HPLC GSH affinity column chromatography. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and western blot immunoreactivity against a battery of GST isozyme polyclonal antibodies determined that both the resistant and sensitive cells expressed isozymes of the alpha, pi, and mu classes (alternative murine nomenclature: M1, M2, M3). Of significance, both ARN1 and ARN2 cell lines expressed a unique alpha subunit which was absent from the parent FLC cell line. This isozyme presumably accounted for the increased GSH peroxidase activity (cumene hydroperoxide as substrate) found in ARN1 and ARN2 and may play a role in the small incremental resistance to melphalan found for both resistant lines. Expression of the isozyme was not stoichiometric with respect to degree of resistance. The presence of this isozyme may contribute to the resistant phenotype or may be the consequence of a more general cellular response to oxidative stress. PMID:2639724

  6. Protective roles of free avian respiratory macrophages in captive birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutua, Mbuvi P; Muya, Shadrack; Gicheru, Muita M

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian lung, respiratory macrophages provide front line defense against invading pathogens and particulate matter. In birds, respiratory macrophages are known as free avian respiratory macrophages (FARM) and a dearth of the cells in the avian lung has been purported to foreordain a weak first line of pulmonary defense, a condition associated with high mortality of domestic birds occasioned by respiratory inflictions. Avian pulmonary mechanisms including a three tiered aerodynamic filtration system, tight epithelial junctions and an efficient mucociliary escalator system have been known to supplement FARM protective roles. Current studies, however, report FARM to exhibit an exceptionally efficient phagocytic capacity and are effective in elimination of invading pathogens. In this review, we also report on effects of selective synthetic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) agonists on non phlogistic phagocytic properties in the FARM. To develop effective therapeutic interventions targeting FARM in treatment and management of respiratory disease conditions in the poultry, further studies are required to fully understand the role of FARM in innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:27306902

  7. Intraarterial versus intravenous adriamycin in the rabbit Vx-2 tumor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraarterial (IA) chemotherapy can theoretically result in a high tissue level of the drug with reduced systemic toxicity compared with intravenous (IV) administration. The authors compared these two modes of therapy using Adriamycin (doxorubicin) in the rabbit Vx-2 tumor system. Vx-2 implanted in hind limb muscle, and silastic catheters were placed in the jugular vein and femoral artery. Nuclear imaging of technetium-99m-labeled autologous erythrocytes in nine animals was used to measure the kinetics of tumor blood flow. Presence of tumor increased flow through the involved limb up to threefold. One minute following injection there was no difference in concentration of /sup 99m/Tc in tumor whether labeled cells were introduced IA or IV. Twelve rabbits received IA or IV Adriamycin (3 mg/kg), while eight animals received normal saline IA or IV as controls. Tumor progressed in all control rabbits, whereas there was an objective or complete response in 83% of animals receiving adriamycin. One hundred percent of those treated IA responded compared with 67% for IV. Median time to initial response in animals treated IA was 7 days versus 21 days for those treated IV. Thus, IA Adriamycin achieves a more complete and more rapid response than the drug given IV. This occurs despite a large tumor blood flow and rapid equilibrium using both methods

  8. CT-guided percutaneous adriamycin injection blocking foramen ovale in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the technique and clinical value of CT-guided percutaneous adriamycin injection blocking foramen ovale in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Methods: Sixty-three patients (24 males, 39 females; the age ranged from 43 to 77 years with a mean of 59) with trigeminal neuralgia were treated with percutaneous adriamycin injection by CT-guided foramen ovale blocking therapy. All the patients were diagnosed with typical symptoms and had been treated by medicine, and 38 of them were also treated by other operation approaches (27 by chemical medicine blocking, 7 by radiofrequency thermocoagulation, and 4 by microvascular decompression). Results: All patients were successfully treated by CT-guided adriamycin blocking therapy. Adriamycin (0.2-0.5 ml) was slowly and fractionally injected when the tip was ascertained in ganglion of foramen ovale. Instant total pain relief was obtained in 61 cases (96.8%), obvious pain relief in 1 and slight relief in 1. After the initial procedure, pain relief rate at 6 and 12 months was 84.1% and 79.4% , respectively. No serious complications occurred. Conclusion: CT-guided percutaneous foramen ovale blocking therapy was a precise, non-painful, highly effective, mini-traumatic, and safe treatment, and it was also an alternative treatment to classic technique. (authors)

  9. Reversal effect of Dioscin on multidrug resistance in human hepatoma HepG2/adriamycin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bu Tong; Zheng, Li Hua; Bao, Yong Li; Yu, Chun Lei; Wu, Yin; Meng, Xiang Ying; Li, Yu Xin

    2011-03-01

    Multidrug resistance is a serious obstacle encountered in cancer treatment. Since drug resistance in human cancer is mainly associated with overexpression of the multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1), the promoter of the human MDR1 gene may be a target for multidrug resistance reversion drug screening. In the present study, HEK293T cells were transfected with pGL3 reporter plasmids containing the 2kb of MDR1 promoter, and the transfected cells were used as models to screen for candidate multidrug resistance inhibitors from over 300 purified naturally occurring compounds extracted from plants and animals. Dioscin was found to have an inhibiting effect on MDR1 promoter activity. The resistant HepG2 cell line (HepG2/adriamycin) was used to validate the activity of multidrug resistance reversal by Dioscin. Results showed that Dioscin could decrease the resistance degree of HepG2/adriamycin cells, and significantly inhibit P-glycoprotein expression, as well as increase the accumulation of adriamycin in HepG2/adriamycin cells as measured by Flow Cytometric analysis. These results suggest that Dioscin is a potent multidrug resistance reversal agent and may be a potential adjunctive agent for tumor chemotherapy. PMID:21195709

  10. PLASMA-LIPOPROTEINS AND RENAL APOLIPOPROTEINS IN RATS WITH CHRONIC ADRIAMYCIN NEPHROSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOLES, JA; VANTOL, A; JANSEN, EHJM; KOOMANS, HA; RABELINK, TJ; VANGOOR, H

    1993-01-01

    The relation between plasma lipoprotein composition and renal apolipoprotein deposition was studied in nephrotic rats in which stable renal function had been monitored for 7 months after a single low dose of adriamycin (ADR, 3 mg/kg). Proteinuria was observed 3 weeks after ADR and increased progress

  11. Myocardial regeneration in adriamycin cardiomyopathy by nuclear expression of GLP1 using ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently GLP-1 was found to have cardioprotective effects independent of those attributable to tight glycemic control. Methods and results: We employed ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) to deliver piggybac transposon plasmids encoding the GLP-1 gene with a nuclear localizing signal to rat hearts with adriamycin cardiomyopathy. After a single UTMD treatment, overexpression of transgenic GLP-1 was found in nuclei of rat heart cells with evidence that transfected cardiac cells had undergone proliferation. UTMD-GLP-1 gene therapy restored LV mass, fractional shortening index, and LV posterior wall diameter to nearly normal. Nuclear overexpression of GLP-1 by inducing phosphorylation of FoxO1-S256 and translocation of FoxO1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm significantly inactivated FoxO1 and activated the expression of cyclin D1 in nuclei of cardiac muscle cells. Reversal of adriamycin cardiomyopathy appeared to be mediated by dedifferentiation and proliferation of nuclear FoxO1-positive cardiac muscle cells with evidence of embryonic stem cell markers (OCT4, Nanog, SOX2 and c-kit), cardiac early differentiation markers (NKX2.5 and ISL-1) and cellular proliferation markers (BrdU and PHH3) after UTMD with GLP-1 gene therapy. Conclusions: Intranuclear myocardial delivery of the GLP-1gene can reverse established adriamycin cardiomyopathy by stimulating myocardial regeneration. - Highlights: • The activation of nuclear FoxO1 in cardiac muscle cells associated with adriamycin cardiomyopathy. • Myocardial nuclear GLP-1 stimulates myocardial regeneration and reverses adriamycin cardiomyopathy. • The process of myocardial regeneration associated with dedifferentiation and proliferation

  12. Myocardial regeneration in adriamycin cardiomyopathy by nuclear expression of GLP1 using ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuyuan [Baylor Research Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, 3812 Elm Street, Dallas, TX (United States); Chen, Jiaxi [The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Medical School, 5235 Harry Hine Blvd., Dallas, TX (United States); Huang, Pintong [Department of Ultrasonography, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Meng, Xing-Li; Clayton, Sandra; Shen, Jin-Song [Baylor Research Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, 3812 Elm Street, Dallas, TX (United States); Grayburn, Paul A., E-mail: paulgr@baylorhealth.edu [Baylor Research Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, 3812 Elm Street, Dallas, TX (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Baylor Heart and Vascular Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, 621 N. Hall St, Suite H030, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-03-20

    Recently GLP-1 was found to have cardioprotective effects independent of those attributable to tight glycemic control. Methods and results: We employed ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) to deliver piggybac transposon plasmids encoding the GLP-1 gene with a nuclear localizing signal to rat hearts with adriamycin cardiomyopathy. After a single UTMD treatment, overexpression of transgenic GLP-1 was found in nuclei of rat heart cells with evidence that transfected cardiac cells had undergone proliferation. UTMD-GLP-1 gene therapy restored LV mass, fractional shortening index, and LV posterior wall diameter to nearly normal. Nuclear overexpression of GLP-1 by inducing phosphorylation of FoxO1-S256 and translocation of FoxO1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm significantly inactivated FoxO1 and activated the expression of cyclin D1 in nuclei of cardiac muscle cells. Reversal of adriamycin cardiomyopathy appeared to be mediated by dedifferentiation and proliferation of nuclear FoxO1-positive cardiac muscle cells with evidence of embryonic stem cell markers (OCT4, Nanog, SOX2 and c-kit), cardiac early differentiation markers (NKX2.5 and ISL-1) and cellular proliferation markers (BrdU and PHH3) after UTMD with GLP-1 gene therapy. Conclusions: Intranuclear myocardial delivery of the GLP-1gene can reverse established adriamycin cardiomyopathy by stimulating myocardial regeneration. - Highlights: • The activation of nuclear FoxO1 in cardiac muscle cells associated with adriamycin cardiomyopathy. • Myocardial nuclear GLP-1 stimulates myocardial regeneration and reverses adriamycin cardiomyopathy. • The process of myocardial regeneration associated with dedifferentiation and proliferation.

  13. Radiation protection in Uruguay. The role of the Uruguayan radiation protection association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, D.E. [University of the Republic, Faculty of Law, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2000-05-01

    regulation, promotion and development. The paper will study that this does not follow international recommendations and as Uruguay has not nuclear plants for energy will be better to have a body which depends directly on the Presidence of the Republic because it will have strong links with many Ministries as Labour, Environment, Public Health and others and in this way it will give more confidence to the public. The role of the Uruguayan Radiation Protection Association: On April 1998 Uruguayan professionals of different areas of Radiation Protection created the Association Uruguaya de Radioprotection (A.U.R.) in order to work together with the objective of improving radiation protection in Uruguay. Since April 1999 we are member of the IRPA family. Members of AUR are interested on improving radiation protection in Uruguay so we work in order to cooperate with this desire as an essential need in the field of nuclear technology. Last month we finished a project of Radiation Protection Act and we presented it to the authorities. This Act will be study in this paper. It follows international recommendations. (author)

  14. Radiation protection in Uruguay. The role of the Uruguayan radiation protection association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    regulation, promotion and development. The paper will study that this does not follow international recommendations and as Uruguay has not nuclear plants for energy will be better to have a body which depends directly on the Presidence of the Republic because it will have strong links with many Ministries as Labour, Environment, Public Health and others and in this way it will give more confidence to the public. The role of the Uruguayan Radiation Protection Association: On April 1998 Uruguayan professionals of different areas of Radiation Protection created the Association Uruguaya de Radioprotection (A.U.R.) in order to work together with the objective of improving radiation protection in Uruguay. Since April 1999 we are member of the IRPA family. Members of AUR are interested on improving radiation protection in Uruguay so we work in order to cooperate with this desire as an essential need in the field of nuclear technology. Last month we finished a project of Radiation Protection Act and we presented it to the authorities. This Act will be study in this paper. It follows international recommendations. (author)

  15. Protective and pro-inflammatory roles of intestinal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso Webb, Cynthia; Koboziev, Iurii; Furr, Kathryn L; Grisham, Matthew B

    2016-06-01

    The intestinal mucosal surface in all vertebrates is exposed to enormous numbers of microorganisms that include bacteria, archaea, fungi and viruses. Coexistence of the host with the gut microbiota represents an active and mutually beneficial relationship that helps to shape the mucosal and systemic immune systems of both mammals and teleosts (ray-finned fish). Due to the potential for enteric microorganisms to invade intestinal tissue and induce local and/or systemic inflammation, the mucosal immune system has developed a number of protective mechanisms that allow the host to mount an appropriate immune response to invading bacteria, while limiting bystander tissue injury associated with these immune responses. Failure to properly regulate mucosal immunity is thought to be responsible for the development of chronic intestinal inflammation. The objective of this review is to present our current understanding of the role that intestinal bacteria play in vertebrate health and disease. While our primary focus will be humans and mice, we also present the new and exciting comparative studies being performed in zebrafish to model host-microbe interactions. PMID:26947707

  16. Protective role of sulphoraphane against vascular complications in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Sho-Ichi; Matsui, Takanori

    2016-10-01

    Context Diabetes is a global health challenge. Although large prospective clinical trials have shown that intensive control of blood glucose or blood pressure reduces the risk for development and progression of vascular complications in diabetes, a substantial number of diabetic patients still experience renal failure and cardiovascular events, which could account for disabilities and high mortality rate in these subjects. Objective Sulphoraphane is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate found in widely consumed cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage and Brussels sprouts, and an inducer of phase II antioxidant and detoxification enzymes with anticancer properties. We reviewed here the protective role of sulphoraphane against diabetic vascular complications. Methods In this review, literature searches were undertaken in Medline and in CrossRef. Non-English language articles were excluded. Keywords [sulphoraphane and (diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic neuropathy, diabetic complications, vascular, cardiomyocytes, heart or glycation)] have been used to select the articles. Results There is accumulating evidence that sulphoraphane exerts beneficial effects on vascular damage in both cell culture and diabetic animal models via antioxidative properties. Furthermore, we have recently found that sulphoraphane inhibits in vitro formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), suppresses the AGE-induced inflammatory reactions in rat aorta by reducing receptor for AGEs (RAGE) expression and decreases serum levels of AGEs in humans. Conclusion These findings suggest that blockade of oxidative stress and/or the AGE-RAGE axis by sulphoraphane may be a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing vascular complications in diabetes. PMID:26841240

  17. Cardiovascular risk and cardiometabolic protection: role of glitazones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrazzi, Luisa; Grassi, Davide; Polidoro, Lorella; D'Aurelio, Azzurra; Croce, Giuseppe; Properzi, Giuliana; Tiberti, Sergio; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are widely used in the type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) treatment but have also been tested in cardiovascular prevention. DMT2 is associated with a marked increment in cardiovascular risk, and its prevention represents a main target in cardiometabolic protection. Both Troglitazone (Troglitazone in Prevention of Diabetes study) and Rosiglitazone (Diabetes Reduction Assessment with Ramipril and Rosiglitazone Medication study) significantly reduced new-onset diabetes. A similar topic will be investigated with pioglitazone (Actos Now for Prevention of Diabetes). In the Prospective Pioglitazone Clinical Trial in Macrovascular events the primary end point (all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, acute coronary syndromes, endovascular or surgical intervention in the coronary/leg arteries and amputation above ankles) was unaffected, whereas the secondary one (all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke) was reduced by pioglitazone (-16%, p=0.027) compared to placebo in 5,238 patients with DMT2 and macrovascular disease. In contrast, a meta-analysis (Nissen and Wolski, N Engl J Med. 2007;356:2457-2471) reported that rosiglitazone treatment is associated with a significant increase in myocardial infarction risk (p=0.03) and a borderline significant increase in the risk of death from cardiovascular causes (p=0.06). Nevertheless, the possibility that rosiglitazone might affect cardiovascular events should be evaluated by the ongoing trial Rosiglitazone Evaluated for Cardiac Outcomes and Regulation of Glycemia in Diabetes (RECORD). Interim findings early from RECORD did not show significant differences between the rosiglitazone and the control group regarding myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular and any cause. Additional large-scale trials are awaited to clarify the of role TZDs in cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:19034866

  18. The role of radioactive tracing in health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of radioactive tracers in health protection is introduced. The different radioactive tracers can be applied to the studies of many functions, including immune function, permeability of skin, metabolism of nutritional materials, uptake of aerosols, monitoring of internal contamination in the body, protection of organs by blocking, accelerating removal of internal contamination in the body, cell cycle, etc.. Generally, since the quantity of radioactive tracers required for tracing is exceptionally small, there in no interference with normal physiological function of the organism. According to the different aims in health protection, the radioactive tracers can be used in a wide scope in order to promote the progress of health protection

  19. Radiation protection is international. The role of IRPA as world-wide radiation protection organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compared with other international organisations equally dealing with various aspects of radiation protection, IRPA is distinguished by its basic democratic structure of individual members, and by its exclusive concentration on the scientific and practical implications of radiation protection. IRPA recognizes as main tasks presently the promotion of communication, education and setting of professional standards in radiation protection worldwide. (orig.)

  20. The Role of School Psychologists in Child Protection and Safeguarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Kevin; Bond, Caroline; Tyldesley, Kath; Farrell, Peter; Humphrey, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Child protection and safeguarding are important aspects of work for all professionals working with children. The current article outlines the international context of school psychologists' work in relation to child protection and safeguarding and describes the United Kingdom context in more detail. Given the relatively recent broadening of the UK…

  1. Quit Behavior and the Role of Job Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Gielen (Anne); K. Tatsiramos (Konstantinos)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractJob protection reduces job turnover by changing firms’ hiring and firing decisions. Yet the effect of job protection on workers’ quit decisions and post-quit outcomes is still unknown. We present the first evidence using individual panel data from 12 European countries, which differ both

  2. The effect of multidrug resistance modulator HZ08 on pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of adriamycin in xenograft-nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Feng, Yidong; Darshika, Kodithuwakku Nandani; Zhang, Bo; Hu, Yahui; Fang, Weirong; Li, Yunman; Huang, Wenlong

    2015-01-23

    To overcome MDR (multidrug resistance) of cancer mediated by P-gp (P-glycoprotein) has become a key strategy to improve the survival rate in clinic. Therefore, it is imperative to develop advanced modulators that have no side effects or interactions with cytotoxic drugs. HZ08, which acts as a P-gp inhibitor, shows a notable reverse effect with low cytotoxicity in vitro. Based on the previous results, the goal of this experiment is to elucidate the effect of HZ08 on pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of adriamycin in tumor-bearing nude mice. Several criterions and methods, such as tumor weight and volume, in vivo imaging, western blot, immunohistochemistry as well as ATPase hydrolysis assay were selected to evaluate the reversing activity and mechanism of HZ08 on MDR; Furthermore, fluorescence detection assay was applied to determine the distribution of adriamycin in the blood and tissues. This study revealed that HZ08 potentiated the anti-tumor activity of adriamycin but with little effect on the expression of P-gp in vivo. Adriamycin accumulation in tumor was enhanced by HZ08 via ATPase activity inhibition. In addition, HZ08 did not alter the pharmacokinetic characteristic of adriamycin in plasma or tissues. In conclusion, HZ08 showed dramatic MDR reversing activity and had no influence on the pharmacokinetics of adriamycin. PMID:25459530

  3. Protective role of E. coli outer membrane vesicles against antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Heramb M; Nagaraj, R; Jagannadham, Medicharla V

    2015-12-01

    The outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from bacteria are known to posses both defensive and protective functions and thus participate in community related functions. In the present study, outer membrane vesicles have been shown to protect the producer bacterium and two other bacterial species from the growth inhibitory effects of some antibiotics. The OMVs isolated from E. coli MG1655 protected the bacteria against membrane-active antibiotics colistin, melittin. The OMVs of E. coli MG1655 could also protect P. aeruginosa NCTC6751 and A. radiodioresistens MMC5 against these membrane-active antibiotics. However, OMVs could not protect any of these bacteria against the other antibiotics ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and trimethoprim. Hence, OMVs appears to protect the bacterial community against membrane-active antibiotics and not other antibiotics, which have different mechanism of actions. The OMVs of E. coli MG1655 sequester the antibiotic colistin, whereas their protein components degrade the antimicrobial peptide melittin. Proteomic analysis of OMVs revealed the presence of proteases and peptidases which appear to be involved in this process. Thus, the protection of bacteria by OMVs against antibiotics is situation dependent and the mechanism differs for different situations. These studies suggest that OMVs of bacteria form a common defense for the bacterial community against specific antibiotics. PMID:26640046

  4. Physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials. Safeguards and the role of the IAEA in physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical protection and security of nuclear facilities and materials concerns utilities, manufactures, the general public, and those who are responsible for licensing and regulating such facilities. The requirements and process to ensure an acceptable physical protection and security system have been evolutionary in nature. This paper reviews the first step of such process: the State's safeguards system and the international safeguards system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), including the relationship between these two safeguards systems. The elements of these systems that are reviewed include the State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material, physical protection measures, and containment and surveillance measures. In addition, the interactions between the State, the facility operator, and the IAEA are described. The paper addresses the IAEA safeguards system, including material accountancy and containment and surveillance; the State safeguards system, including material control and accountancy, and physical protection; the role of the IAEA in physical protection; a summary of safeguards system interactions.(author)

  5. Detection of Adriamycin–DNA adducts by accelerator mass spectrometry at clinically relevant Adriamycin concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Coldwell, Kate E.; Cutts, Suzanne M.; Ognibene, Ted J.; Henderson, Paul T; Phillips, Don R.

    2008-01-01

    Limited sensitivity of existing assays has prevented investigation of whether Adriamycin–DNA adducts are involved in the anti-tumour potential of Adriamycin. Previous detection has achieved a sensitivity of a few Adriamycin–DNA adducts/104 bp DNA, but has required the use of supra-clinical drug concentrations. This work sought to measure Adriamycin–DNA adducts at sub-micromolar doses using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), a technique with origins in geochemistry for radiocarbon dating. We...

  6. Enhanced sympathetic activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in rats with heart failure induced by adriamycin

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shujuan; Feng ZHANG; Sun, Haijian; Zhou, Yebo; Han, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex is enhanced in rats with chronic heart failure (CHF) induced by coronary artery ligation and contributes to the over-excitation of sympathetic activity. We sought to determine whether sympathetic activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex were enhanced in adriamycin-induced CHF and whether angiotensin II (Ang II) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was involved in enhancing sympathetic activity and cardiac sym...

  7. Protective role of glutathione reductase in paraquat induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Mirjana M; Jovanovic, Marina D; Ninkovic, Milica; Stevanovic, Ivana; Ilic, Katarina; Curcic, Marijana; Vekic, Jelena

    2012-08-30

    Paraquat (PQ), a widely used herbicide is a well-known free radical producing agent. The mechanistic pathways of PQ neurotoxicity were examined by assessing oxidative/nitrosative stress markers. Focus was on the role of glutathione (GSH) cycle and to examine whether the pre-treatment with enzyme glutathione reductase (GR) could protect the vulnerable brain regions (VBRs) against harmful oxidative effect of PQ. The study was conducted on Wistar rats, randomly divided in five groups: intact-control group, (n = 8) and four experimental groups (n = 24). All tested compounds were administered intrastriatally (i.s.) in one single dose. The following parameters of oxidative status were measured in the striatum, hippocampus and cortex, at 30 min, 24 h and 7 days post treatment: superoxide anion radical (O₂·⁻), nitrate (NO₃⁻), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total GSH (tGSH) and its oxidized, disulfide form (GSSG) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Results obtained from the intact and the sham operated groups were not statistically different, confirming that invasive i.s. route of administration would not influence the reliability of results. Also, similar pattern of changes were observed between ipsi- and contra- lateral side of examined VBRs, indicating rapid spatial spreading of oxidative stress. Mortality of the animals (10%), within 24h, along with symptoms of Parkinsonism, after awakening from anesthesia for 2-3 h, were observed in the PQ group, only. Increased levels of O₂·⁻, NO₃⁻ and MDA, increased ratio of GSSG/GSH and considerably high activity of GPx were measured at 30 min after the treatment. Cytotoxic effect of PQ was documented by drastic drop of all measured parameters and extremely high peak of the ratio GSSG/GSH at 24th hrs after the PQ i.s. injection. In the GR+PQ group, markedly low activity of GPx and low content of NO₃⁻ (in striatum and cortex) were measured during whole experiment, while increase value was

  8. Community nurses' child protection role: views of public health nurses in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Susan

    2011-11-01

    Public health nurses in Ireland are generalist practitioners with a wide range of roles that address the needs of clients in the community across their lifespan. Child protection is one of many of the roles of Irish public health nurses. However, with increasing caseloads, birth rates and aging populations, their child protection role is becoming more difficult to define and practise safely. This paper presents a key finding of a qualitative study that explored the views of a group of public health nurses (n = 10) regarding their role with pre-school children. A significant theme following analysis of the interviews were the nurses\\' expressed concerns on their role in child protection. There is a need to define the role practised by public health nurses in child protection and to achieve a standard for this nationally.

  9. Effects of adriamycin on respiratory chain activities in mitochondria from rat liver, rat heart and bovine heart. Evidence for a preferential inhibition of complex III and IV

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolay, K.; de Kruijff, B.

    1987-01-01

    The inhibition of respiratory chain activities in rat liver, rat heart and bovine heart mitochondria by the anthracycline antibiotic adriamycin was measured in order to determine the adriamycin-sensitive sites. It appeared that complex III and IV are efficiently affected such that their activities were reduced to 50% of control values at 175 ± 25 μM adriamycin. Complex I displayed a minor sensitivity to the drug. Of the complex-I-related activities tested, only duroquinone oxidation appeared ...

  10. [Role of protective factors in the development of depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margitics, Ferenc

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the counterbalancing effect of protective factors on the predisposition factors to depression, and also to identify the protective factors that enable individuals susceptible to depression to successfully integrate into tile society. Preventive factors assisting individuals to face and successfully overcome the stress triggered by various provoking factors (negative events during the last half a year) were also analyzed. 681 college students participated in the research, 465 women and 216 men. Students with any one of the following predisposition factors were included the affected group (n = 232, 161 women and 71 men): positive family anamnesis (medically diagnosed depression of mother, father, grandparents or sibling), loss during the early years (death of parent, separation, divorce during the first ten years of the child). The results of the present study demonstrate that peer support, and acceptance by others--primarily emotional acceptance--may serve as protective factors. It is also demonstrated that certain socialization factors and parental care are also valuable protection against stress. Furthermore, the effects of certain dysfunctional attitudes influencing the evaluation of negative life-events were proven. PMID:16395956

  11. The radiographer's professional role in practical aspects of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subjects discussed were qualified radiographer definition, unnecessary x-rays exposure in x-rays examination and it's contribution in radiation protection practices, the improvement in procedures, and reviews of booklet called 'making the best use of a Dept of Clinical Radiology, UK

  12. The role of medical physicist in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing Radiation is applied in Radiation Therapy, Nuclear medicine and Diagnostic Radiology. Radiation Protection in Medical Application of Ionizing Radiation requires specific Professional Competence in all relevant details of the radiation source instrumentation / equipment clinical dosimetry application procedures quality assurance medical risk-benefit assessment. Application in general include Justification of practices (sufficient benefit to the exposed individuals) Limitation of doses to individuals (occupational / public exposure) Optimization of Protection (magnitude and likelihood of exposures, and the number of individuals exposed will be ALARA. Competence of persons is normally assessed by the State by having a formal mechanism for registration, accreditation or certification of medical physicists in the various specialties (e.g. diagnostic radiology, radiation therapy, nuclear medicine). The patient safety in the use of medical radiation will be increased through: Consistent education and certification of medical team members, whose qualifications are recognized nationally, and who follow consensus practice guidelines that meet established national accrediting standards

  13. Role of beef cattle breeding in landscape protection

    OpenAIRE

    Touš, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Cattle breeding hasn’t a long tradition in the Czech Republic as almost all of the beef cattle were imported to the foothills and mountain areas in 1990’s. The beef cattle aren‘t kept for milk and therefore their breeding can be realized as an extensive breeding in connection with permanent grassland – pastures – in less favourable or protected areas. The cattle are not only used for animal produce but also for maintaining the landscape and ecological stability. The advantage of beef cattl...

  14. The Role of Social Protection Programmes in Supporting Education in Conflict-Affected Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the role of social protection in supporting education in conflict-affected contexts. In recent years, social protection has gained popularity as a mechanism to reduce poverty and vulnerability, in part by enabling households to better access and use basic services as a result of increased household income. In…

  15. Protective Role of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in Filovirus Hemorrhagic Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Lyn Warfield

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with many emerging viruses, such as the hemorrhagic fever disease caused by the filoviruses, Marburg (MARV, and Ebola virus (EBOV, leaves the host with a short timeframe in which to mouse a protective immune response. In lethal cases, uncontrolled viral replication and virus-induced immune dysregulation are too severe to overcome, and mortality is generally associated with a lack of notable immune responses. Vaccination studies in animals have demonstrated an association of IgG and neutralizing antibody responses against the protective glycoprotein antigen with survival from lethal challenge. More recently, studies in animal models of filovirus hemorrhagic fever have established that induction of a strong filovirus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL response can facilitate complete viral clearance. In this review, we describe assays used to discover CTL responses after vaccination or live filovirus infection in both animal models and human clinical trials. Unfortunately, little data regarding CTL responses have been collected from infected human survivors, primarily due to the low frequency of disease and the inability to perform these studies in the field. Advancements in assays and technologies may allow these studies to occur during future outbreaks.

  16. Sequential radiotherapy and adriamycin in the management of bronchogenic carcinoma: the question of additive toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrapleural immunotherapy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy were employed in that sequence in 22 patients with Stage III non-oat cell bronchogenic carcinoma confined to the thorax. Seven patients received intrapleural BCG in a pilot study and 15 were randomized between intrapleural BCG and intrapleural saline. Isoniazid was begun on day 14 and irradiation (3000 rad in 10 fractions) to the primary lesion, mediastinum and ipsilateral supraclavicular nodes was started on day 21. One to two weeks following irradiation, CAMP chemotherapy was initiated (Cyclophosphamide 300 mg/M2 iv, d. 1,8; Adriamycin 20 mg/M2 iv, d. 1,8; Methotrexate 15 mg/M2 iv, d. 1,8 and Procarbazine 100 mg/M2 p.o., d. 1 to 10). Chemotherapy was given for a total of six months. Two patients expired prior to radiotherapy (1 tumor progression, 1 myocardial infarction) and 2 patients were lost to follow-up. Nausea, vomiting, alopecia and fatigue were universal side effects of the chemotherapy. Esophagitis occurred in 9 patients, 7 prior to and 2 after initiation of Adriamycin. In only one case did Adriamycin exacerbate a previous radiation esophagitis. No patient developed clinical radiation pneumonitis, although all had eventual radiation fibrosis. Congestive heart failure occurred in 1 patient with known valvular heart disease and responded to diuretics. Three patients developed localized herpes zoster infections. One patient developed radiation myelitis one year after initiating therapy and six months after completing all chemotherapy. The major side effect was leukopenia with relative platelet sparing. Although significant morbidity was encountered in this primarily older patient population (mean age 64.8 years) recall reactions involving irradiated intrathoracic structures were not a significant clinical problem

  17. The role of the international radiation protection association in development and implementation of radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) is an affiliation of national and regional professional societies. Its individual membership is approaching some 20 000 professionals from 42 societies and covering 50 countries. Its primary objective is to provide a platform for collaboration between members of its affiliate societies to further radiation protection and safety. The IRPA is mandated to promote and facilitate the establishment of radiation protection societies, support international meetings and to encourage international publications, research and education and the establishment and review of standards. Through its membership base and its observer status on bodies such as the ICRP and the safety standards committees of the IAEA, the IRPA is in a position to provide valuable input to the safety standards development process. This factor has been increasingly recognised more recently within the IRPA and the various organisations involved in the development of safety standards. This paper addresses the mechanisms that have been established to enhance the input of the IRPA into the safety standards development process and for their subsequent implementation. (author)

  18. EMERGING ROLES FOR FOOD LABELS: INFORM, PROTECT, PERSUADE

    OpenAIRE

    Henneberry, Shida Rastegari; Armbruster, Walter J.

    2003-01-01

    Every day, food producers and processors provide products consumed by 250 million people in this country. Each of those consumers is affected by the content of their foods. With advances in food production, processing, and distribution technology, the role of food labels has become increasingly important. Current research and views related to food labeling issues were discussed at a conference held in Washington, D.C. on March 20-21, 2003. This article gives an overview of food-labeling issue...

  19. Protective role of nitric oxide in ocular toxoplasmosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, S; Chan, C. C.; Gazzinelli, R T; Pham, N. T.; Cheung, M K; Roberge, F. G.

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in ocular involvement during systemic toxoplasmosis. METHODS: C57B1/6 mice were infected with Toxoplasma gondii strain ME49. The synthesis of NO was inhibited by an intraperitoneal injection of aminoguanidine every 8 hours, starting on the day of infection. Control infected mice received phosphate buffered saline vehicle alone. After 14 days, the ocular lesions were evaluated by histopathological examination. The expression of NO synthase induce...

  20. Protective Role of Lycopene Against Diethylnitrosamine Induced Experimental Hepatocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inas Z.A. Abdallah and Hala A.H. Khattab

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene was considered as a major carotenoid in the human diet for only the last few centuries. Recently lycopene has been found to possess chemoprotective effect against gastrointestinal tract, urinary bladder, prostate and breast cancers. In the present study, the protective effect of lycopene, the natural extract from tomato pomace against diethylnitrosamine (DEN-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC formation in rats was investigated. Four groups of male albino rats at the age of 6 weeks were studied: 1 control (C, 2 DEN, i.p. injected 5 times with doses of 200 mg/kg b.w., one dose every two days. 3 Lycopene, orally given 0.12 mg/rat/day. 4 Lycopene + DEN, the treatment with lycopene started 7 days before DEN injection and continued till the end of the experimental period. Rats in group 2 and 4 were treated with Phenobarbital (PB at a dose of 500 ppm in the drinking water as a tumor promoter. PB treatment started with the first injection of DEN and continued till the end of the experimental period. The results indicated that DEN caused HCC nodules as evidenced by a remarkable significant increase in -L-fucosidase and metal oproteinases (MMPs enzyme activity in both serum and cytosol. Increased activity of these enzymes is a marker for both preneoplastic and carcinoma lesions. Administration of lycopene prior to DEN injection protected rats from DEN-induced HCC as evidenced by a significant descent in -L-fucosidase and MMPs enzymes activity in both serum and cytosol. The histological investigation of liver tissue confirmed these results. DEN group showed proliferated hyperplastic and anaplastic hepatocellular nodules surrounded with thin layer of fibroblastic cells, desmoplasia and inflammatory cells infiltrations, focal hepatic haemorrhages and necrosis. Meanwhile, lycopene + DEN group showed no histopathological changes. These results indicate that lycopene effectively inhibits DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.

  1. Hyaluronidase enhances the activity of adriamycin in breast cancer models in vitro and in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Beckenlehner, Karin; Bannke, Silke; Spruss, Thilo; Bernhardt, Günther; Schönenberger, Helmut; Schiess, Wilfried

    1992-01-01

    The effect of hyaluronidase and a combination of hyaluronidase with Adriamycin was investigated on several breast cancer models in vitro and in vivo. In vitro enzyme treatment (using concentrations up to 80,000 IU/1) of murine (MXT-, MXT +/-, and MXT+) and human (MCF-7, ZR-75-1 and T-47-D) breast cancer cell lines did not inhibit tumour cell proliferation (measured by a kinetic crystal violet assay) in either case. Although high-dose hyaluronidase (1.2 x 10(6) IU/kg) was ineffective, when adm...

  2. Time dependent effects of Adriamycin and x-ray therapy on wound healing in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wound healing as measured by wound breaking strength (WBS) was studied in male Fischer rats. Animals were wounded (day 0) and treated with Adriamycin (ADR), x-ray therapy (XRT), or the combination of ADR + XRT. Treatments were either on day -7,0 or +7. Animals were killed on days +14 and +21, and excised wounds were subjected to uniaxial extension and the recording of WBS (grams), hydroxy-proline assay, and collagen fiber diameter measurements. In this model, day 0 treatment with ADR, XRT, or ADR + XRT impaired WBS most significantly. This was supported by a diminution in newly synthesized hydroxyproline and load extension curve analysis

  3. Survival and kinetics of Chinese hamster ovary cell subpopulations induced by Adriamycin and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitotic selection of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, at 10 min intervals after the initiation of Adriamycin and/or x-ray treatment was used to measure the kinetics and survival of cells which progressed without delay, the ''refractory'' cells, the cells that reached mitosis only after recovery from the treatment-induced delay, the ''recovered'' cells, and the survival of the cells remaining attached to the flask 5 h after treatment. The cell kinetics were determined from the rate at which cells entered mitosis, and the reproductive integrity from the survival of the selected refractory, recovered and remaining (unselected) cells

  4. Tissue concentration of doxorubicin (adriamycin in mouse pretreated with alpha-tocopherol or coenzyme Q10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinozawa,Shinya

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The tissue concentration of doxorubicin (adriamycin; ADM and its major metabolite (aglycone I was examined in mice pretreated with alpha-tocopherol (VE or coenzyme Q10 (CoQ. In VE-pretreated group, the concentrations of aglycone I of the liver (1, 3 and 5 h after the administration, kidney (1 and 3h and heart (3h were significantly higher than those in the saline group. The clinical application of VE or CoQ concomitant with anti-tumor drugs especially ADM, requires caution.

  5. The role of Swedish Radiation Protection Authority in the field of public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Government has requested the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) to make an account of the authority's role in the field of public health. Radiation Protection consists largely of preventive actions in order to protect man and the environment against harmful effects of radiation. The SSI thus considers most of the authority's activities to be public health related. The report describes a number of radiation protection areas from a health perspective. The measures taken by the authority in these areas are also described along with planned activities. In some areas the authority also points out additional measures

  6. The role of Swedish Radiation Protection Authority in the field of public health 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Government has requested that the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) to make an account of the authority's role in the field of public health. Radiation Protection consists largely of preventive actions in order to protect man and the environment against harmful effects of radiation. The SSI thus considers most of the authority's activities to be public health related. The report describes a number of radiation protection areas from a health perspective. The measures taken by the authority in these areas are also described along with planned activities. In some areas the authority also points out additional measures

  7. The role of protective scales in enhancing oxidation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been steady progress in the development of wrought nickel-containing alloys for use in high temperature oxidizing environments. Contributing significantly to this progress is a growing knowledge base on the role of scales in enhancing oxidation resistance. Future improvements in oxidation resistance must build upon this understanding. This paper seeks to survey a portion of the wealth of information regarding scale characteristics of commercial wrought nickel-containing alloys and how scales are influenced by environment and alloy composition. Some suggestions as to the future direction of alloy development with regard to scale optimization and increased oxidation resistance are proposed

  8. Reversal in multidrug resistance by magnetic nanoparticle of Fe3O4 loaded with adriamycin and tetrandrine in K562/A02 leukemic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoan Chen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Baoan Chen1,5, Qian Sun1,5, Xuemei Wang2, Feng Gao1, Yongyuan Dai1, Yan Yin1, Jiahua Ding1, Chong Gao1, Jian Cheng1, Jingyuan Li2, Xinchen Sun1, Ningna Chen1, Wenlin Xu3, Huiling Shen3, Delong Liu41Department of Hematology, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing, China; 2State Key Lab of Bioelectronics(Chien-Shiung Wu Laboratory, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China; 3Department of Hematology, The First People’s Hospital of Zhenjiang, Zhenjiang, China; 4Westchester Medical Center, New York Medical College, NY, USA; 5These authors have contributed equally to this work.Abstract: Drug resistance is a primary hindrance for efficiency of chemotherapy. To investigate whether Fe3O4-magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4-MNPs loaded with adriamycin (ADM and tetrandrine (Tet would play a synergetic reverse role in multidrug resistant cell, we prepared the drug-loaded nanoparticles by mechanical absorption polymerization to act with K562 and one of its resistant cell line K562/A02. The survival of cells which were cultured with these conjugates for 48 h was observed by MTT assay. Using cells under the same condition described before, we took use of fluorescence microscope to measure fluorescence intensity of intracellular ADM at an excitation wavelength of 488 nm. P-glycoprotein (P-gp was analyzed with flow cytometer. The expression of mdr1 mRNA was measured by RT-PCR. The results showed that the growth inhibition efficacy of both the two cells increased with augmenting concentrations of Fe3O4-MNPs which were loaded with drugs. No linear correlation was found between fluorescence intensity of intracellular adriamycin and augmenting concentration of Fe3O4-MNPs. Tet could downregulate the level of mdr-1 gene and decrease the expression of P-gp. Furthermore, Tet polymerized with Fe3O4-MNPs reinforced this downregulation, causing a 100-fold more decrease in mdr1 mRNA level, but did not reduce total P-gp content. Our results suggest that Fe3O4-MNPs

  9. Vitamin D receptor and its protective role in diabetic nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Xiaoling; Yang Huajie; Zhang Wei; Wang Huanjun; Liao Lin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the advances of studies on vitamin D receptor and its role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.Data sources A comprehensive search of the PubMed literatures without restriction on the publication date was carried out using keywords such as vitamin D receptor and diabetic nephropathy.Study selection Articles related to vitamin D receptor and diabetic nephropathy were selected and carefully analyzed.Results The ligands as well as construction and tissue distribution of vitamin D receptor were summarized.Pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy was analyzed.The mechanisms underlying the renoprotective role of vitamin D receptor including inhibition of renin-angiotensin system,anti-inflammation,anti-fibrosis and the reduction of proteinuria were reviewed.Mounting evidences from animal and clinical studies have suggested that vitamin D therapy has beneficial effects on the renal systems and the underlying renoprotective mechanisms of the vitamin D receptor-mediated signaling pathways is a hot research topic.Conclusion Our study suggests that vitamin D receptor has a great potential for preventing the progression of diabetic nephropathy via multiple mechanisms.

  10. Protective mechanisms against homocysteine toxicity: the role of bleomycin hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimny, Jaroslaw; Sikora, Marta; Guranowski, Andrzej; Jakubowski, Hieronim

    2006-08-11

    Homocysteine (Hcy) editing by methionyl-tRNA synthetase results in the formation of Hcy-thiolactone and initiates a pathway that has been implicated in human disease. In addition to being cleared from the circulation by urinary excretion, Hcy-thiolactone is detoxified by the serum Hcy-thiolactonase/paraoxonase carried on high density lipoprotein. Whether Hcy-thiolactone is detoxified inside cells was unknown. Here we show that Hcy-thiolactone is hydrolyzed by an intracellular enzyme, which we have purified to homogeneity from human placenta and identified by proteomic analyses as human bleomycin hydrolase (hBLH). We have also purified an Hcy-thiolactonase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identified it as yeast bleomycin hydrolase (yBLH). BLH belongs to a family of evolutionarily conserved cysteine aminopeptidases, and its only known biologically relevant function was deamidation of the anticancer drug bleomycin. Recombinant hBLH or yBLH, expressed in Escherichia coli, exhibits Hcy-thiolactonase activity similar to that of the native enzymes. Active site mutations, C73A for hBLH and H369A for yBLH, inactivate Hcy-thiolactonase activities. Yeast blh1 mutants are deficient in Hcy-thiolactonase activity in vitro and in vivo, produce more Hcy-thiolactone, and exhibit greater sensitivity to Hcy toxicity than wild type yeast cells. Our data suggest that BLH protects cells against Hcy toxicity by hydrolyzing intracellular Hcy-thiolactone. PMID:16769724

  11. Radiation protection and the role of TSOs in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the late '60s and through the early '90s Kenya has always recognized and appreciated the need for support from Technical and Scientific Support Organizations (TSOs) for activities geared towards enhancing nuclear and radiation safety. The TSOs have since then gained increasing importance for provision of technical and scientific basis for policy formulation, implementation and legislation with regard to radiation safety. National and specific operator programmes on safety and security of radiation source and radioactive waste recognize and encourage the active participation of TSOs. Due to the role they play, technical competence, transparency and the observance of ethical practices have become essential both for the regulator and the regulated. In this respect, interaction and cooperation between stake holders (regulatory authorities, users of radiation, generators of radioactive waste, professional organizations) and TSOs, in the frame of national and regional networks as well as in ad hoc frameworks, have been fostered. (author)

  12. Cannabinoid-induced autophagy: Protective or death role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lia; Amaral, Cristina; Teixeira, Natércia; Correia-da-Silva, Georgina; Fonseca, Bruno M

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy, the "self-digestion" mechanism of the cells, is an evolutionary conserved catabolic process that targets portions of cytoplasm, damaged organelles and proteins for lysosomal degradation, which plays a crucial role in development and disease. Cannabinoids are active compounds of Cannabis sativa and the most prevalent psychoactive substance is Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabinoid compounds can be divided in three types: the plant-derived natural products (phytocannabinoids), the cannabinoids produced endogenously (endocannabinoids) and the synthesized compounds (synthetic cannabinoids). Various studies reported a cannabinoid-induced autophagy mechanism in cancer and non-cancer cells. In this review we focus on the recent advances in the cannabinoid-induced autophagy and highlight the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. PMID:26732541

  13. The protective role of body appreciation against media-induced body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the protective role of positive body image against negative effects produced by viewing thin-idealised media. University women (N=68) completed trait measures of body appreciation and media protective strategies. At a subsequent session, participants viewed 11 thin-ideal advertisements. Body dissatisfaction was assessed before and after advertisement exposure, and state measures of self-objectification, appearance comparison, and media protective strategies were completed. Results indicated that body appreciation predicted less change in body dissatisfaction following exposure, such that participants with low body appreciation experienced increased body dissatisfaction, while those with high body appreciation did not. Although state appearance comparison predicted increased body dissatisfaction, neither state self-objectification nor appearance comparison accounted for body appreciation's protective effect. Trait and state media protective strategies positively correlated with body appreciation, but also did not account for body appreciation's protective effect. The results point to intervention targets and highlight future research directions. PMID:26311661

  14. Immunochemotherapy for advanced bladder cancer using FT-207, adriamycin and OK-432.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishina, T; Watanabe, H; Fujiwara, T; Kobayashi, T; Maegawa, M; Nakao, M; Nakagawa, S

    1982-10-01

    A combination therapy consisting of daily intrarectal administration of 1,500 mg of FT-207 suppository, daily or every three day bladder instillation of 40 mg adriamycin for a total of 20 applications, and once per week intramuscular administration of 5 KE OK-432 was described. The therapy was performed in 30 cases of advanced bladder cancer. The effectiveness evaluated by Karnofsky's criteria was as follows: 8 cases of 0-0, 2 of 0-A, 1 of 0-B, 2 of 0-C, 7 of 1-A and 10 of 1-B, showing an effective rate of 57%. Local pain was observed in 20 cases (67%), pancytopenia in 1 (3%), hepatitis in 4 (13%), stomatitis in 5 (17%) and anorexia in 6 (20%). From this clinical trial, it is presumed that combination therapy administering FT-207 intrarectally, adriamycin intravesically and OK-432 intramuscularly might be used for the treatment of advanced bladder cancer provided sufficient care is taken of general side effects. PMID:6817468

  15. Intelligence and Its Role in Protecting Against Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Githens

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The art and science of gathering critical operational intelligence has been defined in many ways and is beyond our needs for this writing. Throughout the course of history, many wars have been fought depending heavily on various forms of intelligence. During our most recent actions in the War on Terror, intelligence analysis has played a critical role in both offensive and defensive operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. With such varying fact-finding techniques available and utilized in the defense of our country, it has become an arduous task to collect, decipher, package, prioritize, disseminate, and act upon everything that comes down the pipe.Intelligence is even more important in homeland defense and security. Our society is suspicious of intrusions on personal liberties. Mandated identity cards, restricted vehicle access and random searches of airline passengers are generally not well received. That makes it especially important to prevent terrorist attacks by interdicting the terrorists and their resources before they can reach their targets. The primary means of accomplishing this is through a combination of intelligence and law enforcement work.

  16. Protective role of Juniperus phoenicea and Cupressus sempervirens against CCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa Ahmed Ali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the role of Cupressus sempervirens (C. sempervirens and Juniperus phoenicea (J. phoenicea extracts as therapeutic effect against CCl4 with biochemical, histopathological evaluations.METHODS: A single intraperitoneal dose of 10% CCl4 in olive oil (1 mL/kg body weight was administered to a group of female Wister rats, sacrificed after 24 h (as the injury group. The other groups were given CCl4 as described above and divided as follows: two groups of ten rats each were orally administered either J. phoenicea extract or C. sempervirens extract three times per week for six weeks and a further group administered CCl4 was left for six weeks to allow self-recovery. At the end of experiment, the rats from all groups were sacrificed for sampling and for biochemical and histological analysis.RESULTS: Remarkable disturbances were observed in the levels of all tested parameters. On the other hand, rats injected with the toxic agent and left for one and a half month to self recover showed moderate improvements in the studied parameters while, treatment with both medicinal herbal extracts ameliorated the levels of the disturbed biochemical parameters. The group treated with J. phoenicea extract showed a remarkable improvement in comparison to the CCl4 treated group. The C. sempervirens group revealing an even more remarkable effect showing histopathological liver& kidney profiles close to those of the control group.CONCLUSION: C. sempervirens and J. phoenicea leaf extracts show a remarkable effect in enhancing liver and kidney functions and may thus be of therapeutic potential in treatment hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

  17. The Protection of Traditional Knowledge Associated with Genetic Resources: The Role of Databases and Registers

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Tagle, Yovana

    2011-01-01

    "The Protection of Traditional Knowledge Associated with Genetic Resources: The Role of Databases and Registers" ABSTRACT Yovana Reyes Tagle The misappropriation of TK has sparked a search for national and international laws to govern the use of indigenous peoples knowledge and protection against its commercial exploitation. There is a widespread perception that biopiracy or illegal access to genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge (TK) continues despite national and...

  18. The Essential Role of Psychosocial Risk and Protective Factors in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Research

    OpenAIRE

    Gerring, Joan P.; Wade, Shari

    2012-01-01

    This article builds upon Traumatic Brain Injury Common Data Elements (TBI CDE) version 1.0 and the pediatric CDE Initiative by emphasizing the essential role of psychosocial risk and protective factors in pediatric TBI research. The goals are to provide a compelling rationale for including psychosocial risk and protective factors in addition to socioeconomic status (SES), age, and sex in the study design and analyses of pediatric TBI research and to describe recommendations for core common da...

  19. The role of patent protection in (clean/green) technology transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Bronwyn H. Hall; Christian Helmers

    2010-01-01

    Global climate change mitigation will require the development and diffusion of a large number and variety of new technologies. How will patent protection affect this process? In this paper we first review the evidence on the role of patents for innovation and international technology transfer in general. The literature suggests that patent protection in a host country encourages technology transfer to that country but that its impact on innovation and development is much more ambiguous. We th...

  20. ROLE OF THE KAMCHATSKY REGION SPECIALLY PROTECTED ECOTERRITORY IN NATURAL ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Kachalova Oksana Viktorovna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - studying the possibility of inclusion Kamchatsky region specially protected ecoterritory into system of ecological carcass as a method of elements functioning optimization of ecological carcass of the territory. Methodology - description, systemization, generalization and cartographical methods were used as methods of research. Results - During the research it is clearly shown that chain of specially protected ecoterritory of Kamchatka should be the main stabilizing role in ecocarca...

  1. Postprivatization Corporate Governance: the Role of Ownership Structure and Investor Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Boubakri, Narjess; Cosset, Jean-Claude; Guedhami , Omrane

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the role of ownership structure and investor protection in postprivatization corporate governance. We find that the government relinquishes control over time, mainly to the benefit of local institutions and foreign investors. We also show that private ownership tends to concentrate over time. In addition to firm-level variables, investor protection, political and social stability explain the cross-firm differences in ownership concentration. We find that the positive effect of ...

  2. Role of saccharomyces cerevisiae Rif1 and Rif2 proteins in protection of telomeres

    OpenAIRE

    Anbalagan

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells distinguish their chromosome ends from accidental DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by packaging them into protective structures called telomeres that prevent DNA repair/recombination activities. In this work, we investigated the role of key telomeric proteins in protecting Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomeres from degradation. We show that the shelterin-like proteins Rif1, Rif2, and Rap1 inhibit nucleolytic processing at both de novo and native telomeres during G1 and G2 cell cy...

  3. Effect of eplerenone on serum TNF-α levels in adriamycin induced heart failure male rat models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effect of eplerenone on serum TNF-α levels in adriamycin induced heart failure male rat models. Methods: Forty male rat models of adriamycin-induced heart failure were prepared with weekly intraperitoneal injection of adriamycin (4/mg/kg) for six weeks. Twenty surviving models were randomly divided into two groups: (1)eplerenone-treated group, n=10, treated with garage of eplerenone 200mg/kg/d for 12 weeks (2) non-treated group n=10. All the surviving models (group (1) n=8, group (2) n=6) were sacrificed after 12 weeks with left ventricular hemodynamic function parameters tested and serum TNF-α levels measured. Ten male rats without adriamycin administration served as controls. Results: Left ventricular hemodynamic parameters in the non-treated group were significantly worse than those in controls (P<0.05). The parameters in the eplerenone treated group were significantly better than those in the non-treated group (P<0.05). The serum TNF-α levels in the non-treated group were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). TNF-α levels in the eplerenone group were significantly lower than those in the non-treated group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Eplerenone could reduce the serum TNF-α levels in the rat models of heart failure. (authors)

  4. Role and missions of the person competent in radiation protection (PCR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection is a hot topic and has been the matter of debates between the French national institute of research and safety (INRS) and the French institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN). It has been also the main topic of a joint IRSN/INRS workshop held in 2013 about the use of dosimetric data. This paper presents the joint position of both institutes with regards to the key-role, status and missions of the person competent in radiation protection (PCR) in the domain of risk prevention and access to dosimetric data. It presents also some possible measures of evolution of this occupation

  5. Selenium in Bone Health: Roles in Antioxidant Protection and Cell Proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Huawei Zeng; Cao, Jay J; Combs, Gerald F

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for humans and animals, and several findings suggest that dietary Se intake may be necessary for bone health. Such findings may relate to roles of Se in antioxidant protection, enhanced immune surveillance and modulation of cell proliferation. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which Se supports these cellular processes can lead to a better understanding of the role of this nutrient in normal bone metabolism. This article reviews the current knowledge...

  6. Adriamycin resistance, heat resistance and radiation response in Chinese hamster fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous investigators have demonstrated synergistic interaction between hyperthermia and radiation or Adriamycin (ADR), using cell lines that are sensitive to heat or ADR alone. The authors investigated the effect of heat, radiation or ADR on Chinese hamster fibroblasts (HA-1), their heat resistant variants and their ADR resistant variants. Heat for ADR resistance did not confer cross resistance to radiation. Cells resistant to heat did show cross resistance to ADR. While cells selected for ADR resistance were not cross resistant to heat, they did not exhibit drug potentiation by hyperthermia, characteristic of ADR sensitive cells. Cytofluorometric measurement showed decreased ADR uptake in both heat and ADR resistant cells. The possibility of cross resistance between heat and ADR should be considered when designing combined modality trials

  7. Candida albicans--adriamycin interactions: ultrastructural and spectrofluorometric study of whole yeasts and spheroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobichon, H; Bussy, V; Angiboust, J F; Manfait, M; Bouchet, P; Jardillier, J C

    1990-01-01

    The occurrence of candidiasis in cancer patients who undergo chemotherapy requires the interrelation of Candida albicans and the antimitotic drug Adriamycin (ADM) which is well known as an intercalating agent. The whole yeasts were not affected by 2 h of contact with the drug at 10(-4) M neither for their growth curve nor for their ultrastructure, despite the presence of free ADM on their surface. Spheroplasts displayed a delay in their growth and exhibited altered nucleoli with segregation of their granular and fibrillar components. The modified emission spectrum of ADM, determined by spectrofluorometry, corresponded neither to the free ADM nor to the DNA-bound drug, but it could be related to a metabolite of the drug. The cell wall appeared to be one of the main sites for ADM resistance of Candida albicans in vitro. PMID:2085691

  8. Evaluation of adriamycin nephropathy by an in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rat model for human minimal change nephropathy was obtained by the intravenous injection of adriamycin (ADR) at 5 mg/kg. By using an in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer operating at 700 MHz, the temporal changes in signal intensities of a nitroxide radical, 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL), in the kidneys of rats with ADR nephropathy were investigated. The decay rate of the EPR signal intensity obtained in the kidney is indicative of the renal reducing ability. It was found that the reducing ability in the kidney declined on the 7th day after ADR administration and recovered after the 14th day. Impairment of the reducing ability occurred before the appearance of continuous urinary protein. The in vitro EPR study showed that this impairment of in vivo renal reducing ability is related to impairment of the reducing ability in the mitochondria

  9. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, Laurie G.; Sharpe, Susan; Feeser, Cynthia Jo; Ondeck, Lynnette; Fekaris, Nina

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) serves a vital role in the delivery of health care to our nation's students within the healthcare system reshaped by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly known as…

  10. Stress among Black Women in a South African Township: The Protective Role of Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea

    2006-01-01

    Communities that have been exposed to high levels of stress and where religiosity is salient are ideal contexts in which to examine the role of religion in stress processes. The present study examines the protective function of religiosity among Black women in a South African township. The women (N = 172) were interviewed about sources of stress,…

  11. Stressful Events and Depression among Chinese Adolescents: The Mitigating Role of Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxin; Li, Hailei; Gong, Yanming; Ungar, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the role of salient external factors (family, peer and school caring relations) and internal factors (goals and aspirations, problem solving and self-efficacy, empathy, and self-awareness) in protecting adolescents experiencing interpersonal problems and academic pressure from depression. A total of 1,297 eighth and ninth grade…

  12. 77 FR 30274 - The Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    .../pkg/FR-2012-02-16/pdf/2012-806.pdf . I. Introduction 2. On December 21, 2011, the EPA released the... Mercury and Air Toxics Standards; Policy Statement on the Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Before Commissioners: Jon Wellinghoff, Chairman;...

  13. The Protective Role of Group Identity: Sectarian Antisocial Behavior and Adolescent Emotion Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrilees, Christine E.; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark; Cairns, Ed

    2014-01-01

    The protective role of strength of group identity was examined for youth in a context of protracted political conflict. Participants included 814 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.61, SD = 1.99 at Time 1) participating in a longitudinal study in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling, the results show that the effect of…

  14. Focal role of tolerability and reasonableness in the radiological protection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, T; Lochard, J; Vaillant, L

    2016-06-01

    The concepts of tolerability and reasonableness are at the core of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) system of radiological protection. Tolerability allows the definition of boundaries for implementing ICRP principles, while reasonableness contributes to decisions regarding adequate levels of protection, taking into account the prevailing circumstances. In the 1970s and 1980s, attempts to find theoretical foundations in risk comparisons for tolerability and cost-benefit analysis for reasonableness failed. In practice, the search for a rational basis for these concepts will never end. Making a wise decision will always remain a matter of judgement and will depend on the circumstances as well as the current knowledge and past experience. This paper discusses the constituents of tolerability and reasonableness at the heart of the radiological protection system. It also emphasises the increasing role of stakeholder engagement in the quest for tolerability and reasonableness since Publication 103. PMID:27012845

  15. The Role of the Virtuous Investigator in Protecting Human Research Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Christine; Fauci, Anthony S

    2016-01-01

    In his famous 1966 New England Journal of Medicine article, Henry Beecher concluded that a critical safeguard for protecting human participants, more reliable than informed consent, was the "presence of an intelligent, informed, conscientious, compassionate, responsible investigator." This article examines Beecher's appeal to reliance on the "virtuous" investigator in light of the critical role that investigators play in research ethics and the systems of research protections that have been developed since Beecher's writing. It addresses the extent to which research ethics rely on virtuous investigators; the meaning of virtuous, as distinct from compliance with the rules and regulations that guide ethical research; the particular virtues that it might be important for investigators to have; and the impact of the existing system of human subjects protections on the virtuous investigator. The virtuous investigator who is motivated to take ethical responsibilities seriously is an essential safeguard for the protection of human research participants and an important complement to the system of oversight protections. However, since the current human subjects protection system does not promote virtue or ethical resourcefulness by investigators, attention to enhancing a culture of professional responsibility might serve to forge a synergy between the protections afforded by the current oversight system and those provided by the virtuous investigator. PMID:27499489

  16. The use of I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy to evaluate the efficacy of olprinone hydrochloride in an experimental adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriamycin (ADR) has a strong antitumor effect on a number of malignant diseases, however, it can cause serious adverse effects, such as cardiac failure and fatal myocardial disorder. We evaluated the therapeutic effectiveness of olprinone hydrochloride (OH) and its ability to protect myocardium during ADR administration in a rabbit cardiomyopathy model. Twenty-seven 3-month-old male New Zealand white rabbits weighing 2.3-2.8 kg were placed in 4 groups: Group A (control group) received intravenous saline solution, 3 times a week for 8 weeks; Group B (cardiomyopathy model group) received intravenous injection of ADR 3 times per week for 8 weeks; Group C received daily ADR administration concurrently with OH intravenous administration for 8 weeks; and Group D received daily intravenous administration of OH which was begun 3 weeks after starting daily ADR administration. Electrocardiography, hematologic and biochemical examination, echocardiography, myocardial scintigraphy (123I-m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG)) and histopathological examination were used to evaluate each group and the results were compared. The incidence of myocardical disorder caused by ADR was lower in Group C, as compared with Group B. However, there were no differences between groups D and B. Our findings show that when OH administration began at the same time as ADR administration, it inhibited ADR-induced cardiomyopathy, and possibly prevented heart failure, thanks to its protective effect on the myocardium. (author)

  17. A lack of Adriamycin (ADR) resistance in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein (Pgp) following in vitro exposure to fractionated X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using x-ray pretreated CHO cells, the authors demonstrated differing accumulation of adriamycin and vincristine in cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein. Response was also varied by the addition of calcium channel antagonist verapamil. (author)

  18. 阿霉素改善三叉神经痛的疗效分析%Effect analysis of adriamycin on amelioration of trifacial neuralgia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊懋昌; 史有亮

    2002-01-01

    @@ Backgroud:Trifacial neuralgia is a refractory disease.Radio-frequency,operation or blocking with anhydrous alcohol in Western medicine get no satisfying effect. Objective:To investigate the effect of adriamycin on amelioration of trifacial neuralgia.

  19. The role of the ICRP in radiation protection - A view from industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the objective of this paper to discuss some aspects concerning the role and importance of the ICRP. Here, this is done with a background of practical radiation protection in industry. The author organises and controls radiation protection for a worldwide operating company, for which an efficiently realised radiation safety is as relevant for its workplaces as for its products and services. According to the author's subjective observation, the ICRP has a decreasing importance in operational radiation protection. However, there are growing demands on the ICRP as it is the only basis for internationally compatible regulations and standards. It is the merit of ICRP that an international comparison of legal protection systems and concepts should give a much more homogeneous picture than that for any other safety and protection issue. The most valuable asset of the ICRP is its credibility as a scientific authority solely committed to an effective protection of people. But its success also brings with it an obligation: there is an increasing need for more effective communication to non-experts. This and other expectations for the future are briefly discussed. (author)

  20. Adapting to Climate Change: Reconsidering the Role of Protected Areas and Protected Organisms in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graumlich, L. J.; Cross, M. S.; Hilty, J.; Berger, J.

    2007-12-01

    regional scales, taking into account the need for creating ecological connectivity between protected areas. We are particularly interested in defining opportunities in which traditional "working landscapes", such as large ranches in western North America, play a functional role in enhancing connectivity in the near-term as well as into the future. Based on our own work and that of others, we define the scientific roadmap for identifying and selecting corridors that are robust to climate change and other stressors and that are politically and socially viable as an adaptation strategy.

  1. About the role of human factors in the building of physical protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human factors have a special role in creating a strong, effective system of physical protection directed against theft or unauthorized movement of nuclear and other radioactive materials and against sabotage of nuclear facilities. To bring the physical protection of existing nuclear facilities up to present-day requirements, procedural measures are needed such as access controls and background checks on personnel with access. The state of security of nuclear facilities is completely dependent upon human actions, both those with criminal intentions and those standing in their path. Political, socio-economic, spiritual and other factors are outside of the operator's control. Threat assessment must rely on postulated scenarios for terrorist actions. The difficulty of both forecasting and defending against all possible threats is reflected in the fact that different countries take different approaches in protection of nuclear reactors. There is a need to obtain objective information on terrorist intentions and on the reality of threats. (author)

  2. Protective role of interleukin 6 in the lipopolysaccharide-galactosamine septic shock model.

    OpenAIRE

    Barton, B E; Jackson, J V

    1993-01-01

    C57BL/6J mice given low doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (100 ng per mouse) plus D-galactosamine (8 mg per mouse) die within 24 h following LPS administration. We used this septic shock model to confirm the role of tumor necrosis factor in mortality using a monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor to prevent lethality. Furthermore, we demonstrated that interleukin 6, rather than playing a lethal role, protected mice against death in this septic shock model. Antibody to interleukin 6 did ...

  3. The Evolving Role of the Individual Under EU Data Protection Law

    OpenAIRE

    Van Alsenoy, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    The role of individuals has shifted. In less than 30 years, individuals have transcended their role as passive “data subjects” to become actively involved in the creation, distribution and consumption of personal data. Unless an exemption or derogation applies, individuals are – at least in theory – subject to data protection law. This hypothesis was confirmed early on by the Lindqvist ruling and more recently in Ryneš. The aim of this paper is to analyse whether it is still possible to recon...

  4. The Protective Role of Vitamin D Signaling in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bikle, Daniel D., E-mail: daniel.bikle@ucsf.edu; Jiang, Yan [Department of Medicine and Endocrine, Research Unit and Department of Dermatology, VA Medical Center, University of California San Francisco, 4150 Clement St (111N), San Francisco, CA 94121 (United States)

    2013-11-05

    Although the epidemiologic evidence that adequate vitamin D nutrition protects against non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is limited, recent evidence that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is protective is compelling. The role of vitamin D signaling in limiting the proliferation while promoting the differentiation of keratinocytes, the major cell in the epidermis from which NMSC are derived, is well known. However, recent findings that mice lacking the VDR are predisposed to skin cancer has brought to the fore the question of how the VDR is protective. In this review we will look first at the role of vitamin D signaling in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. We will examine two pathways, β-catenin (CTNNB) and hedgehog (HH), that are regulated by vitamin D signaling and may contribute to the dysregulated proliferation and differentiation in the absence of VDR. We will then examine the failure of VDR deficient keratinocytes to repair DNA damaged by UVB. Finally we will examine the change in long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) expression in VDR null keratinocytes that in other cells is associated with malignant transformation, a potential newly appreciated mechanism by which vitamin D signaling is protective against NMSC.

  5. The Protective Role of Vitamin D Signaling in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the epidemiologic evidence that adequate vitamin D nutrition protects against non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is limited, recent evidence that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is protective is compelling. The role of vitamin D signaling in limiting the proliferation while promoting the differentiation of keratinocytes, the major cell in the epidermis from which NMSC are derived, is well known. However, recent findings that mice lacking the VDR are predisposed to skin cancer has brought to the fore the question of how the VDR is protective. In this review we will look first at the role of vitamin D signaling in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. We will examine two pathways, β-catenin (CTNNB) and hedgehog (HH), that are regulated by vitamin D signaling and may contribute to the dysregulated proliferation and differentiation in the absence of VDR. We will then examine the failure of VDR deficient keratinocytes to repair DNA damaged by UVB. Finally we will examine the change in long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) expression in VDR null keratinocytes that in other cells is associated with malignant transformation, a potential newly appreciated mechanism by which vitamin D signaling is protective against NMSC

  6. Protective role of Crocin against nicotine-induced damages on male mice liver

    OpenAIRE

    Cyrus Jalili; Hadis Tabatabaei; Seyran Kakaberiei; Shiva Roshankhah; Mohammad Reza Salahshoor

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nicotine is a major pharmacologically active substance in cigarette smoke. It is mainly metabolized in liver and causes devastating effects. Crocin is the chemical ingredient primarily responsible for the color of saffron. It has different pharmacological effects such as antioxidant and anticancer. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of crocin against nicotine on the liver of mice. Methods: Forty-eight mice were equally divided into 8 groups; control (norma...

  7. The Roles of Immune Memory and Aging in Protective Immunity and Endogenous Reactivation of Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Guzzetta, Giorgio; Kirschner, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Finding more effective vaccines against tuberculosis (TB) and improved preventive treatments against endogenous reactivation of latent TB is strategic to block transmission and reach the WHO goal of eliminating TB by 2050. Key related open questions in TB research include: i) what are the determinants of a strong memory response upon primary infection? ii) what is the role of cytokines towards protective memory response against a secondary infection? iii) what are the mechanisms responsible f...

  8. Overexpressing mouse model demonstrates the protective role of Muc5ac in the lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Ehre, Camille; Worthington, Erin N.; Liesman, Rachael M.; Grubb, Barbara R.; Barbier, Diane; O’Neal, Wanda K; Sallenave, Jean-Michel; Pickles, Raymond J.; Boucher, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    MUC5AC, a major gel-forming mucin expressed in the lungs, is secreted at increased rates in response to infectious agents, implying that mucins exert a protective role against inhaled pathogens. However, epidemiological and pathological studies suggest that excessive mucin secretion causes airways obstruction and inflammation. To determine whether increased MUC5AC secretion alone produces airway obstruction and/or inflammation, we generated a mouse model overexpressing Muc5ac mRNA ∼20-fold in...

  9. HSP70 overexpression may play a protective role in the mouse embryos stimulated by CUMS

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Pang, Hou-Qing; QIN, LANG; Jin, Song; Zeng, Xun; Bai, Yu; Li, Shang-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated whether heat shock protein HSP70 plays a protective role in the embryos of Kunming mice subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress. Methods Female mice were stimulated for 4 weeks with nine stressors and then divided into mild, moderate and severe stress groups. Superovulation was induced with a gonadotropin preparation (PMSG/HCG) and HSP70 expression in 2-cell embryos and day 4 embryos was detected by immunofluorescence (IF) and real-time polymerase chain reaction...

  10. Role of the engineer in protecting personnel and the environment in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    The engineer plays a key role in protecting both people and the environment from the adverse effects of radioactive materials. The nature of the hazards and some of the problems associated with plutonium and tritium operations are discussed and the solutions provided by sound engineering facility design are shown. Facility designs have been required for operations involving /sup 239/Pu, /sup 238/Pu and /sup 3/H, and the different properties of these isotopes require differing solutions to design problems.

  11. Role of the engineer in protecting personnel and the environment in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The engineer plays a key role in protecting both people and the environment from the adverse effects of radioactive materials. The nature of the hazards and some of the problems associated with plutonium and tritium operations are discussed and the solutions provided by sound engineering facility design are shown. Facility designs have been required for operations involving 239Pu, 238Pu and 3H, and the different properties of these isotopes require differing solutions to design problems

  12. The radiographer's role in child protection: Comparison of radiographers perceptions by use of focus groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research presented in this paper is taken from a larger study whose aims were to devise a holistic picture of how diagnostic radiographers approach child protection issues and to explore how radiographers and other professionals see the role of radiographers in the chain of evidence in relation to child protection as this applies to children who present at the Imaging Department with suspected non-accidental injuries (NAI). A focus group methodology was used with focus groups being conducted in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. The results indicated that both United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland radiographers agreed that they had a role in child protection; however, they identified a wide interpretation as to the extent of that role. Although radiographers in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland work within different legal systems there were themes identified which were common to both countries. Although radiographers referred to a duty to the child as to all patients, no radiographer specifically mentioned the system and child care law under which it is assumed they operate. This research revealed an area which would benefit from more detailed research using a wider audience. However, the study revealed a need for training in relation to possible NAI indicators and the correct procedure for documenting their suspicions and initiating an NAI referral

  13. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy with Ifosfamide, Cisplatin, Adriamycin and Mitomycin (IMAP for High risk Adult Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohagheghi Mohammad Ali

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available To define efficacy of pre-operative chemotherapy in down staging of advanced non-round cell soft tissue sarcomas. From Sep 2002 to Dec 2005, 70 patients were treated by Ifosfamid, MESNA, cisplatin, adriamycin, mitomycin and subsequent surgery. Postoperatively, patients received radiotherapy in cases of microscopically incomplete resection or local recurrence. The median age of the patients was 34 years and the median tumor size was 14 cm. According to AJCC classification 46 patients had stage 3 and 24 had stage 4 diseases. The most common subtypes were MFH and leiomyosarcoma. The most common sites of tumors were lower extremity and trunk. Toxicity grades three or higher consisted of nausea, Leucopenia and infection. About 50% of the patients received G-CSF. Response to chemotherapy was assessable in 63 patients; 9 patients achieved complete response and 16 showed partial response. Disease progressed in 8 and did not change in 37. The best response was seen with MFH, fibrosarcoma and synovial sarcoma. After chemotherapy seventy percent of patients underwent complete surgery. Disease relapsed in 41 patients and twenty two patients died of metastasis. Median survival of patients was 30 months. IMAP plus G-CSF is safe and effective as preoperative chemotherapy in some subtypes of sarcomas, although the metastasis problem has not been eliminated

  14. Evaluation of myocardiotoxicity with SPECT cardiac blood pool imaging for patients treated with adriamycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of myocardiotoxicity on adriamycin (ADM) with SPECT cardiac blood pool imaging was presented. SPECT was done to monitor left ventricular function in 49 patients with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and small cell carcinoma, they were treated with ADM of which the accumulation dose were over 300 mg/m2. The results showed that parameters of EF, PER and PFR before and after treatment with ADM were 57 +- 6%, 3.08 +- 0.63 EDV·s-1, 2.99 +- 0.23 EDV·s-1 and 50 +- 11%, 2.25 +- 0.66 EDV·s-1, 2.53 +- 0.35 EDV·s-1 respectively. The difference of these data are significant (P<0.05). The larger the accumulative dose of ADM, the more the parameters decrease, among them PFR is the most sensitive one. It was concluded that SPECT measurement of left ventricular function is a sensitive and useful method in monitoring ADM myocardiotoxicity

  15. Clinical usefulness of 123I-MIBG myocardial SPECT in patients with adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 29 patients who had been administrated adriamycin (ADR) for the treatment of hematopoietic malignancies, myocardial SPECT was performed 20 minutes and 4 hours after an intravenous dose of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG). Findings of the myocardial SPECT were compared with the total dose of ADR, ejection fraction (EF) and left ventricular wall motion, as assessed by ultrasound echocardiography. The mean total dose of ADR was 329.3 mg/m2 (range, 150-550 mg/m2). Although the cardiac function was normal, the washout rate (WR) of MIBG was high in 75% of the patients whose MIBG myocardial SPECT showed abnormality on ADR, suggesting the presence of adrenergic nerve disorder. The total dose of ADR was significantly correlated with WR of MIBG (p<0.001). Consequently WR of MIBG may be an index which reflects adrenergic nerve disorder in the myocardium earlier than EF. It was suggested that adrenergic nerve disorder was involved in pathogenesis of myocardial complications associated with ADR administration. In summary, MIBG myocardial SPECT could be a useful test for determining a dosage regimen of ADR therapy of individual patients. (author)

  16. CHEMOTHERAPY FOR ADVANCED NASOPHARYNGEAL CARCINOMA WITH METHOTREXATE, VINCRISTINE, CISPLATIN AND ADRIAMYCIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏勇; 张锦明; 夏云飞; 朱荣; 钱朝南; 莫浩元

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of M-VCA (methortrexate 30 mg/m2, vincristine 2 mg, cisplatin 70 mg/m2, adriamycin 30 mg/m2) combination chemotherapy for advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: Thirty-five patients with advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma, including 11 patients with untreated local advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma and 24 patients with local-regional recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma, received the chemotherapy of M-VCA. The cycle was repeated on day 22 for two cycles. All patients completed the chemotherapy courses. Results: The overall response rate was 75%, with untreated local advanced nasopharyngeal carcinomas 11/11(100%), local-regional recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinomas 12/18(67%), lung metastases 8/9(89%), bone metastases 5/9(56%), and liver metastases 1/2(50%). The main side effects included mild to moderate degree alopecia, nausea/vomiting, and neutropenia. Conclusion: M-VCA is well tolerated and has good efficacy for advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma and is worth investigating further.

  17. Fetal Protection : The Roles of Social Learning and Innate Food Aversions in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placek, Caitlyn D; Hagen, Edward H

    2015-09-01

    Pregnancy involves puzzling aversions to nutritious foods. Although studies generally support the hypotheses that such aversions are evolved mechanisms to protect the fetus from toxins and/or pathogens, other factors, such as resource scarcity and psychological distress, have not been investigated as often. In addition, many studies have focused on populations with high-quality diets and low infectious disease burden, conditions that diverge from the putative evolutionary environment favoring fetal protection mechanisms. This study tests the fetal protection, resource scarcity, and psychological distress hypotheses of food aversions in a resource-constrained population with high infectious disease burden. The role of culture is also explored. In the first of two studies in Tamil Nadu, India, we investigated cultural explanations of pregnancy diet among non-pregnant women (N = 54). In the second study, we conducted structured interviews with pregnant women (N = 94) to determine their cravings and aversions, resource scarcity, indices of pathogen exposure, immune activation, psychological distress, and emic causes of aversions. Study 1 found that fruits were the most commonly reported food that pregnant women should avoid because of their harmful effects on infants. Study 2 found modest support for the fetal protection hypothesis for food aversions. It also found that pregnant women most commonly avoided fruits as well as "black" and "hot" foods. Aversions were primarily acquired through learning and focused on protecting the infant from harm. Our findings provide modest support for the fetal protection hypothesis and surprisingly strong support for the influence of cultural norms and learning on dietary aversions in pregnancy. PMID:26286435

  18. The role of the protected area concept in protecting the world’s largest natural reserve: Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Bastmeijer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Should the entire Antarctic continent and the surrounding islands be recognised as a ‘protected area’ or as a continent where certain areas, just like anywhere else, may be designated as protected areas? To find an answer to this question, this paper first discusses the most important agreements and declarations on environmental protection in Antarctica. Next, these instruments are compared with the components of IUCN’s ‘protected area’ definition (2008. In the light of this overall protection of Antarctica, the instrument of designating areas as Antarctic Specially Protected Areas (ASPAs is discussed on the basis of a quick scan of 42 management plans for existing ASPAs. It is concluded that Antarctica could indeed be considered as a protected area and that the ASPA instrument is so shaped to provide specific areas with ‘extra protection’ by regulating human activities in those areas with a high level of detail. However, the continuous increase in human activities in Antarctica raises concerns with respect to the scope and completeness of the existing legal instruments. These concerns regarding the overall protection of Antarctica could become an argument for applying the ASPA instrument in respect of larger areas to ensure the comprehensive protection of at least certain parts of Antarctica. This would make the ASPA system more comparable with protected area systems in other parts of the world; however, strengthening the overall protection of Antarctica – parallel to the further development of the ‘specially’ protected area system - would be more consistent with Antarctica’s protected status as has developed since the Antarctic Treaty was signed 50 years ago.

  19. Protective role of hydrogen sulfide against noise-induced cochlear damage: a chronic intracochlear infusion model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A reduction in cochlear blood flow plays an essential role in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL. The timely regulation of cochlear perfusion determines the progression and prognosis of NIHL. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2S has attracted increasing interest as a vasodilator in cardiovascular systems. This study identified the role of H(2S in cochlear blood flow regulation and noise protection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The gene and protein expression of the H(2S synthetase cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE in the rat cochlea was examined using immunofluorescence and real-time PCR. Cochlear CSE mRNA levels varied according to the duration of noise exposure. A chronic intracochlear infusion model was built and artificial perilymph (AP, NaHS or DL-propargylglycine (PPG were locally administered. Local sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS significantly increased cochlear perfusion post-noise exposure. Cochlear morphological damage and hearing loss were alleviated in the NaHS group as measured by conventional auditory brainstem response (ABR, cochlear scanning electron microscope (SEM and outer hair cell (OHC count. The highest percentage of OHC loss occurred in the PPG group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that H(2S plays an important role in the regulation of cochlear blood flow and the protection against noise. Further studies may identify a new preventive and therapeutic perspective on NIHL and other blood supply-related inner ear diseases.

  20. Overexpressing mouse model demonstrates the protective role of Muc5ac in the lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehre, Camille; Worthington, Erin N; Liesman, Rachael M; Grubb, Barbara R; Barbier, Diane; O'Neal, Wanda K; Sallenave, Jean-Michel; Pickles, Raymond J; Boucher, Richard C

    2012-10-01

    MUC5AC, a major gel-forming mucin expressed in the lungs, is secreted at increased rates in response to infectious agents, implying that mucins exert a protective role against inhaled pathogens. However, epidemiological and pathological studies suggest that excessive mucin secretion causes airways obstruction and inflammation. To determine whether increased MUC5AC secretion alone produces airway obstruction and/or inflammation, we generated a mouse model overexpressing Muc5ac mRNA ~20-fold in the lungs, using the rCCSP promoter. The Muc5ac cDNA was cloned from mouse lungs and tagged internally with GFP. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis demonstrated an approximate 18-fold increase in Muc5ac protein, which formed high-molecular-weight polymers. Histopathological studies and cell counts revealed no airway mucus obstruction or inflammation in the lungs of Muc5ac-transgenic (Muc5ac-Tg) mice. Mucus clearance was preserved, implying that the excess Muc5ac secretion produced an "expanded" rather than more concentrated mucus layer, a prediction confirmed by electron microscopy. To test whether the larger mucus barrier conferred increased protection against pathogens, Muc5ac-Tg animals were challenged with PR8/H1N1 influenza viruses and showed significant decreases in infection and neutrophilic responses. Plaque assay experiments demonstrated that Muc5ac-Tg BALF and purified Muc5ac reduced infection, likely via binding to α2,3-linked sialic acids, consistent with influenza protection in vivo. In conclusion, the normal mucus transport and absence of a pulmonary phenotype in Muc5ac-Tg mice suggests that mucin hypersecretion alone is not sufficient to trigger luminal mucus plugging or airways inflammation/goblet cell hyperplasia. In contrast, increased Muc5ac secretion appears to exhibit a protective role against influenza infection. PMID:23012413

  1. The role of the Romanian Society for Radiological Protection and mass media in public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    accepted by all participants, developed and passed on to future generations. Due to the variety of applications of radioactivity and ionizing radiation, the actors involved in radiation protection culture include professionals and non-professional members of society: politicians, entrepreneurs, NGOs, associations and societies, groups and parties, professional organizations, patients, media, schools and universities and the general public, as well. The main actors in disseminating the culture of radiation protection are professionals in this field and mass media. In effecting their profession they must act as communicators of scientific information, improving the public perception about the risks and benefits of radiation and radioactivity. The Romanian Society of Radiation Protection, the professional organization of practitioners in this area has among its main objectives to promote a culture of radiation protection and improvement of public perception through communication and involvement. Despite substantial efforts to disseminate information on radiation protection, sociological research shows that the average Romanian citizen has no adequate knowledge to make its own decisions. In this direction, radiation protection professionals should address effective communication methods such as 'exchange of information and opinions' and the involvement of interested groups in decision making. Mass media plays an important role in communicating with the public. The recent accident in Japan had a massive coverage in all media. On the other hand, the media must obtain the economic efficiency of published or broadcast news based on audience, according to the principle 'a bad news story is a profitable'. In addition journalists are poorly informed about the topics of radiation protection and have limited editorial space available to educate the public. (authors)

  2. Protective role of grape seed extract against radiation induced oxidative stress in rats: Role of endogenous antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective role of grape seed extract against γ-irradiation induced oxidative stress in hepatic tissue. Animals were divided into four groups; Control group, Grape seed extract (GSE) group: animals were administered GSE for 14 consecutive days (100 mg/kg). Irradiated (IRR) group: rats were received dist. water for 7 days and then rats were irradiated with a single dose of 6 Gy and dist. water was maintained for 7 additional days. GSE-IRR group: rats were treated with GSE for 7 consecutive days, one hour later after the last dose of GSE, rats were irradiated with a single dose of 6 Gy and GSE was maintained for 7 additional days. Administration of GSE for 14 consecutive days resulted in a significant increase in the activities of both superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), in hepatic tissues which were reduced by radiation treatment. Also, GSE resulted in a significant decrease in total nitrate/nitrite (NO(x)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in hepatic tissues and a significant decrease in Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities and NO(x) level compared to irradiated group. In conclusion, data obtained from this study indicate that GSE could increase the endogenous antioxidant defense mechanism in rat and thereby protect the animals from radiation-induced hepatotoxicity

  3. On IAEA's role in radiation protection, with focus on Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety functions of IAEA are to establish standards of radiation safety, to provide for the application of international standards and to facilitate and service international conventions and other undertakings. The IAEA Safety Standards are: . Not binding on Member States but may be adopted by them. . Binding for IAEA.s own activities. . Binding on States in relations to operations assisted by the IAEA. . Binding on States wishing to enter into project agreements with IAEA. The Categories of the Standards are:- 8 - Safety Fundamentals: Set out principles for protecting people and the environment - Safety Requirements: Establish requirements: what has to be done (.shalls.) to apply these principles in meeting objectives - Safety Guides: Set out recommended ways (.shoulds.) of meeting the requirements IAEA Process Flow for the Development of IAEA The Overall Priorities of IAEA are to:- . Setting high quality safety standards & promoting their wider use and application; . Maintain current level of use of IAEA peer reviews and advisory services by Member States; . Encourage wide adherence to the international instruments such as the Code of Conduct on safety and security of radioactive sources and the Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and safety of radioactive waste management; . Develop capabilities for capacity building in safety, including creation of reference training centres for education in radiation safety. Challenges for IAEA include:- Future expections Uranium industry Protection of the environment Increased use of radioactive sources Medical application Trans-boundary movement of radioactive material Scientific challenges in radiation protection Needs in radiation protection bases Role of IAEA on radiation protection bases

  4. International harmonization of radiation protection and safety standards. The role of the United Nations system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    extensive 928-page report, and in 1994 its supplementary 272-page report, to the UNGA. A new UNSCEAR report is expected by the end of 2000. On the other hand, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which in 1990 had revised its standing recommendations, has now issued a number of documents to apply these recommendations in specific situations. In 1991 six organizations - FAO, ILO, NEA/OECD, PAHO, WHO, and IAEA - created a Joint Secretariat coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Organization (IAEA) with the purpose of establishing the International Basic Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and the Safety of Radiation Sources (the so-called BSS). This was the peak of decades of work and marked an unprecedented international co-operation that involved hundreds of experts from the Member States of the sponsoring organizations establishing the BSS. Within this framework, the objective of this paper is to present the significant role that the United Nations system of international organizations could play to achieve a genuine international consensus on radiation protection and safety standards. Not surprisingly, the paper will concentrate on the role and functions of the IAEA. The IAEA, is the only organization in the UN family with specific statutory functions, duties and responsibilities in the establishing international standards for radiation protection and safety. By analysing the functions and roles of UNSCEAR and the IAEA, it is clear how the UN policy on this matter has been built up and where it now stands. It should be emphasized that both UNSCEAR and the IAEA are not free 'think tanks'. They are governmental organizations. Their policies therefore reflect those of their constituencies, namely their Member States. Thus, the paper summarizes the status of UN policies on the health effects of radiation exposure, particularly on the controversial issue of the effects of low level radiation, as well as on the approach for

  5. Challenges to the system of radiation protectionrole and activities of the International Radiation Protection Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vision of IRPA as the International Radiation Protection Association of individual radiation protection practitioners organized through national or regional societies is to be recognized by its members, stakeholders and the public as the international voice of the radiation protection profession in the enhancement of radiation protection culture and practice worldwide. It is a key challenge of IRPA to make this vision a reality.The global acceptance of radiation protection principles, in particular in the medical area, is a real challenge. Ensuring that medical procedures are justified and optimized is vital, not least for CT and hybrid imaging examinations and in pediatric medicine. There is a strong responsibility of medical physicists and radiation protection experts to ensure safe and secure application of ionizing radiation. A Technical Agreement with the IOMP (International Organization for Medical Physics) provides the way for a joint approach to enhance radiation safety in the medical field. IRPA started an initiative on Ethics in Radiation Protection and currently IRPA is working closely with ICRP on the development of guidance on Ethical Dimensions of the Radiation Protection System.To encourage and support the Associate Societies in the development of effective means of enhancing public understanding of radiation risk through the sharing of good practice, ideas and resource material, IRPA has established a Task Group on Public Understanding of Radiation Risk. The ultimate goal is to develop and promote a library of good practice activities on public understanding of radiation risk through the sharing of experience across the Associate Societies

  6. The role of crosslinkers in epoxy-amine crosslinked silicon sol-gel barrier protection coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for chromate replacements in corrosion prevention materials has identified the use of hybrid sol-gel coatings as one, very promising approach. Appropriately functionalized hybrid sol-gel materials can be crosslinked to enhance their chemical durability and mechanical strength. In this work, we evaluate three crosslinkers used in a tetramethoxysilane-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane binary sol-gel system in order to identify the role of the crosslinkers in corrosion protection. The crosslinkers examined were ethylenediamine, N-aminethylepiperazine, and diethylenetriamine. The sol-gel coatings were examined by contact angle, atomic force microscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Circuit modeling of the EIS results yielded valuable insights into the significant differences between the durabilities of the variously crosslinked coatings. Crosslinker hydrophobicity was identified as not playing a significant role whereas the number of reactive sites per crosslinker and the resulting morphology of the material may be an important parameter

  7. Fundamental roles of reactive oxygen species and protective mechanisms in the female reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okada Futoshi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Controlled oxidation, such as disulfide bond formation in sperm nuclei and during ovulation, plays a fundamental role in mammalian reproduction. Excess oxidation, however, causes oxidative stress, resulting in the dysfunction of the reproductive process. Antioxidation reactions that reduce the levels of reactive oxygen species are of prime importance in reproductive systems in maintaining the quality of gametes and support reproduction. While anti-oxidative enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, play a central role in eliminating oxidative stress, reduction-oxidation (redox systems, comprised of mainly glutathione and thioredoxin, function to reduce the levels of oxidized molecules. Aldo-keto reductase, using NADPH as an electron donor, detoxifies carbonyl compounds resulting from the oxidation of lipids and proteins. Thus, many antioxidative and redox enzyme genes are expressed and aggressively protect gametes and embryos in reproductive systems.

  8. Protective Role Of Fresh Pomegranate Against Oxidative Damage In Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty four male albino rats, body weight 100-130 g, were used to evaluate the protective role of fresh pomegranate fruit intake for 30 days on the damage induced by single dose of 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups: group (1): control, group (2): irradiated with 6 Gy, group (3): pomegranate for 30 days and group (4): pomegranate for 30 days followed by 6 Gy whole body irradiation. At the end of the experiment, all rats were sacrificed after 12 hours fasting then sera were separated for the determination of sugar, total antioxidant, lipid profile and liver and kidney functions. Results showed that gamma radiation caused significant decline (P<0.05) in serum total antioxidant, total protein, albumin, HDL-C and blood glucose with significant elevation (P<0.05) in other hepato-renal markers in addition to serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C. These changes were significantly attenuated in irradiated animals pre-treated with whole fresh pomegranate fruit leading to the conclusion that pre-intake of pomegranate fruit had a radio- protective effect. This protection of this whole fruit may be due to the increased total antioxidant level leading to free radical scavenging

  9. Roles of NAD in Protection of Axon against Degeneration via SIRT1 Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Guo, Wei-Hua; Qi, Xiao-Xia; Li, Gui-Bao; Hu, Yan-Lai; Wu, Qi; Ding, Zhao-Xi; Li, Hong-Yu; Hao, Jing; Sun, Jin-Hao

    2016-04-30

    Axonal degeneration is a common pathological change of neurogenical disease which often arises before the neuron death. But it had not found any effective method to protect axon from degeneration. In this study we intended to confirm the protective effect of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), investigate the optimal administration dosage and time of NAD, and identify the relationship between silence signal regulating factor 1 (SIRT1) and axonal degeneration. An axonal degeneration model was established using dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons injured by vincristine to observe the protective effects of NAD to the injured axons. In addition, the potential contribution of the SIRT1 in axonal degeneration was also investigated. Through the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, immunochemistry staining, axons counting and length measuring, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, we demonstrated that NAD played an important role in preventing axonal degeneration. Further study revealed that the expression of SIRT1 and phosphorylated Akt1 (p-Akt1) was up-regulated when NAD was added into the culturing medium. Taking together, our results demonstrated that NAD might delay the axonal degeneration through SIRT1/Akt1 pathways. PMID:27080463

  10. Protective immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi provided by oral immunization with Phytomonas serpens: role of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinge-Filho, P; Peron, J P S; de Moura, T R; Menolli, R A; Graça, V K; Estevão, D; Tadokoro, C E; Jankevicius, J V; Rizzo, L V

    2005-01-31

    We have previously demonstrated that Phytomonas serpens, a tomato parasite, shares antigens with Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoa that causes Chagas' disease. These antigens are recognized by human sera and induce protective immunity in Balb/c mice. In the present study, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) knockout (KO) mice and C57BL/6 mice treated with the nitric oxide inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG, 50 mg kg(-1)) infected with T. cruzi, were used to demonstrate the role of nitric oxide (NO) to host protection against T. cruzi infection achieved by oral immunization with live P. serpens. A reduction in parasitaemia and an increase in survival were observed in C57BL/6 infected mice and previously immunized with P. serpens, when compared to non-immunized mice. iNOS (KO) mice immunized and C57BL/6 immunized and treated with AG presented parasitaemia and mortality rates comparable to those of infected and non-immunized mice. By itself, immunization with P. serpens did not induce inflammation in the myocardium, but C57BL/6 mice so immunized showed fewer amastigotes nests in the heart following an acute T. cruzi infection than those in non-immunized mice. These results suggest that protective immunity against T. cruzi infection induced by immunization with P. serpens is dependent upon enhanced NO production during the acute phase of T. cruzi infection. PMID:15585334

  11. The role of families and care givers as risk and protective factors in preventing youth violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, L E; Vera, E M; Simon, T R; Ikeda, R M

    2000-03-01

    This paper reviews research which discusses the risk and protective functions that families and other caregivers provide in influencing the development of aggressive behavior in youth. Currently, there is an emphasis on providing violence prevention programs in the school environment, typically with little parental or caregiver involvement. By enhancing the role of families and caregivers in youth violence prevention programs, we assert that an unique opportunity exists to both address specific risk factors for violence while enhancing the protective features of the family. Relatedly, the risk literature on youth violence indicates that the most influential risk factors (i.e., the family, community, and peers) have their principle impact on youth aggression outside the school. We suggest a shift in the focus of violence prevention programming that is more inclusive of families as both a risk and protective agent. In support of this position, relevant theory and reviews of exemplary family-involved programs are offered. Challenges to involving youth caregivers are identified and recommendations for overcoming those challenges suggested. Last, recommendations for future research and public policy in the prevention of youth violence are offered. PMID:11228767

  12. Maternal transfer and protective role of the alternative complement components in zebrafish Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiping; Zhang, Shicui; Tong, Zhou; Li, Lei; Wang, Guangfeng

    2009-01-01

    Embryos of most fish develop externally and are exposed to an aquatic environment full of potential pathogens, whereas they have little or only limited ability to mount an efficient and protective response. How fish embryos survive pathogenic attacks remains poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that the maternal immunization of female zebrafish with formalin-killed Aeromonas hydrophila causes a significant increase in C3 and Bf contents in the mother, a corresponding rise in the offspring, and induces a remarkable increase in the hemolytic activities in both the mother and offspring. In addition, the embryos derived from the immunized mother are significantly more tolerant to A. hydrophila challenge than those from the unimmunized fish, and blocking C3 and Bf activities by injection of the antibodies against C3 and Bf into the embryos render them more susceptible to A. hydrophila. These results clearly show that the protection of zebrafish embryos against A. hydrophila can be achieved by the maternally-transferred immunity of the complement system operating via the alternative pathway. This appears to be the first report providing in vivo evidences for the protective role of the alternative complement components in the early embryos of zebrafish, paving the way for insights into the in vivo function of other maternally-transferred factors in fish. PMID:19223977

  13. Diallyl sulfide protects against N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced liver tumorigenesis: Role of aldose reductase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Safinaz S Ibrahim; Noha N Nassar

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the protective effect of diallyl sulfide (DAS) against N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced liver carcinogenesis. METHODS: Male Wistar rats received either NDEA or NDEA together with DAS as protection. Liver energy metabolism was assessed in terms of lactate, pyruvate, lactate/pyruvate, ATP levels, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activities. In addition, membrane disintegration of the liver cells was evaluated by measuring lipid-peroxidation products, measured as malondialdehyde (MDA); nitric oxide (NO) levels; glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Uver DNA level, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome c oxidase activities were used as DNA fragmentation indices. Aldose reductase (AR) activity was measured as an index for cancer cells resistant to chemotherapy and histopathological examination was performed on liver sections from different groups. RESULTS: NDEA significantly disturbed liver functions and most of the aforementioned indices. Treatment with DAS significantly restored liver functions and hepatocellular integrity; improved parameters of energy metabolism and suppressed free-radical generation. CONCLUSION: We provide evidence that DAS exerts a protective role on liver functions and tissue integrity in face of enhanced tumorigenesis caused by NDEA, as well as improving cancer-cell sensitivity to chemotherapy. This is mediated through combating oxidative stress of free radicals, improving the energy metabolic state of the cell, and enhancing the activity of G6Pase, GST and AR enzymes.

  14. Caspase 6 has a protective role in SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Marion C; Mitchem, Mollie R; König, Hans-Georg; Prehn, Jochen H M

    2016-06-01

    In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), it has been suggested that the process of neurodegeneration starts at the neuromuscular junction and is propagated back along axons towards motor neurons. Caspase-dependent pathways are well established as a cause of motor neuron death, and recent work in other disease models indicated a role for caspase 6 in axonal degeneration. Therefore we hypothesised that caspase 6 may be involved in motor neuron death in ALS. To investigate the role of caspase 6 in ALS we profiled protein levels of caspase-6 throughout disease progression in the ALS mouse model SOD1(G93A); this did not reveal differences in caspase 6 levels during disease. To investigate the role of caspase 6 further we generated a colony with SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice lacking caspase 6. Analysis of the transgenic SOD1(G93A); Casp6(-/-) revealed an exacerbated phenotype with motor dysfunction occurring earlier and a significantly shortened lifespan when compared to transgenic SOD1(G93A); Casp6(+/+) mice. Immunofluorescence analysis of the neuromuscular junction revealed no obvious difference between caspase 6(+/+) and caspase 6(-/-) in non-transgenic mice, while the SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice showed severe degeneration compared to non-transgenic mice in both genotypes. Our data indicate that caspase-6 does not exacerbate ALS pathogenesis, but may have a protective role. PMID:26976329

  15. The Role of the Antiviral APOBEC3 Gene Family in Protecting Chimpanzees against Lentiviruses from Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Lucie; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Sudmant, Peter H.; Wu, Lily I.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Emerman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cross-species transmissions of viruses from animals to humans are at the origin of major human pathogenic viruses. While the role of ecological and epidemiological factors in the emergence of new pathogens is well documented, the importance of host factors is often unknown. Chimpanzees are the closest relatives of humans and the animal reservoir at the origin of the human AIDS pandemic. However, despite being regularly exposed to monkey lentiviruses through hunting, chimpanzees are naturally infected by only a single simian immunodeficiency virus, SIVcpz. Here, we asked why chimpanzees appear to be protected against the successful emergence of other SIVs. In particular, we investigated the role of the chimpanzee APOBEC3 genes in providing a barrier to infection by most monkey lentiviruses. We found that most SIV Vifs, including Vif from SIVwrc infecting western-red colobus, the chimpanzee’s main monkey prey in West Africa, could not antagonize chimpanzee APOBEC3G. Moreover, chimpanzee APOBEC3D, as well as APOBEC3F and APOBEC3H, provided additional protection against SIV Vif antagonism. Consequently, lentiviral replication in primary chimpanzee CD4+ T cells was dependent on the presence of a lentiviral vif gene that could antagonize chimpanzee APOBEC3s. Finally, by identifying and functionally characterizing several APOBEC3 gene polymorphisms in both common chimpanzees and bonobos, we found that these ape populations encode APOBEC3 proteins that are uniformly resistant to antagonism by monkey lentiviruses. PMID:26394054

  16. The potential protective role of Physalis peruviana L. fruit in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dkhil, Mohamed A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Diab, Marwa M S; Othman, Mohamed S; Aref, Ahmed M; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential protective role of Physalis peruviana L. (family Solanaceae) against cadmium-induced hepatorenal toxicity in Wistar rats. Herein, cadmium chloride (CdCl2) (6.5 mg/kg bwt/day) was intraperitoneally injected for 5 days, and methanolic extract of physalis (MEPh) was pre-administered to a group of Cd-treated rats by an oral administration at a daily dose of 200 mg/kg bwt for 5 days. The findings revealed that CdCl2 injection induced significant decreases in kidney weight and kidney index. Cadmium intoxication increased the activities of liver enzymes and the bilirubin level, in addition to the levels of uric acid, urea and creatinine were increased in the serum. The pre-administration of MEPh alleviated hepatorenal toxicity in Cd-treated rats. Physalis was noted to play a good hepatorenal protective role, reducing lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and enhancing enzymatic activities and non-enzymatic antioxidant molecule, glutathione, in hepatic and renal tissues of Cd-treated rats. Moreover, physalis treatment was able to reverse the histopathological changes in liver and kidney tissues and also increased the expression of Bcl-2 protein in liver and kidney of rats. Overall, the results showed that MEPh can induce antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects and also exerts beneficial effects for the treatment of Cd-induced hepatorenal toxicity. PMID:25265456

  17. The Protective Role of Zinc Sulphate on Ethanol -Induced Liver and Kidney Damages in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Around the world more and more people suffer from alcoholism. Addiction problems, alcoholism and excessive use of drugs both medical and nonmedical, are major causes of liver and kidney damage in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate on the protective role of zinc sulphate on liver and kidney in rats with acute alcoholism. Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I; control group, group 2; given only Zinc Sulphate (100 mg/kg/day for 3days), group 3; rats given absolute ethanol (1 ml of absolute ethanol administrated by gavage technique to each rat), group 4 given Zinc sulphate prior to the administration of absolute ethanol. The results of this study revealed that acute ethanol exposure caused degenerative morphological changes in the liver and kidney. Significant difference were found in the levels of serum, liver, kidney super oxide dismutase(SOD), catalase (CAT), nitric oxide(NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the ethanol group compared to the control group. Moreover ,serum urea, creatnine, uric acid, alkaline phoshpatase and transaminases activities (GOTand GPT) were increased in the ethanol group compared to the control group. On the other hand,administration of zinc sulphate in the ethanol group caused a significant decrease in the degenerative changes, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes, and nitric oxide in serum, liver, and kidney. It can be concluded that zinc Sulphate has a protective role on the ethanol induced liver and kidney injury. In addition ,nitric oxide is involved in the mechanism of acute alcohol intoxication. (author)

  18. Evaluation of the protective and curative role of curcumin and venoruton against biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curcumin (diferuloyl methane) and venoruton [O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides] are powerful antioxidants and are important in protecting the cells from damage. The present study aims to evaluate the role of curcumin alone and curcumin with venoruton on radiation-induced changes in male rats exposed to a dose of 5 Gy gamma irradiation. Experimental analyses were performed 1, 7 and 14 days post-irradiation in all animal groups. Exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in decrease in glutathione content and SOD, G6PD and CPK activities and increase in lactate dehydrogenase and GOT activities and creatinine level. The results obtained showed that treatment of rats with olive oil pre and post-irradiation has significantly minimized radiation-induced changes. Curcumin dissolved in olive oil pre and post-irradiation significantly improved the radiation-induced changes while administration of venoruton with curcumin in olive oil provided a better amelioration. It could be concluded that, curcumin in olive oil plus venoruton showed an obvious protective and curative role against the hazards of gamma radiation in male rats

  19. Protective Roles of Brassinolide on Rice Seedlings under High Temperature Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yun-ying; ZHAO Hua

    2008-01-01

    Two indica rice(Oryza sativa L.)materials,Xieqingzao B(sensitive to heat stress)and 082(tolerant to heat stress),were used to study the role of brassinolide(BR)in protection of rice seedlings from heat stress.Young seedlings were subjected to high temperature(38℃/30℃)and sprayed with 0.005 mg/L of BR.Analysis was conducted on the contents of chlorophyll,protein and malondialdehyde(MDA),the leakage of electrolyte,the activities of peroxidase(POD)and superoxide dismutase(SOD)and their isozymes expression levels in leaves.Under the high temperature treatment,application of BR significantly increased the contents of chlorophyll and protein,and the activities of POD and SOD,and reduced the content of MDA and the leakage of electrolyte in the leaves of the heat-sensitive material Xieqingzao B,whereas BR had less effect on those of the heal-tolerant material 082 relatively.The BR treatment enhanced the expression of POD isozymes in the Ieaves of both materials.Under the high temperature stress and BR treatment.the expression of four SOD isozymes reduced in 082,but the expression of two SOD isozymes increased in Xieqingzao B.This suggests that BR plays an important role in protection of rice seedlings from heat stress by enhancing the activities or expression level of protective enzymes in the leaves.The materials with various heat-tolerance might differ in the mechanism of response to heat stress with BR application.

  20. About role of human factors in the building of physical protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A special role in establishing the physical protection system (at all levels) pertains to the human factor. It is necessary to specify a place of this matter within the overall security system. The nuclear energy sector security (as well as of other national industry sectors) is based on the people: developers, personnel, different level management responsible for decision-making process, the representative of regulatory, controlling and legal structures, and therefore, in general, the rote of the human factor can be considered to be significant. The operative situation while being formed during the physical protection ensuring, first of all, is affected by the following factors: political, social and economic, spiritual wealth and cultural factors and etc. In addition, a new problem suddenly appeared related to the safety and security of the energy complex, that is: uncontrolled processes such as: non-payment, debts on salary for several month period; all this factors effect negatively the level of safety and security. In this clear, that in such a difficult situation the role of an individual is increasing. Ignorance of the above factors or their non-objective (incomplete, partial ignorance) accounting (consideration) finally can lead to the negative and irremediable consequences. Thus, the content and the extent of the security of a society, in general, and every person, in particular, directly depend on the functioning of all society's structure, and, first of all, on the economic, social, political and legal structures. As a result, the physical protection system acquires a complex or comprehensive structure and I shall describe its specifics in the paper. (author)

  1. The effect of adriamycin on dentinogenesis and 3H-thymidine incorporation into the enamel organ of the rat incisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of adriamycin (5 mg/kg) on 3H-thymidine incorporation and on dentin formation was studied in rat incisors. Male Sprague Dawley rats received an intravenous injection of adriamycin. Some of these also received a subcutaneous injection of 3H-thymidine at a dose of 2 mCi/kg one day later. One group of control animals received an intravenous injection of a volume of physiological saline equal to that of the adriamycin dose. Another group received physiological saline, and one hour later was given an additional injection of 3H-thymidine at a similar dose as above. All the animals were killed 1 h, 1 d, 4 d, 8 d, 16 d, 28 d, and 32 d after 3H-thymidine treatment. Light microscopy revealed irregular dentin deposits between the mantle and circumpulpal layer of the labial dentin at 16 d. Within these deposits were trapped cells. The latter, through radioautographic labelling, appeared to be cells from the odontoblast layer. Also, the labelling pattern of the enamel organ in both the control and experimental groups indicated that the eruption rate of the tooth was not affected. Serial sectioning and examination of the lingual portion of the incisors at 28 d revealed a lack of dentin formation and a failure in the closure of the apical foramen. Electron microscopic observations showed an irregular and random arrangement of collagen fibers within the deposits of irregular dentin, and the presence of twisted odontoblastic processes. Examination of the lingual surface showed the presence of fibroblasts and collagen fibers bridging the gap that resulted from the failure in dentin formation. These cells, which were similar to periodontal ligament cells, appeared to have arisen from that area. (author)

  2. Arsenic-induced oxidative myocardial injury: protective role of arjunolic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manna, Prasenjit; Sinha, Mahua; Sil, Parames C. [Bose Institute, Department of Chemistry, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2008-03-15

    Arsenic, one of the most harmful metalloids, is ubiquitous in the environment. The present study has been carried out to investigate the protective role of a triterpenoid saponin, arjunolic acid (AA) against arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative damage. In the study, NaAsO{sub 2} was chosen as the source of arsenic. The free radical scavenging activity and the effect of AA on the intracellular antioxidant power were determined from its 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay, respectively. Oral administration of NaAsO{sub 2} at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight for 2 days caused significant accumulation of arsenic in cardiac tissues of the experimental mice in association with the reduction in cardiac antioxidant enzymes activities, namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase. Arsenic intoxication also decreased the cardiac glutathione (GSH) and total thiol contents and increased the levels of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), lipid peroxidation end products and protein carbonyl content. Treatment with AA at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight for 4 days prior to NaAsO{sub 2} intoxication protected the cardiac tissue from arsenic-induced oxidative impairment. In addition to oxidative stress, arsenic administration increased total cholesterol level as well as the reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in the sera of the experimental mice. AA pretreatment, however, could prevent this hyperlipidemia. Histological studies on the ultrastructural changes in cardiac tissue supported the protective activity of AA also. Combining all, results suggest that AA could protect cardiac tissues against arsenic-induced oxidative stress probably due to its antioxidant property. (orig.)

  3. About role of human factors in the building of physical protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our opinion, our contribution to the fight against the illicit turnover has to be focused on ensuring the safe keeping and integrity of nuclear material and radiation sources and on creating powerful and highly efficient physical protection systems. A special role in establishing the physical protection system (at all levels) pertains to the human factor. The nuclear energy sector security (as well as of other national industry sectors) is based on the people: developers, personnel, different level management responsible for decision-making process, the representative of regulatory, controlling and legal structures, and therefore, in general, the role of the human factor can be considered to be significant. After having analyzed, even in a general way, the status of the affairs we can see: 1) the stage of designing and development of facilities is actually completed; 2) the existing concept of protection does not meet current requirements of the physical protection; 3) the next period is the operation when it is necessary to adapt with using capabilities available to the today requirements and to establish conditions under which the human factor could compensate technical backwardness; 4) the final stage is the ChNPP decommissioning, the Object Shelter problem. It is obvious that the ChNPP decommissioning process will increase acuteness of the problem related to the physical protection of this facility. The operative situation while being formed during the physical protection ensuring, first of all, is affected by the following factors: 1) political factors: changes in the geopolitical situation caused by fundamental changes, formation of a national state based on a principle of democracy and law, etc.; 2) social and economic factors: difficulties originated during the period of transition towards the market economy, decrease in the standard of living; increase in the crime rate and criminalization of social relations and others; 3) spiritual wealth and cultural

  4. Interactions of radiation and adriamycin, bleomycin, mitomycin C or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II in intestinal crypt cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von der Maase, H

    1984-01-01

    The interactions of radiation and adriamycin (ADM), bleomycin (BLM), mitomycin C (MM-C), or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II (cis-DDP) in mouse jejunal crypt cells were studied using the microcolony survival assay. ADM administered from 24 h before to 48 h after irradiation resulted in an almost...... which interval the D0 surprisingly increased by a factor of 1.4. Administration of MM-C from 24 h before to 24 h after irradiation enhanced the radiation response. The effect peaked on administration 6 h before irradiation (DEF = 1.21) and diminished by application after irradiation. Cis-DDP enhanced...

  5. Adriamycin activity's durational governance of different cell death types and zonality in rat liver acinus. Immunohistochemical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedrycz Agnieszka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and examine a model of apoptosis and necrosis of hepatocytes induced by a damaging factor - adriamycin, correlating time after its administration with cell death type, and to investigate the localisation within the liver acinus of hepatocytes dying in these two ways. The results obtained in the present and previous studies were compared in order to make a map of cell death localisation in the liver acinus, showing the effect of time in action and dose of adriamycin. The experiment was performed on 32 female Wistar rats, divided into four groups: I and II - experimental, and III and IV - control. Adriamycin (3 mg/kg b.w. was administered intraperitoneally to rats in groups I and II, and the rats were decapitated after four (group I and eight (group II weeks. Animals in control groups III and IV were given 0.5 mL of 0.9% NaCl solution, and decapitated after four and eight weeks respectively. Sections of the liver were examined with a three-stage immunohistochemical method. This method allowed to examine hepatocytes qualitatively and quantitatively for the presence of proteins involved in three types of apoptosis: induced by the mitochondrial pathway (caspase 3, 9, the intrinsic pathway related to endoplasmic reticulum stress (caspase 3, 12, and the extrinsic pathway (caspase 3, 8. One of the inflammatory markers, caspase 1, was also examined. The zonal localisation of all three types of apoptosis was assessed in the liver tissue. More oxidated hepatocytes indicated only signs of the internal mitochondrial pathway, whereas less oxidated hepatocytes induced the internal reticular pathway and the external apoptotic pathway. The period between adriamycin administration and hepatic cell investigation was a main factor of the process. A longer period post insult resulted in a more pronounced effect of the activation of apoptosis. Sections explored eight weeks after treatment with different doses of the drug (3 and 5

  6. A short-term in vitro test for tumour sensitivity to adriamycin based on flow cytometric DNA analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelholm, S A; Spang-Thomsen, M; Vindeløv, L L

    1983-01-01

    A new method to test the sensitivity of tumour cells to chemotherapy is presented. Tumour cells were incubated in vitro on agar, and drug-induced cell cycle perturbation was monitored by flow cytometric DNA analysis. In the present study the method was applied to monitor the effect of adriamycin on...... resistant tumours. The dose level causing maximum accumulation in the G2 + M phase is suggested as a parameter for quantifying the sensitivity. The results indicate that the method can be extended to sensitivity testing of human tumours....

  7. Dioscin restores the activity of the anticancer agent adriamycin in multidrug-resistant human leukemia K562/adriamycin cells by down-regulating MDR1 via a mechanism involving NF-κB signaling inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Meng, Qiang; Wang, Changyuan; Liu, Qi; Peng, Jinyong; Huo, Xiaokui; Sun, Huijun; Ma, Xiaochi; Liu, Kexin

    2013-05-24

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ameliorating effect of dioscin (1) on multidrug resistance (MDR) in adriamycin (ADR)-resistant erythroleukemic cells (K562/adriamycin, K562/ADR) and to clarify the molecular mechanisms involved. High levels of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) mRNA and protein and reduced ADR retention were found in K562/ADR cells compared with parental cells (K562). Dioscin (1), a constituent of plants in the genus Discorea, significantly inhibited MDR1 mRNA and protein expression and MDR1 promoter and nuclear factor κ-B (NF-κB) activity in K562/ADR cells. MDR1 mRNA and protein suppression resulted in the subsequent recovery of intracellular drug accumulation. Additionally, inhibitor κB-α (IκB-α) degradation was inhibited by 1. Dioscin (1) reversed ADR-induced MDR by down-regulating MDR1 expression by a mechanism that involves the inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway. These findings provide evidence to support the further investigation of the clinical application of dioscin (1) as a chemotherapy adjuvant. PMID:23621869

  8. A MARKETING VIEW OVER THE ROLE OF THE PUBLIC AUTHORITIES IN THE PROTECTION OF THE CONSUMERS PRIVATE SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veghes Calin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of privacy, seen in connection with the consumer's private space, and defined in terms of the rights the consumer have to disclose or not, respectively to have protected their personal data has gained an increasing importance, as a result of the organizations extended and more and more aggressive attempts, within their marketing efforts, to capture, process and use the consumers personal data. Privacy protection has become an important but, in the same time, extremely sensitive and challenging topic to be taken into consideration by all the stakeholders involved in the processing and employment of the consumers personal data. A key role in this respect is played by the public authorities acting as data controllers the Data Protection Authorities, that have to adopt a more proactive and efficient attitude in adopting and implementing policies and processes aiming to ensure a more effective protection of the personal data and private space, conduct privacy impact assessments and continuously improve the specific activities. Paper presents the opinions of the consumers through the results of an exploratory study regarding the importance given to the protection of the personal data, the area of protection of the specific laws, the need for laws regulating the personal data protection, the balance between the public and private entities in providing a proper protection of the personal data, and the relationship between the domestic, European, and international levels in ensuring the protection of the consumers personal data. Results regarding the role of the public authorities in the protection of the consumers personal data and private space in terms of the most appropriate institution to act as a data controller, the rights consumers consider important in relationship with the protection of their personal data and the risks faced in the context of a less effective protection are also presented.

  9. Plant responses to stresses: role of ascorbate peroxidase in the antioxidant protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Caverzan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When plants are exposed to stressful environmental conditions, the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS increases and can cause significant damage to the cells. Antioxidant defenses, which can detoxify ROS, are present in plants. A major hydrogen peroxide detoxifying system in plant cells is the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, in which, ascorbate peroxidase (APX enzymes play a key role catalyzing the conversion of H2O2 into H2O, using ascorbate as a specific electron donor. Different APX isoforms are present in distinct subcellular compartments, such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisome, and cytosol. The expression of APX genes is regulated in response to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as during plant development. The APX responses are directly involved in the protection of plant cells against adverse environmental conditions. Furthermore, mutant plants APX genes showed alterations in growth, physiology and antioxidant metabolism revealing those enzymes involvement in the normal plant development.

  10. Protective Role of Religious Involvement Against Depression and Suicidal Ideation Among Youth with Interpersonal Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole-Lewis, Yasmin C; Gipson, Polly Y; Opperman, Kiel J; Arango, Alejandra; King, Cheryl A

    2016-08-01

    This study examined religious involvement-private religious practices (PRP), organizational religiousness (OR), and religious support (RS)-in relation to depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation (SI) and its protective role, considering youths' school and parent-family connectedness. Youth, ages 12-15 (n = 161), were screened for peer victimization, bullying perpetration, and low social connectedness, and assessed for depressive symptoms, SI, school connectedness, parent-family connectedness, and religious involvement. Results indicated PRP and RS were associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms; PRP and OR were associated with less SI. Controlling for connectedness, PRP remained associated with less SI only. Results suggest the importance of considering religious involvement as a target of youth depression and suicide prevention interventions. PMID:26872965

  11. Protective role of endogenous morphine-like substances in mice with acute hypoxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasnetsov, V.V.; Chukayev, V.V.; Karsanova, S.K.; Popkov, V.L.

    It was previously demonstrated that naloxone, which is a specific antagonist of opiates and opioids, shortens the life of mice contained in a pressure chamber (1) (model of normobaric hypoxic hypoxia -- (2)). On the basis of these data, the hypothesis was expounded that endogenous morphine-like agents may play a protective role against acute hypoxia, expressing their antihypoxic action through opiate receptors. To continue the above investigations, new evidence of this thesis with use of another model of hypoxic hypoxia was obtained. In addition to naloxone (pure antagonist), nalorphine (agonist-antagonist) was used, and the effects of specific opiate antagonists to the effect of narcotic analgesics - morphine (pure agonist of opiate receptors) and pentazocine (which has mild antagonistic properties) were compared.

  12. Resveratrol plays important role in protective mechanisms in renal disease - mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Albertoni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (RESV is a polyphenolic compound found in various plants, including grapes, berries and peanuts, and its processed foods as red wine. RESV possesses a variety of bioactivities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antidiabetic, anticancer, chemopreventive, neuroprotective, renal lipotoxicity preventative, and renal protective effects. Numerous studies have demonstrated that polyphenols promote cardiovascular health. Furthermore, RESV can ameliorate several types of renal injury in animal models, including diabetic nephropathy, hyperuricemic, drug-induced injury, aldosterone-induced injury, ischemia-reperfusion injury, sepsis-related injury, and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, RESV can prevent the increase in vasoconstrictors, such as angiotensin II (AII and endothelin-1 (ET-1, as well as intracellular calcium, in mesangial cells. Together, these findings suggest a potential role for RESV as a supplemental therapy for the prevention of renal injury.

  13. Role of hexagonal boron nitride in protecting ferromagnetic nanostructures from oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihlmann, Simon; Makk, Péter; Vaz, Carlos A. F.; Schönenberger, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Ferromagnetic contacts are widely used to inject spin polarized currents into non-magnetic materials such as semiconductors or 2-dimensional materials like graphene. In these systems, oxidation of the ferromagnetic materials poses an intrinsic limitation on device performance. Here we investigate the role of ex situ transferred chemical vapour deposited hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) as an oxidation barrier for nanostructured cobalt and permalloy electrodes. The chemical state of the ferromagnets was investigated using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy because of its high sensitivity and lateral resolution. We have compared the oxide thickness formed on ferromagnetic nanostructures covered by hBN to uncovered reference structures. Our results show that hBN reduces the oxidation rate of ferromagnetic nanostructures suggesting that it could be used as an ultra-thin protection layer in future spintronic devices.

  14. Protective role of coriandrum sativum oily extracts on ehrlich tumour bearing mice subjected to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was planned to evaluate the potency of coriandrum, sativum oily extract [in a dose of 1 mg/kg body weight; for six successive doses] as a chemopreventive agent against solid ehrlich tumour transplanted to the thigh of the left leg of mice subjected or not to gamma irradiation. The protective role of coriander oil was assessed through studying the level of serum phosphorus, calcium, prostaglandins, and anti-thyroid antibodies levels. Meanwhile, the content of cholesterol and triacylglycerols both in hepatic and tumor tissues were also measured. The levels of serum calcium ions revealed significant decline in the tested groups as compared with the control ones. Measurements of serum PGE2 and anti-thyroid antibodies levels exhibited significant fluctuated changes as compared with the control levels. Serum phosphorus levels induced only non-significant changes. The contents of cholesterol both in hepatic and tumor tissues induced significant decline in the tested proups as compared with the control ones

  15. Predicting Depressive Symptoms and Weight from Adolescence to Adulthood: Stressors and the Role of Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jocelyn Smith; Dellucci, Trey; Turek, Carolyn; Mir, Sophie

    2015-11-01

    Depressive symptoms and weight gain follow similar developmental trajectories from adolescence to adulthood and stressors are a risk factor for both. However, less is known about whether they share protective factors that reduce the risk for depressive symptoms and weight gain. The goal of the current study was to examine the role of stress and four protective factors (social support, self-esteem, physical activity, and sedentary behavior) as predictors of depressive symptoms and body mass index over time. Participating in the current study were 6504 (51.6 % female; 60.7 % European American, 22.5 % African American, 11.4 % Hispanic, 3.3 % Asian American, and 2 % other ethnicities) adolescents from the National Study of Adolescent and Adult Health. Participants were followed for three waves from adolescence to young adulthood (Wave I age range = 12-18; Wave III age range = 18-26). Data were analyzed using multi-level modeling and results showed that stressors significantly predicted trajectories of depressive symptoms and body mass index over time. Social support buffered the effects of stressors on BMI over time. Self-esteem influenced trajectories of both BMI and depressive symptoms. Differential effects were found for physical activity with physical activity predicting declines in depressive symptoms and sedentary behavior predicting declines in BMI over time. The current study suggests that stress is a common risk factor for depressive symptoms and weight gain, but that there is specificity in how the protective factors influence each type of outcome. PMID:25990673

  16. The Role of Radiological Protection in Sweden's National Environmental quality Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1999, the Swedish Parliament adopted fifteen environmental quality objectives, defining the quality of Sweden's environment and of its natural and cultural resources that will insure sustainable growth. In 2001, the government proposed interim targets for each objective, specifying the direction and time scale of the proposed actions. These objectives give Sweden a unique opportunity to define, quantify and achieve an ecologically sustainable environment. One of the national objectives, A Safe Radiation Environment, targets both ionising and non-ionising radiation and states, human health and biological diversity must be protected against the harmful effects of radiation in the environment. The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) has the responsibility for formulating and achieving the interim targets for this objective. The targets presently focus on controlling radioactive emissions, limiting exposures to ultraviolet radiation and defining the risks from exposure to electromagnetic fields. Part of SSI's responsibility for the environmental quality objective is to develop a system for monitoring and quantifying progress towards each interim target. Sweden's National Board of Housing, Building and Planning (NBHBP) is responsible for another of the national objectives, A Good Built- Environment. As part of this objective, a special interim target for the indoor environment was approved by Parliament in 2002, which includes a specification for human exposure to radon in indoor air. It states: radon concentrations should be lower than 200 Bq/m3 in schools and pre-schools by the year 2010, and below 200 Bq/m3 in homes by 2020. This substantially raises the level of ambition regarding reducing exposure to indoor radon. The aim of this paper is to briefly summarize the role of radiological protection in Sweden's environmental quality objectives. (Author) 3 refs

  17. Protective role of a novel human erythrocyte-derived depressing factor on blood vessels in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The protective role of a human erythrocyte-derived depressing factor (EDDF) on blood vessels was evaluated. The experiments were carried out on 25male Wistar rats aged 6-8 weeks, which were divided into control (n = 8), calcium overload (n = 8) and NG-L-nitro-arginine hypertensive model groups (L-NNA,n = 9), respectively. The isolated vascular ring perfusion assay, two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy (TPM) and transmitted electron microscope were used to examine the effect of EDDF on vascular function and ultrastructure. Results showed that the contractile response of calcium overload rats and L-NNA rats to phenylephrine (PE) was significantly enhanced compared with that of the control (P < 0.05), and EDDF (10-3 g @mL-1) remarkably decreased the vascular contractile response of control's and calcium overload rats (P < 0.05),while EDDF had no effect on that of L-NNA rats. EDDF also alleviated the ultrastructural lesion of aorta VSMC in calcium overload rats by easing the abnormal in the nucleus, mitochondrion and other organell. It is concluded that EDDF could efficiently protect blood vessels against injury by influencing Ca2+ transport and ameliorating the lesion of VSMC, and further supported the hypothesis that the NO-cGMP pathway might contribute to the vasodilation and partially antihypertensive mechanism of EDDF.``

  18. The role of lactoferrin binding protein B in mediating protection against human lactoferricin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthau, Ari; Livingstone, Margaret; Adamiak, Paul; Schryvers, Anthony B

    2012-06-01

    Bacteria that inhabit the mucosal surfaces of the respiratory and genitourinary tracts of mammals encounter an iron-deficient environment because of iron sequestration by the host iron-binding proteins transferrin and lactoferrin. Lactoferrin is also present in high concentrations at sites of inflammation where the cationic, antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin is produced by proteolysis of lactoferrin. Several Gram-negative pathogens express a lactoferrin receptor that enables the bacteria to use lactoferrin as an iron source. The receptor is composed of an integral membrane protein, lactoferrin binding protein A (LbpA), and a membrane-bound lipoprotein, lactoferrin binding protein B (LbpB). LbpA is essential for growth with lactoferrin as the sole iron source, whereas the role of LbpB in iron acquisition is not yet known. In this study, we demonstrate that LbpB from 2 different species is capable of providing protection against the killing activity of a human lactoferrin-derived peptide. We investigated the prevalence of lactoferrin receptors in bacteria and examined their sequence diversity. We propose that the protection against the cationic antimicrobial human lactoferrin-derived peptide is associated with clusters of negatively charged amino acids in the C-terminal lobe of LbpB that is a common feature of this protein. PMID:22332888

  19. Protective Role of Spirulina on Gamma Rays Induced Haematological and Biochemical Disorders in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study reports the haematological and biochemical protective effect of Salipriina on Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation. Swiss albino mice (8 weeks old) were administered intraperitoneally Sanepil (800 mg/kg b.wt.) prior to whole body gamma-irradiation (7.5 Gy). Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in different bone marrow cells (pro-and normoblasts) and blood constituents (erythrocytes, leukocytes, differential leukocyte count, haematocrit,haemoglobin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate). Pro- and normoblasts, erythrocytes, leukocytes, haematocrit and haemoglobin values showed a significant (p<0.05) decline during the first 3 days, followed by a gradual recovery starting from day 7, but normal values were not recorded until 14 days post-exposure. Treatment of mice with Spirulina also caused a significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation in the liver, suggesting its role in protection against radiation induced membrane and cellular damage. Similarly, pretreatment of mice with Spirulina caused a significant increase in serum glutathione (GSH) level in comparison with that of irradiated animals. Results suggest that Spirulina modulate the radiation induced hematological and biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice

  20. A possibly sigma-1 receptor mediated role of dimethyltryptamine in tissue protection, regeneration, and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frecska, Ede; Szabo, Attila; Winkelman, Michael J; Luna, Luis E; McKenna, Dennis J

    2013-09-01

    N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is classified as a naturally occurring serotonergic hallucinogen of plant origin. It has also been found in animal tissues and regarded as an endogenous trace amine transmitter. The vast majority of research on DMT has targeted its psychotropic/psychedelic properties with less focus on its effects beyond the nervous system. The recent discovery that DMT is an endogenous ligand of the sigma-1 receptor may shed light on yet undiscovered physiological mechanisms of DMT activity and reveal some of its putative biological functions. A three-step active uptake process of DMT from peripheral sources to neurons underscores a presumed physiological significance of this endogenous hallucinogen. In this paper, we overview the literature on the effects of sigma-1 receptor ligands on cellular bioenergetics, the role of serotonin, and serotoninergic analogues in immunoregulation and the data regarding gene expression of the DMT synthesizing enzyme indolethylamine-N-methyltransferase in carcinogenesis. We conclude that the function of DMT may extend central nervous activity and involve a more universal role in cellular protective mechanisms. Suggestions are offered for future directions of indole alkaloid research in the general medical field. We provide converging evidence that while DMT is a substance which produces powerful psychedelic experiences, it is better understood not as a hallucinogenic drug of abuse, but rather an agent of significant adaptive mechanisms that can also serve as a promising tool in the development of future medical therapies. PMID:23619992

  1. RAP1 Protects from Obesity through Its Extratelomeric Role Regulating Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Martínez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available RAP1 is part of shelterin, the protective complex at telomeres. RAP1 also binds along chromosome arms, where it is proposed to regulate gene expression. To investigate the nontelomeric roles of RAP1 in vivo, we generated a RAP1 whole-body knockout mouse. These mice show early onset of obesity, which is more severe in females than in males. Rap1-deficient mice show accumulation of abdominal fat, hepatic steatosis, and high-fasting plasma levels of insulin, glucose, cholesterol, and alanine aminotransferase. Gene expression analyses of liver and visceral white fat from Rap1-deficient mice before the onset of obesity show deregulation of metabolic programs, including fatty acid, glucose metabolism, and PPARα signaling. We identify Pparα and Pgc1α as key factors affected by Rap1 deletion in the liver. We show that RAP1 binds to Pparα and Pgc1α loci and modulates their transcription. These findings reveal a role for a telomere-binding protein in the regulation of metabolism.

  2. Protective role of miR-23b-3p in kainic acid-induced seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lianbo; Yao, Yi; Fu, Huajun; Li, Zhenghui; Wang, Fengpeng; Zhang, Xiaobin; He, Wencan; Zheng, Weihong; Zhang, Yunwu; Zheng, Honghua

    2016-07-01

    Dysregulation of microRNAs has been proposed to contribute toward epilepsy. The miRNA miR-23b-3p has been found to protect against neuronal apoptosis and the production of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we assessed the potential role of miR-23b-3p in the kainic acid (KA)-induced seizure model. We found that miR-23b-3p levels were significantly decreased in the brain cortex of mice and in cultured mouse primary neurons treated with KA. Importantly, supplement of miR-23b-3p agomir by an intacerebroventricular injection alleviated seizure behaviors and abnormal cortical electroencephalogram recordings in KA-treated mice. Together, these results indicate that miR-23b-3p plays a crucial role in suppressing seizure formation in experimental models of epilepsy and that miR-23b-3p supplement may be a potential anabolic strategy for ameliorating seizure. PMID:27232518

  3. Ursolic acid plays a protective role in obesity-induced cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ting; Yu, Ya-Mei; Chang, Weng-Cheng; Chiang, Su-Yin; Chan, Hsu-Chin; Lee, Ming-Fen

    2016-06-01

    The metabolic disturbance of obesity is one of the most common risk factors of atherosclerosis. Resistin, an obesity-induced adipokine, can induce the expression of cell adhesion molecules and the attachment of monocytes to endothelial cells, which play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Ursolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid found in fruits and many herbs, exhibits an array of biological effects such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential underlying mechanisms of the effect of ursolic acid on resistin-induced adhesion of U937 cells to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data indicated that ursolic acid suppressed the adhesion of U937 to HUVECs and downregulated the expression of adhesion molecules, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and E-selectin, in resistin-induced HUVECs by decreasing the production of intracellular reaction oxygen species (ROS) and attenuating the nuclear translocation of NFκB. Ursolic acid appeared to inhibit resistin-induced atherosclerosis, suggesting that ursolic acid may play a protective role in obesity-induced cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26991492

  4. Role of biofilm in protection of the replicative form of Legionella pneumophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreozzi, Elisa; Di Cesare, Andrea; Sabatini, Luigia; Chessa, Elisa; Sisti, Davide; Rocchi, Marco; Citterio, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    The dual nature of Legionella pneumophila enables its survival in free and intracellular environments and underpins its infection and spread mechanisms. Experiments using bacterial cultures and improved RTqPCR protocols were devised to gain fresh insights into the role of biofilm in protecting the replicative form of L. pneumophila. mip gene expression was used as a marker of virulence in sessile (biofilm-bound) and planktonic (free-floating) cells of L. pneumophila serotype 1 ATCC 33152. The ratio of mip gene expression to transcriptionally active Legionella cells increased both in sessile and free-floating cells demonstrating an up-regulation of mip gene under nutrient depletion. However, a different trend was observed between the two forms, in planktonic cells the mip gene expression/transcriptionally active Legionella cells increased until the end of the experiment, while in the biofilm such increase was observed at the end of the experiment. These findings suggest a possible association between the switch to the transmissive phase of Legionella and a mip up-regulation and a role for biofilm in preserving Legionella cells in replicative form. Moreover, it has been shown that improved RTqPCR protocols are valuable tools to explore bacterial virulence. PMID:25023637

  5. CHIP has a protective role against oxidative stress-induced cell death through specific regulation of Endonuclease G

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, J.S.; Seo, T W; Yi, J. H.; K. S. Shin; Yoo, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in carcinogenesis, aging, and neurodegenerative diseases. The E3 ligase C terminus of Hsc-70 interacting protein (CHIP) has a protective role against various stresses by targeting damaged proteins for proteasomal degradation, and thus maintains protein quality control. However, the detailed mechanism by which CHIP protects cells from oxidative stress has not been demonstrated. Here, we show that depletion of CHIP led to elevated Endonuclease G (EndoG) levels and...

  6. Role of carotid body for neuronal protection in experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Dumlu Aydın

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Carotid bodies are known as main arterialchemoregulatory units. Despite well known that carotidbodies have an important role in cerebral circulation andblood pH regulation, their roles has not been investigatedin subarachnoid haemorrhage. We investigated whetherthere is neuroprotective effect of neuron density of carotidbodies on the brain in subarachnoid haemorrhage.Methods: Twenty hybrid rabbits were studied. Four ofthem were used as reference group (n=4 and the remainingwas obliged to subarachnoid haemorrhage by injectingautologous blood into their cisterna magna (n=16and sacrificed after one month. All carotid bodies andbrains examined histopathologically using by stereologicmethods. The relationship between the neuronal densityof carotid body and degenerated neuron density of thehippocampus were compared statistically.Results: Five rabbits with subarachnoid haemorrhagedead during the follow-up time (n=5. The average neuronaldensity of carotid body was 4500±500 cells/mm3and of hippocampus 170.000±17.000 cell/mm3 in normalrabbit family. The degenerated neuron density ofthe hippocampus was 20.000±3.000 cells/mm3 in rabbitswith have high neuron density of carotid body and was65.000±8.000 cells/mm3 in rabbits with low neuron densityof carotid body. The differences between the neuronaldensity of carotid body and the degenerated neuron numbersof the hippocampus were significant.Conclusion: The neuron density of carotid body mayplay an important role on the protection of brain in subarachnoidhaemorrhage.Key words: Subarachnoid haemorrhage, carotid body,hippocampus, neurodegeneration, cerebral ischemia

  7. Different stage, different performance: the protective strategy of role play on emotional health in sex work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Gillian M

    2011-04-01

    This paper uses Arlie Hochschild's (1983) concept of emotion management and "surface" and "deep acting" to explore how sex workers separate and distance themselves from their public role. Experiences of stigmatisation prevail among sex workers and how stigma is resisted or managed has an impact on their health. In-depth interviews were carried out between August 2006 and April 2007 with 58 sex workers in five cities in New Zealand following decriminalisation of the sex industry. Most participants drew on ideas of professionalism in sustaining a psychological distance between their private and public lives. They utilised "deep acting", transmuting private experiences for use in the work environment, to accredit themselves as professional in their business practices. They also constructed different meanings for sex between public and private relationships with the condom providing an important symbol in separating the two. A few (mostly female street-based) participants were less adept at "deep acting" and relied on drugs to maintain a separation of roles. This paper argues that in an occupation which is highly stigmatised and in which depersonalisation as an aspect of burn-out has been reported as a common occurrence, the ability to draw on strategies which require "deep acting" provides a healthy estrangement between self and role and can be seen as protective. The separation of self from work identity is not damaging as many radical feminists would claim, but an effective strategy to manage emotions. Hochschild, A. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press. PMID:21392874

  8. Protective Role of Sodium Selenite on Mercuric Chloride Induced Oxidative and Renal Stress in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necib, Youcef

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud: Reactive oxygen species are known to play a major role in mercuric chloride induced oxidative and renal stress. Sodium selenite as an exogenous source of selenium is used for endogenous selenoprotein synthesis to scavenge the free radicals. The study was designed to investigate the possible protective role of sodium selenite in mercuric chloride induced renal stress, by using biochemical approaches. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. The first group was served as the control, the second group was given sodium selenite (0.25 mg/kg b.w, while the third group was given mercuric chloride (0.25 mg/kg, finally, the fourth group was given combined treatment of sodium selenite and mercuric chloride for 3 weeks.Results: The effects of sodium selenite on mercuric chloride induced oxidative and renal stress were evaluated by serum creatinine, urea, uric acid, billirubin levels and LDH activity, kidney tissue lipid peroxidation, GSH levels, GSH-Px, GST and catalase activities and hematological parameters. Administration of mercuric chloride induced significant increase in serum: creatinine, urea, uric acid and billirubin concentration showing renal stress. Mercuric chloride also induced oxidative stress, as indicate by decreased kidney tissue of GSH level, GSH-Px, GST, and catalase activities along with increase the level of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of kidney weight and decreased body weight and erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit levels. Sodium selenite treatment markedly reduced elevated serum: creatinine, urea, uric acid and billirubin levels, and LDH activity and conteracted the deterious effects of mercuric chloride on oxidative stress markers and hematological parameters and atteneuated histopathological changes caused by HgCl2 in kidney.Conclusion: Our results indicate that sodium selenite could have a beneficial role against mercuric

  9. Radiation protection recommendations on dose limits: The role of the NCRP and the ICRP and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to review the role of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in making recommendations on dose limits for ionizing radiation exposure for workers and for the public. The text describes the new limits for workers and public recommended by ICRP in 1991 and NCRP in 1993 and the composition of the radiation health detriment on which they are based. The main component of this detriment is the risk of radiation induced cancer which is now estimated to be about three times greater than a decade or so earlier. Uncertainties in these risk estimates are discussed. Some special radiation protection problems, such as those for the embryo or fetus are described. The article also addresses future progress in radiation protection particularly with regard to future improvements in the scientific basis for radiation protection recommendations

  10. Radiation protection recommendations on dose limits: the role of the NCRP and the ICRP and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to review the role of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in making recommendations on dose limits for ionizing radiation exposure for workers and for the public. The text describes the new limits for workers and public recommended by ICRP in 1991 and NCRP in 1993 and the composition of the radiation health detriment on which they are based. The main component of this detriment is the risk of radiation induced cancer which is now estimated to be about three times greater than a decade or so earlier. Uncertainties in these risk estimates are discussed. Some special radiation protection problems, such as those for the embryo or fetus are described. The article also addresses future progress in radiation protection particularly with regard to future improvements in the scientific basis for radiation protection recommendations

  11. Combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, methotrexate, procarbazine (camp) in 64 consecutive patients with epidermoid bronchogenic carcinoma, limited disease: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty-four consecutive patients with inoperable epidermoid bronchogenic carcinoma (limited disease) were treated with radiotherapy to the primary and nodal areas and combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, methotrexate and procarbazine. The overall response rate (CR + PR) to combined treatment was 62%. The median survival time was 12.7 months. The toxicity was acceptable and no treatment-related death occurred

  12. Protective role of ginseng against gentamicin induced changes in kidney of albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Use of gentamicin is now limited due to its toxic effects, mainly on kidney and vestibular system. Herbal products including ginseng has been reported to possess protective effects against drugs induced nephrotoxicity in experimental animals. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the effects of ginseng on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. Methods: Eighteen male albino mice of 6-8 weeks age, were divided into 3 groups. Group-A served as control and was given normal mouse diet; Group-B was given 80 mg/Kg/day of gentamicin intraperitoneally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water for fifteen days. Group-C was given 80 mg/Kg/day of gentamicin intraperitoneally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water along with 100 mg/Kg/day of ginseng orally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water, also for fifteen days. At the end of the experiment, blood was drawn from each animal by cardiac puncture for renal function tests. Each animal was then sacrificed and kidneys removed for routine histological studies. Results: In group B, weight of the animals and kidneys decreased and there was significant increase in mean serum urea, creatinine and intraluminal diameter (p<0.001) of proximal convoluted tubules as compared to the controls (group-A). Moderate to severe necrotic and degenerative changes in proximal convoluted tubules were seen in this group. When the Ginseng and gentamicin were given together (group-C), a statistically significant improvement in the mean body and kidney weight along with improvement in renal function tests and tubular diameter were seen (p<0.001). Conclusion: It appears that Ginseng has some protective role against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. (author)

  13. A hepatic protein, fetuin-A, occupies a protective role in lethal systemic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A liver-derived protein, fetuin-A, was first purified from calf fetal serum in 1944, but its potential role in lethal systemic inflammation was previously unknown. This study aims to delineate the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of hepatic fetuin-A expression during lethal systemic inflammation (LSI, and investigated whether alterations of fetuin-A levels affect animal survival, and influence systemic accumulation of a late mediator, HMGB1. METHODS AND FINDINGS: LSI was induced by endotoxemia or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP in fetuin-A knock-out or wild-type mice, and animal survival rates were compared. Murine peritoneal macrophages were challenged with exogenous (endotoxin or endogenous (IFN-γ stimuli in the absence or presence of fetuin-A, and HMGB1 expression and release was assessed. Circulating fetuin-A levels were decreased in a time-dependent manner, starting between 26 h, reaching a nadir around 24-48 h, and returning towards base-line approximately 72 h post onset of endotoxemia or sepsis. These dynamic changes were mirrored by an early cytokine IFN-γ-mediated inhibition (up to 50-70% of hepatic fetuin-A expression. Disruption of fetuin-A expression rendered animals more susceptible to LSI, whereas supplementation of fetuin-A (20-100 mg/kg dose-dependently increased animal survival rates. The protection was associated with a significant reduction in systemic HMGB1 accumulation in vivo, and parallel inhibition of IFN-γ- or LPS-induced HMGB1 release in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: These experimental data suggest that fetuin-A is protective against lethal systemic inflammation partly by inhibiting active HMGB1 release.

  14. Senescence marker protein 30 has a cardio-protective role in doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Miyata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30, which was originally identified as an aging marker protein, is assumed to act as a novel anti-aging factor in the liver, lungs and brain. We hypothesized that SMP30 has cardio-protective function due to its anti-aging and anti-oxidant effects on doxorubicin (DOX-induced cardiac dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS: SMP30 knockout (SMP30 KO mice, SMP30 transgenic (SMP30 TG mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of SMP30 gene and wild-type (WT littermate mice at 12-14 weeks of age were given intra-peritoneal injection of DOX (20 mg/kg or saline. Five days after DOX injection, echocardiography revealed that left ventricular ejection fraction was more severely reduced in the DOX-treated SMP30 KO mice than in the DOX-treated WT mice, but was preserved in the DOX-treated SMP30 TG mice. Generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative DNA damage in the myocardium were greater in the DOX-treated SMP30 KO mice than in the DOX-treated WT mice, but much less in the SMP30 TG mice. The numbers of deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling positive nuclei in the myocardium, apoptotic signaling pathways such as caspase-3 activity, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and phosphorylation activity of c-Jun N-terminal kinase were increased in SMP30 KO mice and decreased in SMP30 TG mice compared with WT mice after DOX injection. CONCLUSIONS: SMP30 has a cardio-protective role by anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, and can be a new therapeutic target to prevent DOX-induced heart failure.

  15. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa pfpI gene plays an antimutator role and provides general stress protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rojas, Alexandro; Blázquez, Jesús

    2009-02-01

    Hypermutator Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, characterized by an increased spontaneous-mutation rate, are found at high frequencies in chronic lung infections. Hypermutability is associated with the loss of antimutator genes related to DNA repair or damage avoidance systems. Only a few antimutator genes have been described in P. aeruginosa, although there is some evidence that additional genes may be involved in naturally occurring hypermutability. In order to find new P. aeruginosa antimutator genes, we constructed and screened a library of random insertions in the PA14 strain. Some previously described P. aeruginosa and/or Escherichia coli antimutator genes, such as mutS, mutL, uvrD, mutT, ung, and mutY, were detected, indicating a good coverage of our insertional library. One additional mutant contained an insertion in the P. aeruginosa PA14-04650 (pfpI) gene, putatively encoding a member of the DJ-1/ThiJ/PfpI superfamily, which includes chaperones, peptidases, and the Parkinson's disease protein DJ-1a. The pfpI-defective mutants in both PAO1 and PA14 showed higher spontaneous mutation rates than the wild-type strains, suggesting that PfpI plays a key role in DNA protection under nonstress conditions. Moreover, the inactivation of pfpI resulted in a dramatic increase in the H(2)O(2)-induced mutant frequency. Global transcription studies showed the induction of bacteriophage Pf1 genes and the repression of genes related to iron metabolism, suggesting that the increased spontaneous-mutant frequency may be due to reduced protection against the basal level of reactive oxygen species. Finally, pfpI mutants are more sensitive to different types of stress and are affected in biofilm formation. PMID:19028889

  16. Protective role of sesame oil against mobile base station-induced oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtisam A. Marzook

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to shed the light on the environmental threats associated with the wireless revolution and the health hazards associated with exposure to mobile base station (MBS. Besides, studying the possible protective role of sesame oil (SO as an antioxidant against oxidative stress. Therefore, the present work was designed to study the effect of chronic exposure to electromagnetic radiations (EMR, produced by a cellular tower for mobile phone and the possible protective role of sesame oil on glutathione reductase (GSH-Rx, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, total testosterone and lipid profile (total cholesterol (Tch, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c in male albino rats. Rats were arranged into four groups: the control unexposed, the exposed untreated and the exposed treated groups (1.5 and 3 ml oil. Exposed groups were subjected to electromagnetic field at frequency of 900 MHz, for 24 h/day for 8 weeks, at the same time both treated groups were supplied with oral injection of sesame oil three times per week. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were obtained for determination of the above mentioned variables in serum. The results obtained revealed that TG and testosterone were raised significantly over control in all groups and the significant increase in oil groups occurred in dose dependent manner. SOD and CAT activities were reduced significantly in exposed rats than control and increased significantly in sesame oil groups as the dose of oil increased. Total cholesterol only showed remarkable reduction in the group treated with 3 ml sesame oil. Also, in this latter group, significant elevation of GSH-Rx was recorded. Changes in serum HDL-c and LDL-c followed an opposite trend in exposed and sesame oil groups reflecting their affectation by EMR or sesame oil. In conclusion, all results of the current study proved that sesame oil

  17. Protective role of purified cysteine proteinases against Fasciola gigantica infection in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ahwany, Eman; Rabia, Ibrahim; Nagy, Faten; Zoheiry, Mona; Diab, Tarek; Zada, Suher

    2012-03-01

    Fascioliasis is one of the public health problems in the world. Cysteine proteinases (CP) released by Fasciola gigantica play a key role in parasite feeding, migration through host tissues, and in immune evasion. There has been some evidence from several parasite systems that proteinases might have potential as protective antigens against parasitic infections. Cysteine proteinases were purified and tested in vaccine trials of sheep infected with the liver fluke. Multiple doses (2 mg of CP in Freund's adjuvant followed by 3 booster doses 1 mg each at 4 week intervals) were injected intramuscularly into sheep 1 week prior to infect orally with 300 F. gigantica metacercariae. All the sheep were humanely slaughtered 12 weeks after the first immunization. Changes in the worm burden, ova count, and humoral and cellular responses were evaluated. Significant reduction was observed in the worm burden (56.9%), bile egg count (70.7%), and fecel egg count (75.2%). Immunization with CP was also found to be associated with increases of total IgG, IgG(1), and IgG(2) (P<0.05). Data showed that the serum cytokine levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, revealed significant decreases (P<0.05). However, the anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, IL-10, TGF-β, and IL-6, showed significant increases (P<0.05). In conclusion, it has been found that CP released by F. gigantica are highly important candidates for a vaccine antigen because of their role in the fluke biology and host-parasite relationships. PMID:22451733

  18. GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE-1 PLAYS A MAJOR ROLE IN PROTECTING AGAINST ANGIOTENSIN II-INDUCED VASCULAR DYSFUNCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrissobolis, Sophocles; Didion, Sean P.; Kinzenbaw, Dale A.; Schrader, Laura I.; Dayal, Sanjana; Lentz, Steven R.; Faraci, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Levels of reactive oxygen species, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), increase in blood vessels during hypertension and in response to angiotensin II (Ang II). Although glutathione peroxidases (GPx) are known to metabolize H2O2, the role of GPx during hypertension is poorly defined. We tested the hypothesis that GPx-1 protects against Ang II-induced endothelial dysfunction. Responses of carotid arteries from Gpx1-deficient (Gpx1 +/− and Gpx1 −/−) and Gpx1 transgenic (Tg) mice, and their respective littermate controls, were examined in vitro following overnight incubation with either vehicle or Ang II. Under control conditions, relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh, an endothelium-dependent agonist) was similar in control, Gpx1 +/−, and Gpx1 Tg mice, whereas in Gpx1 −/− mice, responses to ACh were impaired. In control mice, ACh-induced vasorelaxation was not affected by 1 nmol/L Ang II. In contrast, relaxation to ACh in arteries from Gpx1 +/− mice was inhibited by ~60% following treatment with 1 nmol/L Ang II, indicating Gpx1 haploinsufficiency markedly enhances Ang II-induced endothelial dysfunction. A higher concentration of Ang II (10 nmol/L) selectively impaired relaxation to ACh in arteries from control mice, and this effect was prevented in arteries from Gpx1 Tg mice, or arteries from control mice treated with PEG-catalase (which degrades H2O2). Thus, genetic and pharmacological evidence suggests a major role for GPx-1 and H2O2 in Ang II-induced effects on vascular function. PMID:18299484

  19. Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE Serves a Protective Role during Klebsiella pneumoniae - Induced Pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Achouiti

    Full Text Available Klebsiella species is the second most commonly isolated gram-negative organism in sepsis and a frequent causative pathogen in pneumonia. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE is expressed on different cell types and plays a key role in diverse inflammatory responses. We here aimed to investigate the role of RAGE in the host response to Klebsiella (K. pneumoniae pneumonia and intransally inoculated rage gene deficient (RAGE-/- and normal wild-type (Wt mice with K. pneumoniae. Klebsiella pneumonia resulted in an increased pulmonary expression of RAGE. Furthermore, the high-affinity RAGE ligand high mobility group box-1 was upregulated during K. pneumoniae pneumonia. RAGE deficiency impaired host defense as reflected by a worsened survival, increased bacterial outgrowth and dissemination in RAGE-/- mice. RAGE-/- neutrophils showed a diminished phagocytosing capacity of live K. pneumoniae in vitro. Relative to Wt mice, RAGE-/- mice demonstrated similar lung inflammation, and slightly elevated-if any-cytokine and chemokine levels and unchanged hepatocellular injury. In addition, RAGE-/- mice displayed an unaltered response to intranasally instilled Klebsiella lipopolysaccharide (LPS with respect to pulmonary cell recruitment and local release of cytokines and chemokines. These data suggest that (endogenous RAGE protects against K. pneumoniae pneumonia. Also, they demonstrate that RAGE contributes to an effective antibacterial defense during K. pneumoniae pneumonia, at least partly via its participation in the phagocytic properties of professional granulocytes. Additionally, our results indicate that RAGE is not essential for the induction of a local and systemic inflammatory response to either intact Klebsiella or Klebsiella LPS.

  20. Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) Serves a Protective Role during Klebsiella pneumoniae - Induced Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achouiti, Ahmed; de Vos, Alex F; van 't Veer, Cornelis; Florquin, Sandrine; Tanck, Michael W; Nawroth, Peter P; Bierhaus, Angelika; van der Poll, Tom; van Zoelen, Marieke A D

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella species is the second most commonly isolated gram-negative organism in sepsis and a frequent causative pathogen in pneumonia. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is expressed on different cell types and plays a key role in diverse inflammatory responses. We here aimed to investigate the role of RAGE in the host response to Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae pneumonia and intransally inoculated rage gene deficient (RAGE-/-) and normal wild-type (Wt) mice with K. pneumoniae. Klebsiella pneumonia resulted in an increased pulmonary expression of RAGE. Furthermore, the high-affinity RAGE ligand high mobility group box-1 was upregulated during K. pneumoniae pneumonia. RAGE deficiency impaired host defense as reflected by a worsened survival, increased bacterial outgrowth and dissemination in RAGE-/- mice. RAGE-/- neutrophils showed a diminished phagocytosing capacity of live K. pneumoniae in vitro. Relative to Wt mice, RAGE-/- mice demonstrated similar lung inflammation, and slightly elevated-if any-cytokine and chemokine levels and unchanged hepatocellular injury. In addition, RAGE-/- mice displayed an unaltered response to intranasally instilled Klebsiella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with respect to pulmonary cell recruitment and local release of cytokines and chemokines. These data suggest that (endogenous) RAGE protects against K. pneumoniae pneumonia. Also, they demonstrate that RAGE contributes to an effective antibacterial defense during K. pneumoniae pneumonia, at least partly via its participation in the phagocytic properties of professional granulocytes. Additionally, our results indicate that RAGE is not essential for the induction of a local and systemic inflammatory response to either intact Klebsiella or Klebsiella LPS. PMID:26824892

  1. Roles of and Threats to Indigenous Cultural Beliefs in Protection of Sacred Forests in Southwest Nigeria

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    FOLARANMI DAPO BABALOLA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sacred forests play a central role in the cultural and livelihoods of indigenous people. Despite the vital roles of sacred forests, a decline in the areas of the forests have been reported. The consequence of this is that many of the people’s indigenous knowledge systems built over the years as well as the endemic forest diversity are at the risk of becoming extinct. The study therefore investigated the contributions of selected sacred forests to rural communities as well as the challenges facing the forests. Data was collected through field visit and questionnaire administration. The respondents include people living in two villages (Balogun and Ososun adjacent to Igbo Igunnko (meaning Igunnuko sacred forest and Igbo Oro (Oro sacred forest located in Ogun State, Southwest Nigeria. The forests form part of the history upon which the surrounding villages were established. Among the taboos supporting existence of the sacred forests, prohibition of fishing in Oso’ro River (that link the two sacred forests is the most effective. Increasing rate of firewood collection and killing of wild animals, and land demand for farming and building constitute great threat to existence of the sacred forests. Adoption of Christianity and Islam by the people is also contributing to the neglect of cultural beliefs that are in support of the sacred forests. To prevent further encroachment into the sacred forests, there is need for proper demarcation of the boundary for protection against pressing land uses and over exploitation. Also, the current traditional knowledge and beliefs in support of sacred forest should be properly strengthened to control unsustainable exploitation in the forests.

  2. Protective Role of Curcumin against N-Nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-Induced Toxicity in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Fahad; Rahul; Jyoti, Smita; Fatima, Ambreen; Khanam, Saba; Naz, Falaq; Siddique, Yasir Hasan

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed at studying the possible role of curcumin against N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced toxicity in albino rats. Administration of NDEA to rats at a concentration of 0.1 mg/ml in drinking water ad libitum for 21 days produced toxicity in them, which was evident from histopathological changes in the rat livers, and increased levels of blood serum enzyme markers, i.e. aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase. In addition, the levels of oxidative stress markers like lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl (PCC), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity were elevated and the total glutathione (GSH) content was reduced in the livers. The administration of curcumin to rats at concentrations of 10, 20, and 40 mg/ml in drinking water along with 0.1 mg/ml of NDEA for 21 days effectively suppressed NDEA-induced toxicity and also resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the levels of blood serum enzyme markers (AST, ALT, ALP, and LDH). Moreover, LPO, PCC, and GST activity were reduced and the GSH level was increased upon the administration of curcumin along with NDEA. The results obtained for the comet assay in rat hepatocytes and blood lymphocytes showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in the mean tail length. The micronucleus assay performed on rat hepatocytes also showed a dose-dependent reduction in the frequency of micronucleated cells along with curcumin administration. These results suggest that curcumin has a protective role against NDEA-induced toxicity in albino rats. PMID:27222610

  3. Cardio protective role of garlic (Allium Sativum) against oxidative stress induced by gamma radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative stress and free radicals play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases. The need to identify agents with a potential for preventing such damage has assumed great importance. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the possible effect of raw garlic homogenate on cardiac endogenous antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and histopathological changes. Plasma lipid profile was also determined. Three different dosage levels (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 20 days were evaluated. The results obtained showed that whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) resulted in significant increase in cardiac thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TEARS) along with reduction in cardiac superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities 1, 2 and 4 weeks following radiation exposure. These changes were associated with subendocardial loss of muscles and accumulation of acute inflammatory cells surrounded by edema. Depletion of cardiac endogenous antioxidants and rise in TEARS were significantly less in the garlic treated rats. Also, histological examination of cardiac tissue showed less damage. Garlic treatment significantly diminished the radiation induced increase in the plasma content of triglycerides, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). Significant amelioration was also observed in the plasma content of high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C) as compared to irradiated rats. Among the three garlic treated groups, 250 mg/kg group showed the best protection in terms of biochemical and histopathological evidences. It could be concluded that the intake dose plays an important role on endogenous antioxidants and cytoprotective effects on the heart

  4. Role of Opioid Receptors Signaling in Remote Electrostimulation - Induced Protection against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rat Hearts

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Hsin-Ju; Huang, Shiang-Suo; Tsou, Meng-Ting; Wang, Hsiao-Ting; Chiu, Jen-Hwey

    2015-01-01

    Aims Our previous studies demonstrated that remote electro-stimulation (RES) increased myocardial GSK3 phosphorylation and attenuated ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R) injury in rat hearts. However, the role of various opioid receptors (OR) subtypes in preconditioned RES-induced myocardial protection remains unknown. We investigated the role of OR subtype signaling in RES-induced cardioprotection against I/R injury of the rat heart. Methods & Results Male Spraque-Dawley rats were used. RES was perf...

  5. Informal Social Protection and Social Development in Pacific Island Countries: Role of NGOs and Civil Society

    OpenAIRE

    Manoranjan Mohanty

    2011-01-01

    Social security and social protection concepts are gaining importance, especially in the Pacific Island countries (PICs). The state-led welfare and social protection system is limited in PICs, where there has been a heavy reliance on traditional, informal and non-state social protection systems which are provided through extended family, kinship, and community. The aim of the paper is to examine the nature of traditional, informal and semi-formal social security and protection mechanisms with...

  6. Mitochondrial and metabolic dysfunction in renal convoluted tubules of obese mice: protective role of melatonin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Stacchiotti

    Full Text Available Obesity is a common and complex health problem, which impacts crucial organs; it is also considered an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease. Few studies have analyzed the consequence of obesity in the renal proximal convoluted tubules, which are the major tubules involved in reabsorptive processes. For optimal performance of the kidney, energy is primarily provided by mitochondria. Melatonin, an indoleamine and antioxidant, has been identified in mitochondria, and there is considerable evidence regarding its essential role in the prevention of oxidative mitochondrial damage. In this study we evaluated the mechanism(s of mitochondrial alterations in an animal model of obesity (ob/ob mice and describe the beneficial effects of melatonin treatment on mitochondrial morphology and dynamics as influenced by mitofusin-2 and the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. Melatonin dissolved in 1% ethanol was added to the drinking water from postnatal week 5-13; the calculated dose of melatonin intake was 100 mg/kg body weight/day. Compared to control mice, obesity-related morphological alterations were apparent in the proximal tubules which contained round mitochondria with irregular, short cristae and cells with elevated apoptotic index. Melatonin supplementation in obese mice changed mitochondria shape and cristae organization of proximal tubules, enhanced mitofusin-2 expression, which in turn modulated the progression of the mitochondria-driven intrinsic apoptotic pathway. These changes possibly aid in reducing renal failure. The melatonin-mediated changes indicate its potential protective use against renal morphological damage and dysfunction associated with obesity and metabolic disease.

  7. The Protective Role of Carnosic Acid against Beta-Amyloid Toxicity in Rats

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    H. Rasoolijazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is one of the pathological mechanisms responsible for the beta- amyloid cascade associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Previous studies have demonstrated the role of carnosic acid (CA, an effective antioxidant, in combating oxidative stress. A progressive cognitive decline is one of the hallmarks of AD. Thus, we attempted to determine whether the administration of CA protects against memory deficit caused by beta-amyloid toxicity in rats. Beta-amyloid (1–40 was injected by stereotaxic surgery into the Ca1 region of the hippocampus of rats in the Amyloid beta (Aβ groups. CA was delivered intraperitoneally, before and after surgery in animals in the CA groups. Passive avoidance learning and spontaneous alternation behavior were evaluated using the shuttle box and the Y-maze, respectively. The degenerating hippocampal neurons were detected by fluoro-jade b staining. We observed that beta-amyloid (1–40 can induce neurodegeneration in the Ca1 region of the hippocampus by using fluoro-jade b staining. Also, the behavioral tests revealed that CA may recover the passive avoidance learning and spontaneous alternation behavior scores in the Aβ + CA group, in comparison with the Aβ group. We found that CA may ameliorate the spatial and learning memory deficits induced by the toxicity of beta-amyloid in the rat hippocampus.

  8. Hexavalent chromium and its effect on health: possible protective role of garlic (Allium sativum Linn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kusal K; Dhundasi, Salim A; Das, Swastika N

    2011-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium or chromium (VI) is a powerful epithelial irritant and a confirmed human carcinogen. This heavy metal is toxic to many plants, aquatic animals, and bacteria. Chromium (VI) which consists of 10%-15% total chromium usage, is principally used for metal plating (H2Cr2O7), as dyes, paint pigments, and leather tanning, etc. Industrial production of chromium (II) and (III) compounds are also available but in small amounts as compared to chromium (VI). Chromium (VI) can act as an oxidant directly on the skin surface or it can be absorbed through the skin, especially if the skin surface is damaged. The prooxidative effects of chromium (VI) inhibit antioxidant enzymes and deplete intracellular glutathione in living systems and act as hematotoxic, immunotoxic, hepatotoxic, pulmonary toxic, and nephrotoxic agents. In this review, we particularly address the hexavalent chromium-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and increased lipid peroxidation in humans and animals, and the possible role of garlic (Allium sativum Linn) as a protective antioxidant. PMID:22865357

  9. Role of the Vinca Institute in nuclear engineering and radiation protection education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Education programmes in nuclear engineering and radiation protection in former Yugoslavia have been supported by comprehensive research and development and pertinent training of experts and students in the Vinca (former Boris Kidric) Institute of nuclear sciences and abroad. Two research reactors were constructed and operated in the Vinca Institute since 1958. Adopted law on ban for NPP construction, isolation of the country due to the UN sanctions and weak economical situation deteriorated considerably the nuclear expertise in Serbia after 1989. Nuclear courses at the University were revoked, major research programmes were cancelled, RA research reactor in the Vinca Institute was shut down and many experts left the country. A novel nuclear programme related to remedial of nuclear and radiation safety in the Vinca Institute has been launched in 2003. This paper emphasizes the need for nuclear expertise, the lack of nuclear professionals to carry out the new programme, the experience gained so far and point out a possible future creative role of the Vinca Institute in education of new experts in the country and abroad. (author)

  10. The role of defensible space for residential structure protection during wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Brennan, Teresa J.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2014-01-01

    With the potential for worsening fire conditions, discussion is escalating over how to best reduce effects on urban communities. A widely supported strategy is the creation of defensible space immediately surrounding homes and other structures. Although state and local governments publish specific guidelines and requirements, there is little empirical evidence to suggest how much vegetation modification is needed to provide significant benefits. We analysed the role of defensible space by mapping and measuring a suite of variables on modern pre-fire aerial photography for 1000 destroyed and 1000 surviving structures for all fires where homes burned from 2001 to 2010 in San Diego County, CA, USA. Structures were more likely to survive a fire with defensible space immediately adjacent to them. The most effective treatment distance varied between 5 and 20 m (16–58 ft) from the structure, but distances larger than 30 m (100 ft) did not provide additional protection, even for structures located on steep slopes. The most effective actions were reducing woody cover up to 40% immediately adjacent to structures and ensuring that vegetation does not overhang or touch the structure. Multiple-regression models showed landscape-scale factors, including low housing density and distances to major roads, were more important in explaining structure destruction. The best long-term solution will involve a suite of prevention measures that include defensible space as well as building design approach, community education and proactive land use planning that limits exposure to fire.

  11. Protective role of metallothionein (Ⅰ/Ⅱ) against pathological damage and apoptosis induced by dimethylarsinic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang Jia; Yi-Qun Gu; Kung-Tung Chen; You-Yong Lu; Lei Yan; Jian-Ling Wang; Ya-Ping Su; J. C. Gaston Wu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To better clarify the main target organs of dimethylarsinic acid toxicity and the role of metallothionein (MTs) in modifying dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) toxicity.METHODS: MT-Ⅰ/Ⅱ null (MT-/-) mice and the corresponding wild-type mice (MT+/+), six in each group, were exposed to DMAA (0-750 mg/kg body weight) by a single oral injection.Twenty four hours later, the lungs, livers and kidneys were collected and undergone pathological analysis, induction of apoptotic cells as determined by TUNEL and MT concentration was detected by radio-immunoassay.RESULTS: Remarkable pathological lesions were observed at the doses ranging from 350 to 750 mg/kg body weight in the lungs, livers and kidneys and MT+/+ mice exhibited a relatively slight destruction when compared with that in dose matched MT-/- mice. The number of apoptotic cells was increased in a dose dependent manner in the lungs and livers in both types of mice. DMAA produced more necrotic cells rather than apoptotic cells at the highest dose of 750 mg/kg,however, no significant increase was observed in the kidney.Hepatic MT level in MT+/+ mice was significantly increased by DMAA in a dose-dependent manner and there was nodetectable amount of hepatic MT in untreated MT-/- mice.CONCLUSION: DMAA treatment can lead to the induction of apoptosis and pathological damage in both types of mice.MT exhibits a protective effect against DMAA toxicity.

  12. Evidence for a protective role of the gardos channel againsthemolysis in murine spherocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Franceschi, Lucia; Rivera, Alicia; Fleming, Mark D.; Honczarenko, Marek; Peters, Luanne L.; Gascard, Philippe; Mohandas,Narla; Brugnara, Carlo

    2005-04-20

    It has been shown that mice with complete deficiency of all4.1R protein isoforms (4.1[-/-]) exhibit moderate hemolytic anemia, withabnormal erythrocyte morphology (spherocytosis) and decreased membranestability. Here, we characterized the Gardos channel function in vitroand in vivo In erythrocytes of 4.1[-/-]mice. Compared with wild-type,the Gardos channel of 4.1[-/-]erythrocytes showed an Increase in V[max](9.75 +- 1.06 vs 6.08 +- 0.09 mM cell x minute; P<.04) and adecrease in K[m](1.01 +- 0.06 vs 1.47 +- 1.02 mu M; P<.03),indicating an increased sensitivity to activation by intracellularcalcium. In vivo function of the Gardos channel was assessed by the oraladministration of clotrimazole, a well-characterized Gardos channelblocker. Clotrimazole treatment resulted in worsening of anemia andhemolysis, with decreased red cell survival and increased numbers ofcirculating hyperchromic spherocytes and microspherocytes. Clotrimazoleinduced similar changes in 4.2[-/-]and band 3[+/-]mice, indicating thatthese effects of the Gardos channel are shared in different models ofmurine spherocytosis. Thus, potassium and water loss through the Gardoschannelmay play an important protective role in compensating for thereduced surface-membrane area of hereditary spherocytosis (HS)erythrocytes and reducing hemolysis in erythrocytes with cytoskeletalimpairments.

  13. Vitamin D and Its Role as a Protective Factor in Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxha, Mehmet; Zoto, Maria; Deda, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between vitamin D status and asthma has been subject to several studies in the last decade. Epidemiological data suggest that incidence of asthma and atopic diseases increased significantly in most Westernized countries. The significant variation between countries suggests that besides genetic factors, environmental aspects play a role in the pathogenesis of atopy. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D is high in many industrialized countries. In addition to its relationship with bone metabolism, vitamin D is recognized as an immunomodulator, with important effects on both adaptive and innate immunity. Correlations between vitamin D status and asthma have been formulated, with a considerable interest in assessing whether this vitamin protects against or reduces asthma morbidity. In this review, we discuss recent findings regarding vitamin D status throughout Europe and its influence over asthma and allergic rhinitis prevalence. Geographical latitude and dietary habits may explain the lower prevalence of allergic disease in Albania. We also consider the effects of vitamin D supplementation in allergic disease. Several clinical trials are under way and their results are needed in order to make definitive recommendations about the optimal dose of vitamin D for prevention and treatment of asthma and allergic disease.

  14. The role of regulatory council in the energy sector from the aspect of consumers' protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consumers' protection legal base, with few factors of new legislative consumers' protection legislation in European Union, in the Law on Consumers' Protection, and in the set of the Croatian Energy Laws is shown in this paper. Special attention in this paper is paid on five factors of regulatory body's orientation to the consumers' protection field, which energy regulatory body's policy should be included. The model of consumers' protection in the energy sector is shown, with the scheme of Three-component interactive subsystems: basic legislation which is determined consumers' protection policy, planning activities for consumers' protection (short and long time plans), and performing activities for consumers' protection. Furthermore, the approach of consumers' protection in the energy sectors in European Union are described. The paper gives the model of consumers' protection in the Croatian energy sector, and Croatian Energy Regulatory Council' approach to this issue. The table, with the data of specific consumers' protection problems in practice, those the Croatian Energy Regulatory Council as a regulatory body have been settled, is shown.(author)

  15. The role of IUCN protected area categories in the conservation of geoheritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kyung Sik; Gordon, John E.; Crofts, Roger; Diaz-Martinez, Enrique; McKeever, Patrick J.; Hill, Wesley

    2015-04-01

    Geoheritage comprises those elements of the Earth's geodiversity that are considered to have significant scientific, educational, cultural/aesthetic, ecological or ecosystem service value. IUCN Resolutions 4.040 (2008) and 5.048 (2012) both clearly recognise that geodiversity is part of nature and geoheritage is part of natural heritage. Formal recognition of the geodiversity component of protected areas was made in 2008 in the revised IUCN Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories (Dudley, 2008). All 6 of the IUCN Protected Area Management Categories (strict nature reserve/wilderness area, national park, national monument or feature, habitat/species management area, protected landscape/seascape, and protected area with sustainable use of natural resources) are applicable to the protection of geoheritage and provide opportunities to integrate conservation of geosites and the wider landscape values of geodiversity much more closely in protected area networks (Crofts & Gordon, 2015). Although geoparks are not a protected area category as such, and may only include some parts of protected areas as geosites, the UNESCO-supported Global Geoparks Network also provides an international framework to conserve and enhance geoheritage, as does the UNESCO World Heritage List. The Geoheritage Specialist Group of the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas provides specialist advice and guidance on all aspects of geodiversity and geoheritage in relation to the establishment and management of protected areas, the integration of geodiversity into IUCN's programmes, and the promotion of better understanding of the links between geodiversity and biodiversity. http://www.iucn.org/about/work/programmes/gpap_home/gpap_biodiversity/gpap_wcpabiodiv/gpap_geoheritage/). Crofts, R., Gordon, J. E. (2015) Geoconservation in protected areas. In: G.L. Worboys, M. Lockwood, A. Kothari, S. Feary, I. Pulsford (eds), Protected Area Governance and Management. ANU Press, Canberra

  16. Protective role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 in acetaminophen-induced liver injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies in mice suggest that stress-activated c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase 2 (JNK2) plays a pathologic role in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury (AILI), a major cause of acute liver failure (ALF). In contrast, we present evidence that JNK2 can have a protective role against AILI. When male C57BL/6J wild type (WT) and JNK2-/- mice were treated with 300 mg APAP/kg, 90% of JNK2-/- mice died of ALF compared to 20% of WT mice within 48 h. The high susceptibility of JNK2-/- mice to AILI appears to be due in part to deficiencies in hepatocyte proliferation and repair. Therefore, our findings are consistent with JNK2 signaling playing a protective role in AILI and further suggest that the use of JNK inhibitors as a potential treatment for AILI, as has been recommended by other investigators, should be reconsidered

  17. Role and responsibilities of medical physicists in radiological protection of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper provides a brief history of the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP), followed by some general comments on the radiological protection of patients. The importance of establishing scientific guidelines and professional standards is emphasized, as is the need to ensure the protection of patients undergoing radiation therapy. The responsibility of qualified medical physicists in the protection of patients in nuclear medicine and in diagnostic and interventional radiology is also discussed. (author)

  18. Protective Role of Clove Against Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antioxidants in food play an important role in preventing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Clove is widely used in Egypt as a spice which is a potent scavenger of a variety of free radicals. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum, Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) is the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. The aim of this study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of cloves against oxidative stress and tissue injury, in animals, induced by gamma irradiation. Rats were subjected to two doses of gamma radiation (2 and 4 Gy). Four weeks before irradiation animals received cloves in basal diets. In liver and serum of irradiated animals, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) showed a significant increase associated to a marked decrease in glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT). The level of total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) as well as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed significant increase in the serum of irradiated rats. On the other hand, the level of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), total protein, albumin and total globulins showed significant decrease. Rats fed on a basal diet containing cloves during a period of 4 weeks before irradiation showed significant improvement in the oxidant/antioxidant status denoted by a significant reduction in TBARS level associated with significant increase in GSH and CAT. Moreover, the radiation-induced changes in lipids, proteins and enzyme activities were significantly ameliorated. It could be concluded that cloves possibly protect against radiation-induced oxidative stress and tissue damage

  19. Possible Protective Role of Carnosine against gamma-Radiation-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative Stress with subsequent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been postulated as one of the mechanisms of cardiac toxicity. Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) a biological antioxidant, is a relatively non-toxic dipeptide which possesses many functions (antiglycator, scavenger of ions of zinc and copper, toxic aldehydes and protein carbonyls) that are likely to suppress oxidative stress. The aim of the present work is to investigate the possible protective effects of carnosine on gamma-radiation-induced cardiac damage in mice. Carnosine was supplemented daily to mice (50 mg/ Kg body wt), by gavage, 10 days before whole body gamma-irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy (applied as a shot dose). The results obtained showed that whole body gamma-irradiation of mice produced biochemical alteration in levels of serum glucose and lipid profile fractions. Furthermore, some markers of cardiac injury enzymes as serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatin phosphokinase (CPK) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities showed significant increases associated with alteration in the antioxidant status of cardiac tissues. Significant increases of lipid peroxidation end product malonaldehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl levels, xanthine oxidase (XO) activity along with reduction in the activity of cardiac antioxidant enzymes; glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were observed. Carnosine-treatment prior irradiation has attenuated the cardiotoxic effects of radiation obvious by reduction in the levels of MDA and protein carbonyl and XO activity, rescued the depletion of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and diminished the increases of cardiac injury markers. It could be postulated that carnosine as a multi-functional dietary supplement could exert a modulator role in the radiation-induced cardiac damage and serum biochemical changes through its antioxidant properties

  20. The crucial protective role of glutathione against tienilic acid hepatotoxicity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the hepatotoxic potential of tienilic acid in vivo, we administered a single oral dose of tienilic acid to Sprague-Dawley rats and performed general clinicopathological examinations and hepatic gene expression analysis using Affymetrix microarrays. No change in the serum transaminases was noted at up to 1000 mg/kg, although slight elevation of the serum bile acid and bilirubin, and very mild hepatotoxic changes in morphology were observed. In contrast to the marginal clinicopathological changes, marked upregulation of the genes involved in glutathione biosynthesis [glutathione synthetase and glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gcl)], oxidative stress response [heme oxygenase-1 and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1] and phase II drug metabolism (glutathione S-transferase and UDP glycosyltransferase 1A6) were noted after 3 or 6 h post-dosing. The hepatic reduced glutathione level decreased at 3-6 h, and then increased at 24 or 48 h, indicating that the upregulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-regulated gene and the late increase in hepatic glutathione are protective responses against the oxidative and/or electrophilic stresses caused by tienilic acid. In a subsequent experiment, tienilic acid in combination with L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of Gcl caused marked elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) with extensive centrilobular hepatocyte necrosis, whereas BSO alone showed no hepatotoxicity. The elevation of ALT by this combination was observed at the same dose levels of tienilic acid as the upregulation of the Nrf2-regulated genes by tienilic acid alone. In conclusion, these results suggest that the impairment of glutathione biosynthesis may play a critical role in the development of tienilic acid hepatotoxicity through extensive oxidative and/or electrophilic stresses

  1. Physiological changes due to hepatotoxicity and the protective role of some medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howida S. Abou Seif

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The liver is the largest, important organ and the site for essential biochemical reactions in the human body. It has the function to detoxify toxic substances and synthesize useful biomolecules. Therefore, damage to the liver leads to grave consequences. This damage resulted from chronic alcoholic abuse, viral hepatitis or inherited metabolic disease. Liver damage is associated with cellular necrosis, fibrosis, and increase in tissue lipid peroxidation and depletion in tissue glutathione level. Most of the hepatotoxic chemicals damage liver cells mainly by inducing lipid peroxidation and other oxidative damages in the liver. Natural antioxidants are found in many compounds classified as secondary plant metabolites, e.g. polyphenols (phenolic acids and flavonoids and terpenoids (carotenoids, and the consumption of foods that contain these compounds in large quantities seems to play an important role in prophylaxis against many diseases. Herbal medicines derived from plant extracts are being increasingly utilized to treat a wide variety of clinical disease. More attention has been paid to the protective effects of natural antioxidants against drug induced toxicities especially whenever free radical generation is involved. Popularity of herbal remedies is increasing and at least one quarter of patients with liver disease use botanicals. The World Health Organization (WHO estimates that 80 percent of the population of some Asian and African countries presently use herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care. Some medicinal herbs have proven hepatoprotective potential. Silybum marianum (milk thistle has been used to treat liver diseases since the 16th century. Its major constituents are the flavonoids silibinin, silydianin, silychristin, and isosilibinin, of which silibinin is the biologically most active compound and used for standardization of pharmaceutical products.

  2. The role of adjuvants in therapeutic protection against paracoccidioidomycosis after immunization with the P10 peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarlosPelleschiTaborda

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, a common chronic mycosis in Latin America, is a granulomatous systemic disease caused by the thermo-dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The glycoprotein gp43 is the main antigen target of P. brasiliensis and a 15-mer internal peptide (QTLIAIHTLAIRYAN, known as P10, defines a major CD4+-specific T cell epitope. Previous results have indicated that, besides having a preventive role in conventional immunizations prior to challenge with the fungus, protective anti-fungal effects can be induced in P. brasiliensis-infected mice treated with P10 administered with complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA. The peptide elicits an IFN--dependent Th1 immune response and is the main candidate for effective immunotherapy of patients with PCM, as an adjunctive approach to conventional chemotherapy. In the present study we tested the therapeutic effects of P10 combined with different adjuvants (aluminum hydroxide, CFA, flagellin and the cationic lipid dioctadecyl-dimethylammonium bromide (DODAB in BALB/c mice previously infected with the P. brasiliensis Pb18 strain. Significant reductions in the number of colony forming units (CFUs of the fungus were detected in lungs of mice immunized with P10 associated with the different adjuvants 52 days after infection. Mice treated with DODAB and P10, followed by mice treated with P10 and flagellin, showed the most prominent effects as demonstrated by the lowest numbers of viable yeast cells as well as reductions in granuloma formation and fibrosis. Concomitantly, secretion of IFN- and TNF-, in contrast to IL-4 and IL-10, was enhanced in the lungs of mice immunized with P10 in combination with the tested adjuvants, with the best results observed in mice treated with P10 and DODAB. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate that the co-administration of the synthetic P10 peptide with several adjuvants, particularly DODAB, have significant therapeutic effects in experimental

  3. The role of radiologic technologist in radiation protection and quality assurance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important sources of ionizing radiation for general public are medical sources. Good working protocols and radiological protections measurements provided significant reduction of patients and professional doses. Medical users of ionizing radiation are radiological technologists. The purpose of this paper is to point out to several facts and errors in radiation protection educational programs for radiological technologists. Medical College educational program covers main specific topics in radiation protection, but there are some omissions in training process. Radiological technologists must be actively involved in radiation protection. Following ethical standards they will reach higher standards than the law requires

  4. The present and future role of coastal wetland vegetation in protecting shorelines: Answering recent challenges to the paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedan, Keryn B.; Kirwan, Matthew L.; Wolanski, Eric; Barbier, Edward B.; Silliman, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    For more than a century, coastal wetlands have been recognized for their ability to stabilize shorelines and protect coastal communities. However, this paradigm has recently been called into question by small-scale experimental evidence. Here, we conduct a literature review and a small meta-analysis of wave attenuation data, and we find overwhelming evidence in support of established theory. Our review suggests that mangrove and salt marsh vegetation afford context-dependent protection from erosion, storm surge, and potentially small tsunami waves. In biophysical models, field tests, and natural experiments, the presence of wetlands reduces wave heights, property damage, and human deaths. Meta-analysis of wave attenuation by vegetated and unvegetated wetland sites highlights the critical role of vegetation in attenuating waves. Although we find coastal wetland vegetation to be an effective shoreline buffer, wetlands cannot protect shorelines in all locations or scenarios; indeed large-scale regional erosion, river meandering, and large tsunami waves and storm surges can overwhelm the attenuation effect of vegetation. However, due to a nonlinear relationship between wave attenuation and wetland size, even small wetlands afford substantial protection from waves. Combining man-made structures with wetlands in ways that mimic nature is likely to increase coastal protection. Oyster domes, for example, can be used in combination with natural wetlands to protect shorelines and restore critical fishery habitat. Finally, coastal wetland vegetation modifies shorelines in ways (e.g. peat accretion) that increase shoreline integrity over long timescales and thus provides a lasting coastal adaptation measure that can protect shorelines against accelerated sea level rise and more frequent storm inundation. We conclude that the shoreline protection paradigm still stands, but that gaps remain in our knowledge about the mechanistic and context-dependent aspects of shoreline

  5. Radiation protection infrastructure and role of the competent authority in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on Radiation Protection Act of Iran (RPAI), which was ratified in 1989, the National Radiation Protection Department (NRPD) has an authority to regulate and to control radiation protection activities over the entire range of ionizing and non-ionizing source applications in Iran. For this purpose, about 100 scientific experts, technical and administrative staff members are involved in research, training and administrative activities through seven main Divisions and three Committees in this Department to protect radiation workers, members of the public, the environment and future generations against the harmful effects of radiation. Considering the increasing applications of radiation sources in different fields such as industry and medicine, as well as operation of Bushehr nuclear power plant in near future, further developments are needed for the upcoming radiation protection programmes in Iran. (author)

  6. Protective role of grape seed extract against the effect of electromagnetic radiation on retinal rhodopsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent time, people exposure to blue light has increased. Much of the world of commercial display and industry is lit with cool white fluorescent tubes which emit a strong spike of light in the blue and ultraviolet ranges. Indeed many homes and offices are lit with cool white fluorescent tubes. No doubts, more people are spending more time in front of Video Display Terminals which produce blue light. This study aimed to investigate the effect of blue light and the combined effect of blue light and gamma radiation on retinal rhodopsin. Also, the possible protective role of grape seed extract (GSE) to retinal rhodopsin was tested. New zealand albino rabbits were used in this study. The rabbits were classified into five groups I, II, III, IV and V according to the following: Group I: used as control group. Group II: subdivided into four subgroups subgroups were exposed to blue light of intensity 3.9 lux and decapitated after 48 hours, one week, two weeks and 3 weeks respectively. Group III: subdivided into four subgroups. All rabbits were supplemented with 10 mg/Kg body weight Grape seed extract (GSE) two weeks before exposure to 3.9 lux blue light. GSE supplementation was continued till decapitation. Rabbits were decapitated after 48 hours, one week, two weeks and 3 weeks of exposure to blue light respectively. Group IV: subdivided into two subgroups. The two subgroups were exposed to blue light of 3.9 lux for one week and two weeks, then irradiated with 5 Gy gamma rays and decapitated. Group V: subdivided into two subgroups. The rabbits were supplemented with 10 mg/Kg body weight Grape seed extract (GSE) two weeks before exposure to 3.9 lux blue light for one week and two weeks respectively. After these periods, the rabbits were irradiated with 5 Gy gamma rays then decapitated. GSE supplementation was continued till decapitation. At the end of each period, the electroretinogram (ERG) was recorded. After the decapitation, the rhodopsin was extracted and the

  7. The role of coral reef rugosity in dissipating wave energy and coastal protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel; Rovere, Alessio; Parravicini, Valeriano; Casella, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    Coral reefs are the most effective natural barrier in dissipating wave energy through breaking and bed friction. The attenuation of wave energy by coral reef flats is essential in the protection and stability of coral reef aligned coasts and reef islands. However, the effectiveness of wave energy dissipation by coral reefs may be diminished under future climate change scenarios with a potential reduction of coral reef rugosity due to increased stress environmental stress on corals. The physical roughness or rugosity of coral reefs is directly related to ecological diversity, reef health, and hydrodynamic roughness. However, the relationship between physical roughness and hydrodynamic roughness is not well understood despite the crucial role of bed friction in dissipating wave energy in coral reef aligned coasts. We examine the relationship between wave energy dissipation across a fringing reef in relation to the cross-reef ecological zonation and the benthic hydrodynamic roughness. Waves were measured by pressure transducers in a cross-reef transect on the reefs flats and post processed on a wave by wave basis to determine wave statistics such as significant wave height and wave period. Results from direct wave measurement were then used to calibrate a 1D wave dissipation model that incorporates dissipation functions due to bed friction and wave breaking. This model was used to assess the bed roughness required to produce the observed wave height dissipation during propagation from deep water and across the coral reef flats. Changes in wave dissipation was also examined under future scenarios of sea level rise and reduced bed roughness. Three dimensional models of the benthic reef structure were produced through structure-from-motion photogrammetry surveys. Reef rugosity was then determined from these surveys and related to the roughness results from the calibrated model. The results indicate that applying varying roughness coefficients as the benthic ecological

  8. Historical Role of Lauriston S. Taylor in American Radiation Safety and Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Shunichi

    2005-01-01

    What do we need to know about radiation, especially 60 years after the Atomic Bombing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki? It is a great honor and pleasure for me to introduce Dr. Lauriston Sale Taylor on this special occasion, who was a leader in American radiation safety and health protection before and after the Second World War. We can learn a lot from Dr. Taylor as well as from our own experience and knowledge on Atomic Bomb Survivors (Hibakusha): how to protect ourselves, how to protect our famil...

  9. National conference 'The Concept Culture of Radioprotection and its role in population and environmental protection'. Program, Communications, Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the national conference titled 'The Concept 'Culture of Radioprotection' and its role in population and environmental protection' held in Bucharest on October, 18 in 2011 contained 15 communication. The conference included also a round table which addressed the main subject of the meeting and also a general meeting of the fellows of Romanian Society for Radioprotection, RSR. These meetings highlighted the contributions of the of its fellows to the 'IRPA regional convention for central and eastern Europe,held at Brasov, Romania in September 24-28, 2007 which was focused on 'Regional and global aspects of radiological protection', to the 'Third IRPA European Congress held in Helsinki, Finland, on June 14-18, 2010 and also to the 'Joint National Conference with Labor Medicine Department on 'Protection in professional exposure to ionizing radiations' held in Bucharest October 8, 2010. Documents concerning these contributions can be obtained on request from RSR

  10. The Role of Nuclear Fragmentation in Particle Therapy and Space Radiation Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Cary; La Tessa, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The transport of the so-called HZE particles (those having high charge, Z, and energy, E) through matter is crucially important both in space radiation protection and in the clinical setting where heavy ions are used for cancer treatment. HZE particles are usually considered those having Z > 1, though sometimes Z > 2 is meant. Transport physics is governed by two types of interactions, electromagnetic (ionization energy loss) and nuclear. Models of transport, such as those used in treatment planning and space mission planning must account for both effects in detail. The theory of electromagnetic interactions is well developed, but nucleus-nucleus collisions are so complex that no fundamental physical theory currently describes them. Instead, interaction models are generally anchored to experimental data, which in some areas are far from complete. The lack of fundamental physics knowledge introduces uncertainties in the calculations of exposures and their associated risks. These uncertainties are greatly compounded by the much larger uncertainties in biological response to HZE particles. In this article, we discuss the role of nucleus-nucleus interactions in heavy charged particle therapy and in deep space, where astronauts will receive a chronic low dose from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and potentially higher short-term doses from sporadic, unpredictable solar energetic particles (SEPs). GCRs include HZE particles; SEPs typically do not and we, therefore, exclude them from consideration in this article. Nucleus-nucleus collisions can result in the breakup of heavy ions into lighter ions. In space, this is generally beneficial because dose and dose equivalent are, on the whole, reduced in the process. The GCRs can be considered a radiation field with a significant high-LET component; when they pass through matter, the high-LET component is attenuated, at the cost of a slight increase in the low-LET component. Not only are the standard measures of risk

  11. The Role of Nuclear Fragmentation in Particle Therapy and Space Radiation Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cary eZeitlin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The transport of so-called HZE particles (those having high charge, Z, and energy, E through matter is crucially important both in space radiation protection and in the clinical setting where heavy ions are used for cancer treatment. Transport physics is governed by two types of interactions, electromagnetic (ionization energy loss and nuclear. Models of transport such as those used in treatment planning and space mission planning must account for both effects in detail. The theory of electromagnetic interactions is well developed, but nucleus-nucleus collisions are so complex that no fundamental physical theory currently describes them. Instead, interaction models are generally anchored to experimental data, which in some areas are far from complete. The lack of fundamental physics knowledge introduces uncertainties in the calculations of exposures and their associated risks. These uncertainties are greatly compounded by the much larger uncertainties in biological response to HZE particles. In this article, we discuss the role of nucleus-nucleus interactions in heavy charged particle therapy and in deep space, where astronauts will receive a chronic low dose from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs and potentially higher short-term doses from sporadic, unpredictable Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs. GCRs include HZE particles; SEPs typically do not and we therefore exclude them from consideration in this article. Nucleus-nucleus collisions can result in the breakup of heavy ions into lighter ions. In space, this is generally beneficial because dose and dose equivalent are, on the whole, reduced in the process. The GCRs can be considered a radiation field with a significant high-LET component; when they pass through matter, the high-LET component is attenuated, at the cost of a slight increase in the low-LET component. Not only are the standard measures of risk reduced by fragmentation, but it can be argued that fragmentation also reduces the

  12. The Role of Nuclear Fragmentation in Particle Therapy and Space Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Cary; La Tessa, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The transport of the so-called HZE particles (those having high charge, Z, and energy, E) through matter is crucially important both in space radiation protection and in the clinical setting where heavy ions are used for cancer treatment. HZE particles are usually considered those having Z > 1, though sometimes Z > 2 is meant. Transport physics is governed by two types of interactions, electromagnetic (ionization energy loss) and nuclear. Models of transport, such as those used in treatment planning and space mission planning must account for both effects in detail. The theory of electromagnetic interactions is well developed, but nucleus–nucleus collisions are so complex that no fundamental physical theory currently describes them. Instead, interaction models are generally anchored to experimental data, which in some areas are far from complete. The lack of fundamental physics knowledge introduces uncertainties in the calculations of exposures and their associated risks. These uncertainties are greatly compounded by the much larger uncertainties in biological response to HZE particles. In this article, we discuss the role of nucleus–nucleus interactions in heavy charged particle therapy and in deep space, where astronauts will receive a chronic low dose from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and potentially higher short-term doses from sporadic, unpredictable solar energetic particles (SEPs). GCRs include HZE particles; SEPs typically do not and we, therefore, exclude them from consideration in this article. Nucleus–nucleus collisions can result in the breakup of heavy ions into lighter ions. In space, this is generally beneficial because dose and dose equivalent are, on the whole, reduced in the process. The GCRs can be considered a radiation field with a significant high-LET component; when they pass through matter, the high-LET component is attenuated, at the cost of a slight increase in the low-LET component. Not only are the standard measures of risk

  13. Protective Role of Alpha Lipoic Acid Against Disorders Induced by Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    histopathological alterations, compared to irradiated rats. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that ALA may play a protective role against the destructive effects induced by γ-radiation and reduced the biochemical and histopathological events of radiation sickness

  14. A role for the intermediate affinity IL-2R in the protection against glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo, A; Pitton, C; García, A; Gómez, J; Silva, A

    1995-01-01

    Recent work has shown that T lymphocytes undergo apoptosis upon treatment with the glucocorticoid analogue dexamethasone. These cells can be protected from the effect of dexamethasone by interleukin-2 (IL-2) or IL-4. We were interested in analysing whether a transfected cell dependent on three different lymphokines could be protected by them from the effect of dexamethasone. In addition, we took advantage of our cellular system, in which we expressed intermediate- or high-affinity IL-2R independently, to analyse the role of these receptors in the protection from glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. In this report we show that IL-2 rescues murine T cells expressing exogenous intermediate- (TS1 beta) or high-affinity (TS1 alpha beta) IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) from dexamethasone-induced apoptosis. This result suggests that intermediate-affinity IL-2R alone can replace high-affinity IL-2R for the protection from the effect of dexamethasone. In addition, IL-4 and IL-9 are rescue-factors, as well as IL-2, of glucocorticoid-treated TS1 beta and TS1 alpha beta cells. Our data suggest that the presence of the alpha-chain of the IL-2R is not required for rescue by IL-2 from the effect of dexamethasone. In addition, we show that proliferation is not required for preventing glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. This result implies a new role for the intermediate-affinity IL-2R. Images Figure 4 Figure 7 PMID:7751021

  15. The risk of self-protection: the role of bank bailout guarantees in channelling sovereign credit risk internationally

    OpenAIRE

    Gori, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of banks’ foreign asset holdings in transmitting credit risk internationally. Foreign exposure in risky assets might severely affect the solvability of credit institutions. Credit risk, in turn, transfers from banks to public accounts as a consequence of implicit or explicit bailout guarantees to distressed banking systems. This paper articulates this mechanism with a simple model where governments choose to fill banks' capital gaps to self-protect from the se...

  16. Age-Related Cognitive Impairment as a Sign of Geriatric Neurocardiovascular Interactions: May Polyphenols Play a Protective Role?

    OpenAIRE

    Fedor Jagla; Olga Pechanova

    2015-01-01

    It is known that endothelial dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases implicated also in cognitive decline. Experimental studies pointed to the fact that the modification of NO levels via NOS activity may affect the blood pressure level as well as several higher nervous functions—for example, learning and memory. There are emerging evidences from in vitro and animal studies suggesting that polyphenols may potentially have a protective e...

  17. Protective role of antimannan and anti-aspartyl proteinase antibodies in an experimental model of Candida albicans vaginitis in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    De Bernardis, F.; Boccanera, M; Adriani, D; Spreghini, E; G. Santoni; Cassone, A.

    1997-01-01

    The role of antibodies (Abs) in the resistance to vaginal infection by Candida albicans was investigated by using a rat vaginitis model. Animals receiving antimannoprotein (anti-MP) and anti-aspartyl proteinase (Sap) Ab-containing vaginal fluids from rats clearing a primary C. albicans infection showed a highly significant level of protection against vaginitis compared to animals given Ab-free vaginal fluid from noninfected rats. Preabsorption of the Ab-containing fluids with either one or bo...

  18. Role of apolipoprotein E4 in protecting children against early childhood diarrhea outcomes and implications for later development

    OpenAIRE

    Oriá, Reinaldo B.; Patrick, Peter D.; Blackman, James A.; Lima, Aldo A.M.; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2006-01-01

    Our group and others have reported a series of studies showing that heavy burdens of diarrheal diseases in the formative first two years of life in children in urban shantytowns have profound consequences of impaired physical and cognitive development lasting into later childhood and schooling. Based on these previous studies showing that apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) is relatively common in favela children, we review recent data suggesting a protective role for the APOE4 allele in the cognitive ...

  19. INTERNAL CONTROLS AND THE POWER OF NEGOTIATION: THE ROLE OF IDENTITY MANAGEMENT IN THE PROTECTION OF INFORMATION ASSETS

    OpenAIRE

    David L. Coss

    2014-01-01

    This research is focused on developing an understanding of how individuals identify with their assigned roles and responsibility structures within an organization. Additionally it is concerned with how individuals approach their responsibility and accountability for protecting information assets within an organization. We utilize Social Identity Theory and Identity Theory as a lens for analyzing the negotiation process between an organization and their stakeholders, with respect to identifyin...

  20. Internal controls and the power of negotiation : the role of identity management in the protection of information assets

    OpenAIRE

    David L. Coss

    2014-01-01

    This research is focused on developing an understanding of how individuals identify with their assigned roles and responsibility structures within an organization. Additionally it is concerned with how individuals approach their responsibility and accountability for protecting information assets within an organization. We utilize Social Identity Theory and Identity Theory as a lens for analyzing the negotiation process between an organization and their stakeholders, with respect to identifyin...

  1. Protective properties of wine products and the role of high performance liquid chromatography in the study of these properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the biologically active substances present in wines and wine products, the methods of their determination, and changes under chemical, radiation and other types of action are generalized. The role of high performance liquid chromatography in the studies of the protective properties of wines is demonstrated. Particular attention is devoted to problems of counterfeiting of wine products and the possibility to reveal it by using amperometric determination of the antioxidant activity. The bibliography includes 117 references

  2. Role of sodium in protection by extended-spectrum penicillins against tobramycin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Sabra, R; Branch, R A

    1990-01-01

    Salt depletion is known to potentiate aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity, while salt replacement attenuates it. Recent studies have shown that ticarcillin protects against tobramycin and gentamicin nephrotoxicity. It has been suggested that this protection is due to an interaction between ticarcillin and the aminoglycoside. However, it can also be explained by the salt load associated with ticarcillin administration. This study was conducted to examine this question. Tobramycin was administered to...

  3. Protective role of taurine in developing offspring affected by maternal alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Ananchaipatana-Auitragoon, Pilant; Ananchaipatana-Auitragoon, Yutthana; Siripornpanich, Vorasith; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich

    2015-01-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption is known to affect offspring growth and development, including growth deficits, physical anomalies, impaired brain functions and behavioral disturbances. Taurine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, is essential during development, and continually found to be protective against neurotoxicity and various tissue damages including those from alcohol exposure. However, it is still unknown whether taurine can exert its protection during development of central nervous syste...

  4. Exploring the Role of Public–Private Partnerships in Forest Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrika Widman

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the Swedish government established the Komet program—a pilot forest protection project that was initially implemented in five land areas. The Komet program was intended to complement existing formal protection measures by establishing partnerships with forest owners and industries to encourage these actors to take a greater interest in contributing to forest conservation efforts and Nature Conservation Agreements. Despite mixed results, the government subsequently chose to implement ...

  5. The Overlapping Roles of Manganese and Cu/Zn SOD in Oxidative Stress Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Reddi, Amit R.; Jensen, Laran T.; Naranuntarat, Amornrat; Rosenfeld, Leah; Leung, Edison; Shah, Rishita; Culotta, Valeria C.

    2008-01-01

    In various organisms, high intracellular manganese provides protection against oxidative damage through unknown pathways. Herein we use a genetic approach in S. cerevisiae to analyze factors that promote manganese as an anti-oxidant in cells lacking Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (sod1Δ). Unlike certain bacterial systems [1], oxygen resistance in yeast correlates with high intracellular manganese without a lowering of iron. This manganese for anti-oxidant protection is provided by the Nramp trans...

  6. Heat protective role and mechanism of heat shock protein Hpc60

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A cytosolic heat shock protein named Hpc60 has been purified by immunoaffinity chromatography from pea leaves and its function has been examined in vitro. Results show that Hpc60 may suppress the aggregation of luciferase (LUC), protect lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) from thermal inactivation. It also shows that Mg2+, ATP and pH affect the protective function of Hpc60 in different manners.

  7. Climate protection policy. On Germany's pioneer role; Klimaschutzpolitik. Zur Vorreiterrolle Deutschlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuebler, Knut

    2014-08-15

    After a downward trend of many years Germany's energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions have risen again slightly over the past two years. This increase has prompted the federal government to initiate a new climate protection action campaign. After almost 30 years of experience in the field of climate protection policy there is every reason for Germany to be more consistent in using its political scope to act on the unrestrained increase in global greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Neph1 Is Reduced in Primary Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis, Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome, and Corresponding Experimental Animal Models of Adriamycin-Induced Nephropathy and Puromycin Aminonucleoside Nephrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hulkko, Jenny; Patrakka, Jaakko; Lal, Mark; Tryggvason, Karl; Hultenby, Kjell; Wernerson, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The transmembrane proteins Neph1 and nephrin form a complex in the slit diaphragm (SD) of podocytes. As recent studies indicate an involvement of this complex in the polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton and proteinuria, we wanted to study the subcellular localization of Neph1 in the normal human kidney and its expression in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS), and the corresponding experimental models of Adriamycin-induced ne...

  9. The radiographer's role in child protection: Comparison of radiographers perceptions by use of focus groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Michaela [University College Dublin, School of Diagnostic Imaging, St Anthony' s, Herbert Avenue, Dublin 4 (Ireland)]. E-mail: michaela.davis@ucd.ie; Reeves, Pauline [Arrowe Park Hospital, Wirral (Ireland)

    2006-05-15

    The research presented in this paper is taken from a larger study whose aims were to devise a holistic picture of how diagnostic radiographers approach child protection issues and to explore how radiographers and other professionals see the role of radiographers in the chain of evidence in relation to child protection as this applies to children who present at the Imaging Department with suspected non-accidental injuries (NAI). A focus group methodology was used with focus groups being conducted in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. The results indicated that both United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland radiographers agreed that they had a role in child protection; however, they identified a wide interpretation as to the extent of that role. Although radiographers in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland work within different legal systems there were themes identified which were common to both countries. Although radiographers referred to a duty to the child as to all patients, no radiographer specifically mentioned the system and child care law under which it is assumed they operate. This research revealed an area which would benefit from more detailed research using a wider audience. However, the study revealed a need for training in relation to possible NAI indicators and the correct procedure for documenting their suspicions and initiating an NAI referral.

  10. Is there a role for comparative radiobiology in the development of a policy to protect the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation? Comparative radiobiology and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last few years has seen what people are now referring to as a 'shifting paradigm' in our way of thinking about radiation effects on biological systems. The concept of the central role of DNA damage due to double strand breaks induced by a radiation 'hit' has been itself hit by many studies showing persistent effects in the distant progeny of radiation exposed cells. This phenomenon is known as radiation induced genomic instability. More recently evidence has been accumulating that not even the parent cell need be exposed to radiation (the bystander effect), and that the bystander cells can demonstrate genomic instability and effects at low doses which are inconsistent with a mechanism based on DNA hits as important targets at low doses. The new paradigm suggests that cellular stress responses or damage signalling through a range of signal transduction pathways are involved. Cell-cell contact or secretion of damage signalling molecules can induce responses in undamaged and unirradiated cells. Are these new effects relevant to risk assessment, or does it matter how radiation affects cells if we have good epidemiological evidence on which to base our risk estimates? If DNA based dose responses are not so important at environmentally relevant doses, then it is not logical to base our environmental protection system on consideration of radiation dose as if this is in some way unique and not affected by the presence of other environmental stressors. The aim of this paper is to review the new concepts and to consider reasons why they might alter our methods of risk estimation. In particular the paper considers the impact of the new concepts on environmental protection and discusses the need for research in the field of comparative radiobiology if we are to develop policies which can adequately protect biodiversity. (author)

  11. The Role of Objective Numeracy and Fluid Intelligence in Sex-Related Protective Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Nathan F; Peters, Ellen; Leon, Juan; Benavides, Martin; Baker, David P; Norris, Alison

    2015-01-01

    A wealth of studies has indicated that greater cognitive ability is related to healthier behaviors and outcomes throughout the lifespan. In the present paper, we focus on objective numeracy (ability with numbers) and present findings from a study conducted in the Peruvian Highlands that examines the relations among formal education, numeracy, other more general cognitive skills, and a sex-related protective behavior (condom use). Our results show a potential unique protective effect of numeracy on this healthprotective behavior even after accounting for measures of fluid intelligence and potential confounding factors. These results add to a growing literature highlighting the robust protective effect on health behaviors of greater cognitive skills that are enhanced through schooling. Challenges for future research will be identifying the causal mechanisms that underlie these effects and translating this knowledge into effective interventions for improving health. PMID:26149157

  12. The role of protective systems in cell homeostasis upon gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a number of parameters that are used for the estimation of cell defence against radiation and chemicals: induced initial DNA damage, residual damage after a period of repair, rate and fidelity of repair, endpoint (chromosomal changes and cell survival). Antioxidant enzymes are main pathway of cell defence: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutatione peroxidase, glutatione-S-transferase et al. Key enzyme is SOD which naturalizes reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are main damaging component of the radiation and some chemical action. Glutatione-S-transferase (GST) conjugates ROS to glutatione prior to their excretion from the body. The GST M1 null (one from family of GST) genotype is found in about 50% Europeans, Japanese, but only one-quarter of Afro-Americans. Lack of this enzyme may result in deficient detoxification leading to increase sensitivity to mutagens and in risk of cancer. Another system of cell defence involves enzymes taking part in DNA repair: base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair et al. A radio adaptive response (RAR) also can serve as cell defence system. RAR forms a cell resistance to gamma-radiation after cell pretreatment with low doses of radiation and some incubation (3-4 hours). Purpose of our investigation: 1) to estimate the role of SOD in human cells isolated from healthy donors, children with some repair-deficient diseases (Bloom syndrome, Marfan syndrome) and children from area with an increased level of radiation; 2) to compare SOD activity in human cells and human cells during RAR; 3) to study a possible link between cell survival and initial damage of DNA after treatment with TRIEN - inhibitor of SOD - and with garlic extract - natural anti mutagen. We found the increased level of damage of DNA in trien-pretreated cells (healthy and repair-deficient cells). However this level was similar in lymphocytes of children from areas with an increased level of radiation without and with trien

  13. Promoting radiation protection in France and Europe. The key role of IRSN, French Technical Safety Organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRSN, the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety was set up in France under Article 5 of French Act No. 2001-398 of May 9, 2001 as the French 'Technical Safety Organization' (TSO) expert in nuclear and radiological risks. It contributes to the implementation of public policies concerning nuclear safety and security and protection of human health and environment against ionizing radiation. IRSN interacts with all the parties concerned by these policies (public authorities, operators and stakeholders) while keeping its independence of judgment. (orig.)

  14. The protective role of optimism and self-esteem on depressive symptom pathways among Canadian Aboriginal youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Megan E; Rawana, Jennine S; Gentile, Petrice; Morgan, Ashley S

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal youth are at disproportionate risk for depression and substance use problems. Increasingly, developmental theories have shifted from focusing on vulnerabilities to protective factors for adolescent depression. In particular, theories emphasizing protective factors are relevant when understanding the mental health of Aboriginal youth. However, it is unclear which factors protect against depressive symptomatology among Aboriginal adolescents to promote optimal development. Using multilevel growth curve modeling, the present study had three main objectives. First, we aimed to model the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms using a sample of off-reserve Aboriginal youth from a national Canadian dataset (ages 12-23). Second, we sought to examine the relationship between alcohol use behaviors, self-esteem, optimism, and the trajectories of depressive symptoms. Lastly, we investigated whether self-esteem and optimism mediated the relationship between alcohol use and depressive symptoms. Gender differences were also examined within each of the study objectives. A sample of off-reserve Aboriginal youth (N = 283; 48.3% male) was selected from cycles 4-7 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Heavy drinking was a risk factor for depressive symptoms, while self-esteem and optimism were key protective factors for depressive symptoms among early adolescent Aboriginal youth. Further, the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms among Canadian Aboriginal youth differed for boys and girls once accounting for risk and protective factors. Thus, it is valuable to integrate the protective role of self-esteem and optimism into developmental theories of depression and mental health intervention programs for early adolescent Aboriginal youth. PMID:24045879

  15. Renin-angiotensin system in ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction: Potential protective role of Angiotensin (1-7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurta', Anna; Zambelli, Vanessa; Bellani, Giacomo

    2016-09-01

    Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction is a feared complication of mechanical ventilation that adversely affects the outcome of intensive care patients. Human and animal studies demonstrate atrophy and ultrastructural alteration of diaphragmatic muscular fibers attributable to increased oxidative stress, depression of the anabolic pathway regulated by Insulin-like growing factor 1 and increased proteolysis. The renin-angiotensin system, through its main peptide Angiotensin II, plays a major role in skeletal muscle diseases, mainly increasing oxidative stress and inducing insulin resistance, atrophy and fibrosis. Conversely, its counter-regulatory peptide Angiotensin (1-7) has a protective role in these processes. Recent data on rodent models show that renin-angiotensin system is activated after mechanical ventilation and that infusion of Angiotensin II induces diaphragmatic skeletal muscle atrophy. Given: (A) common pathways shared by ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction and skeletal muscle pathology induced by renin-angiotensin system, (B) evidences of an involvement of renin-angiotensin system in diaphragm atrophy and dysfunction, we hypothesize that renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction, while Angiotensin (1-7) can have a protective effect on this pathological process. The activation of renin-angiotensin system in ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction can be demonstrated by quantification of its main components in the diaphragm of ventilated humans or animals. The infusion of Angiotensin (1-7) in an established rodent model of ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction can be used to test its potential protective role, that can be further confirmed with the infusion of Angiotensin (1-7) antagonists like A-779. Verifying this hypothesis can help in understanding the processes involved in ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction pathophysiology and open new possibilities for its

  16. Effect of time between x-irradiation and chemotherapy on the growth of three solid mouse tumors. I. Adriamycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been carried out to determine the effect of different time intervals between x-irradiation (1200 rad) and the administration of Adriamycin (ADR) (6 mg/kg) on the growth delay produced in 3 mouse tumors. The tumors used were the EMT6/St/i.d. tumor in BALB/c mice and the KHT and RIF-1 sarcomas in C3H mice. All tumors were grown intramuscularly in the gastrocnemius muscle and treatment was carried out at a mean tumor weight of 450 mg. Time to reach 2X (for KHT) or 4X (for EMT6/St/i.d. and RIF-1) treatment volume was used as the endpoint of response. The drug was administered by the intraperitoneal route either 24, 6, or 2 h before radiation, immediately before the start of radiation, or 3, 6, or 24 h after radiation. All irradiations were carried out in unanesthetized mice. For a single administration at this dose level (close to the maximum tolerated dose), ADR alone produced only minimal growth delay in any of the tumors. Furthermore, the growth delays produced by drug/radiation combinations were not significantly different from the addition of the growth delays produced by the single modalities

  17. P-glycoprotein in adriamycin-resistant cells functions as an efflux pump for benzopyrene, a chemical carcinogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao Yeh, G.; Poore, C.M.; Lopaczynska, J.; Phang, J.M. (NCI-FCRDC, Frederick, MD (United States))

    1991-03-15

    The physiological function of multidrug resistant gene (MDR 1) coded P-glycoprotein 170 (P-gp) in normal tissues remains unknown. The authors propose that P-gp functions as an efflux pump in normal tissues for benzopyrene and other xenobiotic substances. To examine their hypothesis the authors used a series of MDR human breast cancer MCF-7 cells with increasing degrees of drug resistance, expression of MDR and levels of P-gp. First, they found the IC{sub 50} for benzopyrene is linearly correlated with the levels of P-gp at different stages of adriamycin resistant MCF-7 cells. Using P-gp ({sup 3}H)azidopine labeling as a measurement of P-gp they found benzopyrene competes for labeling of P-gp. Finally, they directly measured cellular efflux of benzopyrene with adherent cell laser cytometry and found that resistant cells expressing high levels of P-gp showed rapid efflux of benzopyrene. By contrast, drug sensitive wild type cells with undetectable P-gp showed negligible efflux. They conclude that P-gp can function as an efflux pump for benzopyrene and suggest that P-gp may be a cellular mechanism for resistance to carcinogens.

  18. Effect of high dose alpha-tocopherol acetate on the toxicity and tissue distribution of adriamycin (doxorubicin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinozawa,Shinya

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of alpha-tocopherol acetate (VE on the toxicity and tissue distribution of adriamycin (ADM in mice was studied. After the administration of ADM in 2 doses of 15 mg/kg, mice pretreated with olive oil survived 7.1 +/- 1.0 days, while mice pretreated with VE in ten doses of 500 mg/kg/day (subcutaneously survived 5.5 +/- 1.7 days (p less than 0.01. The total concentration of ADM and its major metabolite, aglycone I in the liver (1, 3, 5 h, kidneys (1, 3 h, and heart (3 h, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography was significantly higher in the VE-pretreated group (four doses of 500 mg/kg/day than in the olive oil-pretreated group. The aglycone levels of the VE-pretreated group were significantly higher than those of the olive oil-pretreated group in the liver, kidney and heart, but there was no significant difference between the groups in the levels of the unmetabolized form. Considering these results, the administration of VE concomitant with anti-tumor drugs, including ADM, requires great caution.

  19. Wilderness Protection in Europe: The Role of International, European and National Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, Kees

    2015-01-01

    In recent years strong concerns have been raised about the protection of the remaining areas of wilderness in Europe. Despite an extensive human footprint, Europe still retains large areas with a high degree of native and free functioning ecosystems, where roads, buildings, bridges, cables and other

  20. A role of nitric oxide mechanism involved in the protective effects of venlafaxine in sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Garg, Ruchika

    2008-12-12

    The present study was designed to explore the possible nitric oxide mechanism in protective effect of venlafaxine in sleep deprivation in mice. Laca mice were sleep deprived for period of 72 h using grid suspended over water method. Venlafaxine (2.5, 5 and 10mg/kg, ip), l-arginine (50mg/kg, ip), l-NAME (10mg/kg, ip) and methylene blue (10mg/kg, ip) were administered for 5 days, starting 2 days before 72-h sleep deprivation. Various behavioral tests (plus maze, zero maze, mirror chamber tests for anxiety, and actophotometer test) followed by oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde level, glutathione, catalase, nitrite and protein) were assessed. The present study showed that venlafaxine (5 and 10mg/kg, ip) drug treatment significantly reversed 72-h sleep deprivation caused anxiety like behavior, impairment in locomotor activity and oxidative damage (increased lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels and depleted reduced glutathione and catalase activity) as compared to control. l-NAME (10mg/kg) and methylene blue (10mg/kg) pretreatment with lower dose of venlafaxine (5mg/kg) potentiated the protective effect of venlafaxine (5mg/kg). However, l-arginine (50mg/kg) pretreatment with venlafaxine (5mg/kg) reversed the protective effect of venlafaxine. Results of present study suggest that nitric oxide mechanism is involved in the protective effect of venlafaxine against sleep-deprivation-induced behavior alteration and oxidative damage in mice. PMID:18674568

  1. Students' Perspectives on University Experiences; The Role of Protective Factors in Students' Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jdaitawi, Malek; Maya-Panorama; Nawafleh, Ahmad; Nabrawi, Ismaeel; Talafha, Feras; Mohd, Amani

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between protective factors and students' university experiences among 289 first year university students. The study made use of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to reveal initial support for the research variables. In addition, path analysis was utilized to investigate the relationship among the…

  2. Decreased risk of prostate cancer after skin cancer diagnosis: A protective role of ultraviolet radiation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. de Vries (Esther); I. Soerjomataram (Isabelle); S. Houterman (Saskia); M.W.J. Louwman (Marieke); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractUltraviolet radiation causes skin cancer but may protect against prostate cancer. The authors hypothesized that skin cancer patients had a lower prostate cancer incidence than the general population. In the southeastern part of the Netherlands, a population-based cohort of male skin canc

  3. The role and activities of the ILO concerning the radiation protection of workers (ionizing radiation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1984 International Labour Conference Resolution concerning the improvement of the working conditions and the environment laid down the fundamental objectives and principles on which the Infocus Programme on Safety and Health and the Environment (SafeWork) of the International Labour Organization (ILO) is based. The protection of the worker against ionizing radiations falls naturally within the scope of this programme which uses, in a co-ordinated manner, the various means of action available to the ILO to give governments and employers' and workers' organizations the necessary help in drawing up and implementing programmes for the improvement of working conditions and the environment. These include international standards in the form of conventions and recommendations, codes of practice, dissemination of information through, for example, the International Safety and Health Information Centre and technical co-operation activities. In June 1960, the International Labour Conference adopted Convention No.115 and recommendation No.114 concerning the protection of workers against ionizing radiations. Convention No.115, which provides that each Member of the ILO ratifying it shall give effect to its provisions by means of laws, regulations, or other appropriate methods, has been ratified by 47 countries. There has been a long standing history of efficient interagency co-operation on radiation protection and the current activities of the ILO are centred on the promotion of the active involvement of employers' and workers' organizations in occupational radiation protection and the implementation of the International Basic Safety Standards and Safety Fundamentals at both international and national levels. (author)

  4. Prediction of T cell epitopes of Brucella abortus and evaluation of their protective role in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afley, Prachiti; Dohre, Sudhir K; Prasad, G B K S; Kumar, Subodh

    2015-09-01

    Brucellae are Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that cause an important zoonotic disease called brucellosis. The animal vaccines are available but have disadvantage of causing abortions in a proportion of pregnant animals. The animal vaccines are also pathogenic to humans. Recent trend in vaccine design has shifted to epitope-based vaccines that are safe and specific. In this study, efforts were made to identify MHC-I- and MHC-II-restricted T cell epitopes of Brucella abortus and evaluate their vaccine potential in mice. The peptides were designed using online available immunoinformatics tools, and five MHC-I- and one MHC-II-restricted T cell peptides were selected on the basis of their ability to produce interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in in vivo studies. The selected peptides were co-administered with poly DL-lactide-co-glycolide (PLG) microparticles and evaluated for immunogenicity and protection in BALB/c mice. Mice immunized with peptides either entrapped in PLG microparticles (EPLG-Pep) or adsorbed on PLG particles (APLG-Pep) showed significantly higher splenocyte proliferation and IFN-γ generation to all selected peptides than the mice immunized with corresponding irrelevant peptides formulated PLG microparticles or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). A significant protection compared to PBS control was also observed in EPLG-Pep and APLG-Pep groups. A plasmid DNA vaccine construct (pVaxPep) for peptides encoding DNA sequences was generated and injected to mice by in vivo electroporation. Significant protection was observed (1.66 protection units) when compared with PBS and empty vector control group animals. Overall, the MHC-I and MHC-II peptides identified in this study are immunogenic and protective in mouse model and support the feasibility of peptide-based vaccine for brucellosis. PMID:26150246

  5. Role of hippocampal dentate gyrus neurons in the protective effects of heat shock factor 1 on working memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Peng; Xiongzhao Zhu; Ming Cheng; Xiangyi Chen; Shuqiao Yao

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that heat shock factor 1 exerts endogenous protective effects on working memory under conditions of chronic psychological stress. However, the precise underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study examined the protective factors affecting working memory in heat shock transcription factor 1 gene knockout mice. The results indicated that the number of correct T maze alternations decreased following mild chronic psychological stress in knockout mice. This change was accompanied by a decrease in neurogenesis and an increase in neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. The number of correct T maze alternations was positively correlated with neurogenesis in hippocampal dentate gyrus, and negatively correlated with neuronal apoptosis. In wild type mice, no significant difference was detected in the number of correct T maze alternations or neuronal apoptosis in hippocampal dentate gyrus. These results indicate that the heat shock factor 1 gene has an endogenous protective role in working memory during mild chronic psychological stress associated with dentate gyrus neuronal apoptosis.Moreover, dentate gyrus neurogenesis appears to participate in the protective mechanism.

  6. Numerical investigations of cooling holes system role in the protection of the walls of a gas turbine combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Sik Ali, Ahlem; Kriaa, Wassim; Mhiri, Hatem [Ecole Nationale D' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Unite de Thermique et Thermodynamique des Procedes industriels, Monastir (Tunisia); Bournot, Philippe [IUSTI, UMR CNRS 6595, Marseille (France)

    2012-05-15

    Numerical simulations in a gas turbine Swirl stabilized combustor were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a cooling system in the protection of combustor walls. The studied combustion chamber has a high degree of geometrical complexity related to the injection system as well as the cooling system based on a big distribution of small holes (about 3,390 holes) bored on the flame tube walls. Two cases were considered respectively the flame tube without and with its cooling system. The calculations were carried out using the industrial CFD code FLUENT 6.2. The various simulations made it possible to highlight the role of cooling holes in the protection of the flame tube walls against the high temperatures of the combustion products. In fact, the comparison between the results of the two studied cases demonstrated that the walls temperature can be reduced by about 800 C by the mean of cooling holes technique. (orig.)

  7. Dual protective role of HO-1 in transplanted liver grafts: A review of experimental and clinical studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Feng Wang; Zhen-Yu Wang; Ji-Yu Li

    2011-01-01

    Liver transplantation is considered as the most effective treatment for end-stage liver disease. However, serious complications still exist, particularly in two aspects: ischemia and subsequent reperfusion of the liver, causing postoperative hepatic dysfunction and even failure; and acute and chronic graft rejections, affecting the allograft survival. Heme oxygenase (HO), a stressresponse protein, is believed to exert a protective function on both the development of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and graft rejection. In this review of current researches on allograft protection, we focused on the HO-1. We conjecture that HO-1 may link these two main factors affecting the prognosis of liver transplantations. In this review, the following aspects were emphasized: the basic biological functions of HO-1, its roles in IRI and allograft rejection, as well as methods to induce HO-1 and the prospects of a therapeutic application of HO-1 in liver transplantation.

  8. Assessment of evidence for a protective role of vitamin D in multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hanwell, Heather E.C.; Banwell, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Evidence for a role of vitamin D insufficiency in determining risk in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is supported by studies in both pediatric- and adult-onset patients. The potential role of vitamin D in modulating MS disease activity is an area of active clinical trials research, and the possibility of primary disease prevention with vitamin D supplementation in early life is an emerging concept. With Sir Austin Bradford Hill's criteria as a framework, the present review assess...

  9. THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS IN HUMAN RIGHTS PROTECTION

    OpenAIRE

    RAMONA-GABRIELA PARASCHIV

    2012-01-01

    One of the main concerns of democratic states and intergovernmental or supranational international organisations is referring to the respect of human rights. International nongovernmental organisations have also an important role in establishing human rights violations, boosting in taking measures for their removal, and also in the improvement of specific international regulations. For awareness of the role of these organizations, it is necessary to investigate their involvement in activities...

  10. The Protective Role of Phenolic Compounds Against Doxorubicin-induced Cardiotoxicity: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi-Azarkhiavi, Kamal; Iranshahy, Milad; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Shirani, Kobra; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Although doxorubicin (DOX) is among the most widely used anticancer agents, its clinical application is hampered owing to its cardiotoxicity. Adjuvant therapy with an antioxidant has been suggested as a promising strategy to reduce DOX-induced adverse effects. In this context, many phenolic compounds have been reported to protect against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. The cardioprotective effects of phenolic compounds are exerted via multiple mechanisms including inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation, apoptosis, NF-κB, p53, mitochondrial dysfunction, and DNA damage. In this review, we present a summary of the in vitro, in vivo, and clinical findings on the protective mechanisms of phenolic compounds against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:27341037

  11. The role of social and psychological factors in radiation protection after accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inclusion of social and psychological factors in the justification and optimisation of intervention after an accident requires identification of the relevant factors and their appropriate quantification. Recent studies suggest a possible approach. Some social and psychological factors either influence the consequences of radiation protection countermeasures, or are direct consequences of those measures. Such factors can be grouped into those that alter the dose-effectiveness of a countermeasure, those that extend the need for countermeasures in time or space, and those that fall into neither of the first two categories. Factors of the first two types can be quantified in terms of changes to the anticipated averted dose and monetary cost of a countermeasure. Quantification of the third type is currently difficult, but the existence of structural models for applications in social psychology suggests that such models could be developed for radiation protection in the future. (author)

  12. UV-B-induced Oxidative Damage and Protective Role of Exopolysaccharides in Desert Cyanobacterium Microcoleus vaginatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan-Zhou Chen; Gao-Hong Wang; Song Hong; An Liu; Cheng Li; Yong-Ding Liu

    2009-01-01

    UV-B-induced oxidative damage and the protective effect of exopolysaccharides (EPS) in Microcoleus vaginatus, a cyanobacterium isolated from desert crust, were investigated. After being irradiated with UV-B radiation, photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm), cellular total carbohydrates, EPS and sucrose production of irradiated cells decreased, while reducing sugars, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, malondialdehyde (MDA) production and DNA strand breaks increased significantly. However, when pretreated with 100 mg/L exogenous EPS, EPS production in the culture medium of UV-B stressed cells decreased significantly; Fv/Fm, cellular total carbohydrates, reducing sugars and sucrose synthase (SS) activity of irradiated cells increased significantly, while ROS generation, MDA production and DNA strand breaks of irradiated cells decreased significantly. The results suggested that EPS exhibited a significant protective effect on DNA strand breaks and lipid peroxidation by effectively eliminating ROS induced by UV-B radiation in M. vaginatus.

  13. Role of risk and protective factors in risky sexual behavior among high school students in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Siyan; Poudel Krishna C; Yasuoka Junko; Palmer Paula H; Yi Songky; Jimba Masamine

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In many developing countries, adolescents have become increasingly prone to engage in habitual risky sexual behavior such as early sexual initiation and unprotected sex. The objective of this study was to identify the operation of risk and protective factors in individual, family, peer, school, and community domains in predicting risky sexual behavior among male and female adolescents in Cambodia. Methods From October 2007 to January 2008, we collected data from 1,049 stud...

  14. Role of Natural Killer Cells in Innate Protection against Lethal Ebola Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Warfield, Kelly L.; Perkins, Jeremy G.; Swenson, Dana L.; Deal, Emily M.; Bosio, Catharine M.; Aman, M. Javad; Yokoyama, Wayne M; Young, Howard A.; Bavari, Sina

    2004-01-01

    Ebola virus is a highly lethal human pathogen and is rapidly driving many wild primate populations toward extinction. Several lines of evidence suggest that innate, nonspecific host factors are potentially critical for survival after Ebola virus infection. Here, we show that nonreplicating Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), containing the glycoprotein (GP) and matrix protein virus protein (VP)40, administered 1–3 d before Ebola virus infection rapidly induced protective immunity. VLP injectio...

  15. The role of Nrf2 in the protection against infl ammation and innate immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Atsushi; Itoh, Ken

    2007-01-01

    NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates the coordinate induction of phase 2 detoxifying and antioxidantenzymes in response to xenobiotics and oxidative stress via antioxidant responsive element. Nrf2 knockout mice arehighly susceptible to the acute toxicity generated by acetaminophen, butylated hydroxytoluene or hyperoxia and tocarcinogenesis induced by benzo[a]pyrene. Recently, it becomes increasingly evident that Nrf2 also plays essential rolesin the protection against infl ammation. Nrf2 r...

  16. Protective role of glycerol against benzene stress: insights from the Pseudomonas putida proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaganna, Prashanth; Bielecka, Agata; Molinari, Gabriella; Hallsworth, John E

    2016-05-01

    Chemical activities of hydrophobic substances can determine the windows of environmental conditions over which microbial systems function and the metabolic inhibition of microorganisms by benzene and other hydrophobes can, paradoxically, be reduced by compounds that protect against cellular water stress (Bhaganna et al. in Microb Biotechnol 3:701-716, 2010; Cray et al. in Curr Opin Biotechnol 33:228-259, 2015a). We hypothesized that this protective effect operates at the macromolecule structure-function level and is facilitated, in part at least, by genome-mediated adaptations. Based on proteome profiling of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida, we present evidence that (1) benzene induces a chaotrope-stress response, whereas (2) cells cultured in media supplemented with benzene plus glycerol were protected against chaotrope stress. Chaotrope-stress response proteins, such as those involved in lipid and compatible-solute metabolism and removal of reactive oxygen species, were increased by up to 15-fold in benzene-stressed cells relative to those of control cultures (no benzene added). By contrast, cells grown in the presence of benzene + glycerol, even though the latter grew more slowly, exhibited only a weak chaotrope-stress response. These findings provide evidence to support the hypothesis that hydrophobic substances induce a chaotropicity-mediated water stress, that cells respond via genome-mediated adaptations, and that glycerol protects the cell's macromolecular systems. We discuss the possibility of using compatible solutes to mitigate hydrocarbon-induced stresses in lignocellulosic biofuel fermentations and for industrial and environmental applications. PMID:26612269

  17. Protective role of serum antibody in immunity to chlamydial genital infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Rank, R G; Batteiger, B E

    1989-01-01

    Female guinea pigs were injected intraperitoneally with pooled immunoglobulin derived from animals immunized to the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis. Genital infections in animals receiving pooled immunoglobulin from immune animals were markedly decreased with regard to the number of inclusions detected compared with control animals. These data indicated that serum-derived antibody was able to provide a degree of protection against a chlamydial genital tract infection.

  18. Too Small To Protect? The Role of Firm Size in Trade Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew T Cole; Ben Zissimos

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a new model of a trade agreement that puts at center stage the competing interests between firms within a sector. Larger firms favor trade liberalization whereas smaller firms favor protection. Lobbying by firms for or against the agreement is modelled as an all-pay auction, thus incorporating the feature that binding contracts over contributions for policies cannot be written. A new motive for trade agreement formation is uncovered in this framework whereby governments' i...

  19. Role of Different Concentrations of Morphine after Coronary Perfusion for Myocardial Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, S.; Xiong, J; Zhan, Y.; W. Liu; Wang, X.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether the different concentrations of morphine after coronary perfusion have myocardial protection. Subjects and method: Forty-five patients undergoing heart valve replacement were randomly divided into three groups of 15 patients: group A (morphine 2 μmol/L in the cardioplegic solution), group B (morphine 4 μmol/L in the cardioplegic solution) and group C (no morphine in the cardioplegic solution). The three groups were monitored before induction (T1), five min...

  20. Financing structural change, venture capital, and unemployment: What is the role of investor protection?

    OpenAIRE

    Fehn, Rainer

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyzes the real effects of differences in structures on financial markets, especially concerning quasi-equilibrium unemployment. It argues that a vibrant venture capital market is an important prerequisite for financing structural change and thus for keeping unemployment low in the ongoing transition to the “new economy”. It furthermore points out the crucial importance of extensive investor protection in this respect. A thriving venture capital market is therefore at odds with t...

  1. Does Circulating Antibody Play a Role in the Protection of Piglets against Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus?

    OpenAIRE

    Poonsuk, Korakrit; Giménez-Lirola, Luis Gabriel; Zhang, Jianqiang; Arruda, Paolo; Chen, Qi; Correa da Silva Carrion, Lucas; Magtoto, Ronaldo; Pineyro, Pablo; Sarmento, Luciana; Wang, Chong; Sun, Yaxuan; Madson, Darin; Johnson, John; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Zimmerman, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of circulating antibody to the protection of naïve piglets against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was evaluated using a passive antibody transfer model. Piglets (n = 62) derived from 6 sows were assigned to one of 6 different treatments using a randomized block design which provided for allocation of all treatments to all sows' litters. Each treatment was designed to achieve a different level of circulating anti-PEDV antibody via intraperitoneally administration of co...

  2. The Protective Role of Galium Aparine on Cisplatin – Induced Nephrotoxicity in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    SH Zahiri; AR Dezfulian; F Dehghani

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Cisplatin is a potent antineoplastic drug. The beneficial effects of the drug are limited by its nephrotoxicity. The purpose of this study is to introduce sterological meothds (Estimation of mean glomerular volume) to determine the toxicity of drug & examine the Galium aparine (a traditional herbal plant) as a protective agent. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was done in histology department in Ahwaz University of medical sciences in 13...

  3. Maternal Transfer and Protective Role of the Alternative Complement Components in Zebrafish Danio rerio

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhiping; Zhang, Shicui; Tong, Zhou; Li, Lei; Wang, Guangfeng

    2009-01-01

    Embryos of most fish develop externally and are exposed to an aquatic environment full of potential pathogens, whereas they have little or only limited ability to mount an efficient and protective response. How fish embryos survive pathogenic attacks remains poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that the maternal immunization of female zebrafish with formalin-killed Aeromonas hydrophila causes a significant increase in C3 and Bf contents in the mother, a corresponding rise in the offspring, and...

  4. Recent Developments in the Role and Design of Social Protection Programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Veras Soares; Radhika Lal; Ryan Higgitt

    2013-01-01

    This issue of Poverty in Focus brings a set of articles that discuss some of the recent developments and innovations in the social protection area in developing countries. Most invited authors were presenters at the Policy Dialogue, Expert Workshop and South-South Learning Event organised by IPC-IG with the support of AusAID, the Secretariat of Strategic Affairs and the Institute for Applied Economic Research of the Brazilian Government in December 2012. The workshop was an opportunity to bri...

  5. Protecting role of cosolvents in protein denaturation by SDS: a structural study

    OpenAIRE

    Wouters Johan; Pouyez Jenny; Michaux Catherine; Privé Gilbert G

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Recently, we reported a unique approach to preserve the activity of some proteins in the presence of the denaturing agent, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS). This was made possible by addition of the amphipathic solvent 2,4-Methyl-2-PentaneDiol (MPD), used as protecting but also as refolding agent for these proteins. Although the persistence of the protein activity in the SDS/MPD mixture was clearly established, preservation of their structure was only speculative until now. Re...

  6. Quality assurance and radiation protection in medical exposures in Europe. A role model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical exposures constitute the major source of ionizing radiation to which the world population is exposed to. Due to this fact, the European Community has implemented a number of agreements aimed at regulating these activities. For its part, Spain - through a series of Royal Ordinances - has developed a legal framework to broadly address not only Radiation Protection but medical exposure quality criteria as well. These regulations may be used as reference criteria to addressing same issues in our country

  7. New role of JAK2/STAT3 signaling in endothelial cell oxidative stress injury and protective effect of melatonin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixun Duan

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway plays a regulatory role in cellular oxidative stress injury (OSI. In this study, we explored the role of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced OSI and the protective effect of melatonin against (H2O2-induced injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. AG490 (a specific inhibitor of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway and JAK2 siRNA were used to manipulate JAK2/STAT3 activity, and the results showed that AG490 and JAK2 siRNA inhibited OSI and the levels of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3. HUVECs were then subjected to H2O2 in the absence or presence of melatonin, the main secretory product of the pineal gland. Melatonin conferred a protective effect against H2O2, which was evidenced by improvements in cell viability, adhesive ability and migratory ability, decreases in the apoptotic index and reactive oxygen species (ROS production and several biochemical parameters in HUVECs. Immunofluorescence and Western blotting showed that H2O2 treatment increased the levels of p-JAK2, p-STAT3, Cytochrome c, Bax and Caspase3 and decreased the levels of Bcl2, whereas melatonin treatment partially reversed these effects. We, for the first time, demonstrate that the inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway results in a protective effect against endothelial OSI. The protective effects of melatonin against OSI, at least partially, depend upon JAK2/STAT3 inhibition.

  8. The Protective Role of Septilin Against Gamma Radiation-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omaima Soliman Eissa* and Nehal Aly Moustafa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: This study deals with evaluation of the histological and some histochemical alterations in rat testes induced by whole body gamma irradiation as well as evaluation of the protective effect of septilin (a herbal preparation against these effects. Results : The obtained results indicated that doses of (3 Gy and 6 Gy gamma radiation have testicular toxic effects in rats. The histological lesions observed in the testes varied between vacuolation, swelling, pyknosis and even necrosis in some spermatogenic cells as well as significant depletion in the number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids. The histochemical observations revealed diminution in the polysaccharides content and increase in the collagen fibres in the testis of irradiated animals. These effects were mostly perceptive with the high dose of the radiation than with the lower one. Treatment with septilin (a herbal preparation for one week followed by gamma radiation proved that septilin has a protective effect against gamma radiation-induced toxic effects in the testes of rats; where most of the histological and histochemical changes observed due to irradiation were minimized to a large extent; however there was no complete protection. Conclusion: Thus, this study concluded that gamma-irradiation exerts toxic effects in the testes of rats and pre-treatment with septilin inhibits these toxic effects, which in turn advocate using such herbal extract as a radioprotector.

  9. A major role for Tau in neuronal DNA and RNA protection in vivo under physiological and hyperthermic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smail Talahari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid protection is a substantial challenge for neurons, which are continuously exposed to oxidative stress in the brain. Neurons require powerful mechanisms to protect DNA and RNA integrity and ensure their functionality and longevity. Beside its well known role in microtubule dynamics, we recently discovered that Tau is also a key nuclear player in the protection of neuronal genomic DNA integrity under reactive oxygen species (ROS-inducing heat stress (HS conditions in primary neuronal cultures. In this report, we analyzed the capacity of Tau to protect neuronal DNA integrity in vivo in adult mice under physiological and HS conditions. We designed an in vivo mouse model of hyperthermia/HS to induce a transient increase in ROS production in the brain. Comet and TUNEL assays demonstrated that Tau protected genomic DNA in adult cortical and hippocampal neurons in vivo under physiological conditions in wild-type and Tau-deficient (KO-Tau mice. HS increased DNA breaks in KO-Tau neurons. Notably, KO-Tau hippocampal neurons in the CA1 subfield restored DNA integrity after HS more weakly than the dentate gyrus neurons. The formation of phosphorylated histone H2AX foci, a double-strand break marker, was observed in KO-Tau neurons only after HS, indicating that Tau deletion did not trigger similar DNA damage under physiological or HS conditions. Moreover, genomic DNA and cytoplasmic and nuclear RNA integrity were altered under HS in hippocampal neurons exhibiting Tau deficiency, which suggests that Tau also modulates RNA metabolism. Our results suggest that Tau alterations lead to a loss of its nucleic acid safeguarding functions and participate in the accumulation of DNA and RNA oxidative damage observed in the Alzheimer’s disease brain.

  10. Roles of and Threats to Indigenous Cultural Beliefs in Protection of Sacred Forests in Southwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    FOLARANMI DAPO BABALOLA; IBRAHEEM LAWAL; EGBE EMMANUEL OPII; ABIODUN OLUSESI OSO

    2014-01-01

    Sacred forests play a central role in the cultural and livelihoods of indigenous people. Despite the vital roles of sacred forests, a decline in the areas of the forests have been reported. The consequence of this is that many of the people’s indigenous knowledge systems built over the years as well as the endemic forest diversity are at the risk of becoming extinct. The study therefore investigated the contributions of selected sacred forests to rural communities as well as the challenges fa...

  11. Oral PEG 15-20 protects the intestine against radiation : role of lipid rafts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valuckaite, V.; Zaborina, O.; Long, J.; Hauer-Jensen, M.; Wang, J.; Holbrook, C.; Zaborin, A.; Drabik, K.; Katdare, M.; Mauceri, H.; Weichselbaum, R.; Firestone, M. A.; Lee, K. Y.; Chang, E. B.; Matthews, J.; Alverdy, J. C.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Arkansas

    2009-12-01

    Intestinal injury following abdominal radiation therapy or accidental exposure remains a significant clinical problem that can result in varying degrees of mucosal destruction such as ulceration, vascular sclerosis, intestinal wall fibrosis, loss of barrier function, and even lethal gut-derived sepsis. We determined the ability of a high-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol-based copolymer, PEG 15-20, to protect the intestine against the early and late effects of radiation in mice and rats and to determine its mechanism of action by examining cultured rat intestinal epithelia. Rats were exposed to fractionated radiation in an established model of intestinal injury, whereby an intestinal segment is surgically placed into the scrotum and radiated daily. Radiation injury score was decreased in a dose-dependent manner in rats gavaged with 0.5 or 2.0 g/kg per day of PEG 15-20 (n = 9-13/group, P < 0.005). Complementary studies were performed in a novel mouse model of abdominal radiation followed by intestinal inoculation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), a common pathogen that causes lethal gut-derived sepsis following radiation. Mice mortality was decreased by 40% in mice drinking 1% PEG 15-20 (n = 10/group, P < 0.001). Parallel studies were performed in cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells treated with PEG 15-20 before radiation. Results demonstrated that PEG 15-20 prevented radiation-induced intestinal injury in rats, prevented apoptosis and lethal sepsis attributable to P. aeruginosa in mice, and protected cultured intestinal epithelial cells from apoptosis and microbial adherence and possible invasion. PEG 15-20 appeared to exert its protective effect via its binding to lipid rafts by preventing their coalescence, a hallmark feature in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to radiation.

  12. Role of Different Concentrations of Morphine after Coronary Perfusion for Myocardial Protection

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    S Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether the different concentrations of morphine after coronary perfusion have myocardial protection. Subjects and method: Forty-five patients undergoing heart valve replacement were randomly divided into three groups of 15 patients: group A (morphine 2 μmol/L in the cardioplegic solution, group B (morphine 4 μmol/L in the cardioplegic solution and group C (no morphine in the cardioplegic solution. The three groups were monitored before induction (T1, five minutes before (T2 and five minutes after (T3 cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, perioperative (T4 for haemodynamic parameters, two hours after CPB (T5 and 24 hours after CPB (T6. The postoperation incidence of severe ventricular arrhythmia and low cardiac output, CPB transit time, aortic cross-clamp time, defibrillation time, duration of ventilation and intensive care unit (ICU and hospital stay were recorded. Results: The levels of cardiac troponin I (cTnI at T5 and T6 in group A and group B were significantly lower than those in group C (p < 0.05, and at T6 in group B, were lower than those in group A (p < 0.05. The levels of CK-MB at T6 in group B were lower than those in group C (p < 0.05. The morphological changes in group A and group B were less than those in group C; and the least in group B. Conclusion: Morphine at concentrations of 2 μmol/L and 4 μmol/L after coronary perfusion on cardiac valve replacement with CPB has myocardial protection; 4 μmol/L of morphine provides more myocardial protection.

  13. Morphine protects against methylmercury intoxication: a role for opioid receptors in oxidative stress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Costa-Malaquias

    Full Text Available Mercury is an extremely dangerous environmental contaminant responsible for episodes of human intoxication throughout the world. Methylmercury, the most toxic compound of this metal, mainly targets the central nervous system, accumulating preferentially in cells of glial origin and causing oxidative stress. Despite studies demonstrating the current exposure of human populations, the consequences of mercury intoxication and concomitant use of drugs targeting the central nervous system (especially drugs used in long-term treatments, such as analgesics are completely unknown. Morphine is a major option for pain management; its global consumption more than quadrupled in the last decade. Controversially, morphine has been proposed to function in oxidative stress independent of the activation of the opioid receptors. In this work, a therapeutic concentration of morphine partially protected the cellular viability of cells from a C6 glioma cell line exposed to methylmercury. Morphine treatment also reduced lipid peroxidation and totally prevented increases in nitrite levels in those cells. A mechanistic study revealed no alteration in sulfhydryl groups or direct scavenging at this opioid concentration. Interestingly, the opioid antagonist naloxone completely eliminated the protective effect of morphine against methylmercury intoxication, pointing to opioid receptors as the major contributor to this action. Taken together, the experiments in the current study provide the first demonstration that a therapeutic concentration of morphine is able to reduce methylmercury-induced oxidative damage and cell death by activating the opioid receptors. Thus, these receptors may be a promising pharmacological target for modulating the deleterious effects of mercury intoxication. Although additional studies are necessary, our results support the clinical safety of using this opioid in methylmercury-intoxicated patients, suggesting that normal analgesic doses could

  14. The role of the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory in the dissemination of standards for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 90% of the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) provide users with calibrations of radiation protection instruments, and the IAEA is taking every necessary effort to insure that SSDLs measurements are traceable to Primary Standards. The Agency has proper radiation sources available to provide traceable calibrations to the SSDLs involved in measurements on diagnostic x-ray generators, including an x-ray unit specifically for mammography dedicated to standardization procedures. The different photon beam qualities and calibration procedures available in the Agency's Dosimetry Laboratory are described

  15. Role of risk and protective factors in risky sexual behavior among high school students in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Siyan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many developing countries, adolescents have become increasingly prone to engage in habitual risky sexual behavior such as early sexual initiation and unprotected sex. The objective of this study was to identify the operation of risk and protective factors in individual, family, peer, school, and community domains in predicting risky sexual behavior among male and female adolescents in Cambodia. Methods From October 2007 to January 2008, we collected data from 1,049 students aged 14 to 20 years. Risky sexual behavior was measured using a scale consisting of four items: sexual intercourse during the past three months, number of sex partners during the past three months, age at first experience of sexual intercourse, and use of condom in last sexual intercourse. The risk factors examined included substance use, depression, peer delinquency, family violence, and community violence. Studied protective factors included family support function, frequency of family dinner, and school attachment. Results Of the 1,049 students surveyed, 12.7% reported sexual intercourse during the past three months. Out of those sexually active students, 34.6% reported having two or more sex partners over the same period, and 52.6% did not use a condom during their last sexual intercourse. After controlling for other covariates, a higher likelihood of risky sexual behavior remained significantly associated among male participants with higher levels of substance use, higher levels of peer delinquency, and higher family income. In contrast, risky sexual behavior did not retain its associations with any of the measured protective factors among male participants. Among female participants, a higher likelihood of risky sexual behavior remained significantly associated with higher levels of substance use, higher levels of community-violence witnessing, and lower levels of family support. Conclusions The findings suggest the importance of considering

  16. Protective role of caffeic acid in an Aβ25-35-induced Alzheimer's disease model

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Wang, Qian; Choi, Ji Myung; Lee, Sanghyun; Cho, Eun Ju

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by deficits in memory and cognitive functions. The accumulation of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) and oxidative stress in the brain are the most common causes of AD. MATERIALS/METHODS Caffeic acid (CA) is an active phenolic compound that has a variety of pharmacological actions. We studied the protective abilities of CA in an Aβ25-35-injected AD mouse model. CA was administered at an oral dose of 10 or 50 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks. Behavi...

  17. Role of Humoral versus Cellular Responses Induced by a Protective Dengue Vaccine Candidate

    OpenAIRE

    Zellweger, Raphaël M.; Miller, Robyn; Eddy, William E.; White, Laura J.; Johnston, Robert E.; Shresta, Sujan

    2013-01-01

    Author Summary Dengue virus is an escalating public health threat for over 2.5 billion people worldwide. The disease caused by dengue virus ranges from mild (dengue fever) to lethal (dengue hemorrhagic fever, dengue shock syndrome). To date, there is no cure or vaccine for dengue. One of the challenges to developing a safe and efficient dengue vaccine is that antibodies, usually induced by vaccines to protect the host from re-infection, can increase the severity of dengue disease if they are ...

  18. Adipophilin protein expression in muscle - a possible protective role against insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de J.; Smit, E.; Snepvangers, F.J.M.; Wit, de N.J.W.; Mohren, R.; Hulshof, M.F.M.; Mariman, E.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Adipophilin is a 50 kDa protein that belongs to the PAT family (perilipin, adipophilin, TIP47, S3-12 and OXPAT), which comprises proteins involved in the coating of lipid droplets. Little is known about the functional role of adipophilin in muscle. Using the C2C12 cell line as a model, we demonstrat

  19. Expanding Protection Motivation Theory: The Role of Individual Experience in Information Security Policy Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutchler, Leigh Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to make contributions to the area of behavioral information security in the field of Information Systems and to assist in the improved development of Information Security Policy instructional programs to increase the policy compliance of individuals. The role of an individual's experience in the context of…

  20. Socioeconomic Stress and Academic Adjustment among Asian American Adolescents: The Protective Role of Family Obligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Andrews, Kandace; Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Gonzalez, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic stress has long been found to place youth at risk, with low family income conferring disadvantages in adolescents' school achievement and success. This study investigates the role of socioeconomic stress on academic adjustment, and pinpoints family obligation as a possible buffer of negative associations. We examined direct and…

  1. The Role of the Medical Physicist in Radiation Protection in Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    Described is the role of the medical physicist in five areas of medical application, including radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, diagnostic radiology, environmental radioactivity, and dosimetry and personal monitoring. The management contribution of the medical physicist is discussed. Provided are two examples of new techniques influencing radiation…

  2. The Protective Role of Curcumin against Gamma-Irradiation Induced Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work was aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of curcumin (CMN), a yellow pigment of turmeric on γ-radiation (IRR)-induced toxicity in diabetic mice and evaluate the anti-hyper glycemic properties of this compound on streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg of body weight)-induced diabetes. Serum lipid profiles, glucose level and Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined. The level of blood glucose was elevated in diabetic animals. Circulatory lipid profiles, and TNF-α were increased significantly. Pretreatment with CMN (200 mg/kg, i.p.) for 5 consecutive days, resulted in a significant decrease in the levels of blood glucose and lipid profiles along with a significant decrease in the levels of TNF-α. The histological results obtained revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation or treatment with STZ caused histopathological damage, in the eye tissue, manifested as congestion in retinal blood capillaries, vacuolation in ganglionic cells and degeneration in nuclear cells of retina. The lens became coagulated, homogenous and oesinophilic. While the cornea showed vacuolations in its epithelium, edema and hyalinosis of substantia propria. Administration of CMN revealed a remarkable protective effect in biochemical and histological levels. Thus, pretreatment with CMN helps in protecting eye tissues against IRR and/or diabetic-induced cellular damage and can be developed in near future as an effective radioprotector during radiotherapy.

  3. Possible Role of DNA Polymerase beta in Protecting Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Against Cytotoxicity of Hydroquinone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DA-LIN HU; JIAN-PING YANG; DAO-KUI FANG; YAN SHA; XIAO-ZHI TU; ZHI-XIONG ZHUANG; HUAN-WEN TANG; HAI-RONG LIANG; DONG-SHENG TANG; YI-MING LIU; WEI-DONG JI; JIAN-HUI YUAN; YUN HE; ZHENG-YU ZHU

    2007-01-01

    Objective To explore the toxicological mechanism of hydroquinone in human bronchial epithelial cells and to investigate whether DNA polymerase beta is involved in protecting cells from damage caused by hydroquinone. Methods DNA polymerase beta knock-down cell line was established via RNA interference as an experimental group. Normal human bronchial epithelial cells and cells transfected with the empty vector of pEGFP-Cl were used as controls. Cells were treated with different concentrations of hydroquinone (ranged from 10 μmol/L to 120 μmol/L) for 4 hours. MTT assay and Comet assay [single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)] were performed respectively to detect the toxicity of hydroquinone. Results MTT assay showed that DNA polymerase beta knock-down cells treated with different concentrations of hydroquinone had a lower absorbance value at 490 nm than the control cells in a dose-dependant manner. Comet assay revealed that different concentrations of hydroquinone caused more severe DNA damage in DNA polymerase beta knock-down cell line than in control cells and there was no significant difference in the two control groups. Conclusions Hydroquinone has significant toxicity to human bronchial epithelial cells and causes DNA damage. DNA polymerase beta knock-down cell line appears more sensitive to hydroquinone than the control cells. The results suggest that DNA polymerase beta is involved in protecting cells from damage caused by hydroquinone.

  4. The Protective Role of Ginkgo Biloba against Radiation Induced Injury on Rat Gastro-intestinal Tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb 761) is an antioxidant substance exhibits a wide variety of biological activities. The present study was performed to evaluate oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters of gastrointestinal injury induced by exposing rats to acute doses of γ-rays and the potential value of EGb 761 in preventing changes in these parameters. Male albino rats were treated orally with the extract in a dose of 100 mg/ kg for 7 successive days before whole body exposure to acute radiation levels of 2 and 6 Gray (Gy). Control groups were run concurrently. The rats were sacrificed 3 days after irradiation. Various inflammatory mediators and biochemical parameters were determined in the stomach and intestine. Both tissues were also examined histopathologically. Exposure to radiation led to dose dependent changes in the level of oxidative stress biomarkers (elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and nitrite associated with a glutathione (GSH) decrease as well as in the level of inflammatory parameters (elevation of Tumour necrosis factorα (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) associated with depletion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Pre-treatment with EGb 761 protected against the changes in both oxidative stress biomarkers and inflammatory mediators. EGb 761 exerted a protective effect against the radiation induced gastrointestinal damage, possibly through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties.

  5. The Protective Role of Antioxidants in the Defence against ROS/RNS-Mediated Environmental Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Poljšak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can result from exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ionising and nonionising radiation, ultraviolet radiation, elevated concentrations of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, cigarette smoke, asbestos, particulate matter, pesticides, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and many other compounds present in the environment. It appears that increased oxidative/nitrosative stress is often neglected mechanism by which environmental pollutants affect human health. Oxidation of and oxidative damage to cellular components and biomolecules have been suggested to be involved in the aetiology of several chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and aging. Several studies have demonstrated that the human body can alleviate oxidative stress using exogenous antioxidants. However, not all dietary antioxidant supplements display protective effects, for example, β-carotene for lung cancer prevention in smokers or tocopherols for photooxidative stress. In this review, we explore the increases in oxidative stress caused by exposure to environmental pollutants and the protective effects of antioxidants.

  6. Sulfasalazine-induced renal and hepatic injury in rats and the protective role of taurine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Reza; Rasti, Maryam; Shirazi Yeganeh, Babak; Niknahad, Hossein; Saeedi, Arastoo; Najibi, Asma

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sulfasalazine is a drug commonly administrated against inflammatory-based disorders. On the other hand, kidney and liver injury are serious adverse events accompanied by sulfasalazine administration. No specific therapeutic option is available against this complication. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the potential protective effects of taurine against sulfasalazine-induced kidney and liver injury in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with sulfasalazine (600 mg/kg, oral) for 14 consecutive days. Animals received different doses of taurine (250, 500 and 1000 mg/ kg, i.p.) every day. Markers of organ injury were evaluated on day 15th, 24 h after the last dose of sulfasalazine. Results: Sulfasalazine caused renal and hepatic injury as judged by an increase in serum level of creatinine (Cr), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation were raised in kidney and liver of sulfasalazine-treated animals. Moreover, tissue glutathione reservoirs were depleted after sulfasalazine administration. Histopathological changes of kidney and liver also endorsed organ injury. Taurine administration (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day, i.p) alleviated sulfasalazine-induced renal and hepatic damage. Conclusion: Taurine administration could serve as a potential protective agent with therapeutic capabilities against sulfasalazine adverse effects. PMID:27340618

  7. Protecting role of cosolvents in protein denaturation by SDS: a structural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouters Johan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, we reported a unique approach to preserve the activity of some proteins in the presence of the denaturing agent, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS. This was made possible by addition of the amphipathic solvent 2,4-Methyl-2-PentaneDiol (MPD, used as protecting but also as refolding agent for these proteins. Although the persistence of the protein activity in the SDS/MPD mixture was clearly established, preservation of their structure was only speculative until now. Results In this paper, a detailed X-ray study addresses the pending question. Crystals of hen egg-white lysozyme were grown for the first time in the presence of MPD and denaturing concentrations of SDS. Depending on crystallization conditions, tetragonal crystals in complex with either SDS or MPD were collected. The conformation of both structures was very similar to the native lysozyme and the obtained complexes of SDS-lysozyme and MPD-lysozyme give some insights in the interplay of protein-SDS and protein-MPD interactions. Conclusion This study clearly established the preservation of the enzyme structure in a SDS/MPD mixture. It is hypothesized that high concentrations of MPD would change the properties of SDS and lower or avoid interactions between the denaturant and the protein. These structural data therefore support the hypothesis that MPD avoids disruption of the enzyme structure by SDS and can protect proteins from SDS denaturation.

  8. Chemoimmunotherapy of small cell bronchogenic carcinoma with VP-16-213, ifosfamide, vincristine, adriamycin, and Corynebacterium parvum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-five consecutive patients with small cell bronchogenic carcinoma (SCBC) received chemoimmunotherapy with VP-16-213, Ifosfamide, vincristine, Adriamycin, and Corynebacterium parvum. Of 33 evaluable patients, 26 (79%) responded with complete (55%) or partial (24%) remissions. Complete remissions were more common among patients with limited disease (11/14 patients, 79%) compared with those with extensive disease (7/19 patients, 37%) and among patients (11/14 patients, 79%) compared with those with extensive disease (7/19 patients, 37%) and among patients who were ambulatory prior to therapy (16/25 patients, 64%) compared with those who were nonambulatory (2/8 patients, 25%). Myelosuppression consisted primarily of neutropenia. Eight percent of the treatment courses in 29% of the patients were associated with hematuria and/or documented episodes of infection during neutropenia. There were three deaths possibly related to treatment, in two of which there was no evidence of disease at post-mortem examination. Six patients relapsed in the central nervous system (CNS). In four instances, CNS relapse was the only site of tumor progression. Central nervous system relapse was more common among evaluable patients who did not receive prophylactic brain irradiation (5/17 patients, 29%, vs. 1/15 patients, 7%; P . 0.23). The median survival duration for all patients was 63 weeks, being slightly longer for patients with limited disease than for those with extensive disease (70.9 weeks vs. 56 weeks; P . 0.18). This was also true for patients who achieved complete rather than partial remissions (71 weeks vs. 50 weeks; P . 0.09). Patients receiving prophylactic brain irradiation experienced longer survival

  9. Enhanced antitumor effects of BPD-MA-mediated photodynamic therapy combined with adriamycin on breast cancer in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-sheng TONG; Pei-tian MIAO; Ting-ting LIU; Yong-sheng JIA; Xiao-dong LIU

    2012-01-01

    Aim:Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging treatment used to eradicate premalignant and early-stage cancers and to reduce tumor size in end-stage cancers.In this study,we investigated the effects of a combination of benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA)-mediated PDT with adriamycin (ADM) on 4T1 breast carcinoma cells in vivo and the mechanisms underlyingthis effect.Methods:Normal BALA/c female mice bearing 4T1 breast carcinoma xenografts were tested.The animals were treated with PDT (BPD-MA 1 mg/kg,iv,plus single-dose laser irradiation) or ADM (5 mg/kg,iv) alone,or a combination of PDT with ADM.The tumor growth rate was determined by measuring the tumor weight.Cell apoptosis was measured with flow cytometry,and the expression of apoptosis-related molecules was assessed using Western blot.Microvessel density (MVD) was determined with immunohistochemical staining.Results:Compared to PDT or ADM alone,PDT plus ADM produced a combined inhibition on the tumor growth,prolonged life span,and enhanced apoptosis in the mice bearing 4T1 subcutaneously xenografted tumors.The combination of PDT and ADM exerted additive effects on the upregulation of Bax and the downregulation of Bcl-2,and on the reduction of MVD in 4T1 xenografted tumors.Conclusion:Our results demonstrate that PDT plus ADM exerts enhanced in vivo antitumor effect on breast cancer,which is closely associated with the cooperative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic pathways and the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis.Thus,PDT plus ADM is a promising combined treatment strategy for breast carcinoma.

  10. Renoprotective Effects of a Highly Selective A3 Adenosine Receptor Antagonist in a Mouse Model of Adriamycin-induced Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hye Sook; Cha, Jin Joo; Kim, Kitae; Kim, Jung Eun; Ghee, Jung Yeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Lee, Ji Eun; Han, Jee Young; Jeong, Lak Shin; Cha, Dae Ryong; Kang, Young Sun

    2016-09-01

    The concentration of adenosine in the normal kidney increases markedly during renal hypoxia, ischemia, and inflammation. A recent study reported that an A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) antagonist attenuated the progression of renal fibrosis. The adriamycin (ADX)-induced nephropathy model induces podocyte injury, which results in severe proteinuria and progressive glomerulosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of a highly selective A3AR antagonist (LJ1888) in ADX-induced nephropathy. Three groups of six-week-old Balb/c mice were treated with ADX (11 mg/kg) for four weeks and LJ1888 (10 mg/kg) for two weeks as following: 1) control; 2) ADX; and 3) ADX + LJ1888. ADX treatment decreased body weight without a change in water and food intake, but this was ameliorated by LJ1888 treatment. Interestingly, LJ1888 lowered plasma creatinine level, proteinuria, and albuminuria, which had increased during ADX treatment. Furthermore, LJ1888 inhibited urinary nephrin excretion as a podocyte injury marker, and urine 8-isoprostane and kidney lipid peroxide concentration, which are markers of oxidative stress, increased after injection of ADX. ADX also induced the activation of proinflammatory and profibrotic molecules such as TGF-β1, MCP-1, PAI-1, type IV collagen, NF-κB, NOX4, TLR4, TNFα, IL-1β, and IFN-γ, but they were remarkably suppressed after LJ1888 treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that LJ1888 has a renoprotective effect in ADX-induced nephropathy, which might be associated with podocyte injury through oxidative stress. Therefore, LJ1888, a selective A3AR antagonist, could be considered as a potential therapeutic agent in renal glomerular diseases which include podocyte injury and proteinuria. PMID:27510383

  11. [Liver abscess formation after treatment of liver cancer by arterial injection using adriamycin/mitomycin C oil suspension (ADMOS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, H; Hori, A; Satake, M; Kanetsuki, I; Ueno, K; Nishida, H; Ikeda, K; Kobayashi, H; Nakajo, M

    1992-02-25

    Of 210 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 135), metastatic liver cancer (n = 71) and cholangiocarcinoma (n = 4) who underwent intra-arterial infusion of adriamycin and/or mitomycin C oil suspension (ADMOS) and cisplatin, and both regimens, pyogenic liver abscess occurred in seven (3.3%). The percentages of abscess formation in the respective types of liver cancer were 0.8, 7.0 and 25%. These differences among the three types of liver cancer were attributed to the volume of the tumor vascular beds to be embolized, which might determine the relative amount or regional Lipiodol retention in the tumor and normal liver tissue. Four of seven patients with hepatic abscess had received the intra-arterial infusion of ADMOS, and their angiographic findings showed sequential decreases in the vascular beds of the tumor in comparison with those of previous infusion procedures; all had hypovascular liver tumors angiographically. We have never experienced this complication in other treatments such as embolization of the hepatic arteries and intra-arterial infusion of water-soluble anticancer drugs alone. These results suggest that the most important factor leading to abscess formation is the ischemic destruction of the intrahepatic ducts secondary to occlusion of the peribiliary arterial plexus by Lipiodol and/or the direct effects of anticancer drugs on these vessels. To avoid this complication, the volume of Lipiodol used for intraarterial infusion therapy should be carefully determined, especially when the patient has hypovascular tumors of the liver and a history of multiple previous intraarterial infusion procedures of anticancer drug. The use of ADMOS should be avoided in patients with hypovascular tumors of the liver such as secondary deposits and cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:1313961

  12. Todralazine protects zebra fish from lethal doses of ionizing radiation: role of hematopoietic stem cell expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced cell killing and hematopoietic stem cell depletion leads to compromised immune functions and opportunistic infections which significantly affect the recovery and survival upon irradiation. Any agent which can expand residual hematopoietic stem cells in irradiated organism can render protection from the effects of lethal doses of ionizing radiation. Johns Hopkins Clinical compound library (JHCCL) was screened for protection against lethal doses of ionizing radiation using developing zebra fish as a model organism. Modulation of radiation induced reactive oxygen species by the small molecules were done by DCFDA staining and for visual identification and quantification of apoptosis acridine orange assay, flow cytometry were employed respectively. Hematopoietic stem cell expansion potential was assessed by quantifying runx1 expression, a marker for definitive stem cells, were done by RT-PCR and by the kinetics of recovery from chemically induced anaemia. Todralazine hydrochloride from JHCCL exhibited promising results with potential anti radiation effects. A dose of 5μM was found to be the most effective and has rendered significant organ and whole body protection (100% survival advantage over a period of 6 days) against 20 Gy. However todralazine did not modulated radiation induced free radicals (monitored within 2 h of irradiation) and apoptosis in zebra fish embryos analysed at 8 and 24h post irradiation. Flow cytometric quantification of pre G1 population suggested the same. Chemoinformatics approaches were further carried out to elucidate possible targets which are contributing to its radioprotection potential. Structural similarity search suggested several targets and possible hematopoietic stem cell expanding potential. Treatment of zebra fish embryos with todralazine has lead to significant proliferation of hematopoietic stem cell as indicated by increase in expression of runx1. HSC expanding potential of todralazine was further supported by

  13. Human Pharyngeal Microbiome May Play A Protective Role in Respiratory Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Zhancheng; Kang, Yu; Yu, Jun; Ren, Lufeng

    2014-01-01

    The human pharyngeal microbiome, which resides at the juncture of digestive and respiratory tracts, may have an active role in the prevention of respiratory tract infections, similar to the actions of the intestinal microbiome against enteric infections. Recent studies have demonstrated that the pharyngeal microbiome comprises an abundance of bacterial species that interacts with the local epithelial and immune cells, and together, they form a unique micro-ecological system. Most of the micro...

  14. Determinants of Agricultural Protection in an International Perspective: The Role of Political Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Christian H.C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract—This paper studies the role of political institutions in determining the political success of agriculture in avoiding taxation or attracting government transfers in developing and industrialized countries, respectively. The model is based on a probabilistic voting environment, where in industrialized countries rural districts are less ideologically committed than urban districts, while in developing countries urban districts are less ideologically committed than rural districts. As a...

  15. The Role of exosomes in reperfusion injury and cardio-protection

    OpenAIRE

    Das, D.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism by which remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) exerts its cardioprotective effects is not fully understood. Exosomes are lipid bound membranous vesicles that range from 30-100nm in size. With increasing interest in the scientific community about these vesicles as a mode of intercellular communication, in this project we explore the possible mechanistic role of human plasma exosomes in RIPC. We first developed a consistent and reliable model for the isolation of human plasma ex...

  16. The gut microbiota plays a protective role in the host defence against pneumococcal pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Schuijt, T. J.; Lankelma, J.M.; Scicluna, B.P.; Melo, E; Roelofs, J.J.; Boer, de, J.W.; Hoogendijk, A.J.; Beer, de, VHJ Vincent; De Vos; Belzer, C.; Poll, van der, T.; Wiersinga, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pneumonia accounts for more deaths than any other infectious disease worldwide. The intestinal microbiota supports local mucosal immunity and is increasingly recognised as an important modulator of the systemic immune system. The precise role of the gut microbiota in bacterial pneumonia, however, is unknown. Here, we investigate the function of the gut microbiota in the host defence against Streptococcus pneumoniae infections. DESIGN: We depleted the gut microbiota in C57BL/6 mice ...

  17. Protective Role of False Tendon in Subjects with Left Bundle Branch Block: A Virtual Population Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, M.; Di Marco, L.Y.; Lekadir, K.; Lassila, T.; Frangi, A. F.

    2016-01-01

    False tendons (FTs) are fibrous or fibromuscular bands that can be found in both the normal and abnormal human heart in various anatomical forms depending on their attachment points, tissue types, and geometrical properties. While FTs are widely considered to affect the function of the heart, their specific roles remain largely unclear and unexplored. In this paper, we present an in silico study of the ventricular activation time of the human heart in the presence of FTs. This study presents ...

  18. Flavonoid-membrane Interactions: A Protective Role of Flavonoids at the Membrane Surface?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia I. Oteiza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids can exert beneficial health effects through multiple mechanisms. In this paper, we address the important, although not fully understood, capacity of flavonoids to interact with cell membranes. The interactions of polyphenols with bilayers include: (a the partition of the more non-polar compounds in the hydrophobic interior of the membrane, and (b the formation of hydrogen bonds between the polar head groups of lipids and the more hydrophilic flavonoids at the membrane interface. The consequences of these interactions are discussed. The induction of changes in membrane physical properties can affect the rates of membrane lipid and protein oxidation. The partition of certain flavonoids in the hydrophobic core can result in a chain breaking antioxidant activity. We suggest that interactions of polyphenols at the surface of bilayers through hydrogen bonding, can act to reduce the access of deleterious molecules (i.e. oxidants, thus protecting the structure and function of membranes.

  19. Protective role of salt in catalysis and maintaining structure of halophilic proteins against denaturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SunilKumarKhare

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Search for new enzymes of industrial relevance, bestowed with novel properties continues to be a desirable pursuit in enzyme research. "Halophilism" is the unusual existence of life in saline/ hypersaline habitats and “haloenzymes”, are the proteins from such origin, naturally endowed with unique structural features which enable them to sustain functionality under high salt. Driven by industrial requirements, halophilic enzymes have been explored for their stability and catalytic abilities under harsh operational conditions. These have been documented to withstand high temperature, pH, organic solvents, and chaotropic agents. However, this stability is modulated by salt. Understanding the basis of salt mediated protection amidst a denaturing milieu will add significantly to the existing knowledge about structure function relationships in halophilic proteins. Exploring their protein architecture may provide template for rationale design of stable enzymes. The article encompasses the current level of understanding about haloadaptations in halophiles and structural basis of their stability against classical denaturants.

  20. The role of Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens in protective immunity and vaccine development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Lars

    2010-01-01

    There is substantial immuno-epidemiological evidence that the parasite-encoded, so-called variant surface antigens (VSAs), such as PfEMP1 on the surface of infected erythrocytes (IEs) are important-in some cases probably decisive determinants of clinical outcome of P. falciparum malaria. The...... evidence is increasingly being underpinned by specific molecular understanding of the pathogenic processes involved. Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) caused by placenta-sequestering IEs expressing the PfEMP1 variant VAR2CSA is a particularly striking example of this. These findings have raised hopes that...... development of PfEMP1-based vaccines to protect specifically against severe malaria syndromes-in particular PAM-is feasible. This review summarizes the evidence that VSAs are important targets of NAI, discusses why VSA-based vaccines might be feasible despite the extensive intra- and interclonal variation of...

  1. The role of international organizations with regard to environmental protection - the situation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international organisations more readily than most of the states accepted the idea that environmental protection cannot be achieved by compensation for damage or remedial actions in case of emergencies. They soon fostered an environmental policy intended to prevent pollution by creating a suitable, internationally accepted concept of requirements and procedures. Their activities in the last two decades largely contributed to an eventual reappraisal of approach by the states, which lead from a rather incoherent series of regional or national activities to an international, much more coherent concept of environmental policy. The international organisations also realised that efficient enforcement of pollution control measures will be guaranteed only by an adequate system of international laws, which still is to be agreed upon by the states. There still is a considerable lack of certainty of the law, with environmental problems increasingly pressing for a solution. (orig./HSCH)

  2. The protective role of tacrine and donepezil in the retina of acetylcholinesterase knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Min Yi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To determine the effect of different concentrations of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitors tacrine and donepezil on retinal protection in AChE+/- mice (AChE knockout mice of various ages.METHODS:Cultured ARPE-19 cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 at concentrations of 0, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 μmol/L and protein levels were measured using Western blot. Intraperitoneal injections of tacrine and donepezil (0.1 mg/mL, 0.2 mg/mL and 0.4 mg/mL were respectively given to AChE+/- mice aged 2mo and 4mo and wild-type S129 mice for 7d; phosphate buffered saline (PBS was administered to the control group. The mice were sacrificed after 30d by in vitro cardiac perfusion and retinal samples were taken. AChE-deficient mice were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis using specific genotyping protocols obtained from the Jackson Laboratory website. H&E staining, immunofluorescence and Western blot were performed to observe AChE protein expression changes in the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cell layer.RESULTS:Different concentrations of H2O2 induced AChE expression during RPE cell apoptosis. AChE+/- mice retina were thinner than those in wild-type mice (P<0.05; the retinal structure was still intact at 2mo but became thinner with increasing age (P<0.05; furthermore, AChE+/- mice developed more slowly than wild-type mice (P<0.05. Increased concentrations of tacrine and donepezil did not significantly improve the protection of the retina function and morphology (P>0.05.CONCLUSION:In vivo, tacrine and donepezil can inhibit the expression of AChE; the decrease of AChE expression in the retina is beneficial for the development of the retina.

  3. The role of the liver in the protection by elemental diets against experimental colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, T; Lewin, M R

    1988-06-01

    This study investigates the mechanism whereby the elemental diet 'Vivonex' protects against experimental colon cancer. A total of 240 Wistar rats were randomly allocated to three dietary groups: (A) Vivonex HN, (B) Vivonex HN with 0.05% added cholesterol and (C) control standard powdered diet. All received a colon cancer-producing regimen of dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at a dose of 40 mg/kg BW, s.c., once weekly for 5 weeks. Ten weeks following the first DMH injection, then at 5 weekly intervals until the 40th week, 10 randomly selected rats from each dietary group were weighed, killed and necropsied. Total liver weights were recorded with samples kept for total lipid extraction and cholesterol and phospholipid assay. Each colon underwent macroscopic examination and all neoplasms were recorded. Results showed that control rats had a constant total liver lipid content over the 40 weeks and an increased incidence, number and development of colonic neoplasms with time. In contrast, Vivonex fed rats had significantly elevated total liver lipids, cholesterol and phospholipids over the 40 weeks compared to controls and a significantly reduced number and rate of development of colonic neoplasms. Rats fed on Vivonex + cholesterol had total liver lipids intermediate and significantly different from both the Vivonex and control groups and a similar result was seen in tumour development with time. This study shows that a Vivonex diet results in an increase in hepatic lipids, this effect being partially reversed with dietary cholesterol. The protective effect of Vivonex feeding in the DMH model of colon cancer may thus be mediated in part by the liver.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3411183

  4. The protective role of coastal marshes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine C Shepard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salt marshes lie between many human communities and the coast and have been presumed to protect these communities from coastal hazards by providing important ecosystem services. However, previous characterizations of these ecosystem services have typically been based on a small number of historical studies, and the consistency and extent to which marshes provide these services has not been investigated. Here, we review the current evidence for the specific processes of wave attenuation, shoreline stabilization and floodwater attenuation to determine if and under what conditions salt marshes offer these coastal protection services. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a thorough search and synthesis of the literature with reference to these processes. Seventy-five publications met our selection criteria, and we conducted meta-analyses for publications with sufficient data available for quantitative analysis. We found that combined across all studies (n = 7, salt marsh vegetation had a significant positive effect on wave attenuation as measured by reductions in wave height per unit distance across marsh vegetation. Salt marsh vegetation also had a significant positive effect on shoreline stabilization as measured by accretion, lateral erosion reduction, and marsh surface elevation change (n = 30. Salt marsh characteristics that were positively correlated to both wave attenuation and shoreline stabilization were vegetation density, biomass production, and marsh size. Although we could not find studies quantitatively evaluating floodwater attenuation within salt marshes, there are several studies noting the negative effects of wetland alteration on water quantity regulation within coastal areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that salt marshes have value for coastal hazard mitigation and climate change adaptation. Because we do not yet fully understand the magnitude of this value, we propose that decision

  5. Potential role of specific antibodies as important vaccine induced protective mechanism against Aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Rømer Villumsen

    Full Text Available Furunculosis caused by infection with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida has been a known threat to aquaculture for more than a century. Efficient prophylactic approaches against this disease are essential for continued growth of salmonid aquaculture. Since the introduction of successful oil-adjuvanted vaccines in the early 1990's, a number of studies have been published on the protective as well as adverse effects of these vaccines. Most studies focus on vaccination of salmon (Salmo salar. However, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss are also very susceptible to infection and are vaccinated accordingly. In this study we have examined the protection against infection with a Danish strain of A. salmonicida in both vaccinated and non-vaccinated rainbow trout. A commercial and an experimental auto-vaccine were tested. The protective effects of the vaccines were evaluated through an A. salmonicida challenge 18 weeks post vaccination. Both vaccines resulted in a significantly increased survival in the vaccinated fish during a 28 day challenge period relative to non-vaccinated fish (P = 0.01 and P = 0.001 for the commercial and experimental vaccine, respectively. Throughout the entire experiment, the presence of specific antibodies in plasma was monitored using ELISA. A significant increase in specific antibody levels was seen in fish vaccinated with both vaccines during the 18 weeks between vaccination and challenge. Within 3 days post challenge, a significant decrease in specific antibodies occurred in vaccinated fish. A positive correlation was found between mean levels of specific antibodies pre challenge and overall survival. This correlation, along with the observed depletion of antibodies during the initial phase of infection, suggests that specific antibodies play an essential role in vaccine mediated protection against A. salmonicida in rainbow trout.

  6. Effect of calcium antagonists and metabolic inhibitors on the retention of adriamycin, in both free and liposomal form, in a number of tumor cells lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriamycin (ADR) encapsulated in liposomes (MLV-ADR) accumulated at a lower rate, with a concomitant reduced cytotoxicity, in comparison to the free drug form (F-ADR) in all murine tumors tested. However, inhibition of [3H] thymidine incorporation into DNA appeared nearly equal between F-ADR and MLV-ADR treated tumor cells suggesting that the concentration necessary to inhibit DNA synthesis is only a fraction of the total drug content within the cells. Electrophoretic mobility of tumor cells was unaffected by exposure to either F-ADR or MLV-ADR. The metabolic inhibitor N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) when coincubated with F-ADR in P388 adriamycin-resistant leukemia cells (P388-ADR) resulted in a marked increase in intracellular drug accumulation. Use of the calcium channel blockers verapamil (VRP) and N-3,4-dimethoxyphenethyl)-N-methyl-2-(2-napthyl)-m-dithane-2-propylamine hydrochloride, (DMDP), a derivative of verapamil, in conjunction with adriamycin treatment demonstrated a near reversal of resistance in P388/ADR. Retention of drug increased 4-5 fold in the presence of each of the calcium antagonists in vitro studies with a concomitant drop in viability which surpassed that observed in P388/O. P388/ADR tumor bearing mice treated with the combination of VRP or DMDP and F-ADR exhibited no increase in mean survival times (MST) over F-ADR therapy alone. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies of P388/O tumor cells demonstrated numerous, small villi-like processes, whereas P388/ADR cells possessed many large membraneous folds. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated not only the membrane folding seem by SEM, but also the presence of large numbers of C type viral particles in P388/ADR cells in comparison to the small amounts detected in P388/O cells

  7. Preparation of the core-shell structure adriamycin lipiodol microemulsions and their synergistic anti-tumor effects with diethyldithiocarbamate in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daocheng, Wu; Mingxi, Wan

    2010-11-01

    We prepared the core-shell structure adriamycin lipiodol microemulsions (ADM-CSLMs) and evaluated their in vivo antitumor effects in combination with Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC). Two types of ADM-CSLMs, adriamycin liposome-lipiodol microemulsion(ADM-LLM) and adriamycin microsphere lipiodol microemulsion (ADM-MLM), were prepared through the emulsification method. The drug loading and encapsulation efficiency of ADM-CSLMs were measured by the high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). The size and shape of the ADM-CSLMs were determined by an atom force microscopy (AFM), a transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and a particle size analyzer, respectively. The synergistic effects of DDC and ADM-CSLMs for cancer treatment of carcinoma drug-resistance cell was evaluated by the MTT method, the activation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was detected by chemiluminescence, and the ADM accumulation in cells was measured by flow cytometry. Walker-256 carcinoma was transplanted to the livers of the male SD rats, ADM-CSLMs were administrated to the livers of the rats by intervention hepatic artery embolization through microsurgery. The tumor growth and animal survival were evaluated. The results show that the average diameter of ADM-LLM and ADM-MLM were 4.23 ± 1.2 μm and 4.67 ± 1.4 μm, respectively, and their ADM encapsulation efficiency were 83.7% and 87.2% with respect to loading efficiency of 82 μg/ml and 91 μg/ml. The tumor growth and animal survival in two of the ADM-CSLMs combined with DDC groups were significantly higher than that of ADM only treatment, ADM liposome combined with DDC (P < 0.01), as well as the ADM microsphere combined with DDC (P < 0.01). Therefore, ADM-CSLMs are useful carriers for the treatment of carcinoma and their anti-tumor effect can be enhanced by DDC in a suitable concentration. PMID:20888179

  8. The role of Swedish Radiation Protection Authority in the field of public health 2008; SSI:s roll i folkhaelsoarbetet 2008 - redovisning av regeringsuppdrag inom folkhaelsoomraadet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyrke, Lena; Almen, Anja; Blixt, Anders; Brewitz, Erica; Mjoenes, Lars; Mobe rg, Leif; Skeppstroem, Kirlna; Wester, Ulf

    2008-04-15

    The Swedish Government has requested that the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) to make an account of the authority's role in the field of public health. Radiation Protection consists largely of preventive actions in order to protect man and the environment against harmful effects of radiation. The SSI thus considers most of the authority's activities to be public health related. The report describes a number of radiation protection areas from a health perspective. The measures taken by the authority in these areas are also described along with planned activities. In some areas the authority also points out additional measures.

  9. The role of Swedish Radiation Protection Authority in the field of public health 2008; SSI:s roll i folkhaelsoarbetet 2008 - redovisning av regeringsuppdrag inom folkhaelsoomraadet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyrke, Lena; Almen, Anja; Blixt, Anders; Brewitz, Erica; Mjoenes, Lars; Moberg, Leif; Skeppstroem, Kirlna; Wester, Ulf

    2008-04-15

    The Swedish Government has requested that the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) to make an account of the authority's role in the field of public health. Radiation Protection consists largely of preventive actions in order to protect man and the environment against harmful effects of radiation. The SSI thus considers most of the authority's activities to be public health related. The report describes a number of radiation protection areas from a health perspective. The measures taken by the authority in these areas are also described along with planned activities. In some areas the authority also points out additional measures

  10. The role of Swedish Radiation Protection Authority in the field of public health; SSI:s roll i folkhaelsoarbetet - redovisning av regeringsuppdrag inom folkhaelsoomraadet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederlund, Torsten; Finck, Robert; Mjoenes, Lars; Moberg, Leif; Soederman, Ann-Louis; Wiklund, Aasa; Yuen Katarina; Oelander Guer, Hanna

    2004-09-01

    The Swedish Government has requested the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) to make an account of the authority's role in the field of public health. Radiation Protection consists largely of preventive actions in order to protect man and the environment against harmful effects of radiation. The SSI thus considers most of the authority's activities to be public health related. The report describes a number of radiation protection areas from a health perspective. The measures taken by the authority in these areas are also described along with planned activities. In some areas the authority also points out additional measures.

  11. Protective role of intracellular superoxide dismutase against extracellular oxidants in cultured rat gastric cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraishi, H; Terano, A; Sugimoto, T.; Harada, T; Razandi, M; Ivey, K J

    1994-01-01

    We examined the role of intracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) as an antioxidant by studying the effect of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) on extracellular H2O2-induced damage in cultured rat gastric mucosal cells. 51Cr-labeled monolayers from rat stomachs were exposed to glucose oxidase-generated H2O2 or reagent H2O2, which both caused a dose-dependent increase in 51Cr release. DDC dose-dependently enhanced 51Cr release by hydrogen peroxide, corresponding with inhibition of endogenous SOD act...

  12. THE PROTECTIVE ROLE OF UNIFORMS AND THEIR COMMUNICATION POWER IN SOCIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Šterman, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    Uniforms as directly or indirectly part of each our steps, in the various institutes and complexes, whose staff wear uniform. A good visual image of the garment is, next to the full communications strategy, the most important for building a corporate identity. What is the impact of a uniformed person on society and how does society accept uniforms? What is the role of uniforms? How do people who are wearing uniforms accept them and how do they project the image of the company through uniforms...

  13. Systematic review focusing on the excretion and protection roles of sweat in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Cui, Xiao; Liu, Yanhua; Li, Yaoyin; Liu, Jian; Cheng, Biao

    2014-01-01

    The skin excretes substances primarily through sweat glands. Several conditions have been demonstrated to be associated with diminished sweating. However, few studies have concentrated on the metabolism and excretion of sweat. This review focuses on the relationship between temperature and the thermoregulatory efficacy of sweat, and then discusses the excretion of sweat, which includes the metabolism of water, minerals, proteins, vitamins as well as toxic substances. The potential role of sweat secretion in hormone homeostasis and the effects on the defense system of the skin are also clarified. PMID:24577280

  14. Carotenoids: Actual knowledge on food sources, intakes, stability and bioavailability and their protective role in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiani, Giuseppe; Castón, María Jesús Periago; Catasta, Giovina;

    2009-01-01

    Carotenoids are one of the major food micronutrients in human diets and the overall objective of this review is to re-examine the role of carotenoids in human nutrition. We have emphasized the attention on the following carotenoids present in food and human tissues: -carotene, -cryptoxanthin......, -carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin; we have reported the major food sources and dietary intake of these compounds. We have tried to summarize positive and negative effects of food processing, storage, cooking on carotenoid content and carotenoid bioavailability. In particular, we have evidenced...... the possibility to improve carotenoids bioavailability in accordance with changes and variations of technology procedures....

  15. Roles of nitric oxide in protective effect of berberine in ethanol-induced gastric ulcer mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long-rui PAN; Qiang TANG; Qin FU; Ben-rong HU; Ji-zhou XIANG; Jia-qing QIAN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the protective effects of berberine on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Methods: Gastric ulcers were induced by oral ingestion of ethanol. Nitric oxide (NO) content was measured, and mRNA expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results: The ulcer index (UI) at 1 h, 2 h, 3 h and 6 h after oral administration of ethanol was 23.8± 1.4, 23.3±2.2, 22.3± 1.2 and 20.8± 1.1, respectively. The UI in the berberine-treated groups (5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) was less than the control group.The content of NO in the control group was 73.3±7.3 μL/L, 94.0±9.2 μL/L, 109.6±6.4 μL/L and 138.2±10.2 μL/L in gastric juice and 5.8± 1.1 μmol/g protein, 8.3±1.1 μmol/g protein, 9.8± 1.1 μmol/g protein and 11.9± 1.2 μmol/g protein in gastric tissue at 1 h, 2 h, 3 h and 6 h, respectively, after the oral administration of ethanol.The content of NO in the berberine-treated groups (5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) was higher than the control group at 1 h after the oral administration of ethanol(P<0.05), and was lower at 6 h (P<0.05). Analysis by RT-PCR showed that expression of eNOS was inhibited but iNOS expression was enhanced by ethanol.However, the expression of eNOS could be enhanced and iNOS expression could be inhibited by berberine (P<0.01). Conclusion: Berberine could significantly protect gastric mucosa from damage by ethanol. This effect may be related to the increased expression of eNOS mRNA and inhibited expression of iNOS mRNA.

  16. The Role of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species in Cardiovascular Injury and Protective Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Danina M; Sturza, Adrian; Dănilă, Maria D; Borza, Claudia; Duicu, Oana M; Mornoș, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the heart represents a major health burden mainly associated with acute coronary syndromes. While timely coronary reperfusion has become the established routine therapy in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, the restoration of blood flow into the previously ischaemic area is always accompanied by myocardial injury. The central mechanism involved in this phenomenon is represented by the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Besides their harmful role when highly generated during early reperfusion, minimal ROS formation during ischaemia and/or at reperfusion is critical for the redox signaling of cardioprotection. In the past decades, mitochondria have emerged as the major source of ROS as well as a critical target for cardioprotective strategies at reperfusion. Mitochondria dysfunction associated with I/R myocardial injury is further described and ultimately analyzed with respect to its role as source of both deleterious and beneficial ROS. Furthermore, the contribution of ROS in the highly investigated field of conditioning strategies is analyzed. In the end, the vascular sources of mitochondria-derived ROS are briefly reviewed. PMID:27200148

  17. The Role of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species in Cardiovascular Injury and Protective Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danina M. Muntean

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R injury of the heart represents a major health burden mainly associated with acute coronary syndromes. While timely coronary reperfusion has become the established routine therapy in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, the restoration of blood flow into the previously ischaemic area is always accompanied by myocardial injury. The central mechanism involved in this phenomenon is represented by the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Besides their harmful role when highly generated during early reperfusion, minimal ROS formation during ischaemia and/or at reperfusion is critical for the redox signaling of cardioprotection. In the past decades, mitochondria have emerged as the major source of ROS as well as a critical target for cardioprotective strategies at reperfusion. Mitochondria dysfunction associated with I/R myocardial injury is further described and ultimately analyzed with respect to its role as source of both deleterious and beneficial ROS. Furthermore, the contribution of ROS in the highly investigated field of conditioning strategies is analyzed. In the end, the vascular sources of mitochondria-derived ROS are briefly reviewed.

  18. Th17/IL-17A might play a protective role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Hus

    Full Text Available Th17 cells, a recently discovered subset of T helper cells that secrete IL-17A, can affect the inflammation process autoimmune and cancer diseases development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of Th17 cells and IL17A in biology of CLL. The study group included 294 untreated CLL patients in different clinical stages. Here, we show that higher Th17 and IL-17A values were associated with less advanced clinical stage of CLL. Th17 cells' percentages in PB were lower in patients who died due to CLL during follow-up due to CLL (as compared to surviving patients and in patients responding to first-line therapy with fludarabine-based regimens (as compared to non-responders. IL-17A inversely correlated with the time from CLL diagnosis to the start of therapy and was lower in patients who required treatment during follow-up. Th-17 and IL-17A values were lower in patients with adverse prognostic factors (17p and 11q deletion, CD38 and ZAP-70 expression. CLL patients with detectable IL-17A mRNA in T cells were in Rai Stage 0 and negative for both ZAP-70 and CD38 expression. Th17 percentages positively correlated with iNKT and adversely with Treg cells. The results of this study suggest that Th17 may play a beneficial role in CLL immunity.

  19. Protective role of carnosine in mice with cadmium-induced acute hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Amr A; Qureshi, Habib A; Yacoubi, Mohamed T; Al-Melhim, Walid N

    2009-11-01

    The hepatoprotective effect of carnosine was investigated against cadmium-induced acute liver injury in mice. Hepatotoxicity was induced by a single i.p. injection of cadmium chloride (6.5mg/kg). Carnosine treatment (10mg/kg/day, i.p.) was applied for three consecutive days, starting one day before cadmium administration. Carnosine significantly decreased the cadmium-induced elevations in serum aminotransferases. Carnosine suppressed lipid peroxidation and restored the deficits in the antioxidant defense mechanisms (reduced glutathione level, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities) in liver tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Also, the reductions in hepatic nitric oxide and zinc ion levels, and the increases in hepatic cadmium ion concentration, and myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 activities following cadmium exposure were significantly attenuated by carnosine treatment. In addition, carnosine markedly ameliorated cadmium-induced liver tissue damage as evidenced by light and electron microscopic examinations. It was concluded that carnosine can be considered a potential candidate to protect the liver against the deleterious effect of acute cadmium intoxication. PMID:19748544

  20. Effect of UV irradiation and Nigella sativa protective role on the mice liver tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of UV irradiation on liver tissues of mice before and after feeding on the Nigella sativa L. for 4 and 7 days were investigated by following the variations in their infrared spectral features. The results showed that the exposure of experimental animals to UV radiations causes considerable changes in both proteins and PO2 contents in the liver and the extent of changes depends on the energy of the source and time exposure. It was found that feeding of Nigella sativa L. during exposure for 4 days causes no significant effect on the UV induced changes in the liver tissues, while feeding for 7 days reduces the extent of the UV induced changes. Histological findings denoted that UV-Radiation causes different grades of damage in liver cells depending on the duration and type of radiation. Alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seeds protected liver cells from being subjected to the degenerative changes. The present work investigates the possibility of applying Nigella sativa as a natural biological substance for curative purpose after UV radiation damage

  1. Corporate Role in Protecting Consumers from the Risk of Identity Theft

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    Syed (Shawon M. Rahman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has made it possible for users to be robbed of their reputation, money and credit worthiness by the click of a mouse. The impact of identity theft severely limits victims’ ability to participate in commerce,education and normal societal functions. This paper evaluates resurgence in syndicated cyber attacks,which includes but not limited to identity theft, corporate espionage and cyber warfare taking advantage of the Internet as a medium of operations. The paper highlights the increase of cyber related attacks in the past ten years due to lack of transatlantic international corporation between participating countries,coherent information security policies, data aggregation and sound international laws to facilitate prosecution of perpetrators. The cyber space coupled with availability of free hacking tools has contributed to resurgence in syndicated identity theft, corporate espionage and identity theft by organized crime elements taking advantage of the Internet as a medium of operations. This paper presents conclusive solution that users, organizations and consumerscan enact to protect themselves from the threat of cyberattacks culminating into identity theft, financial loss or both.

  2. Protective Role of Royal Jelly in Oxymetholone-induced Oxidative Injury in Mouse Testis

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    Gholamreza Najafi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: An adverse effect of oxymetholone (OXM, an anabolic-androgenic steroid used as energetic medicine, is reproductive toxicity. Royal jelly (RJ is an efficient antioxidant that has been used to treat reproductive problems. In this study, we investigated the effects of RJ on OXM-induced oxidative injuries in mouse testes. Methods: Male mice were divided into four groups. Two groups of mice were administered OXM (5 mg/kg/day, p.o. for 28 days. One of these groups received RJ (100 mg/kg/day, p.o. concurrently. A vehicle-treated control group and a RJ control group were also included. Results: The OXM-treated group showed a significant decrease in the serum testosterone concentration and spermatogenic activities, along with many histological alterations. OXM treatment also caused a significant decrease in catalase activity with an increase in lipid peroxidation in the mouse testes. The above-noted parameters were restored to near normal levels by RJ co-administration. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that RJ protects against OXM-induced reproductive toxicities.

  3. Protective Role of Genistein against gamma -Rays Induced Damages in Rat Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Potential of antioxidants to reduce the cellular damage induced by ionising-radiation has been studied in animal models for more than five decades. In recent years, natural products from the plant-kingdom have been investigated for their immune-modulating potential against infectious and debilitating diseases. Herbal therapy, or phytomedicine, the therapeutic use of plants, plant parts, or plant-derived substances is generally considered a form of complementary medicine. This study focuses on the radio protective efficacy of naturally occurring antioxidant, specifically antioxidant nutrient and phyto chemical, genistein and how it might influence various endpoints of cellular radiation-damage. genistein (4,5,7-trihydroxy-isoflavone), is a naturally and major component of soybean isoflavone administrated orally at a dose of 400 mg/ kg body wt once dally for 7 days prior to a single dose of 6 Gy gamma-rays was tested. Irradiation caused significant increases in content of malonaldehyde (MDA) and activities of xanthine oxidase (XO) and adenosine deaminase (ADA). In addition, decreases in catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). genistein significantly lessened MDA content and activities of XO and ADA. Furthermore, it elevated CAT, GPx and SOD activities. These results suggested that genistein possesses potential pro- and anti-oxidative activities which could mitigate oxidative-stress resulting from irradiation in rats. Conclusion: These findings provided insights into possible cellular mechanisms of genistein as radio protector in rats

  4. Protective role of green tea administration against radiation-induced biological changes in pregnant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green tea (Gt) derived from the leaves of camelia sinensis contains polyphenolic compounds also known as eipcatechins, which are anioxidant in nature. This study aims to evaluate the radioprotective, anioxidative potential of two concentrations of Gt extract in pregnant rats. Animals exposed to fractionated 3 Gy gamma radiation of 1 Gy installments at the 7th, 11th and 15th days of gestation were examined on the 20th day. Total protenis, uric acid, urea and creatinine, as well as ransmiase were measured. Irradiation of rats caused significant drop in serum total protein, which was significantly elevated specially with Gt 3%. Elevation in serum uric acid was dropped secially with Gt while, elevation in urea after irradiation dropped by Gt% only. Both concentrations of Gt did not signficantly change creatinine elevation exerted by irradiation. Results revealed sigbificat protection by both Gt concentrations against the elevation in serum glucose level. While was dropped approaching control by irradiation, which ASt dropped by irradiation was normalized attaining almost control level with Gt3%. While, AST dropped by irradiation was normalized attaining almost control level with Gt 3%. Histological damage to liver cells by irradiation was ameliorated by administration og Gt in both concentrations. This was indicated by restoration of the cellular integrity besides by nucleated cells and slight regenerative signs in the nuclei

  5. The role of rumen-protected choline in hepatic function and performance of transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Arash; D'Occhio, Michael J; Al Jassim, Rafat

    2016-07-01

    High-producing dairy cows enter a period of negative energy balance during the first weeks of lactation. Energy intake is usually sufficient to cover the increase in energy requirements for fetal growth during the period before calving, but meeting the demand for energy is often difficult during the early stages of lactation. A catabolic state predominates during the transition period, leading to the mobilisation of energy reserves (NEFA and amino acids) that are utilised mainly by the liver and muscle. Increased uptake of mobilised NEFA by the liver, combined with the limited capacity of hepatocytes to either oxidise fatty acids for energy or to incorporate esterified fatty acids into VLDL results in fatty liver syndrome and ketosis. This metabolic disturbance can affect the general health, and it causes economic losses. Different nutritional strategies have been used to restrict negative effects associated with the energy challenge in transition cows. The provision of choline in the form of rumen-protected choline (RPC) can potentially improve liver function by increasing VLDL exportation from the liver. RPC increases gene expression of microsomal TAG transfer protein and APOB100 that are required for VLDL synthesis and secretion. Studies with RPC have looked at gene expression, metabolic hormones, metabolite profiles, milk production and postpartum reproduction. A reduction in liver fat and enhanced milk production has been observed with RPC supplementation. However, the effects of RPC on health and reproduction are equivocal, which could reflect the lack of sufficient dose-response studies. PMID:27138530

  6. Protective role of garlic against gamma radiation induced histological and histochemical changes in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work was planned to evaluate the radioprotective effect of garlic (Allium sativum) against the hazardous action of gamma radiation on liver of rat one and ten days post-exposure. Garlic was orally administered (100 mg/ kg body wt) to rats daily for two weeks before exposure to single dose whole body gamma-irradiation (5Gy). The results showed that exposure of rats to gamma- irradiation caused massive portal infiltration with inflammatory cells, dilatation of blood sinusoids, an increase in the number of Kupffer cells, vacuolation of some hepatocytes as well as pyknosis and karyolysis of hepatic nuclei in the liver tissue. Histochemical examination of liver one day post- irradiation illustrated weak to moderate glycogen particles. While, on ten days post-irradiation, a strong activity for glycogen was detected. The disturbance in carbohydrate metabolism is closely related to the radiation induced histological damage in the liver tissue. Administration of garlic for 2 weeks pre-irradiation reduced the radiation induced histopathological changes and showed marked protection against the tissue damaging effect of radiation. It could be concluded that treatment of rats with garlic before exposure to gamma-irradiation offered a noticeable radioprotective effect of the studied organ

  7. The Protective Role of Galium Aparine on Cisplatin – Induced Nephrotoxicity in Male Rats

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    SH Zahiri

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Cisplatin is a potent antineoplastic drug. The beneficial effects of the drug are limited by its nephrotoxicity. The purpose of this study is to introduce sterological meothds (Estimation of mean glomerular volume to determine the toxicity of drug & examine the Galium aparine (a traditional herbal plant as a protective agent. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was done in histology department in Ahwaz University of medical sciences in 1380. 70 Spraque–Dwally male rats were iselected randomly and divided into 7 groups as below: two control groups (one for drug & one for plant, five experimental groups one treated by acute dose of drug (7.5 mg/kg, IP and other groups treated with 4 doses of hydroalcholic extract of plants (4, 8, 16, 32 mg/kg half an hour before receiving drug orally. Animals were sacrified 96 hour after receiving the drugs and their right kidneys were processed for stereological assessment based on cavalier method. Statistical analysis of data from calculation of mean glomerular volume was done by ANOVA and two sided-dunet test, using SPSS software. Results: The results based on cavalier method, showed an increase in mean glomerular volume in all the groups that were treated with drug, whereas lower grade of glomerulomegaly was seen in those groups which received higher doses (16 & 32 mg/kg of plant’s extract (p<0.05. Conclusion: Nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin was even observed in quantitative parameters of kidney (e.g. increasing the mean glomerular volume but by using Galim apain’s extract this side effect can be reduced significantly. Moreover stereological techniques are valuable tools for studying the drug effects in all organs of the body.

  8. Protective role of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in a mouse model of viral myocarditis.

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    Zheng Cheng

    Full Text Available Activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, which relies on the α7nAchR (alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, has been shown to decrease proinflammatory cytokines. This relieves inflammatory responses and improves the prognosis of patients with experimental sepsis, endotoxemia, ischemia/reperfusion injury, hemorrhagic shock, pancreatitis, arthritis and other inflammatory syndromes. However, whether the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway has an effect on acute viral myocarditis has not been investigated. Here, we studied the effects of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway on acute viral myocarditis.In a coxsackievirus B3 murine myocarditis model (Balb/c, nicotine and methyllycaconitine were used to stimulate and block the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, respectively. Relevant signal pathways were studied to compare their effects on myocarditis, survival rate, histopathological changes, ultrastructural changes, and cytokine levels. Nicotine treatments significantly improved survival rate, attenuated myocardial lesions, and downregulated the expression of TNF-α and IL-6. Methyllycaconitine decreased survival rate, aggravated myocardial lesions, and upregulated the expression of TNF-α and IL-6. In addition, levels of the signaling protein phosphorylated STAT3 were higher in the nicotine group and lower in the methyllycaconitine group compared with the untreated myocarditis group.These results show that nicotine protects mice from CVB3-induced viral myocarditis and that methyllycaconitine aggravates viral myocarditis in mice. Because nicotine is a α7nAchR agonist and methyllycaconitine is a α7nAchR antagonist, we conclude that α7nAchR activation increases the phosphorylation of STAT3, reduces the expression of TNF-α and IL-6, and, ultimately, alleviates viral myocarditis. We also conclude that blocking α7nAchR reduces the phosphorylation of STAT3, increases the expression of TNF-α and IL-6, aggravating viral

  9. Role of synthesized organoselenium compounds on protection of rat erythrocytes from DMBA-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamoglu Talas, Zeliha; Yilmaz, Ismet; Ozdemir, Ilknur; Ates, Burhan; Gok, Yetkin; Cetinkaya, Bekir

    2009-05-01

    Formation of free radicals is not limited to normal cellular process but also occur upon exposure to certain chemicals (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, cadmium, lead, etc.), cigarette smoke, radiation, and high-fat diet. Free-radical damage is an important factor in many pathological and toxicological processes. Selenium, an essential micronutrient, is a associated with antioxidant functions, physiological defense mechanisms against different diseases including several types of cancers. Search for new selenium compounds with more chemopreventive activities and less toxicities are in progress. In addition, there has been a growing interest in the synthesis of organoselenium compounds with respect to their use in enzymology and bioorganic chemistry. In the present study, adult female Wistar rats were treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and the organoselenium compounds [1-isopropyl-3-methylbenzimidazole-2-selenone (Se I) and 1, 3-di-p-methoxybenzylpyrimidine-2-selenone (Se II)] in determined doses. The protective effects of synthetic organoselenium compounds (Se I and Se II) against DMBA-induced changes in antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR)) activities, total GSH, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of rat erythrocyte were investigated. The DMBA-treated group exhibited significant decreases in the levels of erythrocyte GSH-Px, CAT, and GR activities, an increase in MDA levels, and a decrease in total GSH level compared to the control. Se I and Se II fully or partially restored enzyme activity. Lipid peroxidation was also decreased in Se-I- and Se-II-treated groups. PMID:18974938

  10. Protective roles of pulmonary rehabilitation mixture in experimental pulmonary fibrosis in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnormal high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) activation is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary rehabilitation mixture (PRM), which combines extracts from eight traditional Chinese medicines, has very good lung protection in clinical use. However, it is not known if PRM has anti-fibrotic activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of PRM on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-mediated and bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. The effects of PRM on TGF-β1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells, on the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts (HLF-1) in vitro, and on BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo were investigated. PRM treatment resulted in a reduction of EMT in A549 cells that was associated with attenuating an increase of vimentin and a decrease of E-cadherin. PRM inhibited the proliferation of HLF-1 at an IC50 of 0.51 µg/mL. PRM ameliorated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, with reduction of histopathological scores and collagen deposition, and a decrease in α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and HMGB1 expression. An increase in receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) expression was found in BLM-instilled lungs. PRM significantly decreased EMT and prevented pulmonary fibrosis through decreasing HMGB1 and regulating RAGE in vitro and in vivo. PRM inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT via decreased HMGB1 and vimentin and increased RAGE and E-cadherin levels. In summary, PRM prevented experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating the HMGB1/RAGE pathway

  11. The Role of Human Factor in Radiation Protection of Children During Chest X Ray Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection depends on many factors. Our study deals with the human factor, the radiology technicians' routine work. If all technical malfunctions are excluded they are responsible for the patient dose. Depending on their education and experience, technicians perform X ray examinations with various end results: image quality, entrance surface dose, patient interaction etc. In hospital setting we have consecutively chosen the study group of 20 children that had a clinical indication for a chest X ray examination (standard PA radiogram), for each of three technicians working at the radiology ward. A Shimadzu X ray machine was used in all cases. 60 children were from 6 to 12 years old and all parents were informed about the aim and the experimental details of the study. All of them gave their informed consent. Radiophotoluminescent (RPL) and thermoluminescent (TLD) dosimeters were applied at the entrance of the beam in the center of the X ray field to measure the entrance surface dose (ESD). Three differently experienced technicians were unaware of the objective of the study. Parameters that were noted were the kV, mAs and the size of the radiation field. The results show a good correlation in ESD between two technicians. Doses were significantly higher for the third one. After the results were known, protocols were designed and after educational interference, we continued to measure ESD again on a group of 40 children. The doses were reduced and there was a good correlation between all three technicians. With this work we want to clarify and show the importance of continuous education and good teamwork for dose reduction. In a sequel study, with the same three technicians, we hope to have results that would show a better dose reduction. (author)

  12. In-Vitro Radio protective Role of Ferulic Acid in Cultured Lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferulic acid (FA), C10H10O4 is the most abundant, ubiquitous hydroxycinnamic acid derived from photochemical phenolic compounds. It is a major constituent of fruits and vegetables such as orange, tomato, carrot, sweet corn and rice bran. Gamma rays generate hydroxyl radicals in cells and cellular DNA damage which leads to genotoxicity and chromosome aberrations. To establish most effective protective support, we used two different concentrations of FA (5 and 10 μg/ ml) and 2 Gy dose of gamma-radiation. Cytogenetic analysis was evaluated using the analysis of structural chromosome aberration (CA) and cytokinesis block micronucleus assay (CBMN). The level of lipid peroxidation analyzed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total glutathione (GSH), the enzyme activities of lymphocytes defence mechanism: Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined. The result obtained by all endpoints indicates acceptable toxicity profiles of FA in-vitro when compared with normal lymphocytes; irradiation at 2 Gy increased the MN and CA frequencies. Treatment with FA for 30 min before radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline both of MN and CA yields as FA concentration increased. The levels of TBARS and GSH were altered significantly whereas the levels of the enzymatic antioxidants were decreased in gamma-irradiated lymphocytes. Pretreatment with 10 μg/ ml of FA has attenuated the toxic effects of radiation more than FA (5 μg/ ml) by reduction in the TBARS level, restoration GSH contents and prevented the decreases in the radiation-induced SOD, CAT and GPx activities. These results lead us to the conclusion that FA has antimutagenic effect and benefit as a radio protector against oxidative stress involved by gamma-rays exposure

  13. Rhein lysinate increases the median survival time of SAMP10 mice: protective role in the kidney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang HU; Jiang LIU; Yong-zhan ZHEN; Rong XU; Yu QIAO; Jie WEI; Ping TU

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the protective effects of rhein lysinate (RHL),a major bioactive constituent of the rhizome of rhubarb (Rheum palmatum Linn or Rheum tanguticum Maxim),against kidney impairment in senescence-prone inbred strain 10 (SAMP10) mice.Methods:SAMP10 mice were orally administered RHL (25 or 50 mg/kg) daily until 50% of the mice died.Senescence-resistant inbred strain 1 (SAMR1) mice administered no drug were taken as control.The kidneys were harvested after animal death,and examined morphologically and with immunochemical assays.The levels of MAD,SOD and GSH-px in the kidneys were measured with a photometric method.The expression of inflammatory factors and related proteins in the kidneys was analyzed using Western blotting.Results:Treatment of SAMP10 mice with RHL had no effect on the body weight or phenotype.However,RHL significantly prolonged the median survival time of SAMP10 mice by approximately 25%,as compared to untreated SAMP10 mice.Compared SAMR1 mice,SAMP10 mice had a significantly lower level of SOD in the kidneys,but had no significant difference in the MDA or GSH-px levels.Treatment of SAMP10 mice with RHL significantly reduced the MAD level,and increased the SOD and GSH-px levels in the kidneys.Glomerulonephritis was observed in SAMP10 mice but not in SAMR1 mice.RHL decreased the incidence of glomerulonephritis,and significantly decreased the levels of TNF-α,IL-6,NF-κB,collagen types Ⅰ and Ⅲ in the kidneys.Conclusion:Accelerated senescence is associated with glomerulonephritis in SAMP10 mice,and RHL prolongs their median survival time by red ucing the severity of glomeruloneph ritis.

  14. Protective role of hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase in lithocholic acid—in—duced liver toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YamaY; KitaH

    2002-01-01

    Supplement of 1% lithocholic acid (LCA) in the diet for 5-9d resulted in elevated levels of the marker for liver damage AST and ALP activities in both FXR-null and wild-type female mice.The levels were clearly higher in wild-type mice than in FXR-null mice,in spite of the diminished expression of a bile salt export pump(Bsep) in the latter.Consistent with liver toxicity marker activities,serum and liver levels of bile acide,particularly LCA and tauro LCA,were clearly higher in wild-type mice than in FXR-null mice after 1% LCA supplement.Marked increases in hepatic sulfating activity for LCA(5.5-fold) and hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase St2a(5.8-fold) were detected in liver of FXR-null mice.Liver St2a content was inversely correlated with levels of ALP.In contrast,microsomal LCA 6-hydroxylation was not increased and in fact lower in FXR-null mice compared in wild-type mice.Clear decreases in mRNA encoding Ntcp,Oatpl and Lst-1 transporters function in bild acid import were detected in LCA fed mice.These transporter levels are higher in FXR-null mice than in wild-type mice after 1% LCA supplement.No obvious changes were detected in the Mrp2,Mrp3 and Mrp4 mRNAs.These results indicate that hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase is reuired for protection against LCA-induced liver damage.

  15. Protective roles of heat stress on the neurons in hippocampal CA1 region of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chunxu; WANG Hanxing

    2007-01-01

    The effects of heat stress on the neurons in hippocampal CA1 region of brain ischemia/reperfusion were explored.The mice were pretreated with heat stress followed by ischemia/reperfusion by clipping bilateral cervical common arteries for 7 min.Mice were divided randomly into four groups as follows:(1)normal control group;(2)heat stress pretreated subsequent to ischemia/reperfusion group (HS/IR);(3)ischemia/reperfusion group(IR);and(4)heat stress group(HS).Animals in the last three groups were subdivided into three subgroups:1 d,4 d,14 d respectively.The Morris water maze was used to test the ability of learning and memorizing,Nissl staining was used to count the average number of survived neurons in hippocampal CA1 region,and immunohistochemistry combined with image analysis system to detect the changes of Microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP-2)expression.The results showed that mice in IR group exhibited increased escape latency when compared with that of normal,HS and HS/IR groups(P<0.01),and the mice in IR group adopted an inefficient search strategy,major in circling and restricted searching manners.Nissl staining results showed a significant reduction in the number of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA1 regions in HS/IR and IR groups,with a decrease in IR group(P<0.01).Compared with normal group,the expression of MAP-2 in hippocampal CA1 region obviously decreased in IR group(P<0.05).The present results indicate that heat stress pretreatment can improve the spatial learning and memorizing function through protection to hippocampal neurons.

  16. The Protective Role of Anise Oil in Oxidative Stress and Genotoxicity Produced in Favism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriem, Khaled M M; Arbid, Mahmoud S; El-Gendy, Nadia F

    2016-09-01

    The metabolic disease favism is an acute hemolytic anemia. Anise oil was obtained from Pimpinella anisum L. seeds (family Apiaceae). The objective of this study was to establish the protective effect of anise oil in favism disorders. Forty-eight male albino rats were divided into six groups: group 1 orally administrated 1 mL distilled water, group 2 orally received 300 mg/kg anise oil, and group 3 orally administrated 100 mg/kg anethole over a seven-day period, group 4 favism-induced rats, group 5 orally administrated 300 mg/kg anise oil and group 6 orally administrated 100 mg/kg anethole once a day over a seven-day period prior to favism induction. The result obtained revealed that oral administration of either anise oil or anethole into normal rats over a seven-day period did not induce any change. Following favism induction, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red and white blood cell counts, serum glucose, blood glutathione, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, total protein, globulin, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases levels were significantly decreased, while serum alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin showed significant increase. Pretreatment with either anise oil or anethole into favism-induced rats prevented these changes. Favism also induced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and prior treatment of anise oil maintained liver DNA content. These results were supported by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, anise oil pretreatment into favism-induced rats decreased the favism disorders, and this effect was related to the anethole ingredient of the oil. PMID:26745557

  17. Protective roles of pulmonary rehabilitation mixture in experimental pulmonary fibrosis in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Ji, Y.X.; Jiang, W.L.; Lv, C.J. [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai (China)

    2015-05-08

    Abnormal high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) activation is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary rehabilitation mixture (PRM), which combines extracts from eight traditional Chinese medicines, has very good lung protection in clinical use. However, it is not known if PRM has anti-fibrotic activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of PRM on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-mediated and bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. The effects of PRM on TGF-β1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells, on the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts (HLF-1) in vitro, and on BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo were investigated. PRM treatment resulted in a reduction of EMT in A549 cells that was associated with attenuating an increase of vimentin and a decrease of E-cadherin. PRM inhibited the proliferation of HLF-1 at an IC{sub 50} of 0.51 µg/mL. PRM ameliorated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, with reduction of histopathological scores and collagen deposition, and a decrease in α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and HMGB1 expression. An increase in receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) expression was found in BLM-instilled lungs. PRM significantly decreased EMT and prevented pulmonary fibrosis through decreasing HMGB1 and regulating RAGE in vitro and in vivo. PRM inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT via decreased HMGB1 and vimentin and increased RAGE and E-cadherin levels. In summary, PRM prevented experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating the HMGB1/RAGE pathway.

  18. Protective role of radish oil (raphson sativus) against gamma radiation on lipids and carbohydrate in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work was carried out to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on some biochemical parameters in rats. The rats were exposed to sublethal whole body gamma irradiation dose (1Gy x 4). The protective role of radish oil (Raphanus sativus) was evaluated by oral administration to rats before gamma radiation exposure and the lipid profile, serum glucose and liver glycogen were investigated. Exposed rats to gamma radiation showed significant alterations in the assayed parameters indicating disturbances in lipid and carbohydrate metabolisms. Oral administration of radish oil (Raphanus sativus) before gamma irradiation exerted marked ameliorations in the disorders induced by gamma radiation in most of the tested parameters such as lipid profile, serum glucose and liver glycogen

  19. Role of experience, leadership and individual protection in cath lab. A multicenter questionnaire and workshop on radiation safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuon, E. [Klinik Fraenkische Schweiz, Ebermannstadt (Germany). Div. of Cardiology; Weitmann, K.; Hoffmann, W. [University Medicine, Greifswald (Germany). Inst. for Community Medicine; Doerr, M.; Hummel, A.; Busch, M.C.; Felix, S.B.; Empen, K. [University Medicine, Greifswald (Germany). Div. of Internal Medicine

    2015-10-15

    Radiation exposure in invasive cardiology remains considerable. We evaluated the acceptance of radiation protective devices and the role of operator experience, team leadership, and technical equipment in radiation safety efforts in the clinical routine. Cardiologists (115 from 27 centers) answered a questionnaire and documented radiation parameters for 10 coronary angiographies (CA), before and 3.1 months after a 90-min. mini-course in radiation-reducing techniques. Mini-course participants achieved significant median decreases in patient dose area products (DAP: from 26.6 to 13.0 Gy x cm{sup 2}), number of radiographic frames (- 29 %) and runs (- 18 %), radiographic DAP/frame (- 32 %), fluoroscopic DAP/s (- 39 %), and fluoroscopy time (- 16 %). Multilevel analysis revealed lower DAPs with decreasing body mass index (- 1.4 Gy x cm{sup 2} per kg/m2), age (- 1.2 Gy x cm{sup 2}/decade), female sex (- 5.9 Gy x cm{sup 2}), participation of the team leader (- 9.4 Gy x cm{sup 2}), the mini-course itself (- 16.1 Gy x cm{sup 2}), experience (- 0.7 Gy x cm{sup 2}/1000 CAs throughout the interventionalist's professional life), and use of older catheterization systems (- 6.6 Gy x cm{sup 2}). Lead protection included apron (100 %), glass sheet (95 %), lengthwise (94 %) and crosswise (69 %) undercouch sheet, collar (89 %), glasses (28 %), cover around the patients' thighs (19 %), foot switch shield (7 %), gloves (3 %), and cap (1 %). Radiation-protection devices are employed less than optimally in the clinical routine. Cardiologists with a great variety of interventional experience profited from our radiation safety workshop - to an even greater extent if the interventional team leader also participated.

  20. Protective role of lycopene against damage induced in liver, lung and vertebrae of gamma irradiated rat fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of lycopene (0.9 mg/100 g/day) orally given pre and post gamma irradiation on the histological changes in the liver, lung and vertebrae of fetuses. Four groups of pregnant female rats were irradiated as follows: first group represented control (C), second group treated with lycopene (L), third group exposed to radiation (R) and fourth group exposed to radiation and treated with lycopene (R+L). Pregnant female rats of group 3 and 4 were exposed to gamma irradiation at a dose level of 1.5 Gy at day 5 and 1.5 Gy at day 10 of gestation. All groups were sacrificed on day 20 of gestation. Histological results showed serious injury in the liver after exposure to gamma irradiation, where hemo siderosis was noted surrounding the dilated central vein and hepatocytes were atrophied with depression in the hemopoiesis process. Lung sections of fetuses maternally subjected to 1.5 Gy at day 5 and at day 10 of gestation and inspected on day 20 of gestation exhibited dilated and atrophied air alveoli with flattened lining epithelium. Vertebrae of these fetuses showed reductions in number of mitoses and disorderly maturation followed by the asymptomatic degeneration and necrosis of less mature element and bleeding in the periosteum of vertebra. Oral administration of lycopene pre and post gamma irradiation markedly reduced the radiation injury and showed marked protection against the liver and lung damaging effects of irradiation. On the other hand, the vertebrae sections showed no protective role of lycopene from the irradiation damage. Therefore, it may be suggested that lycopene, a potent antioxidant, can attenuate radiation injuries in certain organ

  1. Role of experience, leadership and individual protection in cath lab. A multicenter questionnaire and workshop on radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation exposure in invasive cardiology remains considerable. We evaluated the acceptance of radiation protective devices and the role of operator experience, team leadership, and technical equipment in radiation safety efforts in the clinical routine. Cardiologists (115 from 27 centers) answered a questionnaire and documented radiation parameters for 10 coronary angiographies (CA), before and 3.1 months after a 90-min. mini-course in radiation-reducing techniques. Mini-course participants achieved significant median decreases in patient dose area products (DAP: from 26.6 to 13.0 Gy x cm2), number of radiographic frames (- 29 %) and runs (- 18 %), radiographic DAP/frame (- 32 %), fluoroscopic DAP/s (- 39 %), and fluoroscopy time (- 16 %). Multilevel analysis revealed lower DAPs with decreasing body mass index (- 1.4 Gy x cm2 per kg/m2), age (- 1.2 Gy x cm2/decade), female sex (- 5.9 Gy x cm2), participation of the team leader (- 9.4 Gy x cm2), the mini-course itself (- 16.1 Gy x cm2), experience (- 0.7 Gy x cm2/1000 CAs throughout the interventionalist's professional life), and use of older catheterization systems (- 6.6 Gy x cm2). Lead protection included apron (100 %), glass sheet (95 %), lengthwise (94 %) and crosswise (69 %) undercouch sheet, collar (89 %), glasses (28 %), cover around the patients' thighs (19 %), foot switch shield (7 %), gloves (3 %), and cap (1 %). Radiation-protection devices are employed less than optimally in the clinical routine. Cardiologists with a great variety of interventional experience profited from our radiation safety workshop - to an even greater extent if the interventional team leader also participated.

  2. The protective role of Melatonin on small intestine after Thioacetamide Intoxication in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the effect of melatonin (MT), a very potent and efficient endogenous free radical scavenger, against the toxic effect induced by thioacetamide (TAA) on structures of small intestine in rats. Melatonin acts as primary nonenzymatic antioxidant and protects the tissue from oxidative damage. Thioacetamide, which was originally used as a fungicide, is proposed hepatotoxin commonly used to induce liver cirrhosis in rats and other species. However, very little attention has been dealt with the effects of TAA on the intestinal cells and there functions. It was therefore of interest to study the aging variation in the sequenced response responses of injury caused by TAA and regeneration capacity of recovery after using melatonin. For this purpose male Wistar rats aging 1, 3 and 12 months are arranged in three main groups (15 rats for each group). Each main group then divided into: (1) control group, (2) intoxicated group (a single high dose 300 mg/kg/body weight of TAA) and (3) treated group, administered the same dose of thioacetamide with melatonin (5mg/kg/body weight) daily injected orally for four weeks. Histological investigation of TAA intoxication revealed a highest grade of pathological alterations manifested by changes of width and length of most villi in ileum of all intoxicated groups. The epithelial cells lining the top of the villi were denuded in ileum sections of newly weaned and young intoxicated animals, while they appeared degenerated with exposed lamina propria in ileum sections of adult group. There was also an increase in the number of goblet cells in most villi and in crypts of Lieberkuhn of intestinal cells. Mitotic figures were observed obviously in the crypts of onset ileum cells of intoxicated animals. Lymphocytic infiltration in lamina propria and submucosa were more obvious in the intestinal cell of young intoxicated groups. However, congestion and dilatation of blood vessels were more pronounced in ileum sections of

  3. Protective Role of Pomegranate on Fatty Liver in Obesity: An Experimental

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    Ahmed Hassan El-Rashedy1- Saeed Kamel Belal2- Hossam El-Din Osman3- Gaber

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the work: Fatty liver is the most common cause of abnormal liver function tests. Since obesity and fatty liver can result in serious drawbacks and represent a considerable incidence rate in Saudi Arabia. This country is a famous one of pomegranate. This study aimed at investigating the ameliorating effects of pomegranate on hepatic lipid accumulation in rats with severe fatty liver in order to provide a cheap natural protective medicine since this health problem can affect the entire world economy. Material and methods: Twenty-four male Zucker rats aged 13­15 weeks were used. Animals were allowed free access to food and water for 1 week before starting the experiment. According to the body weight (BW, plasma triglycerides (TG and total cholesterol (TC levels were measured before treatment. The animals were divided into lean control, lean pomegranate (PGF-treated, fatty control and fatty PGF- treated groups (six animals per group. Finally, the animals were weighed after a prompt dislocation of their neck vertebra. Then, the liver was rapidly excised, washed with saline on ice and weighed. In addition, one part of it was cut into slices for studies of lipid determination analysis. The right tibia length (TL was measured for calculation of the ratio of liver weight to TL. A portion of the liver was homogenized and the lipids were extracted with isopropanol. Triglycerides and TC contents in the supernatant were determined. Results: Fatty rats (ZF had shorten TL but their BWs were increased compared to lean rats. Also, ZF rats showed hepatomegaly reflected by increased liver weight and increased ratio of liver weight to TL. Treatment with PGF extract did not change BW and TL, but it reduced liver weight and the ratio in ZF rats. PGF did not affect these parameters in lean ( ZL rats. Fatty rats exhibited severe hepatic steatosis, reflected by a marked increase in hepatic TG as well as hepatic TC contents and fatty droplets visualized by either

  4. Biochemical study on the protective role of folic acid in rabbits treated with chromium (VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Demerdash, Fatma M; Yousef, Mokhtar I; Elaswad, Fathia A M

    2006-01-01

    enzyme activities and biochemical parameters. In conclusion, folic acid could be effective in the protection of chromium-induced toxicity. PMID:16785179

  5. The Role of Quench-back in the Passive Quench Protection of Long Solenoids with Coil Sub-division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Michael A.; Guo, XingLong; Wang, Li; Pan, Heng; Wu, Hong

    2009-10-19

    This paper describes how a passive quench protection system can be applied to long superconducting solenoid magnets. When a solenoid coil is long compared to its thickness, the magnet quench process will be dominated by the time needed for uench propagation along the magnet length. Quench-back will permit a long magnet to quench more rapidly in a passive way. Quenchback from a conductive (low resistivity) mandrel is essential for spreading the quench along the length of a magnet. The andrel must be inductively coupled to the magnet circuit that is being quenched. Current induced in the mandrel by di/dt in the magnet produces heat in the mandrel, which in turn causes the superconducting coil wound on the mandrel to quench. Sub-divisions often employed to reduce the voltages to ground within the coil. This paper explores when it is possible for quench-back to be employed for passive quench protection. The role of sub-division of the coil is discussed for long magnets.

  6. Antidiabetic effect of α-mangostin and its protective role in sexual dysfunction of streptozotocin induced diabetic male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelli, Giri Babu; K, Anand Solomon; Kilari, Eswar Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Sexual dysfunction is one of the diabetic complications in males. The present study aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of α-mangostin and its protective role in sexual dysfunction of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic male rats. Male Wistar rats were divided as control, diabetic control, diabetic rats administered with 25, 50 mg/kg body weight (bw) of α-mangostin and 1 mg/kg bw of gliclazide. The α-mangostin was administered once daily for a period of 55 days. On day 55 animals were sacrificed, serum was analyzed for testosterone levels, and sperm was collected from the epididymis and sperm parameters analyzed. Testis and epididymis were examined for antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels, lipidperoxidation products, and histopathological alterations. In diabetic rats, sperm count, motile sperms, viable sperms, and hypo-osmotic swelling tail coiled sperms were significantly decreased while sperm malformations increased when compared with normal rats. Serum testosterone levels and testicular 3β and 17 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase levels were significantly decreased in diabetic rats. Significant reduction in testicular and epididymal SOD, catalase, GPx levels, and elevation in lipid peroxidation products were observed. However, α-mangostin treatment showed noteworthy recovery in all parameters towards the control levels. It may therefore be suggested that α-mangostin showed a protective effect against sexual dysfunction in STZ induced diabetic rats. PMID:23886300

  7. Copper-induced changes of lipid peroxidation and hemato-biochemical parameters in rat blood: Protective role of flavonoids

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    Mladenović Jelena M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of subchronic exposure to copper (Cu on lipid peroxidation, hemato-biochemical parameters, and the possible protective role of flavonoids Quercetin and (--Epicatechin were studied. Male Wistar albino rats were treated with Cu (560 mg/L, p.o. as CuCl2•2H2O for 5 weeks and Quercetin and (--Epicatechin (40 mg/kg BW each, i.p., every third day during the last 3 weeks alone or in combination. Cu increased the concentration of lipid peroxides, decreased the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit values and increased the activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase. Coadministration of Quercetin and (--Epicatechin with Cu lowered the process of lipid peroxidation and restored examined hemato-biochemical parameters to control values. Our results indicate that Cu induced oxidative damage in erythrocytes, which led to anemia, while Quercetin and (--Epicatechin showed a protective effect on the hemato-biochemical processes in the blood of rats. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173041

  8. Functional role of an endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in enhancing growth and disease protection of invasive English ivy (Hedera helix L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marcos Antonio; Li, Jai-Yan; Bergen, Marshall; da Silva, Joaquim Manoel; Kowalski, Kurt P.; White, James Francis

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundWe hypothesize that invasive English ivy (Hedera helix) harbors endophytic microbes that promote plant growth and survival. To evaluate this hypothesis, we examined endophytic bacteria in English ivy and evaluated effects on the host plant.MethodsEndophytic bacteria were isolated from multiple populations of English ivy in New Brunswick, NJ. Bacteria were identified as a single species Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. One strain of B. amyloliquefaciens, strain C6c, was characterized for indoleacetic acid (IAA) production, secretion of hydrolytic enzymes, phosphate solubilization, and antibiosis against pathogens. PCR was used to amplify lipopeptide genes and their secretion into culture media was detected by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Capability to promote growth of English ivy was evaluated in greenhouse experiments. The capacity of C6c to protect plants from disease was evaluated by exposing B+ (bacterium inoculated) and B− (non-inoculated) plants to the necrotrophic pathogen Alternaria tenuissima.ResultsB. amyloliquefaciens C6c systemically colonized leaves, petioles, and seeds of English ivy. C6c synthesized IAA and inhibited plant pathogens. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis revealed secretion of antifungal lipopeptides surfactin, iturin, bacillomycin, and fengycin. C6c promoted the growth of English ivy in low and high soil nitrogen conditions. This endophytic bacterium efficiently controlled disease caused by Alternaria tenuissima.ConclusionsThis study suggests that B. amyloliquefaciens plays an important role in enhancing growth and disease protection of English ivy.

  9. Possible protective and curative role of thiamine pyrophosphate against radiation induced biochemical and histological changes in male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study has been performed to investigate the possible curative and protective role of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) in minimizing the radiation-induced changes in certain biochemical and histological parameters in the liver and kidney of rats. The activity of liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and g-glutamyl transferase (g-GT) as well as kidney creatinine and urea concentrations were measured. In addition, histological changes in the liver and kidney tissues were examined.The results obtained revealed that whole body g-irradiation of rats at 5 Gy (single dose) induced significant increase in the activity of liver g-GT, ALT and AST and also significant increase in the concentration of creatinine and urea in the kidney at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks post-irradiation. Exposure to radiation induced also distortion in the architecture pattern of the liver as well as degenerative changes of the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney.The intraperitoneal administration of TPP at a concentration of 2mg/Kg body weight to unirradiated rats for 5 consecutive days did not induce any significant changes in biochemical and histological parameters studied at all the experimental periods. TPP given to rats for 5 consecutive days either before or after irradiation ameliorated the intensity of changes induced due to radiation exposure. Accordingly, it was concluded that TPP could exert a beneficial protective and curative role against some radiation-induced biochemical and histological disorders in liver and kidney. Extrapolation of the results obtained in the present study to patients who need such treatments and undergoing radiotherapy requires further investigations

  10. Role of Opioid Receptors Signaling in Remote Electrostimulation - Induced Protection against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rat Hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsin-Ju; Huang, Shiang-Suo; Tsou, Meng-Ting; Wang, Hsiao-Ting; Chiu, Jen-Hwey

    2015-01-01

    Aims Our previous studies demonstrated that remote electro-stimulation (RES) increased myocardial GSK3 phosphorylation and attenuated ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R) injury in rat hearts. However, the role of various opioid receptors (OR) subtypes in preconditioned RES-induced myocardial protection remains unknown. We investigated the role of OR subtype signaling in RES-induced cardioprotection against I/R injury of the rat heart. Methods & Results Male Spraque-Dawley rats were used. RES was performed on median nerves area with/without pretreatment with various receptors antagonists such as opioid receptor (OR) subtype receptors (KOR, DOR, and MOR). The expressions of Akt, GSK3, and PKCε expression were analyzed by Western blotting. When RES was preconditioned before the I/R model, the rat's hemodynamic index, infarction size, mortality and serum CK-MB were evaluated. Our results showed that Akt, GSK3 and PKCε expression levels were significantly increased in the RES group compared to the sham group, which were blocked by pretreatment with specific antagonists targeting KOR and DOR, but not MOR subtype. Using the I/R model, the duration of arrhythmia and infarct size were both significantly attenuated in RES group. The mortality rates of the sham RES group, the RES group, RES group + KOR antagonist, RES group + DOR/MOR antagonists (KOR left), RES group + DOR antagonist, and RES group + KOR/MOR antagonists (DOR left) were 50%, 20%, 67%, 13%, 50% and 55%, respectively. Conclusion The mechanism of RES-induced myocardial protection against I/R injury seems to involve multiple target pathways such as Akt, KOR and/or DOR signaling. PMID:26430750

  11. Role of Opioid Receptors Signaling in Remote Electrostimulation--Induced Protection against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rat Hearts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ju Tsai

    Full Text Available Our previous studies demonstrated that remote electro-stimulation (RES increased myocardial GSK3 phosphorylation and attenuated ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R injury in rat hearts. However, the role of various opioid receptors (OR subtypes in preconditioned RES-induced myocardial protection remains unknown. We investigated the role of OR subtype signaling in RES-induced cardioprotection against I/R injury of the rat heart.Male Spraque-Dawley rats were used. RES was performed on median nerves area with/without pretreatment with various receptors antagonists such as opioid receptor (OR subtype receptors (KOR, DOR, and MOR. The expressions of Akt, GSK3, and PKCε expression were analyzed by Western blotting. When RES was preconditioned before the I/R model, the rat's hemodynamic index, infarction size, mortality and serum CK-MB were evaluated. Our results showed that Akt, GSK3 and PKCε expression levels were significantly increased in the RES group compared to the sham group, which were blocked by pretreatment with specific antagonists targeting KOR and DOR, but not MOR subtype. Using the I/R model, the duration of arrhythmia and infarct size were both significantly attenuated in RES group. The mortality rates of the sham RES group, the RES group, RES group + KOR antagonist, RES group + DOR/MOR antagonists (KOR left, RES group + DOR antagonist, and RES group + KOR/MOR antagonists (DOR left were 50%, 20%, 67%, 13%, 50% and 55%, respectively.The mechanism of RES-induced myocardial protection against I/R injury seems to involve multiple target pathways such as Akt, KOR and/or DOR signaling.

  12. Effect of lead acetate on follicular count of mice ovary and the protective role of garlic extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of lead acetate and protective role of garlic extract on the histomorphology of the ovarian follicles in an animal model. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized control trial Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, Army Medical College in collaboration with National Institute of Health from April-June 2013 Material and Methods: Thirty female BALBc mice were selected. Mice were randomly divided into three groups. 10 animals were placed in each group. Group A being the control was given normal diet. Group B was given lead acetate at a dose of 30 mg/kg/day. Group C was given lead acetate 30mg/kg/day and garlic extract 500 mg/kg/day through oral lavage tube for 60 days. Animals were sacrificed and dissected at the end of 60th day. Length and width of the ovary were measured, right ovary was processed, embedded and stained for histological study. Primary, secondary and graafian follicles were counted and noted. Results: There was reduction in the number of primary and graafian follicles in group B when compared to group A. In group C there was relatively increase in number of follicles, when compared to group B. Number of secondary follicles was almost same in all the groups. The length of ovary was higher in group A as compared to group B. In group C results were same as group A regarding length of the ovary. Width of ovary was same between the respective groups. Conclusion: The follicular count was markedly affected in lead acetate treated group which improved when co treated with garlic extract in experimental group C. Hence, garlic had a protective role against lead induced changes in mice ovary. (author)

  13. Role of aliskiren in cardio-renal protection and use in hypertensives with multiple risk factors

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    Eduardo Pimenta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo Pimenta1, Suzanne Oparil21Endocrine Hypertension Research Centre and Clinical Centre of Research Excellence in Cardiovascular Disease and Metabolic Disorders, University of Queensland School of Medicine, Greenslopes Princess Alexandra Hospitals, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Vascular Biology and Hypertension Program, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: The renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS is a key mediator of blood pressure (BP and volume regulation in both normotensive and hypertensive persons. Stimulation of RAAS also contributes to hypertension-related target organ damage. The renin–angiotensinogen reaction is the first and rate-limiting step in the generation of angiotensin II (Ang II and has been a target of antihypertensive drug development for decades. Aliskiren is the first in a new class of orally effective direct renin inhibitors (DRIs and is approved for the treatment of hypertension in humans. It effectively reduces BP in the general population of hypertensive patients and has a tolerability and safety profile similar to placebo. Aliskiren has favorable effects on vascular inflammation and remodeling, on neurohumoral mediators of various forms of cardiovascular disease, including heart failure, and on proteinuria in diabetic patients. Additional outcome trials are needed to establish the role of this novel class of antihypertensive medication in preventing cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality.Keywords: hypertension, renin inhibitors, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

  14. Cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats: protective role of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Poonam; Huq, Amir Ul; Singh, Rambir

    2013-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate role of ethanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris (EETT) against alpha-cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. 24 male Wistar rats weighing about 250-300g were divided in four groups. Group-I was control. alpha-cypermethrin (3.38 mg kg-1b.wt.) was given to group-IlI for 28 days. In Group-Ill, alpha-cypermethrin and EETT (100 mg kg -1b.wt.) were administered in combination for 28 days. Rats in group-IV were given EETT for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, testes and epididymis were removed and sperm characteristics, sex hormones and various biochemical parameters were studied. Decrease in weight of testes and epididymis, testicular sperm head count, sperm motility, live sperm count, serum testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leutinizing hormone (LH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total protein content and increase in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) level was observed in rats exposed to cypermethrin. In combination group-Ill, EETT treatment ameliorated alpha-cypermethrin induced damage. EETT treatment in group-IV increased testes and epididymis weight, sperm head counts, sperm motility, live sperm counts, testosterone, FSH, LH, GSH, CAT, SOD, GST, GR, GPx and total protein content. The study suggested that Tribulus terrestris plant possess reproductive system enhancement and antioxidant activity. PMID:24558798

  15. Cell-bound exopolysaccharides of Lactobacillus brevis KB290: protective role and monosaccharide composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigenori; Yakabe, Takafumi; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Fukao, Masanori; Saito, Tadao; Yajima, Nobuhiro

    2013-08-01

    We examined the survivability of Lactobacillus brevis KB290 and derivative strain KB392 in artificial digestive juices and bile salts. The strains have similar membrane fatty acids but different amounts of cell-bound exopolysaccharides (EPS). In artificial digestive juices, KB290 showed significantly higher survivability than KB392, and homogenization, which reduced the amount of EPS in KB290 but not in KB392, reduced the survivability only of KB290. In bile salts, KB290 showed significantly higher survivability than KB392, and cell-bound EPS extraction with EDTA reduced the survivability of only KB290. Transmission electron microscopy showed there to be a greater concentration of cell-bound EPS in KB290 than in either KB392 or EDTA-treated or homogenized KB290. We conclude that KB290's cell-bound EPS (which high performance liquid chromatography showed to be made up of glucose and N-acetylglucosamine) played an important role in bile salt tolerance. PMID:23898998

  16. Human Pharyngeal Microbiome May Play A Protective Role in Respiratory Tract Infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhancheng Gao; Yu Kang; Jun Yu; Lufeng Ren

    2014-01-01

    The human pharyngeal microbiome, which resides at the juncture of digestive and respi-ratory tracts, may have an active role in the prevention of respiratory tract infections, similar to the actions of the intestinal microbiome against enteric infections. Recent studies have demonstrated that the pharyngeal microbiome comprises an abundance of bacterial species that interacts with the local epithelial and immune cells, and together, they form a unique micro-ecological system. Most of the microbial species in microbiomes are obligate symbionts constantly adapting to their unique surroundings. Indigenous commensal species are capable of both maintaining dominance and evoking host immune responses to eliminate invading species. Temporary damage to the pha-ryngeal microbiome due to the impaired local epithelia is also considered an important predisposing risk factor for infections. Therefore, reinforcement of microbiome homeostasis to prevent invasion of infection-prone species would provide a novel treatment strategy in addition to antibiotic treat-ment and vaccination. Hence continued research efforts on evaluating probiotic treatment and developing appropriate procedures are necessary to both prevent and treat respiratory infections.

  17. A localized PCR inhibitor in a porcelain crab suggests a protective role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. El-Maklizi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of polymerase chain reaction (PCR inhibitors have been identified from biological and environmental samples. By and large, such substances are treated as random nuisances and contaminants with alternate functions; their inhibitory effects on DNA replication being a coincidental property of their molecular structure. Here, we demonstrate the presence of a localized PCR inhibitor in the foregut of the porcelain crab Petrolisthes rufescens (Anomura: Porcellanidae from the Red Sea. The inhibitor precluded amplification of 28s, 16s and 18s gene sequences effectively but lost activity at 10−2 dilutions from initial concentration. Heat treatment was ineffective in arresting inhibition and spectrophotometric techniques suggested that the inhibitor was not a melanin-type compound. The compound was not detected from midgut, hindgut, or gills of the crab. Activity of the inhibitor was precluded when samples were treated with suspensions from the midgut, suggesting that enzymatic degradation of the inhibitor likely happens at that part of the gut. As many microbial pathogens invade their hosts via ingestion, we suggest the presence of the localized inhibitor could carry a defensive or immunological role for P. rufescens. The identity of the inhibitory molecule remains unknown.

  18. Urinary tract infection in preterm infants: the protective role of breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Itzhak; Comarsca, Jacklin; Davidovits, Miriam; Klinger, Gil; Sirota, Lea; Linder, Nehama

    2009-03-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) differs between preterm and older infants and children in terms of prevalence, clinical presentation, causative organism, and rate of underlying renal anomalies. Data on risk factors of UTI in preterm infants are limited. The aim of this study was to characterize UTI both clinically and microbiologically in premature infants and to define possible risk factors and the role of breastfeeding in its development. This case-control study was conducted in a tertiary-care neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) between 1995 and 2003. The study group included all premature infants (<37 weeks' gestation) diagnosed with UTI. Pre-, peri-, and postnatal data on demographic, clinical, laboratory, and imaging variables were collected from the medical records and microbiology laboratory log and compared with a gestational age- and birth weight-matched infants without UTI (control group). The ratio of control infants to cases was 2:1. Of the 6198 premature infants admitted to the NICU during the study period, 56 (0.9%) were included in the study group. The main causative organism was Klebsiella spp. Logistic regression analysis identified gender [odds ratio (OR) 2.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-6.85, P < 0.0001] and the presence of a peripheral intravenous catheter on the day of infection to be significantly associated with UTI, while breast milk was associated with a lower risk of infection (OR 0.314, 95% CI 0.140-0.707, P < 0.009). PMID:18936982

  19. Chronic UVB-irradiation actuates perpetuated dermal matrix remodeling in female mice: Protective role of estrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röck, Katharina; Joosse, Simon Andreas; Müller, Julia; Heinisch, Nina; Fuchs, Nicola; Meusch, Michael; Zipper, Petra; Reifenberger, Julia; Pantel, Klaus; Fischer, Jens Walter

    2016-01-01

    Chronic UVB-exposure and declined estradiol production after menopause represent important factors leading to extrinsic and intrinsic aging, respectively. Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a crucial role in both responses. Whether the dermal ECM is able to recover after cessation of UVB-irradiation in dependence of estradiol is not known, however of relevance when regarding possible treatment options. Therefore, the endogenous sex hormone production was depleted by ovariectomy in female mice. Half of the mice received estradiol substitution. Mice were UVB-irradiated for 20 weeks and afterwards kept for 10 weeks without irradiation. The collagen-, hyaluronan- and proteoglycan- (versican, biglycan, lumican) matrix, collagen cleavage products and functional skin parameters were analyzed. The intrinsic aging process was characterized by increased collagen fragmentation and accumulation of biglycan. Chronic UVB-irradiation additionally augmented the lumican, versican and hyaluronan content of the dermis. In the absence of further UVB-irradiation the degradation of collagen and accumulation of biglycan in the extrinsically aged group was perpetuated in an excessive matter. Whereas estradiol increased the proteoglycan content, it reversed the effects of the perpetuated extrinsic response on collagen degradation. Suspension of the intrinsic pathway might therefore be sufficient to antagonize UVB-evoked long-term damage to the dermal ECM. PMID:27460287

  20. The role of heritage tourism - history, protection and maintenance of the Golestan palace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtehaj Salimi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available one of the major motivations for tourists to travel to different countries and cultural motivations, history and heritage. Despite domestic and foreign tourists, the activity cycle national significance, providing a personal experience and social and cultural change, cultural heritage and contemporary life and society of others is essential. Tourism, as a positive force in the restoration and preservation of cultural heritage, natural history, has increased participation, and   economic features can include heritage, and put them in the rehabilitation and social education, and effective policy to spend. This study, based on an analytical method - a description, and utilization of resources in this area to check the status of historical tourism, preserving and promoting the Golestan Palace, is discussed. Iran, with several historical palaces and museums, with a rich cultural history and heritage is like a palace. The most important underlying factor in Golestan Palace of tourism, culture and heritage is a factor. Some authors emphasize culture, and its role in shaping the growth and development of tourism, and its bilateral relationship as essential, and the cornerstone of culture and heritage tourism development, and tourism funds to maintain and strengthen culture and heritage are considered. Thus, two aspects of tourism for host communities to establish funding for restoration and attention to the palace, and on the other hand, other communities due to the historical significance of Golestan, Golestan Palace will maintain and repair

  1. Protective role of wheat germ oil on some biochemical parameters in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat germ oil is an organic nutritionally rich vegetable oil. It is an excellent source of vitamin E and essential fatty acids (octacosanol, linoleic and linolenic). The study confirmed the beneficial role of the used anti-oxidation agents as recommended radio-protectors due to their ability of scavenging free radicals produced by ionizing radiation. The efficacy of daily oral treatment of rats with wheat germ oil (10 mg/ Kg body wt) for 15 days to control many of the damaging effects of ionizing radiation when male rats were subjected to fractionated 8 Gy (2 Gy day after day) of gamma irradiation were studied. Blood samples were collected from animals at 10 and 15 days after treatment and/or exposure. In blood, the data obtained revealed that, radiation exposure caused significant increases in levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and glucose at the 10th day. Meanwhile, significant reduction in contents of total protein, albumin, globulins, high-density lipoproteins (HDL), vitamin E and glucose were recorded at the 15th day. Also, the majority of these parameters were estimated in liver tissues. The results revealed that administration of the natural product wheat germ oil partially ameliorated the radiation-induced biochemical disturbances. These effects were explained in the light of the presumed different mechanisms of wheat germ oil actions

  2. Arsenic-induced toxicity and the protective role of ascorbic acid in mouse testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative stress has been suggested to be a major cause of male reproductive failure. Here, we investigated whether arsenic, which impairs male reproductive functions in rodent models, acts by inducing oxidative stress. Male 8-week-old ICR mice were given drinking water containing 20 or 40 mg/l sodium arsenite with or without 0.75 or 1.5 g/l of the antioxidant ascorbic acid for 5 weeks. The arsenic-treated mice showed decreased epididymidal sperm counts and testicular weights compared to untreated mice. These effects were reversed in mice that were co-treated with ascorbic acid. Similarly, arsenic treatment lowered the activities of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 17β-HSD, which play important roles in steroidogenesis, and this was reversed by co-treatment with ascorbic acid. The testicles of arsenic-treated mice had decreased glutathione (GSH) levels (which correlate inversely with the degree of cellular oxidative stress) and elevated levels of protein carbonyl (a marker of oxidative damage to tissue proteins). Ascorbic acid co-treatment reversed both of these effects. Thus, ascorbic acid blocks both the adverse effects of arsenic on male reproductive functions and the arsenic-induced testicular oxidative changes. These observations support the notion that arsenic impairs male reproductive function by inducing oxidative stress

  3. LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of thalidomide, lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, dexamethasone and adriamycin in serum of multiple myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Chang; Zeng, Tianmei; Gao, Shouhong; Xia, Tianyi; Huang, Lifeng; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Wansheng

    2016-08-15

    Multiple myeloma (MM), a malignant neoplastic serum-cell disorder, has been a serious threat to human health. The determination of 6 commonly used drug concentrations, including thalidomide, lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, dexamethasone and adriamycin, in MM patients was of great clinical interest. Herein, we reported a method for the rapid and simultaneous measurement of the above therapeutics by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) method with solid phase extraction. Analysis was performed on a Waters XBridge(®) BEH C18 column (2.5μm, 2.1 mm×50mm), with formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile as the mobile phase at flow rate 0.3mL/min. All analytes showed good correlation coefficients (r>0.996), and LLOQ of thalidomide, lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, dexamethasone and adriamycin were 4, 2, 2, 2, 2 and 2ng/mL, respectively. The inter- and intra-day precisions and stability were expressed as variation coefficients within 15% and relative error less than 15%. Dilution effect, carryover and incurred sample reanalysis were investigated according to the 2015 edition Chinese Pharmacopoeia guidelines, as US FDA (2013, revision 1) required. The LC-MS/MS based assay described in this article may improve future clinical studies evaluating common therapeutics for MM treatment. PMID:27336703

  4. Establishment by adriamycin exposure of multidrug-resistant rat ascites hepatoma AH130 cells showing low DT-diaphorase activity and high cross resistance to mitomycins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakusawa, S; Nakamura, S; Miyamoto, K

    1997-01-01

    A resistant subline (AH130/5A) selected from rat hepatoma AH130 cells after exposure to adriamycin (ADM) showed remarkable resistance to multiple antitumor drugs, including mitomycin C (MMC) and porfiromycin (PFM). PFM, vinblastine (VLB), and ADM accumulated in AH130/5A far less than in the parent AH130 (AH130/P) cells. AH130/5A cells showed overexpression of P-glycoprotein (PGP), an increase in glutathione S-transferase activity, and a decrease in DT-diaphorase and glutathione peroxidase activity. The resistance to MMC and VLB of AH130/5A cells was partly reversed by H-87, an inhibitor of PGP. Buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthase, did not affect the action of MMC. tert-Butylhydroquinone induced DT-diaphorase activity, increased PFM uptake, and enhanced the growth-inhibitory action of MMC in AH130/5A cells. Dicumarol, an inhibitor of DT-diaphorase, decreased PFM uptake and reduced the growth-inhibitory action of MMC in AH130/P cells. These results indicated that the adriamycin treatment of hepatoma cells caused multifactorial multidrug resistance involving a decrease in DT-diaphorase activity. PMID:9045901

  5. Evaluation of the secondary cardiotoxicity to use adriamycin in patients with breast cancer with nuclear medicine studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of surviving of cancer is increased highly with the current regimes of chemotherapy. For the year 2010 in U.S. it is considered that one of each 250 adults can be a survivor of wicked illness and many of these survivors will have been exposed to regimes with anthracycline. The anthracyclines concern to the group of antibiotics and they are effective point for hematological neoplasms as solid tumors. Although the relationship dose answer, among the regimes with anthracycline as well as the remission and the period free of illness is very established one, the latent risk of cardiotoxicity limits the use of these agents. Results: 30 patients were recruited with diagnostic of invader breast cancer tried with chemotherapy to base anthracycline in the understood period of may to december of the 2000. The medium of age it was of 48 years with a range of 27-80 years. The clinical stage that prevailed it was the EC IIB that represents a 36% in second place the EC IIIA with a 20%, EC IIA with 16% the EC IIIB and the unclassifiable ones represented 10% with 3 patients and finally the clinical stage IV with 8%, the most frequent localization was the left side.The received chemotherapy outline it was with the base of doxorubicin in its modality neo or patient adjutant, 5 patients also received taxanes like treatment adjutant. Prevailed the continuous infusion in 24 hours in 50%. The medium of accumulated dose of adriamycin was 274 mg/m2. With a left ventricular ejection fraction LVEF pretreatment of 62% (medium) determined by VRI and a medium of 69% by SPECT. The LVEF pos treatment had one medium of 57% for VRI and by SPECT a medium of 60%. They received concomitant radiotherapy with chemotherapy in modality pre operation 53.3% (16 patients), and 40% radiotherapy post operation, 2 patients didn't receive radiotherapy. In relation to the heart toxicity any patient present electrocardiographic alterations, neither arrhythmias neither clinical data of heart congestive

  6. A protective role of HSP90 chaperone in gamma-irradiated Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozeko, Liudmyla; Talalaiev, Oleksandr; Neimash, Volodymyr; Povarchuk, Vasyl

    2015-07-01

    The heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is required for the maturation and conformational regulation of many regulatory proteins affecting morphogenetic pathways and stress tolerance. The purpose of this work is to disclose a role of HSP90 in radioresistance of seeds. Arabidopsis thaliana (Ler) seeds were exposed to γ-ray irradiation with doses of 0.1-1 kGy using 60Co source to obtain a viable but polymorphic material. A comet assay of the seeds showed a dose-dependent increase in DNA damage. Phenotypic consequences of irradiation included growth stimulation at doses of 0.1-0.25 kGy and negative growth effects at doses from 0.5 kGy and beyond, along with increasing heterogeneity of seedling growth rate and phenotype. The frequencies of abnormal phenotypes were highly correlated with the degree of DNA damage in seeds. Treatment of seeds with geldanamycin (GDA), an inhibitor of HSP90, stimulated the seedling growth at all radiation doses and, at the same time, enhanced the growth rate and morphological diversity. It was also found that HSP70 induction by γ-rays was increased following GDA treatment (shown at 1 kGy). We suppose that the GDA-induced HSP70 can be involved in elimination of detrimental radiation effects that ultimately results in growth stimulation. On the other hand, the increase in phenotypic variation, when HSP90 function was impaired, confirms the supposition that the chaperone may control the concealment of cryptic genetic alterations and the developmental stability. In general, these results demonstrate that HSP90 may interface the stress response and phenotypic expression of genetic alterations induced by irradiation.

  7. Multi-functional roles of chitosan as a potential protective agent against obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M Walsh

    Full Text Available Chitosan, a natural polysaccharide comprising copolymers of glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine, has been shown to have anti-obesity properties. Two experiments (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2 were performed to determine the role of chitosan on dietary intake, body weight gain, and fat deposition in a pig model, as well as identifying potential mechanisms underlying the anti-obesity effect of chitosan. In Exp. 1, the nutrient digestibility experiment, 16 pigs (n = 4/treatment were randomly allocated to one of four dietary treatments as follows: 1 basal diet; 2 basal diet plus 300 ppm chitosan; 3 basal diet plus 600 ppm chitosan; 4 basal diet plus 1200 ppm chitosan. The main observation was that crude fat digestibility was lower in the 1200 ppm chitosan group when compared with the control group (P<0.05. In Exp. 2, a total of 80 pigs (n = 20/treatment were offered identical dietary treatments to that offered to animals in Exp. 1. Blood samples were collected on day 0, day 35 and at the end of the experiment (day 57. Animals offered diets containing 1200 ppm chitosan had a lower daily dietary intake (P<0.001 and body weight gain (P<0.001 from day 35 to 57 when compared with all the other treatment groups. Animals offered diets containing 1200 ppm chitosan had a significantly lower final body weight (P<0.01 when compared with all the other treatment groups. The decreased dietary intake observed in the 1200 ppm chitosan group was associated with increased serum leptin concentrations (P<0.001 and a decrease in serum C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations (P<0.05. In conclusion, the results of this study highlight novel endocrine mechanisms involving the modulation of serum leptin and CRP concentrations by which chitosan exhibits anti-obesity properties in vivo.

  8. Observation on FDG myocardial uptake in patients of lymphoma undergoing treatment with Adriamycin: can (18F)FDG-PET be an early marker of chemotherapeutic cardiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Adriamycin is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent in patients with cancer, having cardiotoxicity as its main side effect. This effect is through generation of free radicals and mitochondrial damage. Adriamycin produces hypoxia and decreases synthesis of ATP molecules by aerobic oxidation. To meet this energy synthesis-demand deficit, glycolysis is favored. Hence such 'injured' myocardial cells switch over to glucose as their main source of energy. Neuregulins are a family of growth factors which exert cytoprotection in Adriamycin treated myocytes. Increased glycolysis is one of the downregulatory signal in this pathway. (18F)FDG is concentrated in the myocardial cells via Glut receptors and acts as a marker of glucose metabolism. Based on the above facts, we decided to study the effects of adriamycin on glucose metabolism in myocardium in vivo, with the help of 18F-FDG PET. Aim: To observe (18F)FDG myocardial uptake in patients of lymphoma undergoing treatment with Adriamycin. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done from the data of (18F)FDG PET scan of lymphoma patients who have completed anthracycline chemotherapy and underwent the said scan for their routine evaluation. The cardiac processing was done separately and a polar map (Bulls eye) generated from the SA slices of the myocardial tracer activity of these patients. Mean SUV value was calculated for the above-mentioned map. This mean SUV calculated in both pre- and post-chemotherapy scans was compared and analysed. Results: 18 patients (16M and 2F with mean age: 32.66 ± 14.81 years) of lymphoma who underwent pre- and post-doxorubicin therapy formed part of the study. The mean dose of doxorubicin received was 227.7 ± 116.59 mg/M2 of BSA. Three different groups were identified among these cases, 1) Group A showing increase in cardiac FDG uptake in post doxorubicin PET scan. Mean dose of doxorubicin received was 256.25 mg/m2 of BSA. 2) Group B showing fall in myocardial FDG

  9. Protective Role of False Tendon in Subjects with Left Bundle Branch Block: A Virtual Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Matthias; Di Marco, Luigi Yuri; Lekadir, Karim; Lassila, Toni; Frangi, Alejandro F

    2016-01-01

    False tendons (FTs) are fibrous or fibromuscular bands that can be found in both the normal and abnormal human heart in various anatomical forms depending on their attachment points, tissue types, and geometrical properties. While FTs are widely considered to affect the function of the heart, their specific roles remain largely unclear and unexplored. In this paper, we present an in silico study of the ventricular activation time of the human heart in the presence of FTs. This study presents the first computational model of the human heart that includes a FT, Purkinje network, and papillary muscles. Based on this model, we perform simulations to investigate the effect of different types of FTs on hearts with the electrical conduction abnormality of a left bundle branch block (LBBB). We employ a virtual population of 70 human hearts derived from a statistical atlas, and run a total of 560 simulations to assess ventricular activation time with different FT configurations. The obtained results indicate that, in the presence of a LBBB, the FT reduces the total activation time that is abnormally augmented due to a branch block, to such an extent that surgical implant of cardiac resynchronisation devices might not be recommended by international guidelines. Specifically, the simulation results show that FTs reduce the QRS duration at least 10 ms in 80% of hearts, and up to 45 ms for FTs connecting to the ventricular free wall, suggesting a significant reduction of cardiovascular mortality risk. In further simulation studies we show the reduction in the QRS duration is more sensitive to the shape of the heart then the size of the heart or the exact location of the FT. Finally, the model suggests that FTs may contribute to reducing the activation time difference between the left and right ventricles from 12 ms to 4 ms. We conclude that FTs may provide an alternative conduction pathway that compensates for the propagation delay caused by the LBBB. Further investigation is

  10. Stevioside as A low caloric sweetener to milky drink and its protective role against oxidative stress in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman M. Badawi* , Nadia A. El-tablawy*, Nahed S. Bassily

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Stevioside is a natural sweetener extract from the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Stevioside was used in traditional medicine among Indian community in Brazil for the treatment of diabetes. The present study aimed to investigate the safety of stevioside as natural sweetener substitute sugar in a dairy product needed by those suffering from diabetes and its protctive role against oxidative stress exerted by hyperglycemia. The antibacterial activity of stevioside showed no effect on the pathogenic bacteria namely S. aureus, S. typhomuium and E. coli as well as lactic acid bacteria. In the present study hyperglycemia was induced by i.p. injection of alloxan in two successive doses (70 mg/kg b.w. eash / day to rats preadministered stevioside in two different doses (640 mg/kg b.w. and 1.280 g/kg b.w. for eight weeks. The following investigations were carried out, glucose tolerance test, blood glucose, blood glutathione, MDA, erythrocyte SOD and transminases. The histopathological examinations were performed at the end of the experimental period. The results obtained in this study assessed the safety and protective role of stevioside as a natural sweetener substitute sugar in a dairy product.

  11. Bridging the Nagoya Compliance Gap: The Fundamental Role of Customary Law in Protection of Indigenous Peoples’ Resource and Knowledge Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan M. Tobin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nagoya Protocol requires states to ensure that access to and use of genetic resources and traditional knowledge of Indigenous peoples and local communities is subject to their prior informed consent (PIC. It also requires states to take into consideration their customary laws. However, it lacks effective compliance mechanisms, a gap exposed in draft European legislation that sidesteps the Nagoya Protocol’s obligations regarding PIC and customary law, leaving traditional knowledge largely unprotected. This article examines the status of customary law under international, regional and national law, and the challenges and opportunities for securing recognition of its role in the protection of traditional knowledge. The article contends that all commercial and development activities with the potential to impact on Nagoya Protocol rights will in the future need to ensure compliance with relevant customary law. It finds state reluctance to adopt measures to ensure consideration of customary law shortsighted and likely to lead to increased litigation. It concludes that customary law has a key role to play in closing the Nagoya compliance gap but to do so it will need to be supported by enforcement mechanisms such as disclosure of origin regimes in intellectual property law.

  12. A protective role of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in inflammatory disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jiyoung [National Research Laboratory, College of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Young-Nam [Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon 382-751 (Korea, Republic of); Surh, Young-Joon, E-mail: surh@plaza.snu.ac.kr [National Research Laboratory, College of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-07

    Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a key transcription factor that plays a central role in cellular defense against oxidative and electrophilic insults by timely induction of antioxidative and phase-2 detoxifying enzymes and related stress-response proteins. The 5'-flanking regions of genes encoding these cytoprotective proteins contain a specific consensus sequence termed antioxidant response element (ARE) to which Nrf2 binds. Recent studies have demonstrated that Nrf2-ARE signaling is also involved in attenuating inflammation-associated pathogenesis, such as autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, emphysema, gastritis, colitis and atherosclerosis. Thus, disruption or loss of Nrf2 signaling causes enhanced susceptibility not only to oxidative and electrophilic stresses but also to inflammatory tissue injuries. During the early-phase of inflammation-mediated tissue damage, activation of Nrf2-ARE might inhibit the production or expression of pro-inflammatory mediators including cytokines, chemokines, cell adhesion molecules, matrix metalloproteinases, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. It is likely that the cytoprotective function of genes targeted by Nrf2 may cooperatively regulate the innate immune response and also repress the induction of pro-inflammatory genes. This review highlights the protective role of Nrf2 in inflammation-mediated disorders with special focus on the inflammatory signaling modulated by this redox-regulated transcription factor.

  13. Thiol/Disulfide system plays a crucial role in redox protection in the acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium Leptospirillum ferriphilum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javiera Norambuena

    Full Text Available Thiol/disulfide systems are involved in the maintenance of the redox status of proteins and other molecules that contain thiol/disulfide groups. Leptospirillum ferriphilum DSM14647, an acidophilic bacterium that uses Fe(2+ as electron donor, and withstands very high concentrations of iron and other redox active metals, is a good model to study how acidophiles preserve the thiol/disulfide balance. We studied the composition of thiol/disulfide systems and their role in the oxidative stress response in this extremophile bacterium. Bioinformatic analysis using genomic data and enzymatic assays using protein extracts from cells grown under oxidative stress revealed that the major thiol/disulfide system from L. ferriphilum are a cytoplasmic thioredoxin system (composed by thioredoxins Trx and thioredoxin reductase TR, periplasmic thiol oxidation system (DsbA/DsbB and a c-type cytochrome maturation system (DsbD/DsbE. Upon exposure of L. ferriphilum to reactive oxygen species (ROS-generating compounds, transcriptional activation of the genes encoding Trxs and the TR enzyme, which results in an increase of the corresponding activity, was observed. Altogether these data suggest that the thioredoxin-based thiol/disulfide system plays an important role in redox protection of L. ferriphilum favoring the survival of this microorganism under extreme environmental oxidative conditions.

  14. A protective role of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in inflammatory disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a key transcription factor that plays a central role in cellular defense against oxidative and electrophilic insults by timely induction of antioxidative and phase-2 detoxifying enzymes and related stress-response proteins. The 5'-flanking regions of genes encoding these cytoprotective proteins contain a specific consensus sequence termed antioxidant response element (ARE) to which Nrf2 binds. Recent studies have demonstrated that Nrf2-ARE signaling is also involved in attenuating inflammation-associated pathogenesis, such as autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, emphysema, gastritis, colitis and atherosclerosis. Thus, disruption or loss of Nrf2 signaling causes enhanced susceptibility not only to oxidative and electrophilic stresses but also to inflammatory tissue injuries. During the early-phase of inflammation-mediated tissue damage, activation of Nrf2-ARE might inhibit the production or expression of pro-inflammatory mediators including cytokines, chemokines, cell adhesion molecules, matrix metalloproteinases, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. It is likely that the cytoprotective function of genes targeted by Nrf2 may cooperatively regulate the innate immune response and also repress the induction of pro-inflammatory genes. This review highlights the protective role of Nrf2 in inflammation-mediated disorders with special focus on the inflammatory signaling modulated by this redox-regulated transcription factor.

  15. An evaluation of the role played by Kenyan independent churches in the protection of the fundamental human rights of children / Wambua Leonard Munyao

    OpenAIRE

    Wambua, Leonard Munyao

    2010-01-01

    This research aims to evaluate the role that Kenyan independent churches play in the protection of the fundamental human rights of children. It became apparent during the course of the research that Kenya's independent churches have numerous shortcomings that affect their ability to protect such rights. The Kenyan independent churches are affected by the negative effects of an African traditional worldview. Among the effects of this worldview is the tolerance of female genital mutilation, ...

  16. Protective Role of Sirtuin3 (SIRT3 in Oxidative Stress Mediated by Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hua Ren

    Full Text Available The hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is accompanied by the induction of oxidative stress, especially mediated by HBV X protein (HBx. Oxidative stress has been implicated in a series of pathological states, such as DNA damage, cell survival and apoptosis. However, the host factor by which cells protect themselves under this oxidative stress is poorly understood.In this study, we first confirmed that HBV infection significantly induced oxidative stress. Moreover, viral protein HBx plays a major role in the oxidative stress induced by HBV. Importantly, we found that mitochondrial protein SIRT3 overexpression could decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS induced by HBx while SIRT3 knockdown increased HBx-induced ROS. Importantly, SIRT3 overexpression abolished oxidative damage of HBx-expressing cells as evidenced by γH2AX and AP sites measurements. In contrast, SIRT3 knockdown promoted HBx-induced oxidative damage. In addition, we also observed that oxidant H2O2 markedly promoted HBV replication while the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC inhibited HBV replication. Significantly, SIRT3 overexpression inhibited HBV replication by reducing cellular ROS level.Collectively, these data suggest HBx expression induces oxidative stress, which promotes cellular oxidative damage and viral replication during HBV pathogenesis. Mitochondrial protein SIRT3 protected HBx expressing-cells from oxidative damage and inhibited HBV replication possibly by decreased cellular ROS level. These studies shed new light on the physiological significance of SIRT3 on HBx-induced oxidative stress, which can contribute to the liver pathogenesis.

  17. Protective Role of Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in Experimental Lung Injury: Evidence of a Lipoxin A(4)-Mediated Effect.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Polymorphoneutrophils (PMNs) are activated by inflammatory mediators following splanchnic ischemia\\/reperfusion (I\\/R), potentially injuring organs such as the lung. As a result, some patients develop respiratory failure following abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Pulmonary cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 protects against acid aspiration and bacterial instillation via lipoxins, a family of potent anti-inflammatory lipid mediators. We explored the role of COX-2 and lipoxin A(4) in experimental I\\/R-mediated lung injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of the following five groups: (1) controls; (2) aortic cross-clamping for 45 min and reperfusion for 4 h (I\\/R group); (3) I\\/R and SC236, a selective COX-2 inhibitor; (4) I\\/R and aspirin; and (5) I\\/R and iloprost, a prostacyclin (PGI(2)) analogue. Lung injury was assessed by wet\\/dry ratio, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) neutrophil counts. BAL levels of thromboxane, PGE(2), 6-keto-PGF(1)alpha (a hydrolysis product of prostacyclin), lipoxin A(4), and 15-epi-lipoxin A(4) were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Immunostaining for COX-2 was performed. RESULTS: I\\/R significantly increased tissue MPO, the wet\\/dry lung ratio, and neutrophil counts. These measures were significantly further aggravated by SC236 and improved by iloprost. I\\/R increased COX-2 immunostaining and both PGE(2) and 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) levels in BAL. SC236 markedly reduced these prostanoids and lipoxin A(4) compared with I\\/R alone. Iloprost markedly increased lipoxin A(4) levels. The deleterious effect of SC236 and the beneficial effect of iloprost was associated with a reduction and an increase, respectively, in lipoxin A(4) levels. CONCLUSIONS: Lipoxin A(4) warrants further evaluation as a mediator of COX-2 regulated lung protection.

  18. Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HENY HERNAWATI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hernawati H, Wiyono S, Santoso S (2011 Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae. Biodiversitas 12: 187-191. The objectives of the research were to study the diversity of leaf endophytic fungi of chili, and investigate its potency in protecting host plants against Aphis gossypii Glov. Endophytic fungi were isolated from chili leaves with two categories: aphid infested plants and aphid-free plants, collected from farmer’s field in Bogor, West Java. Abundance of each fungal species from leave samples was determined by calculating frequency of isolation. The isolated fungi were tested on population growth of A. gossypii. The fungal isolates showed suppressing effect in population growth test, was further tested on biology attributes i.e. life cycle, fecundity and body length. Five species of leaf endophytic fungi of chili were found i.e. Aspergillus flavus, Nigrospora sp., Coniothyrium sp., and SH1 (sterile hypha 1, SH2 (sterile hypha 2. Eventhough the number of endophytic fungi species in aphid-free and aphid-infested plant was same, the abundance of each species was different. Nigrospora sp., sterile hyphae 1 and sterile hyphae 2 was more abundant in aphid-free plants, but there was no difference in dominance of Aspergillus flavus and Coniothyrium sp. Nigrospora sp., SH1 and SH2 treatment reduced significantly fecundity of A. gossypii. Only SH2 treatment significantly prolonged life cycle and suppress body length, therefore the fungus had the strongest suppressing effect on population growth among fungi tested. The abundance and dominance of endophytic fungal species has relation with the infestation of A. gossypii in the field.

  19. The preliminary study in the role of pyrroloquinoline quinine on the γ-ray radiation protection of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study on the role of PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone) in the γ-ray radiation protection of mice. Methods: 40 Kunming mice were randomly divided into four groups, namely, non-irradiated group, the simple exposure group, exposure to pre-treatment group, treatment group after irradiation. PQQ mice oral administration was given according to the weight of the daily dose of 2 mg/kg, continuous drug delivery for 7 days. 60Co γ-ray single irradiation, dose 5 Gy. On the 8th day after irradiation, the mice were killed by cervical dislocation. The collection of serum, liver homogenate was for the determination of biochemical indicators. HE staining of liver slices produced. Results: irradiated mouse serum and liver SOD, T-AOC decreased significantly (P<0.05), MDA was significantly higher (P<0.05). Radiation treatment group serum SOD, T-AOC were significantly higher (P<0.05), MDA was significantly reduced (P<0.05); liver SOD content was significantly higher (P<0.05). All irradiated mice liver plate shows liver disorders, edema of liver cells, degeneration and necrosis. Conclusion: γ-irradiation in mice induced systemic oxidative stress. Liver is one of the radiation-sensitive organs. PQQ for γ-ray irradiation-induced oxidative stress in mice has some protective effect. Its mechanism: PQQ can directly scavenge free radicals, at the same time, mobilize the whole body irradiated mice scavenging system, particularly the activity of SOD and reduce the generation of free radicals and the free radical content. (authors)

  20. The Role of Ocean Exploration and Research in the Creation and Management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valette-Silver, N. J.; Pomponi, S.; Smith, J. R.; Potter, J.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decades, the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER), through its programs (Ocean Exploration Program and National Undersea Research Program), and in collaboration with its federal and academic partners, has contributed to the discovery of new ocean features, species, ecosystems, habitats and processes. These new discoveries have led to the development of new policies and management actions. Exploration, research and technology advancement have contributed to the characterization and the designation of marine sanctuaries, reserves, restricted fishing areas, and monuments in US waters. For example, the collaborative efforts of OER and partners from the Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research and Technology (CIOERT) have resulted in the discovery of new species of deep sea corals on the outer continental shelf and upper slope of the South Atlantic Bight. The species of coral found in these deep sea reefs are growing very slowly and provide habitat for many commercially valuable species of fish and other living resources. It is not yet completely clear how these habitats connect with the shallower reefs and habitats and if they could be playing a role of refugia for shallower species. Unfortunately, signs of fishing destruction on these unique and fragile habitats are obvious (e.g., abandoned nets, completely decimated habitats by trawling). OER funded research on mesophotic and deep-sea Lophelia coral reefs off the southeastern US was instrumental in the designation of the deep-water Coral Habitat Area of Particular Concern (CHAPC) that is now protecting these fragile reefs. Other examples of OER's contribution to discoveries leading to the designation of protected areas include the characterization and boundary determination of new designated Marine National Monuments and Marine Sanctuaries in the Pacific Ocean. After designation of a protected area, it is imperative to monitor the resource, improve understanding of its

  1. Protective Role of Emodin in Reducing The Gamma Rays Induced Hazardous Effects On The Tongue of Diabetic or Normoglycaemic Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation leads to damage at various cellular and sub-cellular levels and can be prevented by radio protectors. There is a need for natural prospective radio protectors that protect normal tissues from ionizing radiation in patients receiving high doses of radiation for treating malignant neoplasms. The study aimed to evaluate the potential protective role of emodin in reducing the severity of gamma rays-induced hazardous damage in the tongue of normoglycaemic and diabetic mice. Sixty-four male mice were randomly divided into 8 experimental groups: control group received vehicle, emodin group received daily emodin dose of 4g/kg orally for a week, diabetes mellitus (DM) group in which DM was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment, emodin + DM received emodin for a week + STZ treatment, irradiated group submitted to 4 Gy of gamma rays and received vehicle for a week, gamma rays + DM group received gamma rays + STZ treatment, gamma rays + emodin group received gamma rays + emodin for a week, and gamma rays + DM + emodin group received gamma rays + STZ treatment + emodin for a week. Tongue and serum of mice were biochemically examined for screening gamma radiation and diabetic damages and the efficacy of emodin in ameliorating these damaging effects. The levels of cellular thiols such as reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), total thiols (TT) and lipid peroxidation products; malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes (CD), were assessed in tongue tissues. Tongue antioxidant enzymes; gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-P), were measured and serum glucose level was estimated. The results revealed alterations of the levels of cellular thiols and antioxidant enzymes in tongue and the level of glucose in serum of gamma irradiated diabetic mice were ameliorated in mice groups received emodin treatment. The results suggest that emodin treatment (4 g

  2. IL-22-producing RORγt-dependent innate lymphoid cells play a novel protective role in murine acute hepatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuhiro Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Retinoid-related orphan receptor (ROR γt is known to be related to the development and function of various immunological compartments in the liver, such as Th17 cells, natural killer T (NKT cells, and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs. We evaluated the roles of RORγt-expressing cells in mouse acute hepatitis model using RORγt deficient (RORγt(-/- mice and RAG-2 and RORγt double deficient (RAG-2(-/- × RORγt(-/- mice. Acute hepatitis was induced in mice by injection with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, to investigate the regulation of liver inflammation by RORγt-expressing cells. We detected RORC expression in three compartments, CD4(+ T cells, NKT cells, and lineage marker-negative SCA-1(+Thy1(high ILCs, of the liver of wild type (WT mice. CCl4-treated RORγt(-/- mice developed liver damage in spite of lack of RORγt-dependent cells, but with reduced infiltration of macrophages compared with WT mice. In this regard, ILCs were significantly decreased in RAG-2(-/- × RORγt(-/- mice that lacked T and NKT cells. Surprisingly, RAG-2(-/- × RORγt(-/- mice developed significantly severer CCl4-induced hepatitis compared with RAG-2(-/- mice, in accordance with the fact that hepatic ILCs failed to produce IL-22. Lastly, anti-Thy1 monoclonal antibody (mAb, but not anti-NK1.1 mAb or anti-asialo GM1 Ab administration exacerbated liver damage in RAG-2(-/- mice with the depletion of liver ILCs. Collectively, hepatic RORγt-dependent ILCs play a part of protective roles in hepatic immune response in mice.

  3. Critical role of TLR7 signaling in the priming of cross-protective cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses by a whole inactivated influenza virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budimir, Natalija; de Haan, Aalzen; Meijerhof, Tjarko; Waijer, Simke; Boon, Louis; Gostick, Emma; Price, David A; Wilschut, Jan; Huckriede, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Current influenza vaccines fail to induce protection against antigenically distinct virus strains. Accordingly, there is a need for the development of cross-protective vaccines. Previously, we and others have shown that vaccination with whole inactivated virus (WIV) induces cross-protective cellular immunity in mice. To probe the mechanistic basis for this finding, we investigated the role of TLR7, a receptor for single-stranded RNA, in induction of cross-protection. Vaccination of TLR7-/- mice with influenza WIV failed to protect against a lethal heterosubtypic challenge; in contrast, wild-type mice were fully protected. The lack of protection in TLR7-/- mice was associated with high viral load and a relative paucity of influenza-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. Dendritic cells (DCs) from TLR7-/- mice were unable to cross-present WIV-derived antigen to influenza-specific CTLs in vitro. Similarly, TLR7-/- DCs failed to mature and become activated in response to WIV, as determined by the assessment of surface marker expression and cytokine production. Plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) derived from wild-type mice responded directly to WIV while purified conventional DCs (cDCs) did not respond to WIV in isolation, but were responsive in mixed pDC/cDC cultures. Depletion of pDCs prior to and during WIV immunization resulted in reduced numbers of influenza-specific CTLs and impaired protection from heterosubtypic challenge. Thus, TLR7 plays a critical role in the induction of cross-protective immunity upon vaccination with WIV. The initial target cells for WIV appear to be pDCs which by direct or indirect mechanisms promote activation of robust CTL responses against conserved influenza epitopes. PMID:23658804

  4. Critical role of TLR7 signaling in the priming of cross-protective cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses by a whole inactivated influenza virus vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Budimir

    Full Text Available Current influenza vaccines fail to induce protection against antigenically distinct virus strains. Accordingly, there is a need for the development of cross-protective vaccines. Previously, we and others have shown that vaccination with whole inactivated virus (WIV induces cross-protective cellular immunity in mice. To probe the mechanistic basis for this finding, we investigated the role of TLR7, a receptor for single-stranded RNA, in induction of cross-protection. Vaccination of TLR7-/- mice with influenza WIV failed to protect against a lethal heterosubtypic challenge; in contrast, wild-type mice were fully protected. The lack of protection in TLR7-/- mice was associated with high viral load and a relative paucity of influenza-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses. Dendritic cells (DCs from TLR7-/- mice were unable to cross-present WIV-derived antigen to influenza-specific CTLs in vitro. Similarly, TLR7-/- DCs failed to mature and become activated in response to WIV, as determined by the assessment of surface marker expression and cytokine production. Plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs derived from wild-type mice responded directly to WIV while purified conventional DCs (cDCs did not respond to WIV in isolation, but were responsive in mixed pDC/cDC cultures. Depletion of pDCs prior to and during WIV immunization resulted in reduced numbers of influenza-specific CTLs and impaired protection from heterosubtypic challenge. Thus, TLR7 plays a critical role in the induction of cross-protective immunity upon vaccination with WIV. The initial target cells for WIV appear to be pDCs which by direct or indirect mechanisms promote activation of robust CTL responses against conserved influenza epitopes.

  5. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 plays a role in protecting zebrafish from lethal infection with Listeria monocytogenes by enhancing macrophage migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ying; Zhang, Yikai; Zhuo, Xunhui; Li, Xiaoliang; Peng, Jinrong; Fang, Weihuan

    2016-07-01

    Zebrafish could serve as an alternative animal model for pathogenic bacteria in multiple infectious routes. Our previous study showed that immersion infection in zebrafish with Listeria monocytogenes did not cause lethality but induced transient expression of several immune response genes. We used an Affymetrix gene chip to examine the expression profiles of genes of zebrafish immersion-infected with L. monocytogenes. A total of 239 genes were up-regulated and 56 genes down-regulated compared with uninfected fish. Highest expression (>20-fold) was seen with the mmp-9 gene encoding the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (Mmp-9) known to degrade the extracellular matrix proteins. By morpholino knockdown of mmp-9, we found that the morphants showed rapid death with much higher bacterial load after intravenous or intraventricular (brain ventricle) infection with L. monocytogenes. Macrophages in mmp-9-knockdown morphants had significant defect in migrating to the brain cavity upon intraventricular infection. Decreased migration of murine macrophages with knockdown of mmp-9 and cd44 was also seen in transwell inserts with 8-μm pore polycarbonate membrane, as compared with the scrambled RNA. These findings suggest that Mmp-9 is a protective molecule against infection by L. monocytogenes by engaging in migration of zebrafish macrophages to the site of infection via a non-proteolytic role. Further work is required on the molecular mechanisms governing Mmp-9-driven macrophage migration in zebrafish. PMID:27068748

  6. Epidemiology of Melanocytic Naevi in Children from Lleida, Catalonia, Spain: Protective Role of Sunscreen in the Development of Acquired Moles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Sara; Soria, Xavier; Martínez, Montserrat; Martí, Rosa M; Casanova, Josep M

    2016-04-12

    The worldwide incidence of malignant melanoma is increasing. The number of pigmented naevi and amount of solar exposure are important risk factors. The aim of this study was to characterize a paediatric population (from Lleida, Catalonia, Spain) in terms of phenotype, sun behaviour and naevi prevalence. Data on the numbers and distributions of acquired naevi in 369 children, aged 4, 8 and 14 years, were collected and correlated with age, sex, skin phototype and environmental factors (annual/lifetime intermittent and chronic sun exposure, sunburns and sunscreen use). The density of naevi increased with age. Boys had more naevi on the trunk and girls had more naevi on the legs. Children with light skin phototype had more naevi. A higher level of accumulated sun exposure correlated with a higher number of naevi in children with non-adequate sunscreen use. In conclusion, several risk factors associated with naevi density and distribution were found, as previously reported by others. Multivariate analysis confirmed a protective role of sunscreen in the development of acquired melanocytic naevi. PMID:26551264

  7. Protective Role of BST2 Polymorphisms in Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1 and Adult AIDS Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Anselmo J; Bianco, Anna M; Zupin, Luisa; Girardelli, Martina; Matte, Maria C C; Medeiros, Rúbia Marília de; Almeida, Sabrina Esteves de Matos; Rocha, Marineide M; Segat, Ludovica; Chies, José A B; Kuhn, Louise; Crovella, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    Bone marrow stromal cell antigen-2 (BST-2)/Tetherin is a restriction factor that prevents Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) release from infected cells and mediates pro-inflammatory cytokine production. This study investigated the risk conferred by single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs919266, rs9192677, and rs9576) at BST-2 coding gene (BST2) in HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission and in disease progression. Initially, 101 HIV-1+ pregnant women and 331 neonates exposed to HIV-1 from Zambia were enrolled. Additional BST2 single nucleotide polymorphism analyses were performed in 2 cohorts with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) progression: an adult Brazilian cohort (37 rapid, 30 chronic and 21 long-term non-progressors) and an Italian pediatric cohort (21 rapid and 67 slow progressors). The rs9576A allele was nominally associated with protection during breastfeeding (P = 0.019) and individuals carrying rs919266 GA showed slower progression to AIDS (P = 0.033). Despite the influence of rs919266 and rs9576 on BST2 expression being still undetermined, a preventive role by BST2 polymorphisms was found during HIV-1 infection. PMID:26885809

  8. Key evidence of the role of desertification in protecting the underlying permafrost in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shengbo; Qu, Jianjun; Lai, Yuanming; Xu, Xiangtian; Pang, Yingjun

    2015-10-01

    Previous research has shown that the temperature of underlying permafrost decreases after the ground surface is covered with sand. No significant conclusions have yet been drawn that explain why this happens, because the heat transfer mechanism effects of the sand layer on the underlying permafrost remain unclear. These mechanisms were studied in the present work. We found that the upward shortwave radiation flux of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau ground surface with a sand layer covering was higher than that of the surface without sand; thus, the atmospheric heat reflected by the sand layer is greater than that reflected by the surface without sand. Therefore, the net radiation of the surface with the sand layer is lower than that of the surface without sand, which reduces the heat available to warm the sand layer. Because sand is both a porous medium and a weak pervious conductor with poor heat conductivity, less heat is conducted through the sand layer to the underground permafrost than in soil without the sand deposition layer. This phenomenon results in a decrease in the ground temperature of the permafrost under the sand layer, which plays a key role in protecting the permafrost.

  9. The protective role of NF-κB and AP-1 in arsenite-induced apoptosis in aortic endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenite (NaAsO2) has been shown to produce vascular dysfunction in many studies. Arsenite-induced damage to vascular endothelial cells represents one of the possible mechanisms causing leakage of the vascular endothelial barrier. To explore arsenite-induced vascular endothelial damage, we used primary porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAECs) as an in vitro system to test the effects of arsenite on signal transduction pathways and apoptosis. Here we demonstrated that arsenite exposure induced apoptosis accompanied by the occurrence of apoptotic signals including degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and CPP32 (cleavage/activation) and DNA ladder formation. By using the luciferase reporter assay, we demonstrated that arsenite exposure differentially activated two redox-sensitive transcription factors, NF-κB and AP-1. Lower levels of arsenite exposure (25 μM NaAsO2, 24 h) induced co-activation of NF-κB and AP-1, accompanied by 9% total apoptosis. In contrast, higher levels of arsenite exposure (40 μM NaAsO2, 24 h) induced higher levels of AP-1 activation, accompanied by 45% total apoptosis. Blockade of NF-κB or JNK activity further enhanced arsenite-induced apoptosis. Upregulation of JNK activity showed no effect on arsenite-induced apoptosis. Based on these data, we propose that activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors, NF-κB and AP-1, plays a very important role in the protection of PAECs from arsenite-induced apoptosis

  10. Protective role of mouse IgG1 in cryoglobulinaemia; insights from an animal model and relevance to human pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemouny, Jonathan Maurice; Hurtado-Nedelec, Margarita; Flament, Héloïse; Ben Mkaddem, Sanae; Daugas, Eric; Vrtovsnik, François; Berthelot, Laureline; Monteiro, Renato C

    2016-08-01

    Strait et al. described a novel mouse model of cryoglobulinaemia by challenging mice deficient in the immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 subclass (γ1(-) mice) with goat anti-mouse IgD [5]. The phenotype of wild-type mice was not remarkable, whereas γ1(-) mice developed IgG3 anti-goat IgG cryoglobulins as well as severe and lethal glomerulonephritis. Renal phenotype could not be rescued in γ1(-) mice by the deletion of C3, fragment crystalline γ receptor (FcγR) or J chain. On the other hand, early injection of IgG1, IgG2a or IgG2b inhibited the pathogenic effects of IgG3 in an antigen-dependent manner even in the absence of the FcγRIIb, an anti-inflammatory receptor. The authors concluded that the pathogenic role of IgG3 and the protective characteristic of IgG1 in this model were not explained by their abilities to bind to FcRs or effector molecules but are rather due to structural discrepancies enhancing the precipitation properties/solubility of IgG3/IgG1-containing immune complexes. The present article aims to discuss the current knowledge on IgG biology and the properties of IgGs explaining their differential propensity to acquire cryoglobulin activity. PMID:26410885

  11. Distinct roles for the complement regulators factor H and Crry in protection of the kidney from injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Jennifer; Renner, Brandon; Le Quintrec, Moglie; Panzer, Sarah; Hannan, Jonathan P; Ljubanovic, Danica; Ruseva, Marieta M; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; Antonioli, Alexandra H; Pickering, Matthew C; Holers, V Michael; Thurman, Joshua M

    2016-07-01

    Mutations in the complement regulatory proteins are associated with several different diseases. Although these mutations cause dysregulated alternative pathway activation throughout the body, the kidneys are the most common site of injury. The susceptibility of the kidney to alternative pathway-mediated injury may be due to limited expression of complement regulatory proteins on several tissue surfaces within the kidney. To examine the roles of the complement regulatory proteins factor H and Crry in protecting distinct renal surfaces from alternative pathway mediated injury, we generated mice with targeted deletions of the genes for both proteins. Surprisingly, mice with combined genetic deletions of factor H and Crry developed significantly milder renal injury than mice deficient in only factor H. Deficiency of both factor H and Crry was associated with C3 deposition at multiple locations within the kidney, but glomerular C3 deposition was lower than that in factor H alone deficient mice. Thus, factor H and Crry are critical for regulating complement activation at distinct anatomic sites within the kidney. However, widespread activation of the alternative pathway reduces injury by depleting the pool of C3 available at any 1 location. PMID:27165610

  12. The role and potentialities of the NRPI in the education of the health professionals and in the public information in the field of radiation protection in medical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The attention is paid to the role of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) in the support of the education on the pregraduate and postgraduate level. On pregraduate level the NRPI is engaged in education of the students of the Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering (FNSPE) in the field of radiation protection and radiological physics. On the postgraduate level there is an important role of NRPI in the postgraduate education of the health professionals. This education can take advantage of the more than the thirty years cooperation between NRPI and IPVZ (Institute for postgraduate medical education). In the presentation the important data and experience of the courses of radiation protection organized for health professionals will be ShOWll. In the presentation there are also presented activities of the division of medical exposures of the NRPI, which are pointing to the public information. Some typical questions, which have been addressed to NRPI are brought forward and discussed. (authors)

  13. The growth of hemopoietic precursor cells (CFU-C) of adriamycin-treated or whole-body-irradiated dogs with or without bleomycin in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the cytostatic drug bleomycin (BLM) on the growth of canine hemopoietic stem-cells in vitro was tested in order to detect a stem-cell deficiency after in vivo-treatment with adriamycin (ADM) or whole-body-irradiation. Stem-cells damaged by irradiation or cytostatics are suppressed by bleomycin-induced strand-breaks in vitro. After stem-cell recovery the increased sensitivity towards bleomycin can no longer be detected. After whole-body-irradiation and cytostatical treatment the stem-cells who remained intact have to compensate the quantitative change of the stem-cells by increased proliferation. The proliferating cells show a particular bleomycin-sensitivity. Especially after irradiation a long persistence of the bleomycin-sensitivity can be reckoned on. (orig./MG)

  14. Effects of the Combined Use of Benazepril and Valsartan on Apoptosis in the Kidney of Rats with Adriamycin-induced Nephritic Glomerulosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩子明; 邢燕; 王宏伟; 梁秀玲; 周建华

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The effects of the combined use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)benazepril and angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor antagonist (AT1RA) valsartan on apoptosis and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins Fas and FasL in the kidney of rats with adriamycin-induced nephritic glomerulosclerosis was investigated. Uninephrectomy and the injection of adriamycin induced the rat model of glomerulosclerosis. Benazepril (6 mg/kg), valsantan (20 mg/kg), or benazepril (3 mg/kg) plus valsantan (20 mg/kg) was respectively delivered daily by gavage to the rats in three treatment groups for 12 weeks. Apoptosis was examined by means of terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated d-UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Immunohistochemistry was adopted to detect the expression of Fas and FasL. Software of pathological analysis quantitated the levels of Fas and FasL. The results showed that as compared with those in the control group, the kidneys in the model group had more severe glomerulosclerosis, much more apoptotic cells and higher levels of expression of Fas and FasL. The degree of glomerulosclerosis, the number of apoptotic cells and the levels of expression of Fas and FasL were reduced by benazepril and valsartan. The combined use of benazepril and valsartan had the best therapeutic effect. It was concluded that benazepril and valsartan could suppress the excessive apoptosis of kidney cells by lowering the expression of the apoptosis-related proteins Fas and FasL, so as to postpone the process of glomerulosclerosis. The combined use of benazepril and valsartan has better therapeutic effect.

  15. Reducing the risks to health: the role of social protection: report of the Social Protection Task Group for the Strategic Review of Health Inequalities in England post 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Glennerster, Howard; Bradshaw, Jonathan; Lister, Ruth; Lundberg, Olle

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that the introduction of social protection systems as well as their generosity and coverage have significant impacts on health. Who receives the benefits within the household affects the health outcomes for the family. The eligibility for and administration of benefits matters. We examine the growth of means testing in the UK and its recent modifications. We find serious difficulties facing those with long term medical conditions who are on the margins of the labour force. Coll...

  16. The Role of Protective Self-cognitions in the Relationship Between Childhood Trauma and Later Resource Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Kristen H.; Horsey, Katie J.; Palmieri, Patrick A.; HOBFOLL, STEVAN E.

    2010-01-01

    We examined a prospective model investigating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and protective self-cognitions (self-esteem and self-efficacy) with later resource loss among 402 inner-city women who experienced childhood abuse. We predicted that women with PTSD may fail to develop or sustain protective self-cognitions that could protect against future stress. Results from the hypothesized model suggest that child abuse was associated with greater PTSD symptoms and later resource l...

  17. Protective role of selenium and vitamins A, C and E against gamma irradiation-induced oxidative stress in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of selenium and vitamins A, C and E on the oxidative stress in alloxan injected and/or irradiated rats. Rats were received a daily intraperitoneal administration of selenium (0.9 mg/rat) and vitamin A (14 IU/rat), vitamin C (0.8 mg/rat) and vitamin E (0.25 mg/rat) daily for one week before intraperitoneal injection with alloxan (60 mg/kg body weight) and/or gamma irradiation exposure (6.5 Gy). Animals were sacrificed on the tenth day post-irradiation and/or alloxan treatment. Histological examinations were made on eye tissue and blood was removed for biochemical analysis. The histological results obtained revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation or treatment with alloxan caused histopathological damage in the eye tissue manifested as a congestion in retinal blood capillaries, vacuolation in ganglionic cells and degeneration in nuclear cells of retina. The lens became coagulated, homogenous and oesinophilic while the cornea showed vacuolations in its epithelium, edema and hyalinosis of substantia propria.The biochemical results showed that exposure to single dose (6.5 Gy) of ionizing radiation or treatment with alloxan caused significant elevation in lipid peroxide content (MDA), glucose level, total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), accompanied with significant depletion in reduced glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and high density lipoprotein (HDL) in blood samples. Administration of selenium and vitamin A, C and E before gamma radiation exposure and/or alloxan treatment exerted marked amelioration of the histological changes in the eye and of the biochemical changes in rats induced by radiation but did not ameliorate that due to alloxan treatment in the tested parameters, thus diminishing the magnitude of injury due to radiation only. According to the results obtained, it could be concluded that selenium and vitamin A, C and E (a

  18. The role of the inhibition of glutathione-S-transferase in the protective mechanisms of ischemic postconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balatonyi, Borbála; Gasz, Balázs; Kovács, Viktória; Lantos, János; Jancsó, Gábor; Marczin, Nándor; Rőth, Erzsébet

    2013-08-01

    The antioxidant glutathione-S-transferase (GST) is a crucial determinant of the development of ischaemic-reperfusion (I/R) injury, and plays a pivotal role in the regulation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways involved in stress response and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether inhibition of GST can abolish the benefit of ischaemic postconditioning (IPoC). A neonatal rat cardiomyocyte cell culture was prepared and divided into 6 groups: (I) control group without treatment; (II) cells exposed to simulated I/R; (III) simulated I/R (sI/R) with IPoC; (IV) ethacrynic acid (EA) alone; (V) sI/R with EA; and (VI) sI/R and IPoC together with EA. Viability of the cells was measured by MTT assay, the quantity of apoptotic cells was assessed by flow cytometry following annexin V-FITC - propidium-iodide double staining. The activation of JNK, p38, ERK/p42-p44 MAPKs, and GSK-3β protein kinase was determined by flow-cytometric assay. GST inhibition markedly increased the apoptosis and decreased the cell viability despite IPoC. The protective effect of IPoC was lost in GST-inhibited groups for all MAPKs and GSK-3β. GST activity is required for the survival of cultured cardiomyocytes under stress conditions. GST inhibition was associated with differential activation of MAP and the protein kinases regulating these pathways in the process of ischaemic postconditioning. PMID:23888930

  19. Protective role of garlic oil against oxidative damage induced by furan exposure from weaning through adulthood in adult rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Akabawy, Gehan; El-Sherif, Neveen M

    2016-06-01

    Furan is produced in a wide variety of heat-treated foods via thermal degradation. Furan contamination is found to be relatively high in processed baby foods, cereal products, fruits juices, and canned vegetables. Several studies have demonstrated that furan is a potent hepatotoxin and hepatocarcinogen in rodents. However, few studies have investigated the toxic effects of furan in the testis. In addition, the exact mechanism(s) by which furan exerts toxicity in the testis has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the potential of furan exposure from weaning through adulthood to induce oxidative stress in adult rat testis, as well as the potential of garlic oil (GO) to ameliorate the induced toxicity. Our results reveal that furan administration significantly reduced serum testosterone levels and increased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA); furthermore, furan administration decreased significantly the enzymatic activity of testicular antioxidants, including glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) and induced histopathological alterations in the testis. GO co-administration ameliorated the reduction in testosterone levels and dramatically attenuated the furan-induced oxidative and histopathological changes. In addition, Go significantly down-regulated the increased caspase-3 and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression in the furan-treated testis. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate the furan-induced oxidative changes in the adult rat testis and the protective role of GO to ameliorate these changes through its antioxidant effects and its ability to inhibit CYP2E1 production. PMID:27130490

  20. The Possible Protective Role of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Against Radiation-Induced Certain Biochemical Changes in Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the modulating efficacy of prolonged oral administration of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. essential oil (FEO) against gamma irradiation-induced biochemical changes in male rats. Essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. was orally administrated at dose level of 250 mg/kg body wt/day for 21 days before irradiation and 7 days post exposure (6.5 Gy single dose). Rats exposed to ionizing radiation exhibited a potential elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, bilirubin, urea and creatinine levels, lipid abnormalities, and an increase in tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and metallothioneins (MTs). On the other hand, noticeable drop in liver and kidney glutathione content and serum total protein, albumin and testosterone levels were recorded. Tissue organs displayed some changes in trace element concentrations, which may be due to the radiation ability to induce oxidative stress. The data obtained from rats treated with fennel oil before and after whole body gamma irradiation revealed significant modulation in the biochemical tested parameters and profound improvement in the activity of antioxidant status, glutathione and metallothioneins. The treatment of irradiated rats with fennel oil also appeared to be effective in minimizing the radiation-induced increase in lipid peroxidation as well as changes in essential trace elements in some tissue organs. In addition to its containing many chemical antioxidant constituents such as polyphenols, fennel was found to contain detectable concentrations of essential trace elements (Zn, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Mn and Ca) which may be involved in multiple biological processes as constituents of enzymes system including superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn, Mn, SODs), oxide reductase, glutathione (GSP, GSH, GST), metallothionein MTs, etc. Overall, it could be concluded that Foeniculum vulgare Mill. essential oil exerts beneficial protective role against radiation

  1. Potential role of cysteine and methionine in the protection against hormonal imbalance and mutagenicity induced by furazolidone in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of nitrofurans as veterinary drugs has been banned in the EU since 1993 due to doubts on the safety of the protein-bound residues of these drugs in edible products. Furazolidone (FUZ) is a nitrofuran drug, which has been used for many years as an antibacterial drug in veterinary practice. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of L-cysteine and L-methionine in the protection against hormonal imbalance and the genotoxicity induced by FUZ using the micronucleus (MN) assay and random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD-PCR) analysis in female rats. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups included the untreated control group; a group treated with FUZ (300 mg/kg b.w.); a group treated with a mixture of L-cysteine (300 mg/kg b.w.) and L-methionine (42.8 mg/kg b.w.) and a group treated with FUZ plus the mixture of L-cysteine and L-methionine for 10 days. The results indicated that FUZ induced hormonal disturbances involving thyroid, ovarian and adrenal hormones. Moreover, FUZ increased the micronucleus formation and induced changes in polymorphic band patterns. The combined treatment with FUZ and the mixture of L-cysteine and L-methionine succeeded to prevent or diminish the endocrine disturbance and the clastogenic effects of FUZ. The current study is casting new light on the complex mechanisms underlying the ameliorating action of dietary L-cysteine and L-methionine against FUZ toxicity in experimental animals

  2. Role of Protective Effect of L-Carnitine against Acute Acetaminophen Induced Hepatic Toxicity in Adult Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab M. Gebaly* and Gamal M. Aboul Hassan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acetaminophen, a widely used analgesic and antipyretic is known to cause hepatic injury in humans and experimental animals when administered in high doses. It was reported that toxic effects of acetaminophen are due to oxidative reactions that take place during its metabolism. L-carnitine is a cofactor in the transfer of long-chain fatty acid allowing to the beta-oxidation of fatty acid in the mitochondria. It is a known antioxidant with protective effects against lipid peroxidation. This study aimed to investigate the possible beneficial effect of L-carnitine as an antioxidant agent against acetaminophen induced hepatic toxicity in rats. Material and Methods: Four rat groups (N=7 in each group. Group I is the control, group II received 500 mg/kg/ body weight of L-carnitine for 7 days by oral route, group III received 640/kg/ bw of acetaminophen by oral route, group IV acute acetaminophen group pretreated with L-carnitine for 7 days by gastric tube gavage tube. The liver of all rats were removed for investigation using light and electro microscopic studies. Results: Acetaminophen caused massive centrilobular necrosis and massive degenerative changes. The electron-microscopic study showed few mitochondria, increased fat droplets and scanty smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER.These changes were reduced by L-carnitine pretreatment. Conclusion: those results suggest that acetaminophen results damage in the liver as an acute effect and L-carnitine ameliorated the adverse effects of acetaminophen via its antioxidant role

  3. Role of IFN-gamma and IL-6 in a protective immune response to Yersinia enterocolitica in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autenrieth Ingo B

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia outer protein (Yop H is a secreted virulence factor of Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye, which inhibits phagocytosis of Ye and contributes to the virulence of Ye in mice. The aim of this study was to address whether and how YopH affects the innate immune response to Ye in mice. Results For this purpose, mice were infected with wild type Ye (pYV+ or a YopH-deficient Ye mutant strain (ΔyopH. CD11b+ cells were isolated from the infected spleen and subjected to gene expression analysis using microarrays. Despite the attenuation of ΔyopH in vivo, by variation of infection doses we were able to achieve conditions that allow comparison of gene expression in pYV+ and ΔyopH infection, using either comparable infection courses or splenic bacterial burden. Gene expression analysis provided evidence that expression levels of several immune response genes, including IFN-γ and IL-6, are high after pYV+ infection but low after sublethal ΔyopH infection. In line with these findings, infection of IFN-γR-/- and IL-6-/- mice with pYV+ or ΔyopH revealed that these cytokines are not necessarily required for control of ΔyopH, but are essential for defense against infection with the more virulent pYV+. Consistently, IFN-γ pretreatment of bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM strongly enhanced their ability in killing intracellular Ye bacteria. Conclusion In conclusion, this data suggests that IFN-γ-mediated effector mechanisms can partially compensate virulence exerted by YopH. These results shed new light on the protective role of IFN-γ in Ye wild type infections.

  4. Dual protective role for Glutathione S-transferase class pi against VCD-induced ovotoxicity in the rat ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occupational chemical 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) selectively destroys ovarian small pre-antral follicles in rats and mice via apoptosis. Detoxification of VCD can occur through glutathione conjugation, catalyzed by glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes. Further, GST class pi (GSTp) can negatively regulate JNK activity through protein:protein interactions in extra-ovarian tissues. Dissociation of this protein complex in the face of chemical exposure releases the inhibition of pro-apoptotic JNK. Increased JNK activity during VCD-induced ovotoxicity has been shown in isolated ovarian small pre-antral follicles following in vivo dosing of rats (80 mg/kg/day; 15 days, i.p.). The present study investigated the pattern of ovarian GSTp expression during VCD exposure. Additionally, the effect of VCD on an ovarian GSTp:JNK protein complex was investigated. PND4 F344 rat ovaries were incubated in control medium ± VCD (30 μM) for 2-8 days. VCD increased ovarian GSTp mRNA (P < 0.05) relative to control on d4-d8; whereas GSTp protein was increased (P < 0.05) on d6-d8. A GSTp:JNK protein complex was detected by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting in ovarian tissues. Relative to control, the amount of GSTp-bound JNK was increased (P = 0.09), while unbound JNK was decreased (P < 0.05) on d6 of VCD exposure. The VCD-induced decrease in unbound JNK was preceded by a decrease in phosphorylated c-Jun which occurred on d4. These findings are in support of a possible dual protective role for GSTp in the rat ovary, consisting of metabolism of VCD and inhibition of JNK-initiated apoptosis.

  5. Reversal effects of nomegestrol acetate on multidrug resistance in adriamycin-resistant MCF7 breast cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemotherapy is important in the systematic treatment of breast cancer. To enhance the response of tumours to chemotherapy, attention has been focused on agents to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) and on the sensitivity of tumour cells to chemical drugs. Hundreds of reversal drugs have been found in vitro, but their clinical application has been limited because of their toxicity. The reversal activity of progestogen compounds has been demonstrated. However, classical agents such as progesterone and megestrol (MG) also have high toxicity. Nomegestrol (NOM) belongs to a new derivation of progestogens and shows very low toxicity. We studied the reversal activity of NOM and compared it with that of verapamil (VRP), droloxifene (DRO), tamoxifen (TAM) and MG, and investigated the reversal mechanism, i.e. effects on the expression of the MDR1, glutathione S-transferase Pi (GSTπ), MDR-related protein (MRP) and topoisomerase IIα (TopoIIα) genes, as well as the intracellular drug concentration and the cell cycle. The aim of the study was to examine the reversal effects of NOM on MDR in MCF7/ADR, an MCF7 breast cancer cell line resistant to adriamycin (ADR), and its mechanism of action. MCF7/ADR cells and MCF7/WT, an MCF7 breast cancer cell line sensitive to ADR, were treated with NOM as the acetate ester. With an assay based on a tetrazolium dye [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide; MTT], the effects of various concentrations of NOM on MDR in MCF7/ADR cells were studied. Before and after the treatment with 5 μM NOM, the expression of the MDR-related genes MDR1, GSTπ, TopoIIα and MRP were assayed with a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) immunocytochemistry assay. By using flow cytometry (FCM), we observed the intracellular ADR concentration and the effects of combined treatment with NOM and ADR on the cell cycle. Results collected were analysed with Student's t test. NOM significantly reversed MDR in MCF7/ADR

  6. Roles of adjuvant and route of vaccination in antibody response and protection engendered by a synthetic matrix protein 2-based influenza A virus vaccine in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cudic Mare

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The M2 ectodomain (M2e of influenza A virus (IAV strains that have circulated in humans during the past 90 years shows remarkably little structural diversity. Since M2e-specific antibodies (Abs are capable of restricting IAV replication in vivo but are present only at minimal concentration in human sera, efforts are being made to develop a M2e-specific vaccine. We are exploring a synthetic multiple antigenic peptide (MAP vaccine and here report on the role of adjuvants (cholera toxin and immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotide and route of immunization on Ab response and strength of protection. Results Independent of adjuvants and immunization route, on average 87% of the M2e-MAP-induced Abs were specific for M2e peptide and a variable fraction of these M2e(pep-specific Abs (average 15% cross-reacted with presumably native M2e expressed by M2-transfected cells. The titer of these cross-reactive M2e(pep-nat-specific Abs in sera of parenterally immunized mice displayed a sigmoidal relation to level of protection, with EC50 of ~20 μg Ab/ml serum, though experiments with passive M2e(pep-nat Abs indicated that serum Abs did not fully account for protection in parenterally vaccinated mice, particularly in upper airways. Intranasal vaccination engendered stronger protection and a higher proportion of G2a Abs than parenteral vaccination, and the strength of protection failed to correlate with M2e(pep-nat-specific serum Ab titers, suggesting a role of airway-associated immunity in protection of intranasally vaccinated mice. Intranasal administration of M2e-MAP without adjuvant engendered no response but coadministration with infectious IAV slightly enhanced the M2e(pep-nat Ab response and protection compared to vaccination with IAV or adjuvanted M2e-MAP alone. Conclusion M2e-MAP is an effective immunogen as ~15% of the total M2e-MAP-induced Ab response is of desired specificity. While M2e(pep-nat-specific serum Abs have an important

  7. Prospective Relations among Fearful Temperament, Protective Parenting, and Social Withdrawal: The Role of Maternal Accuracy in a Moderated Mediation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2011-01-01

    Early social withdrawal and protective parenting predict a host of negative outcomes, warranting examination of their development. Mothers' accurate anticipation of their toddlers' fearfulness may facilitate transactional relations between toddler fearful temperament and protective parenting, leading to these outcomes. Currently, we followed 93…

  8. Protective role of 5-azacytidine on myocardial infarction is associated with modulation of macrophage phenotype and inhibition of fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Sook; Kang, Wan Seok; Kwon, Jin Sook; Hong, Moon Hwa; Jeong, Hye-yun; Jeong, Hae Chang; Jeong, Myung Ho; Ahn, Youngkeun

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether a shift in macrophage phenotype could be therapeutic for myocardial infarction (MI). The mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 was stimulated with peptidoglycan (PGN), with or without 5-azacytidine (5AZ) treatment. MI was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in rats, and the rats were divided into two groups; a saline-injection group and a 5AZ-injection group (2.5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal injection). LV function was evaluated and immunohistochemical analyses were performed 2 weeks after MI. Cardiac fibrosis was induced by angiotensin II (AngII) infusion with or without 5AZ (5 mg/kg/day) in mice. Nitric oxide was produced by PGN, which was reduced by 77.87% after 5AZ treatment. Both induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and iNOS promoter activity by PGN were inhibited by 5AZ. Ejection fraction (59.00 ± 8.03% versus 42.52 ± 2.58%), contractility (LV dP/dt-max, 8299.76 ± 411.56 mmHg versus 6610.36 ± 282.37 mmHg) and relaxation indices (LV dP/dt-min, −4661.37 ± 210.73 mmHg versus −4219.50 ± 162.98 mmHg) were improved after 5AZ administration. Cardiac fibrosis in the MI+5AZ was 8.14 ± 1.00%, compared with 14.93 ± 2.98% in the MI group (P < 0.05). Arginase-1(+)CD68(+) macrophages with anti-inflammatory phenotype were predominant in the infarct border zone of the MI+5AZ group, in comparison with the MI group. AngII-induced cardiac fibrosis was also attenuated after 5AZ administration. In cardiac fibroblasts, pro-fibrotic mediators and cell proliferation were increased by AngII, and these increases were attenuated after 5AZ treatment. 5AZ exerts its cardiac protective role through modulation of macrophages and cardiac fibroblasts. PMID:24571348

  9. Protective role of 5-azacytidine on myocardial infarction is associated with modulation of macrophage phenotype and inhibition of fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Sook; Kang, Wan Seok; Kwon, Jin Sook; Hong, Moon Hwa; Jeong, Hye-Yun; Jeong, Hae Chang; Jeong, Myung Ho; Ahn, Youngkeun

    2014-06-01

    We examined whether a shift in macrophage phenotype could be therapeutic for myocardial infarction (MI). The mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 was stimulated with peptidoglycan (PGN), with or without 5-azacytidine (5AZ) treatment. MI was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in rats, and the rats were divided into two groups; a saline-injection group and a 5AZ-injection group (2.5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal injection). LV function was evaluated and immunohistochemical analyses were performed 2 weeks after MI. Cardiac fibrosis was induced by angiotensin II (AngII) infusion with or without 5AZ (5 mg/kg/day) in mice. Nitric oxide was produced by PGN, which was reduced by 77.87% after 5AZ treatment. Both induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and iNOS promoter activity by PGN were inhibited by 5AZ. Ejection fraction (59.00 ± 8.03% versus 42.52 ± 2.58%), contractility (LV dP/dt-max, 8299.76 ± 411.56 mmHg versus 6610.36 ± 282.37 mmHg) and relaxation indices (LV dP/dt-min, -4661.37 ± 210.73 mmHg versus -4219.50 ± 162.98 mmHg) were improved after 5AZ administration. Cardiac fibrosis in the MI+5AZ was 8.14 ± 1.00%, compared with 14.93 ± 2.98% in the MI group (P < 0.05). Arginase-1(+)CD68(+) macrophages with anti-inflammatory phenotype were predominant in the infarct border zone of the MI+5AZ group, in comparison with the MI group. AngII-induced cardiac fibrosis was also attenuated after 5AZ administration. In cardiac fibroblasts, pro-fibrotic mediators and cell proliferation were increased by AngII, and these increases were attenuated after 5AZ treatment. 5AZ exerts its cardiac protective role through modulation of macrophages and cardiac fibroblasts. PMID:24571348

  10. Protective role of Liv.52 against radiation and cadmium induced haematological changes in the Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aim to evaluate protective role of Liv.52 against radiation and cadmium induced haematological changes in the Swiss Albino Mice. The animals were exposed with 3.0 and 6.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without Cadmium Chloride treatment. In the drug treated groups. The liv-52 was given seven days prior to irradiation or Cadmium Chloride treatment The animals from the entire experimental group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at post treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. The value of red blood cells (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), Haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), different leucocytes counts (DLC), SGOT and SGPT were estimated. The values of RBC, WBC, Hb and PCV were found to decrease in all the groups as compared to normal group, but the decrease in these values was lesser in Liv.52 treated groups (V to VII) as compared to non-drug treated groups (II to IV). The values of MCV were also found to decrease but the difference from normal value was significant at previous intervals and it was significant on later intervals. The values of MCH increased in all the groups as compared with normal group after 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days of post-treatment intervals. The increase in the values of MCH was lesser in Liv.52 treated groups (V to VII) as compared to non-drug treated groups (II to IV). Besides this values of MCHC increased in all the groups at various intervals but the values were lower in the Liv.52 treated groups (V to VII) as compared to non-drug treated groups (II to IV). The difference from the normal was non-significant in all the groups. The values of lymphocytes declined up to day-14 in non-drug treated groups and day-7 in the Liv.52 treated groups. Similarly the values of monocytes and granulocytes percentage increased up to day-14 in the non-drug treated animals and day-7 in the drug treated animals thereafter; a

  11. Negotiating Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel

    This thesis examines protection against risks as material and social phenomena among the Ammarin tribe in Petra - a settled Bedouin community in southern Jordan. By examining the active role of material culture that is often disregarded in risk studies, the thesis discusses how protective...... architecture, the social use of luminosity, prophylactic items, saint veneration, Qur'anic items, and heritage production. The thesis challenges the preoccupation with "meaning" in material culture studies, by focusing on conceptualizations of "presence" and "absence" as equally important to protective...... strategies are entangled in cultural, religious, and national identities. Using ethnographic methods, I investigate protection against selected risks: harm from evil eyes, violation of domestic sanctity, and cultural heritage dilapidation. Protection against these risks is examined through studies of...

  12. Role of adjunctive thrombectomy and embolic protection devices in acute myocardial infarction : a comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavry, Anthony A.; Kumbhani, Dharam J.; Bhatt, Deepak L.

    2008-01-01

    Adjunctive thrombectomy and embolic protection devices in acute myocardial infarction have been extensively studied, although outcomes have mainly focused on surrogate markers of reperfusion. Therefore, the effect of adjunctive devices on clinical outcomes is unknown. This study sought to determine

  13. The Protective and Therapeutic Roles of Hexamethylenetetramine and N-Acetyl-Cysteine on Sulfur Mustard-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Jafari, M; SH Sadraie; GR Kaka; Z Abdi; R. Rezaie; M Salehi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sulfur mustard(SM) is a strong alkylating agent that increases the formation of free radicals. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the protective and therapeutic roles of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and N-acetyl-cysteine(NAC) in reduction of SM-induced oxidative stress in rat serum. Methods: In the present experimental study, male Wistar rats were randomly divided into eight groups including: control group, SM group (an endotracheal injection of SM 0.5%/kg only once), HM...

  14. The regulatory role of the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency in relation to spent fuel arising from research reactors in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the approach and role of the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) in the regulatory management of spent fuel arising from research reactors in Australia, with particular emphasis on the regulatory oversight of the safe transport of spent fuel arising from the research reactors in Australia, in accordance with the International Atomic Energy Agency Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. (author)

  15. Protective role of Kalpaamruthaa in type II diabetes mellitus-induced cardiovascular disease through the modulation of protease-activated receptor-1

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Latha; Palanivelu Shanthi; Panchanadham Sachdanandam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Kalpaamruthaa (KA) is a formulatory herbal preparation has beneficial antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties against cardiovascular damage (CVD). Objective: The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective role of KA in type II diabetes mellitus-induced CVD through the modulation of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1). Materials and Methods: CVD was developed in 8 weeks after type II diabetes mellitus induction with high fat diet (2 weeks) and ...

  16. Chemo Protective role of Moringa oleifera and its isolated Saponin against DMBA induced Tissue Damage in male mice: A Histopathological analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Veena Sharma; Ritu Paliwal

    2012-01-01

    Moringa oleifera, a well known traditional medicinal plant from Moringaceae family has a remarkable reputation among the indigenous medical practitioners. The chemo protective role of hydroethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera and its isolated saponin against 7, 12- dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) intoxicated mice was investigated in the present study with the help of histopathological analysis of soft tissues (liver and kidney). The PAH 7, 12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) acts as a pot...

  17. Insights into the Role of International Policy Networks for International Policy Transfer and Policy Learning in Social Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Katja; Keller, Sonja; Willing, Holger

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the effectiveness of transgovernmental policy networks as a governance structure for policy diffusion. The analysis is based on a survey including 50 social protection policy maker and technical practitioner who are country delegates to transgovernmental policy networks within the policy area of social protection. The paper provides anecdotal empirical evidence that policy networks contribute to policy diffusion by inducing mutual learning processes.

  18. THE ROLE OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM ACTIVITY ON SUPPORTING PROTECTED NATURAL AREAS. TENDENCIES AND ESTIMATES FOR EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela STANCIULESCU; Emilia TITAN; Daniela TODOSE; Mihaela COVRIG

    2011-01-01

    The protected natural areas, by their aesthetic, recreational, educational and scientific valences, represent extremely attractive tourist destinations, some of them unique at international level. Their touristic exploitation has different forms from a country to another, from a type of protected area to another. In this paper, the analysis performed point out that the exploitation of natural areas by tourism has different forms, according to their extension, their landscape complexity, their...

  19. The neglected role of antibody in protection against bacteremia caused by nontyphoidal strains of Salmonella in African children

    OpenAIRE

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Gondwe, Esther N.; Msefula, Chisomo L.; Kingsley, Robert A.; Thomson, Nicholas R.; White, Sarah A; Goodall, Margaret; Pickard, Derek J.; Graham, Stephen M.; Dougan, Gordon; Hart, C. Anthony; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Drayson, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Nontyphoidal strains of Salmonella (NTS) are a common cause of bacteremia among African children. Cell-mediated immune responses control intracellular infection, but they do not protect against extracellular growth of NTS in the blood. We investigated whether antibody protects against NTS bacteremia in Malawian children, because we found this condition mainly occurs before 2 years of age, with relative sparing of infants younger than 4 months old. Sera from all healthy Malawian children teste...

  20. A MARKETING VIEW OVER THE ROLE OF THE PUBLIC AUTHORITIES IN THE PROTECTION OF THE CONSUMERS PRIVATE SPACE

    OpenAIRE

    Veghes Calin; Acatrinei Carmen; Dugulan Diana; Palade Marius

    2011-01-01

    The concept of privacy, seen in connection with the consumer\\'s private space, and defined in terms of the rights the consumer have to disclose or not, respectively to have protected their personal data has gained an increasing importance, as a result of the organizations' extended and more and more aggressive attempts, within their marketing efforts, to capture, process and use the consumers' personal data. Privacy protection has become an important but, in the same time, extremely sensitive...

  1. The role of prior experience, intellectual property protection and communication on trust and performance in innovation alliances

    OpenAIRE

    Ruitenburg, R.; Fortuin, F.T.J.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    An important concept in innovation literature is open innovation, where firms may use knowledge of other companies to develop new products or processes. However, there is a tension between the desire to be open, to profit from the knowledge of others, and the desire to be closed to prevent others from making use of the firms own profitable knowledge. Formal and non-formal intellectual property (IP) protection mechanisms may protect the company in an innovation alliance, but are often costly a...

  2. High levels of grass pollen inside European dairy farms: a role for the allergy-protective effects of environment?

    OpenAIRE

    Sudre, B.; Vacheyrou, M.; Braun-Fahrländer, C.; Normand, A.-C.; Waser, M.; Reboux, G; Ruffaldi, P.; von Mutius, E; Piarroux, R.; Renseigné, Non

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence of an allergy protective effect in children raised on farm. It has been assumed that microbial exposure may confer this protection. However in farm, little attention has been given to the pollen level and to concomitant microbiological exposure, and indoor pollen concentrations have never been precisely quantified. METHODS: The kinetics of pollen in dairy farms have been studied in a pilot study (n = 9), and exposure in a sub-sample of the ongoing European birth ...

  3. The role of the agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in the system intellectual property protection

    OpenAIRE

    Sarac, Jovan

    2015-01-01

    The Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights is one of the recent treaties in the system of intellectual property protection. This agreement represents an annex to the Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization and is not in the system of the World Intellectual Property Organization. According to the TRIPS Agreement, protection of intellectual property should contribute to the promotion of technological innovation, transfer and dissemination of technologies ...

  4. Aspirin protected against endothelial damage induced by LDL:role of endogenous NO synthase inhibitors in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng DENG; Pan-yue DENG; Jun-lin JIANG; Feng YE; Jing YU; Tian-lun YANG; Han-wu DENG; Yuan-jian LI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the protective effect of aspirin on damages of the endothelium induced by low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and whether the protective effect of aspirin is related to reduction of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor level.METHODS: Vascular endothelial injury was induced by a single injection of native LDL (4 mg/kg) in rats. Vasodilator responses to acetylcholine (Ach) in the isolated aortic rings were determined, and serum concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumour necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), and the activity of dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) were measured. RESULTS: A single injection of LDL (4 mg/kg)significantly decreased vasodilator responses to Ach, increased the serum level of ADMA, MDA, and TNF-α, and decreased DDAH activity. Aspirin (30 or 100 mg/kg) markedly reduced the inhibition of vasodilator responses to Ach by LDL, and the protective effect of aspirin at the lower dose was greater compared with high-dose aspirin group. Aspirin inhibited the increased level of MDA and TNF-α induced by LDL. Aspirin at the dose of 30 mg/kg,but not at higher dose (100 mg/kg), significantly reduced the concentration of ADMA and increased the activity of DDAH. CONCLUSION: Aspirin at the lower dose (30 mg/kg) protects the endothelium against damages elicited by LDL in vivo, and the protective effect of aspirin on endothelium is related to reduction of ADMA concentration by increasing DDAH activity.

  5. Combating logical back doors into physically protected areas. The role of computer security in modern access control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As long as nuclear fission has been used for energy production, substantial efforts have been made to protect the critical process and nuclear materials from unauthorized access. Electronic systems have been designed to assist security staff in access control and have become increasingly sophisticated as technology has advanced. With the latest access control systems being fully computerized, new questions of computer security have arisen. The paper outlines the latest trends in computer based access control systems, demonstrates where these systems are vulnerable to hacking attacks, and provides guidance on what can be done to avoid the introduction of new computer technologies creating back doors to bypass physical plant and material protection. (author)

  6. Growing Up in Ethiopia and Andhra Pradesh: The Impact of Social Protection Schemes on Girls’ Roles and Responsibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Camfield

    2014-01-01

    Ce papier s’intéresse à l'effet, sur les rôles et responsabilités des adolescentes, des programmes de travaux publics et des transferts en espèces, qui constituent les principales formes de protection sociale dans les pays en développement. Augmenter la participation aux régimes de protection sociale vise, notamment, à favoriser le développement des filles appartenant aux ménages participant à ces programmes, mais des données sur leur scolarisation et leurs charges de travail suggèrent que l’...

  7. Inducible nitric-oxide synthase plays a minimal role in lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-induced, T cell-mediated protective immunity and immunopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, C; Nansen, A; Christensen, Jeanette Erbo; Marker, O; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    . This might suggest a role of NO in regulating vascular reactivity in the context of T cell-mediated inflammation. In conclusion, these findings indicate a minimal role for iNOS/NO in the host response to LCMV. Except for a reduced local oedema in the knockout mice, iNOS/NO seems to be redundant in......By using mice with a targetted disruption in the gene encoding inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), we have studied the role of nitric oxide (NO) in lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-induced, T cell-mediated protective immunity and immunopathology. The afferent phase of the T cell...... the up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine genes significantly, nor did it influence the development of fatal meningitis. However, a reduced virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction was observed in iNOS-deficient mice compared with both IFN-gamma-deficient and wild-type mice...

  8. Errors in macromolecular synthesis after stress : a study of the possible protective role of the small heat shock proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin Vinader, L.

    2006-01-01

    The general goal of this thesis was to gain insight in what small heat shock proteins (sHsps) do with respect to macromolecular synthesis during a stressful situation in the cell. It is known that after a non-lethal heat shock, cells are better protected against a subsequent more severe heat shock,

  9. When Is Sport Participation Risky or Protective for Alcohol Use? The Role of Teammates, Friendships, and Popularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Andrea E.; Simpkins, Sandra D.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how adolescents' peer relations might alter whether sport participation is associated with alcohol use. Consistent with social learning theory, we found that sport participation was protective against alcohol use if these peers had low alcohol use, but athletes were likely to use alcohol if their sport friends and…

  10. Alcohol Consumption and Negative Sex-Related Consequences among College Women: The Moderating Role of Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorer, Kayla D.; Madson, Michael B.; Mohn, Richard S.; Nicholson, Bonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) limit overall negative consequences; however, less is known about the relationship between PBS and negative sex-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to examine the moderating effects of 2 distinct types of PBS--controlled consumption strategies and serious harm reduction…

  11. Possible protective role of pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile in lithocholic acid-induced hepatotoxicity through enhanced hepatic lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Masaaki; Nomoto, Masahiro; Sotodate, Fumiaki; Mizuki, Tomohiro; Hori, Wataru; Nagayasu, Miho; Yokokawa, Shinya; Ninomiya, Shin-ichi; Yamazoe, Yasushi

    2010-06-25

    Lithocholic acid (LCA) feeding causes both liver parenchymal and cholestatic damages in experimental animals. Although pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile (PCN)-mediated protection against LCA-induced hepatocyte injury may be explained by induction of drug metabolizing enzymes, the protection from the delayed cholestasis remains incompletely understood. Thus, the PCN-mediated protective mechanism has been studied from the point of modification of lipid metabolism. At an early stage of LCA feeding, an imbalance of biliary bile acid and phospholipid excretion was observed. Co-treatment with PCN reversed the increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as well as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and hepatic hydrophobic bile acid levels. LCA feeding decreased hepatic mRNA levels of several fatty acid- and phospholipid-related genes before elevation of serum ALT and ALP activities. On the other hand, PCN co-treatment reversed the decrease in the mRNA levels and hepatic levels of phospholipids, triglycerides and free fatty acids. PCN co-treatment also reversed the decrease in biliary phospholipid output in LCA-fed mice. Treatment with PCN alone increased hepatic phospholipid, triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations. Hepatic fatty acid and phosphatidylcholine synthetic activities increased in mice treated with PCN alone or PCN and LCA, compared to control mice, whereas these activities decreased in LCA-fed mice. These results suggest the possibility that PCN-mediated stimulation of lipogenesis contributes to the protection from lithocholic acid-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:20359477

  12. The Protective Role of School Friendship Ties for Substance Use and Aggressive Behaviors among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Myriam; Grigsby, Timothy J.; Bunyan, Alden; Unger, Jennifer Beth; Valente, Thomas William

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the interplay among quantifiable aspects of peer bonds, friendship types, personal characteristics, and behavioral outcomes in schools in distressed neighborhoods. The aim of this study was to identify compensatory and protective factors that can be promoted in school-based prevention programs. Methods: The…

  13. Protective Role of Spore Structural Components in Determining Bacillus subtilis Spore Resistance to Simulated Mars Surface Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Moeller, Ralf; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Reitz, Günther; Nicholson, Wayne L.

    2012-01-01

    Spores of wild-type and mutant Bacillus subtilis strains lacking various structural components were exposed to simulated Martian atmospheric and UV irradiation conditions. Spore survival and mutagenesis were strongly dependent on the functionality of all of the structural components, with small acid-soluble spore proteins, coat layers, and dipicolinic acid as key protectants.

  14. Protective role of antibodies induced by Brucella melitensis B115 against B. melitensis and Brucella abortus infections in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adone, Rosanna; Francia, Massimiliano; Pistoia, Claudia; Petrucci, Paola; Pesciaroli, Michele; Pasquali, Paolo

    2012-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that antibodies specific for O-PS antigen of Brucella smooth strains are involved in the protective immunity of brucellosis. Since the rough strain Brucella melitensis B115 was able to protect mice against wild Brucella strains brucellosis despite the lack of anti-OPS antibodies, in this study we evaluated the biological significance of antibodies induced by this strain, directed to antigens other than O-PS, passively tranferred to untreated mice prior to infection with Brucella abortus 2308 and B. melitensis 16M virulent strains. The protective ability of specific antisera collected from mice vaccinated with B. melitensis B115, B. abortus RB51 and B. abortus S19 strains was compared. The results indicated that antibodies induced by B115 were able to confer a satisfactory protection, especially against B. abortus 2308, similar to that conferred by the antiserum S19, while the RB51 antiserum was ineffective. These findings suggest that antibodies induced by B115 could act as opsonins as well as antibodies anti-O-PS, thus triggering more efficient internalization and degradation of bacteria within phagocytes. This is the first study assessing the efficacy of antibodies directed to antigens other than O-PS in the course of brucellosis infection. PMID:22521283

  15. The novel role of platelet-activating factor in protecting mice against lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Il Jeong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Platelet-activating factor (PAF has been long believed to be associated with many pathophysiological processes during septic shock. Here we present novel activities for PAF in protecting mice against LPS-mediated endotoxic shock. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In vivo PAF treatment immediately after LPS challenge markedly improved the survival rate against mortality from endotoxic shock. Administration of PAF prominently attenuated LPS-induced organ injury, including profound hypotension, excessive polymorphonuclear neutrophil infiltration, and severe multiple organ failure. In addition, PAF treatment protects against LPS-induced lymphocytes apoptosis. These protective effects of PAF was correlated with significantly decreases in the production of the inflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-12, and IFN-gamma, while increasing production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest that PAF may protect mice against endotoxic shock via a complex mechanism involving modulation of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators.

  16. The role of some natural products in protecting against the effect of gamma irradiation on the gastrointestinal tract in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation induces a wide range of biological effects including inflammation, DNA damage, chromosomal aberration, mutation, carcinogenesis, and hereditary diseases. These effects are mainly mediated through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which affect particularly tissues with a high rate of cell turnover, such as gastrointestinal tract. Thus, patients with abdominal and pelvic malignancies are at high risk of developing ulceration, perforation, chronic atrophic gastroenteritis, and depression of secretory and motor function due to high doses of ionizing radiation exposure. Therefore there is a continued interest and need for the identification and development of non-toxic and effective radio-protective compounds that can reduce the deleterious effect of radiation. Such compounds could potentially protect humans against the genetic damage, mutation, alteration in the immune system and teratogenic effects of toxic agents including radiation, which act through the generation of free radicals. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) is known to contain flavonoids which confer on it various biological and pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects. However in Ginger, the gingerols were identified as the major active components which have radio protective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activity, stimulation of digestion and absorption in the digestive tract. This study was designed to investigate the possible protective effect of certain natural products such as Ginkgo biloba extract and Ginger powder and their mechanism of actions in guarding against the oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction induced in gastrointestinal tissues after exposure to whole body γ-radiation as acute doses.

  17. Tourists and severe weather : An exploration of the role of 'Locus of Responsibility' in protective behaviour decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, Jelmer; Becken, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Severe weather events can impact negatively on tourism and put tourists at risk. To reduce vulnerability, tourists should be aware of and be prepared for possible severe weather. Seeking risk information, a type of protective action behaviour, is an important way to reduce vulnerability. This paper

  18. Pathologic Response Rates of Gemcitabine/Cisplatin versus Methotrexate/Vinblastine/Adriamycin/Cisplatin Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Muscle Invasive Urothelial Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin C. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare pathologic outcomes after treatment with gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC versus methotrexate, vinblastine, adriamycin, and cisplatin (MVAC in the neoadjuvant setting. Methods. Data was retrospectively collected on 178 patients with T2-T4 bladder cancer who underwent radical cystectomy between 2003 and 2011. Outcomes of interest included those with complete response (pT0 and any response (≤pT1. Odds ratios were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. Results. Compared to those who did not receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy, there were more patients with complete response (28% versus 9%, OR 3.11 (95% CI: 1.45–6.64, P=0.03 and any response (52% versus 25%, OR 3.23 (95% CI: 1.21–8.64, P=0.01. Seventy-two patients received GC (n=41 or MVAC (n=31. CR was achieved in 29% and 22% of GC and MVAC patients, respectively (multivariate OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.10–1.58. Any response (≤pT1 was achieved in 56% of GC and 45% of MVAC patients (multivariate OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.12–1.71. Conclusions. We observed similar pathologic response rates for GC and MVAC neoadjuvant chemotherapy in this cohort of patients with muscle invasive urothelial cancer (MIBC. Our findings support the use of GC as an alternative regimen in the neoadjuvant setting.

  19. Effects of fructose-1,6-diphosphate on concentration of calcium and activities of sarcoplosnic Ca2+-ATPase in cardiomyocytes of Adriamycin-treated rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Wei; CHEN Jun-zhu; RUAN Li-ming; WANG Yi-na

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP) on serum levels of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), as well as the concentration of calcium in cardiomyocytes (Myo[Ca2+]) and activity of sarcoplosnic Ca2+-ATPase (SRCa2+-ATPase) in Adriamycin (ADR)-treated rats. Methods: Rats were intraperitoneally injected with ADR (2.5mg/kg every other day for 6 times) and then with different dosages of FDP (every other day for twenty-one times). Bi-antibodies sandwich Enzyme linked immune absorption assay (ELISA) was performed to detect serum level of cTnI. CK-MB was detected by monoclonal antibody, Myo[Ca2+] was detected by fluorescent spectrophotometry and the activity of SRCa2+-ATPase was detected by inorganic phosphate method. Results: FDP (300, 600, 1200 mg/kg) significantly reduced the serum levels of cTnI and CK-MB, while at the same time decreased calcium concentration and increased SRCa2+-ATPase activity in cardiomyocytes of ADR-treated rats (P<0.01). Conclusions: FDP might alleviate the cardiotoxic effects induced by ADR through decreasing calcium level as well as increasing SRCa2+-ATPase activity in cardiomyocytes.

  20. Dioscin strengthens the efficiency of adriamycin in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells through autophagy induction: More than just down-regulation of MDR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changyuan; Huo, Xiaokui; Wang, Lijuan; Meng, Qiang; Liu, Zhihao; Liu, Qi; Sun, Huijun; Sun, Pengyuan; Peng, Jinyong; Liu, Kexin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of present study was to investigate the effect of dioscin on activity of adriamycin (ADR) in ADR-sensitive (MCF-7) and ADR-resistant (MCF-7/ADR) human breast cancer cells and to clarify the molecular mechanisms involved. Antiproliferation effect of ADR was enhanced by dioscin in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells. Dioscin significantly inhibited MDR1 mRNA and protein expression and MDR1 promoter and nuclear factor κ-B (NF-κB) activity in MCF-7/ADR cells. Additionally, inhibitor κB-α (IκB-α) degradation was inhibited by dioscin. Moreover, dioscin induced the formation of vacuoles in the cytoplasm and protein level of LC3-II in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells. Autophagy inhibitor 3-MA abolished the effect of dioscin on ADR cytotoxicity. Dioscin inhibited phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt, resulting in upregulation of LC3-II expression. In conclusion, dioscin increased ADR chemosensitivity by down-regulating MDR1 expression through NF-κB signaling inhibition in MCF-7/ADR cells. Autophagy was induced by dioscin to ameliorate the cytotoxicity of ADR via inhibition of the PI3K/AKT pathways in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells. These findings provide evidence in support of further investigation into the clinical application of dioscin as a chemotherapy adjuvant. PMID:27329817

  1. The labelling of adriamycin-loaded human serum albumin immuno-nanoparticles led by monoclonal antibodies with 131I and its anti-hepatoma effect in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pharmaceutics character, targeting to hepatoma and anticancer activity in nude mice of adriamycin-loaded human serum albumin immuno-nanoparticles (ADR-HSA-NP) against hepatoma led by anti-human hepatoma monoclonal antibodies HAb18 are studied. The results show that effective loaded drug dose of HAb18-ADR-HSA-NP is 1.44%, which is lower than ADR-HSA-NP (1.69%); HAb18-ADR-HSA-NP slowly releases drug ADR and its maximum releasing drug dose (41%) is obviously lower than ADR-HSA-NP (65%) (P 131I-HAb18-ADR-HSA-NP mainly accumulates in liver and its liver-taxis and stability are better than 131I-ADR-HSA-NP in nude mice by intravenous injection; HAb18-ADR-HSA-NP mainly accumulates in tumor and its accumulation amount of tumor is higher than ADR-HSA-NP (P < 0.05), and has obvious inhibiting cancer action and its inhibitory rate of cancer is also higher than ADR-HSA-NP (P < 0.05) by tumor injection. So, HAb18-ADR-HSA-NP can bind and inhibit hepatoma cell from growing in vivo

  2. The Role of Quench-back in the Passive Quench Protection of Uncoupled Solenoids in Series with and without Coil Sub-division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xing Long; Green, Michael A; Wang, Li; Wu, Hong; Pan, Heng

    2010-10-15

    This paper is the final paper in a series of papers that discusses passive quench protection for high inductance solenoid magnets. This report describes how passive quench protection system may be applied to superconducting magnets that are connected in series but not inductively coupled. Previous papers have discussed the role of magnet sub-division and quench back from a conductive mandrel in reducing the hot-spot temperature and the peak coil voltages to ground. When magnets are connected in series, quench-back from a conductive mandrel can cause other magnets in a string to quench even without inductive coupling between magnets. The magnet mandrels must be well coupled to the magnet circuit that is being quenched. When magnet circuit sub-division is employed to reduce the voltages-to-ground within magnets, the resistance across the subdivision becomes the most important factor in the successful quenching of the magnet string.

  3. Workshop on the role of enhancement of utilization of primary and secondary hydro potential in the context of environmental protection. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication has been set up as proceedings of the workshop on the role of enhancement of utilization of primary and secondary hydro potential in the context of environmental protection. The proceedings consist of the following chapters: (1) Use of a part and a secondary hydroenergetic potential of the Slovak Republic for electric energy production and its impact on the environment; (2) Economic problems of utilization of hydroenergetic potential of the Slovak Republic and possibilities for their solution; (3) Modernization of control systems of primary and secondary hydro energetic sources of electricity from the point of view of their fulfillment of important functions in operation of a power engineering system in the Slovak Republic; (4) The most important structures utilizing primary and secondary hydroenergetic potential for electric energy production; (5) Progressive technologies, modernization of hydro power projects aimed at rationalization in a use of hydroenergetic potential and environment protection; (6) Possibilities of further utilization of hydroenergetic potential of the Slovak Republic

  4. Role of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the Laboratory to Laboratory Nuclear Materials Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasy, J.A.; Koncher, T.R.; Ruhter, W.D.

    1995-05-02

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is participating in a US Department of Energy sponsored multi-laboratory cooperative effort with the Russian Federation nuclear institutes to reduce risks of nuclear weapons proliferation by strengthening systems of nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting in both countries. This program is called the Laboratory-to-Laboratory Nuclear Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) Program and it is designed to complement other US-Russian MPC&A programs such as the government-to-govermment (NunnLugar) programs. LLNL`s role in this program has been to collaborate with various Russian institutes in several areas. One of these is integrated safeguards and security planning and analysis, including the performing of vulnerability assessments. In the area of radiation measurements LLNL is cooperating with various institutes on gamma-ray measurement and analysis techniques for plutonium and uranium accounting. LLNL is also participating in physical security upgrades including entry control and portals.

  5. Parental practices and political violence: the protective role of parental warmth and authority-control in Jewish and Arab Israeli children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Iris; Slone, Michelle

    2012-10-01

    Parental warmth and parental authority-control patterns have been documented as practices with highest significance for children's well-being and development in a variety of life areas. Various forms of these practices have been shown to have a direct positive effect on children and also to protect children from adverse effects of numerous stressors. However, surprisingly, few studies have examined the role of these practices as possible protective factors for children exposed to intractable conflict and political violence. Participants in this study were Jewish (n = 88) and Arab (n = 105) Israeli families, with children aged 7-12.5 (M = 10.73, SD = 0.99). Children completed questionnaires assessing political violence exposure, behavioral, psychological, and social difficulties, and perceived paternal and maternal warmth. Mothers and fathers completed questionnaires assessing parental warmth, parental authority-control, and the child's difficulties. Results showed parental warmth to be a significant moderator of political violence, related to low levels of behavioral and social difficulties of children. Parental authority-control patterns were not protectors from adverse effects of political violence exposure. Maternal authoritarian authority-control showed an effect resembling a risk factor. Differential roles of parental warmth and authority-control, fathers' versus mothers' roles, and ethnic differences are discussed, and practical clinical implications are proposed. PMID:23039353

  6. Neural responses to threat and reward interact to predict stress-related problem drinking: A novel protective role of the amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolova Yuliya S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research into neural mechanisms of drug abuse risk has focused on the role of dysfunction in neural circuits for reward. In contrast, few studies have examined the role of dysfunction in neural circuits of threat in mediating drug abuse risk. Although typically regarded as a risk factor for mood and anxiety disorders, threat-related amygdala reactivity may serve as a protective factor against substance use disorders, particularly in individuals with exaggerated responsiveness to reward. Findings We used well-established neuroimaging paradigms to probe threat-related amygdala and reward-related ventral striatum reactivity in a sample of 200 young adult students from the ongoing Duke Neurogenetics Study. Recent life stress and problem drinking were assessed using self-report. We found a significant three-way interaction between threat-related amygdala reactivity, reward-related ventral striatum reactivity, and recent stress, wherein individuals with higher reward-related ventral striatum reactivity exhibit higher levels of problem drinking in the context of stress, but only if they also have lower threat-related amygdala reactivity. This three-way interaction predicted both contemporaneous problem drinking and problem drinking reported three-months later in a subset of participants. Conclusions These findings suggest complex interactions between stress and neural responsiveness to both threat and reward mediate problem drinking. Furthermore, they highlight a novel protective role for threat-related amygdala reactivity against drug use in individuals with high neural reactivity to reward.

  7. Can We Protect the Gut in Critical Illness: The Role of Growth Factors and Other Novel Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez, Jessica A.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2010-01-01

    The intestine plays a central role in the pathophysiology of critical illness and is frequently called the “motor” of the systemic inflammatory response. Perturbations to the intestinal barrier can lead to distant organ damage and multiple organ failure. Therefore, identifying ways to preserve intestinal integrity may be of paramount importance. Growth factors and other peptides have emerged as potential tools for modulation of intestinal inflammation and repair due to their roles in cellular...

  8. Predicting Intention to Take Protective Measures During Haze: The Roles of Efficacy, Threat, Media Trust, and Affective Attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Trisha T C; Bautista, John Robert

    2016-07-01

    The annual Southeast Asian haze pollution raises public health concerns in this region. Based on a modified extended parallel process model, this study examines efficacy (self-efficacy and response efficacy) and perceived threat (susceptibility and severity) and incorporates new constructs of media trust and affective attitude. Results from a Web survey of 410 undergraduate students in Singapore show that response efficacy to seek haze-related information mediates the association between perceived self-efficacy and intention to take protective measures during haze. Moreover, self-efficacy is negatively associated with affective attitude (e.g., fear and worry) toward haze-related health problems. Next, perceived severity and perceived susceptibility are positively associated with response efficacy and affective attitude. Affective attitude toward haze is a stronger predictor than response efficacy for behavioral intention. Finally, trust in new media is positively associated with young Singaporeans' affective attitude, which positively affects their behavioral intention to take protective measures. PMID:27315440

  9. The role of National Radiation Protection Duty Service in the events involving smuggled nuclear materials in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Hungarian National Radiation Protection Duty Service (NRPDS) was established to handle on-the-spot the accidents and incidents involving radioactive and nuclear materials. The NRPDS was founded by the Ministry of Health more than twenty years ago and the Department for Radiohygiene of the 'Frederic Joliot-Curie' National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene was selected to provide radiation protection professionals for the service. In the last decade a high number of incidents have been managed by the NRPDS in Hungary including more than 6 cases that were related to nuclear materials. In the presentation we would like to overview the most important incidents and summarize the experience gathered during our practice. (author)

  10. The Role of Praziquantel- chemoprophylaxis and UV-attenuated Vaccine in Protecting Mice Against S. Mansoni Infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential control of schistosomiasis rely on multiple and integrated strategies, including vaccine production, chemotherapy and combination between chemotherapy and vaccination. The present work was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of combined PZQ- treatment with PZQ-chemoprophylaxis (PZQ-pretreatment) and UV-attenuated cercarial vaccination for the control of schistosomiasis. In the present work the induced levels of protection induced in vaccinated and vaccinated-PZQ-treated as well as, PZQ-pretreated and PZQ-pretreated followed by PZQ-treatment will be discussed. Results revealed that UV-Irradiated Vaccinated and vaccinated-PZQ-treated and PZQ-pretreated followed by PZQ-treated post challenged groups induced high levels of worm burdens reduction and mild pathological changes in both liver and intestine. Meanwhile, PZQ-pretreated alone failed to induce significant protection

  11. New Role Orientations for U.S. EPA Officials in the Next Generation System of Environmental Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Ondich, Gregory George

    2001-01-01

    At the start of the twenty-first century, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) officials can look back on nearly thirty years of meaningful accomplishments. Toxic releases are down, the air and water are cleaner, and waste disposal methods are greatly improved. Although this is a record of which EPA officials should be proud, is it sufficient to carry them into the next century? Conventional wisdom among scholars, environmental policy advocates, and even EPA officials indicates that ...

  12. Raman characterization of the UV-protective pigment gloeocapsin and its role in the survival of cyanobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Storme, Jean-Yves; Golubic, Stjepko; Wilmotte, Annick; Kleinteich, Julia; Velazquez, David; Javaux, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular UV-screening pigments gloeocapsin and scytonemin present in the EPS envelopes of extremophile cyanobacteria of freshwater and marine environments were studied by Raman spectroscopy and compared to their intracellular photosynthetic pigments. This Raman spectral analysis of the extracellular pigment gloeocapsin showed that it shared Raman spectral signatures with parietin, a radiation-protective pigment known in lichens. The UV-light spectra also showed similarities. Gloeocapsin ...

  13. Role of Protective Effect of L-Carnitine against Acute Acetaminophen Induced Hepatic Toxicity in Adult Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zeinab M. Gebaly* and Gamal M. Aboul Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acetaminophen, a widely used analgesic and antipyretic is known to cause hepatic injury in humans and experimental animals when administered in high doses. It was reported that toxic effects of acetaminophen are due to oxidative reactions that take place during its metabolism. L-carnitine is a cofactor in the transfer of long-chain fatty acid allowing to the beta-oxidation of fatty acid in the mitochondria. It is a known antioxidant with protective effects against lipid peroxidati...

  14. A role for glutathione peroxidase in protecting pancreatic β cells against oxidative stress in a model of glucose toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Yoshito; Tran, Phuong Oanh T.; Harmon, Jamie; Robertson, R. Paul

    2002-01-01

    Antioxidant drugs have been reported to protect pancreatic islets from the adverse effects of chronic exposure to supraphysiological glucose concentrations. However, glucose has not been shown to increase intracellular oxidant load in islets, nor have the effects of increasing or inhibiting glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity on islet resistance to sugar-induced oxidant stress been studied. We observed that high glucose concentrations increased intracellular peroxide levels in human islets ...

  15. Role of nitric oxide and reduced glutathione in the protective effects of aminoguanidine, gadolinium chloride and oleanolic acid against acetaminophen-induced hepatic and renal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential protective role of aminoguanidine (AG), gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) and oleanolic acid (OA) in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity was investigated in rats. Pretreatment of rats with AG (50 mg/kg) orally, GdCl3 (10 mg/kg) intramuscularly or OA (25 mg/kg) intramuscularly protected markedly against hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by an acute oral toxic dose of APAP (2.5 g/kg) as assessed by biochemical measurements and by histopathological examination. None of AG-, GdCl3- or OA-pretreated animals died by the acute toxic dose of APAP. Concomitantly, pretreatment of rats with these agents suppressed the profound elevation of nitric oxide (NO) production and obvious reduction of intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in liver and kidney induced by the acute toxic dose of APAP. Similarly, daily treatment of rats with a smaller dose of AG (10 mg/kg), GdCl3 (3 mg/kg) or OA (5 mg/kg) concurrently with a smaller toxic dose of APAP (750 mg/kg) for 1 week protected against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. This treatment also completely prevented APAP-induced mortality and markedly inhibited APAP-induced NO overproduction as well as hepatic and renal intracellular GSH levels reduction. These results provide evidence that inhibition of NO overproduction and consequently maintenance of intracellular GSH levels may play a pivotal role in the protective effects of AG, GdCl3 and OA against APAP-induced hepatic and renal damages

  16. Protective role of ginkgo Biloba extract against gamma radiation and alcohol induced liver damage in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) is a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves that promotes vasodilatation and improves blood flow through arteries, veins and capillaries and has antioxidant properties as a tree radical scavenger. This study was designed to evaluate the protective efficacy of EGb 761 against gamma radiation and/ or alcohol induced disorders in the liver of male albino rats. EGb 761 was given orally at a dose level of 100 mg/ kg body wt for 4 days, absolute alcohol was administered orally at a dose level of 1ml/ rat for 4 days and the dose of gamma radiation was 6.5 Gy. All animals were subjected to the following investigations: nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA). reduced glutathion (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) in the liver tissue. In irradiated and/ or alcoholic animal groups, there was a highly significant decrease in liver NO and GSH content and in the activities of GSHPx and SOD. On the other hand, significant increase in MDA content was observed. Treatment with EGb 761 before irradiation and/or alcohol causes significant increase in NO and GSH content and in the activities of GSHPx and SOD and significant decrease in MDA content compared to the irradiated and/ or alcoholic groups. Based on these observations, one could conclude that pre-treatment of rats with EGb 761 could partly protect liver from gamma rays and/ or absolute alcohol injurious and this protection may be induced, at least partly, through antioxidant mechanisms

  17. National Parks and Protected Areas and the Role for Employment in Tourism and Forest Sectors: a Swedish Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fredman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of national parks and other protected areas has been widely promoted because of its potential for regional development in peripheral and sparsely populated areas. The argument is that the economic and social benefits seen in national parks in the USA and UK will also occur in the Swedish context in the form of an increased tourism-related labor market. Our aim was to analyze the possibility of such a development both in light of the policy visions of positive regional and local development and from the adversary point of view that protection of land is making it more difficult for 15 sparsely populated mountain municipalities in Sweden to prosper. We used a database covering the entire population of the area for 1991 to 2001. Our results show that factors other than the protected areas are connected to the development of a tourism labor market. The most positively correlated variables for change in tourism employment are population growth and proximity to ski lifts. Positive population development is also correlated to a positive change in the number of people employed in forest sectors. Thus, one of the main outcomes is that the assumed and almost automatic positive relation between nature conservation and tourism can is questionable.

  18. Protective role of fish oil (Maxepa) on early events of rat mammary carcinogenesis by modulation of DNA-protein crosslinks, cell proliferation and p53 expression

    OpenAIRE

    Rana Basabi; Samanta Kartick; Damodaran Suresh; Chakraborty Tridib; Manna Sangita; Chatterjee Malay

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Fish oil is known to protect from many types of cancers of the colon, liver, breast, prostate and lung 123. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of fish oil [Maxepa, supplemented at a dose of 0.5 ml is equivalent to 90 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 60 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] on cell proliferation, expression of p53 tumor suppressor protein and DNA protein crosslinks (DPCs) in a defined model of chemical rat mammary carcinogenesis. Mammary...

  19. Protective role of ceftriaxone plus sulbactam with VRP1034 on oxidative stress, hematological and enzymatic parameters in cadmium toxicity induced rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Dwivedi, Vivek Kumar; Bhatanagar, Anuj; Chaudhary, Manu

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the protective role of ceftriaxone plus sulbactam with VRP1034 (Elores) on hematological, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymatic activities and Cd levels in the blood and tissues of cadmium exposed rats. Twenty-four male rats were divided into three groups of eight rats each. The control group received distilled water whereas group II received CdCl2 (1.5 mg/4 ml/body weight) through gastric gavage for 21 days. Group III received CdCl2 and was treated with ceftriaxone plus s...

  20. The role of MMPs in the intravasation of a highly disseminating HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cell variant : a protective role for tumor- derived MMP-9

    OpenAIRE

    Partridge, Juneth Ann Joaquin

    2009-01-01

    Intravasation, the process by which tumor cells enter the vasculature, is a rate-limiting step within the metastatic cascade. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), an enzyme family of endopeptidases, are known to play roles in metastasis and angiogenesis, but the specific functions of MMPs during tumor cell intravasation remain unclear. To investigate molecular mechanisms of tumor cell intravasation, we have utilized high and low disseminating cell variants isolated from human HT-1080 fibrosarcom...

  1. Establishing the role of honest broker: bridging the gap between protecting personal health data and clinical research efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyo Joung; Lee, Min Joung; Choi, Chang-Min; Lee, JaeHo; Shin, Soo-Yong; Lyu, Yungman; Park, Yu Rang; Yoo, Soyoung

    2015-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study is to propose the four conditions for the roles of honest brokers through a review of literature published by ten institutions that are successfully utilizing honest brokers. Furthermore, the study aims to examine whether the Asan Medical Center's (AMC) honest brokers satisfy the four conditions, and examine the need to enhance their roles. Methods. We analyzed the roles, tasks, and types of honest brokers at 10 organizations by reviewing the literature. We also established a Task Force (TF) in our institution for setting the roles and processes of the honest broker system and the honest brokers. The findings of the literature search were compared with the existing systems at AMC-which introduced the honest broker system for the first time in Korea. Results. Only one organization employed an honest broker for validating anonymized clinical data and monitoring the anonymity verifications of the honest broker system. Six organizations complied with HIPAA privacy regulations, while four organizations did not disclose compliance. By comparing functions with those of the AMC, the following four main characteristics of honest brokers were determined: (1) de-identification of clinical data; (2) independence; (3) checking that the data are used only for purposes approved by the IRB; and (4) provision of de-identified data to researchers. These roles were then compared with those of honest brokers at the AMC. Discussion. First, guidelines that regulate the definitions, purposes, roles, and requirements for honest brokers are needed, since there are no currently existing regulations. Second, Korean clinical research institutions and national regulatory departments need to reach a consensus on a Korean version of Limited Data Sets (LDS), since there are no lists that describe the use of personal identification information. Lastly, satisfaction surveys on honest brokers by researchers are necessary to improve the quality of honest

  2. Can We Protect the Gut in Critical Illness: The Role of Growth Factors and Other Novel Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Jessica A.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis The intestine plays a central role in the pathophysiology of critical illness and is frequently called the “motor” of the systemic inflammatory response. Perturbations to the intestinal barrier can lead to distant organ damage and multiple organ failure. Therefore, identifying ways to preserve intestinal integrity may be of paramount importance. Growth factors and other peptides have emerged as potential tools for modulation of intestinal inflammation and repair due to their roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. In this review, we will examine the involvement of growth factors and other peptides in intestinal epithelial repair during critical illness and their potential use as therapeutic targets. PMID:20643306

  3. Can we protect the gut in critical illness? The role of growth factors and other novel approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Jessica A; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2010-07-01

    The intestine plays a central role in the pathophysiology of critical illness and is frequently called the "motor" of the systemic inflammatory response. Perturbations to the intestinal barrier can lead to distant organ damage and multiple organ failure. Therefore, identifying ways to preserve intestinal integrity may be of paramount importance. Growth factors and other peptides have emerged as potential tools for modulation of intestinal inflammation and repair due to their roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. This review examines the involvement of growth factors and other peptides in intestinal epithelial repair during critical illness and their potential use as therapeutic targets. PMID:20643306

  4. Preconditioning induced by gentamicin protects against acute kidney injury: The role of prostaglandins but not nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nephrotoxicity is the main side effect of gentamicin (GENTA). Preconditioning (PC) refers to a situation in which an organ subjected to an injury responds less intensely when exposed to another injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PC with GENTA on nephrotoxic acute kidney injury (AKI). GENTA group rats were injected daily with GENTA (40 mg/kg/BW) for 10 days. PC animals were injected with GENTA for 3 days (40 mg/kg/BW/daily) and, after one rest week, were injected daily with GENTA for 10 days. Animals of the L-NAME and DICLO groups were preconditioned for 3 days and then received daily injections of GENTA for 10 days; they were concomitantly treated with L-NAME (10 mg/kg/BW) and diclofenac (DICLO, 5 mg/kg/BW) for 13 days. Blood and urine were collected for measurement of serum creatinine, urea, urine sodium, protein, hydroperoxides, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide (NO). The animals were killed; kidneys were removed for histology and immunohistochemistry for apoptosis and cell proliferation. GENTA group rats showed an increase in plasma creatinine, urea, urine sodium, hydroperoxides, lipid peroxidation, proteinuria, necrosis and apoptosis, characterizing nephrotoxic AKI. PC animals showed a decrease in these parameters and increased proliferation. The blockade of NO synthesis by L-NAME potentiated the protective effect, suggesting that NO contributed to the injury caused by GENTA. The blockade of prostaglandin synthesis with DICLO increased serum and urinary parameters, blunting the protective effect of PC. Our data suggest that PC could be a useful tool to protect against nephrotoxic AKI.

  5. CD1d-dependent NKT cells play a protective role in acute and chronic arthritis models by ameliorating antigen-specific Th1 responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teige, Anna; Bockermann, Robert; Hasan, Maruf;

    2010-01-01

    A protective and anti-inflammatory role for CD1d-dependent NKT cells (NKTs) has been reported in experimental and human autoimmune diseases. However, their role in arthritis has been unclear, with conflicting reports of CD1d-dependent NKTs acting both as regulatory and disease-promoting cells...... in arthritis. These differing modes of action might be due to genetic differences of inbred mice and incomplete backcrossing of gene-modified mice. We therefore put special emphasis on controlling the genetic backgrounds of the mice used. Additionally, we used two different murine arthritis models, Ag......-induced arthritis (AIA) and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), to evaluate acute and chronic arthritis in CD1d knockout mice and mice depleted of NK1.1(+) cells. CD1d-deficient mice developed more severe AIA compared with wild-type littermates, with a higher degree of inflammation and proteoglycan depletion. Chronic...

  6. The protective role of Bax Inhibitor-1 against chronic mild stress through the inhibition of monoamine oxidase A

    OpenAIRE

    Hwa-Young Lee; Geum-Hwa Lee; Anu Marahatta; Shun-Mei Lin; Mi-Rin Lee; Kyu Yun Jang; Kyung Min Kim; Hee Jae Lee; Jae-Won Lee; Tarique Rajasaheb Bagalkot; Young-Chul Chung; Yong-Chul Lee; Hyung-Ryong Kim; Han-Jung Chae

    2013-01-01

    The anti-apoptotic protein Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is a regulator of apoptosis linked to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. It has been hypothesized that BI-1 protects against neuron degenerative diseases. In this study, BI-1−/− mice showed increased vulnerability to chronic mild stress accompanied by alterations in the size and morphology of the hippocampi, enhanced ROS accumulation and an ER stress response compared with BI-1+/+ mice. BI-1−/− mice exposed to chronic mild stress showed signif...

  7. Errors in macromolecular synthesis after stress : a study of the possible protective role of the small heat shock proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Marin Vinader, L.

    2006-01-01

    The general goal of this thesis was to gain insight in what small heat shock proteins (sHsps) do with respect to macromolecular synthesis during a stressful situation in the cell. It is known that after a non-lethal heat shock, cells are better protected against a subsequent more severe heat shock, a phenomenon known as thermotolerance and attributed to the presence of the heat shock proteins. The question we asked first is whether the error rate in macromolecular synthesis (transcription, RN...

  8. The glycolipid sulfatide protects insulin-producing cells against cytokine-induced apoptosis, a possible role in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roeske-Nielsen, A; Dalgaard, L T; Månsson, Sven-Erik;

    2010-01-01

    Cytokine-induced apoptosis is recognised as a major cause of the decline in ß-cell mass that ultimately leads to type 1 diabetes mellitus. Interleukin-1ß, interferon-¿ and tumour necrosis factor-a in conjunction initiate a series of events that lead to ß-cell apoptosis; important among these is NO...... production. The glycosphingolipid sulfatide is present in ß-cells in the secretory granules in varying amounts and is secreted together with insulin. We now investigate whether sulfatide is able to protect insulin-producing cells against the pro-apoptotic effect of interleukin-1ß, interferon-¿ and tumour...

  9. The glycolipid sulfatide protects insulin-producing cells against cytokine-induced apoptosis, a possible role in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Louise Torp; Roeske-Nielsen, Allan; Månsson, Jan-Eric;

    2010-01-01

    Cytokine-induced apoptosis is recognised as a major cause of the decline in β-cell mass that ultimately leads to type 1 diabetes mellitus. Interleukin-1β, interferon-γ and tumour necrosis factor-α in conjunction initiate a series of events that lead to β-cell apoptosis; important among these is NO...... production. The glycosphingolipid sulfatide is present in β-cells in the secretory granules in varying amounts and is secreted together with insulin. We now investigate whether sulfatide is able to protect insulin-producing cells against the pro-apoptotic effect of interleukin-1β, interferon-γ and tumour...

  10. National Parks and Protected Areas and the Role for Employment in Tourism and Forest Sectors: a Swedish Case

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Fredman; Klas Sandell; Linda J. T. Lundmark

    2010-01-01

    The development of national parks and other protected areas has been widely promoted because of its potential for regional development in peripheral and sparsely populated areas. The argument is that the economic and social benefits seen in national parks in the USA and UK will also occur in the Swedish context in the form of an increased tourism-related labor market. Our aim was to analyze the possibility of such a development both in light of the policy visions of positive regional and loca...

  11. MCI extraction from Turkish galls played protective roles against X-ray-induced damage in AHH-1 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jianhua; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Huibin; Wang, Jianhua; Hu, Junping

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective effects of MCI extract from Turkish galls against apoptosis induced by X-ray radiation in the AHH-1. Methods: The cells were divided into: control group; X-ray radiation group; MCI group, in which the confluent cells were preincubated with 5 μg/ml MCI for 2 h followed by radiation. For the radiation, cells preincubated with MCI were exposed to X-ray beams with a dose of 8 Gy in total. Cell viability, apoptosis and intracellular alteration of redox were...

  12. Protecting the integrity of UNESCO World Heritage properties: the role of heritage information in decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Santana Quintero, Mario

    2011-01-01

    This lecture will underlay the role of heritage information in the nomination, management and monitoring of UNESCO World Heritage properties. Concepts and fundamentals in recording, documenting and preparation of information systems will be presented, as well as, first hand examples from the following UNESCO World Heritage properties: Bamiyan (Afghanistan), Petra (Jordan), Baalbek (Lebanon) and UNESCO's World Heritage portal.

  13. The role of the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric calibration in the implementation of the dosimetric magnitudes with radiological protection aims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is very well-known the paper of the net of secondary laboratories of dosimetric calibration of the OAS in the dissemination of the traceability of the dosimetric magnitudes: kerma in air and absorbed dose in water, to the radiotherapy departments, given the high accuracy and precision that require the radiotherapy treatments. However the LSCD has other important areas at least for the development, implementation and evaluation of dosimetric magnitudes denominated operative magnitudes with ends of radiological protection: environmental equivalent dose H*(10), directional equivalent dose H'(0.07) and personal equivalent dose Hp. In the case of radiological protection the LSCD-ININ has been implementing the infrastructure to give service of personal dosimetry for photons and beta particles in terms of the operative magnitudes. For photons: X and gamma rays, it account with a secondary pattern camera PTW T34035 gauged in H* and Hp in the primary laboratory of Germany PTB. For the case of beta radiation its account with an extrapolation camera PTW 23392 with a secondary pattern kit of sources of the type I, gauged in terms of H'(0.07) in the PTB. (Author)

  14. The protective role of ascorbic acid on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in a rat model of maternal lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Hamid; Ganji, Farzaneh

    2016-07-01

    Oxidative stress is a major pathogenic mechanism of lead neurotoxicity. The antioxidant ascorbic acid protects hippocampal pyramidal neurons against cell death during congenital lead exposure; however, critical functions like synaptic transmission, integration, and plasticity depend on preservation of dendritic and somal morphology. This study was designed to examine if ascorbic acid also protects neuronal morphology during developmental lead exposure. Timed pregnant rats were divided into four treatment groups: (1) control, (2) 100mg/kg ascorbic acid once a day via gavage, (3) 0.05% lead acetate in drinking water, and (4) 0.05% lead+100mg/kg oral ascorbic acid. Brains of eight male pups (P25) per treatment group were processed for Golgi staining. Changes in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons' somal size were estimated by cross-sectional area and changes in dendritic arborization by Sholl's analysis. One-way ANOVA was used to compare results among treatment groups. Lead-exposed pups exhibited a significant decrease in somal size compared to controls (Pnear cell body (P<0.05) and a decreased total dendritic length in both apical and basal dendritic trees of CA1 neurons (P<0.05). Ascorbic acid significantly but only partially reversed the somal and dendritic damage caused by developmental lead exposure. Oxidative stress thus contributes to lead neurotoxicity but other pathogenic mechanisms are also involved. PMID:26783884

  15. Monitoring the Therapeutic and Protective Role of the Anti oxidative Nutritional Factor β Carotene in gamma-Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carotenoids are those substances, synthesized, only in plants that serve to protect the plants from free radicals. β-carotene, one of the carotenoids, has been thought to be of value to humans and other species, not only as precursors to vitamin A, but also for having excellent antioxidant properties. Four groups of rats were used to gain insight into the protective action of carotenes: control, β-carotene treated (30 mg/ kg body wt for 10 days), irradiated (4 fractions, each of 1.5 Gy gamma-rays during 10 days) and protracted group: rats received the same fractionated gamma-rays at the same time gavaged with β-carotene along the 10 days. Irradiated rats revealed significant decreases in p-carotene and glutathione (GSH) concentrations and significant increases in the activities of blood alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), catalase and contents of blood thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). In liver , tissue, TBARS content and catalase activity were raised while GSH was declined. The oral intake of β-carotene to irradiated rats was found to maintain the parameters measured near the control mean levels; i.e., increased content of blood β-carotene and GSH and modulated activities of ALP, ACP, ALT, GGT, catalase and TBARS level. It also, modulated the alterations of liver TBARS, catalase and GSH. Conclusion: β-carotene therapy significantly modulates oxidative damage induced by ionising radiation in rats

  16. Protective role of Liv.52 against radiation and cadmium induce haematological changes in the Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present investigation, the protective efficacy of Liv.52 against radiation and cadmium induced haematological changes in Swiss albino mice has been studied. For the purpose, the animals were exposed to 3.0 and 6.0 Gy gamma rays with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The Liv.52 was administered at the dose of 0.01 ml/animal/day seven days prior to radiation, cadmium or combined treatment. The various haematological changes viz. RBC, WBC, Hb, PCV, MCR, MCHC, TLC, SGPT and SGOT were observed in the form of increase or decrease. The values of RBC, WBC, Hb, PCV and MCV were found to decrease in all the groups as compared to normal group. The values of MCR and MCHC increased in all the groups as compared to normal group after 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days of post-treatment intervals. The values of SGOT and SGPT elevated up to day-14 in the non drug treated groups and day 7 in the Liv.52 treated groups, thereafter a fall in the value was seen up to day-28. After combined treatment of radiation and cadmium the changes were more severe and there was late manifestation of recovery showing synergistic or additive effect. In the Liv.52 treated animals the changes were less severe and early recovery was also observed showing protection provided by the drug. (author)

  17. Role of Tomato Extract in Protection against Damage Caused by Mesenteric Ischemia/ Reperfusion Induced in gamma-Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Objective is, the protective effects of turmeric (Tur) as well as tomato extract (TE) against whole gamma-irradiation injury of rats subjected to mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Male Wistar rats were divided into shame and irradiated groups. Normal group subjected to sham-operation. Vitamin E (VE) treated-group served as a positive control. Ileal tissue samples were obtained to investigate glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite contents as well as activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). In addition, cytokines; tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured. Intestinal I/R injury revealed a marked depletion in GSH, elevated TBARS and nitrite contents as well as low LDH activity. Moreover, there were remarkable increases in measured cytokines (TNF-αand IL-6). The ischemic insults were exacerbated by acute gamma-irradiation in most of measured parameters except for GSH and LDH activity. In I/R treated-groups, TE could restore GSH contents and LDH (cell membrane integrity) as compared with VE with no lipid peroxidation protection. However, both supplements corrected levels of nitrite and TNF-α. Either Tur or TE could correct most of biochemical changes in irradiated rats. In general, both supplements recorded antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects upon irradiation

  18. Role of different types of solid models in hydrodynamic modeling and their effects on groundwater protection processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bódi, Erika; Buday, Tamás; McIntosh, Richard William

    2013-04-01

    Defining extraction-modified flow patterns with hydrodynamic models is a pivotal question in preserving groundwater resources regarding both quality and quantity. Modeling is the first step in groundwater protection the main result of which is the determination of the protective area depending on the amount of extracted water. Solid models have significant effects on hydrodynamic models as they are based on the solid models. Due to the legislative regulations, on protection areas certain restrictions must be applied which has firm consequences on economic activities. In Hungarian regulations there are no clear instructions for the establishment of either geological or hydrodynamic modeling, however, modeling itself is an obligation. Choosing the modeling method is a key consideration for further numerical calculations and it is decisive regarding the shape and size of the groundwater protection area. The geometry of hydrodynamic model layers is derived from the solid model. There are different geological approaches including lithological and sequence stratigraphic classifications furthermore in the case of regional models, formation-based hydrostratigraphic units are also applicable. Lithological classification is based on assigning and mapping of lithotypes. When the geometry (e.g. tectonic characteristics) of the research area is not known, horizontal bedding is assumed the probability of which can not be assessed based on only lithology. If the geological correlation is based on sequence stratigraphic studies, the cyclicity of sediment deposition is also considered. This method is more integrated thus numerous parameters (e.g. electrofacies) are taken into consideration studying the geological conditions ensuring more reliable modeling. Layers of sequence stratigraphic models can be either lithologically homogeneous or they may include greater cycles of sediments containing therefore several lithological units. The advantage of this is that the modeling can

  19. Protection of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) trees from ozone injury by ethylenediurea (EDU): Roles of biochemical changes and decreased stomatal conductance in enhancement of growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatments with ethylenediurea (EDU) protect plants from ozone foliar injury, but the processes underlying this protection are poorly understood. Adult ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior), with or without foliar ozone symptoms in previous years, were treated with EDU at 450 ppm by gravitational trunk infusion in May-September 2005 (32.5 ppm h AOT40). At 30-day intervals, shoot growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and water potential were determined. In September, several biochemical parameters were measured. The protective influence of EDU was supported by enhancement in the number of leaflets. EDU did not contribute its nitrogen to leaf tissue as a fertiliser, as determined from lack of difference in foliar N between treatments. Both biochemical (increase in ascorbate-peroxidase and ascorbic acid, and decrease in apoplastic hydrogen peroxide) and biophysical (decrease in stomatal conductance) processes regulated EDU action. As total ascorbic acid increased only in the asymptomatic trees, its role in alleviating O3 effects on leaf growth and visible injury is controversial. - Both biochemical and biophysical processes may regulate EDU action

  20. Protective role of Kalpaamruthaa in type II diabetes mellitus-induced cardiovascular disease through the modulation of protease-activated receptor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Latha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kalpaamruthaa (KA is a formulatory herbal preparation has beneficial antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties against cardiovascular damage (CVD. Objective: The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective role of KA in type II diabetes mellitus-induced CVD through the modulation of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1. Materials and Methods: CVD was developed in 8 weeks after type II diabetes mellitus induction with high fat diet (2 weeks and low dose of streptozotocin (2 × 35 mg/kg b.w. i.p. in 24 h interval. CVD-induced rats treated with KA (200 mg/kg b.w. in 0.5 ml of olive oil orally for 4 weeks. Results: KA increased the activities of enzymatic antioxidants and the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants in pancreas of CVD-induced rats. KA effectively reduced the lipid peroxides and carbonyl content in the pancreas of CVD-induced rats. KA reduced cellular damage by ameliorating the activities of marker enzymes in plasma, heart and liver. The protective nature of KA was further evidenced by histological observation in pancreas. Further, KA reduced CVD by decreasing the expression of PAR1 in heart. Conclusion: This study exhibits the defending role of KA in type II diabetes mellitus-induced CVD through altering PAR1.