Foster, Harold D; Hoffer, Abram
Cancer might be expected to be more common amongst schizophrenics than the general population. They frequently live in selenium deficient regions, have seriously compromised antioxidant defense systems and chain-smoke. The available literature on the cancer-schizoprenia relationship in patients from England, Wales, Ireland, Denmark, USA and Japan, however, strongly suggests that the reverse is true. One of the authors (Hoffer) has treated 4000 schizophrenics since 1952. Only four of these patients has developed cancer. Since low cancer incidence has been recorded amongst patients treated by both conventional physicians using pharmaceuticals and by orthomolecular doctors who emphasize vitamins and minerals, it follows that this depressed cancer incidence must be related to the biochemistry of the disorder itself. Taken as a whole, therefore, the evidence seems to suggest that schizophrenics, their siblings and parents are less susceptible to cancer than the general population. These relationships seem compatible with one or more genetic risk factors for schizophrenia that offer(s) a selective advantage against cancer. There is experimental evidence that appears to support this possibility. Matrix Pharmaceuticals Inc. has received a US patent covering the composition of IntraDose Injectable Gel. This gel contains cisplatin and epinephrine (adrenaline) and is designed to be injected directly into tumour masses. Cisplatin is a very powerful oxidant which will almost certainly rapidly convert the adrenaline to adrenochrome. While the manufacturers of IntraDose consider cisplatin to be the active cytotoxic agent in IntraDose, it seems more likely that adrenochrome and its derivatives may, in fact, be more effective. IntraDose gel has undergone or is undergoing a series of Phase III open-label clinical studies, being injected into patients' tumours that have been identified as the most troublesome by their physicians. The results have been impressive for breast cancer
Mills, John A
Working in a psychiatrically innovative environment created by the Government of Saskatchewan, Canada, Abram Hoffer and Humphry F. Osmond enunciated the adrenochrome hypothesis for the biogenesis of schizophrenia in 1952, slightly later proposing and, apparently, demonstrating, in a double-blind study, that the symptoms of the illness could be reversed by administering large doses of niacin. After placing the hypothesis within its ideological framework, the author describes its emergence and elaboration and discusses the empirical evidence brought against it. Hoffer's idiosyncratic diagnostic procedures, especially his creation and use of a supposed biochemical marker for schizophrenia, are examined. The author argues that Hoffer's conceptualization of schizophrenia, as well as his treatment approach, depended on a tautology. Following David Healy, the author treats the adrenochrome hypothesis as a version of a transmethylation theory, thus incorporating it into mainstream psychopharmacology.
张占军; 李经建; 吴锡尊; 张文智; 蔡生民
The kinetic characteristics of the electrochemical oxidation of Adrenaline to adrenochrome was studied by UV-Vis Spectroscopy.The measurements showed that the electrooxidation of adrenaline to adrenochrome was typical of the first order reaction and the average apparent rate constant is 1.921×10-4s-1.%以紫外-可见分光光度法为主要手段，研究了肾上腺素电氧化生成肾上腺素红的反应动力学特征。研究结果表明：该反应具有一级反应的动力学特征，且反应的表观反应速率常数的平均值为1.921×10-4s-1。
Ikeda, Reiko; Sugita, Takashi; Jacobson, Eric S.; Shinoda, Takako
The laccase enzyme and melanin synthesis have been implicated as contributors to virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans. Since isolations of Cryptococcus species other than C. neoformans from clinical specimens have been increasing, we examined the laccase activities of C. albidus, C. laurentii, C. curvatus, and C. humicola. Incubation of cells with epinephrine produced adrenochrome color in C. albidus, C. laurentii, and C. curvatus but not in C. humicola. Activity was always less than in C. ne...
李萍; 张福田; 刘刚; 周磊; 吴守国
建立了系统测定利多卡因肾上腺素注射液中肾上腺素、去甲肾上腺素、亚硫酸肾上腺素及肾上腺素红含量的高效液相色谱-电化学(HPLC-ECD)方法.其中前3种物质用氧化模式分析,肾上腺素红用还原模式分析.优化了电位、流动相pH及离子对试剂含量、灵敏度参数等色谱条件,并对该方法进行了论证:在各物质的线性浓度范围内,该方法显示出良好的线性关系,R2均为0.9999,肾上腺素、去甲肾上腺素、亚硫酸肾上腺素和肾上腺素红的检出限依次为0.27,0.50,0.20,50 μg·L-1,回收率依次为(100.34±0.62)％,(100.16±1.07)％,(100.26±1.21)％,(97.97±0.72)％ (n=9).该方法快速简单、选择性好、灵敏度及准确度高,可用于肾上腺素及其相关物质的分析测定.%An reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) assay coupled with electrochemical detection (ECD) for systematically measuring epinephrine, norepinephrine, epinephrine sulfonate and adrenochrome in lidocaine epinephrine injection was developed. Analyses of epinephrine, norepinephrine and epinephrine sulfonate were conducted in oxidation mode, while adrenochrome was analysed in reduction mode. Chromatographic conditions such as potential, pH and ion-pair reagent content of mobile phase and sensitivity range were optimized. The proposed method was demonstrated strictly. The method shows good linear relationship (R2 = 0. 999 9) in the linear concentration range of four analytes. The detection limit of epinephrine, norepinephrine, epinephrine sulfonate and adrenochrome is 0.27, 0.50, 0.20, 50 μg · L-1, respectively, and the recovery of these substances is (100.34 ± 0.62)%, (100.16±1.07)%, (100.26 ± 1.21)%, (97.97±0.72)% (n=9), respectively. The method is fast and simple and showed high sensitivity, precision, selectivity and recovery, and can thus be used as a quality control method for drugs containing epinephrine and related substances.
Since cysteine was found to protect lethally irradiated rats, sulfhydryl compounds that provide protection of laboratory animals against lethal doses of ionizing radiations have also been given much attention. The SH compounds have been the most extensively investigated, and β-aminoethylisothiouronium (AET) and cysteamine have been selected as being representative of those drugs that are highly protective. However, clinical application is limited, as the toxicity of these compounds is high. In a series of experiments to reevaluate radioprotective agents with low toxicity, the authors found that 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG) and adrenochrome monoguangylhydrazone methanesulfonate (AMM) have a potent radioprotector effect in a dose far below their toxic doses in both mice and humans. Recently, the development of effective thiophosphate derivatives of cysteamine, namely WR-2721 [S-2-(3-amino-propylaminoethyl)phosphorothioate] by the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Commands, led to a reevaluation of these compounds and their potential in radiotherapy. Initial investigations indicated that WR-2721 provided a considerable degree of radioprotection to normal tissues. This compound provided excellent protection for normal tissues (DMF = 2-2.5) but little protection for the transplanted tumor. Thus this drug may have a differential protection in vivo and may be useful for improving the therapeutic ratio in cancer radiotherapy. The results of animal and chemical experiments in Japan are summarized herein
目的：分析肝硬化合并上消化道出血联合使用不同止血药物的疗效。方法选择2010年11月至2013年11月铁岭市中心医院肝硬化合并上消化道出血患者304例，随机分为治疗组152例与对照组152例，两组患者均采用内科消化道出血常规治疗（包括抗感染、补液、保肝及心理治疗）。治疗组患者在此基础上加用注射用奥曲肽、注射用氨甲环酸、注射用蛇毒血凝酶、注射用泮托拉唑等静脉输注止血、对症治疗；对照组加用注射用奥曲肽、注射用奥美拉唑、注射用止血芳酸静脉输注，注射用维生素K及注射用肾上腺色腙肌注，凝血酶冻干粉口服等止血对症治疗。结果治疗组总有效率为98.68%，对照组为86.84%，两组差异有统计学意义（P =0.0001）。结论内科药物经验性的综合应用能够有效治疗肝硬化合并上消化道出血，提高治愈率，减少病死率，经济高效，值得临床推广。%Objective To analyze the effect of combined using different hemostatic drugs to treat liver cirrhosis with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Methods From November 2010 to November 2013, 304 patients of liver cirrhosis with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage were randomly divided into treatment group (152 cases) and control group (152 cases). Two groups were given medical conventional treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding (including resistance to infection, fluid infusion, protecting liver and psychotherapy). On this basis, the treatment group was given octreotide, tranexamic acid, hemocoagulase and pantoprazole intravenous drip to stop bleeding and expectant treatment. And the control group was given octreotide, omeprazole and p-aminomethyl benzoic acid intravenous drip, vitamin K and adrenochrome semicarbazone intramuscular injection, and lyophilizing thrombin powder oral for hemostasis treatment. Results Total effective rate of treatment group was 98.68% and control group was 86