Sample records for adrenaline

  1. Adrenaline and hypertension

    P.J. Blankestijn (Peter)


    textabstractThe questions we hoped to answer by the studies described in this thesis, were: 1 Does adrenaline, when infused intravenously in normotensive subjects leading to plasma levels in the high physiological range, cause a sustained and protracted rise in blood pressure, which outlasts the dur

  2. Adrenalin




  3. Forearm metabolism during infusion of adrenaline

    Simonsen, L; Stefl, B; Bülow, J


    Human skeletal muscle metabolism is often investigated by measurements of substrate fluxes across the forearm. To evaluate whether the two forearms give the same metabolic information, nine healthy subjects were studied in the fasted state and during infusion of adrenaline. Both arms were...... catheterized in a cubital vein in the retrograde direction. A femoral artery was catheterized for blood sampling, and a femoral vein for infusion of adrenaline. Forearm blood flow was measured by venous occlusion strain-gauge plethysmography. Forearm subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was measured...... by the local 133Xe washout method. Metabolic fluxes were calculated as the product of forearm blood flow and a-v differences of metabolite concentrations. After baseline measurements, adrenaline was infused at a rate of 0.3 nmol kg-1 min-1. No difference in the metabolic information obtained in the fasting...

  4. Effect of urate on the lactoperoxidase catalyzed oxidation of adrenaline.

    Løvstad, Rolf A


    Lactoperoxidase is an iron containing enzyme, which is an essential component of the defense system of mammalian secretary fluids. The enzyme readily oxidizes adrenaline and other catecholamines to coloured aminochrome products. A Km-value of 1.21 mM and a catalytic constant (k = Vmax/[Enz]) of 15.5 x 10(3) min(-1) characterized the reaction between lactoperoxidase and adrenaline at pH 7.4. Urate was found to activate the enzyme catalyzed oxidation of adrenaline in a competitive manner, the effect decreasing with increasing adrenaline concentration. Lactoperoxidase was able to catalyze the oxidation of urate. However, urate was a much poorer substrate than adrenaline, and it seems unlikely that urate activates by functioning as a free, redox cycling intermediate between enzyme and adrenaline. The activation mechanism probably involves an urate-lactoperoxidase complex.

  5. Copper Phthalocyanine Catalysis to Oxidation of Adrenaline by Oxygen and Its Application in Adrenaline Detection

    HUANG Jun; LI Mingtian; TANG Yan; FANG Hua; DING Liyun


    The oxidation of adrenaline by dioxygen using copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) as the catalyzer was studied. CuPc has the optimal catalytic pH of 8.0 and the optimal catalytic temperature of 55 ℃. It also has good storage and operation stability. The fiber optic adrenaline biosensor based on CuPc catalysis and fluorescence quenching was fabricated and studied. This sensor has the detection range of 7.0×10-5 -1.5×10-4 mol/L, the response time of 4 min, good reproducibility and stability.

  6. Pulse Radiolysis of Adrenaline in Acid Aqueous Solutions

    Gohn, M.; Getoff, N.; Bjergbakke, Erling


    Pulse radiolysis of adrenaline in acid aqueous solutions (pH 1–3) was carried out. The rate constants for the reactions of adrenaline with H and OH were determined: k(H + adr.) = (0·9±0·1) × 109 dm3 mol−1s−1; k(OH + adr.) = (1·65±0·15) × 1010 dm3 mol−1s−1. The H-adduct of adrenaline has two λmax...

  7. Rotational Spectroscopy Unveils Eleven Conformers of Adrenaline

    Cabezas, C.; Cortijo, V.; Mata, S.; Lopez, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.


    Recent improvements in our LA-MB-FTMW instrumentation have allowed the characterization of eleven and eight conformers for the neurotransmitters adrenaline and noradrenaline respectively. The observation of this rich conformational behavior is in accordance with the recent observation of seven conformers for dopamine and in sharp contrast with the conformational reduction proposed for catecholamines. C. Cabezas, I. Peña, J. C. López, J. L. Alonso J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2013, 4, 486. H. Mitsuda, M. Miyazaki, I. B. Nielsen, P. Carcabal,C. Dedonder, C. Jouvet, S. Ishiuchi, M. Fujii J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 1130.

  8. Endocrine, metabolic and cardiovascular responses to adrenaline after abdominal surgery

    Hilsted, J; Wilken-Jensen, Charlotte; Birch, K


    Adrenaline-induced changes in heart rate, blood pressure, plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline, cortisol, glucagon, insulin, cAMP, glucose lactate, glycerol and beta-hydroxybutyrate were studied preoperatively and 4 and 24 h after skin incision in 8 patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy. Late...... postoperative responses of blood glucose, plasma cAMP, lactate and glycerol to adrenaline infusion were reduced, whereas other responses were unaffected. Blood glucose appearance and disappearance rate as assessed by [3H]3-glucose infusion was unchanged pre- and postoperatively. The increase in glucose...... appearance rate following adrenaline was similar pre- and postoperatively. These findings suggest that several beta-receptor-mediated responses to adrenaline are reduced after abdominal surgery....

  9. Adrenaline influences the release of interleukin-6 from murine pituicytes

    Christensen, J D; Hansen, E W; Frederiksen, C


    In this study, we examined the effect of adrenaline and interleukin-1beta on interleukin-6 secretion from cultured murine neurohypophyseal cells. Cells were cultured from neurohypophyses of 3- to 5-week-old mice and experiments were performed after 13 days in culture. Interleukin-6 was measured...... in 24-h samples using a sandwich fluoroimmunoassay. Unstimulated cells released 19+/-3 fmol interleukin-6/neurohypophysis/24 h (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 42). Adrenaline and interleukin-1beta increased the release of interleukin-6 from the cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Incubation with adrenaline...


    Ogata, Tomosaburo; Ogata, Akira


    We have established the fact that the chrome reaction as well as the silver and osmium reactions are merely reductions by adrenalin. In our opinion the naming of the cells giving a positive reaction should not be based upon the reaction i.e., chromaffin cells), but on the presence of adrenalin itself. Biedl's terms, adrenal cell, adrenal organ, adrenal body, adrenal system, and also Bonnamour's term, adrenalin-producing cells, are appropriate in this respect. We propose the names adrenalin cell, adrenalin tissue, adrenalin system, thereby indicating the presence of adrenalin. PMID:19868124

  11. Adrenaline-induced digital ischaemia reversed with phentolamine.

    Molony, Darren


    Adrenaline autoinjectors are widely prescribed for self-treatment of anaphylactic syndromes. Accidental misfire into digits can cause prolonged significant ischaemia with serious outcomes. Phentolamine is a readily available treatment, which is easily and safely given in the emergency setting.

  12. Effects of Peritonsillar Injection of Tramadol and Adrenaline before Tonsillectomy;

    Beigh Zafarullah


    Full Text Available Introduction: Various hemostatic and analgesic agents and techniques have been used to reduce intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage and pain in tonsillectomy.Aims and objective; The current study aimed to compare the effect of using adrenaline plus tramadol and normal saline in maintaining hemostasis and control of pain in cold dissection tonsillectomy.   Materials and Methods: This prospective randomized study was conducted over a period of 10 months in department of otorhinolaryngology state medical college Srinagar. In the current study 46 patients planed for tonsillectomy were put into two groups. 23 patients in each group. In group A patients (study group 4ml of solution containing 1:200000 adrenaline and 2mg/kg tramadol was injected in peritonsillar space. In group B patients (control group 4ml of normal saline was injected in peritonsillar space.   Results: It was found that the time required to achieve heamostasis and post operative pain was less in group A patients in comparison to Group B patients. There was no significant side effect or complications when adrenaline and tramadol were used.   Conclusion:  Large randomized controlled studies are needed to compare tramadol plus adrenaline infiltration with other heamostatic and analgesics, but the current study indicated that Tramadol plus adrenaline infiltration could be an effective method  to reduce the post operative pain , operative time and time to achieve heamostasis in tonsillectomy surgeries. Therefore the use of Tramadol plus adrenaline infiltration should be further promoted and implemented as routine use in tonsillectomy surgeries.

  13. Tritium excretion after intravenous administration of tritium labelled adrenaline and noradrenaline and digital vascular reactivity to adrenaline and noradrenaline in normotensive and labile hypertensive subjects.

    De Guia, D; Mendlowitz, M; Vlachakis, N D; Gitlow, S E; Nissenbaum, M


    1. The 24-h urinary excretion of tritium after tritiated adrenaline administration and digital vascular reactivity to exogenously administered adrenaline and noradrenaline were measured in ten normotensive and in twenty-eight labile essential hypertensive subjects. Tritiated noradrenaline excretion and apparent noradrenaline secretion rate were also measured in ten and eleven of these subjects, respectively. 2. Despite overlapping, the mean 24-h tritium excretion after 3H-adrenaline administration as well as reactivity to adrenaline were significantly greater in the hypertensive than in the normotensive subjects, whether or not they had increased responsiveness to noradrenaline. Significant correlation, however, was observed between tritium excretion of adrenaline and reactivity to adrenaline in both labile hypertensive and normotensive subjects. These measurements were also both significantly correlated with percentage variability in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the labile hypertensive subjects. 3. No significant correlation was observed between adrenaline as against noradrenaline measurements, whether physiological or biochemical, in either hypertensive or normotensive subjects.

  14. Experimental Cardiac Arrest Treatment with Adrenaline, Vasopressin, or Placebo

    Palácio, Manoel Ângelo Gomes; de Paiva, Edison Ferreira; de Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes; Timerman, Ari


    Background The effect of vasoconstrictors in prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has not been fully clarified. Objectives To evaluate adrenaline and vasopressin pressure effect, and observe the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Methods A prospective, randomized, blinded, and placebo-controlled study. After seven minutes of untreated ventricular fibrillation, pigs received two minutes cycles of CPR. Defibrillation was attempted (4 J/kg) once at 9 minutes, and after every cycle if a shockable rhythm was present, after what CPR was immediately resumed. At 9 minutes and every five minutes intervals, 0.02 mg/kg (n = 12 pigs) adrenaline, or 0.4 U/kg (n = 12) vasopressin, or 0.2 mL/kg (n = 8) 0.9% saline solution was administered. CPR continued for 30 minutes or until the ROSC. Results Coronary perfusion pressure increased to about 20 mmHg in the three groups. Following vasoconstrictors doses, pressure level reached 35 mmHg versus 15 mmHg with placebo (p < 0.001). Vasopressin effect remained at 15-20 mmHg after three doses versus zero with adrenaline or placebo. ROSC rate differed (p = 0.031) among adrenaline (10/12), vasopressin (6/12), and placebo (2/8). Time-to-ROSC did not differ (16 minutes), nor the number of doses previously received (one or two). There was no difference between vasoconstrictors, but against placebo, only adrenaline significantly increased the ROSC rate (p = 0.019). Conclusion The vasoconstrictors initial pressure effect was equivalent and vasopressin maintained a late effect at prolonged resuscitation. Nevertheless, when compared with placebo, only adrenaline significantly increased the ROSC rate. PMID:24173134

  15. Intrathecal Sufentanil with Adrenalin in Lower Abdominal Operations

    B. Jahangiry


    Full Text Available Intrathecal injection of sufentanil with adrenalin was performed in 45 cases (20 female, 25 male; age range: 18-40 years. All injections were performed in the sitting position, with a number 20 intrathecal needle immersed in adrenalin. The cases were observed for 72 hours. Maximum duration of analgesia was 12 hours (60% and the minimum was 3 hours (13.3%. This method reduces the need for repeated administration of intravenous or intramuscular narcotics, and unlike intrathecal morphine, dose not cause delayed respiratory depression

  16. Adrenaline and glycogenolysis in skeletal muscle during exercise

    Kjaer, M; Howlett, K; Langfort, J


    were obtained at 0, 45 and 60 min of exercise. In -Adr and Con, muscle glycogen was similar at rest (-Adr, 409+/-19 mmol (kg dry wt)(-1); Con, 453+/-24 mmol (kg dry wt)(-1)) and following exercise (-Adr, 237+/-52 mmol (kg dry wt)(-1); Con, 227+/-50 mmol (kg dry wt)(-1)). Muscle lactate, glucose-6...... in -Adr, but did not enhance glycogen breakdown (+Adr, glycogen following exercise: 274+/-55 mmol (kg dry wt)(-1)) in contracting muscle. The present findings demonstrate that during exercise muscle glycogenolysis can occur in the absence of adrenaline, and that adrenaline does not enhance muscle...

  17. Contribution of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue to adrenaline-induced thermogenesis in man

    Simonsen, L; Stallknecht, Bente; Bülow, J


    Elevated plasma adrenaline is known to increase whole body energy expenditure. We studied the thermogenic effect and the effects on substrate utilization in man during infusion of adrenaline. Two series were performed: in one series skeletal muscle metabolism was investigated and in another series......% of the whole body adrenaline-induced thermogenesis....

  18. Contribution of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue to adrenaline-induced thermogenesis in man

    Simonsen, L; Stallknecht, B; Bülow, J


    Elevated plasma adrenaline is known to increase whole body energy expenditure. We studied the thermogenic effect and the effects on substrate utilization in man during infusion of adrenaline. Two series were performed: in one series skeletal muscle metabolism was investigated and in another series......% of the whole body adrenaline-induced thermogenesis....

  19. Dosis Aman Adrenalin dalam Larutan Anestesi Lokal untuk Penderita Hipertensi

    Untary Untary


    Full Text Available The treatment of patients with hypertension is increasingly common. Hypertensives are a problem because they exhibit a great lability of a blood pressure. The anticipation of dental treatment causes an initial elevation of the blood pressure which may be heightened by the stimulus of an injection or dental treatment. However, probably the underlying causes is endogenous adrenaline. Adrenaline is the most potent and efficient of vasoconstricting drug used in dental anesthetic solution. Lidocaine causes vasodilation, without adrenaline lidocaine is rapidly absorbed from the administration site. Vasoconstrictors are important additions to local anesthetic solutions. They improve the quality of pain control and its duration while decreasing the potential toxicity of the local anesthetic. Observation of dental clinic patients at Loma Linda University confirm the fact that the blood pressure is not elevated by the small amount of vasocontrictor (1:100,000 contained in the most commonly employed dental anesthetic solution. All of the adrenergic amines can produce potentially dangerous cardiovascular effect and elicit disturbing subjactive response when high blood concentration are obtrained. For these reasons Felypressin a nonsymphatomimetic amine alternative for vasoconstriction has been used. An aspirating syringe should be used to avoid the risk of intra vascular injection when administering a local anesthetic solution and it is considered advisable to avoid adrenaline if the hypertension is not controlled.

  20. Use of adrenalin with lidocaine in hand surgery ,

    Ronaldo Antonio de Freitas Novais Junior


    Full Text Available Objective:Because of the received wisdom within our setting that claims that local anesthesia should not be used with adrenalin in hand surgery; we conducted a study using lidocaine with adrenalin, to demonstrate its safety, utility and efficacy.Methods:We conducted a prospective study in which, in wrist, hand and finger surgery performed from July 2012 onwards, we used local anesthesia comprising a 1% lidocaine solution with adrenalin at 1:100,000. We evaluated the quantity of bleeding, systemic alterations, signs of arterial deficit and complications, among other parameters. We described the infiltration techniques for specific procedures individually.Results:We operated on 41 patients and chose to describe separately the raising of a lateral microsurgical flap on the arm, which was done without excessive bleeding and within the usual length of time. In only three cases was there excessive bleeding or use of bipolar tweezers. No systemic alterations were observed by the anesthesiologists or any complications relating to ischemia and necrosis in the wounds or in the fingers, and use of tourniquets was not necessary in any case.Conclusions:Use of lidocaine with adrenalin in hand surgery was shown to be a safe local anesthetic technique, without complications relating to necrosis. It provided efficient exsanguination of the surgical field and made it possible to perform the surgical procedures without using a pneumatic tourniquet, thereby avoiding its risks and benefiting the patient through lower sedation.

  1. The effect of caffeine on glucose kinetics in humans - influence of adrenaline

    Battram, Danielle S.; Graham, Terry E.; Richter, Erik


    While caffeine impedes insulin-mediated glucose disposal in humans, its effect on endo-genous glucose production (EGP) remains unknown. In addition, the mechanism involved in these effects is unclear, but may be due to the accompanying increase in adrenaline concentration. We studied the effect...... of caffeine on EGP and glucose infusion rates (GIR), and whether or not adrenaline can account for all of caffeine's effects. Subjects completed three isoglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamps (with 3-[3H]glucose infusion) 30 min after ingesting: (1) placebo capsules (n= 12); (2) caffeine capsules (5 mg kg-1) (n......= 12); and either (3) placebo plus a high-dose adrenaline infusion (HAdr; adrenaline concentration, 1.2 nM; n= 8) or (4) placebo plus a low-dose adrenaline infusion (LAdr; adrenaline concentration, 0.75 nM; n= 6). With caffeine, adrenaline increased to 0.6 nM but no effect on EGP was observed. While...

  2. Spectral and Electrochemical Investigation of Intercalations of Adrenaline and CT-DNA

    郑赛晶; 林祥钦


    A strong interaction between double stranded calf-thymus DNA (ds-DNA) and adrenaline in solution, but no interaction between single stranded calf-thymus DNA (ss-DNA) and adrenaline was observed by the use of UV-visible spectroscopy and voltammetric techniques. It is suggested that the interaction leads to an intercalation of adrenaline molecules into the groove of ds-DNA and the formation of ds-DNA (adrenallne)n complex. The binding site size of the interaction of adrenaline with CT-DNA in nucleotide phosphate [ NP] has been determined as 25. The interaction of different concentration adrenaline with DNA modified GCE shows that the DNA modified GCE can be a good tool to detect lower concentration adrenaline.

  3. The role of adrenaline as a modulator of cardiac performance in three Notothenioid fishes

    Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Bushnell, P.; Tirsgaard, Bjørn


    . The importance of adrenaline as a neurotransmitter was evaluated through a series of dose-response experiments in conjunction with increasing pacing frequencies, to establish whether adrenaline modulated force of contraction and the maximum frequency with which tissues could contract. Only in Chaenocephalus...... aceratus did increasing adrenaline have an effect on chronotropic properties, but in no tissues did increasing adrenaline enable tissues to operate at higher pacing frequencies. Atrial tissues could consistently be paced at higher frequencies than their ventricular counterparts. There was a three......-fold difference in force of contraction at the lowest pacing frequency and tonic adrenaline level between species. Increasing adrenaline enhanced peak tension for all ventricular tissues, yet the response was highly species specific, increasing force of contraction two to four-fold. Only in one species did...

  4. Interaction between lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and various irrigants: A nuclear magnetic resonance analysis

    Vidhya, Nirmal; Karthikeyan, Balasubramanian Saravana; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Abarajithan, Mohan; Nithyanandan, Sivasankaran


    Background: Interaction between local anesthetic solution, lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline), and root canal irrigants such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), and chlorhexidine (CHX) has not been studied earlier. Hence, the purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the chemical interaction between 2% lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and commonly used root canal irrigants, NaOCl, EDTA, and CHX. Materials and Methods: Samples were divided into eight experimental groups: Group I-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/3% NaOCl, Group II-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/17% EDTA, Group III- Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/2% CHX, Group IV-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/3% NaOCl, Group V-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/17% EDTA, Group VI-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/2% CHX, and two control groups: Group VII-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/deionized water and Group VIII-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/deionized water. The respective solutions of various groups were mixed in equal proportions (1 ml each) and observed for precipitate formation. Chemical composition of the formed precipitate was then analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and confirmed with diazotation test. Results: In groups I and IV, a white precipitate was observed in all the samples on mixing the respective solutions, which showed a color change to reddish brown after 15 minutes. This precipitate was then analysed by NMR spectroscopy and was observed to be 2,6-xylidine, a reported toxic compound. The experimental groups II, III, V, and VI and control groups VII and VIII showed no precipitate formation in any of the respective samples, until 2 hours. Conclusion: Interaction between lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and NaOCl showed precipitate formation containing 2,6-xylidine, a toxic compound

  5. Adrenaline Injection Plus Argon Plasma Coagulation versus Adrenaline Injection Plus Hemoclips for Treating High-Risk Bleeding Peptic Ulcers: A Prospective, Randomized Trial

    Seyed Alireza Taghavi


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Several combination endoscopic therapies are currently in use. The present study aimed to compare argon plasma coagulation (APC + adrenaline injection (AI with hemoclips + AI for the treatment of high-risk bleeding peptic ulcers.

  6. Jokichi Takamine (1854-1922), the samurai chemist, and his work on adrenalin.

    Yamashima, Tetsumori


    The samurai chemist Jokichi Takamine (1854-1922) crystallized adrenalin, the first hormone to be isolated in the twentieth century, from the adrenal medulla, in the summer of 1900. This paper reviews Takamine's route to the discovery of adrenalin and presents historical photographs and documents collected in Kanazawa, Japan, where he grew up, and the United States, where he made his major discoveries.

  7. Thermogenic response to adrenaline during restricted blood flow in the forearm

    Simonsen, L; Stefl, B; Christensen, N J


    To elucidate the underlying mechanism behind the thermogenic effect of adrenaline in human skeletal muscle, nine healthy subjects were studied during intravenous infusion of adrenaline. Restriction of blood flow to one forearm was obtained by external compression of the brachial artery, to separate...




    The effect of intravenously applied (-)adrenaline, taken up by and released from sympathetic nerves, on swimming exercise-induced noradrenaline overflow in permanently cannulated adrenal demedullated rats was studied. Adrenaline (100 ng/min) was infused for 2 h, during which a plasma concentration o

  9. Effect of sex on the cardiovascular response to adrenaline in humans.

    Schouwenberg, B.J.J.W.; Rietjens, S.J.; Smits, P.; Galan, B.E. de


    Cardiovascular responsiveness to stress conditions differs between men and women. It is not known to what extent this observation is explained by differences in the release of stress hormones like adrenaline, or by differences in the response to adrenaline. Therefore, we quantified the hemodynamic r

  10. Adrenaline-induced immunological changes are altered in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Kittner, JM; Jacobs, R; Pawlak, CR; Heijnen, CJ; Schedlowski, M; Schmidt, RE


    Objective. To investigate whether in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients the immunological changes induced by adrenaline are different from healthy controls (HC). Methods. Fifteen female RA patients and 14 HC were infused with 1 mug/kg adrenaline over 20 min. Blood was drawn before, immediately after

  11. Myocardial protection induced by fentanyl in pigs exposed to high-dose adrenaline.

    da Luz, Vinicius Fernando; Otsuki, Denise Aya; Gonzalez, Maria Margarita Castro; Negri, Elnara Marcia; Caldini, Elia Garcia; Damaceno-Rodrigues, Nilsa Regina; Malbouisson, Luiz Marcelo Sá; Viana, Bruno Gonçalves; Vane, Matheus Fachini; Carmona, Maria Jose Carvalho


    The use of high doses of adrenaline is common in critical patients, especially during cardiac arrest. During these situations, myocardial dysfunction can be a result of multiple factors, including adrenaline use. In addition, opioids have been shown to have anti-arrhythmic and anti-ischemic mechanisms that may confer cardiac protection. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of fentanyl on myocardial function in pigs exposed to high-dose adrenaline. After institutional ethics committee approval, 26 pigs were randomly allocated to receive either 20 μg/kg fentanyl (n = 10; fentanyl group) administered 5 min before five doses of adrenaline (20 μg/kg), equivalent-volume saline (n = 10; saline group) using the same adrenaline dosing protocol, or neither fentanyl nor adrenaline (n = 6; sham group). The fentanyl group showed lower levels of troponin at the end of the sixth hour compared with the saline group (1.91 ± 1.47 vs 5.44 ± 5.35 ng/mL, P = 0.019). Transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry also showed less myocardial injury in the fentanyl group. The conclusion was reached that fentanyl attenuates myocardial injury caused by high-dose adrenaline without blunting the hemodynamic effect of adrenaline.

  12. Impact of Integrated Amrita Meditation Technique on Adrenaline and Cortisol Levels in Healthy Volunteers

    Balakrishnan Vandana


    Full Text Available The objective was to find out the effect of Integrated Amrita Meditation Technique (IAM on the stress hormones: adrenaline and cortisol. One hundred and fifty healthy subjects were randomized into three groups. Blood was collected at 0 hour, 48 hours, 2 months, and 8 months after the first visit. Adrenaline was analyzed by ELISA and cortisol by Chemiluminescent method. In the IAM, PMR and control groups 44, 44, and 36 came, respectively, for the baseline visit. Within group, cortisol and adrenaline levels reduced in the IAM 48 hours onwards and the fall sustained until 8 months (P<.05. ANCOVA (Repeated measures on adrenaline taking the four levels of observation showed a highly significant (P=.001 drop in the IAM group. The mean cortisol values between groups were not statistically significant (P=.138. IAM Technique was effective in reducing adrenaline and cortisol levels within group comparisons.

  13. Desensitization of human adipose tissue to adrenaline stimulation studied by microdialysis

    Stallknecht, Bente; Bülow, J; Frandsen, E


    1. Desensitization of fat cell lipolysis to catecholamine exposure has been studied extensively in vitro but only to a small extent in human adipose tissue in vivo. 2. We measured interstitial glycerol concentrations by microdialysis in subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue in healthy humans......M, respectively) or a low, a high and a low concentration (2.5, 4.6 and 2.6 nM, respectively) in order to examine both desensitization and the dose dependency of adipose tissue lipolysis to adrenaline. 3. Adipose tissue lipolysis was calculated and was found to vary directly with arterial adrenaline concentration...... in adipose tissue blood flow in response to adrenaline was also reduced by prior adrenaline exposure, but no consistent desensitization could be demonstrated for whole-body energy expenditure, blood pressure and heart rate. 5. In the basal state, arterial plasma and interstitial adrenaline concentrations did...

  14. Plasma adrenaline kinetics in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with and without autonomic neuropathy

    Dejgaard, Anders; Hilsted, J; Henriksen, J H


    Plasma adrenaline kinetics (clearance, extraction across the forearm, initial plasma disappearance rate, mean sojourn time, volume of distribution) were studied in sixteen Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients during constant i.v. infusion of tritium labelled adrenaline. In patients with (n...... = 8) and without (n = 8) neuropathy forearm venous plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations as well as plasma clearance of adrenaline based on arterial sampling (1.7 vs 2.1 l/min) were not significantly different. The initial disappearance time (T 1/2) after the infusion of the tritium...... labelled adrenaline had been stopped was significantly prolonged in Type 1 diabetic patients with neuropathy compared to those without (after 20 min infusion 2.7 vs 2.2 min, p less than 0.02, after 75 min infusion 3.7 vs 2.9 min, p less than 0.05). The corresponding values for the mean sojourn time...

  15. Effect of adrenaline on glucose kinetics during exercise in adrenalectomised humans

    Howlett, K; Galbo, H; Lorentsen, J


    1. The role of adrenaline in regulating hepatic glucose production and muscle glucose uptake during exercise was examined in six adrenaline-deficient, bilaterally adrenalectomised humans. Six sex- and age-matched healthy individuals served as controls (CON). 2. Adrenalectomised subjects cycled...... for 45 min at 68 +/- 1 % maximum pulmonary O2 uptake (VO2,max), followed by 15 min at 84 +/- 2 % VO2, max without (-ADR) or with (+ADR) adrenaline infusion, which elevated plasma adrenaline levels (45 min, 4.49 +/- 0.69 nmol l-1; 60 min, 12.41 +/- 1.80 nmol l-1; means +/- s.e.m.). Glucose kinetics were...... measured using [3-3H]glucose. 3. Euglycaemia was maintained during exercise in CON and -ADR, whilst in +ADR plasma glucose was elevated. The exercise-induced increase in hepatic glucose production was similar in +ADR and -ADR; however, adrenaline infusion augmented the rise in hepatic glucose production...

  16. Administration of the adrenaline auto-injector at the nursery/kindergarten/school in Western Japan

    Fujitaka, Michiko; Ogata, Mika; Zaitsu, Masafumi; Motomura, Chikako; Kuzume, Kazuyo; Toku, Yuchiro; Ikeda, Masanori; Odajima, Hiroshi


    Background In view of the increasing prevalence of food allergies, there has been an associated increase in frequency of situations requiring an emergency response for anaphylaxis at the home, childcare facilities and educational institutions. Objective To clarify the situation of adrenaline auto-injector administration in nursery/kindergarten/school, we carried out a questionnaire survey on pediatric physicians in Western Japan. Methods In 2015, self-reported questionnaires were mailed to 421 physicians who are members of the West Japan Research Society Pediatric Clinical Allergy and Shikoku Research Society Pediatric Clinical Allergy. Results The response rate was 44% (185 physicians) where 160 physicians had a prescription registration for the adrenaline auto-injector. In the past year, 1,330 patients were prescribed the adrenaline auto-injector where 83 patients (6% of the prescribed patients) actually administered the adrenaline auto-injector, of which 14 patients (17% of the administered patients) self-administered the adrenaline auto-injector. “Guardians” at the nursery/kindergarten and elementary school were found to have administered the adrenaline auto-injector the most. Among 117 adrenaline auto-injector prescription-registered physicians, 79% had experienced nonadministration of adrenaline auto-injector at nursery/kindergarten/school when anaphylaxis has occurred. The most frequent reason cited for not administering the adrenaline auto-injector was “hesitation about the timing of administration.” Conclusion If the adrenaline auto-injector was administered after the guardian arrived at the nursery/kindergarten/school, it may lead to delayed treatment of anaphylaxis in which symptoms develop in minutes. Education and cooperation among physicians and nursery/kindergarten/school staff will reduce the number of children suffering unfortunate outcomes due to anaphylaxis. PMID:28154804

  17. Administration of the adrenaline auto-injector at the nursery/kindergarten/school in Western Japan.

    Korematsu, Seigo; Fujitaka, Michiko; Ogata, Mika; Zaitsu, Masafumi; Motomura, Chikako; Kuzume, Kazuyo; Toku, Yuchiro; Ikeda, Masanori; Odajima, Hiroshi


    In view of the increasing prevalence of food allergies, there has been an associated increase in frequency of situations requiring an emergency response for anaphylaxis at the home, childcare facilities and educational institutions. To clarify the situation of adrenaline auto-injector administration in nursery/kindergarten/school, we carried out a questionnaire survey on pediatric physicians in Western Japan. In 2015, self-reported questionnaires were mailed to 421 physicians who are members of the West Japan Research Society Pediatric Clinical Allergy and Shikoku Research Society Pediatric Clinical Allergy. The response rate was 44% (185 physicians) where 160 physicians had a prescription registration for the adrenaline auto-injector. In the past year, 1,330 patients were prescribed the adrenaline auto-injector where 83 patients (6% of the prescribed patients) actually administered the adrenaline auto-injector, of which 14 patients (17% of the administered patients) self-administered the adrenaline auto-injector. "Guardians" at the nursery/kindergarten and elementary school were found to have administered the adrenaline auto-injector the most. Among 117 adrenaline auto-injector prescription-registered physicians, 79% had experienced nonadministration of adrenaline auto-injector at nursery/kindergarten/school when anaphylaxis has occurred. The most frequent reason cited for not administering the adrenaline auto-injector was "hesitation about the timing of administration." If the adrenaline auto-injector was administered after the guardian arrived at the nursery/kindergarten/school, it may lead to delayed treatment of anaphylaxis in which symptoms develop in minutes. Education and cooperation among physicians and nursery/kindergarten/school staff will reduce the number of children suffering unfortunate outcomes due to anaphylaxis.

  18. Strong activation of vascular prejunctional beta 2-adrenoceptors in freely moving rats by adrenaline released as a co-transmitter



    The effect of adrenaline on the electrically evoked noradrenaline overflow in the portal vein of adrenal demedullated freely moving rats was studied. Adrenaline (100 ng/min) was infused for 2 h into the portal vein. After a 1-h interval when plasma adrenaline had returned to pre-infusion undetectabl

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  1. MS-551 and KCB-328, two class III drugs aggravated adrenaline-induced arrhythmias

    Xue, Yixue; Yamada, Chikaomi; Nu Aye, Nu; Hashimoto, Keitaro


    We investigated the proarrhythmic effects of MS-551 and KCB-328, class III antiarrhythmic drugs using adrenaline-induced arrhythmia models in halothane anaesthetized, closed-chest dogs. In the control period, adrenaline, starting from a low dose of 0.25 to up to 1.0 μg/kg/50 s i.v., was injected to determine the arrhythmia inducing dose and the non-inducing dose. After MS-551 or KCB-328 administration, the adrenaline injection was repeated and the interval between the injection and the occurr...

  2. Acute reaction to erroneous injection of adrenaline to the patients with hyperthyroidism

    Beuy Joob; Viroj Wiwanitkit


    Hyperthyroidism is an important endocrine disorder that can be seen around the world.In this disorder, the patient is usually hyperstimulate and palpitation.The effect of thyroid hormone is the explanation.A similar effect can be seen due to adrenaline reaction.In general, the use of adrenaline in the case with hyperthyroidism has to be carefully done.In the present case study, the authors present a case of acute reaction to erroneous injection of adrenaline to the patients with hyperthyroidism.

  3. Attempt to separate the fluorescence spectra of adrenaline and noradrenaline using chemometrics

    Nikolajsen, Rikke P; Hansen, Åse Marie; Bro, R


    An investigation was conducted on whether the fluorescence spectra of the very similar catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline could be separated using chemometric methods. The fluorescence landscapes (several excitation and emission spectra were measured) of two data sets with respectively 16...... regression (Unfold-PLSR) on the larger data set and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) of the six samples of the smaller set showed that there was no difference between the fluorescence landscapes of adrenaline and noradrenaline. It can be concluded that chemometric separation of adrenaline and noradrenaline...

  4. A case of hypotension after intranasal adrenaline infiltration causing a clinical dilemma during the intraoperative period

    Shyam Bhandari


    Full Text Available Solutions containing adrenaline are widely used for presurgical infiltration. Haemodynamic changes associated with its use are well documented in the literature. Prolonged intraoperative hypotension after subcutaneous infiltration of diluted adrenaline is an uncommon scenario. We believe that our case of the prolonged episode of hypotension was secondary to infiltration of nasal septum with a high concentration of adrenaline. As β2 receptor activation leads to skeletal muscle vasodilation, a decrease in preload may have lead to profound hypotension. Postoperatively, the patient was examined and any autonomic or endocrinological pathology was ruled out.

  5. Adrenaline-induced colonic K+ secretion is mediated by KCa1.1 (BK) channels

    Sørensen, Mads Vaarby; Sausbier, Matthias; Ruth, Peter


    secretory K(+) channel in the apical membrane of the murine distal colon. The BK channel is responsible for both resting and Ca(2+)-activated colonic K(+) secretion and is up-regulated by aldosterone. Agonists (e.g. adrenaline) that elevate cAMP are potent activators of distal colonic K(+) secretion....... However, the secretory K(+) channel responsible for cAMP-induced K(+) secretion remains to be defined. In this study we used the Ussing chamber to identify adrenaline-induced electrogenic K(+) secretion. We found that the adrenaline-induced electrogenic ion secretion is a compound effect dominated...... by anion secretion and a smaller electrically opposing K(+) secretion. Using tissue from (i) BK wildtype (BK(+/+)) and knockout (BK(/)) and (ii) cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) wildtype (CFTR(+/+)) and knockout (CFTR(/)) mice we were able to isolate the adrenaline-induced K(+) secretion. We...

  6. Vascular and metabolic effects of adrenaline in adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Galbo, H


    Objective:The aim was to investigate adipose tissue vascular and metabolic effects of an adrenaline infusion in vivo in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Design:Clinical intervention study with 1-h intravenous adrenaline infusion.Subjects:Eight male overweight T2DM subjects...... and eight male weight-matched, non-T2DM subjects were studied before, during and after an 1-h intravenous adrenaline infusion. Adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was determined by Xenon wash-out technique, and microvascular volume in the adipose tissue was studied by contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging....... Adipose tissue fluxes of glycerol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triacylglycerol and glucose were measured by Fick's principle after catherisation of a radial artery and a vein draining the abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue.Results:ATBF increased similarly in both groups during the adrenaline...

  7. Impact of Adrenaline or Cortisol Injection on Meat Quality Development of Merino Hoggets

    Dario G. Pighin; Sebastian A. Cunzolo; Maria Zimerman; Adriana A. Pazos; Ernesto Domingo; Anibal J. Pordomingo; Gabriela Grigioni


    Increased levels of stress hormones in the muscle could lead to post mortem metabolic/structural modiifcations that could be relfected on meat quality. The present study investigated the metabolic effect of either adrenaline or cortisol injected into lambs in order to obtain an animal model of acute stress. Results showed that adrenaline or cortisol injection lead to glucose metabolism and muscle temperature increase. Muscle pH immediately post mortem was affected by adrenaline treatment. Water holding capacity (WHC) of fresh muscle, ifnal muscle pH and temperature registered at 24 h post mortem were not affected by injected hormones. Hardness and adhesiveness of LD muscle evaluated 3 d post mortem tended to increase as a result of adrenaline or cortisol injection. Results demonstrated that injected hormones were able to affect the post mortem muscle biochemistry and the pH/T curve independently of ifnal muscle pH.

  8. Effect of adrenaline on glucose kinetics during exercise in adrenalectomised humans

    Howlett, K; Galbo, H; Lorentsen, J;


    trials. Adrenaline infusion suppressed growth hormone and elevated plasma free fatty acids, glycerol and lactate. Alanine and beta-hydroxybutyrate levels were similar between trials. 5. The results demonstrate that glucose homeostasis was maintained during exercise in adrenalectomised subjects......1. The role of adrenaline in regulating hepatic glucose production and muscle glucose uptake during exercise was examined in six adrenaline-deficient, bilaterally adrenalectomised humans. Six sex- and age-matched healthy individuals served as controls (CON). 2. Adrenalectomised subjects cycled...... measured using [3-3H]glucose. 3. Euglycaemia was maintained during exercise in CON and -ADR, whilst in +ADR plasma glucose was elevated. The exercise-induced increase in hepatic glucose production was similar in +ADR and -ADR; however, adrenaline infusion augmented the rise in hepatic glucose production...

  9. Plasma adrenaline kinetics in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with and without autonomic neuropathy

    Dejgaard, A; Hilsted, J; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl


    labelled adrenaline had been stopped was significantly prolonged in Type 1 diabetic patients with neuropathy compared to those without (after 20 min infusion 2.7 vs 2.2 min, p less than 0.02, after 75 min infusion 3.7 vs 2.9 min, p less than 0.05). The corresponding values for the mean sojourn time...... volume in Type 1 diabetic patients with neuropathy as compared to patients without neuropathy (estimated space of distribution 29 vs 20 l). Our results suggest that patients with diabetic neuropathy do not adjust the plasma adrenaline concentration to changes in adrenaline infusion rate as rapidly...... as those without neuropathy, i.e. the effect of an elevated adrenaline secretion rate may be prolonged in patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy....

  10. Myocardial ischaemia following cocaine and adrenaline exposure in a child during an ophthalmological procedure.

    McGovern, E


    We report a 23-month old girl who presented with bilateral epiphora who underwent bilateral lacrimal probing and syringing, during which a cocaine adrenaline solution was used. Two hours after the procedure she developed acute pulmonary oedema secondary to myocardial ischaemia. The patient was treated with intravenous glyceryltrinitrate and milrinone infusions; cardiac enzymes and left ventricular function normalised over the subsequent 72 hours. Topical administration of cocaine and adrenaline solution may have dangerous systemic cardiac effects and should always be used judiciously.

  11. Plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine with and without adrenaline following caudal anaesthesia in infants

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Morton, N S; Cullen, P M


    The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of adrenaline 1/400000 added to 0.25% bupivacaine significantly delays the systemic absorption of the drug from the caudal epidural space in young infants.......The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of adrenaline 1/400000 added to 0.25% bupivacaine significantly delays the systemic absorption of the drug from the caudal epidural space in young infants....

  12. [Involvement of carbonate/bicarbonate ions in the superoxide-generating reaction of adrenaline autoxidation].

    Sirota, T V


    An important role of carbonate/bicarbonate ions has been recognized in the superoxide generating reaction of adrenaline autooxidation in an alkaline buffer (a model of quinoid adrenaline oxidation in the body). It is suggested that these ions are directly involved not only in formation of superoxide anion radical (О(2)(-)) but also other radicals derived from the carbonate/bicarbonate buffer. Using various buffers it was shown that the rate of accumulation of adrenochrome, the end product of adrenaline oxidation, and the rate of О(2)(-)· formation depend on concentration of carbonate/bicarbonate ions in the buffer and that these ions significantly accelerate adrenaline autooxidation thus demonstrating prooxidant properties. The detectable amount of diformazan, the product of nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction, was significantly higher than the amount of adrenochrome formed; taking into consideration the literature data on О(2)(-)· detection by NBT it is suggested that adrenaline autooxidation is accompanied by one-electron reduction not only of oxygen dissolved in the buffer and responsible for superoxide formation but possible carbon dioxide also dissolved in the buffer as well as carbonate/bicarbonate buffer components leading to formation of corresponding radicals. The plots of the dependence of the inhibition of adrenochrome and diformazan formation on the superoxide dismutase concentration have shown that not only superoxide radicals are formed during adrenaline autooxidation. Since carbonate/bicarbonate ions are known to be universally present in the living nature, their involvement in free radical processes proceeding in the organism is discussed.

  13. [Necrosis in fingers and toes following local anaesthesia with adrenaline--an urban legend?].

    Finsen, Vilhjalmur


    It is often maintained that a local anaesthetic (usually lidocaine) with adrenaline must not be used in fingers and toes because it may cause necrosis due to vascular spasm in end arteries. This review article is an attempt to find evidence to support this warning. Relevant literature was found by means of searches in PubMed limited downwards to 1946 and in EMBASE from 1980 to 2012, and in reference lists. Five review articles on finger necrosis following local anaesthesia concluded that lidocaine with adrenaline does not entail a risk of ischaemic injury. One article found 48 reported cases of finger necrosis in the period 1880 to 2000. Most were from the first half of the 1900s, and none involved lidocaine. Gangrene of part of the finger tip has subsequently been described in one patient with Raynaud's syndrome. No cases of necrosis have been described in a large number of reported accidents in which EpiPen injections contained the same quantity of adrenaline as is found in 60 ml lidocaine with adrenaline. Over a quarter of a million reports have been made of operations on feet, hands, fingers and toes anaesthetised with lidocaine with adrenaline without resulting necrosis. There are no grounds for the warning against using lidocaine with adrenaline in fingers and toes. This anaesthetic offers considerable practical advantages. Care should be taken with infected fingers or fingers with poor circulation.

  14. On the mechanism of the relaxing adrenaline effect on cat jejunum.

    Petkov, V; Radomirov, R


    The effect of propranolol, phentolamine, papaverine, theophyline and Ca++, administered in different combinations of their threshold doses, on the relaxing effect of adrenaline was studied on an isolated segment of proximal jejunum of male cats. It was established that phentolamine weakened the relaxing effect of adrenaline, while propranolol had no effect on it. Papaverine potentiated the relaxinf effects of adrenaline both when administered alone and in combination with propranolol or with phentolamine. Theophylline weakened the relaxing effect of adfrenaline and of the combination phentolamine-adrenaline. Ca++ increased the smooth-muscle tone. The interpretation of the results obtained leads to the fundamental conclusions that the relaxing effect of adrenaline on cat jejunum is more alpha- than beta-adrenergically determined and that the system of the cyclic AMP participates in its realization. At the smae time, however, the possibility of participation of other mechanisms is not excluded. The smooth-muscle effect of papaverine and theophylline is not determined only by their inhibitory effect on phosphodiesterase.


    Nirupma Bansal


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Intraoperative penile erection is uncommon, but troublesome problem associated with anaesthesia in patients undergoing transurethral surgery. Many methods and drugs have been used in past to solve this problem. Our objective was to find the incidence of intraoperative penile erection and to study the use of intracavernosal injection of adrenalin to solve this problem. Adrenalin is a strong sympathomimetic and an essentially present drug in the operation theatre besides being cheaper. MATERIAL AND METHODS We studied patients who underwent transurethral procedures from March 2007 to March 2009 at Nepalgunj Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Kohalpur, Nepal. During this period, three patients developed penile erection following anaesthesia. Out of those three patients, use of intracavernosal adrenalin was studied in two patients in whom masterly inactivity did not resolve the problem. RESULT In one of the patients, detumescence occurred with masterly inactivity and two patients were administered 5µg intracavernosal adrenalin. Detumescence occurred within two minutes without any cardiovascular side effects and procedures could be completed without any complication. CONCLUSION Using intracavernosal adrenalin is safe and effective in treating intraoperative penile erection

  16. Effects of adrenaline on glycogenolysis in resting anaerobic frog muscles studied by 31P-NMR.

    Kikuchi, Kimio; Yamada, Takenori; Sugi, Haruo


    The effects of adrenaline (also called epinephrine) on glycogenolysis in living anaerobic muscles were examined based on time-dependent changes of (31)P-NMR spectra of resting frog skeletal muscles with and without iodoacetate treatments. The phosphate-metabolite concentration and the intracellular pH determined from the NMR spectra changed with time, reflecting the advancement of various phosphate metabolic reactions coupled with residual ATPase reactions to keep the ATP concentration constant. The results could be explained semi-qualitatively as the ATP regenerative reactions, creatine kinase reaction and glycogenolysis, advanced with time showing the characteristic two phases. Thus, it was clarified for living muscles that adrenaline activates the phosphorylase step of glycogenolysis, and the adrenaline-activated glycogenolysis is further regulated at the phosphofructokinase step by PCr and also possibly by AMP. Associated with the adrenaline-activated glycogenolysis in the examined muscles, the P(i) concentration and the intracellular pH, factors affecting the muscle force, changed significantly, suggesting complicated effects of adrenaline on the muscle contractility.

  17. The role of adrenaline as a modulator of cardiac performance in two Antarctic fishes

    Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Bushnell, Peter G.; Tirsgaard, Bjørn


    Abstract: The present work was performed to test the hypothesis that Antarctic teleosts rely mostly on cholinergic inhibition for autonomic modulation of the heart. The effects of adrenaline on the inotropic properties on paced, isometrically contracting muscle strips were examined in two distinct...... Antarctic teleosts, the haemoglobinless icefish Chaenocephalus aceratus and the red-blooded Notothenia coriiceps. All tissues examined revealed a negative force-frequency relationship. Under baseline conditions C. aceratus contracted with a force twice as great as that of N. coriiceps. While the degree...... to which ventricular tissues responded to adrenaline varied between species, adrenergic stimulation significantly increases myocyte contraction force in this group of fishes. Contraction and relaxation times were not significantly affected by adrenaline concentration while absolute rates of contraction...

  18. High Circulating Adrenaline Levels at Admission Predict Increased Mortality After Trauma

    Johansson, Pär Ingemar; Stensballe, Jakob; Rasmussen, Lars Simon


    partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio, hematology, biochemistry, circulating adrenaline and noradrenaline, 11 biomarkers of tissue and endothelial damage, glycocalyx degradation, natural anticoagulation and fibrinolysis (histone-complexed DNA fragments, high-mobility group box 1......:: The adrenaline level was increased in nonsurvivors (p = 0.026), it was independently associated with increased activated partial thromboplastin time (p = 0.034) and syndecan-1 (p = 0.007), a marker of glycocalyx degradation, and it correlated with biomarkers of tissue and endothelial damage (histone......-complexed DNA, high-mobility group box 1, soluble thrombomodulin) and hyperfibrinolysis (tissue-type plasminogen activator, d-dimer). Furthermore, nonsurvivors had higher syndecan-1, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and d-dimer levels (all p adrenaline was independently associated with 30...

  19. Cerebral non-oxidative carbohydrate consumption in humans driven by adrenaline

    Seifert, Thomas S; Brassard, Patrice; Jørgensen, Thomas B


    (1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist metroprolol. These observations suggest involvement of a beta(2)-adrenergic mechanism in non-oxidative metabolism for the brain. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of adrenaline (0.08 microg kg(-1) min(-1) i.v. for 15 min) and noradrenaline (0.5, 0.1 and 0.15 microg...... kg(-1) min(-1) i.v. for 20 min) on the arterial to internal jugular venous concentration differences (a-v diff) of O(2), glucose and lactate in healthy humans. Adrenaline (n = 10) increased the arterial concentrations of O(2), glucose and lactate (P ... from 0.6 +/- 0.1 to 0.8 +/- 0.2 mM (mean +/- s.d.; P adrenaline...

  20. [Effect of adrenaline on the proliferation of the tunica media smooth muscle cells of rat aorta in culture].

    Blaes, N; Bourdillon, M C; Crouzet, B; Suplisson, A; Boissel, J P


    The proliferation of Rat medial aortic smooth muscle cells in secondary cultures is increased with adrenalin. The maximal effect is obtained after 3 days and the increase is dose-dependent. Thus adrenalin might be one of the factors responsible for the proliferation of smooth muscle cells that could play a key role in the formation of the atherosclerotic plaque in vivo.

  1. Changes in plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonists in response to adrenaline infusion in humans

    Søndergaard, S R; Ostrowski, K.; Ullum, H


    To investigate the possible role of adrenaline in the response of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonists (ra) to extreme physiological conditions such as trauma and exercise, we examined the concentrations in the plasma of these cytokines during an adrenaline infusion. Given the fact th...

  2. Nebulised adrenaline to manage a life-threatening complication in a pug with trismus.

    Leece, E; Cherubini, G


    A 13-month-old pug with severe trismus because of suspected masticatory muscle myositis underwent anaesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging. When regurgitation occurred, the tongue was pulled from the mouth to enable suctioning but could not be repositioned into the oral cavity as it was not possible to open the mouth. Swelling due to venous congestion and a bite wound were treated using nebulised adrenaline and resolved within 2 hours allowing retraction of the tongue. The use of nebulised adrenaline offers a non-invasive method of managing this potentially life-threatening complication. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  3. Efficacy of nebulised L-adrenaline with 3% hypertonic saline versus normal saline in bronchiolitis

    Shabnam Sharmin


    Full Text Available Background: Bronchiolitis is one of the most common respiratory diseases requiring hospitalization. Nebulized epineph­rine and salbutamol therapy has been used in different centres with varying results. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of nebulised adrenaline diluted with 3% hypertonic saline with nebulised adrenaline diluted with normal saline in bronchiolitis. Methods: Fifty three infants and young children with bronchiolitis, age ranging from 2 months to 2 years, presenting in the emergency department of Manikganj Sadar Hospital were enrolled in the study. After initial evaluation, patients were randomized to receive either nebulized adrenaline I .5 ml ( 1.5 mg diluted with 2 ml of3% hypertonic saline (group I ornebulised adrenaline 1.5 ml (1.5 mg diluted with 2 ml of normal saline (group II. Patients were evaluated again 30 minutes after nebulization. Results: Twenty eight patients in the group I (hypertonic saline and twenty five in groupII (normal saline were included in the study. After nebulization, mean respiratory rate decreased from 63.7 to 48.1 (p<.01, mean clinical severity score decreased from 8.5 to 3.5 (p<.01 and mean oxygen satw·ation increased 94.7% to 96.9% (p<.01 in group I. In group II, mean respiratory rate decreased from 62.4 to 47.4 (p<.01, mean clinical severity score decreased from 7.2 to 4.1 (p<.01 and mean oxygen saturation increased from 94. 7% to 96. 7% (p<.01. Mean respiratory rate decreased by 16 in group I versus 14.8 (p>.05 in group 11, mean clinical severity score decreased by 4.6 in group versus 3 (p<.05 in group, and mean oxygen saturation increased by 2.2% and 1.9% in group and group respectively. Difference in reduction in clinical severity score was statistically significant , though the changes in respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The study concluded that both nebulised adrenaline diluted with 3% hypertonic saline and

  4. Effects of local alpha2-adrenergic receptor blockade on adipose tissue lipolysis during prolonged systemic adrenaline infusion in normal man

    Simonsen, Lene; Enevoldsen, Lotte H; Stallknecht, Bente


    During prolonged adrenaline infusion, lipolysis peaks within 30 min and thereafter tends to decline, and we hypothesized that the stimulation of local adipose tissue alpha2-adrenergic receptors accounts for this decline. The lipolytic effect of a prolonged intravenous adrenaline infusion combined....... Regional adipose tissue blood flow was measured by the (133)Xe clearance technique. Regional glycerol output (lipolytic rate) was calculated from these measurements and simultaneous measurements of arterial glycerol concentrations. Adrenaline infusion increased lipolysis in all three depots (data...... circulating adrenaline concentrations, and the decrease in lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue under prolonged adrenaline stimulation is thus not attributed to alpha2-adrenergic receptor inhibition of lipolysis. However, in the preperitoneal adipose tissue depot, alpha2-adrenergic receptor tone plays...




    Intracavernous papaverine injection has gained widespread acceptance in the treatment of erectile impotence. The opposite problem-priapism -can be treated with the same technique using a vasoconstrictive drug such as adrenaline. We report on eight patients successfully treated for priapism by

  6. Caffeine's impairment of insulin-mediated glucose disposal cannot be solely attributed to adrenaline in humans

    Battram, D S; Graham, T E; Dela, F


    Caffeine (CAF) impedes insulin-mediated glucose disposal (IMGD) and increases plasma adrenaline concentrations ([ADR]; 0.6 nm). While the antagonism of ADR abolishes the CAF effect, infusion of ADR (0.75 nm) has no effect on IMGD. We have now examined CAF and ADR in concert to determine whether...

  7. Antecedent adrenaline attenuates the responsiveness to but not the release of counterregulatory hormones during subsequent hypoglycemia.

    Galan, B.E. de; Rietjens, S.J.; Tack, C.J.J.; Werf, S.P. van der; Sweep, C.G.J.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Smits, P.


    Hypoglycemia unawareness is thought to be the consequence of recurrent hypoglycemia, yet the underlying mechanism is still incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of antecedent elevated adrenaline in the pathogenesis of hypoglycemia unawareness. Sixteen health

  8. Bijnier en bloedbeeld : een experimenteel onderzoek over de invloed van adrenaline op het witte bloedbeeld

    Siderius, Poppe


    In dit proefschrift worden de resultaten beschreven van een onderzoek, waarbij werd nagegaan op welke wijze de bloedbeeldveranderingen die na adrenaline ontstaan, tot stand komen. Hierbij is speciaal aandacht geschonken aan de betekenis van de bijnier en de milt. Het onderzoek werd geheel verricht m




    Intracavernous papaverine injection has gained widespread acceptance in the treatment of erectile impotence. The opposite problem-priapism -can be treated with the same technique using a vasoconstrictive drug such as adrenaline. We report on eight patients successfully treated for priapism by intrac

  10. Adrenaline-induced mobilization of T cells in HIV-infected patients

    Søndergaard, S R; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Ullum, H


    The present study aimed to investigate lymphocyte mobilization from peripheral cell reservoirs in HIV-infected patients. Nine HIV-infected patients on stable highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), eight treatment-naive HIV-infected patients and eight HIV- controls received a 1-h adrenalin...




    The contribution of hepatic sympathetic innervation, glucagon and adrenaline to the glycaemic response to exercise was investigated in rats. Hepatically denervated (LDX) or sham operated (SHAM) rats with permanent catheters were therefore submitted to swimming with or without infusion of somatostati

  12. Comparison of local infiltration of adrenalized lidocaine with adrenaline alone in operative field bleeding in Rhinoplasty

    Mitra Yari


    Full Text Available Background: In many head and neck surgeries, operative field bleeding plays an important role in the success of surgery and reducing the time of operation. The current study was conducted to compare local infiltration of adrenalized lidocaine with adrenaline alone in operative field bleeding in Rhinoplasty. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 56 candidate patients aged15-45 years for Rhinoplasty with ASA class I and II were randomly divided into two groups of lidocaine and control. Group 1 was administered lidocaine 2% with adrenaline and group 2 was administered normal saline with adrenaline , Operative field bleeding was then recorded and compared between groups. Results: There was not a significant difference between groups in preoperative systolic BP and diastolic BP, postoperative (15 min systolic BP and diastolic BP , preoperative heart rate and postoperative (15 minheart rate , operative field bleeding and bleeding scale. Conclusion: the effect of lidocaine 2% in operative field bleeding is the same as that of normal saline. Hence, adrenaline along with normal saline can be used in Rhinoplasty.

  13. MS-551 and KCB-328, two class III drugs aggravated adrenaline-induced arrhythmias.

    Xue, Y; Yamada, C; Aye, N N; Hashimoto, K


    We investigated the proarrhythmic effects of MS-551 and KCB-328, class III antiarrhythmic drugs using adrenaline-induced arrhythmia models in halothane anaesthetized, closed-chest dogs. In the control period, adrenaline, starting from a low dose of 0.25 to up to 1.0 microg/kg/50 s i.v., was injected to determine the arrhythmia inducing dose and the non-inducing dose. After MS-551 or KCB-328 administration, the adrenaline injection was repeated and the interval between the injection and the occurrence of arrhythmia (latent interval), the changes in arrhythmic ratio (as calculated by dividing the number of ventricular premature contraction by the number of the total heart rate) and the severity of arrhythmia were observed. MS-551 infusion, 1 mg/kg/30 min, decreased the heart rate (HR) by 16% (Platent interval of the adrenaline arrhythmias produced by the inducing dose (30+/-2 s compared with 43+/-3 s of the control interval, P latent interval of the adrenaline arrhythmias produced by the inducing doses (31+/-3 s compared with 49+/-7 s of the control period, P<0.05), but did not significantly alter the arrhythmic ratio. Adrenaline induced TdP only after MS-551 or KCB-328 was administered, i.e. after MS-551, 1 mg/kg/30 min, 3/7 versus 0/7 in the control; KCB, 0.3 mg/kg/30 min, 3/7 versus 0/7 in the control. To examine the direct arrhythmogenic effect of MS-551 and whether an adrenergic mechanism plays some role on this arrhythmogenesis, a bolus injection of MS-551, 3 mg/kg, was injected either without pre-treatment or after pre-treatment with propranolol 0.3 mg/kg. MS-551 induced arrhythmias in five out of seven dogs (TdP in one dog). Also in the propranolol pre-treated dogs, MS-551 induced arrhythmias in five out of seven dogs (TdP in 1 dog). In conclusion, these observations indicate that MS-551 and KCB-328 induced arrhythmias and intensified proarrhythmic effects of adrenaline, MS-551 being stronger than KCB-328 at the same QTc prolonging doses. The direct

  14. Patients’ ability to treat anaphylaxis using adrenaline autoinjectors: a randomized controlled trial

    Umasunthar, T; Procktor, A; Hodes, M; Smith, J G; Gore, C; Cox, H E; Marrs, T; Hanna, H; Phillips, K; Pinto, C; Turner, P J; Warner, J O; Boyle, R J


    Background Previous work has shown patients commonly misuse adrenaline autoinjectors (AAI). It is unclear whether this is due to inadequate training, or poor device design. We undertook a prospective randomized controlled trial to evaluate ability to administer adrenaline using different AAI devices. Methods We allocated mothers of food-allergic children prescribed an AAI for the first time to Anapen or EpiPen using a computer-generated randomization list, with optimal training according to manufacturer's instructions. After one year, participants were randomly allocated a new device (EpiPen, Anapen, new EpiPen, JEXT or Auvi-Q), without device-specific training. We assessed ability to deliver adrenaline using their AAI in a simulated anaphylaxis scenario six weeks and one year after initial training, and following device switch. Primary outcome was successful adrenaline administration at six weeks, assessed by an independent expert. Secondary outcomes were success at one year, success after switching device, and adverse events. Results We randomized 158 participants. At six weeks, 30 of 71 (42%) participants allocated to Anapen and 31 of 73 (43%) participants allocated to EpiPen were successful – RR 1.00 (95% CI 0.68–1.46). Success rates at one year were also similar, but digital injection was more common at one year with EpiPen (8/59, 14%) than Anapen (0/51, 0%, P = 0.007). When switched to a new device without specific training, success rates were higher with Auvi-Q (26/28, 93%) than other devices (39/80, 49%; P < 0.001). Conclusions AAI device design is a major determinant of successful adrenaline administration. Success rates were low with several devices, but were high using the audio-prompt device Auvi-Q. PMID:25850463

  15. Adrenaline in anaphylaxis treatment and self-administration: experience from an inner city emergency department.

    Mostmans, Y; Grosber, M; Blykers, M; Mols, P; Naeije, N; Gutermuth, J


    Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening emergency of which reliable epidemiological data are lacking. This study aimed to analyze how quickly patients presenting with anaphylaxis were treated in emergency and whether treatment followed the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) guidelines. Patient data were collected between April 2009 and April 2013. Emergency doctors completed a questionnaire for adult patients presenting at the emergency department (ED) of the St. Pierre hospital in Brussels with anaphylaxis. Inclusion criteria were based on the Sampson criteria of anaphylaxis. Data were analyzed using a Microsoft Excel database. About 0.04% (100/230878) of all emergency visits in adults presented with anaphylaxis. 64% of patients received their first medical help later than 30 min after symptom onset. 67% of patients received adrenaline, 85% oral antihistamines, and 89% received IV glucocorticosteroids. 46/100 patients were discharged directly from the ED, of which 87% received further medical prescriptions for self-administration: 67% corticosteroids, 83% antihistamines, and 9% intramuscular adrenaline. 74% were instructed to consult an allergologist for adequate diagnosis. 54/100 patients were hospitalized. The majority of patients were treated according to the EAACI guidelines for management of anaphylaxis, but only a minority received the recommended adrenaline auto-injector for self-administration at discharge. Because the majority of patients received medical help later than 30 min after symptom onset, adrenaline auto-injector prescription is a necessity. The low rate of doctors prescribing adrenaline auto-injectors in the ED setting underlines the need to train doctors of various backgrounds in prevention and treatment of anaphylaxis and the close collaboration with allergologists. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Electrochemical behavior of adrenaline at the carbon atom wire modified electrode

    Xue Kuanhong [Chemistry Department, Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Bio-medical Function Materials, 122 NingHai Road, Nanjing, JiangSu 210097 (China)], E-mail:; Liu Jiamei [Chemistry Department, Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Bio-medical Function Materials, 122 NingHai Road, Nanjing, JiangSu 210097 (China); Wei Ribing [Chemistry Department, Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Bio-medical Function Materials, 122 NingHai Road, Nanjing, JiangSu 210097 (China); Chen Shaopeng [Chemistry Department, Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Bio-medical Function Materials, 122 NingHai Road, Nanjing, JiangSu 210097 (China)


    Electrochemical behavior of adrenaline at an electrode modified by carbon atom wires (CAWs), a new material, was investigated by cyclic voltammetry combined with UV-vis spectrometry, and forced convection method. As to the electrochemical response of redox of adrenaline/adrenalinequinone couple in 0.50 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, at a nitric acid treated CAW modified electrode, the anodic and cathodic peak potentials E {sub pa} and E {sub pc} shifted by 87 mV negatively and 139 mV in the positive direction, respectively, and standard heterogeneous rate constant k {sup 0} increased by 16 times compared to the corresponding bare electrode, indicating the extraordinary activity of CAWs in electrocatalysis for the process.

  17. Synthesis of DL-adrenaline (methyl C{sup 14}) (1961); Synthese de la DL-adrenaline (methyle {sup 14}C) (1961)

    Pichat, L.; Audinot, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The sodium derivative of 5-3-4 dibenzyl oxyphenyl 2-oxazolidinone reacted with methyl iodide {sup 14}C, in stoichiometric quantity, gives rise to the corresponding N-methyl {sup 14}C derivative. The oxazolidinone ring is opened by concentrated hydrochloric acid and the benzyl groups removed by catalytic hydrogenolysis. Adrenaline methyl {sup 14}C is then purified on Dowex 50 X-12 exchange resin. Overall-yield is 45 per cent based upon methyl iodide {sup 14}C. (author) [French] Le derive sode de la (dibenzyloxy-3-4-phenyl)-5 oxazolidinone-2 traite par l'iodure de methyle {sup 14}C, en proportion stoechiometrique, fournit le derive N-methyle {sup 14}C correspondant. Apres ouverture du cycle oxazolidinone par HCL concentre et debenzylation par hydrogenation catalytique, on purifie l'adrenaline (methyle {sup 14}C) par chromatographie sur resine echangeuse Dowex 50 X-12. Le rendement est de 45 pour cent par rapport a l'iodure de methyle {sup 14}C. (auteurs)

  18. [The mechanism of change in speed of agglutination of human erythrocytes under the influence of adrenaline].

    Volodchenko, A I; Tsirkin, V I; Kostiaev, A A


    In the study of red blood cells of 80 men found that adrenaline (10(-10) - 10(-6) g/mL) and phenylephrine (10-(10) - 10(-6) g/mL) dose-dependently increase the speed of agglutination of red blood cells, according to the decrease in agglutination of the start time and ginipral (10(-10) - 10(-7) g/mL), on the contrary, decreases it. The effect of adrenaline and phenylephrine is blocked by nicergoline (10(-6) g/mL), increased obzidan (10(-6) g/mL) and does not change under the action ofyohimbine (10(-6) g/mL) and atenolol (10(-6) g/mL). These data indicate that the speed of agglutination increases with activation alpha1-adrenergic receptor (AR) and decreases in the activation of beta2-AR, while the activation of alpha2- and beta1-AR does not affect it. Trifluoperazine (10(-6) g/mL) as the calmodulin antagonist, barium chloride (10(-6) g/mL) as a blocked of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+)-channels and indomethacine (10(-6) g/mL) as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and phospholipase A2 inhibit the ability of adrenaline to increases the speed of agglutination of red blood cells. This suggests that the effect of adrenaline caused an increase in erythrocyte entry of Ca2+, activation of calmodulin, cyclooxygenase, phospholipase A2 and the release of K+ from red blood cell through the Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels, which is regarded as a manifestation of eryptosis. Indirectly, this means that more efficient activation of alpha1-AR and beta2-AR, respectively, increases or, conversely, decreases the rate of eryptosis.

  19. Interaction between p-dihydroxyborylphenylalanine and adrenaline studied by a zone electrophoresis

    Kitaoka, Y.; Kobayashi, M. [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst


    In order to develop a new boron carrier, we studied the interaction between p-dihydroxyborylphenylalanine (p-BPA) and adrenaline (Adre.) by a zone electrophoresis, paper chromatography, and infrared-spectroscopy. It was found that the complex of p-BPA with Adre. was stable near neutral solutions and decomposed under acidic solutions. The chemical nature of the complex was compared with those of the complexes of p-BPA with organic acids. (author)

  20. Comparison of hyperthermia and adrenaline to enhance the intratumoral accumulation of cisplatin in a murin model of peritoneal carcinomatosis

    Tixier Hervé


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The best method to deliver intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC for peritoneal carcinomatosis from ovarian cancer is not well defined. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of hyperthermia and adrenaline to enhance the intratumoral accumulation of cisplatin in a rat model of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Methods Four groups of 5 BDIX rats with ovarian peritoneal carcinomatosis underwent IPC with 30 mg/l of cisplatin according to the following conditions: normothermia at 37° for 1 or 2 hours, hyperthermia at 42°C for 1 hour or normothermia at 37°C for 2 hours with 2 mg/l adrenaline. Tissue platinum content was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The effect of hyperthermia, adrenaline and the duration of exposure to the drug was measured in vivo (tissue concentration of platinum in tumor, abdominal and extra abdominal tissues and in vitro (cytotoxicity on human ovarian cancer cells. Results In vitro, hyperthermia and longer exposure enhanced the accumulation and the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin on cancer cells. In vivo, only the 2 hours treatment with adrenaline resulted in increased platinum concentrations. The rats treated with adrenaline showed significantly lower concentrations of cisplatin in extra peritoneal tissues than those treated with hyperthermia. Conclusion Adrenaline is more effective than hyperthermia in order to enhance the intratumoral concentration of cisplatin in rats with peritoneal carcinomatosis from ovarian origin. It may also decrease the systemic absorption of the drug.

  1. Management of airway obstruction with nebulised adrenaline resulting in takotsubo cardiomyopathy: case report.

    Keshtkar, F; Dale, O T; Bennett, W O; Hall, C E


    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy has been associated with the use of catecholamines; however, its development after the use of nebulised adrenaline for the management of acute airway obstruction has not previously been described. A 66-year-old man with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, with tumour-node-metastasis staging of T3N2cM0, confirmed by biopsy and computed tomography, presented to the emergency department with acute airway obstruction. He was treated twice with nebulised adrenaline and intravenous dexamethasone. After a period of 24 hours, cardiac rhythm changes were noted on telemetry. A 12-lead electrocardiogram showed widespread T-wave inversion and QT prolongation suggestive of an acute coronary syndrome. Coronary angiography demonstrated no coronary artery disease, but left ventricular angiography showed marked apical ballooning and apical wall akinesia consistent with a diagnosis of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy can mimic true ischaemic heart disease and the diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion in patients managed with nebulised adrenaline.

  2. Efficacy of lignocaine with clonidine and adrenaline in minor oral surgical procedure

    Shouvik Chowdhury


    Full Text Available Use of vasoconstrictors in local anaesthesia is well known. The study was done on 30 patients who underwent removal of bilateral impacted third molars. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of lignocaine with clonidine and lignocaine with adrenaline in respect to onset, duration of anaesthesia, and postoperative analgesia along with hemodynamic stability (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, heart rate in intraoral nerve block. The patients were randomly selected of both sexes (male and female between the age group of 18-40 years. Patients received 2 mL of 2% lignocaine with adrenaline (12.5 μg/mL on one side and 2 mL of 2% lignocaine with clonidine (15 μg/mL on the other side at two different appointments. 2 millilitres of drug was administered in both the test group and the control group. Statistically there was significant decrease in intraoperative and postoperative systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate in the lignocaine with clonidine group. The efficacy of clonidine based on visual analog scale was similar to adrenaline. No significant operative complications were observed.

  3. Adrenaline auto-injectors for the treatment of anaphylaxis with and without cardiovascular collapse in the community.

    Sheikh, Aziz; Simons, F Estelle R; Barbour, Victoria; Worth, Allison


    Anaphylaxis is a serious hypersensitivity reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death. Adrenaline (epinephrine) auto-injectors are recommended as the initial, potentially life-saving treatment of choice for anaphylaxis in the community, but they are not universally available and have limitations in their use. To assess the effectiveness of adrenaline (epinephrine) auto-injectors in relieving respiratory, cardiovascular, and other symptoms during episodes of anaphylaxis that occur in the community. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 1), MEDLINE (Ovid SP) (1950 to January 2012), EMBASE (Ovid SP) (1980 to January 2012 ), CINAHL (EBSCO host) (1982 to January 2012 ), AMED (EBSCO host) (1985 to January 2012 ), LILACS, (BIREME) (1980 to January 2012 ), ISI Web of Science (1950 to January 2012 ). We adapted our search terms for other databases. We also searched websites listing on-going trials: the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, the UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio, and the meta Register of Controlled Trials; and contacted pharmaceutical companies who manufacture adrenaline auto-injectors in an attempt to locate unpublished material. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing auto-injector administration of adrenaline with any control including no intervention, placebo, or other adrenergic agonists were eligible for inclusion. Two authors independently assessed articles for inclusion. None of the 1328 studies that were identified satisfied the inclusion criteria. Based on this review, we cannot make any new recommendations on the effectiveness of adrenaline auto-injectors for the treatment of anaphylaxis. Although randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of high methodological quality are necessary to define the true extent of benefits from the administration of adrenaline in anaphylaxis via an auto

  4. [Activity of oil isolated from Amaranth seeds on energetic functions of rat liver mitochondria after adrenaline introduction].

    Sirota, T V; Eliseeva, O P; Khunderiakova, N V; Kaminskiĭ, D V; Makhotina, O A; Kondrashova, M N


    It has been shown that a three-week feeding of rats with oil derived from seeds of amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) leads to a moderate activation of respiration of coupled and uncoupled rat liver mitochondria (MCh) that oxidize succinate and succinate + glutamate, as well as alpha-ketoglutarate and alpha-ketoglutarate + malonate. In animals receiving the amaranth oil, the injection of adrenaline did not affect the oil-activated respiration of MCh during succinate oxidation; i. e., animals prepared by an oil-enriched diet were resistant to the action of adrenaline, which prevented from possible hyperactivation of mitochondrial functions. In the group of control animals, which received no oil, the injection of adrenaline activated the rate of phosphorylating respiration of MCh during oxidation of succinate or succinate + glutamate: the rate of oxygen uptake in state 3 respiration (by Chance) increased, and the phosphorylation time decreased. The injection of adrenaline did not affect the parameters of respiration of MCh that oxidize a-ketoglutarate; however, in the presence of malonate, the oxidation of alpha-ketoglutarate in state 3 and uncoupled respiration have shown mild but significant increase in response to adrenaline. In animals receiving the amaranth oil, the oil-induced activation of respiration of MCh in response to adrenaline retained but did not increase; however, the phosphorylation time significantly decreased. Thus, concentrated oil of seeds activates the respiration of MCh. In addition, it enhances an energetic function of MCh, which prevents from the hyper-activation of mitochondrial respiration by adrenaline. Therefore an activation of energetic function of MCh by amaranth oil could explain its adaptogenic effect on rats.

  5. [Standardization and regulation of the rate of the superoxide-generating adrenaline autoxidation reaction used for evaluation of pro/antioxidant properties of various materials].

    Sirota, T V


    The superoxide-generating reaction of adrenaline autoxidation is widely used for determination of the activity of superoxide dismutase and pro/antioxidant properties of various materials. There are two variants of the spectrophotometric registration of the products of this reaction. The first is based on registration of adrenochrome, as adrenaline autooxidation product at 347 nm; the second employs nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) and registration of diformazan, a product of NBT reduction at 560 nm. In the present work, recommendations for the standardization of the reaction rate in both variants have been proposed. The main approach consists in the use of the pharmaceutical form of 0.1% adrenaline hydrochloride solution. Although each of two adrenaline preparations available in the Russian market has some features in kinetic behavior of its autooxidation; they are applicable in the superoxide generating system based on adrenaline autooxidation. Performing measurements at 560 nm, the reaction rate can be regulated by lowering the concentration of added adrenaline, whereas during spectrophotometric registration at 347 nm, this cannot be done. These features of adrenaline autoxidation may be due to the fact that the intrinsic multistage process of the conversion of adrenaline to adrenochrome, which is recorded at 347 nm, is coupled with the transition of electrons from adrenaline and intermediate products of its oxidation to oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbonate bicarbonate ions, which is detected in the presence of added NBT.

  6. Adrenaline promotes cell proliferation and increases chemoresistance in colon cancer HT29 cells through induction of miR-155

    Pu, Jun [Department of General Surgery, Tangdu Hospital of the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Bai, Danna [Department of Cardiology, 323 Hospital of PLA, Xi' an 710054 (China); Yang, Xia [Department of Teaching and Medical Administration, Tangdu Hospital of the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Lu, Xiaozhao [Department of Nephrology, The 323 Hospital of PLA, Xi' an 710054 (China); Xu, Lijuan, E-mail: [Department of Nephrology, The 323 Hospital of PLA, Xi' an 710054 (China); Lu, Jianguo, E-mail: [Department of General Surgery, Tangdu Hospital of the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adrenaline increases colon cancer cell proliferation and its resistance to cisplatin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adrenaline activates NF{kappa}B in a dose dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF{kappa}B-miR-155 pathway contributes to cell proliferation and resistance to cisplatin. -- Abstract: Recently, catecholamines have been described as being involved in the regulation of cancer genesis and progression. Here, we reported that adrenaline increased the cell proliferation and decreased the cisplatin induced apoptosis in HT29 cells. Further study found that adrenaline increased miR-155 expression in an NF{kappa}B dependent manner. HT29 cells overexpressing miR-155 had a higher cell growth rate and more resistance to cisplatin induced apoptosis. In contrast, HT29 cells overexpressing miR-155 inhibitor displayed decreased cell proliferation and sensitivity to cisplatin induced cell death. In summary, our study here revealed that adrenaline-NF{kappa}B-miR-155 pathway at least partially contributes to the psychological stress induced proliferation and chemoresistance in HT29 cells, shedding light on increasing the therapeutic strategies of cancer chemotherapy.

  7. The responses of rat hepatocytes to glucagon and adrenaline. Application of quantified elasticity analysis.

    Ainscow, E K; Brand, M D


    The internal control of hepatocyte metabolism has been previously analysed using metabolic control analysis. The aim of this paper is to extend this analysis to include the responses of the cells to hormonal stimulus. Hepatocyte metabolism was divided into nine reaction blocks: glycogen breakdown, glucose release, glycolysis, lactate production, NADH oxidation, pyruvate oxidation, proton leak, mitochondrial phosphorylation and ATP consumption, linked by five intermediates: mitochondrial membrane potential, cytoplasmic NADH/NAD and total cellular ATP, glucose 6-phosphate and pyruvate. The kinetic responses of the reaction blocks to the intermediates were determined previously in the absence of added hormones. In this study, the changes in flux and intermediate levels that occurred upon addition of either glucagon or adrenaline were measured. From comparison of the fractional changes in fluxes and intermediate levels with the known kinetics of the system, it was possible to determine the primary sites of action of the hormones. The results show that the majority of processes in the cell are responsive to the hormones. The notable exception to this is the failure of adrenaline to have a direct effect on glycolysis. The activity change of each metabolic block observed in the presence of either hormone was quantified and compared to the indirect effects on each block caused by changes in metabolite levels. The second stage of the analysis was to use the calculated activity changes and the known control pattern of the system to give a semiquantitative analysis of the regulatory pathways employed by the hormones to achieve the changes in fluxes and metabolite levels. This was instructive in analysing, for example, how glucagon caused a decrease in flux through glycolysis and an increase in oxidative phosphorylation without large changes in metabolite levels (homeostasis). Conversely, it could be seen that the failure of adrenaline to maintain a constant glucose 6

  8. TriRod Adrenaline F3限量版三轮摩托车


    这辆酷酷的三轮摩托车叫做TriRod Adrenaline F3,重量只有340千克,采用的是前两个车轮,后面一个车轮的设计,车身采用的是碳纤维材料。除此之外,还采用了与哈雷相似的11966ccV型发动机,比起一般的小型摩托引擎更漂亮。

  9. The effect of Amaranth oil on monolayers of artificial lipids and hepatocyte plasma membranes with adrenalin-induced stress.

    Yelisyeyeva, O P; Semen, K O; Ostrovska, G V; Kaminskyy, D V; Sirota, T V; Zarkovic, N; Mazur, D; Lutsyk, O D; Rybalchenko, K; Bast, A


    In this paper the oil from seeds of Amaranthus cruentus L. (AmO) was shown to be an efficient modulator of the physical chemical properties of artificial lipid and rat hepatocyte plasma membranes. AmO improved the membrane stability, their stress resistance and the adsorption of neurotensin to plasma membranes with the distinct biphasic interactions being observed even after adrenalin stress exposure. The analysis of pro-/antioxidant balance in rat blood revealed a mild prooxidant activity after AmO intake, which was accompanied by accumulation of oxidative destruction products in plasma membranes. This prooxidant action of AmO was corroborated in vitro in an adrenalin autooxidation model. On the other hand, the observed improved resistance to adrenalin stress in AmO supplemented rats was associated with an antioxidant response in blood and plasma membrane studies. The AmO effects can be attributed to the modulation of the metabolic pathways involved into oxygen and free radical homeostasis.

  10. Intramuscular adrenaline does not reduce the incidence of respiratory distress and hypoglycaemia in neonates delivered by elective caesarean section at term

    Pedersen, Pernille; Avlund, O L; Pedersen, B L


    with pulse oximetry to disclose potential side effects. RESULTS: Pulse-oximetry recordings revealed a modest systemic effect by intramuscular adrenaline as the heart rate and the haemoglobin oxygen saturation were significantly higher in infants who received adrenaline. In contrast, the incidence...

  11. Sustained prejunctional facilitation of noradrenergic neurotransmission by adrenaline as a co-transmitter in the portal vein of freely moving rats

    COPPES, RP; Freie, I.; SMIT, J; ZAAGSMA, J


    1 The duration of the facilitatory effect of adrenaline on the electrically evoked overflow of noradrenaline was studied in the portal vein of permanently adreno-demedullated freely moving rats. 2 Rats were infused with adrenaline (20 or 100 ng min(-1)) for 2 h. After an interval of 1 h, when plasma

  12. [Simultaneous determination of adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisone and cortisol in plasma with HPLC/MS/MS].

    Yong, Li; Wang, Yu; Zou, Xiao-Li; Zhu, Lan; Xie, Hui-Ru; Li, Long-Jiang


    To develop a method for simultaneous determination of adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisone and cortisol in plasma using HPLC/MS/MS. Sample proteins were precipitated with acetonitrile and the sample solution was injected into HPLC/MS/MS after centrifugation at 15,000 r/min for 5 min. Electrospray ionization (ESI) and the positive ion detection were applied with a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode for quantitative analyses. Under the optimal conditions, good linearity (r > 0.999) was observed in the range of 0.02-200.00 ng/mL of target compounds. The detection limit reached 4.13 pg/mL, 4.64 pg/mL, 4.29 pg/mL and 4.52 pg/mL for adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisone and cortisol respectively. The inter-day and intra-day precisions ranged from 1.19%-5.42% and 2.16%-6.04% respectively. Satisfied results were achieved using human plasma samples, with a spiked recovery in the range of 80.0%-109.0% and a relative standard deviation of 3.93%-7.57%. The proposed method is quick, sensitive and suitable for batch analyses of plasma samples.

  13. Action of adrenalin on the circulation of the murine Plasmodium developing stages, in different blood compartments

    Bertani S.


    Full Text Available Adrenalin was used to investigate in vivo the circulation of the different stages of rodent Plasmodium present in the blood. A single dose of adrenalin injected to mice infected with P. yoelii resulted immediately in i a diminution of the parasitaemia of approximately 50 % in the peripheral large vessels (estimated in tail blood films, as well as in the capillaries (estimated in smears of blood collected from a fed Anopheles, and ii an increased parasitaemia in blood collected by cardiac puncture from the right heart. The numbers of young stages of P. yoelii in the peripheral blood were initially somewhat reduced but, unexpectedly, midterm trophozoites were preferentially expelled from the peripheral blood into major organs like the heart. With P. vinckei, parasitaemia decreased only when midterm trophozoites predominated, and with P. chabaudi no effect was observed at any time. We propose that midterm trophozoites, by their increased surface area, as compared to rings, and their flexibility which contrasts with the rigid schizonts, are particularly susceptible to haemodynamic perturbations.

  14. Factors determining the ability of parents to effectively administer intramuscular adrenaline to food allergic children.

    Arkwright, Peter D; Farragher, Alex J


    Intramuscular adrenaline is the treatment of choice for food-related anaphylactic reactions. Although auto-injectable adrenaline devices are routinely prescribed for patients at risk of serious reactions, previous studies have shown that only one-third to one and a half of patients or their carers are able to properly use these devices. The aim of this study was to determine which factors are most strongly associated with the effective use of these devices. A 122 children with food allergies who had previously been prescribed EpiPens and were attending a single specialist pediatric allergy center in the UK. were studied prospectively. A 69% of parents were unable to use the EpiPen, did not have it available, or did not know when it should be administered. A prior practical demonstration was associated with a 4-5 fold greater chance that parents would be able to use the device (p EpiPens to be used safely and effectively it is essential to educate the carer at the time the device is prescribed.

  15. Effects of oxygenation and the stress hormones adrenaline and cortisol on the viscosity of blood from the trout oncorhynchus mykiss

    Sørensen, Bodil; Weber, Roy


    Although the concentrations of the stress hormones adrenaline and cortisol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) blood increase upon hypoxic exposure, the combined effects of these hormones and O2 lack upon fish blood rheology have not been investigated. Deoxygenated blood taken by caudal puncture...... 'cannula' blood and in uncannulated blood without added hormones appear to result from parallel increases in haematocrit and cell volume....

  16. Adrenaline but not noradrenaline is a determinant of exercise-induced lipid mobilization in human subcutaneous adipose tissue

    Glisezinski, I. de; Larrouy, D.; Bajzova, M.


    The relative contribution of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and adrenaline (epinephrine) in the control of lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) during exercise was evaluated in men treated with a somatostatin analogue, octreotide. Eight lean and eight obese young men matched...... specifically to SCAT and exercise only or if conclusions could be extended to all forms of lipolysis in humans Udgivelsesdato: 2009/7/1...

  17. A prospective comparison of topical feracrylum citrate versus adrenaline as haemostatic agent in hypospadias surgery in children

    Ashok Kumar Laddha


    Full Text Available Background: A comparative study of topical feracrylum citrate versus adrenaline to minimise haemorrhage-related complications in paediatric hypospadiac patients. Patients and Methods: A total of 108 consecutive paediatric hypospadiac patients (48 in the study group and 60 control - random allocation were studied. In the study group, 1% feracrylum citrate solution was used and adrenaline (1:100,000 in controls. Results: Among the study group, average number of blood-soaked gauge pieces were 2.95/patient, correlating with average intraoperative blood loss of 14.74 ml. In controls, average blood-soaked gauge pieces were 4.83/patient corresponding to an average blood loss of 24.13 ml. The average amount of blood loss during surgery in the <5 years was 13.70 ml/patient in the feracrylum group, while the same in the adrenaline group was 23.45 ml. Average duration of surgery was 79 min in the study group, while the same in controls was 94 min/patient. Average number of cauterisations was 0.255/patient in the study group and 0.583/patient among controls. Postoperative haematoma was seen in 8% study group compared with 18% controls. Wound oedema appeared in 4.17% study group and 11.67% controls. Postoperative complications were higher among controls. Conclusions: Feracrylum is more efficient and safer topical haemostatic agent than adrenaline. It reduced the frequency of cauterisation and tissue damage, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative complications.

  18. Is it safe to use local anesthesia with adrenaline in hand surgery? WALANT technique.

    Pires Neto, Pedro José; Moreira, Leonardo de Andrade; Las Casas, Priscilla Pires de


    In the past it was taught that local anesthetic should not be used with adrenaline for procedures in the extremities. This dogma is transmitted from generation to generation. Its truth has not been questioned, nor the source of the doubt. In many situations the benefit of use was not understood, because it was often thought that it was not necessary to prolong the anesthetic effect, since the procedures were mostly of short duration. After the disclosure of studies of Canadian surgeons, came to understand that the benefits went beyond the time of anesthesia. The WALANT technique allows a surgical field without bleeding, possibility of information exchange with the patient during the procedure, reduction of waste material, reduction of costs, and improvement of safety. Thus, after passing through the initial phase of the doubts in the use of this technique, the authors verified its benefits and the patients' satisfaction in being able to immediately return home after the procedures.

  19. Specific insulin binding in bovine chromaffin cells; demonstration of preferential binding to adrenalin-storing cells

    Serck-Hanssen, G.; Soevik, O.


    Insulin binding was studied in subpopulations of bovine chromaffin cells enriched in adrenalin-producing cells (A-cells) or noradrenalin-producing cells (NA-cells). Binding of /sup 125/I-insulin was carried out at 15/sup 0/C for 3 hrs in the absence or presence of excess unlabeled hormone. Four fractions of cells were obtained by centrifugation on a stepwise bovine serum albumin gradient. The four fractions were all shown to bind insulin in a specific manner and the highest binding was measured in the cell layers of higher densities, containing mainly A-cells. The difference in binding of insulin to the four subpopulations of chromaffin cells seemed to be related to differences in numbers of receptors as opposed to receptor affinities. The authors conclude that bovine chromaffin cells possess high affinity binding sites for insulin and that these binding sites are mainly confined to A-cells. 24 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  20. Thermodynamic parameters associated with the binding of adrenalin and norephedrine to heparin

    Al-Ali, A.K.; Buchanan, J.D.; Power, D.M. (Salford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Biochemistry); Butler, J. (Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Inst., Manchester (UK). Paterson Labs.)


    Pulse radiolysis has been used to determine the thermodynamic parameters (',' and') governing the binding of adrenalin and norephedrine to heparin. These complexes were completely dissociated by increasing concentrations of inorganic salts. Lower concentrations of divalent cations (e.g. Ca/sup 2 +/) than of monovalent cations (e.g. Na/sup +/) were necessary to effect dissociation of the complex. For each interaction an increase in drug binding occurred as the temperature was increased from ambient. However, a transition temperature was observed (48/sup 0/C) above which the drug was progressively released as the temperature was increased. These observations are discussed in terms of conformational changes induced in the polymer below and above its melting temperature.

  1. Media Composer Adrenaline HD2.1后期制作系统


    Avid公司新推出的Media Composer AdrenalineTM HD2.1后期制作解决方案提供了增强的高清支持,增加了24f/S高清电影制作项目支持,支持无磁盘工作流及Panasonic P2和Sony XDCAM。提供了10b视频采集与回放、实时高清与标清多机位编辑、基于IEEE-1394接口的24p DV25及DV50采集、用于高效数字中间片,基于文件工作流的DPX文件元数据跟踪等功能。

  2. The effect of adrenaline and high Ca2+ on the mechanical performance and oxygen consumption of the isolated perfused trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) heart

    Rytter, Dorte; Gesser, Hans


    In heart muscle from mammals, catecholamines frequently evoke an oxygen waste and reduce efficiency. It was examined if this also applies to fish in which heart muscle activity is often restricted by oxygen availability. In the isolated perfused heart from rainbow trout, adrenaline (0.5 micro......M) increased power output by approximately 97%, when afterload was adjusted to maximum both before and after adrenaline addition, and by approximately 68%, when afterload remained at the maximum obtained before adrenaline addition. Oxygen consumption was enhanced by a similar amount (approximately 70%) in both...... situations. Hence, efficiency, i.e. power output/oxygen consumption, increased significantly from 25 to 30% for the heart always exposed to maximal afterload, whereas it stayed unchanged at 24% for the heart exposed to control afterload only. Adrenaline increases the Ca2+ activity participating in activation...

  3. Adrenaline but not noradrenaline is a determinant of exercise-induced lipid mobilization in human subcutaneous adipose tissue

    de Glisezinski, I; Larrouy, D; Bajzova, M


    The relative contribution of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and adrenaline (epinephrine) in the control of lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) during exercise was evaluated in men treated with a somatostatin analogue, octreotide. Eight lean and eight obese young men matched...... of octreotide suppressed plasma insulin and growth hormone levels at rest and during exercise. It blocked the exercise-induced increase in plasma adrenaline while that of noradrenaline was unchanged. Plasma natriuretic peptides (NPs) level was higher at rest and during exercise under octreotide infusion in lean...... contributing to exercise-induced lipolysis in SCAT. Moreover, it is the combined action of insulin suppression and NPs release which explains the lipolytic response which remains under octreotide after full local blockade of fat cell adrenergic receptors. For the moment, it is unknown if results apply...

  4. Effect of burst swimming and adrenaline infusion on O2 consumption and CO2 excretion in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    Steffensen, J F; Tufts, B L; Randall, D J


    1. Immediately following burst swimming, the oxygen consumption of rainbow trout increased by 71%, carbon dioxide excretion by 104% and the respiratory exchange ratio by 17%. 80 min after burst swimming all of these parameters had returned to levels which were not significantly different from...... control values. 2. Infusion of adrenaline into resting fish had no significant effect on oxygen consumption or carbon dioxide excretion and therefore there was no significant change in the respiratory exchange ratio. 3. This infusion of adrenaline caused a significant elevation in the red blood cell p......H which was still present 80 min later. 4. The present results contrast with those of van den Thillart, Randall & Lin (1983), who demonstrated carbon dioxide retention after burst swimming. While it is possible that catecholamines may inhibit bicarbonate flux through the red blood cell, our experiments...

  5. Thyroid function in adrenaline-induced changes in the intermediary metabolism of the chequered water-snake (Natrix piscator).

    Gupta, S C; Thapliyal, J P


    Injection of adrenaline in ten daily doses of 100 micrograms each into the chequered water-snake, Natrix piscator, stimulated glycogenolysis and lipid esterification in the liver and lipolysis in the adipose tissue of control snakes. In both thyroidectomized and control snakes plasma protein levels decreased significantly after hormone treatment, although there was no change in concentrations of muscle glycogen and plasma lactic acid. In thyroidectomized snakes, the hormone stimulated oxidation of the free fatty acids but had no significant effect on the synthesis of the triglycerides. It is suggested that in these snakes the presence of the thyroid hormones is a prerequisite for the response of most of the metabolic processes to adrenaline.

  6. Hemodynamic response after injection of local anesthetics with or without adrenaline in adult Nigerian subjects undergoing simple tooth extraction

    Olutayo James


    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine the changes in the blood pressure (BP and the pulse rate (PR of normotensive patients having dental extraction under the administration of 2% lignocaine local anesthetic with or without adrenaline. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out on 325 consecutive normotensive patients who presented at the exodontia clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH, Lagos, Yoruba State, Nigeria from December 2004 to August 2005 for simple tooth extraction. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups according to the type of anesthetic solution employed. Group A had tooth extraction done under the administration of 2% lignocaine with adrenaline (1:80,000 while group B had tooth extraction done under the administration of 2% lignocaine local anesthetic without vasoconstrictor (plain lignocaine. Each patient had single tooth extracted. The following parameters were monitored in each of the surgical interventions: systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and PR. Measurements were taken in the waiting room before surgery, during the surgery after local anesthesia, during tooth extraction, and 15 min after tooth extraction. Results: The sample consisted of 176 females and 149 males. Age range of the patients was 18-89 years with the mean age of 35.08 ± 15.60 years. The hemodynamic responses to lignocaine with adrenaline (1:80,000 and plain lignocaine essentially follow the same pattern in the study. There was no statistically significant difference between the measured parameters in the two groups after the administration of local anesthetics. Conclusion: This study, therefore, shows that there was no difference in the hemodynamic changes observed with the use of lignocaine with adrenaline or plain lignocaine during a simple tooth extraction in healthy adults.

  7. [Intensity of cardiac free-radicals processes and expression of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase genes in rats with adrenaline].

    Iskusnykh, I Iu; Popova, T N; Musharova, O S


    The correlation between changes in activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in heart of rats during development of adrenaline myocarditis and intensity of free radical processes estimated by biochemiluminesce parameters and the content of lipoperoxidation products was demonstrated. The maximal increase of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities (in 1.8 and 1.4 times accordingly) was observed t 24 h after the development of the pathological process; this coincided with the maximum intensity of prosesses of free radical oxidation. Using combination of reverse transcriptions with real-time polymerase chain reaction the cardiac mRNA levels of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase genes were determined during the development of adrenaline myocarditis in rats. Analysis of expression of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase genes showed, that the level of this transcripts demonstrated 2,8- and 7,3- increase in rats with adrenaline myocarditis, respectively. Obviously, overexpression of these enzymes can increase the resistance of cardiomyocites to oxidative stress.

  8. Noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations in various vascular beds in patients with cirrhosis. Relation to haemodynamics

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Christensen, N J; Ring-Larsen, H


    Plasma noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A) concentrations were related to various haemodynamic parameters in fifteen patients with cirrhosis. In supine position at rest plasma NA and A in peripheral venous blood were significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis than in normal subjects. Mean...... plasma NA averaged 0.66 and 0.21 ng/ml, respectively (P less than 0.01). The corresponding values for plasma A were 0.14 and 0.05 ng/ml (P less than 0.03). Splanchnic arterial-hepatic venous extraction ratio of NA in patients with cirrhosis averaged 0.46 (P less than 0.01). The right kidney released NA.......001) and to heart rate (r = 0.61, P less than 0.02), but inversely correlated to plasma volume (r = 0.83, P less than 0.01) in cirrhotic patients. Arterial blood pressure was reduced in these patients compared to controls (P less than 0.02), but not significantly correlated to plasma NA. The increased plasma NA...

  9. A Comparative Study Between 1% and 0.1% Lidocain with Adrenaline in Skin Local Anesthesia

    A. Zamanian


    Full Text Available Lidocain solution 1-2% have used with or without adrenaline for skin local anesthesia. Also normal salin, diphenhydramine and bacteriostatic salin have been used. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 1% lidocain with 0.1% lidocain in local skin anesthesia.This study was carried out by triple blind method on 140 patients that submitted to Hamedan Sina Hospital in 2000. These patients divided in two groups randomly, 70 cases received 1% lidocain and other 70 cases received 0.1% lidocain. The pain assessment score was between 0-10 that was asked from each patient and collected data analyzed by statistical methods.This study showed that 51.1% of patients that received 1% lidocain and 48.9% that received 0.1% lidocain did not have any pain during injection (P>0.05. Also 54.3% of patients that received 1% lidocain and 45.7% that received 0.1% lidocain solution did not have any pain throw the procedure (P>0.05.The effect of 0.1% lidocain solution had no much difference from 1% lidocain in skin local anesthesia and thus it is suggested to use it for wide anesthesia in skin surgeries.

  10. Epinephrine (adrenaline) in the first-aid, out-of-hospital treatment of anaphylaxis.

    Simons, F Estelle R


    Epinephrine (adrenaline), the initial treatment of choice for systemic anaphylaxis, is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist with bidirectional, cyclic adenosine monophosphate-mediated pharmacological effects on target organs, and a narrow therapeutic index. In a recent study, 0.95% of a geographically-defined population was found to have had epinephrine dispensed for out-of-hospital use; dispensing rates within this population varied from 1.44% for individuals under age 17 years to 0.32% for those older than 65 years. Although epinephrine is widely available in the community, it is not necessarily given in a timely manner when anaphylaxis occurs. Individuals with anaphylaxis may fail to respond to first-aid treatment with epinephrine for a variety of reasons. These include: (1) delay in treatment (in an animal model, epinephrine injection at the nadir of shock fails to provide sustained haemodynamic recovery); (2) administration of epinephrine by sub-optimal routes such as subcutaneous injection or inhalation from a pressurized metered-dose inhaler instead of intramuscular injection; (3) administration of an inappropriately low epinephrine dose due to the limitations currently imposed by the availability of only two fixed-dose auto-injectors: EpiPen Jr 0.15 mg or EpiPen 0.3 mg; and (4) injection of 'outdated' epinephrine, with inadvertent administration of an inadequate dose. Additional fixed-dose formulations of epinephrine are needed to facilitate optimal first-aid dosing in patients of all ages and sizes.

  11. The rush to adrenaline: drugs in sport acting on the beta-adrenergic system.

    Davis, E; Loiacono, R; Summers, R J


    Athletes attempt to improve performance with drugs that act on the beta-adrenergic system directly or indirectly. Of three beta-adrenoceptor (AR) subtypes, the beta(2)-AR is the main target in sport; they have bronchodilator and anabolic actions and enhance anti-inflammatory actions of corticosteroids. Although demonstrable in animal experiments and humans, there is little evidence that these properties can significantly improve performance in trained athletes. Their actions may also be compromised by receptor desensitization and by common, naturally occurring receptor mutations (polymorphisms) that can influence receptor signalling and desensitization properties in individuals. Indirectly acting agents affect release and reuptake of noradrenaline and adrenaline, thereby influencing all AR subtypes including the three beta-ARs. These agents can have potent psychostimulant effects that provide an illusion of better performance that does not usually translate into improvement in practice. Amphetamines and cocaine also have considerable potential for cardiac damage. beta-AR antagonists (beta-blockers) are used in sports that require steadiness and accuracy, such as archery and shooting, where their ability to reduce heart rate and muscle tremor may improve performance. They have a deleterious effect in endurance sports because they reduce physical performance and maximum exercise load. Recent studies have identified that many beta-AR antagonists not only block the actions of agonists but also activate other (mitogen-activated PK) signalling pathways influencing cell growth and fate. The concept that many compounds previously regarded as 'blockers' may express their own spectrum of pharmacological properties has potentially far-reaching consequences for the use of drugs both therapeutically and illicitly.

  12. Sustained Liver Glucose Release in Response to Adrenaline Can Improve Hypoglycaemic Episodes in Rats under Food Restriction Subjected to Acute Exercise

    Lucas K. R. Babata


    Full Text Available Background. As the liver is important for blood glucose regulation, this study aimed at relating liver glucose release stimulated by glucagon and adrenaline to in vivo episodes of hypoglycaemia. Methods. The blood glucose profile during an episode of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia in exercised and nonexercised male Wistar control (GC and food-restricted (GR, 50% rats and liver glucose release stimulated by glucagon and adrenaline were investigated. Results. In the GR, the hypoglycaemic episodes showed severe decreases in blood glucose, persistent hypoglycaemia, and less complete glycaemic recovery. An exercise session prior to the episode of hypoglycaemia raised the basal blood glucose, reduced the magnitude of the hypoglycaemia, and improved the recovery of blood glucose. In fed animals of both groups, liver glucose release was activated by glucagon and adrenaline. In fasted GR rats, liver glycogenolysis activated by glucagon was impaired, despite a significant basal glycogenolysis, while an adrenaline-stimulated liver glucose release was recorded. Conclusions. The lack of liver response to glucagon in the GR rats could be partially responsible for the more severe episodes of hypoglycaemia observed in vivo in nonexercised animals. The preserved liver response to adrenaline can partially account for the less severe hypoglycaemia in the food-restricted animals after acute exercise.

  13. Adrenaline but not noradrenaline is a determinant of exercise-induced lipid mobilization in human subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    de Glisezinski, I; Larrouy, D; Bajzova, M; Koppo, K; Polak, J; Berlan, M; Bulow, J; Langin, D; Marques, M A; Crampes, F; Lafontan, M; Stich, V


    The relative contribution of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and adrenaline (epinephrine) in the control of lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) during exercise was evaluated in men treated with a somatostatin analogue, octreotide. Eight lean and eight obese young men matched for age and physical fitness performed 60 min exercise bouts at 50% of their maximal oxygen consumption on two occasions: (1) during i.v. infusion of octreotide, and (2) during placebo infusion. Lipolysis and local blood flow changes in SCAT were evaluated using in situ microdialysis. Infusion of octreotide suppressed plasma insulin and growth hormone levels at rest and during exercise. It blocked the exercise-induced increase in plasma adrenaline while that of noradrenaline was unchanged. Plasma natriuretic peptides (NPs) level was higher at rest and during exercise under octreotide infusion in lean men. Under placebo, no difference was found in the exercise-induced increase in glycerol between the probe perfused with Ringer solution alone and that with phentolamine (an alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist) in lean subjects while a greater increase in glycerol was observed in the obese subjects. Under placebo, propranolol infusion in the probe containing phentolamine reduced by about 45% exercise-induced glycerol release; this effect was fully suppressed under octreotide infusion while noradrenaline was still elevated and exercise-induced lipid mobilization maintained in both lean and obese individuals. In conclusion, blockade of beta-adrenergic receptors during exercise performed during infusion of octreotide (blocking the exercise-induced rise in adrenaline but not that of noradrenaline) does not alter the exercise-induced lipolysis. This suggests that adrenaline is the main adrenergic agent contributing to exercise-induced lipolysis in SCAT. Moreover, it is the combined action of insulin suppression and NPs release which explains the lipolytic response which remains

  14. [Effects of NGF on chromaffin adrenaline-containing cells of adrenal medulla of rabbits transplanted into brains of mice].

    Jousselin-Hosaja, M; Derbin, C


    The graft of chromaffin adrenaline-containing (A) cells of rabbit adrenal medulla implanted to mouse brain and treated with NGF contains more survived cells 1 month after grafting than adrenal medulla alone. The cells developed either an intermediate (e.g. chromaffin cell and neuron) or a neuron-like phenotypes accompanied with a decrease in an immunoreactivity for PNMT (phenyletanolamine-N-methyltransferase). A gap junctions and attached plaques were found between grafted cells. The grafts received a synaptic input. The NGF influence on the fate of chromaffin A-containing cells is discussed.

  15. Increase in volume of dental local anaesthetic solution while maintaining the tissue lidocaine and adrenaline concentration does not increase acute postoperative pain after gingivectomy.

    Hanvold, K I; Vigen, E C; Jorkjend, L; Aass, A M; Skoglund, L A


    A randomised, single-blind, within-patient, crossover study was done in 45 patients (29 women and 16 men, mean age 49 years, range 37-71) who had bilateral "identical" gingivectomies. On one occasion a standard volume of local anaesthetic containing 2% lidocaine and 1/80,000 adrenaline was infiltrated into the mucosal tissue before operation. On the other, double the standard volume with 1% lidocaine and 1/160,000 adrenaline was infiltrated. The intensity of postoperative pain was recorded by the patients on a 100 mm visual analogue scale every hour for an 11-hour observation period. The time courses and the sum of pain intensity after injection of the double and standard volumes did not differ significantly. Doubling the volume of local anaesthetic while maintaining the total lidocaine and adrenaline concentration that was infiltrated does not influence the intensity of acute pain after gingivectomy.

  16. The effect of verapamil and diltiazem on cardiac stimulant effect of adrenaline and calcium chloride on isolated frog heart

    Lakhavat Sudhakar, Naveen Kumar T, Tadvi NA, Venkata Rao Y


    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers block voltage dependent L-type of calcium channel and thus reduce the frequency of opening of these channels in response to depolarization. The result is a marked decrease in transmembrane calcium current associated with long lasting relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, reduction in contractility in cardiac muscle, decrease in pacemaker activity in the SA node and decrease in conduction velocity in the AV node. Among Calcium channel blockers verapamil, is cardio selective, nifedipine is vascular smooth muscle selective, while diltiazem exhibits intermediate selectivity. Methods: In the present study, the effect of two Ca++ channel blocker, Verapamil and Diltiazem were compared on the isolated frog heart by using adrenaline & calcium chloride as standard on frog heart contractility. Results and conclusion: Adrenaline and calcium chloride increased the amplitude of contraction of isolated perfused frog heart. The L- type of Ca2+ channel blockers verapamil and diltiazem produced dose dependent (2mg, 4mg, 8mg, and 16mg reduction in the amplitude of contraction produced by calcium chloride in isolated perfused frog heart. There was no statistical significant difference (p > 0.05 between the inhibitory effect of diltiazem and verapamil on calcium chloride induced contraction of isolated frog heart.

  17. Impact of adrenaline and metabolic stress on exercise-induced intracellular signaling and PGC-1α mRNA response in human skeletal muscle

    Brandt, Nina; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Hostrup, Morten


    This study tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma adrenaline or metabolic stress enhances exercise-induced PGC-1α mRNA and intracellular signaling in human muscle. Trained (VO2-max: 53.8 ± 1.8 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) male subjects completed four different exercise protocols (work load of the legs...

  18. Resting venous plasma adrenalin in 70-year-old men correlated positively to survival in a population study: the significance of the physical working capacity

    Christensen, Niels Juel; Schultz-Larsen, K


    OBJECTIVE. The aim of the study was to evaluate plasma noradrenaline (NA) and plasma adrenalin (A) as predictors of mortality in a population study. SUBJECTS. All subjects were 70 years of age in 1984. They were selected from the National Person Register. Altogether, 804 subjects participated...

  19. Study the chemical composition and biological outcomes resulting from the interaction of the hormone adrenaline with heavy elements: Infrared, Raman, electronic, 1H NMR, XRD and SEM studies

    Ibrahim, Omar B.; Mohamed, Mahmoud A.; Refat, Moamen S.


    Heavy metal adrenaline complexes formed from the reaction of adrenaline with Al3+, Zn2+, Sn2+, Sb3+, Pb2+and Bi3+ ions in methanolic solvent at 60 °C. The final reaction products have been isolated and characterization using elemental analyses (% of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen), conductivity measurements, mid infrared, Raman laser, UV-Vis, 1H NMR spectra, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Upon the spectroscopic, conductivity and elemental analyses, the stoichiometric reactions indicated that the data obtained refer to 1:2 (M:L) for Zn2+, Sn2+, Pb2+and Bi3+ complexes [Zn(Adr)2(Cl)2], [Sn(Adr)2]Cl2, [Pb(Adr)2](NO3)2 and [Bi(Adr)2(Cl)2]Cl, while the molar ratio 1:3 (M:L) for Al3+ and Sb3+ with formulas [Al(Adr)3](NO3)3 and [Sb(Adr)3]Cl3. The infrared and Raman laser spectra interpreted the mode of interactions which associated through the two phenolic groups of catechol moiety. The adrenaline chelates have been screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against four bacteria, Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two strains of fungus (Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans). The metal chelates were shown to possess more antibacterial and antifungal activities than the free adrenaline chelate.

  20. Intramuscular adrenaline does not reduce the incidence of respiratory distress and hypoglycaemia in neonates delivered by elective caesarean section at term

    Pedersen, Pernille; Avlund, O L; Pedersen, B L


    AIM: To test whether intramuscular injection of 30 microg adrenaline decreased the incidence of respiratory distress and hypoglycaemia in term infants delivered by elective caesarean section before active labour. METHOD: The study was randomised and double-blinded. A total of 270 neonates were...... section....

  1. Repetitive hypoglycemia increases circulating adrenaline level with resultant worsening of intimal thickening after vascular injury in male Goto-Kakizaki rat carotid artery.

    Yasunari, Eisuke; Mita, Tomoya; Osonoi, Yusuke; Azuma, Kosuke; Goto, Hiromasa; Ohmura, Chie; Kanazawa, Akio; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Fujitani, Yoshio; Watada, Hirotaka


    Hypoglycemia associated with diabetes management is a potential risk for cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of hypoglycemic episodes including a surge of sympathetic activity on the progression of neointima formation after vascular injury remains largely unknown. In this study, insulin was injected intraperitoneally into nonobese diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, once every 3 days for 4 weeks after balloon injury of carotid artery to induce hypoglycemia. Then, we evaluated balloon injury-induced neointima formation. Insulin treatment enhanced neointima formation and increased the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells in the carotid artery. Injection of glucose with insulin prevented hypoglycemia and abrogated intimal thickening. Also, bunazosin, an α1 adrenergic receptor antagonist, prevented intimal thickening and accumulation of PCNA-positive cells induced by insulin treatment despite the presence of concomitant hypoglycemia and high adrenaline levels. Incubation of cultured smooth muscle cells with adrenaline resulted in a significant increase in their proliferation and G0/G1 to S phase progression, which was associated with activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, enhanced expression of cell cycle regulatory molecules such as cyclin D1, and cyclin E, and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. These adrenaline-induced effects were abrogated by bunazosin. Our data indicated that increased adrenaline induced by repetitive hypoglycemia promotes intimal thickening and smooth muscle cell proliferation after endothelial denudation in GK rats.

  2. Comparison between the intravenous and caudal routes of sufentanil in children undergoing orchidopexy and further evaluation of the association of caudal adrenaline and neostigmine

    Gabriela Rocha Lauretti


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the intravenous (IV and caudal routes of administration of sufentanil for children undergoing orchidopexy and also to evaluate the effects on addition of caudal adrenaline and neostigmine. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients scheduled for orchidopexy were divided into the following groups: 1 Group IVSu received IV 0.5 μg/kg sufentanil and caudal saline; 2 Group CSu received caudal 0.5 μg/kg sufentanil and IV saline; 3 Group CSuAdr received caudal sufentanil plus adrenaline 5 μg/ml (1:200,000 and IV saline; 4 Group CSuNeo received caudal sufentanil plus neostigmine, and IV saline; and 5 Group CSuNeoAdr received caudal sufentanil plus neostigmine plus adrenaline, and IV saline. Heart rate and mean blood pressure >15% was treated with increasing isoflurane concentration. Consumption of isoflurane, side effects, quality of sleep, time to first administration of analgesic, and number of doses of 24-h rescue analgesic were recorded. Results: Groups were demographically similar. Isoflurane consumption showed the following association: Group IVSu = Group CSuNeo = Group CSuNeoAdr Group CSuNeo = Group CSuNeoAdr (P < 0.005. Incidence of adverse effects was similar among groups. Conclusion: Caudal sufentanil alone was no better than when administered in the IV route, and would just be justified by the association of neostigmine, but not adrenaline. Neostigmine association resulted in better perioperative analgesia.

  3. Increase in volume of lignocaine/adrenaline-containing local anaesthetic solution causes increase in acute postoperative pain after gingivectomy.

    Jorkjend, L; Skoglund, L A


    A randomized, single-blind, within-patient, crossover study was done in 44 patients (27 women and 17 men mean age 47 years, range 29-63) who had bilateral 'identical' gingivectomies. On one occasion a standard volume of local anaesthetic containing lignocaine 2% and adrenaline (1/80 000) was infiltrated into the mucosal tissue before operation. On the other occasion double the standard volume was infiltrated. The intensity of pain postoperatively was recorded by the patients on 100 mm visual analogue scale every hour for an 11-hour observation period. The intensity of pain when double volume had been given was significantly higher than that after the standard volume from 2 to 8 hours postoperatively (P gingivectomy.

  4. Complexes of osmium, uranium, molybdenum, and tungsten with the catechol amines adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, dopa, and isoproterenol

    El-Hendawy, A.M.; Griffith, W.P.; Pumphrey, C.A.


    New complexes of the form trans-(OsO/sub 2/L/sub 2/)/sup 2-/ and UO/sub 2/Lcenter dotnH/sub 2/O (H/sub 2/L = adrenaline (H/sub 2/ad), noradrenaline (H/sub 2/nad), dopamine (H/sub 2/dpm), dopa (H/sub 2/dp), and isoproterenol (H/sub 2/prot)) are reported, as are cis(MO/sub 2/L/sub 2/)/sup 2-/(L = nad, dp, prot for M = Mo or W, and ad for M = W), (MO/sub 2/(Hdpm)/sub 2/) (M = Mo or W), and (Mo/sub 2/O/sub 5/(Had)/sub 2/). The structures of these species are discussed on the basis of their Raman, infrared, /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C n.m.r. spectra.

  5. Short-term effect of adrenalin on S-100b and N-CAM level in the different rat brain areas

    Y. P. Kovalchuk


    Full Text Available The level of adrenalin grows under stress conditions, sense of danger, anxiety, fear, trauma, burns and shock. In high concentrations adrenaline increases the speed of protein catabolism. Working through the circulatory system, adrenaline affects almost all the functions of organs, causing the body mobilization to counter stressful situations. Due to ELISA the astrocytes-specific protein (S-100b and neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM were studied. S-100b is produced mainly by astrocytes іn the brain and depending on the concentration it causes trophic or toxic effect on the neurons and glial cells.Strong stress and ischemia induce re-distribution of calcium-binding protein S-100b and elevation of its level. Quantitative changes of S-100b under the influence of various factors on the body which lead to the metabolic disorder in the brain are considered today as a sign of brain damage (cortical, ischemic one, etc.. Fluctuations in the concentration of S-100b in the brain are not always accompanied by marked deterioration of the physical condition of animals, but they can also lead to a number of violations of integrative functions of the brain depending on over-production of this protein. Most N-CAM are transmembrane proteins that cross the plasma membraneonce; intracellular domains have different size and it is thought they are involved in binding to cytoskeleton or cell signaling. Violation of N-CAM functions leads to disruption of nerve sprouts. Data obtained in our study showed no serious re-distribution of S-100b and N-CAM level in the different areas of rat brain (cerebral cortex, hippocampus and thalamus under effect of adrenalin administered to the animals (under skin in dosage of 0.45–0.60 mg per rat, 1 time per day during 10 days, probably because of the type of injection and/or short time of adrenalin action. Increased dosage of adrenaline 1 hour before decapitation leads to the decrease of level of total protein in membrane

  6. Effect of methylprednisolone on bone mineral density in rats with ovariectomy-induced bone loss and suppressed endogenous adrenaline levels by metyrosine.

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Isaoglu, Unal; Uslu, Turan; Yildirim, Kadir; Seven, Bedri; Akcay, Fatih; Hacimuftuoglu, Ahmet


    In this study, effect of methylprednisolone on bone mineral density (BMD) was investigated in rats with overiectomy induced bone lose and suppressed endogenous adrenalin levels, and compared to alendronate. Severity of bone loss in the examined material (femur bones) was evaluated by BMD measurement. The group with the highest BMD value was metyrosinemetyrosine + methylprednisolone combination (0.151 g/cm(2)), while that with the lowest BMD was methylprednisolone (0.123 g/cm(2)). Alendronate was effective only when used alone in ovariectomized rats (0.144 g/cm(2)), but not when used in combination with methylprednisolone (0.124 g/cm(2)). In the ovariectomized rat group which received only metyrosine, BMD value was statistically indifferent from ovariectomized control group. Methylprednisolone protected bone loss in rats with suppressed adrenaline levels because of metyrosinemetyrosine.


    郭道军; 郁章玉; 王育华; 周峰岩; 宋方立


    肾上腺素的电氧化反应是生物电化学研究的重要内容. 该文对肾上腺素电子转移性质和反应机理以及影响因素进行了讨论,综述了肾上腺素电氧化反应研究的进展情况,提出了进一步研究的发展趋势.%Electrochemical oxidation of adrenaline is an important research content in bioelectrochemistry. The electron transfer properties , reaction mechanism and a few influential factors have been discussed. The evolution research of adrenaline is reviewed, and the developmental tends are pointed out in the paper.

  8. Anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental X-tip intraosseous injection using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline in patients with irreversible pulpitis: An in vivo study

    Atool Chandra Bhuyan


    Full Text Available Introduction: Pain management remains the utmost important qualifying criteria in minimizing patient agony and establishing a strong dentist-patient rapport. Symptomatic irreversible pulpitis is a painful condition necessitating immediate attention and supplemental anesthetic techniques are often resorted to in addition to conventional inferior alveolar nerve block. Aim: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the anesthetic efficacy of X-tip intraosseous injection in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, in mandibular posterior teeth, using 4% Articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline as local anesthetic, when the conventional inferior alveolar nerve block proved ineffective. Materials and Methods: X-tip system was used to administer 1.7 ml of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline in 30 patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of mandibular posterior teeth with moderate to severe pain on endodontic access after administration of an inferior alveolar nerve block. Results: The results of the study showed that 25 X-tip injections (83.33% were successful and 5 X-tip injections (16.66% were unsuccessful. Conclusion: When the inferior alveolar nerve block fails to provide adequate pulpal anesthesia, X-tip system using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline was successful in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis.




    Full Text Available AIM To compare the changes in blood glucose level associated with administration of adrenaline containing local anesthetic in diabetic and non-diabetic patients undergoing minor oral surgical procedures. METHODS AND MATERIAL The study included 150 well controlled diabetic patients and 150 non-diabetic healthy patients in age group of 40-60 years who underwent minor oral surgical procedures (trans alveolar extractions, alveoplasty and flap surgeries. Patients in both the group were administered 1.8ml of local anesthetic agent containing 1:100,000 adrenaline for inferior alveolar nerve block and 0.2 ml of anesthetic agent for long buccal nerve block. Blood glucose levels were assessed and compared during pre-operative and one hour post-operative period. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS The comparison of the random blood sugar levels preop and postop in both the groups were compared using paired t test and RBS levels between two groups were analysed using unpaired t test. P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS No statistically significant change in post-operative blood glucose level was noted between the diabetic and non-diabetic patients. CONCLUSION The study concluded that it is safe to administer local anesthetic containing 1:100,000 adrenaline in smaller volumes to well controlled diabetic patients.

  10. Comparison of topical tetracaine, adrenaline, and cocaine anesthesia with lidocaine infiltration for repair of lacerations in children.

    Hegenbarth, M A; Altieri, M F; Hawk, W H; Greene, A; Ochsenschlager, D W; O'Donnell, R


    Local anesthetic infiltration is painful and frightening for children. We prospectively compared a topical alternative, TAC solution (tetracaine 0.5%, adrenaline 1:2,000, cocaine 11.8%), with 1% lidocaine infiltration for use in laceration repair in 467 children. Adequate anesthesia of facial and scalp wounds was achieved for 81% of TAC-treated wounds versus 87% of lidocaine-treated wounds (P = .005). TAC was less effective on extremity wounds; 43% had effective anesthesia compared with 89% of lidocaine-treated extremity wounds (P less than .0001). No systemic toxicity was observed. The incidence of wound infection was 2.2% for both TAC and lidocaine. Wound dehiscence occurred in seven TAC- and two lidocaine-treated facial or scalp wounds (4.5% vs 1.8%, NS) and in five TAC- and four lidocaine-treated extremity wounds (20% vs 17.4%, NS). The unusually high rate of dehiscence was due partially to recurrent trauma or coincident infection. TAC was well accepted by patients and parents. We encourage the careful use of TAC as a less painful alternative to lidocaine infiltration for selected scalp and facial lacerations in children.

  11. Electrochemistry behavior of adrenalin, serotonin and ascorbic acid at novel poly rutin modified paraffin-impregnated graphite electrode

    Jin, Guan-Ping [School of Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Department of Application Chemistry, Hefei 230009 (China)]. E-mail:; Chen, Qun-Zhi [School of Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Department of Application Chemistry, Hefei 230009 (China); Ding, Yan-Feng [School of Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Department of Application Chemistry, Hefei 230009 (China); He, Jian-Bo [School of Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Department of Application Chemistry, Hefei 230009 (China)


    A novel poly rutin (Ru) modified paraffin-impregnated graphite electrode (WGE) was fabricated by electrochemical method. The field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), infrared spectra (IR), in situ UV-spectroelectrochemical and electrochemical techniques proved the immobilization of rutin on WGE. Ru undergoes electrochemical oxidation in two ways related to the two catechol hydroxyl groups and the other two hydroxyl groups; the former not only carries out a two-electron two-proton reversible reaction, but also produces unstable phenoxy radicals which readily polymerize to strongly adhere to WGE surface companying Ru monomer embeded and adsorbed in the film (Ru/WGE). The Ru/WGE displayed strong catalytic function for the oxidation of adrenalin (EP), serotonin (5-HT), and ascorbic acid (AA) and resolved the overlap voltammetric response of EP and AA into two well-defined voltammetric peaks of about 172 mV with DPV. A linear response in the range of 3.0-90.0 {mu}M with detection limit (s/n = 3) of 8.0 x 10{sup -7} M for EP was obtained in coexistence of AA (0.01 mM)


    Anish M


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brachial plexus block is a suitable alternative to general anesthesia for surgeries of upper limb and it can be performed even in patients who are not adequately fit for general anesthesia. The significance of brachial plexus block has increased in recent years due to renewed interest in day care surgery. Lignocaine hydrochloride has been used extensively for brachial plexus block and it has the disadvantage of having short duration of action. Opioids when added to anesthetic mixtures may improve and prolo ng the action of local anesthetics during peripheral nerve blocks. Such postoperative pain control can reduce both narcotic requirements and narcotic induced side effects. Studies have shown the efficacy of opioids as analgesic adjuvants in prolonging the duration of brachial plexus block. With this background in mind, this study was conducted to compare the onset and duration of sensory and motor block produced by a mixture of lignocaine and adrenaline with that produced by a mixture of fentanyl, lignocain e and adrenaline. Aims: To assess the effectiveness of addition of fentanyl to a mixture of lignocaine and adrenaline in prolonging the duration of analgesia and motor block for upper limb orthopedic surgeries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multi - center rand omized control study was conducted in two tertiary care centers in 80 patients underwent elective upper limb orthopedic surgeries and they were allocated into two groups of 40 each group L and group F. the classical approach of supraclavicular brachial ple xus block. Drug used were 30 ml of lignocaine 1.5%+adrenaline 5mcg/ml + 0.5ml normal saline in group L and 30ml of lignocaine 1.5% + adrenaline 5mcg/ml + fentanyl 50 mcg in group F. Adequacy of block was assessed by the pin prick test and temperature test. Motor power was assessed by the modified Lowett scale. Sedation was monitored using the modified Ramsay scale. An assessment was made for onset of analgesia, onset of

  13. Determination of adrenaline by enzymatic catalytic spectrophotometry%酶催化动力学光度法测定肾上腺素

    陈亚红; 田丰收


    基于肾上腺素对血红蛋白酶催化体系的抑制作用, 建立了酶催化动力学光度法测定肾上腺素的新方法. 实验研究了体系的最佳条件及动力学行为, 测定的线性范围为4.5×10-7~1.4×10-5 mol/L, 方法检出限为5.2×10-8 mol/L. 对浓度为9.0×10-6 mol/L的肾上腺素进行11次平行测定的相对标准偏差为3.5%. 此方法可用于药剂中肾上腺素含量的测定.%A high sensitive and simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of adrenaline based on the inhibition of hemoglobin for the oxidation of H2O2 with acid chrome blue K was developed. The percentage inhibition (I%) of system is calculated under the optimal experimental conditions. The calibration curve is linear in the range of 4.5×10-7~1.4×10-5 mol/L with the detection limit of 5.2×10-8 mol/L. The relative standard deviation of this method is 3.5% for 11 determinations of 9.0×10-6 mol/L adrenaline. This method can be used for the determination of adrenaline in pharmaceuticals with satisfactory results.

  14. High arterial compliance in cirrhosis is related to low adrenaline and elevated circulating calcitonin gene related peptide but not to activated vasoconstrictor systems

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren; Schifter, S


    catecholamines, renin activity, endothelin-1, and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) at baseline and during oxygen inhalation. RESULTS: COMP(art) was significantly increased in cirrhotic patients compared with controls (1.32 v 1.06 ml/mm Hg; padrenaline levels (r=-0.......001) and central circulation time (r=-0.49; padrenaline (-16%; p... to COMP(art) disappeared. The relation of COMP(art) to CGRP and circulatory variables remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Elevated arterial compliance in cirrhosis is related to low adrenaline, high CGRP, and systemic hyperdynamics but not to indicators of the activated vasoconstrictor systems (noradrenaline...

  15. Comparison of use and role of adrenaline and amiodarone in cardiac arrest:Case of emergency center in Kosovo

    Basri Lenjani; Nehat Baftiu; Ilaz Bunjaku; Kadir Hyseni; Arianit Jakupi


    Objective: To investigate application of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) measures within the golden minutes in Europe. Methods: The collected data belong to the patients with cardiac arrest that have been recorded in patients’ protocol logbook at the Emergency Clinic. During the 2010-2011 in the Emergency Center of the CUCK in Prishtina have been treated a total of 269 patients with cardiac arrest, of whom 159 or 59.1% have been treated in 2010, and 110 patients or 40.9% in 2011. Cardiac arrest cases were present during all days of the week, but most frequently cases have been reported on Monday with 32.0% of cases, and on Friday with 24.5% of cases. All patients with cardiac arrest have been treated with physiological solution. Results: In 245 or 91.1% patients adrenaline has been applied; in 64 or 23.8% amiodarone has been applied; in 12 or 4.5% cases atropine has been applied, 11 or 4.1% of cases were treated with NaHCO3; 7 or 2.6% of cases were treated with lidocaine; and 6 or 2.2% of cases were treated with dopamine. All survivors from cardiac arrest have received appropriate medical assistance within 10 minutes from attack, which implies that if cardiac arrest occurs near an health care institution (with an opportunity to provide the emergent health care) the rate of survival is higher. Conclusions: Anti-arrhythmic drugs as with vasopressors, the evidence that anti-arrhythmic drugs are of benefit in cardiac is limited. No anti-arrhythmic drug given during human cardiac arrest has been shown to increase survival to hospital discharge, although amiodarone has been shown to increase survival to hospital admission after shock-refractory VF/VT. There are no data on the use of amiodarone for shock-refractory VF/VT when single shocks are used. Despite the lack of human long-term outcome data, the balance of evidence is in favour of the use of some anti-arrhythmic drugs for the management of arrhythmias in cardiac arrest.

  16. Accumulation of radioactivity after repeated infusion of 3H-adrenaline and 3H-noradrenaline in the rat as a model animal.

    Lepschy, M; Filip, T; Palme, R G


    Besides enzymatic inactivation, catecholamines bind non-enzymatically and irreversible to proteins. The physiological impact of these catecholamine adducts is still unclear. We therefore collected basic data about the distribution of catecholamine adducts in the rat after repeated intravenous administration of (3)H-adrenaline and (3)H-noradrenaline. In all animals radioactivity in blood increased until the last injection on Day 7 and decreased then slowly close to background values (plasma) or remained higher (erythrocytes). In all sampled tissues radioactivity could be found, but only in hair high amounts remained present even after 3 weeks. Half-life of rat serum albumin loaded with (3)H-adrenaline or (3)H-noradrenaline was not altered. This study provides basic knowledge about the distribution of catecholamines or their adducts, but physiological effects could not be demonstrated. However, for the first time deposition and accumulation of catecholamines (adducts) in the hair could be proven, suggesting that hair might be used for evaluating long term stress.

  17. Dilution of a mepivacaine-adrenaline solution in isotonic sodium bicarbonate for reducing subcutaneous infiltration pain in ambulatory phlebectomy procedures: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    Moro, Leo; Serino, Francesco-Maria; Ricci, Stefano; Abbruzzese, Gloria; Antonelli-Incalzi, Raffaele


    Varicose veins are treated under local infiltration anesthesia. Literature shows that adding sodium bicarbonate reduces the pain associated with local infiltration anesthesia. Nonetheless, sodium bicarbonate is underused. We sought to assess if the use of a solution of mepivacaine 2% plus adrenaline with sodium bicarbonate 1.4% results in less pain associated with local infiltration anesthesia preceding ambulatory phlebectomies, compared with standard preparation diluted with normal saline. In all, 100 adult patients undergoing scheduled ambulatory phlebectomy were randomized to receive either a solution of mepivacaine chlorhydrate 2% plus adrenaline in sodium bicarbonate 1.4% or a similar solution diluted in normal saline 0.9%. Median pain scores associated with local infiltration anesthesia reported in the intervention and control groups were 2 (SD=1.6) and 5 (SD=2.0) (P<.0001), respectively. A general linear model with bootstrapped confidence intervals showed that using the alkalinized solution would lead to a reduction in pain rating of about 3 points. Patients were not asked to distinguish the pain of the needle stick from the pain of the infiltration. Moreover, a complete clinical study of sensitivity on the infiltrated area was not conducted. Data obtained from this study may contribute to improve local infiltration anesthesia in ambulatory phlebectomy and other phlebologic procedures. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimization of (R)-adrenaline high producing strain fermentation medium%(R)-肾上腺素高产菌株发酵培养基的优化

    陈必钦; 杨凯; 陈倍; 阮文兵; 许小平


    为了充分发挥出突变株的高转化活性及其优良特性,采用响应面试验设计方法优化(R)-肾上腺素高产菌株Kocuria rhizophila(K.rhizophila).H5401的发酵培养基.用Plackett-Burman设计法研究初始发酵培养基中各成分对(R)-肾上腺素产率的影响,筛选出有显著效应的3个因素:甘油、蛋白胨和NH4H2PO4.利用最陡爬坡法逼近最大响应区域.通过Box-Behnken中心组合实验和响应面分析方法确定出3个主要影响因素的最佳浓度.实验结果经过回归分析拟合出1个2次方程,用其预报的最优培养基做摇瓶发酵试验,(R)-肾上腺素产率达61.07%,比优化前提高了24.89%,表明响应面试验设计优化方法有效提高了(R)-肾上腺素的产量,降低了生产成本,为后续放大实验提供依据.%Aiming at increasing the rate of production, the fermentation medium of Kocuria rhizophila(K. rhizophila). H5401 highly producing (R)-adrenaline was optimized by using response surface analyzing method(RSAM). In the first step of optimization, the im-pact of initial medium constituents on (R)-adrenaline production was studied by Plackett-Burman design. Glycerol, Peptone and NH4H2PO4 were found to be the important factors affecting (R) -adrenaline production significantly. In our work, the greatest response area was estimated by the design of steepest ascent approach. Box-Behnken central composite design and RSAM were applied to deter-mine the optimal concentration of each significant variable. The quadratic model established by regression analysis facilitated the pre-diction of the optimum medium composition for the fermentation process, and the results of the experiment were in agreement with our proposed model. (R)-adrenaline yield with ultimate value 61.07% was observed after the optimization carried out according to RSAM design, which was increased by 24. 89% in the original medium. The optimized condition allowed (R)-adrenaline production to in

  19. Uso tópico da adrenalina em diferentes concentrações na cirurgia endoscópica nasal Topical use of adrenaline in different concentrations for endoscopic sinus surgery

    Krishnamurti Matos de Araujo Sarmento Junior


    Full Text Available A concentração ideal de adrenalina tópica a promover hemostasia adequada sem toxicidade ainda é motivo de controvérsia. OBJETIVO: Comparar soluções tópicas de adrenalina em diferentes concentrações. DESENHO DO ESTUDO: Prospectivo, duplo-cego, seleção aleatória. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: 49 pacientes submetidos à cirurgia endoscópica nasal, divididos em 3 grupos usando exclusivamente adrenalina tópica, nas concentrações de 1:2000, 1:10.000 e 1:50.000. Comparou-se o tempo operatório, o sangramento, as concentrações plasmáticas de adrenalina e noradrenalina e a variação dos parâmetros cardiovasculares. RESULTADOS: O tempo operatório por procedimento foi menor no grupo que utilizou adrenalina 1:2000, assim como o sangramento (p The ideal adrenaline concentration remains unknown. AIM: Compare topical adrenaline solutions in different concentrations. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, double blind, randomized trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 49 patients divided in 3 groups underwent endoscopic sinus surgery, using only topical solutions of adrenaline in different concentrations (1:2,000, 1:10,000 and 1:50,000. We compared the duration of surgery, intra-operative bleeding, plasmatic levels of catecholamines, hemodynamic parameters and changes in heart rhythm. RESULTS: Surgery time was shorter in the group using adrenaline 1:2,000, which also showed less bleeding in all evaluations (objective and subjective - p < 0.0001. Plasmatic levels of epinephrine rose in all groups, more sharply in the 1:2,000 group. There was a trend towards elevation of blood pressure in the groups using adrenaline 1:2,000 and 1:10,000, with a greater occurrence of hypertensive peaks. DISCUSSION: We found a very significance bleeding difference favoring the 1:2,000. The blood pressure elevation in the 1:2,000 and 1:10,000 groups was progressive but very slow throughout the procedure, which could be associated with the anesthesia technique. CONCLUSION: We favor the use

  20. Are adrenaline autoinjectors fit for purpose? A pilot study of the mechanical and injection performance characteristics of a cartridge- versus a syringe-based autoinjector

    Andreas Schwirtz


    Full Text Available Andreas Schwirtz, Harald SeegerPharma Consult GmbH, Vienna, AustriaBackground: Adrenaline autoinjectors (AAIs are prescribed to facilitate the intramuscular administration of adrenaline in patients diagnosed with life-threatening anaphylaxis. This pilot study investigated the injection and functional properties of two AAIs (deploying different delivery systems under standard conditions, after dynamic and mechanical stresses, and in the presence of denim.Methods: The differences between a cartridge-based AAI (EpiPen® Junior and a syringe-based AAI (Anapen® Junior were assessed using three sets of tests. Test 1: under standard conditions, the injection depth and dose were measured in ballistic gelatine (a validated tissue simulant. Test 2: before the safety cap removal and activation forces were measured, AAIs were subjected to either of two preconditioning tests: 1 free-fall drop test; or 2 static load (ie, 400 N, equivalent to 40 kg weight test; or 3 no preconditioning. Test 3: under standard conditions, injection properties into ballistic gelatine in the presence and absence of denim were investigated. Statistical analyses were performed using the Student’s t-test or Welch’s test.Results: The maximum depth of delivery was significantly greater with cartridge AAI (n = 4, mean 21.09 ± 2.54 mm than with syringe AAI (n = 5; mean 11.64 ± 0.80 mm; P = 0.003. After 2.5 seconds, cartridge AAI (n = 4 discharged significantly more dose than syringe AAI (n = 3; 74.3% versus 25.7% of total dose; P = 0.001. Both cartridge and syringe AAI withstood the free-fall drop test, but almost all devices failed to activate following the static load test. Under standard conditions, significantly less force was required to remove the safety cap of cartridge AAI than syringe AAI (both n = 15; mean 9.56 ± 2.36 N versus 20.23 ± 6.61 N, respectively; P < 0.001, but a significantly greater activation force was required for cartridge AAI than syringe AAI (mean 23

  1. Kinetic Studies on Electrochemical Oxidation of Adrenaline to Adrenochrome%肾上腺素电氧化生成肾上腺素红的反应动力学研究

    张占军; 李经建; 吴锡尊; 张文智; 蔡生民


    The kinetic characteristics of the electrochemical oxidation of Adrenaline to adrenochrome was studied by UV-Vis Spectroscopy.The measurements showed that the electrooxidation of adrenaline to adrenochrome was typical of the first order reaction and the average apparent rate constant is 1.921×10-4s-1.%以紫外-可见分光光度法为主要手段,研究了肾上腺素电氧化生成肾上腺素红的反应动力学特征。研究结果表明:该反应具有一级反应的动力学特征,且反应的表观反应速率常数的平均值为1.921×10-4s-1。

  2. Comparison of dexamethasone and clonidine as an adjuvant to 1.5% lignocaine with adrenaline in infraclavicular brachial plexus block for upper limb surgeries

    Dipal Mahendra Shah


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The role of clonidine as an adjuvant to regional blocks to hasten the onset of the local anesthetics or prolong their duration of action is proven. The efficacy of dexamethasone compared to clonidine as an adjuvant is not known. We aimed to compare the efficacy of dexamethasone versus clonidine as an adjuvant to 1.5% lignocaine with adrenaline in infraclavicular brachial plexus block for upper limb surgeries. Material and Methods: Fifty three American Society of Anaesthesiologists-I and II patients aged 18-60 years scheduled for upper limb surgery were randomized to three groups to receive 1.5% lignocaine with 1:200,000 adrenaline and the study drugs. Group S (n = 13 received normal saline, group D (n = 20 received dexamethasone and group C (n = 20 received clonidine. The time to onset and peak effect, duration of the block (sensory and motor and postoperative analgesia requirement were recorded. Chi-square and ANOVA test were used for categorical and continuous variables respectively and Bonferroni or post-hoc test for multiple comparisons. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The three groups were comparable in terms of time to onset and peak action of motor and sensory block, postoperative analgesic requirements and pain scores. 90% of the blocks were successful in group C compared to only 60% in group D (P = 0.028. The duration of sensory and motor block in group S, D and C were 217.73 ± 61.41 min, 335.83 ± 97.18 min and 304.72 ± 139.79 min and 205.91 ± 70.1 min, 289.58 ± 78.37 min and 232.5 ± 74.2 min respectively. There was significant prolongation of sensory and motor block in group D as compared to group S (P < 0.5. Time to first analgesic requirement was significantly more in groups C and D as compared with group S (P < 0.5. Clinically significant complications were absent. Conclusions: We conclude that clonidine is more efficacious than dexamethasone as an adjuvant to 1.5% lignocaine in brachial

  3. 含肾上腺素的肿胀麻醉技术在袖套式包皮环切术中的应用%Application of tumescent anesthesia with adrenaline for sleeve circumcision

    施问国; 牟北平; 郑玉林; 李罡; 高炎


    目的:探讨含肾上腺素的肿胀麻醉技术在袖套式包皮环切术中的安全性和有效性.方法:应用含肾上腺素30μg、利多卡因60mg共6ml肿胀液行肿胀麻醉,对170例受术者实施袖套式包皮环切术.结果:所有受术者麻醉满意,麻醉维持4~7h.术中皮下小动脉、小静脉痉挛,切断的小血管断端无流血,术后无反应性出血,皮肤无坏死,切口一期愈合.结论:袖套式包皮环切术时含肾上腺素30μg的肿胀麻醉方法是一种安全,简单和有效的麻醉方法.%Objective To explore the safety and efficacy of tumescent anesthesia with adrenaline for sleeve circumcision. Methods 170 cases of sleeve circumcision were performed under 6ml of tumescent anesthesia solution containing adrenaline 30μg and lidocaine 60mg. Results Satisfactory anesthesia results were obtained in all cases.Intraoperative subcutaneous arterioles and venules are in spasm and cut without bloodshed. Incisions were all healed in one stage with no infection, no delayed haemorrage and no adrenaline-induced skin necrosis. Conclusions The tumescent anesthesia with adrenaline 30μg is safe, simple and effective for sleeve circumcision.

  4. A Sensitive Simultaneous Determination of Adrenalin and Paracetamol on a Glassy Carbon Electrode Coated with a Film of Chitosan/Room Temperature Ionic Liquid/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposite%A Sensitive Simultaneous Determination of Adrenalin and Paracetamol on a Glassy Carbon Electrode Coated with a Film of Chitosan/Room Temperature Ionic Liquid/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposite

    Babaei, Ali; Babazadeh, Mitra; Afrasiabi, Mohammad


    The present work demonstrates that simultaneous determination of adrenalin (AD) and paracetamol (PAR) can be performed on single-walled carbon nanotube/chitosan/ionic liquid modified glassy carbon electrode (SWCNT-CHIT-IL/GCE). The electro-oxidations of AD and PAR were investigated with cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and also chronoamperometry (CA) methods. DPV experiments showed that the oxidation peak currents of AD and PAR are proportional to the corresponding concentrations over the 1-580 μmol/L and 0.5-400 μmol/L ranges, respectively. The RSD at a concentration level of 15 μmol/L AD and 15 μmol/L PAR were 1.69% and 1.82%, respectively. Finally the modified electrode was used for simultaneous determination of AD and PAR in real samples with satisfactory results.

  5. The methods of optical physics as a mean of the objects’ molecular structure identification (on the base of the research of dophamine and adrenaline molecules)

    Elkin, M. D.; Alykova, O. M.; Smirnov, V. V.; Stefanova, G. P.


    Structural and dynamic models of dopamine and adrenaline are proposed on the basis of ab initio quantum calculations of the geometric and electronic structure. The parameters of the adiabatic potential are determined, a vibrational states interpretation of the test compound is proposed in this work. The analysis of the molecules conformational structure of the substance is made. A method for calculating the shifts of vibrational excitation frequencies in 1,2,4-threesubstituted of benzole is presented. It is based on second order perturbation theory. A choice of method and basis for calculation of a fundamental vibrations frequencies and intensities of the bands in the IR and Raman spectra is justified. The technique for evaluation of anharmonicity with cubic and quartic force constants is described. The paper presents the results of numerical experiments, geometric parameters of molecules, such as the valence bond lengths and angles between them. We obtain the frequency of the vibrational states and values of their integrated intensities. The interpretation of vibration of conformers is given. The results are in good agreement with experimental values. Proposed frequency can be used to identify the compounds of the vibrational spectra of molecules. The calculation was performed quantum density functional method DFT/B3LYP. It is shown that this method can be used to modeling the geometrical parameters molecular and electronic structure of various substituted of benzole. It allows us to construct the structural-dynamic models of this class of compounds by numerical calculations.

  6. High-energy feedback microwave thermotherapy and intraprostatic injections of mepivacaine and adrenaline: an evaluation of calculated cell kill accuracy and responder rate.

    Stenmark, Fredrik; Brudin, Lars; Stranne, Johan; Peeker, Ralph


    The aim of this study was to evaluate cell kill accuracy and responder rate when using injections of intraprostatic mepivacaine and adrenaline (MA) before high-energy microwave thermotherapy (HE-TUMT). This retrospective evaluation encompassed 283 treatments in men with lower urinary tract symptoms or urinary retention due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. They were treated consecutively during 2003-2008 using HE-TUMT with a feedback technique. Immediately before treatment, MA was administered into the prostate via a Schelin Catheter®. Clinical outcome was evaluated 3 months after treatment using a validated symptom score, transrectal ultrasound, peak urinary flow and postvoid residual. Systematic underestimation of the resulting coagulation necrosis was a consistent finding when using MA, a calculated cell kill of 21% yielding a volume reduction of 26% for prostate volumes less than 100 ml and 31% for prostate volumes greater than or equal to 100 ml. Mean prostate volume was 74 ml and mean treatment time was 13 min. Less than 1% of the patients needed analgesics or sedatives on demand. Analysis of the data showed an estimated clinical responder rate of approximately 87%. The resulting prostate volume reduction corresponds to the earlier empirically recommended 30% cell kill for CoreTherm® without MA. The treatment concept combining CoreTherm with intraprostatic injections of MA corresponds to the clinical outcome of thermotherapy without MA, with the benefits of reduced pain, shortened treatment time and decreased energy consumption.

  7. Fast-scan Cyclic Voltammetry Study of Electrooxidation of Adrenaline%肾上腺素电氧化过程的快速扫描循环伏安研究

    张占军; 李经建; 吴锡尊; 张文智; 蔡生民


    The mechanism of the electrochemical oxidation of adrenaline was studied using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry as a major means.In 1 mol· dm- 3 H2SO4,the electrooxidation of adrenaline showed the elementary characteristics of diffusion and were companied by the weak adsorption of electroactive species.In the case of fast-scan test,the electrooxidation of adrenaline was considered to obey EC(electron transfer-chemical reaction) mechanism..When the concentration of adrenaline was below 1.00× 10- 3 mol· dm- 3,the characteristics of adsorption was easily detected.And the characteristics of adsorption became more evident as the concentration of adrenaline was decreased or the potential scan rate was increased.The transfer coefficient α and the rate constant of the electrochemical reaction ks were calculated as 0.264 and 31.81 s- 1 respectively.%以快速循环伏安法为主要手段,研究了肾上腺素电化学氧化反应机理 .肾上腺素在 1 mol· dm- 3 H2SO4中的电化学氧化反应,具有扩散控制的基本特征,并伴随着电活性质粒的弱吸附现象 .在快速电势扫描条件下,肾上腺素电氧化过程遵从 EC反应机理 .当肾上腺素浓度低于 1.00× 10- 3 mol· dm- 3时,吸附现象的特征趋于显现出来 ;在快速电势扫描速率下,电活性质粒吸附的特征更加明显 .结合表面伏安法分析,估算了肾上腺素电氧化过程的传递系数α =0.264.电化学反应速率常数 ks=31.81 s- 1.

  8. Study on Adrenaline Combined with Articaine Therapy Effect in Treatment of Endodontic%肾上腺素联合阿替卡因治疗牙髓病的效果研究



    目的:探讨肾上腺素联合阿替卡因治疗牙髓病的效果研究。方法选取2013年11月到2014年11月我院接诊的39例牙髓病患者,按照入院的先后顺序分为两组,实验组20例和对照组19例,实验组采用肾上腺素联合阿替卡因,对照组采用肾上腺素联合利多卡因,观察两组患者的麻醉效果。结果实验组患者的麻醉起效时间、麻醉效果、术中疼痛评分、面部表情评分明显优于对照组,差异显著,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论肾上腺素联合阿替卡因治疗牙髓病的效果显著,可有效提高患者的麻醉效果,缩短麻醉时间,降低疼痛,值得临床推广。%Objective To explore adrenaline combined with articaine treatment effect in treatment of endodontic. Methods Choose 39 endodontic patients who are treated in hospital from November 2013 to November 2014 and separate them into two groups according to their hospitalization sequence with 20 patients in study group and 19 patients in control group;patients in study group are given adrenaline combined with articaine treatment;while patients in control group are given adrenaline combined with lidocaine treatment and then compare anesthesia effect between two groups. Results The result shows that anesthesia taking-effect time,anesthesia efficacy and score of patients’operation pain as wel as their facial expression much more favorable than counterparts in control group; there is a differential between two groups and such a differential has statistic value(P<0.05). Conclusion adrenaline combined with articaine treatment is of efficacy in treatment of endodontic;it is conducive to increasing anesthesia efficacy,shortening anesthesia taking-effect time and reducing patients’pain,thus such a treatment method is rather worthwhile to be promoted clinical y.

  9. Adrenaline antagonizes proarrhythmic effect induced by Shuanghuanglian Injection%肾上腺素对抗双黄连中药注射剂所致心律失常

    刘磊; 李雪华; 王伟; 罗卓卡; 陈可塑; 王中越; 陈龙


    made to analyze effects of jugular intravenous (iv)injection of SHL alone and SHL plus adrenaline on ECG in guinea pigs.SHL and/or adrenaline were injected accumulatively in this order:SHL 276 mg·kg -1→2760 mg·kg -1→adrenaline 0.0078 mg·kg -1→adrenaline 0.039 mg·kg -1 .② In vitro ECG recording was made to analyze effects of SHL and SHL plus adrenaline on ECG in isola-ted hearts of guinea pigs.SHL and/or adrenaline were perfused in this order:SHL 0.3 g·L-1→SHL 1 .5 g·L-1→SHL 1 .5 g·L-1 +Adr 0.42 mg·L-1→SHL 1 .5 g·L-1→control perfusion solution.③ Single ventricular myocyte action potential was recorded to analyze the effect of SHL alone and SHL plus adren-aline on the action potential durations at 50% (APD50 )and 90% (APD90 )repolarization levels.SHL alone was perfused in such order:SHL 0.3 g·L-1 →SHL 1 .5 g·L-1 →SHL 3 g·L-1 +adrenaline 0.83 mg·L-1 .RESULTS ①SHL (2760 mg·kg -1 )significantly reduced heart rate and prolonged QRS and QTc intervals in vivo ECG.Adrenaline (0.0078 mg·kg -1 and 0.039 mg·kg -1 )significantly amelio-rated the proarrhyth mia of SHL by shortening QTc,P-R intervals and increasing heart rate.② SHL (1 .5 g·L-1 )remarkably reduced heart rate and prolonged P-R interval in isolated guinea pig hearts in vitro.Adrenaline (0.42 mg·L-1 )significantly increased heart rate and shortened the QTc interval.③ SHL (3 g·L-1 )remarkably prolonged the APD50 and APD90.Adrenaline abolished the prolonged effectofSHLonAPD50APD90.CONCLUSION Adrenalinemightbeclinicallyusedtotreatsevere adverse drug reactions induced by SHL based on its antagonistic effect on arrhythmia.

  10. The immunization effect of adrenalin hydrochloride injection mixed with swine aftosa vaccine%盐酸肾上腺素注射液混入猪口蹄疫苗对猪的免疫影响



    Pigs often have strong emergency reactions, when they were immunized aftosa vaccine. At present, in order to decrease the immune emergency reactions of pigs, someone mixed adrenalin hydrochloride injection into swine aftosa vaccine. They believed it could decrease emergency reactions of pigs. For this reason, we took an experiment to compare the difference between swine aftosa vaccine within and without adrenalin hydrochloride injection. Finally, we got some results, maybe it could provide some references for our actual work.%猪口蹄疫苗在免疫接种时.应激反应较强。目前,有些地方为了减少免疫应激反应,在免疫接种口蹄疫苗时加入盐酸肾上腺素注射液,据说能减少应激反应。为此,笔者做了一个将盐酸肾上腺素注射液混入猪口蹄疫苗再免疫接种的对比试验,得出了一些结果,可供大家在实际工作中参考。

  11. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Adrenalin and Noradrenalin Levels of Acute Hypertension Rats%电针对急性高血压大鼠肾上腺素和去甲肾上腺素的影响

    霍则军; 姚海江; 张莉; 李志刚


    目的 观察电针对急性高血压大鼠的降压作用.方法 36只Wistar雄性大鼠随机分为对照组(n=8)、模型组(n=8)、药物组(n=10)和电针组(n=10).应用肾上腺素法制备急性高血压大鼠模型,电针百会和足三里穴,测定电针后各组血压的变化以及血清肾上腺素和去甲肾上腺素的变化.结果 药物组和电针组大鼠收缩压和舒张压均低于模型组(P0.05).模型组血清肾上腺素和去甲肾上腺素水平高于对照组(P0.05). The adrenalin and noradrenalin levels were higher in the model group than in the control group (P<0.05), but they were lower in the drug group and the electroacupuncture group than in the model group (P<0.05). Conclusion The electroacupuncture could reduce the blood pressure of acute hypertension rats by decreasing blood adrenalin and noradrenalin levels.

  12. 心脏骤停患者实施静注大剂量肾上腺素抢救的效果分析%Analysis of the Effect of Intravenous Injection of High Dose of Adrenaline for the Treatment of Patients with Sudden Cardiac Arrest



    Objective To investigate the clinical therapeutic effect of intravenous injection of high dose of adrenaline for the treat-ment of patients with sudden cardiac arrest. Methods The clinical data of 146 cases with sudden cardiac arrest treated by intra-venous injection of adrenaline in our hospital from April 2013 to April 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. According to the used dose of adrenaline, the patients were grouped, 79 cases with high dose of adrenaline, 67 cases with conventional dose of adrenaline were selected as the experimental group and the control group, respectively. And the success rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation of the two groups was compared and analyzed. Results The success rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group, there was significant difference between the groups (P<0.01). Conclusion Intravenous injection of high dose of adrenaline for patients with sudden cardiac arrest can achieve higher success rate of car-diopulmonary resuscitation, which is worthy of clinical application and promotion.%目的:探讨心脏骤停患者实施静注大剂量肾上腺素抢救的临床治疗效果。方法回顾性分析2013年4月-2014年4月入该院利用静脉注射肾上腺素抢救的心脏骤停患者146例的临床资料,依据肾上腺素使用剂量分组,大剂量79例纳入实验组,常规剂量67例纳入对照组,对两组患者心肺复苏成功率进行比较分析。结果实验组心肺复苏成功率明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论对心脏骤停患者实施静注大剂量肾上腺素抢救具有较高的心肺复苏成功率,值得在临床使用推广。

  13. 肾上腺素对糖尿病性白内障患者角膜内皮细胞的影响%Effects of adrenalin on corneal endothelium in patients with diabetic cataract

    刘婕; 赵娴; 邵丽静; 左建霞; 王姝蕊; 马新玲


    目的:观察不同浓度肾上腺素对糖尿病并发白内障患者行超声乳化白内障吸除术后角膜内皮细胞的影响,探讨术中应用肾上腺素的合理浓度。方法选取2013年1至6月糖尿病性白内障患者90例(90眼),随机分为3组,每组30眼,分别于灌注液中加入0.1 ml、0.2 ml及0.5 ml肾上腺素,均行白内障超声乳化吸除联合人工晶体植入手术,于术前及术后1周采用非接触型角膜内皮显微镜行角膜内皮细胞密度及六角形细胞比例检查。结果3组术前角膜内皮细胞密度及六角形细胞比例比较,差异无统计学意义( P >0.05)。3组术后1周角膜内皮细胞密度分别为(2494±286)/mm 2,(2428±353)/mm 2,(2380±375)/mm 2,六角形细胞比例分别为(49±13)/mm 2,(45±13)/mm 2,(43±14)/mm 2。3组术后角膜内皮细胞密度及六角形细胞比例均较术前减少,其差异均有统计学意义( P<0.05)。术后3组间比较,随加入肾上腺素浓度增加,角膜内皮细胞密度及六角形细胞比例逐渐下降,但差异无统计学意义( P >0.05)。结论糖尿病性白内障患者角膜内皮细胞对手术损伤及肾上腺素毒性损害的耐受性降低,在有效维持术中瞳孔散大状态的同时,选用浓度较低的肾上腺素,以减少对角膜内皮细胞的损害。%Objective To investigate the effects of adrenalin on corneal endothelium after phacoemulsification in patients with diabetic cataract and to explore the clinical suitable concentration of adrenalin during the operation .Methods Ninety patients with diabetic cataract (90 eyes) who were enrolled in our hospital from January 2013 to June 2013 were randomly divided into three groups,with 30 eyes in each group.These patients received phacoemulsification after the irrigation solution was added with different concentrations of adrenalin (0.1ml,0.2ml,0.5ml).At 1 week before and after

  14. Effects of vasopressin and adrenaline on cerebral resuscitation in rats undergone cardiopulmonary resuscitation%血管加压素与肾上腺素对大鼠脑复苏效果的影响

    杨伟伟; 彭鹏


    Objective To compare the effects of vasopressin and adrenaline on cerebral resuscitation in rats. Method Sixty male SD rats were used to set the animal model of cardiac arrest and were randomly (random number) divided into 4 groups (n = 15/group): sham operation group (sham-gro), negative control group (neg-gro), vasopressin group (vas-gro) and adrenaline group (adr-gro). Blood pressure was recorded, and brain tissue samples were obtained. Results There was no significant difference in the recovery rate between vas-gro and adr-gro 30 min after resuscitation (P <0.05). The mean blood pressure in vasgro was higher than that in adr-gro within 30 min (1,2, 5, 10, 20, 30 min) after restoration of spontaneous circulation. The measured MDA, SOD and GSH were significantly different (P < 0.05) between each two groups among vas-gro, sham-gro and adr-gro. Conclusions The recovery rate was similar between vasopressin group and adrenaline group during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in rats. However, vasopressin can to maintain the mean arterial pressure at a higher level after resuscitation, which can the increase the cerebral perfusion and reduce brain cell damage.%目的 比较血管加压素与肾上腺素对大鼠脑复苏效果的研究.方法 60只雄性SD大鼠建立心搏骤停模型,随机(随机数字法)分为4组(n=15/组):假手术组(sham operated group,shamgro)、阴性对照组(neg-gro)、血管加压素组(vas-gro)、肾上腺素组(adr-gro).分别记录血压变化,并取大鼠脑组织标本.结果 在复苏30 min后vas-gro与adr-gro复苏成功率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);在自主循环恢复的30 min内(1,2,5,10,20,30 min)vas-gro的平均动脉压均高于adr-gro;测得MDA,SOD,GSH的量vas-gro,sham-gro,adr-gro互相之间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 血管加压素与肾上腺素在大鼠心肺复苏过程中成功率相近,但血管加压素能维持复苏后平均动脉压在较高水平,继而会更好的增加脑灌注,减轻脑细胞损伤.

  15. "Facebook" "patīk" un "dalīties" reklāmas: auditorijas pētījums un uzņēmuma "Drogas" un "Adrenaline Tan" pieredze

    Caune, Signija


    Bakalaura darbs “ “Facebook” “patīk” un “dalīties” reklāmas: auditorijas pētījums un uzņēmuma “Drogas” un “Adrenaline Tan” pieredze” sastāv no teorētiskās, metodoloģiskās un empīriskās daļas un pētījumā pierāda, ka lietotāji piedalās konkursos, tikai, lai iegūtu vēlamo balvu. Bakalaura darba teorētisko daļu veido sociālie tīkli, sociālo tīklu lietotāji, sociālo tīklu mārketings, iesaistīšanās, interaktivitāte un motivācija. Darba mērķi ir saprast lietotāju motivāciju piedalīties “Facebo...

  16. Effect of Adrenaline on the Growth of Colony form Unitgranulocyte and Macrophage in Murine%肾上腺素影响小鼠粒巨噬系祖细胞生长的实验研究

    黄晓芹; 陶宏凯; 降央泽仁


    目的:了解肾上腺素(Adrenaline,Adr)对小鼠粒巨噬系祖细胞的影响.方法:在体外半固体培养的粒-巨噬系集落形成单位(Colony Form Unit-Granulocyte and Macrophage,CFU-GM)中加入不同浓度的Adr后,计数集落数,并与阴性对照组比较.结果:Adr浓度在10-6~10-10mol/ml范围内,CFU-GM集落数与对照组相比,P>0.05;Adr浓度为10-5mol/ml时,P<0.05;Adr浓度为10-4mol/ml时,培养体系中没有CFU-CM形成.结论:高浓度Adr可抑制CFU-GM在体外的生长,儿茶酚胺类物质能参与血发生的调节.

  17. Study of the relationship between adrenalin and absorption of SRF after operation for rhegntogenous retinal detachment%肾上腺素与孔源性视网膜脱离术后视网膜复位的相关性研究

    梁玲玲; 王桂云; 左玲


    Objective To study the relationship between adrenalin and absorption of subretinal fluid (SRF) after operation for rhegatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in order to direct clinical practice and then improve the success rate of the operation for RRD. Methods Collected 42 RRD cases. Use the kit of 125I-Radioimmunoassay for the quantitative determination of adrenaline in plasma. At the same time, record the absorption time of SRF. Using case control method, analyze the collected data with the SPSS13.0 statistics software. Results The adrenaline concentration of the group A was higher than group B after operation, the difference was significant. In the group A, the adrenaline concentration of male group was higher than female group after operation, and the difference was significant. Conclusions There is dependability between the adrenaline and absorption of SRF after operation for RRD and there is sex differences for this dependability,male is more than female.%目的 探讨血液中的肾上腺素浓度与孔源性视网膜脱离术后复位的相关性,从而对临床实践给与指导,提高孔源性视网膜脱离手术的复位率.方法 收集孔源性视网膜脱离的病例42例,利用放射免疫学的方法,检测血浆中的肾上腺素的浓度,并记录术后视网膜下液吸收的时间,采用病例对照的方法,对所得数据应用spss13.0软件进行统计学分析.结果 术后血浆中肾上腺素浓度A组高于B组,差异具有统计学意义;A组中,男性组血浆中肾上腺素浓度高于女性组,差异具有统计学意义.结论 血液中的肾上腺素与孔源性视网膜脱离术后视网膜下液的吸收具有相关性,并且此相关性男性大于女性.

  18. Efeito da dexmedetomidina sobre a arritmia cardíaca induzida pela adrenalina em cães anestesiados pelo sevofluorano Effect of dexmedetomidine on the heart arrhythmia induced by the adrenaline in dogs anesthetized by sevoflurane

    V.F. Barbosa


    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da dexmedetomidina sobre o ritmo cardíaco em 20 cães, sem raça definida, de ambos os sexos e considerados sadios, anestesiados pelo sevofluorano e submetidos a doses crescentes de adrenalina. Os animais foram, aleatoriamente, distribuídos em dois grupos (placebo e dexmedetomidina. No grupo placebo, os animais receberam, por via intravenosa, solução de NaCl a 0,9%, na dose de 0,3ml/kg. Foram considerados dois momentos, M0 e M1, imediatamente antes e após a aplicação, respectivamente. Após 10 minutos, realizou-se a indução anestésica com sevofluorano, por meio de máscara facial vedada, até a perda do reflexo laringotraqueal. Em seguida, procedeu-se à intubação orotraqueal e a manutenção da anestesia foi realizada com a administração de sevofluorano na concentração de 1,5CAM, em circuito anestésico com reinalação parcial de gases. Decorridos 20 minutos da indução anestésica, iniciou-se a administração intravenosa contínua de solução de adrenalina a 2% em doses crescentes de 1, 2, 3, 4 e 5mg/kg/min, por meio de bomba de infusão, com aumento da dose em intervalos de 10 minutos. Imediatamente antes desse acréscimo eram feitas as mensurações (M2 a M6. No grupo dexmedetomidina empregou-se a mesma metodologia substituindo-se a solução de NaCl a 0,9% por hidrocloridrato de dexmedetomidina, na dose de 1µg/kg. Foram registradas as pressões arteriais, em M0 e em M2 a M6, e o traçado eletrocardiográfico, na derivação DII (M2 a M6, considerando-se para efeito estatístico o número total de bloqueios atrioventriculares (BAV de primeiro e segundo graus e de complexos ventriculares prematuros (ESV, coincidentes com cada dose de adrenalina. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância seguida pelo teste de Tukey (PThe effect of dexmedetomidine on the cardiac rhythm in twenty healthy mongrel dogs of both sexes anesthetized with sevofluorane and submitted to increasing doses of adrenaline was

  19. 局部应用肾上腺素与垂体后叶素在瘢痕妊娠阴式病灶切除术中的止血效果%Hemostatic effect comparison of adrenaline and pituitrin local application in trans-vaginal lesion resection of scar pregnancy

    朱楠; 欧阳玲


    Objective To compare the hemostatic effect of adrenaline and pituitrin local application with pitui-trin local application in transvaginal lesion resection of scar pregnancy. Methods 81 patients of scar pregnancy were randomly divided into three groups ( n =27 ) , group A was treated with transvaginal lesion resection combined with adrenaline local injection,group B was treated with transvaginal lesion resection combined with pituitrin local injection, group C was treated with transvaginal lesion resection directly. The blood loss during and after the operation and the oc-currence of adverse reactions were observed in three groups. Results Intraoperative blood loss of group A or group B was significantly less than that of group C(P<0. 01),and there were sighificant difference between group A and group B(P<0. 01),the incidence of adverse reactions of group A was lower(P<0. 05). Conclusion Local application of both adrenaline and pituitrin can reduce blood loss in transvaginal lesion resection of scar pregnancy,while adrenaline is more safe and effective.%目的:比较局部应用肾上腺素与垂体后叶素在瘢痕妊娠阴式病灶切除术中的止血效果。方法81例瘢痕妊娠的患者,随机分为3组,每组27例,A组采用阴式病灶切除术联合肾上腺素局部注射,B组采用阴式病灶切除术联合垂体后叶素局部注射,C组直接行阴式病灶切除术,观察三组术中、术后出血量及不良反应的发生情况。结果 A、B组术中出血量均明显少于C组(P均<0.01),与B组比较,A组术中出血量更少(P<0.01),且不良反应发生率低(P<0.05)。结论肾上腺素和垂体后叶素局部应用都可以明显减少瘢痕妊娠阴式病灶切除术中的出血量,但肾上腺素更安全有效。

  20. Segurança de nebulização com 3 a 5 ml de adrenalina (1:1000 em crianças: uma revisão baseada em evidência The safety of nebulization with 3 to 5 ml of adrenaline (1:1000 in children: an evidence based review

    Linjie Zhang


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar evidências sobre a segurança da nebulização com 3 a 5 ml de adrenalina (1:1000 no tratamento das crianças com obstrução inflamatória aguda das vias aéreas. FONTES DE DADOS: Uma busca eletrônica foi feita, utilizando-se, principalmente, o banco de dados do MEDLINE (janeiro de 1949 a julho de 2004. Os critérios de inclusão do estudo para esta revisão foram: 1 ensaio clínico randomizado; 2 pacientes (até 12 anos com diagnós tico de bronquiolite ou laringotraqueobronquite; 3 uso de adrenalina (1:1000 através de nebulização. Os principais dados extraídos dos ensaios dizem respeito a doses de adrenalina e seus efeitos sobre a freqüência cardíaca e a pressão arterial sistêmica, bem como outros efeitos colaterais. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Sete ensaios clínicos, com um total de 238 pacientes, foram incluídos para esta revisão. Dos cinco ensaios clínicos nos quais a maior dose (> 3 ml de adrenalina foi usada, dois demonstraram aumento significativo de freqüência cardíaca. O aumento médio de freqüência cardíaca variou de sete a 21 batimentos por minuto, até 60 minutos após o tratamento. A maior incidência de palidez foi observada em um ensaio clínico com 21 crianças tratadas com 3 ml de adrenalina através de nebulização (47,6% no grupo de adrenalina versus 14,3% no grupo de salbutamol, 30 minutos após o tratamento. Não foram observados, em dois ensaios clínicos, efeitos significativos em nebulização com adrenalina (4 e 5 ml na pressão arterial sistêmica. CONCLUSÃO: As evidências mostram que nebulização com 3 a 5 ml de adrenalina (1:1000 é uma terapia segura, com poucos efeitos colaterais, em crianças com obstrução inflamatória aguda das vias aéreas.OBJECTIVE:To present the evidence regarding the safety of nebulization with 3-5 ml of adrenaline (1:1000 for the treatment of children with acute inflammatory airway obstruction. SOURCES OF DATA: An electronic search was undertaken

  1. 福特Sport Trac Adrenalin


    福特Sport Trac Adrenalin是世界上第一台高性能运动型多用途皮卡(SUT),它将福特SVT F-50 Lightning以及福特Explorer Sport Trac的优点融为一体——配备全轮驱动,6速自动变速器以及AdvanceTrac牵引控制系统,采用最大输出功率为291千瓦的4.2升V8发动机,最大扭矩为529牛·米,并设计有2.7吨的拖拽能力。

  2. The effect of esmolol on children's heart rate who accept squint correction and adrenaline eye drop%艾司洛尔对斜视矫正术眼滴肾上腺素对患儿心率的影响

    王淑珍; 顾恩华


    目的 观察艾司洛尔对斜视矫正术眼滴肾上腺素对患儿的心率影响.方法 选择6~10岁斜视矫正术的患儿90例,随机分为3组,各30例.A组(对照组,术眼滴0.9%生理盐水),B组(术眼滴肾上腺素),C组(术眼滴肾上腺素,并静脉注入艾司洛尔拮抗).监测并记录入手术室前的心率,视基础值为T0,麻醉前T1,麻醉后5 min T2,眼滴肾上腺素,或同时静脉给予艾司洛尔后2min为T3,5min为T4,10 min为T5,60 min为T6.结果 3组(T0-T2)心率的变化比较,差异无统计学意义;B、C 两组心率(T3-T5)各时间点与A组比较,差异有统计学意义,但C组(T3-T5)心率上升明显低于B组,差异有统计学意义.结论 斜视矫正术眼滴肾上腺素可使心率瞬间显著上升,静脉助注艾司洛尔可显著抑制其上升,维持患儿围术期心率平稳.%Objective To observe the effect of esmolol on children's heart rate who accept squint correction and adrenaline eye drop.Methods Selected six to ten years old children with squint correction of 90 cases were randomly divided into three groups,each group had 30 cases.Group A was control group and accepted 0.9% physiological saline to sick eye.Group B dropped the adrenaline to sick eye.Group C dropped the adrenaline to sick eye and accepted intravenous injection esmolol antagonist.Monitored and recorded the heart rate before children came into the operating room.The basic value was T0.Before anesthesia was T1,5 minutes after anesthesia was T2,sick eye accepted adrenaline,or at the same time to intravenous injection esmolol then 2 minutes was T3,5 minutes was T4,10 minutes was T5 and 60 minutes was T6.Results The difference of heart rate change (T0-T2) in three groups was not statistically significant.Compared heart rate (T3-T5) of each time point in group B and C with group A,the difference was statistically significant.But heart rate rise (T3-T5) in group C was significantly lower than in group B,the difference was statistically

  3. 高压氧对肾上腺素诱导的内耳损伤大鼠听力及下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺轴激素水平的影响%Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on the hearing of inner ear and the hormone levels of HPA axis in rats induced by adrenaline

    潘树义; 杨晨; 陈晓; 孟祥恩; 张良


    Objective To observe the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on the damage of inner ear and hearing loss induced by adrenaline and also to monitor changes in hormone levels related with stress,so as to evaluate effects of HBO on hearing damage and related stressors.Methods Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups:the blank control group,the adrenaline group and the adrenaline plus HBO group.Infusion of adrenaline through the access of middle ear for a succession of 5 days till hearing loss was induced,while the animals in the control group were only given physiologic saline.After completion of medication,the animals in the HBO group received HBO therapy 1 session / a day for 3 consecutive days,and the animals in the other 2 groups were left untreated for natural recovery.Changes in hearing thresholds in rats were detected through monitoring of evoked auditory brainstem response (ABR).After termination of the experiment,the animals were sacrificed for detection of serum hormone levels.Results The administration of adrenaline through the access of middle ear could elevate the hearing threshold of the rats.The final hearing threshold of the rats in the HBO group [(26.01 ± 7.95) dB] was lower than that of the adrenaline group [(39.69 ± 8.26) dB] (P < 0.05).Cortisol level in the animals of the control group was the lowest,followed by the animals in the HBO group.The cortisol level in the animals of the model group was the highest.Conclusions HBO therapy could alleviate hearing damage of the rats induced by adrenaline.Cortical levels were closely associated with the seriousness of hearing damage.%目的 观察高压氧暴露对肾上腺素导致的大鼠内耳损伤、听力下降的影响,以及相关激素的改变情况,评价高压氧治疗对听力及激素水平的影响.方法 24只大鼠按数字表法随机分为3组:空白对照组、肾上腺素组、肾上腺素+高压氧组.肾上腺素组、肾上腺素+高压氧组连续5d经中

  4. The role of α1 adrenaline receptors on GABAergic and glutamatergic synapse in spinal dorsal horn%α1-肾上腺素受体参与调控脊髓背角神经元突触传递的作用机制

    袁维秀; 郭英; 徐娟; 张宏


    Objective To investigate the role of α1-adrenaline receptors in GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses via GABAA receptors in spinal dorsal horn. Methods Using whole -cell voltage-clamp recordings on acute spinal cord slice, the effect of blockade of α1-adrenaline receptors on GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission was studied. Results Selective al -adrenline receptors agonist phenylephrine cold significantly increase the frequency of GABAergic spontaneous IPSCs in a concentration dependent manner, and this effect was abolished by the α1-adrenaline receptor antagonist WB4101. Phenylephrine also significantly reduced the amplitude of monosynaptic and polysynaptic EPSCs evoked from primary afferents. The inhibitory effect of phenylephrine on evoked monosynaptic glutamatergic EPSCs was largely blocked by the GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin. Conclusion Activation of α1- adrenoceptors in the spinal cord attenuates glutamatergic input from primary afferents mainly through GABAA receptors, indicating that presynaptic inhibition in the spinal cord may be involved in the regulation of nociception by the descending noradrenergic system.%目的 研究α1-肾上腺素受体(α1- AR)调控脊髓背角感觉神经元谷氨酸能突触传递的作用机制.方法 在急性切取的腰段脊髓切片上,利用全细胞膜片钳法记录α1- AR激动剂苯肾上腺素对脊髓背角浅层神经元抑制性和兴奋性突触后电流(IPSCs和eEPSCs)的影响.结果 苯肾上腺素对IPSCs频率产生剂量依赖性兴奋作用,此作用可被α1- AR特异性拮抗剂WB4101完全拮抗.苯肾上腺素对eEPSCs振幅的抑制作用可以部分被GABAA受体拮抗剂印防己毒素(picrotoxin,PTX)拮抗.结论 位于脊髓背角神经元的α1-AR,促进初级传入纤维在脊髓背角释放γ-氨基丁酸(GABA),进而主要通过GABAA受体抑制初级传入纤维兴奋性谷氨酸能神经冲动的传入.下行肾上腺素能系统可能通过GABAA受体机制参

  5. Eficácia e segurança do uso inalatório da adrenalina-L na laringite pós-intubação utilizada em associação com a dexametasona Efficacy and safety of nebulized L-epinephrine associated with dexametasone in post-intubation laryngitis

    Iracema C. O. Fernandes


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a eficácia e a segurança do uso de adrenalina-L inalada na laringite pós-intubação como droga suplementar à dexametasona. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo, duplo-cego, controlado por placebo, randomizado, com duas coortes de pacientes com laringite pós-intubação de grau 3 a 6, aferido pelo escore de Downes e Raphaelly, durante dois anos. Os grupos, A e B, receberam dexametasona por via endovenosa e realizaram duas inalações com soro fisiológico, mas nestas apenas o grupo B recebeu adrenalina-L. A eficácia da adrenalina-L foi avaliada através da comparação do escore de Downes e Raphaelly. Os efeitos colaterais da adrenalina-L foram avaliados pela ocorrência de arritmia cardíaca, elevação da pressão arterial e da freqüência cardíaca médias no grupo B, em relação ao grupo A. RESULTADOS: Foram selecionados 22 pacientes para o grupo A (escore médio=4,8 e 19 para o grupo B (escore médio= 5,2. Após o início do tratamento, três pacientes do grupo A alcançaram o escore 8 e foram reintubados; este grupo também apresentou escore clínico médio maior do que o grupo B, durante as primeiras duas horas do protocolo, resultados não estatisticamente significantes. Não foram constatados efeitos colaterais atribuíveis à adrenalina. Os índices gasométricos foram adequados nos dois grupos, porém melhores no grupo controle. CONCLUSÕES: Não foi demonstrada maior eficácia no tratamento da laringite pós-intubação com o uso da adrenalina-L inalatória em crianças que receberam simultaneamente dexametasona endovenosa. Alguns indicadores apresentaram uma tendência favorável à terapêutica combinada e sugerem a realização de outras avaliações.OBJECTIVE: to assess the efficacy and safety of the use of nebulized L-epinephrine associated with dexamethasone in postintubation laryngitis. METHOD: We carried out a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study with two cohorts of patients with

  6. CT-guided percutaneous intratumoral chemotherapy with a novel cisplatin/epinephrine injectable gel for the treatment of unresectable malignant liver tumors; CT-gesteuerte perkutane intratumorale Chemotherapie mit Cisplatin-/Adrenalin-Gel zur Behandlung inoperabler maligner Lebertumoren. Ergebnisse einer klinischen Phase-II-Pruefung

    Engelmann, K.; Mack, M.G.; Straub, R.; Eichler, K.; Zangos, S.; Vogl, T.J. [Universitaetsklinikum Frankfurt (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Orenberg, E. [Matrix Pharmaceutical Inc., Fremont, CA (United States)


    Purpose: To evaluate prospectively the volumetric changes of tumor and necrosis in unresectable malignant liver tumors and the clinical aspects after CT-guided direct intratumoral administration of a novel cisplatin/epinephrine injectable gel in a clinical phase II study. Patients and methods: 8 patients with 17 colorectal liver metastases with a mean volume of 42 ml were treated with a mean of 5.1 injections and 8 patients with 11 HCC nodules (mean volume of 22.1 ml) with a mean of 3.25 treatments with CT-guided local administration of a novel cisplatin/epinephrine gel. This method of administration provides a higher local and lower systemic drug concentration. Volumes of tumor and necrosis prior to and after treatment were measured by computer-generated volumetric analysis. Results: Contrast-enhanced studies verified pretherapeutic tumor necrosis with a value of 12.6% in the metastases and 0.6% in the HCC nodules. Intratumoral drug administration resulted in a necrotic volume of 110% in metastases and 128% in HCC versus the mean initial tumor volume, at least 4 treatments resulted in 122% necrosis in metastases and 130% in HCC. Local therapy control rate for the follow-up to 6 months was 38% and 83.3% for the group of metastases and HCC, respectively. Conclusions: Direct intratumoral injection of a novel cisplatin/epinephrine injectable gel results in an induction of a relevant necrosis in malignant liver tumors, with a substantially higher local therapy control rate for HCC compared to colorectal metastases. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung: Evaluation der Volumenaenderungen von Tumor und Nekrose nach CT-gesteuerter perkutaner intratumoraler Injektion eines neuartigen Cisplatin-/Adrenalin-Gels sowie der klinischen Aspekte diesewr Therapie bei Patienten mit inoperablen malignen Lebertumoren im Rahmen einer klinischen Phase-II-Studie. Patienten und Methoden: 8 Patienten mit 17 kolorektalen Lebermetastasen mit einem mittleren Volumen von 42 ml wurden mit

  7. 金属酞菁仿生催化儿茶酚胺氧化性能研究及其用于肾上腺素浓度的光学检测%Oxidation of Catecholamines Catalyzed by Metallophthalocyanines and Application to the Fiber Optic Biosensor for Adrenaline Concentration Detection

    李明田; 黄俊; 杨瑞嵩; 喻兰英; 周璇


    采用电子吸收光谱法研究了5种金属酞菁MPcs(M=Mn(Ⅱ),Fe(Ⅱ),Ni(Ⅱ),Cu(Ⅱ))仿生催化肾上腺素(Adrenaline,AD)和去甲肾上腺素(Noradrenaline,NA)2种儿茶酚胺的氧化性质,相应的氧化产物分别为三羟基-N-甲基-吲哚和三羟基-吲哚.用氧化产物的特征吸收峰强度评价金属酞菁的催化能力,实验表明,在最佳催化条件下,金属酞菁催化效率有以下顺序ηMnPc>ηFePc>ηNiPc>ηCuPc>ηCoPc.以酞菁锰仿生酶为催化剂,采用锁相放大技术构建了一种新型光纤生物传感器实现对肾上腺素浓度的测定,系统地研究了光纤肾上腺素传感器的性质:在2.0×10-6~9.0x10-5mol·L-1范围,滞后相移()与肾上腺素的浓度有较好的线性关系,检测下限为4.0×10-7mol·L-1,响应时间为10 min,该传感器有良好地重复性和稳定性.

  8. 肾上腺素与布地奈德吸入治疗拔管后喉头水肿疗效比较%Clinical effects of oxygen-driven aerosol inhalation of adrenaline and budesonide on children’ s laryngeal edema after removing endotracheal intubation

    丁寅君; 占雅萍; 方华


    目的:探讨肾上腺素、布地奈德雾化吸入治疗气管插管患儿拔管后喉头水肿的疗效。方法回顾性分析124例重症肺炎行气管插管拔管后出现喉头水肿的患儿,根据拔管后主要治疗方法不同分为A组和B组,A组用氧气雾化吸入肾上腺素治疗喉头水肿,B组用氧气雾化吸入盐酸布地奈德治疗喉头水肿,观察两组喉头水肿症状持续时间、雾化后即刻动脉血气及雾化1h后呼吸频率和心率。结果 A组喉头水肿持续时间为(26.91±12.38) h,B组为(34.86±13.21) h,A组症状持续时间较B组短,两组比较,差异有统计学意义(t=-2.691,P<0.05);A组雾化后即刻动脉血氧分压为(88.57±9.06)mmHg,B组为(76.81±11.03)mmHg,A组动脉血氧分压较B组高,两组比较,差异有统计学意义(t=2.529, P<0.05);A组二氧化碳分压为(41.27±11.50)mmHg,B组为(62.21±11.31)mmHg,A组二氧化碳分压较B组低,两组比较,差异有统计学意义(t=-5.529,P<0.05);雾化1h后A组呼吸频率为(34.32±7.79)次/min,B组为(41.18±7.76)次/min,A组呼吸频率较B组低,两组比较,差异有统计学意义( t=-3.899,P<0.05)。结论氧气雾化吸入肾上腺素可以缩短喉头水肿症状持续时间,提高动脉血氧分压,降低二氧化碳分压,降低呼吸频率。%Objective To evaluate the efficacy of oxygen-driven aerosol inhalation of adrenaline and budesonide on children ’ s laryngeal edema after removing endotracheal intubation .Methods This study was conducted by a retrospective analysis .Totally 124 children with laryngeal edema after removing endotracheal intubation were divided into group A and B according to different treatment methods .Group A was treated by using oxygen-driven aerosol inhalation of adrenaline , while group B was treated by using oxygen-driven aerosol

  9. Analgesia postoperatoria en la queiloplastia del lactante. Estudio comparativo: bloqueo infraorbitario intraoral bilateral con bupivacaína 0,25% con adrenalina vs. analgesia intravenosa con tramadol Postoperative analgesia for the management of chieloplasty in the breast-fed baby. Comparative study: bilateral intraoral blockade of the infraorbitary nerve with bupivacaine 0.25% plus adrenaline versus intravenous analgesia with tramadol

    J. A. Delgado


    ó la aparición de cualquier complicación o efecto adverso. Los datos se analizaron mediante t Student y test χ². Resultados: No existieron diferencias en cuanto a las características demográficas. La duración de la analgesia fue mayor en el grupo A (7,3 ± 5,1 h que en el grupo B (2,8 ± 2,2 h (p Objective: To compare the effectiveness and length of bilateral intraoral blockade of the infraorbitary nerve versus standard intravenous analgesia with tramadol for the management of postoperative pain in breast-fed infants undergoing chieloplasty due to harelip. Material and methods: After conducting an adequate pre-anesthetic assessment and obtaining the informed consent from their parents, we performed a double-blind, randomized, controlled and randomized study in 25 ASA I infants with ages ranging from 3 to 10 months that were candidates to corrective harelip surgery (chieloplasty. All of them were pretreated half an hour before the surgical procedure with oral midazolan (0.5 and the same anesthesiologist performed the anesthetic technique and the nerve blockade in all the cases, this being inhaled induction with sevoflurane prior to venoclysis. General anesthesia was achieved with intravenous administration of atropine, fentanyl and rocuronium at the standard doses prior to endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Patients were randomized to one of the following groups: Group A (n = 12: 1-2 ml of bupivacaine 0.25% plus adrenaline was administered for bilateral blockade of the intraorbitary nerve and intravenous saline solution instead of intravenous analgesia with tramadol. Group B (n = 13: saline solution was administered for nerve blockade, instead of bupivacaine, and intravenous tramadol (1.5 was provided as postoperative analgesia. All of the patients underwent general anesthesia with sevoflurane and fentanyl "on-demand" according to standard parameters (blood pressure, heart rate, pupil size, etc.. During the first six hours at

  10. Whole body and regional clearances of noradrenaline and adrenaline in man

    Christensen, N J; Galbo, H; Gjerris, Anne Cathrine Roslev;


    The whole body clearance of noradrenaline (NA) was measured in seven patients pre- and postoperatively. L-3H-NA was infused intravenously for 90 min and steady-state concentrations of L-3H-NA were measured in both arterial and peripheral venous blood. Preoperatively, in the resting supine position...

  11. Treatment with Epinephrine (Adrenaline) in Suspected Anaphylaxis during Anesthesia in Denmark

    Garvey, Lene H; Belhage, Bo; Krøigaard, Mogens


    BACKGROUND:: Literature on the use of epinephrine in the treatment of anaphylaxis during anesthesia is very limited. The objective of this study was to investigate how often epinephrine is used in the treatment of suspected anaphylaxis during anesthesia in Denmark and whether timing of treatment...... is important. METHODS:: A retrospective study of 270 patients investigated at the Danish Anaesthesia Allergy Centre after referral due to suspected anaphylaxis during anesthesia was performed. Reactions had been graded by severity: C1, mild reactions; C2, moderate reactions; C3, anaphylactic shock......, infusion was needed in 12 of 60 patients (20%) treated early versus 12 of 35 patients (34%) treated late (odds ratio, 2.09) (95% confidence interval, 0.81-5.35). CONCLUSION:: Anaphylaxis may be difficult to diagnose during anesthesia, and treatment with epinephrine can be delayed as a consequence...

  12. Whole body and regional clearances of noradrenaline and adrenaline in man

    Christensen, N J; Galbo, H; Gjerris, Anne Cathrine Roslev


    The whole body clearance of noradrenaline (NA) was measured in seven patients pre- and postoperatively. L-3H-NA was infused intravenously for 90 min and steady-state concentrations of L-3H-NA were measured in both arterial and peripheral venous blood. Preoperatively, in the resting supine position...

  13. [Bilateral pheochromocytoma. Is there stimulation of an extra-adrenal adrenaline liberation after bilateral adrenalectomy?].

    Schwab, K O; Krause, M


    In order to determine plasma and urine epinephrine levels after bilateral adrenalectomy, we examined a 16 year old young man with bilateral pheochromocytoma. Bilateral removal of the adrenals was performed because of a left sided pheochromocytoma relapse. An extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma could be excluded by scintigraphy. Macroscopically all adrenal tissue was removed during surgery. A modified radioenzymatic determination of the free catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine was used according to Peuler and Johnson. Sulfoconjugated catecholamines were measured after addition of 60 microU arylsulfatase type VI. Urine catecholamine levels were determined fluorometrically. The elevated plasma andurine norepinephrine levels before surgery returned to normal after surgery. In contrast, plasma epinephrine levels returned to subnormal values thereafter but increases 5-fold at the end of anesthesia suggesting an extra-adrenal source of epinephrine. Urine epinephrine levels remained in the lower normal range. An insulin induced hypoglycemia was performed resulting in adrenergic symptoms of hypoglycemia and a subnormal increase of epinephrine. We conclude, that epinephrine mediated physiological regulations occur inspite of bilateral adrenalectomy probably by a regulated extra-adrenal source of epinephrine. The kidney could be the site of extra-adrenal epinephrine production.

  14. Axillary block duration and related hemodynamic changes: high versus low dose Adrenaline addition to Lidocaine

    Shariat Moharari R


    Full Text Available "nBackground: Axillary block is used for inducing anesthesia in outpatient hand and forearm surgeries. Few researches have studied hemodynamic and blockade effects of low doses of Epinephrine. The aim of the present study was to compare the duration of analgesia and hemodynamic changes following the injection of high/low epinephrine doses in such surgeries. "nMethods: The present randomized clinical trial study was conducted on healthy individuals (ASA I-II who were candidates for hand and forearm surgeries. The patients were randomly divided into three groups. The first two groups were allocated to receive lidocaine with low (0.6µg/cc and high (5µg/cc doses of epinephrine whereas lidocaine plus normal saline was injected in the third group. The hemodynamic changes (Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate and the occurance of any side-effects along with the duration of analgesia and motor block were recorded. "nResults: From among the total of 75 patients, 15 cases were excluded due to incomplete blockade or failure needing general anesthesia. The duration of analgesia and the motor block were longer in the high dose epinephrine group, the difference, however, was not statistically significant. Heart rate changes within the groups was significant in the 4th-7th and 10th minutes. Mean arterial blood pressure changes was only significant in the 4th minute, within the groups. "nConclusions: Administering low doses of epinephrine plus lidocaine as a local anesthetic not only provides acceptable analgesia compared to higher doses of the medication, but also is associated with fewer side effects.

  15. 关于伦敦的十个关键词Raise Your Adrenaline

    跳跳鱼; 猴头虫(绘图)


    1 我想去参观世界著名的大英博物馆,那里展出了从史前到现代的各种藏品。2 我要一大份炸鱼薯条,不过我好像记得有人告诉过我千万不要把英国食品当真。

  16. Neuroendocrine modulation of the inflammatory response in common carp: adrenaline regulates leukocyte profile and activity

    Kepka, M.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Chadzinska, M.K.


    Inflammatory responses have to be carefully controlled, as high concentrations and/or prolonged action of inflammation-related molecules (e.g. reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines) can be detrimental to host tissue and organs. One of the potential regulators of the in

  17. [Accidental injection of adrenaline in a finger with EpiPen].

    Kaspersen, J; Vedsted, P


    We report a case of accidental injection of 0.3 mg epinephrine in the right pollux. The actual case was treated with systemic nitroglyceride and immersion of the finger in hot water. A review of the literature shows that the adequate treatment is local infiltration with Phentholamine Mesylate. There is a need to describe this treatment in conventional literature.

  18. Noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations in various vascular beds in patients with cirrhosis. Relation to haemodynamics

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Christensen, N J; Ring-Larsen, H


    into the systemic circulation. Renal venous plasma NA exceeded arterial concentration by 38% (P less than 0.02). NA concentrations in femoral vein and ascitic fluid were not different from that of arterial plasma. Plasma NA was positively correlated to wedged hepatic vein pressure (r = 0.86, P less than 0.......001) and to heart rate (r = 0.61, P less than 0.02), but inversely correlated to plasma volume (r = 0.83, P less than 0.01) in cirrhotic patients. Arterial blood pressure was reduced in these patients compared to controls (P less than 0.02), but not significantly correlated to plasma NA. The increased plasma NA...... indicates that sympathetic nervous activity is enhanced in patients with cirrhosis. Based on the above positive correlation between NA and heart rate and the significant release of NA from the kidney, it may be hypothesized that the increased sympathetic nervous activity especially involves heart and kidney...

  19. Comparison of use and role of adrenaline and amiodarone in cardiac arrest: Case of emergency center in Kosovo

    Basri Lenjani


    Conclusions: Anti-arrhythmic drugs as with vasopressors, the evidence that anti-arrhythmic drugs are of benefit in cardiac is limited. No anti-arrhythmic drug given during human cardiac arrest has been shown to increase survival to hospital discharge, although amiodarone has been shown to increase survival to hospital admission after shock-refractory VF/VT. There are no data on the use of amiodarone for shock-refractory VF/VT when single shocks are used. Despite the lack of human long-term outcome data, the balance of evidence is in favour of the use of some anti-arrhythmic drugs for the management of arrhythmias in cardiac arrest.

  20. The effect of nasal application of cocaine/adrenaline on blood loss in Le Fort I osteotomies

    de Lange, J.; Baas, E.M.; Horsthuis, R.B.G.; Booij, A.


    Cocaine is a very potent vasoconstrictor that is used by ENT specialists to reduce blood loss and enhance visibility during nasal surgery. In orthognathic surgery, especially Le Fort I procedures, excessive blood loss is a relatively frequent complication. In this study, a prospective randomized

  1. The effect of nasal application of cocaine/adrenaline on blood loss in Le Fort I osteotomies

    de Lange, J.; Baas, E.M.; Horsthuis, R.B.G.; Booij, A.


    Cocaine is a very potent vasoconstrictor that is used by ENT specialists to reduce blood loss and enhance visibility during nasal surgery. In orthognathic surgery, especially Le Fort I procedures, excessive blood loss is a relatively frequent complication. In this study, a prospective randomized cli

  2. 在城市中感受F1——普利司通Potenza RE001 Adrenalin



  3. Adrenaline release by the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT is partly responsible for pituitary activation

    Korte, S.M; Buwalda, B; Bohus, B.G J; de Kloet, E.R


    In male Wistar rats the effect of adrenalectomy on pituitary activation by the 5-HT1A receptor agonist. 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), was studied. Rats were injected intravenously with 8-OH-DPAT (0.10 mg/kg) in their home cages. Blood samples were withdrawn from freely moving c

  4. [Efficiency of teeth local anesthesia by articaine-containing formulation with adrenaline and clonidine in pediatric dentistry].

    Mel'nikova, A V; Shugaĭlov, I A; Garus, Ia N


    The study evaluated duration and depth of the local infiltration anesthesia by articaine with different combinations of epinephrine and clonidine : articaine (4%) + epinephrine (1: 200 000), articaine (4%) + clonidine (1:100 000), articaine (4%) + epinephrine (1:200 000) + clonidine (1:100 000), articaine (4%) + epinephrine (1: 400 000) + clonidine (1:100, 000) in pediatric dental practice. It was revealed that the replacement of the vasoconstrictor epinephrine on clonidine associated with reduced depth and duration of analgesia. This increased efficiency is provided by inclusion of epinephrine (1:200 000), and clonidine (1:100 000) into anesthetic solution, which provided statistically significant increase in depth and duration of anesthesia.

  5. [Clinical and physiological rationale for use of clonidine with articaine and adrenaline for local anesthesia in pediatric dentistry].

    Mel'nikova, A V; Shugaĭlov, I A


    The study evaluated the effect of local anesthesia with articaine in different combinations with epinephrine and clonidine (articaine (4%) + epinephrine (1:200 000), articaine (4%) + clonidine (1:100 000), articaine (4%) + epinephrine (1:200 000) + clonidine (1:100 000), articaine (4%) + epinephrine (1:400 000) + clonidine (1:100 000)), on a number of physiological parameters in pediatric dental practice that characterize cardiovascular system, patient's degree of adaptation to a stressful situation and efficacy of analgesia. It is shown that in terms of impact on the cardiovascular system and stress adaptation indicators anesthesia including combination of epinephrine (1: 200 000) and clonidine (1: 100 000) in the anesthetic solution is the safest. Furthermore, this method ensures the most appropriate analgesic effect.

  6. [The action of sodium oxybutyrate and emoxypin on the functional state of the adrenaline-damaged myocardium in an experiment].

    Sysoliatina, N A; Artamonova, V V


    The effect of agents possessing antihypoxic and antioxidant activity, namely sodium oxybutyrate and emoxypin, on the functional state of the heart muscle was studied in experiments on dogs with epinephrine necroses of the myocardium. A marked cardioprotective effect was produced by sodium oxybutyrate infused intravenously (200 mg/kg) either 10 min or 2 hrs after myocardial damage had been modelled and by emoxypin (4 mg/kg; 0.4 mg/kg) infused intravenously 30 min after the damage.

  7. Volumes anestésicos efetivos no bloqueio do nervo isquiático: comparação entre as abordagens parassacral e infraglútea-arabiceptal com bupivacaína a 0,5% com adrenalina e ropivacaína a 0,5% Volúmenes anestésicos efectivos en el bloqueo del nervio isquiático: comparación entre los abordajes parasacral e infraglúteo-parabicipital con bupivacaína a 0,5% con adrenalina y ropivacaína a 0,5% Effective anesthetic volumes in sciatic nerve block: comparison between the parasacral and infragluteal-parabiceps approaches with 0.5% bupivacaine with adrenaline and 0.5% ropivacaine

    Pablo Escovedo Helayel


    %: 14,9 - 20,8 y el de la bupivacaína 16,4 mL (IC 95%: 12,3 - 21,9. En el abordaje infraglúteo-parabicipital el volumen efectivo promedio de la ropivacaína fue 21,8 mL (IC 95%: 18,7 - 25,5 y bupivacaína 20,4 mL (IC 95%: 18,6 - 22,5. Los volúmenes fueron significativamente menores (p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The volume and mass of local anesthetics (LA affect the success rate of peripheral nerve blocks. Thus, the main objective of this study was to determine the volumes of local anesthetics in parasacral and infragluteal-parabiceps sciatic nerve block (SNB. METHODS: One hundred and one patients undergoing infragluteal-parabiceps or parasacral SNB with 0.5% ropivacaine or 0.5% bupivacaine with 5 µg.mL-1 of adrenaline were randomly divided into 4 groups. Success was defined as complete sensitive and motor blockades of the sciatic nerve 30 minutes after the administration of the LA. Volumes were calculated by the up-and-down method. RESULTS: In the parasacral approach, the mean effective volume of ropivacaine was 17.6 mL (95% CI: 14.9-20.8 and of bupivacaine it was 16.4 mL (95% CI: 12.3-21.9. In the infragluteal-parabiceps approach, the mean effective volume of ropivacaine was 21.8 mL (95% CI: 18.7-25.5, and that of bupivacaine was 20.4 mL (95% CI: 18.6-22.5. Volumes were significantly lower (p < 0.01 in the parasacral than in the infragluteal-parabiceps approach. In Probit regression, the estimated effective volume in 95% of the patients in the parasacral approach was 21.8 mL for ropivacaine, and 20.5 mL for bupivacaine; in the infragluteal-parabiceps approach the volumes were 27.2 mL for ropivacaine and 25.5 mL for bupivacaine. The effective volume in 99% of the patients in parasacral SNB was 24 mL for ropivacaine, and 24 mL for bupivacaine; and in the infragluteal-parabiceps approach, 29.9 mL for ropivacaine, and 28.0 mL for bupivacaine. CONCLUSIONS: In sciatic nerve block, significantly smaller volumes were necessary in the parasacral than in the infragluteal

  8. Role of the adrenal medulla in control of blood pressure and renal function during furosemide-induced volume depletion

    Hasbak, Philip; Petersen, Jørgen Søberg; Shalmi, Michael


    Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure......Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure...

  9. Membrane potential and conductance of frog skin gland acinar cells in resting conditions and during stimulation with agonists of macroscopic secretion

    Sørensen, Jakob B.; Larsen, Erik Hviid


    Adrenaline; carbachol; Cl- secretion; exocrine gland; isoproterenol; noradrenaline; prostaglandin E*U2......Adrenaline; carbachol; Cl- secretion; exocrine gland; isoproterenol; noradrenaline; prostaglandin E*U2...

  10. High arterial compliance in cirrhosis is related to low adrenaline and elevated circulating calcitonin gene related peptide but not to activated vasoconstrictor systems

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Møller, S; Schifter, S;


    , vasoactivity was manipulated by inhalation of oxygen. STUDY POPULATION AND METHODS: In 20 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and 12 controls we determined COMP(art) (stroke volume relative to pulse pressure), cardiac output, plasma volume, systemic vascular resistance, central circulation time, plasma...... catecholamines, renin activity, endothelin-1, and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) at baseline and during oxygen inhalation. RESULTS: COMP(art) was significantly increased in cirrhotic patients compared with controls (1.32 v 1.06 ml/mm Hg; p

  11. The effect of extreme physical exertion on the percentage of dendritic cell subpopulations in professional athletes as correlated with change in adrenaline levels

    Fischerová, Barbara


    The main goal of this tesis is to describe changes in representation of various subpopulations dendritic cells (myelogenic and plasmocytoigenic) in peripheral blood after intense physical stress and to review their activation status. Early count changes and changes of function of basic elements of cellular immunity after a sport load was described, whereas a behaviour of circulating dendritic cells hasn't been studied yet. The amount and the stage of differentation of dendritic cells was spec...

  12. Validation of a high performance liquid chromatography analysis for the determination of noradrenaline and adrenaline in human urine with an on-line sample purification

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, J; Nielsen, J L


    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with fluorescence detection including an on-line purification was established for determination of catecholamines in human urine. The method was evaluated using samples of pooled urine spiked with catecholamines and validated for measurements...... deviation of the method was sufficiently low to distinguish between persons working with two different processes of garbage collection, i.e. collection using four wheeled containers versus collection using bins....

  13. Cardiovascular And Etectrocardiographic Effects Of Lidocaine And Mepivacaine With And Without Adrenaline Using Mandibular Nerve Block Anesthesia Technique In Healthy Volunteers

    Rodríguez Alfaro, Miguel; Docentes del Departamento Académico de Ciencias Básicas FO UNMSM.; Chumpitaz Cerrate, Manuel; Docentes del Departamento Académico de Ciencias Básicas FO UNMSM.; Burga Sánchez, Jonny; Ex Docentes del Departamento Académico de Ciencias Básicas FO UNMSM.; Ramón Rosales, Arturo; Ex Docentes del Departamento Académico de Ciencias Básicas FO UNMSM.; Aguirre Siancas, Ernesto; Ex Docentes del Departamento Académico de Ciencias Básicas FO UNMSM.; Zegarra Cuya, Manuel; Ex Docentes del Departamento Académico de Ciencias Básicas FO UNMSM.; Cabrejos Álvarez, José; Ex Docente del Departamento Académico de Estomatologia Médico-Quirúrgica FO UNMSM


    The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the effect of Iidocaine and mepivacaine alone and associated with epinephrine on the cardiovascular and electrocardiographic parameters,60 healthy volunteers were assigned in 4 groups: A (2% lidocaine), B (2% lidocaine with epinephrine 1: 100,000); C (3% mepivacaine), D (mepivacaine 2% with epinephrine 1: 100,000). Therefore of assigned, it was injected ldental cartridge of correspondent anesthetic to each volunteer, using the ner...

  14. Аctivity of stomach secretory glands and the nitrergic mechanisms of their regulatiоn under the condition of the adrenalin ulcer simulation

    O. V. Razuvaeva


    Full Text Available Participating of nitrergic link in the regulation of secretory activity in the stomach was investigated in the intact rats under the condition of ulcerous damage in the gastro-duodenal area. It was found that in the intact rats NO decreases the acid gastric secretion. On the early stages of the ulcer development the nitrergic mechanisms of regulation execute the protective adaptation-compensative function of the mucous coat of stomach, but in remote terms these mechanisms lose such ability.

  15. Elderly trauma patients have high circulating noradrenaline levels but attenuated release of adrenaline, platelets, and leukocytes in response to increasing injury severity

    Johansson, Pär I; Sørensen, Anne Marie; Perner, Anders


    : High patient age is a strong predictor of poor outcome in trauma patients. The present study investigated the effect of age on mortality and biomarkers of sympathoadrenal activation, tissue, endothelial, and glycocalyx damage, coagulation activation/inhibition, fibrinolysis, and inflammation in...

  16. BOOK REVIEW: ADRENALINE JUNKIES AND TEMPLATE ZOMBIES Understanding Patterns of Project Behavior by Tom Demarco, Peter Hruschka, Tim Lister, Steve McMenamin, James Robertson, Suzanne Robertson



    Full Text Available Today, armed forces are in continuous transformation. As new technologies are developed and new principles of war are introduced, the ministries of defenses and armed forces have to adapt to this changing environment. Almost every day, military officials start new projects to handle the technological and cultural transformations in the military. Project management became an integral part of defense development and management. Today, all high or middle level military officials are either a project sponsor overseeing a project, or a project manager executing a project, or a member of project team helping the project to become a reality. As a result, project management skills became an essential part of skillset that a military official need to successfully execute his/her duties.

  17. Catecholamine and insulin control of lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue during long-term diet-induced weight loss in obese women

    Koppo, Katrien; Siklová-Vitková, Michaela; Klimcáková, Eva


    at baseline and during local perfusions with adrenaline or adrenaline and phentolamine before and during the last 30 min of the clamp. Dietary intervention induced a body weight reduction and an improved insulin sensitivity. DGC progressively decreased during the clamp, and this decrease was similar during...... the different phases of the diet. The adrenaline-induced increase in DGC was higher at VLCD and LCD compared with baseline condition and returned to prediet levels at WM. In the probe with adrenaline and phentolamine, the increase in DGC was higher than that in the adrenaline probe at baseline and WM......, but it was not different at VLCD and LCD. The results suggest that the responsiveness of SCAT to adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis increases during the calorie-restricted phases due to a reduction of the α(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated antilipolytic action of adrenaline. At WM, adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis returned...

  18. Towards evidence-based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. BET 2: do parents of children with allergic reactions know how to use adrenaline autoinjectors appropriately?


    A short-cut review was carried out to establish whether the parents of children with anaphylaxis are proficient in the use of autoinjectors. Seven hundred and three papers were found of which nine presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these best papers are shown in table 2. The clinical bottom line is that competence varies widely and that further efforts are required to train and monitor training outcomes.

  19. 薄层色谱法检测海州常山桐树叶中肾上腺素的含量%Identification and quantification of adrenaline from the leaves of Clerodendrum phlomidis using thin-layer chromatography

    Muthu Kumaradoss Mohan Maruga Raja; Ruchi Sureshbhai Patel; Shri Hari Mishra


    @@ In the Ayurvedic, Siddha and other medical systems of India, products derived from herbs,used either as active ingredients or as adjuvants,hold paramount importance as alternative medi-cines.However, their standardization poses a great challenge.Correct identification of these drugs is often problematic in both their complete form as well as in powder form, since these medicinal plants are known by a variety of vernacular names and frequently many medicinal plants share the same name.Comparative thin-layer chromatography (co-TLC) with chemical or biological marker compounds can be used to standardize raw materials.Moreover, due to its simplicity, accuracy, cost effectiveness and rapidity, TLC is often used as an alternative to other chromatographic tech-niques for quantifying plant products.

  20. Drug: D04052 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D04052 Mixture, Drug Adrenaline - lidocaine hydrochloride mixt; Epinephrine - lidocaine...ns 12 Agents affecting peripheral nervous system 121 Local anesthetics 1214 Xylidines D04052 Adrenaline - lidocaine... 2710 Local anesthetics D04052 Adrenaline - lidocaine hydrochloride mixt PubChem: 17398016 ...

  1. Identification of the smooth muscle excitatory receptors for ergot alkaloids.

    Innes, I R


    In cats under sodium pentobarbitone anaesthesia the first dose of ergotamine (50 mug/kg) invariably caused retraction of the nictitating membrane and a rise of arterial blood pressure. However, the responses to the dose of ergotamine were strikingly reduced when the cats were previously treated with the adrenaline antagonists phenoxybenzamine (5 mg/kg) or ergotamine (50 mug/kg). Further experiments to identify receptors for ergotamine were carried out on three different isolated smooth muscle preparations: rabbit aorta, rat uterus and dog retractor penis.Receptors for adrenaline were selectively protected by high concentrations of adrenaline throughout exposure of the preparation to a blocking concentration of ergotamine or phenoxybenzamine. Protected muscles responded to ergotamine; unprotected muscles did not. Muscles where receptors for acetylcholine, histamine or 5-hydroxytryptamine were protected by high concentrations of these drugs did not respond to ergotamine. Ergometrine, which has no blocking action on adrenaline receptors, behaved in the same way as ergotamine; muscles which were protected by adrenaline against blockade by phenoxybenzamine responded to ergometrine, but unprotected muscles did not. The stimulant actions of adrenaline, ergotamine and ergometrine were also protected against the blocking action of phenoxybenzamine by treating the muscle with a high concentration of ergometrine instead of adrenaline. It is concluded that, in smooth muscle which can be excited by adrenaline, ergotamine and ergometrine act by combining with adrenaline receptors, and that ergotamine may therefore be regarded not only as an adrenaline antagonist but also as a partial agonist since it excites the same receptors.

  2. Proliferation and telomere length in acutely mobilized blood mononuclear cells in HIV infected patients

    Søndergaard, S R; Essen, M V; Schjerling, P


    The aim of the study was to investigate the mobilization of T cells in response to a stressful challenge (adrenalin stimulation), and to access T cells resided in the peripheral lymphoid organs in HIV infected patients. Seventeen patients and eight HIV seronegative controls received an adrenalin...... infusion for 1 h. Blood was sampled before, during and 1 h after adrenalin infusion. Proliferation and mean telomere restriction fragment length (telomeres) of blood mononuclear cells (BMNC) and purified CD8+ and CD4+ cells were investigated at all time points. In patients, the proliferation to pokeweed...... mitogens (PWM) was lower and decreased more during adrenalin infusion. After adrenalin infusion the proliferation to PWM was restored only in the controls. In all subjects telomeres in CD4+ cells declined during adrenalin infusion. Additionally, the patients had shortened telomeres in their CD8+ cells...

  3. Articaine and mepivacaine buccal infiltration in securing mandibular first molar pulp anesthesia following mepivacaine inferior alveolar nerve block: A randomized, double-blind crossover study

    Giath Gazal; Abdullah Muteb Alharbi; Khalid HidayatAllah Al-Samadani; Mohammad Dib Kanaa


    Aims: A crossover double-blind, randomized study was designed to explore the efficacy of 2% mepivacaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline buccal infiltration and 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline buccal infiltration following 2% mepivacaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) for testing pulp anesthesia of mandibular first molar teeth in adult volunteers. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 healthy adult volunteers received two regimens with at least 1-week apart; one...

  4. Hirsutism and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    ... the back near the waistline, that produce hormones (cortisol, adrenaline, androgens, and other hormones) that help the body withstand stress and regulate metabolism. Altered function of these glands ...

  5. Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    ... adrenaline or cortisol. Unfortunately, these hormones counter the effect of insulin — sometimes triggering an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis. Pneumonia and urinary tract infections are common culprits. A ...

  6. アドレナリンの静脈内注入がめん羊の反芻行動に及ぼす影響

    春本, 直; 溝端, 文則; 松井, 徹; 藤原, 勉


    Rumination activity was measured in three sheep intravenously infused with adrenalin. In the first Expt, adrenalin was administered for 4 hr., that is, 9:00-13:00 or 13:00-17:00, in dose of 10μg/hr・kg body-weight. In the second Expt, adrenalin were infused during every 2 hr. of 13:00-15 00, 21:00-23:00 and 3:00-5:00, at a dose of either 20 or 10μg/hr・kg body-weight. Adrenalin infusion was made with an peristaltic pump at 50ml of fluid volume per hour through the jugular vein catheter. In bot...

  7. Anaphylaxis

    Muraro, A; Roberts, G; Worm, M


    features. First-line treatment for anaphylaxis is intramuscular adrenaline. Useful second-line interventions may include removing the trigger where possible, calling for help, correct positioning of the patient, high-flow oxygen, intravenous fluids, inhaled short-acting bronchodilators, and nebulized...... adrenaline. Discharge arrangements should involve an assessment of the risk of further reactions, a management plan with an anaphylaxis emergency action plan, and, where appropriate, prescribing an adrenaline auto-injector. If an adrenaline auto-injector is prescribed, education on when and how to use...

  8. The effect of Adernalinated lidpcaine on Blood Pressure, Heart rate and Bleeding during DCR surgery in General Anesthesia

    M. Shakhrezaee


    Full Text Available Background and purpose : NLD obstraction causes chronic or acute Dacryiocytits resistant epiphora. Current treatment is DCR for persistent conection between lscrimal sac and nasal cavity. Vasocontrictor drugs are used facilitasing the operation.Materials and methods : Being approved in the ethics committee of the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences the study performed on 57 patients ASAL, II whom were divided in to two groups; Adrenaline group, no=23 and non adrenaline group no= 34. 10-15-ml adrenalin 1/200000 was injected at surgical area, before surgery in AG. BP, PR and bleeding were recorded during before and 1, 3, 5, 10,… min during the surgery. The results were analysed using t-test, and paired t-test at a significance level of< 0.05.Results : Maximum BP was measured at 3 minuts after adrenaline injection. The average of bleeding in adrenaline group was 38.3 ml and in nonadernaline group was 49.16 ml(P=0.007. The time of surgery in adrenalin group is shorter than non adrenaline group(P=0.003.Conclusion : Althragh adrenaline decreased the bleeding during surgery and facilitated the procedure, it is potentially dangerous for patients with cardiovascular disease during DCR syrgery.

  9. The influence of motor activity on the development of cardiac arrhythmias during experimental emotional stress

    Ulyaninskiy, L. S.; Urmancheyeva, T. G.; Stepanyan, Y. P.; Fufacheva, A. A.; Gritsak, A. V.; Kuznetsova, B. A.; Kvitka, A. A.


    Experimental emotional stress which can produce various disorders of cardiac rhythm: sinus tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, ventricular, extrasystoles and paroxysmal ventricular tachysystoles was studied. In these conditions the adrenalin content in the blood and myocardium is increased 3 to 4 times. It is found that moderate motor activity leads to a relative decrease of adrenalin in the myocardium and arrest of cardiac arrhythmias.




    Objectives-To evaluate lorry drivers' work stress by measurement of adrenaline and noradrenaline excreted in the urine, and to find out which factors in their working situation are related to the excretion rates of these catecholamines. Methods-The urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline o



    Objectives-To evaluate lorry drivers' work stress by measurement of adrenaline and noradrenaline excreted in the urine, and to find out which factors in their working situation are related to the excretion rates of these catecholamines. Methods-The urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline

  12. Brief note about plasma catecholamines kinetics and submaximal exercise in untrained standardbreds

    Paolo Baragli


    Full Text Available Four untrained standardbred horses performed a standardized exercise test on the treadmill and an automated blood collection system programmed to obtain blood samples every 15 s was used for blood collection in order to evaluate the kinetics of adrenaline and noradrenaline. The highest average values obtained for adrenaline and noradrenaline were 15.0 ± 3.0 and 15.8 ± 2.8 nmol/l respectively, with exponential accumulation of adrenaline (r = 0.977 and noradrenaline (r = 0.976 during the test. Analysis of the correlation between noradrenaline and adrenaline for each phase of the test shows that correlation coefficient decreases as the intensity of exercise increases (from r = 0.909 to r = 0.788. This suggests that during submaximal exercise, the process for release, distribution and clearance of adrenaline into blood circulation differs from that of noradrenaline.



    7.1 Upper Respiratory Tract Diesase And Bronchial Asthma 2007072 Dysfunction of releasing adrenaline in asthmatic adrenaline medullary chromaffin cells due to functional redundancy primed by nerve growth factor. WANG Jun(汪俊), et al. Dept Resp Dis Xiangya Hosp Central South Univ, Changsha 410008. Chin J Tuberc Dis 2006;29(12):812-815. Objective To investigate the possible causes of the dysfunction of adrenaline release in asthma rats and to identify the role of nerve growth factor(NGF) in this process.

  14. ST-elevations-myokardieinfarkt efter terapeutisk adrenalininjektion

    Rømhild Davidsen, Jesper; Lambrechtsen, Jess; Egstrup, Kenneth


    A case of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) following accidental iatrogenic overdose by adrenaline injection is described in a male aged 55 years. This patient was given 1 mg of adrenaline due to anaphylactic symptoms. Afterwards he presented with angina pectoris, dyspnoea and ST-segment elevation...... in the ECG. Plasma TnT and CK-MB were raised. A coronary angiography revealed a 66% stenosis of RCA. This patient had an asymptomatic RCA stenosis that probably became symptomatic due to coronary artery spasm related to adrenaline injection and thereby presented symptoms and signs of AMI....

  15. Indikation for adrenalinautoinjektor efter anafylaksi

    Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Mosbech, Holger


    Anaphylaxis is a potentially fatal hypersensitivity reaction, which should be treated with adrenaline. Patients at risk of recurrent anaphylaxis after the initial episode should be prescribed an adrenalin autoinjector. The patients include persons, who are allergic to insect venom, before...... they reach the maintenance dose of allergen-specific immunotherapy, persons with food allergy who are at risk of accidental intakes, persons with anaphylaxis induced by low-intensity physical activity, and idiopathic anaphylaxis. The recommended dose of adrenaline is 0.15 mg for children up to 20 kg and 0...

  16. Plasma catecholamine and serum gastrin concentrations during sham feeding

    Bekker, Carsten; Andersen, D; Kronborg, O


    Plasma adrenaline, plasma noradrenaline and serum gastrin concentrations were measured before and after sham feeding in eight patients with duodenal ulcer and in four normal subjects. No significant change in the concentrations was observed after sham feeding. In three patients with duodenal ulcer...... an insulin test resulted in a 25-fold rise in plasma adrenaline. The ulcer patients showed significantly higher levels of plasma adrenaline and plasma noradrenaline than the normal subjects both before and after sham feeding, and this difference was probably not caused only by age difference in the two...

  17. Catecholamine blood test

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  18. Characterisation of a-Adrenoceptors in the Carotid Vasculature: Possible Implications for Migraine Therapy

    E.W. Willems (Edwin)


    textabstractThe endogenous catecholamines noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and adrenaline (epinephrine), which are released upon activation of the sympathetic nervous system, play essential roles in the regulation of a host of physiological responses. Cardiovascular function is tightly regulated by th

  19. Drug: D06344 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available 948 D06344.gif Analgesic; Relaxant [muscle, veterinary] veterinary medicine alpha2-adrenergic receptor agoni...odopsin family Adrenaline alpha2-adrenergic receptor [HSA:150 151 152] [KO:K04138 K04139 K04140] Xylazine; Vet

  20. Evaluation of Anti-Diarrhoeal Property of Crude Aqueous Extract of ...

    Ocimum gratissimum extract mimicked the action of adrenaline and noradrenaline on ... guinea pig ileum by abolishing the acetylcholine – induced contraction of the smooth muscles of ileum and also exhibited anti-inflammatory action against ...

  1. Drug: D04710 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D04710 Drug Levobetaxolol hydrochloride (USAN); Betaxon (TN) C18H29NO3. HCl 343.191...-coupled receptors Rhodopsin family Adrenaline beta1-adrenergic receptor [HSA:153] [KO:K04141] Levobetaxolol D04710 Levobetaxol

  2. Splanchnic and renal elimination and release of catecholamines in cirrhosis. Evidence of enhanced sympathetic nervous activity in patients with decompensated cirrhosis

    Ring-Larsen, H; Kanstrup, I L; Christensen, N J


    Plasma noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A) concentrations were determined in different vascular areas in 32 patients with cirrhosis and in nine controls during a right sided heart, liver, and renal vein catheterisation. The patients were divided into four groups: (I) Compensated (without ascites......, respectively, the three last mentioned values being significantly raised (p less than 0.01). Median arterial adrenaline concentrations were not significantly increased. In patients arterial-hepatic venous extraction ratios of noradrenaline and adrenaline were on the average 25% (p less than 0.01) and 20% (p...... differences were significantly increased in groups II, III and IV (0.47, 0.53 and 0.68 nmol/l, p less than 0.01), indicating a significant net release of noradrenaline from the kidneys in recompensated and decompensated patients. Renal extraction of adrenaline was normal. In conclusion, increased arterial...

  3. Pre-hospital treatment of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions

    Ruiz Oropeza, Athamaica; Mikkelsen, Søren; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten


    was assessed according to Sampson's severity score and Mueller's severity score. Treatment was evaluated in relation to administration of adrenaline, glucocorticoids and antihistamine. RESULTS: We identified 273 cases (Odense 2008 n = 14 and Region of Southern Denmark 2009-2014 n = 259) of bee and wasp induced...... could not be graded according to Mueller's severity score. Adrenaline was administrated in 54% (96/177) of cases with moderate to severe anaphylaxis according to Sampson's severity score, compared to 88% receiving intravenous glucocorticoids (p ... adrenaline was administered in only 80% of the cases. CONCLUSION: Treatment with adrenaline is not administered in accordance with international guidelines. However, making an assessment of the severity of the anaphylactic reaction is difficult...

  4. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogen breakdown activates glycogen synthase and increases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in epitrochlearis muscles

    Kolnes, Anders J; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Eilertsen, Einar


    Adrenaline increases glycogen synthase (GS) phosphorylation and decreases GS activity but also stimulates glycogen breakdown and low glycogen content normally activates GS. To test the hypothesis that glycogen content directly regulates GS phosphorylation, glycogen breakdown was stimulated...... in condition with decreased GS activation. Saline or adrenaline (0.02mg/100g rat) was injected subcutaneously in Wistar rats (~130 g) with low (24 h fasted), normal (normal diet) and high glycogen content (fasted-refed) and epitrochlearis muscles were removed after 3 h and incubated ex vivo eliminating...... adrenaline action. Adrenaline injection reduced glycogen content in epitrochlearis muscles with high (120.7±17.8 vs 204.6±14.5 mmol•kg(-1); p

  5. Features Of Daily Dynamics Of Catecholamine Level In Myocardium Under The Influence Of Low Alcohol Drinks

    O.I. Kostin


    Full Text Available The research goal was to study the features of daily dynamics of adrenaline and noradrenaline content in various parts of myocardium at the rats receiving nonalcoholic and alcohol-containing beer at ordinary light regimen. Substantial increase of level of adrenaline and noradrenaline in all parts of myocardium at the rats received nonalcoholic and spirit-based beer in comparison with the control. At the rats received nonalcoholic beer, authentically higher content of adrenaline and low noradrenaline in myocardium in comparison with animals received alcohol-containing beer was observed. The circadian dynamics of catecholamine level in all parts of heart myocardium was disturbed at animals of both experimental groups in comparison with the control. The revealed disturbances of level of daily catecholamine dynamics in myocardium under the influence of beer, undoubtedly, are bound with negative action of nonalcoholic nature ingredients present in beer. Key words: adrenaline, noradrenaline, myocardium, low alcohol drinks.

  6. [Non-variceal upper digestive hemorrhage: evaluation of endoscopic sclerosing treatment].

    Yuguero del Moral, L; López Morante, A J; Martín Lorente, J L; Ojeda Giménez, C


    We appraise the efficacy of endoscopic injection treatment in 112 patients with gastroduodenal bleeding lesion versus 78 control patients (historical group), employing adrenaline (29 patients), absolute ethanol (52 patients) o adrenaline and ethanol (31 patients) as sclerosants. We observe in the treated group a diminution in rebleeding, lower transfusional blood needs and shorter hospital staying, with high stadistic significance versus the control group (p less than 0,001). Among treated patients the larger relapsing index (29.6%) was in patients treated with adrenaline injection only, against the group treated with ethanol or adrenaline and ethanol (10.2%) (p less than 0.05). The demand of surgical treatment was not significant between both groups, except in patients with actively jet bleeding, because urgent treatment was necessary in 37.5% of endoscopically treated patients versus 88.8% in not endoscopically treated. The mortality was similar in both groups.

  7. Dynamics of plasma catecholamine and corticosterone concentrations during reinforced and extinguished operant behavior in rats

    de Boer, S.F.; de Beun, R; Slangen, J L; van der Gugten, J


    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and corticosterone (CS) concentrations were determined simultaneously in permanently heart-cannulated rats before and during the performance of reinforced and nonreinforced (extinguished) operant behavior. Shortly before the experimental food-reinforced (VI

  8. Effect of Age, Adernaline and Operation Site on Duration of Caudal Analgesia in Paediatric Patients

    Kharirat Mohd., Yasir,G.A.Mir


    Full Text Available The effect ofage, operative site and addition of 1: 200,000 adrenaline to bupivacaine was evaluatedon the duration ofpost operative analgesia after caudal block in 200 children between the age groupof 1 year to 14 years. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained on Halothane/N20I02• After thiscaudal block was performed with 0.5 mllkg of0.25% bupivacaine in one group of 100 Children andwith 0.25% bupivacaine with adrenaline 1 : 200,000 in another 100 children. The duration of postoperative analgesia was noted to be significantly longer in young children, in children having penoscrotaloperations and when adrenaline was added to bupivacaine. Conclusion was drawn that durationofpost-operative analgesia depended upon age, site and addition of adrenaline to bupivacaine.

  9. Anaphylaxis in children


    importance of physiological antagonism with adrenaline and ... occur before any skin features become apparent.6. The cause of .... Organ extracts (ACTH, insulin). Heavy metals ... and dental staff may develop occupational allergy through use ...

  10. Aktivitas Jus Jeruk Nipis pada Mencit Jantan Swiss Webster yang Diinduksi Prokarbazin Hidroklorida

    Suwendar Suwendar


    Full Text Available Anti thrombocytopenia activity of the Citrus aurantifolia fruit juice using direct counting methods on adrenaline-induced mice has been carried out.  The induction effect tests of chloramphenicol, phenylbutazone and adrenaline were studied.  Results showed that adrenaline at the dosage of 0.08 mg/ kg body weight given intravenously, gave thrombocytopenia effect after 9 and 12 minutes. Anti thrombocytopenia effect of the juice of Citrus  aurantifolia fruit given orally into mice induced by adrenaline has been studied. Results showed that the juice of Citrus aurantifolia fruit at the dosage of  18 ml / kg of  body weight during seven days increased the thrombocyte count significantly (P<0.05. The juice at 9 and 4,5 ml / kg of body weight inhibited the decrease of trombocyte count.

  11. Exclusion diets and challenges in the diagnosis of food allergy

    food for a specific period (usually 2 - 6 weeks), followed by planned and intentional .... their adrenaline auto-injector with them so that it is available .... Niggemann B, Beyer K. Diagnosis of food allergy in children: Towards a standardization of.

  12. Establishment of a paediatric age-related reference interval for the measurement of urinary total fractionated metanephrines.

    Griffin, Alison


    Normetanephrine and metanephrine are intermediate metabolites of noradrenaline and adrenaline metabolism. To assess whether normetanephrine and metanephrine analysis may aid in the diagnosis of Neuroblastoma, a reference interval for these metabolites must first be established.

  13. Prolonged Heavy Vehicle Driving Performance: Effects of Unpredictable Shift Onset and Duration and Convoy versus Independent Driving Conditions


    frequently catecholamines or vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) (Schmid & Meythaler, 1964; Bellet et al., 1969; Ravina, 1969; Taggart, Gibbons & Somerville, 1969...among perfor- mance, circulating concentrations of adrenaline, noradrenaline, glucose and the free fatty acids in men performing a monitoring task. Psycho

  14. Dynamics of plasma catecholamine and corticosterone concentrations during reinforced and extinguished operant behavior in rats

    de Boer, S.F.; de Beun, R; Slangen, J L; van der Gugten, J

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and corticosterone (CS) concentrations were determined simultaneously in permanently heart-cannulated rats before and during the performance of reinforced and nonreinforced (extinguished) operant behavior. Shortly before the experimental food-reinforced (VI

  15. Indirect role of alpha2-adrenoreceptors in anti-ulcer effect mechanism of nimesulide in rats.

    Suleyman, Halis; Halici, Zekai; Cadirci, Elif; Hacimuftuoglu, Ahmet; Keles, Sait; Gocer, Fatma


    Nimesulide, a non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug, produces ulcerogenic effects in adrenalectomized rats but is gastro-protective in intact rats. The objective of this study was to determine whether adrenal gland hormones are involved in the anti-ulcer effects of nimesulide. The results revealed that 100 mg/kg nimesulide produces gastric ulceration in adrenalectomized rats, which is prevented by prednisolone and adrenaline. The anti-ulcer effects of adrenaline and prednisolone in adrenalectomized rats were in turn antagonized by yohimbine, a selective alpha(2)-receptor blocker, but not by doxazosine (alpha(1)-receptor blocker) or propranolol (beta-blocker). Adrenaline prevented the formation of indomethacin-induced ulcers in both adrenalectomized and intact rats, but prednisolone increased the indomethacin-induced ulcerous area in intact rats, whereas it decreased the size of the ulcers in adrenalectomized rats. In addition, prednisolone prevented ulcer formation in intact rats in which the adrenaline concentration had been decreased by metyrosine. These results suggest that glucocorticoids are anti-ulcerogenic in not only adrenalectomized rats but also in intact rats with diminished circulating levels of adrenaline. In the light of these data, the effect of nimesulide on plasma adrenaline concentrations was studied. In comparison to the adrenaline levels found in intact control rats, the administration of nimesulide at doses of 10, 20, 40 and 100 mg/kg decreased adrenaline concentrations by 12.8, 22.6, 30.4, and 58.2%, respectively, without affecting blood corticosterone concentrations. The anti-ulcer effect of nimesulide was observed to be dose-dependent, and the strength of this effect was directly correlated the decreasing concentration of adrenaline. The concentration of adrenaline was decreased by 60.9% in rats treated with 300 mg/kg metyrosine in which prednisolone produced anti-ulcer effects. In summary, we have shown that nimesulide produces its anti

  16. Catecholamine and insulin control of lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue during long-term diet-induced weight loss in obese women.

    Koppo, Katrien; Siklová-Vitková, Michaela; Klimcáková, Eva; Polák, Jan; Marques, Marie A; Berlan, Michel; Van de Voorde, Johan; Bulow, Jens; Langin, Dominique; de Glisezinski, Isabelle; Stich, Vladimir


    The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution of the adrenergic and insulin-mediated regulation of lipolysis during different phases of a 6-mo dietary intervention. Eight obese women underwent a 6-mo dietary intervention consisting of a 1-mo very low-calorie diet (VLCD) followed by a 2-mo low-calorie diet (LCD) and 3-mo weight maintenance (WM) diet. At each phase of the dietary intervention, microdialysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) was performed at rest and during a 3-h hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Responses of dialysate glycerol concentration (DGC) were determined at baseline and during local perfusions with adrenaline or adrenaline and phentolamine before and during the last 30 min of the clamp. Dietary intervention induced a body weight reduction and an improved insulin sensitivity. DGC progressively decreased during the clamp, and this decrease was similar during the different phases of the diet. The adrenaline-induced increase in DGC was higher at VLCD and LCD compared with baseline condition and returned to prediet levels at WM. In the probe with adrenaline and phentolamine, the increase in DGC was higher than that in the adrenaline probe at baseline and WM, but it was not different at VLCD and LCD. The results suggest that the responsiveness of SCAT to adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis increases during the calorie-restricted phases due to a reduction of the α(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated antilipolytic action of adrenaline. At WM, adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis returned to the prediet levels. Furthermore, no direct relationship between insulin sensitivity and the diet-induced changes in the regulation of lipolysis was found.

  17. Role of personal psychological profiles in somatic pathology development

    Prokhorenko I.O.; Zarubina E.G.


    The research goal is to examine the correlation between psychological profile of patients of senior age groups, levels of stress hormones — adrenaline and noradrenaline — in blood serum and their pathology character. A psychological profile of 247 patients aged from 55 to 82 years has been established with the help of Kettle test, Tsung self-assessment scale and Spilberger-Khanin scale. The rate of adrenaline and noradrenaline in blood serum in the period of exacerbation of somatic pathology ...

  18. Epinephrine in Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest: Helpful or Harmful?

    Huan Shao


    Conclusions: The administration of adrenaline was associated with improved short-term survival (ROSC. However, it appears that the use of adrenaline is associated with no benefit on survival to hospital discharge or survival with favorable neurological outcome after OHCA, and it may have a harmful effect. Larger placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized control trials are required to definitively establish the effect of epinephrine.

  19. Radiation Chemistry Studies on Chemotherapeutic Agents

    Gohn, M.; Getoff, N.; Bjergbakke, Erling


    Adrenalin has been studied as a model radiation protective agent by means of pulse radiolysis in aqueous solutions. The rate constants for the reactions of adrenalin with e–aq and OH were determined : k(e–aq+ adr—NH+2)= 7.5 × 108 dm3 mol–1 s–1, k(e–aq+ adr—NH)= 2.5 × 108 dm3 mol–1 s–1, and k...

  20. A case of severe anaphylaxis following coronary angiography

    Anil Kumar


    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis reactions are not uncommon in routine practice and involve multiple systems usually. Cardiovascular collapse is the severest form of reaction. We present a case of severe anaphylactic reaction with cardiovascular collapse without other systems involvement which had to treat with intravenous adrenaline for a prolonged duration (successfully. The case is presented because of the rarity of presentation (single system involvement and requirement of prolonged use of adrenaline for more than 24 h.

  1. Tako-tsubo-like cardiomyopathy after EpiPen administration.

    Zubrinich, C M; Farouque, H M Omar; Rochford, S E; Sutherland, M F


    Tako-tsubo-like cardiomyopathy is characterized by acute chest pain, electrocardiographic changes and increased cardiac enzymes in the absence of obstructive coronary vessel disease. We describe the development of tako-tsubo-like cardiomyopathy in an elderly woman after the use of an EpiPen for generalized urticaria and angioedema. As adrenaline may participate in the pathogenesis of this condition, the need for careful patient selection and education in the use of adrenaline self-injectors remains imperative.

  2. Plasma catecholamine concentrations associated with cerebral vasospasm.

    Loach, A B; Benedict, C R


    Plasma concentrations of adrenaline and noradrenaline were measured sequentially over the immediate post-operative period following clipping of an intracranial aneurysm in 11 patients. Those patients who developed local cerebral vasospasm showed a sustained rise in plasma catecholamines, particularly noradrenaline, whilst those patients who developed generalised cerebral vasospasm showed early peaks of very high concentrations of adrenaline and noradrenaline which preceded radiological evidence of generalized vasospam.

  3. Effects of ovarian stimulation on blood pressure and plasma catecholamine levels.

    Tollan, A; Oian, P; Kjeldsen, S E; Holst, N; Eide, I


    Effects of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization on blood pressure and plasma catecholamine levels were studied in 10 women. The examinations were carried out before hormonal treatment with human menopausal gonadotropin (day three of the menstrual cycle, mean serum oestradiol concentration 0.2 nmol l-1, and on the day after ovulation induction with human chorionic gonadotropin (cycle days 10-12, mean serum oestradiol concentration 7.4 nmol l-1). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures (mean +/- SD) decreased 6.7 +/- 8.6 mm Hg, p = 0.049, and 5.3 +/- 4.7 mm Hg, p = 0.009, respectively), and venous plasma noradrenaline increased (42 +/- 44 pg ml-1, p = 0.02) during ovarian stimulation. No significant change was observed in either arterial noradrenaline, arterial adrenaline or venous adrenaline. After stimulation a positive correlation was observed between systolic blood pressure and arterial adrenaline (r = 0.73, p = 0.027), and between systolic blood pressure and the arterial-venous difference for adrenaline (r = 0.81, p = 0.007). The increased venous noradrenaline levels may be a reflex-mediated activation of the sympathetic nervous tone due to a decrease in blood pressure, or may indicate reduced neuronal re-uptake of released noradrenaline. The mechanisms behind the strong correlation between adrenaline and blood pressure are unclear, but may be induced by the supraphysiological oestradiol levels. Thus, adrenaline seems to be more important for blood pressure control in this particular setting.

  4. Anafylaksi efter bi- eller hvepsestik i Region Syddanmark i perioden 2008-2011

    Oropeza, Athamaica Ruiz; Mikkelsen, Søren; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten;

    intramuskulær adrenalin (64 % ifølge Sampson’s skala og 76 % ifølge Muraro’s). Af de 38 patienter der blev set i Odense fik 66 % intravenøs (IV) binyrebarkhormon, 63 % IV antihistamin og 5 % IV adrenalin (blandt dem med moderat til svær anafylaksi fik op til 77 % IV binyrebarkhormon og op til 82 % IV...... antihistamin). Blandt de 55 patienter i resten af Region Syddanmark fik 80 % IV binyrebarkhormon, 78 % IV antihistamin og 7 % IV adrenalin (blandt dem med moderat til svær anafylaksi fik op til 94 % IV binyrebarkhormon og op til 90 %, IV antihistamin). Af dem der fik IV adrenalin havde 2 ud af 2 tidligere fået...... intramuskulær adrenalin i Odense-området og 1 ud af 4 i resten af Region Syddanmark. Konklusion: Over 50 % af de reporterede tilfælde af allergi efter bi- og hvepsestik kunne gradueres som moderat til svær anafylaksi. Lang de fleste fik behandling med IV binyrebarkhormon og antihistamin, men kun omkring 50 % af...

  5. The influence of subacute sidnocarb treatment on cateholamine concentration in the structures of central nervous system.

    Drozdov O.L.


    Full Text Available The psychos stimulators are known to be able to excite catecholamine mechanisms in the nervous system, in particular to increase freeing of catecholamine from presynaptic completions. The purpose of work was an estimation of changes of catecholamine (adrenalin and noradrenalin in the structures of cerebrum after sidnocarb treatment in the conditions of ex-periment on 48 Vistar rats. The model of the proof pathological state of cerebrum for rats was created by intrastomach intro-duction of sidnocarb in the dose of 5 mg/kg 2 times per a day during 14 days. The concentration of adrenalin and noradrenalin in the structures of brain was determined by flyuorometric method. The frontal area of neocortex, striate body, medialis part of talamus, pons and hypocampus were chose. The accumulation of adrenalin was observed in hypocampus and medialis part of thalamus by the 3rd day, the increase of concentration was on 26,1% and 43,9% correspondly. The considerable increase of adrenalin concentration in the striate body have been determined (on 76,7% and in the neocortex (in 2,2 times. By the 14th day of sidnocarb treatment the level of adrenalin in the pons was lower on 48,1% that in control animals. Thus, the changes of noradrenalin concentration during the development of experimental psyxosis by sidnocarb treatment were significant and had different character.

  6. Influence on driver fatigue of vertical vibrations over long distances. Assessment in terms of stress hormones; Driver no unten hiro ni okeru joge shindo no eikyo. Stress hormone wo shiyo to shite

    Taguchi, T.; Inagaki, H. [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan)


    Driving tests are conducted to obtain some indexes that describe the cumulative effect of the sense of tiredness. The heart rate, Mayer wave related sinus arrhythmia, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, urinary adrenaline, noradrenaline, and cortisol in saliva are tested. Adrenaline and Mayer wave related sinus arrhythmia are ultimately named in view of their correlation with tiredness. It is believed that tiredness is attributable to two factors, which are increase in mental stress and decrease in vigilance. An excitation test is then conducted using a motion simulator. Upon application of 4Hz vibrations (equivalent to the chest section resonance frequency), adrenaline increases sharply, and then decreases sharply upon termination of excitation. Upon application of 1.6Hz vibrations (equivalent to the head section resonance frequency), adrenaline increases but not sharply, and the elevated level is sustained for some time after excitation. Driving tests are next conducted using a vehicle with its suspension fixed and another with 1-2Hz vibrations reduced. Rise in the adrenaline level is found inhibited aboard the latter. No difference is detected in terms of Mayer wave related sinus arrhythmia between the two vehicles. 4 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Dexmedetomidine overdosage: An unusual presentation

    Soumya S Nath


    Full Text Available We present a case of dexmedetomidine toxicity in a 3-year-old child. The case report describes the features and outlines the treatment strategy adopted. The child presented with bradypnoea, bradycardia, hypotension, deep hypnosis and miosis. He was successfully managed with oxygen, saline boluses and adrenaline infusion. He became haemodynamically stable with adrenaline infusion. He started responding to painful stimuli in 3 h and became oriented in 7 h. Dexmedetomidine, a selective α2 adrenoceptor agonist, is claimed to have a wide safety margin. This case report highlights the fact that dexmedetomidine administered in a toxic dose may be life-threatening may present with miosis and adrenaline infusion may be a useful supportive treatment.

  8. The adrenergic retulation of the cardiovascular system in the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus

    Galli, G.L.J.; Jensen, Nini Skovgaard; Abe, A.S.


    The present study investigates adrenergic regulation of the systemic and pulmonary circulations of the anaesthetised South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus. Haemodynamic measurements were made following bolus injections of adrenaline and adrenergic antagonists administered through a systemic...... arterial catheter. Adrenaline caused a marked systemic vasoconstriction that was abolished by phentolamine, indicating this response was mediated through α-adrenergic receptors. Injection of phentolamine gave rise to a pronounced vasodilatation (systemic conductance (Gsys) more than doubled), while...... injection of propranolol caused a systemic vasoconstriction, pointing to a potent α-adrenergic, and a weaker β-adrenergic tone in the systemic vasculature of Crotalus. Overall, the pulmonary vasculature was far less responsive to adrenergic stimulation than the systemic circulation. Adrenaline caused...

  9. Impaired hormonal counterregulation to biochemical hypoglycaemia does not explain the high incidence of severe hypoglycaemia during pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Thorsteinsson, Birger; Boomsma, Frans


    = 0.79). Adrenaline concentrations at biochemical hypoglycaemia increased from normoglycaemia at diabetes duration adrenaline concentrations were comparable in women with or without severe hypoglycaemia (24 (14-164) pg/ml vs. 33 (5-86), p = 0.......35). Noradrenaline, glucagon and cortisol concentrations did not increase during biochemical hypoglycaemia. Conclusion. Adrenaline response to biochemical hypoglycaemia was present at similar levels in early and late pregnancy, particularly in shorter diabetes duration, and was not associated with severe......Abstract Aims. To explore hormonal counterregulation to biochemical hypoglycaemia during pregnancy. Methods. Observational study of 107 consecutive pregnant women with type 1 diabetes (median duration 16 years (range 1-36), HbA1c 6.6% (4.9-10.5) in early pregnancy) and 22 healthy pregnant women...

  10. Regulation and role of hormone-sensitive lipase in rat skeletal muscle

    Donsmark, Morten; Langfort, Jozef; Holm, Cecilia


    fibre types, being higher in oxidative fibres than in glycolytic fibres. When analysed under conditions optimal for HSL, neutral lipase activity in muscle can be stimulated by adrenaline as well as by contractions. These increases are abolished by the presence of anti-HSL antibody during analysis....... Moreover, immunoprecipitation with affinity-purified anti-HSL antibody causes similar reductions in muscle HSL protein concentration and in measured neutral lipase responses to contractions. The immunoreactive HSL in muscle is stimulated by adrenaline via beta-adrenergic activation of c...... of ERK is not necessary for stimulation of HSL by adrenaline. However, contraction-induced HSL activation is mediated by PKC, at least partly via the ERK pathway. In fat cells ERK is known to phosphorylate HSL at Ser(600). Hence, phosphorylation of different sites may explain the finding that in muscle...

  11. Effect of catecholamines and insulin on plasma volume and intravascular mass of albumin in man

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J; Larsen, S


    1. The effect of intravenous catecholamine infusions and of intravenous insulin on plasma volume and intravascular mass of albumin was investigated in healthy males. 2. Physiological doses of adrenaline (0.5 microgram/min and 3 microgram/min) increased peripheral venous packed cell volume...... significantly; intravenous noradrenaline at 0.5 microgram/min had no effect on packed cell volume, whereas packed cell volume increased significantly at 3 micrograms of noradrenaline/min. No significant change in packed cell volume was found during saline infusion. 3. During adrenaline infusion at 6 micrograms...... in packed cell volume, plasma volume, intravascular mass of albumin and transcapillary escape rate of albumin during hypoglycaemia may be explained by the combined actions of adrenaline and insulin....

  12. Contractions activate hormone-sensitive lipase in rat muscle by protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase

    Donsmark, Morten; Langfort, Jozef; Holm, Cecilia


    Intramuscular triacylglycerol is an important energy store and is also related to insulin resistance. The mobilization of fatty acids from this pool is probably regulated by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which has recently been shown to exist in muscle and to be activated by both adrenaline...... and contractions. Adrenaline acts via cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The signalling mediating the effect of contractions is unknown and was explored in this study. Incubated soleus muscles from 70 g male rats were electrically stimulated to perform repeated tetanic contractions for 5 min. The contraction...... of the inhibitors reduced adrenaline-induced HSL activation in soleus muscle. Both phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), which activates PKC and, in turn, ERK, and caffeine, which increases intracellular Ca2+ without eliciting contraction, increased HSL activity. Activated ERK increased HSL activity in supernatant...

  13. The effect of adrenal demedullation on cardiovascular responses to environmental stimulation in conscious rats.

    Borkowski, K. R.; Kelly, E.


    Circulating plasma adrenaline has been implicated in the facilitation of neurogenic pressor responses and development of hypertension. Bilateral adrenal demedullation in rats did not affect body weight, urine output, urinary electrolyte (Na+, K+ and Cl-) excretion, nor plasma corticosterone concentration, indicating the selective nature of the demedullation procedure. Adrenal demedullation did induce significant reductions in adrenal catecholamine content, plasma adrenaline levels, resting blood pressure and heart rate in conscious rats, but did not affect alerting-induced increases in blood pressure. The adrenal medulla and circulating plasma adrenaline appear to contribute to the maintenance of resting cardiovascular parameters, but would not appear to be involved in nor facilitate the cardiovascular responses to environmental stimulation. PMID:3742165

  14. Challenges in understanding the impact of blood pressure management on cerebral oxygenation in the preterm brain

    Aminath eAzhan


    Full Text Available Systemic hypotension in preterm infants has been related to increased mortality, cerebrovascular lesions and neurodevelopmental morbidity. Treatment of hypotension with inotropic medications aims at preservation of end organ perfusion and oxygen delivery, especially the brain. The common inotropic medications in preterm infants include dopamine, dobutamine, adrenalin, with adjunctive use of corticosteroids in cases of refractory hypotension. Whether maintenance of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP by use of inotropic medication is neuroprotective or not remains unclear. This review explores the different inotropic agents and their effects on perfusion and oxygenation in the preterm brain, in clinical studies as well as in animal models. Dopamine and adrenalin, because of their -adrenergic vasoconstrictor actions, have raised concerns of reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF. Several studies in hypotensive preterm infants have shown that dopamine elevates CBF together with increased MAP, in keeping with limited cerebro-autoregulation. Adrenaline is also effective in raising cerebral perfusion together with MAP in preterm infants. Experimental studies in immature animals show no cerebro-vasoconstrictive effects of dopamine or adrenaline, but demonstrate the consistent findings of increased cerebral perfusion and oxygenation with the use of dopamine, dobutamine and adrenaline, alongside with raised MAP. Both clinical and animal studies report the transitory effects of adrenaline in increasing plasma lactate, and blood glucose, which might render its use as a 2nd line therapy. To investigate the cerebral effects of inotropic agents in long-term outcome in hypotensive preterm infants, carefully designed prospective research possibly including preterm infants with permissive hypotension is required. Preterm animal models would be useful in investigating the relationship between the physiological effects of inotropes and histopathology outcomes in

  15. α₂-Adrenoceptor-mediated inhibition of catecholamine release from the adrenal medulla of spontaneously hypertensive rats is preserved in the early stages of hypertension.

    Moura, Eduardo; Pinto, Carina E; Caló, Ana; Serrão, Maria P; Afonso, Joana; Vieira-Coelho, Maria A


    In this study, we evaluated the effect of α(2) -adrenoceptor activation on catecholamine release from the adrenal medulla of pre-hypertensive (6-week-old) and hypertensive (16-week-old) spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and of age-matched normotensive control Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Catecholamine overflow from isolated adrenal medullae was evoked by the nicotinic receptor agonist 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (DMPP) in the absence and presence of the α(2) -adrenoceptor agonist medetomidine (MED). The spontaneous outflow of adrenaline was similar between age-matched SHR and WKY rats. However, the spontaneous outflow of noradrenaline was significantly lower in SHR compared with age-matched WKY rats. DMPP (0.1-3 mM) increased the outflow of noradrenaline and adrenaline in a concentration-dependent manner. The E(max) values for adrenaline overflow were similar between strains, but the E(max) values for noradrenaline overflow were significantly lower in SHR. The EC(50) values for noradrenaline and adrenaline overflow were significantly higher in SHR compared with age-matched WKY rats. MED (0.1-300 nM) reduced the DMPP-evoked overflow (DMPP 500 μM) of noradrenaline and adrenaline in a concentration-dependent manner and was capable of totally inhibiting this effect. The inhibitory action of MED was similar between age-matched SHR and WKY rats. In the adrenals, the α(2A)- and α(2B)-adrenoceptor subtypes had the highest mRNA expression levels; the α(2C)-adrenoceptor subtype had the lowest mRNA expression levels. The mRNA levels for the three subtypes were similar between strains. In conclusion, in SHR during the development of hypertension, adrenal α(2) -adrenoceptor inhibitory function is conserved, accompanied by reduced noradrenaline release and unchanged adrenaline release.

  16. A reflection on feelings and the history of science.

    Dror, Otniel E


    This reflection attends to Paul White's call in his introduction to this Focus section for a history of science that is informed by the history of emotions. It offers a succinct historical exemplification of the possibilities of studying the history of science in terms of the history of emotions. It draws on Raymond Williams's concept of "structure of feeling" in arguing for the emergence of an adrenaline structure of feeling during the early twentieth century. It provides a mosaic of different views of the immanence of the adrenaline structure of feeling in diverse scientific realms by broaching some of the major themes that appear in the individual essays in this Focus section.

  17. Pre-hospital treatment of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions

    Ruiz Oropeza, Athamaica; Mikkelsen, Søren; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten;


    was assessed according to Sampson's severity score and Mueller's severity score. Treatment was evaluated in relation to administration of adrenaline, glucocorticoids and antihistamine. RESULTS: We identified 273 cases (Odense 2008 n = 14 and Region of Southern Denmark 2009-2014 n = 259) of bee and wasp induced...... could not be graded according to Mueller's severity score. Adrenaline was administrated in 54% (96/177) of cases with moderate to severe anaphylaxis according to Sampson's severity score, compared to 88% receiving intravenous glucocorticoids (p antihistamines (p...

  18. Temporal responses of cutaneous blood flow and plasma catecholamine concentrations to histamine H1- or H2-receptor stimulation in man

    Knigge, U; Alsbjørn, B; Thuesen, B;


    continuously with a laser Doppler flowmeter, and noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations were determined in blood samples drawn every 15 min. The infusion of histamine caused an immediate and sustained vasodilatation. The Concomitant infusion of mepyramine prevented the immediate vasodilatation, but had...... noradrenaline, while the increase during concomitant H1-receptor blockade was delayed but achieved the level observed during the histamine infusion. The response to histamine during H2-receptor blockade was small and transient. The rise in plasma adrenaline was not significant. These findings suggest...

  19. Risikostyring med rapportering af kritiske situationer. Forveksling af K-vitamin og ephedrin på en fødegang

    Seidelin, J; Pedersen, B L; Mogensen, T S


    or a solitary incident. If considered a general problem, procedures should be changed and implemented in the department. RESULTS: Two incidents were reported, where ephedrine and adrenaline were found in a box supposed to contain vitamin K for new-born babies. These were considered a general problem...... by the project group, and the procedure for storing and managing ephedrine and adrenaline in the delivery department was changed to prevent new cases. DISCUSSION: Near misses occur more often than actual errors, and we argue that, as they are easier to discover, it is important to learn from them and thus...

  20. Acute myocardial infarction is associated with endothelial glycocalyx and cell damage and a parallel increase in circulating catecholamines

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Pedersen, Sune H; Jensen, Jan S


    -patients admitted to a single high-volume invasive heart centre for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) from September 2006 to July 2008. Blood samples were drawn immediately before pPCI. Plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, syndecan-1 and thrombomodulin were measured retrospectively with complete data...... in 571 patients (84%). Median follow-up time was 28 (IQR 23 to 34) months. Follow-up was 99.7% complete. Outcomes were all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, re-myocardial infarction and admission due to heart failure. RESULTS: Circulating noradrenaline and adrenaline correlated weakly but independently...

  1. [Treatment and management of food allergy].

    Urisu, Atsuo


    Management for food allergy consists of treatment for hypersensitive reactions by causative foods and prophylactic control of food allergy. The former is administration of histamine H1 receptor antagonist, adrenaline and steroid. It is recommended that all patients with a history of severe reactions carry a device for self-injection of adrenaline (Epipen). The latter is avoidance of the relevant food allergens. Nutritional instruction by skillful dietitians is important to prevent the nutritional defect and improve the quality of life of food-allergic patients.

  2. Cardioprotective effect of amlodipine in oxidative stress induced by experimental myocardial infarction in rats

    Sudhira Begum


    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether the administration of amlodipine ameliorates oxidative stress induced by experimental myocardial infarction in rats. Adrenaline was administered and myocardial damage was evaluated biochemically [significantly increased serum aspertate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and malondialdehyde (MDA levels of myocardial tissue] and histologically (morphological changes of myocardium. Amlodipine was administered as pretreatment for 14 days in adrenaline treated rats. Statistically significant amelioration in all the biochemical parameters supported by significantly improved myocardial morphology was observed in amlodipine pretreatment. It was concluded that amlodipine afforded cardioprotection by reducing oxidative stress induced in experimental myocardial infarction of catecholamine assault.

  3. Marginal granilocytic pool in the treatment of malignant tumors

    Angelova, I.; Bakalov, M.; Zografov, D. (Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya)


    Using the adrenaline test in 57 patients with malignant tumors, the authors examined the marginal granulocytic pool at different time in the course of treatment. The state of the pool was correlated with that of the neutrophilic cells in the circulating blood and with its state before treatment was started. It is concluded that in the course of treatment the neutrophilic cell counts in the marginal cells pool undergo changes similar to those in the circulation pool. It is therefore unjustifiable to include the adrenaline test in the control examination of patients with leucopenia.

  4. Catecholaminergic activation in acute myocardial infarction: time course and relation to left ventricular performance

    Petersen, Claus Leth; Nielsen, Jens Rokkedal; Petersen, Bodil Laub;


    AIM: The study was designed to assess (1) the time course of catecholaminergic activation in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) as estimated by adrenaline (ADR) and noradrenaline (NOR) concentrations, and (2) to relate activation of these hormones to predict the outcome of cardiac performance...

  5. Cardiac Arrest after Local Anaesthetic Toxicity in a Paediatric Patient

    Liana Maria Torres de Araújo Azi


    Full Text Available We report a case of a paediatric patient undergoing urological procedure in which a possible inadvertent intravascular or intraosseous injection of bupivacaine with adrenaline in usual doses caused subsequent cardiac arrest, completely reversed after administration of 20% intravenous lipid emulsion. Early diagnosis of local anaesthetics toxicity and adequate cardiovascular resuscitation manoeuvres contribute to the favourable outcome.

  6. Autonomic response to an experimental psychological stressor in healthy subjects: measurement of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and pituitary-adrenal parameters: test-retest reliability

    Jørgensen, L S; Christiansen, P; Raundahl, U


    A mental arithmetic test (the stressor; 15 min) significantly increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and plasma adrenaline by 11%, 12%, 28% and 152% respectively, with a prompt return to resting values after the test. Plasma noradrenaline and serum cortisol did not increase s...

  7. Full Text Available During periods of stress, such as preparing to run in a race, the brain signals the adrenal glands to produce epinephrine or "adrenaline". ... to react. As a longer term response to stress, cortisol is secreted by the adrenal glands, promoting ...

  8. Ion exchange mechanisms on the erythrocyte membrane of the aquatic salamander, Amphiuma tridactylum

    Tufts, B L; Nikinmaa, M; Steffensen, J F


    The effects of different pharmacological agents and incubation media on the intracellular pH and water content of Amphiuma erythrocytes were investigated in vitro. Adrenaline had no significant effect on the intracellular pH or cell water content. DIDS caused an intracellular alkalinization that ...

  9. A Capabilities Based Assessment of the United States Air Force Critical Care Air Transport Team


    recurring issues became the conditions used to refine the future scenarios. These include:  Fatigue  Crew Resource Management  Burnout  PTSD... Burnout o PTSD o Adrenaline Junkies o Resilience o Logistics of CCAT Equipment o Communication Flow of equipment purchasing o Communication...cargo aircraft CCAT Acute Lung Rescue Team – - Provide specialized care to patients experiencing acute respiratory distress syndrome

  10. Reversal by pronethalol of dibenamine blockade: a study on the seminal vesicle of the guinea-pig.

    Guimarães, S


    1. The guinea-pig seminal vesicle has been shown to be a very suitable test object for the study of mechanisms involving alpha-adrenoceptive receptors, because no beta-receptors were found in this preparation.2. Adrenaline, noradrenaline and phenylephrine were directly acting agonists, their ED50 values being 7.1 x 10(-6)M, 1.5 x 10(-5)M and 2.7 x 10(-5)M, respectively.3. Pretreatment with reserpine had no influence on the contractions caused by adrenaline, noradrenaline and phenylephrine but abolished or greatly reduced the contractions caused by dopamine. Cocaine enhanced the effects of adrenaline, noradrenaline and phenylephrine and reduced those of dopamine.4. Pronethalol (6.8 x 10(-5)M) reversed the alpha-receptor blockade by dibenamine, ergotamine and phentolamine of responses to adrenaline, noradrenaline and phenylephrine; it did not affect the blockade by dibenamine of responses to histamine.5. Reversal of the blockade by dibenamine was observed only when its concentration was such that it caused a parallel shift of the dose-effect curves of the agonists to the right; higher concentrations, which caused an unsurmountable depression of the maximal contraction, were not antagonized by pronethalol.6. It is assumed that the reversal is dependent on a direct action on alpha-receptors, "spare receptors" being probably involved.

  11. Adrenergic mechanism responsible for pathological alteration in gastric mucosal blood flow in rats with ulcer bleeding

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.; Pavlov, A. N.; Semyachkin-Glushkovskiy, I. A.; Gekalyuk, A. S.; Ulanova, M. V.; Lychagov, V. V.; Tuchin, V. V.


    The adrenergic system plays an important role in regulation of central and peripheral circulation in normal state and during hemorrhage. Because the impaired gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) is the major cause of gastroduodenal lesions, including ulcer bleeding (UB), we studied the adrenergic mechanism responsible for regulation of GMBF in rats with a model of stress-induced UB (SUB) using the laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). First, we examined the effect of adrenaline on GMBF in rats under normal state and during UB. In all healthy animals the submucosal adrenaline injection caused a decrease in local GMBF. During UB the submucosal injection of adrenaline was accompanied by less pronounced GMBF suppression in 30,3% rats with SUB vs. healthy ones. In 69,7% rats with SUB we observed the increase in local GMBF after submucosal injection of adrenaline. Second, we studied the sensitivity of gastric β2-adrenoreceptors and the activity of two factors which are involved in β2-adrenomediated vasorelaxation-KATP -channels and NO. The effects of submucosal injection of isoproterenol, ICI118551 and glybenclamide on GMBF as well as NO levels in gastric tissue were significantly elevated in rats with SUB vs. healthy rats. Thus, our results indicate that high activation of gastric β2-adrenoreceptors associated with the increased vascular KATP -channels activity and elevated NO production is the important adrenergic mechanism implicated in the pathogenesis of UB.

  12. 12星座最爱的书籍%The Signs' Favorite Books



    @@ Aries白羊座 The rushing Ram will want a quick and entertaining read that will give them a rush of adrenalin.Short stories and thrillers suit the turbo-charged Aries.Favorite books could include Edgar Allen Poe's stories,and some of Stephen King's shorter works.

  13. Jungle Juice: Knowledge and Usage Among Kenyan Surgical Teams

    of 1:1000 Adrenaline solution, +/- hyaluronidase. This survey aimed to ... Methods. This was a cross-sectional descriptive survey carried out in operating ... selection of the referral facilities, stage two was sampling of ... 33. 100.0. Jungle Juice and its uses ... was no difference in the distribution of knowledge levels between ...

  14. Hepatic intestinal uptake and release of catecholamines in alcoholic cirrhosis. Evidence of enhanced hepatic intestinal sympathetic nervous activity

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Ring-Larsen, H; Christensen, N J


    during hepatic vein catheterisation in order to determine both flux rates. In alcoholic cirrhosis plasma concentrations of endogenous NA and adrenaline (A) were significantly above control values (NA: median 2.4 v 1.7 nmol/l, p less than 0.02; A: 0.38 v 0.19 nmol/l, p less than 0.01). Whole body...

  15. The Effect of Dextromethorphan on the Testes of Adult Sprague ...

    Dr Olaleye

    of glucose into the bloodstream, which, during periods of chronic stress, creates an excessive release of insulin. Insulin is a fat-storage hormone that overrides the stress signal from adrenalin to burn fat. ... fat metabolism and/ or a consequent increase in feed ... We thank Mrs Nmaka Tijani, the regulatory Affairs Manager.

  16. Physiological and psychological reactions to work in men and women with identical job tasks

    Persson, Roger; Hansen, Åse Marie; Ohlsson, Kerstina


    decrease in perceived energy levels during the workshift but there were no differences between men and women as regards cortisol, adrenaline, noradrenaline, heart-rate activation, perceived stress, pain and physical exertion. In conclusion, differential physiological activation during the workshift seem...

  17. Neuroendocrine responses to hypoglycaemia decrease within the first year after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes

    Damholt, M B; Christensen, N J; Hilsted, Jannik


    Neuroendocrine responses (adrenaline, noradrenaline and pancreatic polypeptide (PP)) to hypoglycaemia are often diminished in long-term diabetic patients, but the role of autonomic nervous system changes in these reductions is not yet fully clarified. In order to establish whether such changes in...

  18. Simple mastectomy under local anaesthesia.

    Dennison, A. R.; Watkins, R. M.; Ward, M. E.; Lee, E. C.


    Nine patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the breast underwent simple mastectomy under regional anaesthesia (1% lignocaine and 1:100,000 adrenaline). Preoperative sedation was provided by oral lorazepam. There were no technical problems, evidence of lignocaine toxicity or excessive operative blood loss and no wounds became infected. PMID:4037637

  19. Drug: D00076 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D00076 Drug Noradrenaline (JP16); Norepinephrine (INN); Nor adrenalin (TN) [BR:br08301] 2 Agents affecting individual organs 24 Hormones 245 Adrenal hormone preparations 2451 Epinephrines D00076 Nora... C01CA Adrenergic and dopaminergic agents C01CA03 Norepinephrine D00076 Noradrena

  20. Intracranial hemorrhagic infarct after local anesthesia on nasal mucosa: A case report

    Murat Koçyiğit


    Conclusion: We want to emphasize that all surgeons especially the ENT surgeons should be careful while using local anesthetic medicines which contains adrenaline for rare complication of intracranial hemorrhagic infarction. Another fact is that the patients must sign an informed consent form including those situations even for all minor surgical procedures to avoid a medicolegal problem.

  1. Effects of the selective β1-adrenoceptor antagonist, nebivolol, on cardiovascular parameters in the pithed normotensive rat

    Schneider, J.; Fruh, C.; Wilffert, B.; Peters, Thies


    In the pithed rat we investigated the cardiovascular properties of d,l-nebivolol and its enantiomers. We used the increase in heart rate elicited by (-)-adrenaline and (-)-noradrenaline as a model for studying β1-adrenoceptors. A leftward shift of the logarithmic dose-pressor response curve of (-)-a

  2. Capillary perfusion in the superior rectus muscle in rabbit with the use of radioactive /sup 133/Xe

    Moszczy' nska-Kowalska, A.


    A method of tissues clearance was adapted for investigation of the blood flow in external eye muscles in rabbit. It was established that it amounts to 0.1315 ml/min/g and this is about six times the amount of blood flow in skeletal muscles during rest. It was shown that adrenalin, pridazol, and sadamin reduce the blood flow. (auth)

  3. Gene-load score of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is associated with coronary heart disease in familial hypercholesterolaemia

    J.B. van der Net (Jeroen); J. van Etten (Jeroen); M. Yazdanpanah (Mojgan); G.M. Dallinga-Thie (Geesje); J.J.P. Kastelein (John); J.C. Defesche (Joep); R.P. Koopmans (Richard); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric)


    textabstractAims: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is characterized by premature coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the incidence of CHD varies considerably among FH patients. Genetic variation in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and the adrenalin/noradrenalin system may be of

  4. β-Adrenoceptor blocking properties of dl-nebivolol and its enantiomers in the pithed normotensive rat

    Schneider, J.; Fruh, C.; Wilffert, B.; Peters, Thies


    In the pithed normotensive rat, the effects of dl-nebivolol and its enantiomers on the (-)-adrenaline (epinephrine)- and electrical stimulation-induced increases in heart rate (HR) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were investigated. dl-Nebivolol dose-dependently (10-7to 10-5mol/kg intravenously) a

  5. Plasma bupivacaine concentrations following psoas compartment block.

    Odoom, J A; Zuurmond, W W; Sih, I L; Bovill, J; Osterlöf, G; Oosting, H V


    Fourteen patients undergoing hip replacement surgery under psoas compartment block combined with general anaesthesia were studied. Group 1 (n = 7) received plain and Group 2 (n = 7) received 0.25% bupivacaine with adrenaline. The mean maximum peak concentrations were 1.93 (SEM 0.46) micrograms/ml and 1.04 (SEM 0.19) micrograms/ml at 10 minutes in groups 1 and 2 respectively. Bupivacaine concentrations were higher at all times in the group which received plain than the group receiving solution containing adrenaline. These differences were statistically significant at 10, 15 (p less than 0.05) and 30 minutes (p less than 0.025). The highest recorded plasma bupivacaine concentration was 4.54 micrograms/ml in one patient receiving plain bupivacaine. No patient developed any signs of toxic symptoms. The duration of analgesia was longer (p less than 0.005) in the group receiving bupivacaine with adrenaline. Bupivacaine 0.25% with adrenaline 1:200 000 is safe for psoas compartment block, and is recommended for hip surgery.

  6. Catecholamine release after physical exercise. A new provocative test for early diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.

    Telenius-Berg, M; Adolfsson, L; Berg, B; Hamberger, B; Nordenfelt, I; Tibblin, S; Welander, G


    A simple and practical provocative test is needed for early asymptomatic pheochromocytoma, which is a major risk for patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN-2). We measured plasma catecholamines before and after submaximal exercise in 26 MEN-2 gene carriers, eight of whom with asymptomatic pheochromocytoma, nine with medullary thyroid carcinoma and 10 after uni- or bilateral adrenalectomy. Seventeen clinically healthy individuals and 11 patients with neurovegetative lability and symptoms mimicking pheochromocytoma served as controls. Plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine increased after exercise except for adrenaline after bilateral adrenalectomy. The post-exercise levels of adrenaline and the adrenaline/dopamine ratio were significantly higher in the pheochromocytoma patients compared to the healthy controls and the patients with neurovegetative lability, while the patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma represented an intermediate group with a high probability of developing adrenal tumors. The present method is a physiological test with a high sensitivity and specificity. It is practical and well suited for repeated examinations and seems to be of value for the detection of early pheochromocytoma in MEN-2 patients. Furthermore, the test could be used in the differential diagnosis between pheochromocytoma and neurovegetative lability.

  7. Risikostyring med rapportering af kritiske situationer. Forveksling af K-vitamin og ephedrin på en fødegang

    Seidelin, J; Pedersen, B L; Mogensen, T S


    or a solitary incident. If considered a general problem, procedures should be changed and implemented in the department. RESULTS: Two incidents were reported, where ephedrine and adrenaline were found in a box supposed to contain vitamin K for new-born babies. These were considered a general problem...

  8. Differences between full and partial α-adrenoceptor agonists in eliciting phasic and tonic types of responses in the longitudinal smooth muscle of the rat portal vein

    Schwietert, H.R.; Wilhelm, D.; Wilffert, B.; Van Zwieten, P.A.


    The aim of the present investigation was to study, taking into account both quantitative and qualitative differences, the influence of full and partial α-adrenoceptor agonists on spontaneous myogenic activity in the rat portal vein. We found that the α-adrenoceptor agonists cirazoline, adrenaline, n

  9. Molecules that amaze us

    May, Paul


    Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)Adrenaline/Epinephrine (Noradrenaline/Norepinephrine)Ammonium NitrateArtemisinin Aspirin Caffeine CapsaicinCarbon Dioxideβ-CaroteneChlorophyllCholesterolCisplatinCocaineDEETCF2Cl2DDTDigitalisDimethylmercuryDimethylsulfideDopamineEpibatidineEstradiolGlucoseGlycerolHeavy WaterHemeHexenalHydrogen PeroxideInsulin<

  10. Effect of catecholamine-receptor stimulating agents on blood pressure after local application in the nucleus tractus solitarii of the medulla oblongata

    Zandberg, P.; Jong, Wybren de; Wied, D. de


    The effect of various catecholamines and α-mimetics, given by microinjection in the A2-region of the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), on blood pressure was investigated in anesthetizedmale rats. A dose-dependent decrease of blood pressure and heart rate was induced by adrenaline as the most effectiv

  11. Hjertestopbehandling. Nyere aspekter af kardiopulmonal genoplivning

    Herlevsen, Per Ove; Andersen, H H; Jepsen, S


    Opinions are still not unanimous about the mechanism behind circulation during external cardiac compression and this leads to uncertainty regarding the correct frequency, force of compression and its duration. Adrenaline and other alpha-stimulators increase blood flow during external cardiac...

  12. Clonidine as an adjuvant to local anesthetic in supraclavicular brachial plexus block: a randomized, double blinded placebo controlled study

    Preeti Rustagi


    Conclusions: Clonidine 2 and micro;g / kg added to 10 ml of 0.5 % Bupivacaine + 20 ml of 2% lignocaine with adrenaline (1:200000 is a good option for improving the quality and duration of supraclavicular brachial plexus block. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(5.000: 1892-1897

  13. Role of endoscopy in the management of acute diverticular bleeding

    Charalampos Pilichos; Emmanouil Bobotis


    Colonic diverticulosis is one of the most common causes of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopy is not only a useful diagnostic tool for localizing the bleeding site, but also a therapeutic modality for its management. To date, haemostatic methods have included adrenaline injection, mechanical clipping, thermal and electrical coagulation or combinations of them. The results of all published data are herein reviewed.

  14. Cerebral effects of commonly used vasopressor-inotropes

    Hahn, Gitte Holst; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Petersen, Sandra Meinich


    Despite widespread use in sick infants, it is still debated whether vasopressor-inotropes have direct cerebral effects that might affect neurological outcome. We aimed to test direct cerebrovascular effects of three commonly used vasopressor-inotropes (adrenaline, dopamine and noradrenaline...

  15. Lokalanæstesi med vasokonstriktor kan anvendes i områder med endearterier i fingre, tæer, næse og ører

    Nielsen, Lea Juul; Lumholt, Pavia; Hølmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz


    , toes, noses and ears, including more than 15,000 patients, finds no evidence to support this belief. No case of necrosis has been reported since the introduction of commercial lidocaine with epinephrine in 1948. This review concludes that it is safe to use lidocaine with adrenaline in end-arteries....



    Objective: To investigate whether moxibustion affects the secretion of catecholamine as adrenalin, noradrenaline and dopamine. Methods: Twenty Wistar rats were allocated to two groups. One was moxibustion-group (10 rats), and the other was non-moxibustion-group (10 rats). Four ignited moxa-cones were applied to bilateral "Shenshu" (肾俞 BL 23). When a moxa-cone burned out, another one was replaced. At the end of each experiment, blood sample (2 mL/rat) was collected from the heart for assaying plasma adrenalin, noradrenaline and dopamine contents with high pressure liquid chromatography. Results:The presented results showed that plasma adrenalin and noradrenaline contents of moxibustion-group are significantly higher than those of non-moxibustion-group (P<0.01). However, there is no significant difference of dopamine between moxibustion- and non-moxibustion- groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: These results demonstrated that moxibustion stimulates the secretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline in normal rats.

  17. Examining Risk-Taking Behavior and Sensation Seeking Requirement in Extreme Athletes

    Agilonu, Ali; Bastug, Gulsum; Mutlu, Tonguc Osman; Pala, Adem


    Extreme sports are sport branches which include actions, adventures, risks and difficulties more rather than other sports. Special materials are used in sport branches such as surfing, kite surfing, sailing, snowboarding, paragliding, diving, mountaineering, motor sports and adrenaline release is more rather than in other sport branches. On the…

  18. Core Collections in Genre Studies: Romance Fiction 101

    Neal Wyatt; Georgine Olson; Kristin Ramsdell; Joyce Saricks; Lynne Welch


    .... The Reading List, as the new list will be called, honors the single best title in eight genre categories: romance, mystery, science fiction, fantasy, horror, historical fiction, women's fiction, and the adrenaline genre group consisting of thriller, suspense, and adventure. To celebrate this new list and explore the wealth of genre l...

  19. Anaphylaxis in family practice

    SA Fam Pract 2008;50(1):29-32. Introduction .... Oxygen therapy, airway protection and other life-support ... Intravenous adrenaline is potentially hazardous in anaphylaxis, ... Administer 1 to 2 mg IM or slowly IV every five minutes if the patient.

  20. Life-threatening angio-oedema after the first dose of an ACE inhibitor-not an anaphylactic reaction

    Krogh Nielsen, Troels; Bygum, Anette; Rye Rasmussen, Eva


    severe angio-oedema of the upper airways. Neither adrenaline inhalations, intravenously administrated corticosteroids, atropine nor furosemide were effective and the patient soon become bradycardic. A tracheotomy was performed and the patient was placed on a ventilator. She eventually made a full...

  1. Hormonal regulation of lipoprotein lipase in adipose tissue (studies in the rat and in humans)

    M.G.A. Baggen (Marinus)


    textabstractCurrent data strongly suggest the most important role for insulin in the hormonal regulation of adipose tissue LPL activity. It is not clear from the literature what the role is of glucocorticoids in the regulation of the enzyme. Stress hormones as ACTH and adrenalin for example seem to

  2. Julebuk på afveje

    Bloch, Sune Land; Nielsen, Hans Ulrik Kjærem


    one week previously. Direct fiberoptic laryngoscopy showed a red and swollen lingual surface of the epiglottis, but no foreign bodies were identified. After inhalation of adrenalin, a 4 cm straw became visible in the epiglottic vallecula. Mimic of acute epiglottitis from a straw in the vallecula has...

  3. The Science of Soil Textures

    Bigham, Gary


    Off-road motorcycle racing and ATV riding. Gardening and fishing. What do these high-adrenaline and slower-paced pastimes have in common? Each requires soil, and the texture of that soil has an effect on all of them. In the inquiry-based lessons described here, students work both in the field or laboratory and in the classroom to collect soil…

  4. Hormonal regulation of lipoprotein lipase in adipose tissue (studies in the rat and in humans)

    M.G.A. Baggen (Marinus)


    textabstractCurrent data strongly suggest the most important role for insulin in the hormonal regulation of adipose tissue LPL activity. It is not clear from the literature what the role is of glucocorticoids in the regulation of the enzyme. Stress hormones as ACTH and adrenalin for example seem to

  5. Endocrine stress response in rats subjected to singular orbital puncture while under diethyl-ether anaesthesia

    van Herck, H; Baumans, V; de Boer, S.F.; van der Gugten, J; van Woerkom, A B; Beynen, A C


    In an attempt to assess possible discomfort in rats subjected to orbital puncture while under diethyl-ether anaesthesia, their endocrine stress response was determined. Concentrations of corticosterone, adrenaline and noradrenaline were measured in plasma obtained via a jugular catheter from rats su

  6. Plasma catecholamine, corticosterone and glucose responses to repeated stress in rats : Effect of interstressor interval length

    de Boer, S.F.; Koopmans, S.J.; Slangen, J L; Van der Gugten, J


    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A), corticosterone (CS) and glucose concentrations were determined in blood frequently sampled via a cardiac catheter from freely behaving rats exposed to five successive trials of water-immersion stress (WIS) with an interval between successive trials (interst

  7. Role of vasoactive amines in the antitumor activity of endotoxin

    Hofhuis, F.M.A.; Bloksma, N.; Kuper, C.F.; Willers, J.M.N.


    To estimate a possible role of vasoamines in the antitumor action of endotoxin, effects of isoproterenol, serotonin and adrenaline on subcutaneosly transplanted murine Meth A sarcoma and the capacity of these agents to elicit antitumor factors were studied. Macroscopically all agents induced tumor n

  8. Effects of chlordiazepoxide and buspirone on plasma catecholamine and corticosterone levels in rats under basal and stress conditions

    de Boer, S.F.; Slangen, J L; van der Gugten, J

    The effects of the classical benzodiazepine (BDZ) anxiolytic drug chlordiazepoxide (CDP) and the non-BDZ anxiolytic agent buspirone (BUSP) on basal and stress-induced plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and corticosterone (CS) release were investigated. Male Wistar rats provided with a

  9. Amidated joining peptide in the human pituitary, gut, adrenal gland and bronchial carcinoids. Immunocytochemical and immunochemical evidence

    Bjartell, A; Fenger, M; Ekman, R;


    .g., ACTH, beta-endorphin, Pro-tau-MSH, in the pituitary gland and adrenal medulla. The JP-N immunoreactive cells in the adrenal medulla were identified as a subpopulation of adrenaline-producing cells by means of an antiserum against phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. In the gut immunoreactive JP...

  10. Hormonal Neuroendocrine and Vasoconstrictor Peptide Responses of Ball Game and Cyclic Sport Elite Athletes by Treadmill Test.

    Anna Protzner

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate complex hormonal response in ball game and cyclic sport elite athletes through an incremental treadmill test, since, so far, variables in experimental procedures have often hampered comparisons of data.We determined anthropometric data, heart rate, maximal oxygen uptake, workload, plasma levels of lactate, adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, cortisol, angiontensinogen and endothelin in control (n = 6, soccer (n = 8, handball (n = 12, kayaking (n = 9 and triathlon (n = 9 groups based on a Bruce protocol through a maximal exercise type of spiroergometric test.We obtained significant increases for adrenaline, 2.9- and 3.9-fold by comparing the normalized means for soccer players and kayakers and soccer players and triathletes after/before test, respectively. For noradrenaline, we observed an even stronger, three-time significant difference between each type of ball game and cyclic sport activity.Exercise related adrenaline and noradrenaline changes were more pronounced than dopamine plasma level changes and revealed an opportunity to differentiate cyclic and ball game activities and control group upon these parameters. Normalization of concentration ratios of the monitored compounds by the corresponding maximal oxygen uptake reflected better the differences in the response level of adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine and cortisol.

  11. Comparison of Sympathomimetics in the Correction of Arterial Hypotension during Combined Anesthesia

    D. B. Borisov


    Full Text Available Objective: to make a comparative assessment of hemodynamic parameters when correcting combined anesthesia-induced arterial hypotension with dopamine, adrenaline, mesatone, or noradrenaline. Subjects and methods. A prospective study enrolled patients who had undergone prosthetic hip replacement under combined lumbar epidural (ropivacaine/general (sevoflurane anesthesia. Intravenous sympathomimetic infusion was initiated when the mean blood pressure decreased below 55 Hg mm. Cardiac index (CI and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI were calculated by impedance cardiography. Fifty-six subjects (14 in each group were selected for analysis. Results. During the study, CI remained in the normal range for all sympathomimetics. When adrenaline was administered, there was an obvious tendency to maintain blood pressure due to heart rate (HR with preserved low SVRI. The use of mesatone caused a considerable reduction in HR. No statistically significant differences were found between the dopamine and noradrenaline groups in any of the study stages. The start of infusion of these agents was attended by SVRI normalization and HR maintenance within 60—70 beats per minute. Conclusion. The infusion of dopamine, adrenaline, mesatone, or noradrenaline to correct arterial hypotension resulting from combined epidural block/general anesthesia with sevoflurane ensures maintenance of CI within the normal range. That of noradrenaline and dopamine was ascertained to have a more balanced impact on HR and systemic vascular resistance. Key words: combined anesthesia, epidural block, hemodynamics, sympathomimetics, adrenaline, dopamine, mesatone, noradrenaline.

  12. Autonomic response to an experimental psychological stressor in healthy subjects: measurement of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and pituitary-adrenal parameters: test-retest reliability

    Jørgensen, L S; Christiansen, P; Raundahl, U


    A mental arithmetic test (the stressor; 15 min) significantly increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and plasma adrenaline by 11%, 12%, 28% and 152% respectively, with a prompt return to resting values after the test. Plasma noradrenaline and serum cortisol did not increase s...

  13. Beyond Truth-Telling: The Credo and Public Speaking.

    Tompkins, Paula S.

    The communication discipline is ambivalent about public speaking. Even accomplished speakers experience ambivalence in the rush of adrenaline before presenting a speech--knowing its importance yet wondering if they have prepared a speech which is fitting for this audience and occasion. The communication discipline studies communication in a broad…

  14. Physiological Sociology. Endocrine Correlates of Status Behaviors,


    Behavior. J. Spuhler (Ed.). Chicago: Aldine Press, pp. 135-170, 1967. Hare, R. D. Psychopathy ’ Theory and Research. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1970...Hare, R. D. Psychophathy and physiological responses to adrenalin. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 79:138-147, 1972. Hare, R. D. and Quinn, M. J. Psychopathy and

  15. A comparison of ultrasound-guided supraclavicular and infraclavicular blocks for upper extremity surgery

    Koscielniak-Nielsen, Z J; Frederiksen, B S; Rasmussen, H


    : supraclavicular (S) and infraclavicular (I). Each patient received a mixture containing equal volumes of ropivacaine 7.5 mg/ml and mepivacaine 20 mg/ml with adrenaline 5 microg/ml, 0.5 ml/kg body weight (minimum 30 ml, maximum 50 ml). The sensory score (anaesthesia--2 points, analgesia--1 point and pain--0 point...

  16. Interactions between noradrenaline and corticosteroids in the brain: from electrical activity to cognitive performance.

    Krugers, H.J.; Karst, H.; Joëls, M.


    One of the core reactions in response to a stressful situation is the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis which increases the release of glucocorticoid hormones from the adrenal glands. In concert with other neuro-modulators, such as (nor)adrenaline, these hormones enable and promo

  17. Stress and Heart Health

    ... also zap your energy, wreak havoc on your sleep and make you feel cranky, forgetful and out of control. A stressful situation sets off a chain of events. Your body releases adrenaline, a hormone that temporarily causes your breathing and heart rate to speed up and your blood pressure to ...

  18. Ability of medical students to calculate drug doses in children after their paediatric attachment

    Oshikoya KA


    Full Text Available Dose calculation errors constitute a significant part of prescribing errors which might have resulted from informal teaching of the topic in medical schools. Objectives: To determine adequacy of knowledge and skills of drug dose calculations in children acquired by medical students during their clinical attachment in paediatrics.Methods: Fifty two 5th year medical students of the Lagos State University College of Medicine (LASUCOM, Ikeja were examined on drug dose calculations from a vial and ampoules of injections, syrup and suspension, and tablet formulation. The examination was with a structured questionnaire mostly in the form of multiple choice questions.Results: Thirty-six (69.2% and 30 (57.7% students were taught drug dose calculation in neonatal posting and during ward rounds/ bed-side teaching, respectively. Less than 50% of the students were able to calculate the correct doses of each of adrenaline, gentamicin, chloroquine and sodium bicarbonate injections required by the patient. Dose calculation was however relatively better with adrenalin when compared with the other injections. The proportion of female students that calculated the correct doses of quinine syrup and cefuroxime suspension were significantly higher than those of their male counterparts (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively; Chi-square test. When doses calculated in mg/dose and mL/dose was compared for adrenalin injection and each of quinine syrup and cefuroxime suspension, there were significant differences (adrenaline and quinine, p=0.005; adrenaline and cefuroxime, p=0.003: Fischer’s exact test. Dose calculation errors of similar magnitude to injections, syrup and suspension were also observed with tablet formulation.Conclusions: LASUCOM medical students lacked the basic knowledge of paediatric drug dose calculations but were willing to learn if the topic was formally taught. Drug dose calculations should be given a prominent consideration in the undergraduate medical

  19. Possible involvement of brain prostaglandin E2 and prostanoid EP3 receptors in prostaglandin E2 glycerol ester-induced activation of central sympathetic outflow in the rat.

    Shimizu, Takahiro; Tanaka, Kenjiro; Nakamura, Kumiko; Taniuchi, Keisuke; Yawata, Toshio; Higashi, Youichirou; Ueba, Tetsuya; Dimitriadis, Fotios; Shimizu, Shogo; Yokotani, Kunihiko; Saito, Motoaki


    We recently reported that intracerebroventricularly administered 2-arachidonoylglycerol elevated plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline by brain monoacylglycerol lipase- (MGL) and cyclooxygenase-mediated mechanisms in the rat. These results suggest that 2-arachidonoylglycerol is hydrolyzed by MGL to free arachidonic acid, which is further metabolized to prostaglandins (PGs) by cyclooxygenase in the brain, thereby elevating plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline. On the other hand, 2-arachidonoylglycerol can be also metabolized by cyclooxygenase to PG glycerol esters (PG-Gs), which seems to be hydrolyzed by MGL to free PGs. Here, we examined the involvement of brain PG-Gs in the elevation of plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline regarding PGE2-G and prostanoid EP receptors using anesthetized male Wistar rats. Intracerebroventricularly administered PGE2-G (1.5 and 3 nmol/animal) dose-dependently elevated plasma noradrenaline but not adrenaline. PGE2-G also elevated systolic, mean and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate. The PGE2-G-induced elevation of plasma noradrenaline was attenuated by JZL184 (MGL inhibitor). Intracerebroventricularly administered PGE2 (0.3 and 1.5 nmol/animal) and sulprostone (0.1 and 0.3 nmol/animal) (EP1/EP3 agonist) also elevated plasma noradrenaline but not adrenaline in a dose-dependent manner. The sulprostone-induced elevation was attenuated by L-798,106 (EP3 antagonist), but not by SC-51322 (EP1 antagonist). L-798,106 also attenuated the PGE2-G- and PGE2-induced elevation of plasma noradrenaline, while PF-04418948 (EP2 antagonist) and L-161,982 (EP4 antagonist) had no effect on the PGE2-G-induced response. These results suggest a possibility that brain PGE2-G produced from 2-arachidonoylglycerol can be hydrolyzed to free PGE2, thereby activating central sympathetic outflow by brain prostanoid EP3 receptor-mediated mechanisms in the rat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficacy of four kinds of endoscopic therapy on peptic deer bleeding%内镜下四种方法治疗消化性溃疡出血的疗效

    姜英杰; 聂玉强; 李瑜元; 张龙


    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of 4 kinds of endoscopic therapy on peptic ulcer bleeding. Methods Three hundred and forty-nine patients with active ulcer bleeding or non-bleeding visible vessels were respectively divided into 4 groups according to endoscopic therapies (adrenaline injection group, titanic clip placement group, argon beam coagulation group and combined treatment group). One hundred and fifty-seven patients were treated to stop bleeding with injection of adrenaline in adrenaline injection group, 46 with titanic clips in titanic clip placement group, 51 with argon beam coagulation in argon beam coagulation group, and 95 patients with combination of injection and argon beam coagulation in combined treatment group. The hemostasis effects were compared among four groups. Results In all the groups, the immediate hemostasis rate was 100%, and effective hemostasis was achieved in 87.9%, 89.1%,86.3% and 91.6% of the patients who underwent adrenaline injection, titanic clip placement, argon beam coagulation and combined treatment respectively, with no statistical difference among the groups (P>0.05). For patients with Forrest Ⅰ a lesions, the effective hemostasis rate with adrenaline injection (55.0%) was significantly lower as compared with other treatment options (P0.05).肾上腺素注射组中,Forrest Ⅰ a患者的有效止血率为55.0%,明显低于其余3组患者(P<0.01).结论 4种内镜下治疗均能有效、安全止血.药物注射对Forrest Ⅰ a患者的止血效果差.

  1. Acute physiological effects of glucocorticoids on fuel metabolism in humans are permissive but not direct.

    Stimson, Roland H; Anderson, Anna J; Ramage, Lynne E; Macfarlane, David P; de Beaux, Andrew C; Mole, Damian J; Andrew, Ruth; Walker, Brian R


    The effects of glucocorticoids on fuel metabolism are complex. Acute glucocorticoid excess promotes lipolysis but chronic glucocorticoid excess causes visceral fat accumulation. We hypothesized that interactions between cortisol and insulin and adrenaline account for these conflicting results. We tested the effect of cortisol on lipolysis and glucose production with and without insulin and adrenaline in humans both in vivo and in vitro. A total of 20 healthy men were randomized to low and high insulin groups (both n = 10). Subjects attended on 3 occasions and received low (c. 150 nM), medium (c. 400 nM) or high (c. 1400 nM) cortisol infusion in a randomized crossover design. Deuterated glucose and glycerol were infused intravenously along with a pancreatic clamp (somatostatin with replacement of glucagon, insulin and growth hormone) and adrenaline. Subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained for analysis. In parallel, the effect of cortisol on lipolysis was tested in paired primary cultures of human subcutaneous and visceral adipocytes. In vivo, high cortisol increased lipolysis only in the presence of high insulin and/or adrenaline but did not alter glucose kinetics. High cortisol increased adipose mRNA levels of ATGL, HSL and CGI-58 and suppressed G0S2. In vitro, high cortisol increased lipolysis in the presence of insulin in subcutaneous, but not visceral, adipocytes. The acute lipolytic effects of cortisol require supraphysiological concentrations, are dependent on insulin and adrenaline and are observed only in subcutaneous adipose tissue. The resistance of visceral adipose tissue to cortisol's lipolytic effects may contribute to the central fat accumulation observed with chronic glucocorticoid excess. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Evidence for safety margins of lignocaine local anaesthetics for peri-oral use.

    Cannell, H


    The evidence for the safety margins of doses of lignocaine local anaesthetics for standard injections for oral and dental purposes has been reviewed. Trials of peri-oral dosages leading to toxicity in humans have not been reported. The overwhelming evidence from trials of the normal dose range used clinically points to a restriction of total doses much lower than the 25 ml (500 mg) as published for 2% lignocaine with 1:80,000 adrenaline for a healthy adult. The recommendations are: 1. In mixtures of two pharmacologically active drugs (dual formulations) for peri-oral injections, to base the safety limit of local anaesthetic on the circulating level of lignocaine, rather than the amount of adrenaline contained in the injected volume. 2. Thus the suggested usual upper limit for dosage for a healthy adult patient is four and a half 2 ml (or 2.2-ml) cartridges of lignocaine with adrenaline (180-198 mg lignocaine or 2.57-2.82 mg/kg) body weight, if carefully given. 3. For some medically compromised patients, minimal doses only of lignocaine and adrenaline (about one cartridge) should be used and especial caution is necessary in patients likely to react adversely to the exogenous adrenaline of the dual formulation. 4. For both children and adults, the dosages should broadly be related to body size and note taken of the total dose which accrues from topical use of other formulations of lignocaine, such as pastes or creams or sprays. The doses injected should be the minimum that allow the treatment to proceed. If necessary the doses are better given at a series of appointments rather than as a large volume on one single occasion.

  3. The effect of exercise training on hormone-sensitive lipase in rat intra-abdominal adipose tissue and muscle

    Enevoldsen, L H; Stallknecht, B; Langfort, J


    1. Adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis in adipose tissue may increase with training. The rate-limiting step in adipose tissue lipolysis is catalysed by the enzyme hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). We studied the effect of exercise training on the activity of the total and the activated form of HSL......, referred to as HSL (DG) and HSL (TG), respectively, and on the concentration of HSL protein in retroperitoneal (RE) and mesenteric (ME) adipose tissue, and in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles in rats. 2. Rats (weighing 96 +/- 1 g, mean +/- S.E.M.) were either swim trained (T, 18 weeks......, n = 12) or sedentary (S, n = 12). Then RE and ME adipose tissue and the EDL and soleus muscles were incubated for 20 min with 4.4 microM adrenaline. 3. HSL enzyme activities in adipose tissue were higher in T compared with S rats. Furthermore, in RE adipose tissue, training also doubled HSL protein...

  4. Comparison of chiral electrophoretic separation methods for phenethylamines and application on impurity analysis.

    Borst, Claudia; Holzgrabe, Ulrike


    A chiral microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography method has been developed for the separation of the enantiomers of the phenethylamines ephedrine, N-methylephedrine, norephedrine, pseudoephedrine, adrenaline (epinephrine), 2-amino-1-phenylethanol, diethylnorephedrine, and 2-(dibutylamino)-1-phenyl-1-propanol, respectively. The separations were achieved using an oil-in-water microemulsion consisting of the oil-component ethyl acetate, the surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate, the cosurfactant 1-butanol, the organic modifier propan-2-ol and 20mM phosphate buffer pH 2.5 as aqueous phase. For enantioseparation sulfated beta-cyclodextrin was added. The method was compared to an already described CZE method, which made use of heptakis(2,3-di-O-diacetyl-6-O-sulfo)-beta-cyclodextrin (HDAS) as chiral selector. Additionally, the developed method was successfully applied to the related substances analysis of noradrenaline, adrenaline, dipivefrine, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine monographed in the European Pharmacopoeia 6.

  5. Dieulafoy's lesion of duodenum: a case report

    Wagholikar Gajanan D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dieulafoy's lesion is an uncommon but important cause of recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Extragastric location of Dieulafoy's lesion is rare. We report two cases of Dieulafoy's lesion of the duodenum and discuss the management of this extremely uncommon entity. Case presentation Two cases of massive upper gastro-intestinal bleeding in young adults due to Dieulafoy's lesion of the duodenum are reported. Endoscopic diagnosis was possible in both cases. Hemostasis was achieved successfully by endoscopic adrenaline injection. The endoscopic appearance, pitfalls in the diagnosis and management of this rare lesion are discussed. Conclusions Endoscopic diagnosis of extragastric Dieulafoy's lesion can be difficult because of the small size and obscure location of the lesion. Increased awareness and careful and early endoscopic evaluation following the bleeding episode are the key to accurate diagnosis. Adrenaline injection is one of the important endoscopic modalities for control of bleeding.

  6. Telemetric control of heart adaptation during automatic and free-fall parachute jumps.

    Deroanne, R; Cession-Fossion, A; Juchmes, J; Servais, J C; Petit, J M


    Telmetered heart rate recordings have been ovtaine from 17 parachutists (6 during automatic jumps) 9 Catecholamine (adrenaline and noradrenaline) concentrations have been measured in urine and plasma of six of these subjects. No difference appears between heart rates recorded in the two jumps at egress and at parachute deployment. On the other hand, higher heart rate values are recorded during automatic jumps during descent and at ground impace. The urine catecholamine analysis after jump shows a statistically significant increase in adrenaline and noradrenaline concentration. It is suggested that simulation of the orthosympathetic system is due to two facts; muscular work performed during jumping and the emotional stress which it involves. The importance of these two causes varies with the jump circumstances.

  7. The management of anaphylaxis in childhood

    Muraro, A; Roberts, G; Clark, A


    to provide practical guidelines for managing anaphylaxis in childhood based on the limited evidence available. Intramuscular adrenaline is the acknowledged first-line therapy for anaphylaxis, in hospital and in the community, and should be given as soon as the condition is recognized. Additional therapies...... and avoid the allergen to prevent its recurrence. A tailored anaphylaxis management plan is needed, based on an individual risk assessment, which is influenced by the child's previous allergic reactions, other medical conditions and social circumstances. Collaborative partnerships should be established......, involving school staff, healthcare professionals and patients' organizations. Absolute indications for prescribing self-injectable adrenaline are prior cardiorespiratory reactions, exercise-induced anaphylaxis, idiopathic anaphylaxis and persistent asthma with food allergy. Relative indications include...

  8. Management of anaphylaxis

    Dhami, S; Panesar, S S; Roberts, G


    To establish the effectiveness of interventions for the acute and long-term management of anaphylaxis, seven databases were searched for systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupte......-specific immunotherapy. Management plans may reduce the risk of further reactions, but these studies were at high risk of bias. Venom immunotherapy may reduce the incidence of systemic reactions in those with a history of venom-triggered anaphylaxis.......To establish the effectiveness of interventions for the acute and long-term management of anaphylaxis, seven databases were searched for systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted...... time series and - only in relation to adrenaline - case series investigating the effectiveness of interventions in managing anaphylaxis. Fifty-five studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. We found no robust studies investigating the effectiveness of adrenaline (epinephrine), H1-antihistamines...

  9. [Biologically active substances in patients with hypervolemic congenital heart defects undergoing general multicomponent anesthesia].

    Gerasimov, N M; Guliamov, D S; Karimova, T Z; Belova, O A; Ivanova, L S; Nam, L N


    In 95 patients with hypervolemic congenital heart diseases (42 with interventricular and interatrial septal defects, and 53 with patent ductus arteriosus) mixed venous blood levels of serotonin, histamine, adrenalin, noradrenaline, total 11-hydroxycorticosteroids were studied using spectrofluorimetry, cyclic adenosine- and guanosine-monophosphate (cAMP and cGMP), prostaglandins E+A and F2 alpha and their interaction were assessed using radioimmunoassay and correlation analysis, respectively. Before surgical treatment the patients showed higher (than in the control) concentrations of histamine, adrenalin, noradrenaline, cAMP, and cGMP, prostaglandins E+A. During anesthesia including fentanyl, morphine, diazepam, N2O:O2 in patients with heart valve defects cGMP level was increased and in patients with patent ductus arteriosus cAMP level was increased during analogous anesthesia with morphine replaced by halothane.

  10. Effects of far infrared rays irradiated from ceramic material (BIOCERAMIC) on psychological stress-conditioned elevated heart rate, blood pressure, and oxidative stress-suppressed cardiac contractility.

    Leung, Ting-Kai; Chen, Chien-Ho; Tsai, Shih-Ying; Hsiao, George; Lee, Chi-Ming


    The present study examined the effects of BIOCERAMIC on psychological stress-conditioned elevated heart rate, blood pressure and oxidative stress-suppressed cardiac contractility using in vivo and in vitro animal models. We investigated the effects of BIOCERAMIC on the in vivo cardiovascular hemodynamic parameters of rats by monitoring their heart rates, systolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Thereafter, we assayed its effects on the heart rate in an isolated frog heart with and without adrenaline stimulation, and on cardiac contractility under oxidative stress. BIOCERAMIC caused significant decreases in heart rates and systolic and mean blood pressure in the stress-conditioned heart rate rat models (P heart with and without adrenaline stimulation (P < 0.05), and normalized cardiac contractility under oxidative stress (P < 0.05). BIOCERAMIC may, therefore, normalize the effects of psychological stress and oxidative stress conditions.

  11. Role of catecholamines and nitric oxide on pigment displacement of the chromatophores of freshwater snakehead teleost fish, Channa punctatus.

    Biswas, Saikat P; Jadhao, Arun G; Palande, Nikhil V


    We are reporting for the first time that the catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline) inhibit the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on melanosome dispersion in freshly isolated scales of the freshwater snakehead fish, Channa punctatus. We studied the effect of NO and catecholamines on the pigment displacement by observing the changes in the melanophore index. The scales when treated with solution containing NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) showed dispersion of melanosomes, whereas NO synthase blocker N-omega-Nitro-L-arginine suppresses this action of SNP. Treatment with adrenaline and noradrenaline on the isolated scales caused aggregation of melanosomes. Scales treated with solution containing catecholamines and SNP resulted in aggregation of melanosomes suggesting that catecholamines mask the effect of SNP. These results suggest that the catecholamines are inhibiting the effect of NO and causing the aggregation of the melanosomes may be via surface receptors.

  12. 脑出血大鼠肠黏膜组织形态学变化与血浆儿茶酚胺水平的关系%Correlation between intestinal mucosa tissue morphologic parameters and plasma catecholamines level in rats with cerebral hemorrhage

    邱月; 宁显忠


    目的 探讨脑出血大鼠肠黏膜组织形态学变化与血浆儿茶酚胺(肾上腺素、去甲肾上腺素)水平之间的关系.方法 制作脑出血大鼠模型,检测正常组、假手术组及脑出血后24h、48h、72h(每组8只)肠黏膜组织形态学参数及血浆肾上腺素、去甲肾上腺素水平.进行空肠黏膜组织形态学参数值与血浆肾上腺素、去甲肾上腺素水平之间的相关分析.结果 小肠绒毛高度与血浆肾上腺素(r=-0.566,P<0.01)、血浆去甲肾上腺索(r=-0.545,P<0.01);绒毛面积与血浆肾上腺素(r=-0.755,P<0.01)、血浆去甲肾上腺素(r=-0.702,P <0.01);黏膜厚度与血浆肾上腺素(r=-0.478,P<0.01)、血浆去甲肾上腺素(r=-0.405,P<0.01);肠壁厚度与与血浆肾上腺素(r=-0.536,P<0.01)、血浆去甲肾上腺素肠(r=-0.489,P<0.01)均成显著的负相关.结论 脑出血时肠黏膜组织形态学变化与血浆儿茶酚胺水平呈负相关.%Objective To explore the correlation between intestinal mucosa tissue morphologic changes and plasma catecholamines(adrenaline and nurepinephrine) level in rats with cerebral hemorrhage. Methods A rat model of hemorrhage was used to detect the intestinal mucosa tissue morphologic parameters changes and the plasma catecholamines (adrenaline and norepinephrine) level at 24h,48h and 72h after the hemorrhage. The results were compared to normal control group and the sham-operated group. The correlation between the jejunal mucosa tissue morphologic parameters changes and plasma adrenaline and plasma norepinephrine were also explored. Results Small intestinal villous height was negatively correlated with the level of plasma adrenaline (r = - 0. 566, P < 0. 01) and plasma norepinephrine (r = - 0. 545, P < 0.01) . Small intestinal villous area was negatively correlated with the level of plasma adrenaline ( r = - 0. 755, P < 0. 01 ) and plasma norepinephrine( r = - 0. 702, P < 0. 01). Mucosal thickness was negatively

  13. Hiperglicemia na intoxicação escorpiônica experimental em cão

    Lineu Freire-Maia


    Full Text Available The production of hyperglycemia during the acute phase of scorpion poisoning produced by T. bahiensis in dogs is confirmed now. The highest degree on average, was reached 10 minutes after the injection of venom. In our hands, the previous bilateral adrenalectomy did not avoid the hyperglycemia. The average of the blood sugar level has been similar to that observed in dogs with adrenal glands, the highest blood sugar level was also registered after 10 minutes. The hyperglycemia obtained in adrenolectomized dogs is, probably, due to the liberation of Sympatin (Nor-adrenalin and adrenalin as a consequence of the central excitation by the poison on the hepatic nerves and other ganglionar terminations of the Sympathetic Nervous System. Our present researches suggest that the venom has adrenergic action besides the central action.

  14. Quantitative indicator of cortisone in human adrenal tissue as a criterion for determining the duration of the duration of fatal injury

    Shkand T.V.


    Full Text Available To elucidate pathogenetic mechanisms of myocardium necrosis, to develop the preventive and treatment measures its experimental studying in different models is necessary. The paper covers the dynamics of morphological changes in myocardium after cryoeffect in heart for 15 and 30 sec, ligation of left coronary artery and introduction of adrenalin toxic doses. It has been established that cryoeffect to heart led to the appearance of necrotic zone in myocardium with no ischemic inflammation phase, herewith the depth of cardiac muscle lesion depended directly on cryoeffect duration. The ligation of coronary artery contributed to the formation of ischemic necrosis of myocardium in the zone of ligated vessel basin with manifested discirculatory disorders. Focus lesion of myocardium resulted from the introduction of toxic doses of adrenalin was focused around arterial vessels, which later led to periarterial proliferation of fibroblasts and formation of granulation tissue.

  15. Brain histamine mediates the bombesin-induced central activation of sympatho-adrenomedullary outflow.

    Okuma, Y; Yokotani, K; Murakami, Y; Osumi, Y


    Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of bombesin (0.3 nmol) increased plasma levels of both adrenaline and noradrenaline in urethane anesthetized rats. These bombesin-induced increases were inhibited by i.c.v. pretreatment with pyrilamine, an H1-receptor antagonist. Ranitidine, an H2-receptor antagonist also inhibited the increase of adrenaline, however, its effective dose was much larger than that of pyrilamine. Furthermore, the bombesin-induced increase of noradrenaline was not effectively inhibited by ranitidine. In the next series, turnover of histamine was assessed by measuring accumulation of tele-methylhistamine (t-MH), a major metabolite of brain histamine. I.c.v. administration of bombesin (0.3-3 nmol) increased turnover of hypothalamic histamine, while its intravenous administration was without effect. The present results suggest that the bombesin-induced central activation of sympatho-adrenomedullary outflow is probably, at least in part, mediated through brain histaminergic neurons.

  16. Risikostyring med rapportering af kritiske situationer. Forveksling af K-vitamin og ephedrin på en fødegang

    Seidelin, J; Pedersen, B L; Mogensen, T S


    . MATERIAL AND METHODS: As part of a medical technology assessment project on risk management in a delivery department, the staff were encouraged to report incidents that could create a potential risk to patients. The incidents were assessed by a project group as either a general problem to patient safety...... or a solitary incident. If considered a general problem, procedures should be changed and implemented in the department. RESULTS: Two incidents were reported, where ephedrine and adrenaline were found in a box supposed to contain vitamin K for new-born babies. These were considered a general problem...... by the project group, and the procedure for storing and managing ephedrine and adrenaline in the delivery department was changed to prevent new cases. DISCUSSION: Near misses occur more often than actual errors, and we argue that, as they are easier to discover, it is important to learn from them and thus...

  17. Dynamics of change of lipid and monoamine metabolisms and the blood coagulation system during experimental atherosclerosis caused by restriction of movement

    Gvishiani, G. S.; Kobakhidze, N. G.


    Shifts in lipid, catecholamine, and blood coagulation systems following various periods (1, 2, 3, and 4 months) of experimentally induced atherosclerosis were studied. The same indices were studied in the tissues of the myocardium, liver, and brain stem-reticular formation after decapitation of the animals at the end of the experiment. Periodic motion restriction caused an increase in blood beta-lipoproteins in the rabbits at the beginning of the experiment. An increase in general cholesterol content and a decrease in the lecithincholesterol index were established at the end of the experiment. Myocardial beta-lipoprotein and brain stem reticular formation general cholesterol contents were elevated; catecholamine content was increased at the end of the experiment. In the initial months, free adrenaline basically increased, while in later months blood adrenaline decreased and blood noradrenaline increased.

  18. Dieulafoy's Lesions of the Rectum: A Rare Cause of Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Robert Enns


    Full Text Available Dieulafoy's lesions located outside of the stomach are rare occurrences. Lesions found within the colon typically present with painless, massive hematochezia (ie, greater than 5 U. If they can be accurately located, endoscopic therapy in the form of adrenaline injection, sclerotherapy or cauterization appears to have long term success. The present report details the case of a 72-year-old man who presented with massive hematochezia and who was discovered to have a Dieulafoy's lesion within the rectum. The lesion was located just distal to a previous surgical anastomosis, and was successfully treated with adrenaline and electrocautery. Colonic Dieulafoy's lesions are rare but should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of massive hematochezia, because endoscopic therapy appears to result in complete cessation of bleeding.

  19. Sympathoadrenal Activation and Endothelial Damage Are Inter Correlated and Predict Increased Mortality in Patients Resuscitated after Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    I. Johansson, Pär; Bro-Jeppesen, John; Kjaergaard, Jesper


    site ICU. Blood was sampled a median 135 min (Inter Quartile Range (IQR) 103-169) after OHCA. Plasma catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline) and serum endothelial biomarkers (syndecan-1, thrombomodulin, sE-selectin, sVE-cadherin) were measured at admission (immediately after randomization). We had...... access to data on demography, medical history, characteristics of the OHCA, patients and 180-day outcome. RESULTS: Adrenaline and noradrenaline correlated positively with syndecan-1 and thrombomodulin i.e., biomarkers reflecting endothelial damage (both p... of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) time, shock at admission and ST elevation myocardial infarction (30-day Hazards Ratio 1.71 (IQR 1.05-2.77), p=0.031 and 180-day Hazards Ratio 1.65 (IQR 1.03-2.65), p=0.037 for 2-fold higher thrombomodulin levels). CONCLUSIONS: Circulating catecholamines and endothelial damage...

  20. 盐酸肾上腺素救治严重过敏反应12例观察

    陈韶胜; 陈桂双


    文章总结了我门诊于2004~2013年间应用肾上腺素救治的12例严重过敏反应病例。并进一步探讨在救治严重过敏反应时,肾上腺素使用指征、给药途径及药物剂量、疗效及不良反应等相关问题。%The article summarizes our clinic using Adrenalin for treatment of 12 cases of Anaphylaxis in 2004~2013. And further discusses in the treatment of Anaphylaxis, the drug indications, route and dosage, efficacy and adverse drug reactions of Adrenalin and other related issues.


    risto Daskalov


    Full Text Available A significant problem in the dental medicine is pain alleviation. Many studies in the dental anesthesiology result in the production of new agents for locoregional anesthesia. Objective: This article aim to present the results of the last studies on the effect of the local anesthetics used in the oral surgery on patients with cardiovascular diseases. Material: A general review of the existing literature on the effect of the adrenaline, included as vasoconstrictor in the local anesthetics, used in patients with cardiovascular diseases is made. The benefits of vasoconstrictors for the quality of the anesthetic effect are proven. Conclusion: A small amount of adrenaline in the anesthetic solution does not result in complications development in patients with controlled cardiovascular diseases. Articaine is recommended agent of first choice for local anesthesia in the oral surgery.

  2. Traumatic Endotheliopathy

    Johansson, Pär I.; Henriksen, Hanne H; Stensballe, Jakob


    cohorts and animal models but needs confirmation in a large independent patient cohort. METHODS: Prospective observational study of 424 trauma patients admitted to a level 1 Trauma Center. Admission plasma levels of catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline) and biomarkers reflecting endothelial damage...... (syndecan-1, thrombomodulin, and sE-selectin) were measured and demography, injury type and severity, physiology, treatment, and mortality up till 28 days were recorded. RESULTS: Patients had a median ISS of 17 with 72% suffering from blunt injury. Adrenaline and noradrenaline correlated with syndecan-1 (r...... = 0.38, Padrenaline was the only independent predictor of syndecan-1 by multiple linear regression adjusted for age, injury severity score, Glascow Coma Scale, systolic blood pressure, base excess, platelet count, hemoglobin, prehospital plasma...




    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of topical local anesthesia using PRILOX cream versus local anesthesia infiltration using lignocaine and adrenaline in harvesting split skin graft. METHODS: A prospective study of 58 patients requiring split skin graft was carried. One group comprising 29 patients underwent harvesting of split skin graft under topical local anesthesia using PRILOX cream while the other group had local anesthesia infiltration using lignocaine and adrenaline. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in terms of operating time, per operative pain, post-operative pain and post-operative requirement of analgesia. There was significant difference in time and pain during administration of local anesthesia and patient’s acceptability/ satisfaction with method of anesthesia. CONCLUSION: Topical local anesthesia using PRILOX cream can be used effectively for harvesting of split skin graft and is good alternative to local anesthesia infiltration.

  4. The effect of bilateral adrenal demedullation on vascular reactivity and blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Borkowski, K. R.; Quinn, P.


    Bilateral adrenal demedullation of juvenile spontaneously hypertensive rats attenuated, but did not prevent, the development of hypertension. Neither did it affect the subsequent vascular reactivity to phenylephrine though it significantly reduced the vascular effects of sympathetic nerve stimulation. Demedullation of adult spontaneously hypertensive rats did not alter blood pressure, but did attenuate the pressor responses to both alpha-adrenoceptor agonists and sympathetic nerve stimulation. In acutely demedullated adult rats, vascular reactivity to sympathetic nerve stimulation, but not to exogenous amines, could be restored by slow i.v. infusion of adrenaline in a dose-dependent manner. The results support a possible facilitatory role for adrenaline in sympathetic neurotransmitter release, both during the development of genetic hypertension and in vascular responses to sympathetic nerve stimulation. PMID:6640199

  5. [Biochemical studies of blood serum use for diagnostics and efficacy of treatment evaluation of TMJ pain dysfunction].

    Ibragimova, R S


    Study of biochemical indices of blood serum in patients with the pain disfunction of temporomandibular joint syndrome was performed. Analysis of biochemical studies of blood serum revealed the essential increase of adenozintriphosphate (ATPh) level on 17.5%, histamin--on 51.7%, stress hormones: adrenalin--on 76.9%, cortizol--on 51.4% in patients with the syndrome of pain disfunction of TMJ in comparison with the control group. Biochemical studies of blood revealed the more marked lowering of the level of histamin, adrenalin, cortizol in blood serum of patients after the treatment of alternative methods than after pharmaco- and physiotherapy. the high informative level of the studying of ATPh, histamin, kortisol of blood's serum for diagnostics and evaluation of the efficiency of treatment of the pain disfunction of temporomandibular joint syndrome was proved.

  6. Comparison of preoperative infraorbital block with peri-incisional infiltration for postoperative pain relief in cleft lip surgeries

    Gaonkar V


    Full Text Available In this prospective, randomized study, children undergoing cleft lip surgery were either given infra-orbital nerve block (n=25 or peri-incisional infiltration (n=25 pre-operatively with 0.25% bupivacaine in 1:2,00,000 adrenaline. The overall course of anesthesia in both the groups was smooth, with excellent hemodynamic stability, indicating better pain relief during the intra-operative period. The concentration of the anesthetic agent required was reduced and recovery from anesthesia was rapid and complete. There was excellent postoperative analgesia. The children were calm and comfortable postoperatively. We conclude that infra-orbital nerve block with 0.25% bupivacaine with adrenaline provides more prolonged analgesia than peri-incisional infiltration in cleft lip repair. Infra-orbital block given by modified approach is easy to perform and free of side-effects.

  7. Interoperability: Stop Blaming the Radio


    emotionally compromised when they arrive at the scene, before they are even called upon to perform critical decision making and clearly articulate...Further study is needed to understand the role of hormone secretion, such as adrenaline and cortisol , plus other stress-related physiological reactions...a state of expressive suppression, defined as “consciously inhibiting emotional expressions while emotionally aroused.”21 First responders force

  8. Using Heart Rate to Predict Resilience and Susceptibility to PTSD in Soldiers


    understanding resilience. When stressful situations occur, the body releases mediators of allostasis- cortisol and adrenalin, in order to act in the short term...images that were shown to the subjects were either “trauma related, generally aversive, pleasant, or emotionally neutral.” In this specific experiment...type of pictures. Forty eight pictures were shown to the participants with 12 being trauma relevant, 12 fairly aversive, 12 pleasant and 12 emotionally

  9. Continuous paravertebral infusion of ropivacaine with or without fentanyl for pain relief in unilateral multiple fractured ribs

    Medha Mohta


    Full Text Available Background: Continuous thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB provides effective analgesia for unilateral multiple fractured ribs (MFR. However, prolonged infusion of local anaesthetic (LA in high doses can predispose to risk of LA toxicity, which may be reduced by using safer drugs or drug combinations. This study was conducted to assess efficacy and safety of paravertebral infusion of ropivacaine and adrenaline with or without fentanyl to provide analgesia to patients with unilateral MFR. Methods: Thirty adults, having ≥3 unilateral MFR, with no significant trauma outside chest wall, were studied. All received bolus of 0.5% ropivacaine 0.3 ml/kg through paravertebral catheter, followed by either 0.1-0.2 ml/kg/hr infusion of ropivacaine 0.375% with adrenaline 5 μg/ml in group RA or ropivacaine 0.2% with adrenaline 5 μg/ml and fentanyl 2 μg/ml in group RAF. Rescue analgesia was provided by IV morphine. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using unpaired Student t-test, Chi-square test and repeated measures ANOVA. After TPVB, VAS scores, respiratory rate and PEFR improved in both groups with no significant inter-group differences. Duration of ropivacaine infusion, morphine requirements, length of ICU and hospital stay, incidence of pulmonary complications and opioid-related side-effects were similar in both groups. Ropivacaine requirement was higher in group RA than group RAF. No patient showed signs of LA toxicity. Conclusion: Continuous paravertebral infusion of ropivacaine 0.375% with adrenaline 5 μg/ml at 0.1-0.2 ml/kg/hr provided effective and safe analgesia to patients with unilateral MFR. Addition of fentanyl 2 μg/ml allowed reduction of ropivacaine concentration to 0.2% without decreasing efficacy or increasing opioid-related side-effects.


    Urszula Mazurek


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations as well as whole blood β2-adrenoceptor gene (ADRB2 expression in young ice hockey players before and immediately after exercise in relation to performed work. Nineteen Youth National Team ice hockey players were subjected to the maximal incremental cycloergometer exercise. The test was done in the pre-competitive phase of training. Among many parameters the plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations and ADRB2 gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were determined before and after exercise. The average performed work was 3261.3 ± 558.3 J · kg-1 and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max for all players was 53.85 ± 3.91 mL · kg-1 min-1. The geometric mean of the ADRB2 gene expression was statistically significantly different before and after exercise (P ≤ 0.05, while adrenaline and noradrenaline levels in plasma significantly increased after exercise. In the analysed group of athletes we found that initial level of plasma noradrenaline correlated with the performed work (r = - 0.55, P < 0.014 and normalized ADRB2 expression before the exercise correlated with the work done by them (r = 0.48, P<0.039. However, no statistically significant correlations were found between the plasma adrenaline or noradrenaline concentrations and ADRB2 gene expression in peripheral blood of the players. The performed work in the maximal incremental exercise test of regularly training young ice hockey players depends on the initial levels of noradrenaline in plasma and ADRB2 mRNA in PBMC.

  11. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-induced vasodilator responses in the hindquarters of the anaesthetized rat, involve beta2-adrenoceptors.

    Calama, E; García, M; Jarque, M J; Morán, A; Martín, M L; San Román, L


    These studies were conducted to examine the role of the vasoactive mediators nitric oxide (NO) and adrenaline (epinephrine) in the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT)-induced vasodilator response in the hindquarter vascular bed of anaesthetized rats. Intra-arterial administration of doses of 5-HT in the range 0.12-25 ng kg(-1) produced a dose-independent vasodilator effect in the hindquarters. The selective 5-HT(1D/1B) receptor agonist, L-694,247 at intra-arterial doses of 0.0012-1000 ng kg(-1), as well as adrenaline (at doses of 0.05-50 ng kg(-1) i.a.), mimicked the dose-independent vasodilator effect induced by intra-arterial administration of 5-HT. Intravenous pre-treatment with the selective beta2-receptor antagonist ICI 118,551 (0.5 mg kg(-1)) blocked the vasodilator effect of 5-HT, adrenaline and L-694,247. Additionally, the inhibitor of NO synthase NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME) (at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1) i.v.) blocked the vasodilator action of acetylcholine 300-3000 ng kg(-1)) but did not modify 5-HT-induced vasodilatation. The vasodilator effect produced by intra-arterial administration of 5-HT in the hindquarters was significantly inhibited both 30 min after denervation of the lumbar sympathetic chains and 1 h after bilateral adrenalectomy. Our data suggest that in the in-situ autoperfused hindquarters of the rat 5-HT-induced vasodilatation is mediated by a local 5-HT(1D) or 5-HT(1D/1B) activation, which in turn mediates the adrenal release of adrenaline, which then produces beta2-activation and vasodilatation.

  12. Palm vitamin E reduces catecholamines, xanthine oxidase activity and gastric lesions in rats exposed to water-immersion restraint stress

    Mohd Fahami Nur Azlina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the effects of Palm vitamin E (PVE and α-tocopherol (α-TF supplementations on adrenalin, noradrenalin, xanthine oxidase plus dehydrogenase (XO + XD activities and gastric lesions in rats exposed to water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS. Methods Sixty male Sprague–Dawley rats (200-250 g were randomly divided into three equal sized groups. The control group was given a normal diet, while the treated groups received the same diet with oral supplementation of PVE or α-TF at 60 mg/kg body weight. After the treatment period of 28 days, each group was further subdivided into two groups with 10 rats without exposing them to stress and the other 10 rats were subjected to WIRS for 3.5 hours. Blood samples were taken to measure the adrenalin and noradrenalin levels. The rats were then sacrificed following which the stomach was excised and opened along the greater curvature and examined for lesions and XO + XD activities. Results The rats exposed to WIRS had lesions in their stomach mucosa. Our findings showed that dietary supplementations of PVE and α-TF were able to reduce gastric lesions significantly in comparison to the stressed control group. WIRS increased plasma adrenalin and noradrenalin significantly. PVE and α-TF treatments reduced these parameters significantly compared to the stressed control. Conclusions Supplementations with either PVE or α-TF reduce the formation of gastric lesions. Their protective effect was related to their abilities to inhibit stress induced elevation of adrenalin and noradrenalin levels as well as through reduction in xanthine oxidase and dehydrogenase activities.

  13. Local anaesthetics and additives for spinal anaesthesia--characteristics and factors influencing the spread and duration of the block.

    Pitkänen, Mikko; Rosenberg, Per H


    Different characteristics of patients and local anaesthetic formulations will influence the spread of spinal anaesthesia. The predictability of the spread of spinal anaesthesia can be improved by altering both baricity of the solution, and the position of the patient during the intrathecal local anaesthetic injection. The role of adrenaline and clonidine in prolonging the block and associated side effects is discussed. The role of opioids added to local anaesthetic solutions is discussed from a cost/benefit point of view.

  14. History of the use of ergotamine and dihydroergotamine in migraine from 1906 and onward

    Koehler, P.J.; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer


    Dale showed in 1906 in a seminal work that ergot inhibits the pressor effect of adrenaline. Stoll at Sandoz isolated ergotamine from ergot in 1918. Based on the belief that migraine was due to increased sympathetic activity, ergotamine was first used in the acute treatment of migraine by Maier...... that ergotamine may be considered in the treatment of selected patients with moderate to severe migraine Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8...


    Hafid, Ridha


    JURNAL MASYARAKAT EPIDEMIOLOGI INDONESIA ABSTRACT Pregnancy stress is a symptom produce by experienced pregnant women primigravida triggered by specific allegations before and during pregnancy, both from themselves and from other people's experiences, and are directly or indirectly triggers the cathecol amines (adrenaline and noradrenaline) which causes uterine contractions and impact to occuredof abortion, premature birth, until the death of the fetus. It also potential to cause the ...

  16. Adrenergic, coagulation, and fibrinolytic responses to heat.

    Britton, B J; Hawkey, C; Wood, W G; Peele, M; Kaye, J; Irving, M H


    Two groups of volunteers were exposed to heat in a sauna bath-one group for 10 minutes and the other for 15. There was no change in plasma adrenaline concentration until the subjects emerged from the sauna bath, when there was a slight increase in concentration. Factor VIII and thrombo-elastograph patterns did not change but marked activation of fibrinolysis was stimulated by exposure to heat. These findings support the concept that fibrinolysis is not mediated by direct adrenergic activity.

  17. Catecholamines in plasma from artery, cubital vein, and femoral vein in patients with cirrhosis. Significance of sampling site

    Henriksen, J H; Ring-Larsen, H; Christensen, N J


    The concentration of noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A) was measured in arterial, cubital venous and femoral venous plasma in order to determine possible differences in different vascular beds in the peripheral circulation. In patients with cirrhosis, arterial plasma NA (median 2.54 nmol/l, n ...... the skin of forearm and hand). To assess circulating levels of catecholamines, the importance of arterial sampling is stressed as peripheral venous samples may also reflect local factors....

  18. Drug: D08945 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D08945 Drug Milveterol hydrochloride (USAN) C25H29N3O4. HCl 471.1925 471.9764 D0894...-based classification of drugs [BR:br08310] G Protein-coupled receptors Rhodopsin family Adrenaline beta2-ad...renergic receptor [HSA:154] [KO:K04142] Milveterol D08945 Milveterol hydrochloride (USAN) CAS: 804518-03-4 P

  19. Drug: D09696 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D09696 Drug Vilanterol (USAN) C24H33Cl2NO5 485.1736 486.4285 D09696.gif Treatment o...08310] G Protein-coupled receptors Rhodopsin family Adrenaline beta2-adrenergic receptor [HSA:154] [KO:K04142] Vilante...rol D09696 Vilanterol (USAN) CAS: 503068-34-6 PubChem: 124490436 LigandBox: D09696 ATOM 32 1 C8y C

  20. [Effect of preparations altering cAMP metabolism on the bioelectrogenesis of the skeletal muscles].

    Patrin, I A; Mozzhukhin, A S; Samoĭlov, V O


    In the frog isolated m. sartorius, microelectrode technique and in vivo TV microscopy differentiating bioelectrical phenomena in separate fibers of different groups (dark, light, intermediate), revealed that the drugs altering cAMF exchange (adrenaline, caffeine, imidazole) and used in concentration 10(-5) M, affect to different extents the resting potential and the AP. The effect of the drugs is more obvious in respect to excitatory potential. Mechanism of this phenomenon is discussed.

  1. Characterisation of the sympathetic nervous system of Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants based on urinary catecholamine analyses.

    Dehnhard, M


    Assessing the welfare status of captive animals using non-invasive measurements of hormones is of growing interest because this can serve as an effective tool to facilitate the optimization of environmental and husbandry conditions. Both the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) and the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) exhibit extremely low breeding success in captivity, and because elevated levels of stress may negatively influence reproductive functions, this study sought to establish a method for assessing sympathoadrenal activity in captive female elephants. We found a circadian variation in urinary noradrenaline (norepinephrine, NE), adrenaline (epinephrine, Epi) and dopamine (DA) under short day length. Peak activity of noradrenaline and dopamine was noted at 3 a.m. Adrenaline showed a biphasic pattern with a minor peak recorded at 3 a.m. and a major peak 9 a.m. Under long-day photoperiodic conditions, simultaneous peaks of noradrenaline and adrenaline were again noted at 3 a.m. whereas dopamine does not appear to have a distinct circadian pattern under long-day length. A transfer of two elephant cows resulted in a marked increase in urinary adrenaline and noradrenaline levels, confirming that the transfer represented a stressful event. During the peripartal period, noradrenaline concentrations increased and maximum concentrations were obtained at delivery. Daily measurements of urinary dopamine throughout the follicular phase revealed an increase in dopamine secretion close to ovulation. This increase might indicate a role of dopamine in the ovulatory mechanisms. These results suggest that changes in urinary catecholamine excretion reflect fluctuations in sympathoadrenal activity and may be a useful indicator of stress.

  2. Stress hyperglycaemia in patients with first myocardial infarction

    Bronisz, Agata; Koziński, Marek; Magielski, Przemysław; Fabiszak, Tomasz; Bronisz, Marek; Świątkiewicz, Iwona; Sukiennik, Adam; Beszczyńska, B.; Junik, Roman; Kubica, Jacek


    Objective: To investigate the incidence of stress hyperglycaemia at first acute myocardial infarction (MI) with ST-segment elevation, occurrence of stress hyperglycaemia as a manifestation of previously undiagnosed abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT), and its relation to stress hormone levels. Materials and methods: The population of this prospective cohort study consisted of 243 patients. On admission glucose, adrenaline, noradrenaline and cortisol levels were measured. Patien...

  3. Catecholamines and diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    Hilsted, J


    In diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy plasma noradrenaline concentration, used as an index of sympathetic nervous activity, is low. This decrease is, however, only found in patients with a long duration of diabetes with clinically severe autonomic neuropathy. This apparent insensitivity...... of plasma catecholamine measurements is not due to changes in the clearance of catecholamines in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. The physiological responses to infused adrenaline and to noradrenaline are enhanced, for noradrenaline mainly cardiovascular responses. Adrenoceptors (alpha and beta adrenoceptors...

  4. Perioperative anaphylaxis

    Marta Inés Berrío Valencia


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Anaphylaxis remains one of the potential causes of perioperative death, being generally unanticipated and quickly progress to a life threatening situation. A narrative review of perioperative anaphylaxis is performed.CONTENT: The diagnostic tests are primarily to avoid further major events. The mainstays of treatment are adrenaline and intravenous fluids.CONCLUSION: The anesthesiologist should be familiar with the proper diagnosis, management and monitoring of perioperative anaphylaxis.


    谢协驹; 吉丽敏; 符史干


    objective:The present study was to investigate the role of alphal-adrenergic receptor blocking agent(phentolamine) in the hypertrophy of cardiaomyocyte induced by adrenaline.Methods:The measurement of cell surface area and[3H]-Leucine incorporation judged the hypertrophy of cardiaomyocyte in cultured neonatal rat myocardal cells,Results:The results showed that adrenaline could significantly increase cell.surface area promote[3H]-Leucine incorporation.Alphal-adrenergic blocking agent could markedly block effects of adrenaline increasing cell surface area and promoting [3H]-Leucine incorporation, Conclusions:These results suggest that alpha-adrenergic blocking agent can prevent the hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes induced by adrenaline in cultured neontal rat myocardal cells.%目的:观察α受体阻滞剂酚妥拉明对肾上腺素诱导的心肌细胞肥大的作用。方法:在培养新生大鼠心肌细胞上。通过测量心肌细胞表面积和[3H]-Leu的掺入量来判断心肌细胞肥大。结果:肾上腺素要明显增加心肌细胞表面和[3H]-亮氨酸([3H-Leu]的掺入量,α受体阻滞剂酚妥拉明能阻断肾上腺素增加心肌细胞表面积和[3H]-Leu掺入量的作用。结论:α受体阻滞有减轻肾上腺素诱导心肌细胞肥大的作用。

  6. 严重创伤后应激反应的调控机理%Molecular biological responses to severe posttraumatic stress

    刘都户; 粟永萍; 程天民


    Traumatic stress in the normal individual results in activationof the sympatho-adrenal system causing a rise in noradrenaline and adrenaline, acute phase response in liver ,and activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical(HPA)system resulting in elevated levels of cortisol. Studies in animals and in humans with posttraumatic stress disorder indicate that successful adaptation to stress is a prerequisite for the survival of all organisms living in an enviroment in which noxious stimuli are constantly present.

  7. 儿科高级生命支持治疗进展(2)

    VinayM.Nadkami; RobertA.Berg


    6.1 Vasopressors Epinephrine (adrenaline) is an endogenous catecholamine with potent alpha and beta stimulating properties. The alpha-adrenergic action (vasoconstriction) increases systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance, increasing both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The rise in diastolic blood pressure directly increases coronary perfusion pressure, thereby increasing coronary blood flow and increasing the likelihood of return of spontaneous circulation. Epinephrine also increases cerebral blood flow during CPR because peripheralgreater proportion of flowvasoconstriction directs a to the cerebral circulation.

  8. Symphony Nitris后期处理工具


    AVid Symphony Nitris系统将Symphony后期处理工具集与Avid Nitris DNA硬件的实时性融合在一起。无需重新制作在Media Composer Adrenaline HD和Avid Xpress Pro HD编辑系统上完成的作品。每个片段、特效、字幕和图形均将以HD自动重建。




    作为四大跑鞋品牌之一,美国的BROOKS给我们的感觉一直较为低调,但内敛的性格却丝毫不影响其强大的科技研发实力,全新推出的ADRENALINE GTS 13就是汇集BROOKS众多成熟科技的结晶之作。

  10. Serious shortcomings in the management of children with anaphylaxis in Scottish schools.

    Kirsty E Rankin


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The United Kingdom incidence of anaphylaxis has increased very sharply over the last decade, with the highest rates of hospital admissions occurring in school-aged children. This raises concerns about the extent to which schools are aware of approaches to the prevention and treatment of anaphylaxis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We undertook a national postal survey of 250 Scottish schools enquiring about approaches to managing children considered to be at risk of anaphylaxis. We obtained responses from 148 (60% schools, 90 (61% of which reported having at least one at risk child. Most (80% schools with children considered to be at risk reported having personalised care plans and invariably reported having at least one member of staff trained in the emergency treatment of anaphylaxis. Access to adrenaline was available on-site in 97% of these schools. However, significantly fewer schools without children considered to be at risk reported having a trained member of staff (48%, p < 0.001, with access to adrenaline being very poor (12%, p < 0.001. Overall, 59% of respondents did not feel confident in their school's ability to respond in an emergency situation. CONCLUSIONS: Most schools with children considered to be at risk of anaphylaxis report using personal care plans and having a member of staff trained in the use of, and with access to, adrenaline. The picture is, however, less encouraging in schools without known at risk children, both in relation to staff training and access to adrenaline. The majority of schools with at risk children have poorly developed strategies for preventing food-triggered anaphylaxis reactions. There is a need for detailed national guidelines for all schools, which the Scottish Executive must now ensure are developed and implemented.

  11. Beta blockers, norepinephrine, and cancer: an epidemiological viewpoint


    Paul J FitzgeraldThe Zanvyl Krieger Mind/Brain Institute, Solomon H Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: There is growing evidence that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) and its sister molecule epinephrine (EPI) (adrenaline) affect some types of cancer. Several recent epidemiological studies have shown that chronic use of beta blocking drugs (which antagonize NE/EPI receptors) results in lower recurrence, progression, or mortality of ...

  12. The treatment of autonomic dysfunction in tetanus

    T van den Heever


    Full Text Available We report a case of generalised tetanus in a 50-year-old female patient after sustaining a wound to her right lower leg. She developed autonomic dysfunction, which included labile hypertension alternating with hypotension and sweating. The autonomic dysfunction was treated successfully with a combination of morphine sulphate infusion, magnesium sulphate, and clonidine. She also received adrenaline and phenylephrine infusions as needed for hypotension. We then discuss the pathophysiology, clinical features and treatment options of autonomic dysfunction.

  13. Special Features in Regulating Respiration Under Normal Conditions and Conditions of Altered Gas Medium


    brain are made reference to I1 P. Pavlov’s article about ’alimentary center* (1910-1911) forgetting to mention that, first, in this article I. P...can for some time be impulse source. As a means of switching on afferent impulses we [23] resorted to blockade of adreno-choline and serotonin -rIrt-*ve...respiratory center can be reduced, by introducing into blood stream, or better yet, into spinal artery, no."drenaline, adrenaline, serotonin , DOC

  14. Neuroendocrine responses to hypoglycaemia decrease within the first year after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes

    Damholt, M B; Christensen, N J; Hilsted, Jannik


    diagnosis of diabetes. Hypoglycaemia was induced by i.v. insulin infusion after an overnight normalization of blood glucose. Autonomic nerve function was evaluated by cardiovascular tests, and somatic nerve function by nerve conduction velocities A 50% reduction was found in adrenaline (p ....025) and noradrenaline (p Rate of glucose recovery did not differ at month 12 compared with month 3. Cardiovascular autonomic nerve function tests did not change and remained...


    G. I. Netylko


    Full Text Available The experimental investigation for the purpose of modeling of knee osteonecrosis were performed in 36 rats. The chronic renal insufficiency by means of left nephrectomy and electrocoagulation in 25% cortical substance of right kidney was induced before 6 months till experiment with subsequent introduction of 0,1% adrenalin solution and methylprednisolone in paraarticular structures. The results of experiment showed the polyetiologic feature of disease.

  16. The EpiPen and the ischaemic finger.

    Singh, Talvinder; Randhawa, Susheelwant; Khanna, Rakesh


    We present a case of a 24-year-old with a history of accidental injection of adrenaline from an EpiPen into the proximal aspect of her left index finger. Various methods were advocated to treat digital ischaemia but were of no benefit. Topical infiltration of phentolamine in 1 ml of lignocaine 2% was given at the puncture site with immediate results of resolution of digital ischaemia.

  17. Effects of Acute and Recurrent Stress During Adolescence on Subsequent Indices of Adult Behavioral Health in Rats


    health. McEwen (2001b) reported that the effect of cortisol and adrenaline on the hippocampus promotes memory formation associated with harmful...excessive exercise, and administration of various drugs (e.g., atropine, morphine , formaldehyde) in non-lethal doses. He found that a predictable...the hippocampus . British Journal of Pharmacology, 89(2), 341-347. Barron, S., White, A., Swartzwelder, H. S., Bell, R. L., Rodd, Z. A., Slawecki, C

  18. State Defense Force Journal. Volume 3, Issue 1, Fall 2007


    began when 95 of these soldiers viewed the educational film , BATTLEMIND which explained how their combat and operational training and experience prepares...adrenaline drains, and the survival switch needs to be turned off, but doesn’t. After watching the film , the soldiers next met with the medical...cavalry, formed and commanded many reenactment units, trained numerous soldiers in the military seat and is currently the President of the First

  19. Counterregulatory hormones in insulin-treated diabetic patients admitted to an accident and emergency department with hypoglycaemia

    Hvidberg, A; Christensen, N J; Hilsted, Jannik


    ). Eighteen adult patients with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus admitted to the Accident and Emergency Department with hypoglycaemia (plasma glucose 1.23 +/- 0.15 mmol l(-1) on admission) were randomized to one of the above treatments and plasma glucose and counterregulatory hormones were measured before...... significantly elevated concentrations of adrenaline and glucagon were found in diabetic patients admitted with severe hypoglycaemia to an Accident and Emergency Department....

  20. Comparison of Intraarticular Bupivacaine and Levobupivacaine with Morphine and Epinephrine for Knee Arthroscopy

    Ozdemir, Nurdan; Kaya, Fatma Nur; Gurbet, Alp; Yilmazlar, Aysun; Demirag, Burak; Mandiraci, Bilgen Onbasi


    Objective: To compare the efficacy of intraarticularly injected bupivacaine with levobupivacaine when administered in combination with morphine and adrenaline for post-operative analgesia and functional recovery after knee surgery. Materials and Methods: Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I–II patients were randomized into three groups: Group B was administered 30 mL isobaric 0.5% bupivacaine, 2 mg morphine and 100 μg adrenaline, Group L was administered 30 mL 0.5% levobupivacaine, 2 mg morphine and 100 μg adrenaline, and Group C was administered 30 mL 0.9% NaCl solution into the knee joint by the surgeon at the end of surgery. The morphine usage and visual analog pain scores were recorded regularly afterwards. We also recorded the time that elapsed before each patients’ first mobilization, positive response to straight leg raising, tolerance to 30–50° knee flexion, recovery of quadriceps reflexes and discharge from the hospital. We also recorded patient and surgeon satisfaction. Results: The pain scale values were lower in Groups B and L than in Group C at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 hours post-operatively (all p<0.001). In Groups B and L, the time for first analgesic request was longer (p<0.01), the morphine consumption was lower (p<0.001), and the duration of morphine usage was shorter (p<0.001). The times to positive response to straight leg raising, tolerance to 30–50° knee flexion and the first mobilization were shorter in Groups B and L (p<0.001 for all). Conclusion: After arthroscopic knee surgery, intraarticular levobupivacaine combined with morphine and adrenaline decreases analgesic requirements, shortens the postoperative duration of analgesic use and hastens mobilization as effectively as bupivacaine. PMID:25610257

  1. [Suspected anaphylaxis by wound treatment with polyhexanide derivate wound products].

    Schrøder, Morten A; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus; Winther, Lone


    Only four cases of anaphylaxis triggered by polyhexanide have been reported in the literature. We report a case of anaphylaxis in a Danish patient treated with polyhexanide derivate (Prontosan) wound products. We emphasise the importance of intramuscular injection of adrenaline as part of the treatment protocol in the initial phase of anaphylaxis and stress the importance of being aware of polyhexanide as a potential trigger of anaphylaxis.

  2. Foreword

    Nina GOLOB


    Just before summer, when the air around university is filled with students' adrenalin due to numerous tests, we are pleased to announce our summer ALA issue. It was compiled bearing in mind that the outcome of such efforts is mainly students' of course, however, ours also; the outcome of teachers and researchers. In a very broad sense, this issue places importance on a successful second language pedagogical process, be it readability, pronunciation, generalization and application of grammatic...

  3. Comparison of preoperative infraorbital block with peri-incisional infiltration for postoperative pain relief in cleft lip surgeries

    Gaonkar V; Daftary Swati


    In this prospective, randomized study, children undergoing cleft lip surgery were either given infra-orbital nerve block (n=25) or peri-incisional infiltration (n=25) pre-operatively with 0.25% bupivacaine in 1:2,00,000 adrenaline. The overall course of anesthesia in both the groups was smooth, with excellent hemodynamic stability, indicating better pain relief during the intra-operative period. The concentration of the anesthetic agent required was reduced and recovery from anesthesia...

  4. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. leaf on blood pressure and its interaction with adrenergic system of male rats

    Hajar Ebrahimiyan


    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is one of the most common diseases in recent century with several complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. leaves (Walnut tree on blood pressure and its interaction with the adrenergic system in male rats. Methods: In this experimental study that established in the physiology lab, School of scinse in Shiraz University from September to October 2013, in order to determine some of hydroalcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. leaves effect on blood pressure, the present study was performed by following procedure: 10 adult male wistar rats weighing between 180-250g were used. They were divided into two groups (Each group contained 5 rats randomly: Juglans regia L. leaf extract group and Juglans regia L. leaf extract and adrenaline group. Then each rat was anesthetized by IP injection of 1.2 g/kg urethane. After tracheostomy the femoral vine and artery were cannulated for drug injection and blood pressure recording respectively. Arterial cannula for recording arterial blood pressure connected to a pressure transducer (PowerLab, ADInstruments, Sydney, Australia. Blood pressure parameters were recorded before and after IV administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. leaf, solvent, adrenalin and extract with adrenaline. Results: The result showed a significant decrease of mean arterial pressure, systolic and diastolic pressure in response to extract with compare to control and sham group (P<0.05. Also a significant decrease of blood pressure showed in presence of walnut leaf extract and adrenaline with compare to sham group (P<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that hydroalcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. leaf suggested as a hypotensive agent. It seems that this effect is probably due to inhibitory effect on adrenergic system.

  5. Assessment of ropivacaine postoperative analgesic effect after periapical maxillary incisors surgery

    Tijanić Miloš


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Ropivacaine is a relatively new longacting local anesthetic. The aim of this study was to compare the postoperative analgesic effect of topical anesthetics ropivacaine 0.75% and lidocaine 2% with adrenaline in the postoperative treatment of periapical lesions in the maxilla. Methods. The study was conducted on 60 subjects, divided into two groups. The study-group received 0.75% ropivacaine without a vasoconstrictor, while the control group was treated with 2% lidocaine with adrenaline (1 : 80.000. Block anesthesia for n. infraorbitalis was used and local anesthetics were applied also on the palatine side for the end branches of n. nasopalatinus. The following parameters were observed: time elapsed from the application of an anesthetic until the first occurrence of pain after the surgery and first intake of an analgesic, the intensity of initial pain, pain intensity 6 h after the application of anesthetics and the total number of analgesics taken within 24 h after the completion of surgery. Results. The pain appeared statistically significantly earlier in the patients who had been given lidocaine with adrenaline (p < 0.001, while statistically significantly higher mean values of initial postoperative pain (p < 0.05 and pain intensity 6 h after the intervention (p < 0.01 were also registered in the same group of patients. In the period of 24 h upon the intervention, the study-group patients were taking less analgesics as compared to the control-group subjects (46.6% vs 73.3%, who were given analgesics earlier, although no statistically significant differences were observed related to the number of analgesic doses taken. Conclusion. The results of our study indicate a better postoperative analgesic effect of ropivacaine as compared to lidocaine with adrenaline.

  6. [The anti-arrhythmia action of an extract of Rhodiola rosea and of n-tyrosol in models of experimental arrhythmias].

    Maĭmeskulova, L A; Maslov, L N


    A daily 8-day course of Rhodiolae fluidum extract (1 ml/kg; ED50 = 0.43 ml/kg)--a preparation from the group of adaptogens caused a marked preventive antiarrhythmic effect on models of adrenaline and CaCl2-induced, but not acontine, arrhythmias. Aglycone--n-tyrosol demonstrated a lower antiarrhythmic activity (ED50 = 16 mg/kg) than that of Rhodiola extract.

  7. Drug: D04954 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D04954 Drug Metaproterenol polistirex (USAN) Bronchodilator beta2-adrenergic recept...ceptor interaction hsa04144(154) Endocytosis hsa04261(154) Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes hsa04970(1...54) Salivary secretion USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Respiratory Tract/Pul...-based classification of drugs [BR:br08310] G Protein-coupled receptors Rhodopsin family Adrenaline beta2-adr

  8. Structural alteration of cell surface heparan sulfate through the stimulation of the signaling pathway for heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase-1 in mouse fibroblast cells.

    Nishida, Mitsutaka; Kozakai, Takeru; Nagami, Keitaro; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Tomio


    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a randomly sulfated polysaccharide that is present on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. The sulfated structures of HS were synthesized by multiple HS sulfotransferases, thereby regulating various activities such as growth factor signaling, cell differentiation, and tumor metastasis. Therefore, if the sulfated structures of HS could be artificially controlled, those manipulations would help to understand the various functions depending on HS. However, little knowledge is currently available to realize the mechanisms controlling the expression of such enzymes. In this study, we found that the ratio of 6-O-sulfated disaccharides increased at 3 h after adrenaline stimulation in mouse fibroblast cells. Furthermore, adrenaline-induced up-regulation of HS 6-O-sulfotransferase-1 (6-OST-1) was controlled by Src-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Finally, inhibiting the signaling pathways for 6-OST-1 intentionally suppressed the adrenaline-induced structural alteration of HS. These observations provide fundamental insights into the understanding of structural alterations in HS by extracellular cues.

  9. Raman, IR, UV-vis and EPR characterization of two copper dioxolene complexes derived from L-dopa and dopamine.

    Barreto, Wagner J; Barreto, Sônia R G; Ando, Rômulo A; Santos, Paulo S; DiMauro, Eduardo; Jorge, Thiago


    The anionic complexes [Cu(L(1-))3](1-), L(-)=dopasemiquinone or L-dopasemiquinone, were prepared and characterized. The complexes are stable in aqueous solution showing intense absorption bands at ca. 605 nm for Cu(II)-L-dopasemiquinone and at ca. 595 nm for Cu(II)-dopasemiquinone in the UV-vis spectra, that can be assigned to intraligand transitions. Noradrenaline and adrenaline, under the same reaction conditions, did not yield Cu-complexes, despite the bands in the UV region showing that noradrenaline and adrenaline were oxidized during the process. The complexes display a resonance Raman effect, and the most enhanced bands involve ring modes and particularly the nuCC+nuCO stretching mode at ca. 1384 cm(-1). The free radical nature of the ligands and the oxidation state of the Cu(II) were confirmed by the EPR spectra that display absorptions assigned to organic radicals with g=2.0005 and g=2.0923, and for Cu(II) with g=2.008 and g=2.0897 for L-dopasemiquinone and dopasemiquinone, respectively. The possibility that dopamine and L-dopa can form stable and aqueous-soluble copper complexes at neutral pH, whereas noradrenaline and adrenaline cannot, may be important in understanding how Cu(II)-dopamine crosses the cellular membrane as proposed in the literature to explain the role of copper in Wilson disease.

  10. Improvement of the Original Isolation Procedure for Hormone Studies in Short-Time Culture

    Mukadder Atmaca


    Full Text Available Earlier studies indicated that hormone responsiveness of cells and metabolic activity was lost during various of experimental procedure. In the light of this observation, I aimed to investigate to obtain optimal conditions for short time cultured hepatocytes and also to determine the type of test can be used to evaluate suitablity of hepatocytes for hormones studies. During the isolation period 50 IU/ml and 100 IU/ml collagenase were used. Adrenaline (10-6M was used to measure sensitivity of hepatocytes to hormones and glycogenolsis was measured at the end of 2hr incubation period. Adrenaline significantly increased gylcogenolysis (Control: 0.16±0.01 mg/2hr; Adrenaline: 0.30±0.01 mg/2hr only when the 50 IU/ml collagenase was used and the viability of the cells were over 95%. Viability tests were applied to hepatocytes that obtained by using 50 IU collagenase. Cellular glutathione, methylthiazoltetrazolium reduction, lactatedehdrogenase leakage, ATP level measured to determine viability following the attachment and incubation period. No differences were observed at the end of each period.Altogether, the present study indicated that membrane integrity and metabolic function of the hepatocytes can be improved by modifying slightly the original procedure of Reese and Byard.

  11. 超级决战——“格斗沙皇”菲多VS西尔维亚



    败于"牛头人"安东尼奥之手后,蒂姆·西尔维亚(Tim Sylvia)与UFC当局在台约问题上有所分歧,最终选择了离开UFC。他与他的经理人对外宣报将会成立一个新的MMA比赛Adrenaline MMA (Adrenaline直译为肾上腺),而该比赛组织的班底即是只成立了5个月就解散的M-1 Global里的美国人,并且宣称他很乐意在不久的将来与MMA格斗沙皇菲多·埃美利安恩科(Fedor Emelia- nenko)打一场。这一令人兴奋的梦幻之战最终得以实现,虽然并不是发生在Adrenaline MMA的赛场上,而是发生在一个由时装公司Affliction投资牵头,蒂姆所在的Adrenaline MMA团队、菲多、乔希·巴纳特军团和兰迪军团参与的新比赛——AFFLICTION BANNED上!汇集了全世界最顶尖的格斗高手的比赛阵容令全世界格斗迷为之疯狂!比

  12. Level of knowledge about anaphylaxis and its management among health care providers

    H S Drupad


    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge of health care providers regarding anaphylaxis and its management at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: A pretested structured questionnaire was administered to interns, MBBS Phase II students, and nursing students. The subjects were asked to answer the questionnaire, which included questions regarding anaphylaxis and its management. Results: Of 265 subjects, 151 (56.9% of subjects answered correctly that adrenaline is the first line of drug for the treatment of anaphylaxis. Among 151 subjects, 40 (26.4% answered the correct dose of adrenaline, of which 25 (16.5% subjects selected intramuscular injection as the most appropriate route of administration. Medical students′ performance was better than interns and nursing students on questions regarding dose, route, and site of adrenaline administration. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding the management of anaphylaxis was inadequate in almost all the health care providers who were included in the study. Improved education and training of health care providers are necessary for better management of anaphylaxis.

  13. Diversified β-2-adrenergic Receptor Expression and Action in Melanoma Cells.

    Janik, Marcelina Elżbieta; Szlęzak, Dominika; Surman, Magdalena; Gołas, Aniela; Lityńska, Anna; Przybyło, Małgorzata


    Growing evidence links stress hormones with development and progression of various cancer types. The aim of this study was to assess susceptibility of cutaneous and uveal melanoma cells to adrenaline (AD). The expression of β-2-adrenergic receptor in primary cutaneous (FM-55-P), primary uveal (92-1, Mel202) and metastatic cutaneous (A375) melanoma cells was estimated at mRNA, protein and cell surface levels. The impact of AD on cell proliferation and migration was also studied. The expression of β-2-adrenergic receptor was cell line-dependent. Adrenaline treatment caused a slight stimulation of melanoma cell proliferation and activation of matrix metalloproteinases. Adrenaline-treated uveal melanoma cells showed an increased migration rate, whereas, in cutaneous melanoma cells, no changes or even lower migration speed were observed. Melanoma cell susceptibility to AD varies depending on origin and progression stage. Metastatic cutaneous melanoma cells were found to be less responsive to AD than primary cutaneous and uveal melanoma cells. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. [Clinical experimental studies in patients with asympathicotonic hypotension].

    Anlauf, M; Werner, U; Merguet, P; Nitzs, T; Graben, N; Bock, K D


    Three patients with postural hypotension (two of the idiopathic type, one possibly due to familial dysautonomia) were found to have not only the pathognomonic postural hypotension, without rise in heart rate, cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance, but also a similarly abnormal regulatory mechanism on ergometric stress when recumbent. There was a delayed-response to the bloodpressure fall on Valsalva a manoeuvre, and the blood volume was reduced. A combined effect of these factors explains that these patients have a more marked impairment of physical capcity than might be expected merely from the orthostatic hypotension. The actions of noradrenaline, adrenaline, phenylephrine, isoproterenol, angiotensin and tyramine on blood pressure and heart rate were different from normal. Plasma-renin activity was reduced in all three patients and could not be raised. Urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline was markedly diminished. Reactions to noradrenaline and tyramine, as well as the excretion pattern of the catecholamine metabolites suggest a disorder of active adrenaline liberation. Furthermore, different disorders of catecholamine metabolism underlie idiopathic orthostatic hypotension and familial autonomia. Therapeutic trials with fludrocortisone, beta-receptor blockers and levodopa brought improvement, but long-term results are not yet available.

  15. Hypersensitivity of lung vessels to catecholamines in systemic hypertension.

    Guazzi, M D; Alimento, M; Fiorentini, C; Pepi, M; Polese, A


    Among patients with primary systemic hypertension pressure and arteriolar resistance in the pulmonary circulation exceed normal values and are hyper-reactive to sympathetic stimulation. A study was therefore carried out in 16 patients with uncomplicated essential hypertension and nine healthy subjects to compare the pulmonary vascular reactivity to exogenous catecholamines. In the normotensive group the dose response relation to adrenaline (microgram: dyn) was 1 = -4, 2 = -9, 3 = -9, and 4 = -10 and to noradrenaline 2 = +3, 4 = /8, 6 = +4, and 8 = +3. The relations in the hypertensive subjects were 1 = +18, 2 = +42, 3 = +59, and 4 = +77 and 2 = +39, 4 = +54, 6 = +76, and 8 = +100, respectively. Group differences were highly significant. Cardiac output (blood flow through the lungs) was raised by adrenaline and reduced by noradrenaline. In either case the driving pressure across the lungs was significantly augmented in the hypertensive patients but not in the normotensive group. Both catecholamines had a vasoconstrictor effect on the pulmonary circulation as a result of vascular over-reactivity. The opposite changes in resistance between normal and hypertensive subjects produced by adrenaline suggest that a constrictor vascular hypersensitivity occurs in the pulmonary circulation with the development of systemic high blood pressure.

  16. Regulation of pulmonary surfactant secretion in the developing lizard, Pogona vitticeps.

    Sullivan, Lucy C; Orgeig, Sandra; Daniels, Christopher B


    Pulmonary surfactant is a mixture of lipids and proteins that is secreted by alveolar type II cells in the lungs of all air-breathing vertebrates. Pulmonary surfactant functions to reduce the surface tension in the lungs and, therefore, reduce the work of breathing. In mammals, the embryonic maturation of the surfactant system is controlled by a host of factors, including glucocorticoids, thyroid hormones and autonomic neurotransmitters. We have used a co-culture system of embryonic type II cells and lung fibroblasts to investigate the ability of dexamethasone, tri-iodothyronine (T(3)), adrenaline and carbamylcholine (carbachol) to stimulate the cellular secretion of phosphatidylcholine in the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) at day 55 (approx. 92%) of incubation and following hatching. Adrenaline stimulated surfactant secretion both before and after hatching, whereas carbachol stimulated secretion only at day 55. Glucocorticoids and triiodothyronine together stimulated secretion at day 55 but did not after hatching. Therefore, adrenaline, carbachol, dexamethasone and T(3), are all involved in the development of the surfactant system in the bearded dragon. However, the efficacy of the hormones is attenuated during the developmental process. These differences probably relate to the changes in the cellular environment during development and the specific biology of the bearded dragon.

  17. [Addition of sodium bicarbonate and/or clonidine to mepivacaine: influence on axillary brachial plexus block characteristics].

    Contreras-Domínguez, V; Carbonell-Bellolio, P; Sanzana Salamanca, E; Ojeda-Grecie, A


    The axillary brachial plexus block is a frequently performed anesthetic technique. Adding a variety of coadjuvant drugs has been shown to improve results. This study evaluated the addition of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or clonidine to mepivacaine for performing the block. Sixty patients between 18 and 70 years old, ASA 1-3 in stable condition received axillary brachial plexus blocks in a randomized controlled study. Four groups of 15 patients each were formed: group I (control group) received 40 mL of 1% mepivacaine with adrenaline plus 5 mL of saline; group II, 40 mL of 1% mepivacaine with adrenaline plus 4 mL of NaHCO3 and 1 mL of saline; group III, 40 mL of 1% mepivacaine with 150 microg of clonidine plus 4mL of saline; and group IV, 40 mL of 1% mepivacaine with adrenaline plus 4 mL of NaHCO3 and 150 microg of clonidine. The onset time was significantly shorter in groups 2 and 4. The duration of the block was longer in group 3 and the analgesic effect was significantly better. Adding NaHCO3 to mepivacaine shortens the time of onset of an axillary brachial plexus block. Including clonidine prolongs the duration of anesthesia and analgesia. The addition of both NaHCO3 and clonidine shortens time to onset but does not prolong duration of anesthesia or analgesia.

  18. 利多卡因及伊布利特在治疗犬长时间心室颤动模型中的疗效比较%Comparison of Lidocaine and Ibutilide in Treating Ventricular-Fibrillation in Canine Model

    刘红臻; 钟敬泉; 李景莎; 苏国英; 王静; 张运


    Objective :To compare the efficacy of lidocaine and ibutilide respectively combined with adrenaline in treating the ventricularfibrillation(VF) in Canine Model.Methods :The experimental dog had 12 minutes of untreated VF, and then received 2 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) followed by immediate defibrillation of 100J biphase. Dogs with persistent VF were randomly assigned into 3 groups,n=8 in each group. Lidocaine( 1.5 mg/kg) +adrenaline(0. 02 mg/kg) group, Ibutilide(0. 01 mg/kg) +adrenaline group,and adrenaline alone(Control) group. If VF still continued,then CPR was continued, defibrillation energy was increased to 150J biphnse, and the same medications were used every 5 min. The endpoint was return of spontaneous circulation. During the entire experiment, the aortic and right atrial pressures were continuously monitored, coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) was examined and the corrected QT interval (QTc) was calculated by Bazett's formula.Results:The QTc in Lidocaine+adrenaline group and Control group were obviously lower than that in Ibutilide+adrenaline group,P<0. 05 respectively. The CPP in Lidocaine+adrenaline group and Ibutilide+adrenaline group were higher than that in Control group,P<0. 05 respectively. The defibrillation energy in Lidocaine+adrenaline group and Ibutilide+adrenaline group were lower than that in Control group,P<0. 05 respectively.Conclusion: Lidocaine and ibutilide respectively combined with adrenaline are both effective for improving the CPP in treating VF in canine model.%目的:利多卡因和伊布利特分别联用肾上腺素,应用到心室颤动的早期治疗过程中,比较两种药物的疗效.方法:犬心室颤动12分钟后立即进行2分钟的胸外按压,随即100 J双向波电除颤,仍为心室颤动的犬随机分为3组(每组8只),分别给予相应药物:利多卡因组,利多卡因(1.5 mg/kg)联用肾上腺素(0.02 mg/kg);伊布利特组:伊布利特(0.01 mg/kg)联用肾上腺素(0.02 mg/kg);

  19. 艾司洛尔与急性心肌梗死患者红细胞携氧能力的关系研究%Study on the Relationship Between Esmolol and Erythrocyte Oxygen Carrying Capacity in Pa-tients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    孙向华; 韩莲花; 李红霞; 惠杰


    【目的】探讨艾司洛尔是否影响急性心肌梗死患者红细胞血红蛋白的携氧能力。【方法】采集急性心肌梗死患者红细胞,悬浮于不同pH值(pH7.4、pH5.0)等渗PBS缓冲液,分别用肾上腺素、艾司洛尔、艾司洛尔+肾上腺素预处理红细胞,在拉曼光谱点扫描检测单个活态红细胞内血红蛋白特征光谱变化。【结果】在pH5.0时,氧化血红蛋白特征峰峰强在PBS、艾司洛尔的作用下明显降低;在肾上腺素的作用下显著升高(P<0.05);而经艾司洛尔+肾上腺索预处理后,肾上腺素的这一作用不明显。【结论】艾司洛尔能减轻肾上腺素在酸性环境中增加红细胞血红蛋白的氧合力的作用,增加氧从血红蛋白的解离,有利于缺氧组织的供氧。%[Obj ective]To explore whether esmolol affects erythrocyte oxygen carrying capacity in patients with acute myocardial infarction.[Methods]Erythrocytes from patients with acute myocardial infarction were collected and suspended in isotonic PBS buffer solution with different pH value(pH7.4 and pH5.0).Erythro-cytes were pretreated with adrenaline,esmolol and adrenaline plus esmolol,respectively.The characteristic spectral changes of hemoglobin in single living erythrocytes were detected by using Raman spectroscopy analy-sis.[Results]Characteristic peak of oxyhemoglobin treated with PBS and esmolol at pH5.0 was decreased obvi-ously,but that treated with adrenaline was increased significantly. After pretreatment with esmolol plus adrenaline,the effect of adrenaline was not obvious.[Conclusion]Esmolol can reduce the effect of adrenaline for enhancing erythrocyte oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin in acid environment,and increase the disso-ciation of oxygen from hemoglobin,and is helpful for oxygen supply of anoxia tissue.

  20. Identification of human platelet alpha 2-adrenoceptors with a new antagonist [3H]-RX821002, a 2-methoxy derivative of idazoxan.

    Galitzky, J.; Senard, J. M.; Lafontan, M.; Stillings, M.; Montastruc, J. L.; Berlan, M.


    1. The binding of a new alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, [3H]-RX821002 (2-(2-methoxy-1,4-benzodioxan-2-yl)-2-imidazoline), was investigated in human platelet membranes and compared with [3H]-yohimbine binding parameters. 2. Analysis of kinetic data revealed association and dissociation time courses consistent with a simple biomolecular reaction. Saturation isotherms showed that [3H]-RX821002 labelled a higher total number of alpha 2-binding sites (224 +/- 31 vs 168 +/- 24 fmol mg-1 protein) than [3H]-yohimbine and with higher affinity (Kd: 0.92 +/- 0.06 vs 1.51 +/- 0.08 nM). Moreover [3H]-RX821002 exhibited a lower percentage of nonspecific binding 3. The difference in total binding is due to a better labelling of the alpha 2-adrenoceptors in the low affinity state by [3H]-RX821002 since the labelled receptors number in high affinity state was identical with the two radioligands. 4. [3H]-RX821002 binding displayed a specificity similar to that obtained with [3H]-yohimbine. The potency of various compounds acting on adrenoceptors was: yohimbine greater than oxymetazoline greater than UK14304 greater than (-)-adrenaline greater than prazosin greater than or equal to (+)-adrenaline greater than isoprenaline. This order of potency is classical for an alpha 2A-adrenoceptor. 5. RX821002 is a more potent alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist than yohimbine on adrenaline-induced platelet aggregation. 6. These results indicate that [3H]-RX821002 is a suitable ligand for the identification of human platelet alpha 2-adrenoceptors. PMID:1976403

  1. Optimal management of acute nonrenal adverse reactions to iodine-based contrast media

    Nielsen YW


    Full Text Available Yousef W Nielsen, Henrik S Thomsen Department of Radiology, Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Copenhagen, Denmark Abstract: Acute adverse reactions to iodine-based contrast media occur within 60 minutes of administration. The reactions range from mild (flushing, arm pain, nausea/vomiting, headache to moderate (bronchospasm, hypotension, and severe (cardiovascular collapse, laryngeal edema, convulsions, arrhythmias. Most acute adverse reactions occur in an unpredictable manner. Use of the older group of ionic iodine-based contrast agents increases the risk of acute adverse reactions. Other risk factors include previous reactions to contrast media, asthma, and allergic conditions. The exact pathophysiology of the acute adverse reactions is unknown, but some of the reactions are pseudoallergic mimicking type 1 allergic reactions. As antibodies against contrast media have not been consistently demonstrated, the reactions are, in most cases, not truly allergic in nature. Most of the severe and fatal adverse reactions occur within the first 20 minutes after injection. Thus, it is important that patients are observed in the radiology department during this period. The radiologist should be near the room where contrast media is administered, and be ready to treat any acute nonrenal adverse reaction. Appropriate drugs and resuscitation equipment should be in/near the room where the contrast media is administered. The important first-line management of acute adverse reactions includes the establishment of an adequate airway, oxygen supplementation by mask, intravenous fluid administration, and measurement of blood pressure and heart rate. When severe anaphylactoid reactions occur, adrenaline should be given intramuscularly. Only one concentration of adrenaline (1:1000–1 mg/mL should be available in the radiology department to avoid dosing errors in stressful acute settings. Resuscitation team specialists should be the only ones giving intravenous

  2. Temperature dependence of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum and sarcolemma in the ventricle of catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    El-Sabry Abu-Amra


    The sarcolemmal Ca2+ contribution of activator Ca2+ was greater at a test temperature of 30 °C as assessed by verapamil. Whereas the SR-Ca2+ contribution was higher at 20 and 30 °C and a frequency rate of 0.2 and 0.4 Hz as assessed by caffeine and adrenaline, respectively. Bradykinin potentiating factor (BPF7 which was isolated from jelly fish (Cassiopea andromeda decreased the cardiac force developed at a frequency rate of 0.2 Hz and a temperature of 20 °C, whereas it increased the force developed at frequency rates of 0.2 and 0.4 Hz at 30 °C. These results indicate that BPF7 may act like verapamil in reducing the cardiac force through blocking the sarcolemmal Ca2+ channels at low temperature and like adrenaline in an increase of the cardiac force developed at warm temperature and the high frequency rate through stimulation of SR-Ca2+ activator. Therefore, this study indicates that the sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx and the SR-Ca2+ release contributors of activator Ca2+ for cardiac force development in the catfish heart were significantly greater at warm temperature and at the pacing frequency rates of 0.2 and 0.4 Hz as assessed by verapamil, adrenaline, caffeine and BPF7. However, the relative contribution of the sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx in the development of cardiac force in the catfish heart was greater than that of SR-Ca2+ release.

  3. Thrombelastography and biomarker profiles in acute coagulopathy of trauma: a prospective study

    Larsen Claus F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe injury induces an acute coagulopathy associated with increased mortality. This study compared the Thrombelastography (TEG and biomarker profiles upon admission in trauma patients. Methods Prospective observational study of 80 trauma patients admitted to a Level I Trauma Centre. Data on demography, biochemistry including standard coagulation tests, hematology, transfusions, Injury Severity Score (ISS and TEG were recorded. Retrospective analysis of thawed plasma/serum for biomarkers reflecting tissue injury (histone-complexed DNA fragments, sympathoadrenal activation (adrenaline, noradrenaline, coagulation activation/inhibition and fibrinolysis (sCD40L, protein C, activated Protein C, tissue-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, D-dimer, prothrombinfragment 1+2, plasmin/α2-antiplasmin complex, thrombin/antithrombin complex, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, antithrombin, von willebrand factor, factor XIII. Comparison of patients stratified according to ISS/TEG maximum clot strength. Linear regression analysis of variables associated with clot strength. Results Trauma patients had normal (86%, hypercoagulable (11% or hypocoagulable (1% TEG clot strength; one had primary hyperfibrinolysis. Hypercoagulable patients had higher age, fibrinogen and platelet count (all p 10 red blood cells the initial 24 h. Patients with normal or hypercoagulable TEG clot strength had comparable biomarker profiles, but the few patients with hypocoagulable TEG clot strength and/or hyperfibrinolysis had very different biomarker profiles. Increasing ISS was associated with higher levels of catecholamines, histone-complexed DNA fragments, sCD40L, activated protein C and D-dimer and reduced levels of non-activated protein C, antithrombin, fibrinogen and factor XIII (all p 26. In patients with ISS > 26, adrenaline and sCD40L were independently negatively associated with clot strength. Conclusions Trauma patients displayed

  4. Intrinsic vascular dopamine - a key modulator of hypoxia-induced vasodilatation in splanchnic vessels.

    Pfeil, Uwe; Kuncova, Jitka; Brüggmann, Doerthe; Paddenberg, Renate; Rafiq, Amir; Henrich, Michael; Weigand, Markus A; Schlüter, Klaus-Dieter; Mewe, Marco; Middendorff, Ralf; Slavikova, Jana; Kummer, Wolfgang


    Dopamine not only is a precursor of the catecholamines noradrenaline and adrenaline but also serves as an independent neurotransmitter and paracrine hormone. It plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension and is a potent vasodilator in many mammalian systemic arteries, strongly suggesting an endogenous source of dopamine in the vascular wall. Here we demonstrated dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline in rat aorta and superior mesenteric arteries (SMA) by radioimmunoassay. Chemical sympathectomy with 6-hydroxydopamine showed a significant reduction of noradrenaline and adrenaline, while dopamine levels remained unaffected. Isolated endothelial cells were able to synthesize and release dopamine upon cAMP stimulation. Consistent with these data, mRNAs coding for catecholamine synthesizing enzymes, i.e. tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase, and dopamine-β-hydroxylase were detected by RT-PCR in cultured endothelial cells from SMA. TH protein was detected by immunohistochemisty and Western blot. Exposure of endothelial cells to hypoxia (1% O2) increased TH mRNA. Vascular smooth muscle cells partially expressed catecholaminergic traits. A physiological role of endogenous vascular dopamine was shown in SMA, where D1 dopamine receptor blockade abrogated hypoxic vasodilatation. Experiments on SMA with endothelial denudation revealed a significant contribution of the endothelium, although subendothelial dopamine release dominated. From these results we conclude that endothelial cells and cells of the underlying vascular wall synthesize and release dopamine in an oxygen-regulated manner. In the splanchnic vasculature, this intrinsic non-neuronal dopamine is the dominating vasodilator released upon lowering of oxygen tension.

  5. Levodopa therapy in Parkinson's disease: influence on liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric-based measurements of plasma and urinary normetanephrine, metanephrine and methoxytyramine.

    Eisenhofer, Graeme; Brown, Sebastian; Peitzsch, Mirko; Pelzel, Daniela; Lattke, Peter; Glöckner, Stephan; Stell, Anthony; Prejbisz, Aleksander; Fassnacht, Martin; Beuschlein, Felix; Januszewicz, Andrzej; Siegert, Gabriele; Reichmann, Heinz


    Medication-related interferences with measurements of catecholamines and their metabolites represent important causes of false-positive results during diagnosis of phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs). Such interferences are less troublesome with measurements by liquid chromatography with tandem mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) than by other methods, but can still present problems for some drugs. Levodopa, the precursor for dopamine used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, represents one potentially interfering medication. Plasma and urine samples, obtained from 20 Parkinsonian patients receiving levodopa, were analysed for concentrations of catecholamines and their O-methylated metabolites by LC-MS/MS. Results were compared with those from a group of 120 age-matched subjects and 18 patients with PPGLs. Plasma and urinary free and deconjugated (free + conjugated) methoxytyramine, as well as urinary dopamine, showed 22- to 148-fold higher (P < 0.0001) concentrations in patients receiving levodopa than in the reference group. In contrast, plasma normetanephrine, urinary noradrenaline and urinary free and deconjugated normetanephrine concentrations were unaffected. Plasma free metanephrine, urinary adrenaline and urinary free and deconjugated metanephrine all showed higher (P < 0.05) concentrations in Parkinsonian patients than the reference group, but this was only a problem for adrenaline. Similar to normetanephrine, plasma and urinary metanephrine remained below the 97.5 percentiles of the reference group in almost all Parkinsonian patients. These data establish that although levodopa treatment confounds identification of PPGLs that produce dopamine, the therapy is not a problem for use of LC-MS/MS measurements of plasma and urinary normetanephrine and metanephrine to diagnose more commonly encountered PPGLs that produce noradrenaline or adrenaline.

  6. Effect of dexamethasone added to lidocaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block: A prospective, randomised, double-blind study

    Prashant A Biradar


    Full Text Available Background: Different additives have been used to prolong brachial plexus block. We performed a prospective, randomised, double-blind study to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone added to lidocaine on the onset and duration of supraclavicular brachial plexus block as this is the most common type of brachial block performed in our institute. Methods: Sixty American Society of Anaesthesiologist′s physical status I and II patients undergoing elective hand, forearm and elbow surgery under brachial plexus block were randomly allocated to receive either 1.5% lidocaine (7 mg/kg with adrenaline (1:200,000 and 2 ml of normal saline (group C, n=30 or 1.5% lidocaine (7 mg/kg with adrenaline (1:200,000 and 2 ml of dexamethasone (8 mg (group D, n=30. The block was performed using a nerve stimulator. Onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade were assessed. The sensory and motor blockade of radial, median, ulnar and musculocutaneous nerves were evaluated and recorded at 5, 10, 20, 120 min, and at every 30 min thereafter. Results: Two patients were excluded from the study because of block failure. The onset of sensory and motor blockade (13.4±2.8 vs. 16.0±2.3 min and 16.0±2.7 vs. 18.7±2.8 min, respectively were significantly more rapid in the dexamethasone group than in the control group ( P=0.001. The duration of sensory and motor blockade (326±58.6 vs. 159±20.1 and 290.6±52.7 vs. 135.5±20.3 min, respectively were significantly longer in the dexamethasone group than in the control group ( P=0.001. Conclusion: Addition of dexamethasone to 1.5% lidocaine with adrenaline in supraclavicular brachial plexus block speeds the onset and prolongs the duration of sensory and motor blockade.


    谢协驹; 吉丽敏; 符史干


    Objective:The present study was to investigate the role ofprotein kinase C(PKC)in the hypertrophy of cardimyocytes.Methods:The measurement of cell surface area and [3H]-Leucine incorporation judged the hypertrophy of cardiaomycocyte in cultured neonatal rat myocardal cells.Results:The results showed that adrenaline could significantly increase cell surface area and promote [3H]-Leucine incorporation.PKC inhibitor Calphostin C could markedly block effects of adrenaline increasing cell surface area and promoting [3H]-Leucine incorporation.Conclusions:These results suggest that the hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes induced by adrenaline in cultured neonatal rat myocardal cells is relation PKC.%目的:要探讨蛋白激酶C(PKC)在心肌细胞肥大中的作用机制。方法:在培养新生大鼠心肌细胞上,通过测量心肌细胞表面积和[3H]-Leu的掺入量来判断心肌细胞肥大。结果:肾上腺素能明显增加心肌细胞表现积和[3H]-Leu的掺入量,PKC抑制剂(CalphostinC)可抑制肾上腺素诱导的心肌细胞表面积和[3H]-Leu掺入量增加。结论:PKC在肾上腺素诱导的心肌细胞肥大反应中起重要作用。

  8. 肝龙胶囊对小鼠血糖浓度的影响%Effect of Ganlong Capsule on Blood Glucose Concentration of Mice

    桂罗兰; 单华; 史彩艳; 李敬美; 彭芳


    目的:研究肝龙胶囊对正常小鼠血糖及肾上腺素致高血糖模型小鼠的血糖浓度的影响。方法:采用葡萄糖氧化酶法测定正常小鼠的血糖浓度及肾上腺素诱导小鼠高血糖不同处理后的血糖浓度变化。结果:肝龙胶囊对正常小鼠血糖浓度无影响,而对肾上腺素高血糖模型小鼠有显著的降糖作用(P<0.01,P<0.05)。结论:肝龙胶囊能降低肾上腺素性高血糖小鼠的血糖浓度,对正常小鼠血糖浓度无影响。%Objective: To investigate the effect of Ganlong capsule on blood glucose concentration on normal mice and adrenaline induced hyperglycemic mice. Methods:We observed the changes of blood glucose concentration on model mice by the glucose oxidase method. Results: Ganlong capsule has no effect on the blood glucose concentration on normal mice, but obvious hypoglycemic effect on adrenaline induced hyperglycemia model mice (P<0.01, P<0.05). Conclusion: Ganlong capsule could decrease the blood glucose concentration in adrenaline-induced hyperglycemic mice, but has no effect on the normal mice blood glucose concentration.


    El sayed A. Osman MD, Nasr N. Zaki MD, Samia M. M. Elshiaty MD, Hanan T. Emam MD and Fatma F. Hendawi


    Full Text Available The discovery of the f-channel and its role in regulating pacemaker activity lead to the development of new pharmacological agents such as ivabradine, which target these f-channels causing a reduction in heart rate by inhibiting the /fcurrent. The aim of the present work was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of ivabradine on experimentally- induced myocardial infarction and adrenaline-induced arrhythmia in rats. In addition, the present work studied the effect of ivabradine on isolated rabbit's aortic spiral strip and isolated rabbit's heart. Acute myocardial infarction in rats was induced by isoperameline (150mg/kg subcutenous injection, once 24 rats were divided into the following groups: group (1 control normal rats, group (II myocardial infarction – induced rats with no previous treatment, group (III myocardial infarction – induced rats pretreated with ivabradine (10mg/kg/day for one week and group (IV myocardial infarction – induced rats pretreated with carvedilol (1mg/kg/day for one week. Electrophysiological, biochemical and histopathological parameters were estimated. pretreatment with either ivabradine or carvedilol show significant improvement in all these parameters with insignificant difference between them. In the current work 20 rats were used to investigate the protective effects of ivabradine (10mg/kg and carvedilol (1mg/kg on adrenaline- induced arrhythmia in anaesthetized rats and the results revealed that both drugs had a prophylactive effect. Also data obtained in the present work pointed out that ivabradine in gradually increasing doses produce no significant effect on the isolated rabbit's aortic strip and basal myocardial contractility of isolated rabbit's heart. Both ivabradine and carvedilol have cardioprotective effect against acute MI as well as adrenaline- induced arrhythmia with no significant difference between them, also ivabradine has no effect on contractility of the heart. So, the choice of

  10. Brain catecholamines in spontaneously hypertensive and DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.



    Full Text Available The concentrations and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (alpha-MPT induced disappearance of catecholamines, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, were measured in selected areas of the brainstem and hypothalamus of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. The catecholamine levels were measured by a sensitive radioenzymatic assay method combined with microdissection of the rat brain. The adrenaline concentration was higher in the area A1 of young SHR, but not in adult SHR, than in age-matched control rats. Noradrenaline concentrations and the alpha-MPT induced noradrenaline disappearance were less in the rostral part of the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS and the nucleus hypothalamic anterior of young SHR, and in the rostral part of the NTS of adult SHR. On the other hand in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats, the concentrations of adrenaline and noradrenaline were the same as in control rats in the examined areas. The alpha-MPT induced noradrenaline disappearance was less in the rostral part of the NTS of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Dopamine concentrations and the alpha-MPT induced dopamine disappearance were the same in the examined areas of SHR and DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. The results suggest that SHR have a change in adrenergic neural activity in the brainstem and a decrease in noradrenergic neural activity in the brainstem and hypothalamus while DOCA-salt hypertensive rats have a decrease in noradrenergic neural activity in the brainstem. Such changes in brain catecholaminergic neurons may have played an important role in the development of hypertension in these rats.

  11. 肾上腺素联合地塞米松急救过敏性喉头水肿的临床疗效分析%Epinephrine and Dexamethasone Emergency Clinical Efficacy Allergic Laryngeal Edema

    丁聪; 赵悦


    目的:研究使用肾上腺素联合地塞米松对过敏性喉头水肿患者在急救中的临床疗效。方法选取50例在急症收治的过敏性喉头水肿患者,随机分成试验组与对照组,对照组25例,使用常规治疗,试验组25例,在常规治疗的基础上采用肾上腺素联合地塞米松雾化吸入治疗,观察两组患者的总有效率。结果试验组总有效率高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论采用肾上腺素联合地塞米松急诊雾化吸入治疗过敏性喉头水肿比常规治疗效果显著,值得在临床推广。%Objective Discussed the effect of adrenaline combined with dexamethasone in the treatment of Allergic laryngeal edema.Methods Selected 50 patients with Allergic laryngeal edema were randomly divided into experimental group and control group, control group 25 patients used of the conventional treatment, experimental group 25 patients in the control group on the basis of using adrenaline combined with dexamethasone treatment, observe two groups of patients total effective rate.Results Observation group total effective rate was higher than the control group, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion Adrenaline combined with dexamethasone to treat Allergic laryngeal edema effect was better than that conventional alone,is worth popularizing in clinical.

  12. Adrenal secretion of catecholamines by inhalation of radon water in relation to an increase of the tissue perfusion rate in rabbits

    Suzuka, Ichio (Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)


    To clarify the relationship between the increase in subcutaneous tissue perfusion rate (TPR) upon inhalation of radon water and the vasoactive effects of radon, rabbits inhaled nebulized water containing 14,000-18,000 Bq/1 radon (radon group) taken from Ikeda Mineral Spring, Shimane, Japan. Control rabbits inhaled radon water from the same springs which had been kept for over 10 radon half-life periods. TPR was evaluated 15 minutes after the beginning of inhalation by mass spectrometry. After inhalation for 90 minutes, plasma and adrenal glands were removed, and levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (THI method). Each group was divided into 4 subgroups according to intravenously injected medication as follows: (1) no medication (without adrenergic blocker), (2) phentolamine ([alpha]-blocker), 0.05 mg/kg/min, (3) propranolol (non-selective [beta]-blocker), 1 mg/kg/, and (4) atenolol (selective [beta]-blocker), 6 mg/kg. In the radon group, plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline levels were significantly higher (p<0.01, p<0.05), and adrenal adrenaline and noradrenaline levels were significantly lower (p<0.01, p<0.01) than those in the control group. In the no medication and phentolamine subgroups, TPRs in the radon group were significantly higher than those in the control group (p<0.01, p<0.01). In the propranolol and atenolol subgroups, no significant change of TPR was found. It is suggested that catecholamines are secreted from the adrenal glands upon inhalation of radon water and that the [beta][sub 1]-action of catecholamines contributes to the increase in tissue perfusion. (author).

  13. Simultaneous determination of ten biogenic amines in a thymopolypeptides injection using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Li, Yong; Yang, Huaxin; Liao, Haiming; Fan, Huihong; Liang, Chenggang; Deng, Lijuan; Jin, Shaohong


    A selective and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ten biogenic amines (tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine, adrenaline, dopamine and spermine) in a thymopolypeptides injection from the Chinese market for the first time. Biogenic amines (BAs) were pre-column derivatised by dansyl chloride after direct sample dilution. Dansylated amines were separated on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH Shield RP18 column (2.1mm×150mm I.D., 1.7μm) using a gradient elution. Quantification was done by monitoring fragment ions of each derivative under the MS mode of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). A satisfactory result of method validation was obtained. The linearity ranged from 0.32 to 1182.9μg/L and the correlation coefficients (r) for all amines were above 0.99. The LOD ranged from 0.08μg/L for 2-phenylethylamine and tyramine to 8.00μg/L for adrenaline; the LOQ ranged from 0.32μg/L for 2-phenylethylamine to 12.12μg/L for dopamine. The recovery ranged from 75.8 to 110.3% after spiking standard solutions of BAs to a sample at three levels. The intra and inter-day precision RSD were 0.78-8.85% and 1.39-9.93% respectively. Eighty-four injections were analyzed by this method. Nine biogenic amines were found in them except adrenaline. Moreover, the relationship between the result of test for depressor substances and the content of BAs was statistically analyzed.

  14. Does Injection of Lidocaine with 1/100000 Epinephrine Immediately before Lateral Osteotomy Reduce Post-Operative Periorbital Edema and Ecchymosis in Rhinoplasty?

    mansoor zojajy


    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative periorbital edema and ecchymosis are common after rhinoplasty. We studied the effect of local injection of Lidocaine/Adrenaline immediately before osteotomy on prevention of post-operative periorbital edema and ecchymosis in rhinoplasty.Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy candidates for rhinoplasty were enrolled in the self-controlled clinical trial study. Lidocaine/Adrenaline solution injected randomly to one side just prior to the lateral osteotomy. The opposite side used as a control. The degree of edema/ecchymosis on both sides was compared on the 1st, 2nd and 7th day postoperatively.Results: Mean of severity of edema, 24 hours after operation was 3in both sides, (Mann-whitney U; p=0.829. Mean of severity of edema, 48 hours after operation was 2 in both sides (Mann-whitney U; p=0.867 and it was 1 in both sides 7 days after operation (Mann-whitney U; p=0.756.There was no significant difference between two sides. Mean of severity of ecchymosis, 24 hours after operation was 3 in both sides (Mann-whitney U; p=0.692. Mean of severity of ecchymosis, 48 hours after operation was 2 in both sides (Mann-whitney U; p=0.655 and it was 1 in both sides 7 days after operation (Mann-whitney U; p=0.873. There was no significant difference between two sides.Conclusion: local injection of Lidocaine/Adrenaline solution immediately before lateral osteotomy could not reduce postoperative edema and ecchymosis in rhinoplasty.

  15. Efficacy and safety of mepivacaine compared with lidocaine in local anaesthesia in dentistry: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Su, Naichuan; Liu, Yan; Yang, Xianrui; Shi, Zongdao; Huang, Yi


    The objective of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of mepivacaine compared with lidocaine used in local anaesthesia in dentistry. Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched electronically. Relevant journals and references of studies included were hand-searched for randomised controlled trials comparing mepivacaine with lidocaine in terms of efficacy and safety. Twenty-eight studies were included, of which 15 had low risk of bias and 13 had moderate risk of bias. In comparison with 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline, 3% mepivacaine showed a lower success rate (P = 0.05), a shorter onset time of pulpal anaesthesia (P = 0.0005), inferior pain control during injection phase and superior inhibition of heart rate increase (P mepivacaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline gave a higher success rate (P mepivacaine with 1:20,000 levonordefrin had the same success rate (P = 0.69) and similar onset time of pulpal anaesthesia (P = 0.90). In addition, 3% mepivacaine had shorter onset time (P = 0.004), same level of success rate (P = 0.28) and similar pain control during injection and postinjection compared with 2% lidocaine with 1:50,000 adrenaline. Given the efficacy and safety of the two solutions, 2% mepivacaine with vasoconstrictors is better than 2% lidocaine with vasoconstrictors in dental treatment. Meanwhile, 3% plain mepivacaine is better for patients with cardiac diseases. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  16. Articaine and mepivacaine buccal infiltration in securing mandibular first molar pulp anesthesia following mepivacaine inferior alveolar nerve block: A randomized, double-blind crossover study

    Giath Gazal


    Full Text Available Aims: A crossover double-blind, randomized study was designed to explore the efficacy of 2% mepivacaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline buccal infiltration and 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline buccal infiltration following 2% mepivacaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB for testing pulp anesthesia of mandibular first molar teeth in adult volunteers. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 healthy adult volunteers received two regimens with at least 1-week apart; one with 4% articaine buccal infiltration and 2% mepivacaine IANB (articaine regimen and another with 2% mepivacaine buccal infiltration supplemented to 2% mepivacaine IANB (mepivacaine regimen. Pulp testing of first molar tooth was electronically measured twice at baseline, then at intervals of 2 min for the first 10 min, then every 5 min until 45 min postinjection. Anesthetic success was considered when two consecutive maximal stimulation on pulp testing readings without sensation were obtained within 10 min and continuously sustained for 45 min postinjection. Results: In total, the number of no sensations to maximum pulp testing for first molar teeth were significantly higher after articaine regimen than mepivacaine during 45 min postinjection (267 vs. 250 episodes, respectively, P 0.05. Interestingly, volunteers in the articaine regimen provided faster onset and longer duration (means 2.78 min, 42.22 min, respectively than mepivacaine regimen (means 4.26 min, 40.74 min, respectively for first molar pulp anesthesia (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Supplementary mepivacaine and articaine buccal infiltrations produced similar successful first molar pulp anesthesia following mepivacaine IANB injections in volunteers. Articaine buccal infiltration produced faster onset and longer duration than mepivacaine buccal infiltration following mepivacaine IANB injections.

  17. Articaine and mepivacaine buccal infiltration in securing mandibular first molar pulp anesthesia following mepivacaine inferior alveolar nerve block: A randomized, double-blind crossover study.

    Gazal, Giath; Alharbi, Abdullah Muteb; Al-Samadani, Khalid HidayatAllah; Kanaa, Mohammad Dib


    A crossover double-blind, randomized study was designed to explore the efficacy of 2% mepivacaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline buccal infiltration and 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline buccal infiltration following 2% mepivacaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) for testing pulp anesthesia of mandibular first molar teeth in adult volunteers. A total of 23 healthy adult volunteers received two regimens with at least 1-week apart; one with 4% articaine buccal infiltration and 2% mepivacaine IANB (articaine regimen) and another with 2% mepivacaine buccal infiltration supplemented to 2% mepivacaine IANB (mepivacaine regimen). Pulp testing of first molar tooth was electronically measured twice at baseline, then at intervals of 2 min for the first 10 min, then every 5 min until 45 min postinjection. Anesthetic success was considered when two consecutive maximal stimulation on pulp testing readings without sensation were obtained within 10 min and continuously sustained for 45 min postinjection. In total, the number of no sensations to maximum pulp testing for first molar teeth were significantly higher after articaine regimen than mepivacaine during 45 min postinjection (267 vs. 250 episodes, respectively, P mepivacaine buccal infiltrations are equally effective in securing anesthetic success for first molar pulp anesthesia when supplemented to mepivacaine IANB injections (P > 0.05). Interestingly, volunteers in the articaine regimen provided faster onset and longer duration (means 2.78 min, 42.22 min, respectively) than mepivacaine regimen (means 4.26 min, 40.74 min, respectively) for first molar pulp anesthesia (P mepivacaine and articaine buccal infiltrations produced similar successful first molar pulp anesthesia following mepivacaine IANB injections in volunteers. Articaine buccal infiltration produced faster onset and longer duration than mepivacaine buccal infiltration following mepivacaine IANB injections.

  18. Binding of adrenergic ligands to liver plasma membrane preparations from the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum; the toad, Xenopus laevis; and the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri.

    Janssens, P A; Grigg, J A


    The beta-adrenergic ligand iodocyanopindolol (ICP) bound specifically to hepatic plasma membrane preparations from the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum (Bmax, 40 fmol/mg protein (P) at free concentration above 140 pM; KD, 42 pM); the toad, Xenopus laevis (Bmax, 200 fmol/mg P at 1 nM; KD, 300 pM); and the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Bmax, 100 fmol/mg P at 5 nM). For the lungfish, the Scatchard plot was curved showing two classes of binding site with KD's of 20 and 500 pM. Neither the alpha 1-adrenergic ligand prazosin nor the alpha 2-adrenergic ligand yohimbine bound specifically to hepatic membrane preparations from any of the three species. Several adrenergic ligands displaced ICP from hepatic membrane preparations of all three species with KD's of Axolotl--propranolol, 50 nM; isoprenaline, 600 nM; adrenaline, 10 microM; phenylephrine, 20 microM; noradrenaline, 40 microM; and phentolamine, greater than 100 microM; X. laevis--propranolol, 30 nM; isoprenaline, 100 microM; adrenaline, 200 microM; noradrenaline, 300 microM; phenylephrine, 1 mM; and phentolamine, greater than 1 mM; N. forsteri,--propranolol, 25 nM; isoprenaline, 1 microM; adrenaline, 20 microM; phenylephrine, 35 microM; noradrenaline, 600 microM; and phentolamine, 400 microM. These findings suggest that alpha-adrenergic receptors are not present in hepatic plasma membrane preparations from these three species and that the hepatic actions of catecholamines are mediated via beta-adrenergic receptors. The order of binding of the beta-adrenergic ligands suggests that the receptors are of the beta 2 type.

  19. Calcium response of KCl-excited populations of ventricular myocytes from the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): a promising approach to integrate cell-to-cell heterogeneity in studying the cellular basis of fish cardiac performance.

    Ollivier, Hélène; Marchant, James; Le Bayon, Nicolas; Servili, Arianna; Claireaux, Guy


    Climate change challenges the capacity of fishes to thrive in their habitat. However, through phenotypic diversity, they demonstrate remarkable resilience to deteriorating conditions. In fish populations, inter-individual variation in a number of fitness-determining physiological traits, including cardiac performance, is classically observed. Information about the cellular bases of inter-individual variability in cardiac performance is scarce including the possible contribution of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. This study aimed at providing insight into EC coupling-related Ca(2+) response and thermal plasticity in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). A cell population approach was used to lay the methodological basis for identifying the cellular determinants of cardiac performance. Fish were acclimated at 12 and 22 °C and changes in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) following KCl stimulation were measured using Fura-2, at 12 or 22 °C-test. The increase in [Ca(2+)]i resulted primarily from extracellular Ca(2+) entry but sarcoplasmic reticulum stores were also shown to be involved. As previously reported in sea bass, a modest effect of adrenaline was observed. Moreover, although the response appeared relatively insensitive to an acute temperature change, a difference in Ca(2+) response was observed between 12- and 22 °C-acclimated fish. In particular, a greater increase in [Ca(2+)]i at a high level of adrenaline was observed in 22 °C-acclimated fish that may be related to an improved efficiency of adrenaline under these conditions. In conclusion, this method allows a rapid screening of cellular characteristics. It represents a promising tool to identify the cellular determinants of inter-individual variability in fishes' capacity for environmental adaptation.


    Barinov, E F


    Objective of the research was to determine involvement of platelets and the role of adrenaline in chronic inflammation maintaining and the initiation of acute inflammatory response in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pyelonephritis against this background. The study includes 60 patients with chronic obstructive pyelonephritis (COPN), which are distributed into two groups: basic - 22 elderly patients (age 73±1,5 years) and the comparison group - 38 middle-aged patients (52,5±2,4 years). The study excluded patients who took antiplatelet drugs and non-selective blockers of α adrenergic receptors at least 1 week before the study. Analysis of platelets adrenoreactivity in vitro was carried out at the time of hospitalization before the start of conservative therapy. Platelet-rich plasma was isolated from peripheral blood by centrifuging. ADP and epinephrine were used in the effective (EC50) and sub-threshold (EC10) concentrations to stimulate platelets. The formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates was reproduced in vitro upon incubation of stimulated platelets (at a concentration of adrenaline EC50) and intact leukocytes isolated from patient peripheral blood. The study of platelet reactivity revealed that in elderly patients acute inflammatory response realization (relapse of COPN) is against optimal functioning of platelets α2 adrenergic receptors. Significant increase in the number of platelet-leukocyte aggregates is possible. Remission of COPN (the presence of chronic inflammation) in the examined patients of various ages was associated with platelet hypoadrenoreactivity. Increased platelet adrenoreactivity during transition from remission to relapse of COPN in the elderly patients is possible if adequate synthesis of ADP in platelets and its secretion from dense granules are preserved. The observed interaction of adrenaline and ADP with stimulated platelet hyporesponsiveness probably ensures adaptive response aimed at acute inflammatory response in

  1. The effect of erythropoietin on platelet function and fibrinolysis in chronic renal failure

    Stenver, Doris Irene; Jeppesen, L; Nielsen, B


    The influence of erythropoietin therapy on platelet function and fibrinolysis was evaluated in 12 anemic hemodialysis patients. Six months of therapy with human erythropoietin (50 to 80 IU/kg initially) raised the hemoglobin level to 10.8 g/dl but did not increase platelet activity in vivo...... as measured by beta-thromboglobulin or platelet factor 4. There was no change in the platelet aggregation thresholds in vitro for ADP, adrenaline, thrombin or collagen during treatment. Platelet number and volume were also unaffected. Fibrinolytic activity intensified as erythropoietin treatment proceeded...

  2. Management of Occupational Stress

    Trandafir Lenuţa


    Full Text Available Stress is an important problem in the majority of countries. Apart from the fact that it is responsible for numerous diseases, it also causes much suffering. Stress appears as an adaptation reaction of our body to those external factors that we perceive as being agressive and which frequently lead us to an alarm state, felt both psychically (tension, fear, anxiety, and physically (increase of the adrenaline secretion, intensity of heartbeats, sweating. It isn’t actually a disease, but it can lead to sickness in time. This is why it is good to know what stresses us and how we can escape stress.

  3. [Laryngitis in childhood].

    Korppi, Matti; Tapiainen, Terhi


    The most common causative agents of laryngitis are parainfluenza viruses. The diagnosis of laryngitis in children is a clinical one, typical symptoms including dry, often barking cough and inspiratory difficulty and wheezing. Typical age of occurrence is 0.5 to 3 years. In children under one year of age the structural and functional anomalies causing symptoms resembling laryngitis in connection with an infection should not be disregarded. Most patients can be nursed at home. An orally administered glucocorticoid and inhaled racemic adrenalin are effective drugs in emergency service.


    Lodyanov V. V.


    Full Text Available The research was conducted at the pure-bred pigs CT and hybrid juveniles CT x L Total protein blood serum was determined refractometrically, protein fraction - a method of horizontal electrophoresis on paper, the level of total lipids - B. Swahn, I. Scand. Researched transaminases (AST and ALT method of Reitman-Frenkel, alkaline phosphatase - method O.A. Bessey e.a., creatine kinase - S.S. Kuby. Cortisol levels was determined by radioimmunoassay analysis, adrenaline - fluorometric method. Phagocytic activity was installed by Ms. V. Matusevich, bactericidal activity - by the method of Overmoney, T.A. Kuzmina

  5. Autonomic nervous system function in patients with functional abdominal pain. An experimental study

    Jørgensen, L S; Christiansen, P; Raundahl, U


    disturbed in 22 patients with functional abdominal pain (functional group) as compared with 14 healthy controls (healthy group) and 26 patients with organic abdominal pain (organic group) due to duodenal ulcer (DU), gallstones, or urinary tract calculi. Plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and serum...... cortisol measurements were included, to assess the pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and plasma adrenaline increased significantly in all groups in response to a stress test (mental arithmetic). Plasma noradrenaline increased in the DU patients only, and plasma ACTH...

  6. Increased plasma noradrenaline concentration in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease: relation to haemodynamics and blood gases

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Christensen, N J; Kok-Jensen, A


    present. Plasma adrenaline concentration was normal. The results point to enhanced sympathetic nervous activity in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease, probably caused by the deranged blood gases. The pulmonary haemodynamic changes and increased pulse rate may, at least partly, be due......Nine patients with chronic obstructive lung disease underwent right heart catheterization. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure was elevated, but none of the patients had clinical signs of cardiac failure. Mean arterial oxygen saturation and carbon dioxide tension were 89% and 47 mmHg, respectively...

  7. Drug: D04190 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D04190 Drug Flestolol sulfate (USAN) C15H22FN3O4. H2SO4 425.1268 425.4298 Adrenaline beta1-adrenergic receptor [HSA:153] [KO:K04141] Flestolol D04190 Flestol...ol sulfate (USAN) beta2-adrenergic receptor [HSA:154] [KO:K04142] Flestolol D04190 Flestolol sulfate (U...SAN) beta3-adrenergic receptor [HSA:155] [KO:K04143] Flestolol D04190 Flestolol sulfate (USAN) CAS: 88844-73

  8. [Radiotelemetric study of heart rate and electroencephalogram during parachute jumping (author's transl)].

    Gauthier, P; Jouffray, L; Rodi, M; Gottesmann, C


    Twelve subjects, experienced parachutists, have been recorded by telemetry before, during and after free-fall parachute jumps. The heart rate showed a statistically significant tachycardia during the different events of the jump (exit, free-fall, opening, open parachute and landing) compared to the baseline before boarding the aircraft. This tachycardia indicates a stress reaction confirmed by a significant increase of adrenalin and noradrenalin in urine. The electroencephalographic invesitgation does not show any adnormalities. Alpha rhythms have been recorded from alpha reactive subjects during free-fall stabilization.

  9. Inhibition of human platelet aggregation by dihydropyrano- and dihydrofuranocoumarins, a new class of cAMP-phosphodiesterase inhibitors

    Thastrup, Ole; Knudsen, J B; Lemmich, J;


    Certain esters of dihydropyranocoumarin and dihydrofuranocoumarin alcohols have previously been shown to inhibit the cAMP-phosphodiesterase from bovine heart. We now report that these naturally occurring coumarins inhibit the high affinity (Km = 1.1 microM) cAMP-phosphodiesterase from human...... platelets with activities that closely correlate with those obtained using phosphodiesterase from bovine heart tissue. Additionally the coumarins inhibit the aggregation of human platelets induced with ADP, adrenaline and collagen with activities comparable to those of dipyridamole. A lack of significant...

  10. [Adaptation reactions of rat blood exposed to low intensity electromagnetic radiation].

    Krylov, V N; Deriugina, A V


    It is carried out research of action low-intensive electromagnetic radiations--low-intensive laser radiation and radiations of the highest frequency on normal animals and at modelling the stress-reaction, caused by introduction of adrenaline. Absence of effects of system of blood is noted at action low-intensive electromagnetic radiations on normal an organism and them correction action on alteration an organism, shown in restoration of the broken parameters--leukocyte the blood count, electrophoretic mobility of erythrocytes and phospholipide's structure of their membranes.

  11. Lungeødem efter kontrastindgift som led i koronarangiografi

    Plambech, Morten; Garvey, Lene Heise


    Adverse reactions to radiographic contrast media are relatively rare and occur with a frequency of 0.02-0.04%. We describe a case of isolated pulmonary oedema after computed tomography of the coronary arteries in a 51 year-old man. Initially anaphylaxis was suspected, but due to the clinical pict...... picture together with lack of response to treatment with adrenaline and lack of increase in the serum tryptase concentration an IgE mediated mechanism was less likely. The patient responded to non-invasive ventilation over three days. The mechanism behind the reaction is unknown....

  12. Neurotransmitters in the Gas Phase: La-Mb Studies

    Cabezas, C.; Mata, S.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.


    LA-MB-FTMW spectroscopy combines laser ablation with Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in supersonic jets overcoming the problems of thermal decomposition associated with conventional heating methods. We present here the results on LA-MB-FTMW studies of some neurotransmitters. Six conformers of dopamine, four of adrenaline, five of noradrenaline and three conformers of serotonin have been characterized in the gas phase. The rotational and nuclear quadrupole coupling constants extracted from the analysis of the rotational spectrum are directly compared with those predicted by ab initio methods to achieve the conclusive identification of different conformers and the experimental characterization of the intramolecular forces at play which control conformational preferences.

  13. [Allergy-related emergencies].

    Kaufman, E; Garfunkel, A; Galili, D; Zusman, S P; Malamed, S F; Findler, M; Elad, S


    Allergic reactions can develop to any of the drugs or materials commonly used in dentistry. They exhibit a broad range of clinical signs and symptoms ranging from mild, delayed reactions to immediate and life-threatening reactions developing within seconds. Allergies usually manifest themselves in reactions that are related to histamine release in one of three ways: skin reactions, respiratory problems and anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is the most critical allergic reaction in the dental environment. Measures such as airway management, oxygen supplementation, antihistamine, adrenaline and corticosteroid medication, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and evacuation to the emergency room, may be necessary.

  14. Interleukin-6 stimulates lipolysis and fat oxidation in humans

    van Hall, Gerrit; Steensberg, Adam; Sacchetti, Massimo


    Although IL-6 is a key modulator of immune function, it also plays a role in regulating substrate metabolism. To determine whether IL-6 affects lipid metabolism, 18 healthy men were infused for 3 h with saline (Con; n = 6) or a high dose (High-rhIL6; n = 6) or a low dose (Low-rhIL6; n = 6) of rec...... in adrenaline, insulin, or glucagon, and no adverse side effects were observed. In conclusion, the data identify IL-6 as a potent modulator of fat metabolism in humans, increasing fat oxidation and FA reesterification without causing hypertriacylglyceridemia. Comment in...

  15. Drug: D01428 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D01428 Drug Fenoterol hydrobromide (JAN); Berotec (TN) C17H21NO4. HBr 383.0732 384....ividual organs 22 Respiratory organ agents 225 Bronchodilators 2252 Isoprenalines D01428 Fenoterol hydrobromide...-adrenoreceptor agonists R03AC04 Fenoterol D01428 Fenoterol hydrobromide (JAN) R03C ADRENERGICS FOR SYSTEMIC... USE R03CC Selective beta-2-adrenoreceptor agonists R03CC04 Fenoterol D01428 Fenoterol hydrobromide...psin family Adrenaline beta2-adrenergic receptor [HSA:154] [KO:K04142] Fenoterol [ATC:G02CA03] D01428 Fenoterol hydrobromide

  16. Induction of larval metamorphosis in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus by neurotransmitters

    Matsuura, Hiroshi; Yazaki, Ikuko; Okino, Tatsufumi


    Larval metamorphosis inducers of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus were screened from physiologically active compounds. Doliolaria larvae completed their metamorphosis to juveniles in 120 hours when treated with 5-10 μM of dopamine and L-DOPA, and 50 μM of L-adrenaline and L-noradrenaline. Doliolaria larvae had to be exposed to dopamine or L-DOPA for at least 24 h. D1-like dopamine receptor antagonists SKF87566 and LE300 (10 μM) inhibited metamorphosis by dopamine. However, the D2-like ...

  17. Protein kinase A enhances lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2 production by human gingival fibroblasts

    Ara Toshiaki


    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Periodontal disease is accompanied by inflammation of the gingiva and destruction of periodontal tissues, leading to alveolar bone loss in severe clinical cases. Interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, and the chemical mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 are known to play important roles in inflammatory responses and tissue degradation. Recently, we reported that the protein kinase A (PKA inhibitor H-89 suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced IL-8 production by human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs. In the present study, the relevance of the PKA activity and two PKA-activating drugs, aminophylline and adrenaline, to LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8 and PGE2 by HGFs were examined. Methods HGFs were treated with LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis and H-89, the cAMP analog dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP, aminophylline, or adrenaline. After 24 h, IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2 levels were evaluated by ELISA. Results H-89 did not affect LPS-induced IL-6 production, but suppressed IL-8 and PGE2 production. In contrast, dbcAMP significantly increased LPS-induced IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2 production. Up to 10 μg/ml of aminophylline did not affect LPS-induced IL-6, IL-8, or PGE2 production, but they were significantly increased at 100 μg/ml. Similarly, 0.01 μg/ml of adrenaline did not affect LPS-induced IL-6, IL-8, or PGE2 production, but they were significantly increased at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 μg/ml. In the absence of LPS, H-89, dbcAMP, aminophylline, and adrenaline had no relevance to IL-6, IL-8, or PGE2 production. Conclusion These results suggest that the PKA pathway, and also PKA-activating drugs, enhance LPS-induced IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2 production by HGFs. However, aminophylline may not have an effect on the production of these molecules at concentrations used in clinical settings (8 to 20 μg/ml in serum. These results suggest that aminophylline does not affect inflammatory responses in periodontal disease.

  18. Effect of. beta. -endorphin on catecholamine levels in rat hypothalamus and cerebral cortex

    Slavnov, V.N.; Valueva, G.V.; Markov, V.V.; Luchitskii, E.V.


    The authors studied the effect of beta-endorphin on catecholamine concentrations in the hypothalmus and cerebral cortex in rats, as a contribution to the explanation of the mechanism of action of this peptide on certain pituitary trophic functions. Concentrations of dopamine, noradrenalin, and adrenalin were determined by a radioenzymatic method. A Mark 3 scintillation system was used for radiometric investigation of the samples. The results of these experiments indicate that beta-endorphin has a marked effect on brain catecholamine levels mainly in the hypothalamus.


    Bondaruyk О.А.


    Full Text Available Adrenalectomy causes the decline of zinc maintenance in the neurons of hippocampus and B cells of pancreas that has been observed in experiments on rats. The loss of zinc of these cells has been partly compensated by the injection of adrenalin and prednizolon to the adrenalectomized animals. The increase of zinc maintenance in these cells has been caused by the sharp-stress process due to the simultaneous physical activity and immobilization. The given data prove the participation of adrenal glands in the mechanism of zinc exchanges regulation in central (hippocampus and peripheral (cells B of pancreas zinc-containing organs of animals.


    Alexandru Stoica


    Full Text Available Many applications of this technique are encountered in the determination of organic compounds or molecules of biological importance, such as thiamin, riboflavin, adrenalin, cholesterol, paraffins or certain medications and drugs. Fluorimetric determinations are sensitive and selective and could determine the concentrations up to 10-10 g•mL-1, which corresponds to a sensitivity of 100 - 1000 times higher than most methods based on molecular absorption.This paper has developed two methods for spectrofluorimetric determination of vitamin E in pharmaceutical formulations (soft gelatin capsules of vitamin E and serum.

  1. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    Hilsted, J; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Christensen, N J


    -induced hypoglycaemia with total autonomic blockade (alpha-adrenoceptor blockade combined with beta-adrenoceptor blockade and atropine); and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia without any autonomic blockade. In the experiments without autonomic blockade the peripheral venous hematocrit increased, plasma volume decreased......, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased. In both experiments with autonomic blockade the increase in venous haematocrit was abolished, yet plasma volume decreased, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin...... increased in these experiments. Thus, the changes in plasma volume and composition in response to hypoglycaemia are due to the combined actions of adrenaline and of insulin....

  2. Noradrenaline and isoproterenol kinetics in diabetic patients with and without autonomic neuropathy

    Dejgaard, Anders; Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J


    Noradrenaline and isoproterenol kinetics using intravenous infusion of L-3H-NA and of 3H-isoproterenol were investigated in eight Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients without neuropathy and in eight Type 1 diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy matched for age, sex and duration...... of diabetes. Resting plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations were reduced in patients with autonomic failure (p less than 0.05). The metabolic clearance rate of noradrenaline was similar in both groups of patients, and the appearance rate of noradrenaline in plasma was reduced in patients...

  3. Plasma levels of catecholamines and asymmetric dimethylarginine levels as predictive values of mortality among hemodialysis patients

    Dziedzic Marcin


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess plasma concentration of catecholamines and asymmetric dimethyl arginine levels and a possible relationship to predict the mortality rates among hemodialysis patients. The study population comprised 27 subjects, aged 65-70 years. Each patient underwent dialysis thrice a week. Furthermore, the median duration of hemodialysis was 3.5 years. Based on the conducted research, it can be concluded that the concentrations of adrenaline and the level of asymmetric dimethylarginine have predictive value of mortality among hemodialysis patients. Of note, lowering plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine concentration may represent therapeutic target for prevention of progressive renal damage.

  4. Comparison of the Two Modeling Methonds for Qi Stagnation and Blood Stasis%两种气滞血瘀证造模方法的比较

    王婷婷; 贾乘; 宁天一; 姜静; 程嘉艺


    To compare methods of rat modeling for Qi stagnation and blood stasis for serving the experimental of etiological factors and pathogenesis. Methods; Apply various stimulations such as noise, light, electricity, tail - clamping, icewater - bath,bondage and adrenaline injection to establish the rat mode. Adopt the pressure sensing technology of MOTO to detect hemorheology - related indicators, use the coagulation method to detect coagulation - related indicators. Results: In hemorheology, compared with the negative control group, the viscosity of whole blood of high, medium, low shear and plasma viscosity increased in the multi - factor stimulation group (P < 0. 05). The viscosity of whole blood of high shear and plasma viscosity increased in the adrenaline injection group (P <0. 05). The fibrinogen content in blood coagulation indicated significant increase in both group(P <0. 05). Conclusion; Both multi -factor stimulation and adrenaline injection can lead to blood stasis. Adrenaline injection method can be convenient and easy. Multi - factor stimulation group relatively conform the theory of etiology and pathogenesis.%目的:比较两种大鼠气滞血瘀证模型的建立方法,为研究气滞血瘀病因病机提供实验基础.方法:分别采用声光电、夹尾、束缚、冰水浴多种刺激联合应用及肾上腺素注射的方法造模.采用MOTO压力传感技术检测血液流变学相关指标,采用凝固法检测凝血四项相关指标.结果:与空白对照组相比,多因素刺激组大鼠血液流变学指标中全血高、中、低切粘度与血浆黏度均显著升高(P<0.05),肾上腺素组大鼠全血高切粘度与血浆黏度显著升高(P<0.05);两组大鼠凝血四项指标中纤维蛋白原含量均显著升高(P<0.01).结论:多因素刺激与肾上腺素注射法均能导致动物出现血瘀状态,肾上腺素注射法方便易行,多因素刺激组较符合中医病因病机理论.




    <正>Adrenaline香港时尚聚会新焦点去年12月刚开幕的Adrenaline,已成为香港时尚人士的最新聚会热点。Adreraline坐落于跑马地黄泥涌道,楼高两层,共占地1600平方米,设计风格以简约为主。整间Adrenaline以Sports Bar的概念为主题,共划分多个不同区域,2号楼的一层别具个性,设有Popcorn

  6. 信息动态


    Objective To study the hemodynamic influence of "Xueluofuxin " granula in acute blood stasis rats.Methods The rats were injected with adrenalin hydrochloride twice subcutaneously and socked in ice-water toestablish the blood stasia model. Blood were taken out from abdominal aorta and the whole viSC08ity, plasmavi8cosity ( PV) , hematokrit ( HCT) , and erythrocyte electrophoretic time were measured. Results "Xueluofuxin" granula can obviously decrease the whole blood viscosity, PV, HCT, and erythrocyte electrophoretic time.Conclusion "Xueluofuxin" granula has the effect of improving hemodynamic condition.

  7. 碧兰麻在拔牙术中的应用

    张丽; 隋文


    @@ 碧兰麻(PRIMACAINE with adrenaline 1/100000)为一种口腔专用局部注射麻醉剂,主要成分为:4%盐酸阿替卡因及1:10万肾上腺素.笔者在临床工作中将其应用于拔牙术前麻醉,尤其是主观畏痛患者,收到了良好效果,总结如下:

  8. Acute Uvulitis in Adults

    Mohammad Z. Ansari; Shakeeb Khan


    Inflammation of Uvula occurs in isolation or along with supraglottitis. The annual incidence of supraglottitis is described as0.97 to 1.8 per 100,000. The author presents 15 cases of Uvulitis seen in a General hospital of the United Kindgom. Age group ofpatients was between 25-38 years, 9 males and 6 females. One patient developed Uvilitis following inhalation of cannabis and twofollowing the use of marijuana, three were diagnosed to be suffering with bacterial infection. All the patients were treated with steroidsand inhaled adrenaline. Those suffering with bacterial uvilitis required antibiotics.

  9. 美国CES音响大展速报

    记者陈; 弹弓杨


    @@ 记者陈的报导: ■WISDOM Adrenaline "Rush"(图1、2、3) 美国新进高级音箱厂家Wisdom这次在展会备受注目,其中一个原因是The Absolute Sound老总HP在几个月前的评论中称赞售价38000美元的Wisdom M-75是当今世上最靓声落地音箱之一.

  10. Plasma pharmacological study on Da Huang Zhe Chong capsule on platelet aggregation of normal person

    WANG Dong-sheng; CHEN Fang-ping; XIAO Chang-jiang; HE Shi-lin; FU Bin; LI Xin; CAO Xing-yu; CHEN Yan; XIE Qin-zhi


    Objective To develop a plasma pharmacological method evaluates the effect of Da Huang Zhe Chong capsule on platelet aggregation and its mechanism, which is a representative Traditional Chinese Medicine Patent Prescription Promoting blood circulation by removing blood stasis. Methods Platelets specimens from healthy volunteers made serum and plasma with medicine, while platelet PRP were separated, which were divided into 8groups,i.e. auto-serum, allo-serum, serum with Da Huang Zhe Chong capsule , serum with aspirin, auto-plasma, plasma with Da Huang Zhe Chong capsule, plasma with aspirin, every group added to serum and plasma to hatch. After ADP and adrenalin were added into the specimens and hatched, the effects of specimens on platelet aggregation were observed. Results After ADP adrenalin were added, all the serum groups did not present platelet aggregation,while all the plasma group presented platelet aggregation. P1, P5, Pmax, t and TM have no significant difference (P>0. 05) between auto-plasma group and allo-plasma group induced by ADP and adrenalin. P1, P5, t and Pmax have significant differences (P<0. 01) and TM decreased significantly (P<0. 05) comparing plasma group with Da Huang Zhe Chong capsule and plasma group of aspirin to allo-plasma group. P1, t and Pmax have significant difference (P<0.05), and P5 and TM are simulate comparing plasma group with Da Huang Zhe Chong capsule to plasma group of aspirin. P1, P5, t and Pmax have significant differences (P<0. 01), P1, TM have also significant(P<0. 05), comparing plasma group of Da Huang Zhe Chong capsule with plasma of aspirin to allo-plasma group induced by adrenalin. P1 ,P5 and Pmax have significant differences (P<0.05), and t and Pmax are simulate comparing plasma group with Da Huang Zhe Chong capsule with plasma group of aspirin. Conclusion The serum pharmacological study is inappropriate to study platelet aggregation in vitro. The plasma pharmacological study is inappropriate to study

  11. Drug: D00600 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D00600 Drug Labetalol hydrochloride (JP16/USP); Normodyne (TN); Trandate (TN) C19H2...nts 214 Antihypertensives 2149 Others D00600 Labetalol hydrochloride (JP16/USP) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemi...ENTS C07AG Alpha and beta blocking agents C07AG01 Labetalol D00600 Labetalol hydrochloride (JP16/USP) USP classification [BR:br08302] Cardiovascular Agents Beta-adrenergic Blocking Agents Labetalol D00600 Lab...Protein-coupled receptors Rhodopsin family Adrenaline alpha1-adrenergic receptor [HSA:146 147 148] [KO:K04137 K04136 K04135] Lab

  12. [The state of sympathetic-adrenal system in patients with chronic cardiac insufficiency].

    Nigmatullin, R R; Kirillova, V V; Dzhordzhikiia, R K; Kudrin, V S; Klodt, P M


    Activation of sympato-adrenal system plays an important role in the development of chronic cardiac failure (CCF). However, its relation to morpho-functional state of myocardium in CCF patients is virtually unknown. HPLC with electrochemical detection was used to determine plasma noradrenalin, adrenalin, and their precursors, 3,4-dioxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and dopamine, in patients with different morpho-functional changes in myocardium. The study demonstrated enhanced activity of sympato-adrenal system in patients with CCF. It showed for the first time that activity of sympato-adrenal system in CCF patients depends on the morpho-functional status of myocardium.

  13. Prenatal desvenlafaxine induced behavioural alterations in Swiss albino mice

    Kumari, Amrita; Singh, Mandavi; Trigunayat, Anshuman; Mishra, Anand; Shrestha, Shamsher; Shrestha, Uttam


    Background Desvenlafaxine is used as an antidepressant and acts by inhibiting reuptake of serotonin and nor-adrenaline. Purpose The safety profile of desvenlafaxine has not yet been established during pregnancy, so we planned this study to see the behavioral changes in pups of mice who received desvenlafaxine during gestational period. Methods Swiss albino mice were used for the present study. The treated group was given desvenlafaxine orally in the dose of 80 mg/kg from 1st to 6th day of ges...

  14. Drug: D00432 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D00432 Drug Nadolol (JP16/USP/INN); Corgard (TN) C17H27NO4 309.194 309.4006 D00432....lar agents 212 Antiarrhythmic agents 2123 Beta blockers D00432 Nadolol (JP16/USP/INN) Anatomical Therapeutic...ING AGENTS C07AA Beta blocking agents, non-selective C07AA12 Nadolol D00432 Nadol...ol (JP16/USP/INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Cardiovascular Agents Beta-adrenergic Blocking Agents Nadolol D00432...eceptors Rhodopsin family Adrenaline beta1-adrenergic receptor [HSA:153] [KO:K04141] Nadolol [ATC:C07AA12] D00432

  15. Drug: D05648 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D05648 Drug Pseudoephedrine polistirex (USAN); Pseudo-12 (TN) Nasal decongestant AT...SYSTEMIC USE R01BA Sympathomimetics R01BA02 Pseudoephedrine D05648 Adrenaline alpha1-adrenergic receptor [HSA:146 147 148] [KO:K04137 K04136 K04135] Pseudoephedrine [AT...C:R01BA02] D05648 Pseudoephedrine polistirex (USAN) alpha2-adrenergic receptor [HSA:150 151 152] [KO:K04138 K04139 K04140] Pseudoephe...drine [ATC:R01BA02] D05648 Pseudoephedrine polistirex (U

  16. Effect of ionizing radiation on platelet function in vitro

    Kalovidouris, A.E.; Papayannis, A.G. (Evangelismos Hospital, Athens (Greece))


    The effect of ionizing radiation on platelet function was investigated in vitro. Platelet-rich plasma (300x10/sup 9//l) was irradiated with doses of 1, 4, 10, 20 and 50 Gy. Platelet function tests were performed on both irradiated and control (non-irradiated) platelet samples. The platelet function tests were (1) platelet aggregation by ADP (1, 2, 4 final concentration), adrenaline and collagen, (2) ADP-release from platelets, (3) clot retraction and (4) platelet factor-3 availability. It was found that roentgen irradiation of platelets in vitro did not affect these platelet function tests.

  17. Tea boxing

    Bartram, Angela


    Tea Boxing Blow is a term in boxing for a punch that makes contact, and suggests a fist has landed on an opponent to bring the applier closer to victory. Boxing is a tense and often exhilarating experience: the punch, the tension of anticipation, the adrenalin from delivering and receiving, the bell dinging, the ring, and the bay of the crowd. Occasionally however, the blow of the punch does not make contact. It becomes an impossible proposition, a never to be seen, an experience left to ...

  18. Pheochromocytoma with Negative Metanephrines: A Rarity and the Significance of Dopamine Secreting Tumors

    Michael Bozin


    Full Text Available We describe a case of a 25-year-old female with a dopamine secreting PPGL diagnosed retrospectively with biochemical analysis. This finding resulted in change in approach to investigation and management, given their important clinical implications. There are important differences in management of dopamine secreting PPGL compared to classical noradrenaline and adrenaline-secreting PPGL. This includes the risk of peri-operative cardiovascular collapse peri-operatively with alpha/beta blockade, risk of malignancy/recurrence, and associated genetic abnormalities.

  19. Central and peripheral effects of arecoline in patients with autonomic failure.

    Polinsky, R J; Brown, R T; Curras, M T; Baser, S M; Baucom, C E; Hooper, D R; Marini, A M


    Increased plasma adrenalin (A) levels following arecoline in normal subjects and patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) may result from nicotinic adrenal stimulation. Lack of this response in patients with pure autonomic failure (PAF) is consistent with peripheral sympathetic dysfunction. The mechanisms underlying diminished plasma corticotropin (ACTH) responses to arecoline may differ in patients with autonomic failure. Hypothalamic, cholinergic degeneration could prevent the response in MSA whereas patients with PAF do not manifest the normal increase in A which may be required to elicit an ACTH response. The appearance and exacerbation of tremor, vertigo, and pathological affect in the MSA group suggest that some central cholinergic receptors remain functional. PMID:1659617

  20. Drug: D06374 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D06374 Drug Zinterol hydrochloride (USAN) C19H26N2O4S. HCl 414.138 414.9467 D06374....gif Bronchodilator [DS:H00079] beta2-adrenergic receptor partial agonist [HSA:154] [KO:K04142] hsa04020(154)... Calcium signaling pathway hsa04080(154) Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction hsa04144(154) Endocytosis hsa04261(154) Adr...ion Target-based classification of drugs [BR:br08310] G Protein-coupled receptors Rhodopsin family Adrenaline beta2-adr...energic receptor [HSA:154] [KO:K04142] Zinterol D06374 Zinterol hydrochloride (USAN) CAS: 38241-2

  1. Mechanism of rhythmic contractions induced by uranyl ion in the ileal longitudinal muscle of guinea-pig

    Wenmei Fu; Shoeiyn Linshiau


    The uranyl ion (UO2S ) produces rhythmic contractions of the longitudinal muscle of the ileum, similar to those induced by repetitive transmural stimulation. Hexamethonium inhibited the action of UO2S , indicating a preganglionic site of action of UO2S and interneurons possibly being involved in the ACh-releasing effect of UO2S . In addition, the action of UO2S was enhanced by physostigmine but antagonized by atropine, ATP, adrenaline and morphine suggesting multiple sites of action of UO2S . The effects of BaS were studied simultaneously in order to compare them with those of UO2S . (Auth.). 25 refs.; 4 figs.

  2. Effect of chromium enriched fermentation product of barley and brewer’s yeast and its combination with rosiglitazone on experimentally induced hyperglycaemia in mice

    Cekić Vlada


    Full Text Available Introduction. In the recent years, herbal preparations have been more used to treat diabetes. Dietetic supplement based on barley and beer yeast enriched with chromium (BBCr is registered in Serbia as a supplement in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Objective. To investigate the effect of the preparation based on barley and brewer’s yeast with chromium (BBCr, rosiglitazone (R and their combination (BBCr+R on fasting glycaemia and glycaemia in mice after glucose, adrenalin and alloxan application. Methods. The animals were divided into three groups: glucose 500 mg/kg (I; adrenalin 0.2 mg/kg (II; and alloxan 100 mg/kg (III and into subgroups according to the substance they received (BBCr: 750 mg/kg, R: 0.75 mg/kg and BBCr+R. Each animal was its own control in respect of glycaemia before and after the treatment with test substances, except for group III which contained a placebo subgroup. Results. BBCr caused a significant decrease of fasting glycaemia and significant reduction of glycaemia after glucose load compared to the values before treatment (7.4±0.6 mmol/l vs 9.2±0.6 mmol/l; p=0.01. R and BBCr+R significantly decreased glycaemia after adrenalin load (R: 8.6±1.8 mmol/l vs 15.4±3.2 mmol/l; p=0.004; BBCr+R: 9.6±2.4 mmol/l vs 15.0±4.4 mmol/l; p=0.04. After alloxan application the glycaemia was significantly lower in the subgroups treated with BBCr, R and BBCr+R compared to placebo subgroup (10.1±8.0 mmol/l vs 6.8±2.7 mmol/l vs 13.5±9.7 mmol/l vs 24.5±4.7 mmol/l; p=0.001. Conclusion. Pretreatment with BBCr caused a significant reduction of fasting glycaemia and glycaemia after glucose load. Rosiglitazone and BBCr+R caused a significant reduction of glycaemia after adrenalin load. Pretreatment with BBCr, R and BBCr+R prevented the onset of experimental diabetes caused by alloxan, which was confirmed by histological analysis of pancreas tissue.

  3. Drug: D03415 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D03415 Drug Carvedilol phosphate hydrate (JAN); Carvedilol phosphate (USAN); Coreg ...nd beta blocking agents C07AG02 Carvedilol D03415 Carvedilol phosphate hydrate (JAN); Carvedilol... phosphate (USAN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Cardiovascular Agents Beta-adrenergic Blocking Agents Carvedilo...l D03415 Carvedilol phosphate hydrate (JAN); Carvedilol phosphate (USAN) Target-bas...ily Adrenaline alpha1-adrenergic receptor [HSA:146 147 148] [KO:K04137 K04136 K04135] Carvedilol [ATC:C07AG02] D03415 Carvedilol

  4. Articaine and lidocaine for maxillary infiltration anesthesia.

    Vähätalo, K.; Antila, H.; Lehtinen, R.


    This study was undertaken to compare the anesthetic properties of articaine hydrochloride with 1:200,000 epinephrine (Ultracain DS) and lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine (Xylocain-Adrenalin) for maxillary infiltration anesthesia. Twenty healthy dental student volunteers were included in this double-blind study. Each subject received 0.6 mL of each test solution at different times. Infiltration anesthesia was performed on the upper lateral incisor. The onset and duration of anesthesia were monitored using an electric pulp tester. No statistically significant differences were seen in the onset and duration of anesthesia between the articaine and lidocaine solutions. PMID:7943919

  5. A comparison of hypoglycemic activity of three species of basidiomycetes rich in vanadium.

    Han, Chunchao; Liu, Tongjun


    The hypoglycemic activity of fermented mushroom of three fungi of basidiomycetes rich in vanadium was studied in this paper. Alloxan- and adrenalin-induced hyperglycemic mice were used in the study. The blood glucose and the sugar tolerance were determined. After the mice were administered (ig) with Coprinus comatus rich in vanadium, the blood glucose of alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice decreased (p hypoglycemic effects of Coprinus comatus rich in vanadium on hyperglycemic animals are significant; it may be used as a hypoglycemic food or medicine for hyperglycemic people.

  6. [Effect of pyridoxine on the psychopathology and pathochemistry of involutional depressions].

    Bukreev, V I


    In agreement with the catecholamine hypotheses of affective disorders the main role in the pathogenesis of depressive states is allocated to the central "noradrenergic insufficiency". The author thinks it feasible to use pyridoxine (vit. B6) in the treatment of depressive states, inasmuch as it is involved in the process of catecholamine synthesis as a cofactor of DOPA-decarboxylase. The author examined 48 patients among which 31 were with involutional melancholia and 17 with manic-depressive psychoses, manifesting after 40 years. Along with a positive therapeutical effect there was an increase in the noradrenaline excretion and a drop in the relative adrenaline content.

  7. [Pregnancy and lactation period: Which local anesthetics and analgesics?].

    Fatori Popovic, Sandra; Lübbers, Heinz-Theo; von Mandach, Ursula


    The aim of this paper is to show relevant aspects of dental treatment in pregnancy. Common medication used in dental offices should be highlighted in special regard to the pregnant patient during dental treatment. The reader should gain more security in the election of the proper drugs for local anesthesia and oral analgesics. Local anaesthetics such as articain with adrenalin in a dilution of 1 : 200 000 can be used for dental treatment at any time. Paracetamol should be used as first line oral analgesic. Elective dental procedures should be postponed after delivery and after lactation period.

  8. [Pregnancy and lactation period: Which local anesthetics and analgesics].

    Fatori Popovic, Sandra; Lübbers, Heinz-Theo; von Mandach, Ursula


    The aim of this paper is to show relevant aspects of dental treatment in pregnancy. Common medication used in dental offices should be highlighted in special regard to the pregnant patient during dental treatment. The reader should gain more security in the election of the proper drugs for local anesthesia and oral analgesics. Local anaesthetics such as articain with adrenalin in a dilution of 1 : 200 000 can be used for dental treatment at any time. Paracetamol should be used as first line oral analgesic. Elective dental procedures should be postponed after delivery and after lactation period.

  9. Asystole Following Profound Vagal Stimulation During Hepatectomy

    Preeta John


    Full Text Available Asystole in a non laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery following intense vagal stimulation is a rare event. This case report highlights the need for awareness of such a complication when a thoracic epidural anaesthetic has been given in addition to a general anaesthetic for an upper abdominal procedure. A combined thoracic epidural and general anaesthetic was given. The anterior abdominal wall was retracted forty minutes after administration of the epidural bolus. This maneuver resulted in a profound vagal response with bradycardia and asystole. The patient was resuscitated successfully with a cardiac massage, atropine and adrenaline and the surgery was resumed. Surgery lasted eleven hours and was uneventful.

  10. [Alfentanyl and midazolam in combined anesthesia. Clinical evaluation].

    Arena, L; Di Sebastiano, N; Russo, L; Di Filippo, A


    We have evaluated the effectiveness of a technique of blended anaesthesia (epidural-general) in 31 patients undergoing major surgery. Thoracic epidural blockade with lidocaina CO2, adrenalin 1/200000, ensures analgesia while induction and hypnosis maintenance were obtained with midazolam, alfentanil, atracurium and N2O/O2. This technique seems able to protect the patients from endotracheal intubation and surgical stress and also to enable a rapid, quiet awakening. The dose of midazolam necessary to maintain hypnosis was inversely proportional to the patient's age. The reversal of hypnosis was necessary in 4 patients only.

  11. Readiness for surgery after axillary block

    Koscielniak-Nielsen, Z J; Stens-Pedersen, H L; Lippert, F K


    We have assessed prospectively the time to readiness for surgery following axillary block (sum of block performance and latency times) in 80 patients. The brachial plexus was identified using a nerve stimulator, and anaesthetized with 45 mL of mepivacaine 1% with adrenaline 5 micrograms mL-1....... In group 1 (single injection) the whole volume of mepivacaine was injected after locating only one of the plexus nerves. In group 2 (multiple injections) at least three plexus nerves were located, and the volume of mepivacaine was divided between them. Sensory block was assessed by a blinded observer every...

  12. Trauma Induced Coagulopathy

    Genét, Gustav Folmer; Johansson, Per; Meyer, Martin Abild Stengaard


    It remains debated whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces a different coagulopathy compared to non-TBI. This study investigated traditional coagulation tests, biomarkers of coagulopathy and endothelial damage in trauma patients with and without TBI. Blood from 80 adult trauma patients were...... sampled (median of 68 min (IQR 48-88) post-injury) upon admission to our trauma centre. Plasma/serum were retrospectively analysed for biomarkers reflecting sympathoadrenal activation (adrenaline, noradrenaline), coagulation activation/inhibition and fibrinolysis (protein C, activated protein C, tissue...

  13. [Influence of the human blood serum on contractility and beta-adrenoreactyvity of the isolated human myocardium].

    Korotaeva, K N; Viaznikov, V A; Tsirkin, V I; Kostiaev, A A


    On strips of the isolated myocardium of right hearts auriculum of the 43 patients with ischemic illness of heart and 9 patients with heart diseases of various ethyology at statement venous canule during aorto-coronary shunting, estimated influence of adrenaline (10(-9)-10(-4) g/ml) on amplitude caused by electrostimulus (1H, 5ms, 25-30 V) contractions, and also inotropic and adrenomodulation activity of serum blood (in dilution 1 : 10000, 1: 1000, 1 : 500, 1: 100, 1 : 50, 1: 10 and 1 : 5) nonpregnant women. Direct dependence of amplitude of contraction on size of fraction of of blood emission on Teyholts is revealed. It means, that strips of right auriculum myocardium reflect contractility of a left ventriculum myocardium. Adrenaline in concentration 10(-7)-10(-6) g/ml dependent of dose raised amplitude of the caused contraction not influencing it in concentration of 10(-9) and 10(-8) g/ml (the constant of dissotiation has 2 x 10(-7) g/ml), that as a whole, speaks about decrease in efficiency of activation beta-AP. Blood Serum in dissolutions 1 : 10000-1 : 50 did not influence on amplitude of contraction, and in dissolutions 1 : 10 and 1 : 5 strengthened it, that speaks presence in blood the endogenous activator of myocyte contractility (EAMC). Serum showed beta-adrenomodulation activity that speaks presence in it endogenous sensitizer of beta-adrenoreceptors (ESBAR) and endogenous blocker of beta-adrenoreceptors (EBBAR). In particular, in experiences with adrenaline in subthreshold concentration (10(-8) g/ml) serum showed ESBAR-activity (in dissolutions 1 : 1000, 1 : 500, 1 : 100 and 1 : 50), and in experiences with adrenaline in as much as possible effective concentration (10(-6) g/ml) serum showed ESBAR-activity (in dissolutions 1 : 50 and 1 : 10) and EBBAR-activity (in dissolutions 1:500) Hence, containing in blood serum endogenous modulators of beta-adrenoreactivity - ESBAR and EBBAR can modulate efficiency of beta-adrenoreceptors activation of human

  14. Spectrophotometric Enzyme Assays for High-Throughput Screening

    Jean-Louis Reymond


    Full Text Available This paper reviews high-throughput screening enzyme assays developed in our laboratory over the last ten years. These enzyme assays were initially developed for the purpose of discovering catalytic antibodies by screening cell culture supernatants, but have proved generally useful for testing enzyme activities. Examples include TLC-based screening using acridone-labeled substrates, fluorogenic assays based on the β-elimination of umbelliferone or nitrophenol, and indirect assays such as the back-titration method with adrenaline and the copper-calcein fluorescence assay for aminoacids.

  15. Severe anaphylactic reaction to mediterranean jellyfish (Ropilhema nomadica envenomation: Case report

    Nadav Friedel


    Full Text Available We present a 15-year-old female patient with an anaphylactic reaction to a jellyfish sting, sustained while surfing in the Mediterranean Sea. She experienced immediate difficulty in breathing, hoarseness and itching and was taken by ambulance to the emergency department, receiving intramuscular adrenaline on the way. She presented with periorbital swelling and facial edema and improved with systemic steroids and antihistamines. She was discharged 2 days later with allergy service follow up at our institution. This is the first case report documenting anaphylaxis due to Mediterranean jellyfish envenomation.

  16. Role of personal psychological profiles in somatic pathology development

    Prokhorenko I.O.


    Full Text Available The research goal is to examine the correlation between psychological profile of patients of senior age groups, levels of stress hormones — adrenaline and noradrenaline — in blood serum and their pathology character. A psychological profile of 247 patients aged from 55 to 82 years has been established with the help of Kettle test, Tsung self-assessment scale and Spilberger-Khanin scale. The rate of adrenaline and noradrenaline in blood serum in the period of exacerbation of somatic pathology and in the period of relative well-being has been estimated by means of immune-enzyme analysis method. The survey has identified three psychological profiles. The first and third groups are less resistant to stress factors psychological types. They are more likely to develop somatic pathology and depression (37,8 and 53,2% respectively, in comparison with patients of the second group (12,5%. The significant increase of catecholamines has been established among patients of the third type of psychological profile both in the period of exacerbation of somatic pathology and in the period of relative well-being. The article concludes that correlations between psychological personality characteristics, rate of catecholamines and structure of somatic pathology have been worked out

  17. Beta blockers, norepinephrine, and cancer: an epidemiological viewpoint

    Fitzgerald PJ


    Full Text Available Paul J FitzgeraldThe Zanvyl Krieger Mind/Brain Institute, Solomon H Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: There is growing evidence that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE and its sister molecule epinephrine (EPI (adrenaline affect some types of cancer. Several recent epidemiological studies have shown that chronic use of beta blocking drugs (which antagonize NE/EPI receptors results in lower recurrence, progression, or mortality of breast cancer and malignant melanoma. Preclinical studies have shown that manipulation of the levels or receptors of NE and EPI with drugs affects experimentally induced cancers. Psychological stress may play an etiological role in some cases of cancer (which has been shown epidemiologically, and this could be partly mediated by NE and EPI released by the sympathetic nervous system as part of the body’s “fight or flight” response. A less well-appreciated phenomenon is that the genetic tone of NE/EPI may play a role in cancer. NE and EPI may affect cancer by interacting with molecular pathways already implicated in abnormal cellular replication, such as the P38/MAPK pathway, or via oxidative stress. NE/EPI-based drugs other than beta blockers also may prevent or treat various types of cancer, as may cholinesterase inhibitors that inhibit the sympathetic nervous system, which could be tested epidemiologically.Keywords: clonidine, guanfacine, aspirin, acetylcholine, epinephrine, adrenaline, sympathetic nervous system, parasympathetic nervous system, inflammation

  18. Colonoscopic findings and management of patients with outbreak typhoid fever presenting with lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Shaikhani, Mohammad A R; Husein, Hiwa A B; Karbuli, Taha A; Mohamed, Mohamed Abdulrahman


    Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) along with intestinal perforation is a well-known complication of typhoid fever. Reports of colonoscopic appearance and intervention of typhoid perforation involve only few cases. This series reports the colonoscopic findings and the role of colonoscopic hemostatic interventions in controlling the bleeding ileocolonic lesions. During the typhoid fever outbreak in Sulaymaniyah City in Iraqi Kurdistan Region, we received 52 patients with LGIB manifesting as fresh bleeding per rectum or melena. We performed total colonoscopy with ileal intubation for all cases. The findings were recorded and endoscopic hemostatic intervention with adrenaline-saline injection and argon plasma coagulation was applied to actively bleeding lesion. These patients were young, 11-30 years of age, with female preponderance. Blood culture was positive in 50 %. Colonoscopic findings were mostly located in the ileocecal region, although other areas of the colon were involved in many cases. Twenty-four percent of the cases required endoscopic hemostatic intervention by adrenaline injection with argon plasma coagulation which was effective in all patients except one who died in spite of surgical intervention in addition of endoscopic hemostasis. Dual endoscopic hemostatic intervention can be a safe and effective management option for patients with LGIB due to typhoid fever.

  19. Endocrine correlates of personality traits: a comparison between emotionally stable and emotionally labile healthy young men.

    Adler, L; Wedekind, D; Pilz, J; Weniger, G; Huether, G


    An initial sample of 120 healthy young men was screened by a personality questionnaire and 15 subjects each with highest and lowest scores respectively on emotionality (emotionally labile, EL subjects and emotionally stable, ES subjects) were recruited for a study on the relationship between the degree of emotionality and the basal secretion of stress-sensitive hormones during night-time. The nocturnal urinary excretion of cortisol, testosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and melatonin was measured over a period of 5 consecutive nights. The average amounts of each hormone excreted per night were not different between the two extreme groups. The variability of the excretion during the 5 nights of cortisol and testosterone, but not of adrenaline, noradrenaline and melatonin, was significantly higher in EL compared to ES subjects. The larger fluctuations in the nocturnal secretion of these two (and no other) hormones in EL subjects indicate that emotional lability is associated with a more labile regulation of cortisol and testosterone secretion. The observed intraindividual variability of basal stress hormone secretion may contribute to the vast interindividual variability noticed in psychoneuroendocrine stress research, especially in emotionally labile subjects.

  20. Connection of supreme nervous functioning’s neuro-dynamic characteristics with success of junior sportsmen in sports dances

    Korobeynikov G.V.


    Full Text Available Purpose: to find peculiar features of neuro-dynamic characteristics of 14-15 years’ age sportsmen in sport dances and their influence on successfulness. Material: we tested 32 qualified dancers of 15-16 years’ age. Results: it was found that high workability and reduced anxiety level of dancers with higher successfulness is accompanied by sympathetic adrenalin system’s activation, resulted from mobilization of organism’s adaptation resources. The presence of nervous processes’ high mobility and increase of quickness of information perception and processing are the keys to success in sport dances. It was proved that success in sport dances is connected with nervous processes’ balance and facilitates higher organization of psycho-motor skills. It is also conditioned by concentration on fulfillment of motor skills, accompanied by reduction of nervous processes’ lability. Conclusions: we found connection between individual-typological characteristics of junior dancers’ high nervous functioning. We also determined that high workability and reduced anxiety of sportsmen with high successfulness is accompanied by sympathetic adrenalin system’s activation, resulted from mobilization of organism’s adaptation resources. It follows form mobilization of organism’s adaptation resources. Increase of accuracy and stability of motor skills’ realization reduces the level of junior dancers’ psycho-motor productivity.

  1. Detection and classification of stress using thermal imaging technique

    Hong, Kan; Yuen, Peter; Chen, Tong; Tsitiridis, Aristeidis; Kam, Firmin; Jackman, James; James, David; Richardson, Mark; Oxford, William; Piper, Jonathan; Thomas, Francis; Lightman, Stafford


    This paper reports how Electro-Optics (EO) technologies such as thermal and hyperspectral [1-3] imaging methods can be used for the detection of stress remotely. Emotional or physical stresses induce a surge of adrenaline in the blood stream under the command of the sympathetic nerve system, which, cannot be suppressed by training. The onset of this alleviated level of adrenaline triggers a number of physiological chain reactions in the body, such as dilation of pupil and an increased feed of blood to muscles etc. The capture of physiological responses, specifically the increase of blood volume to pupil, have been reported by Pavlidis's pioneer thermal imaging work [4-7] who has shown a remarkable increase of skin temperature in the periorbital region at the onset of stress. Our data has shown that other areas such as the forehead, neck and cheek also exhibit alleviated skin temperatures dependent on the types of stressors. Our result has also observed very similar thermal patterns due to physical exercising, to the one that induced by other physical stressors, apparently in contradiction to Pavlidis's work [8]. Furthermore, we have found patches of alleviated temperature regions in the forehead forming patterns characteristic to the types of stressors, dependent on whether they are physical or emotional in origin. These stress induced thermal patterns have been seen to be quite distinct to the one resulting from having high fever.

  2. Temperature sensitivity of cardiac function in pelagic fishes with different vertical mobilities: yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), mahimahi (Coryphaena hippurus), and swordfish (Xiphias gladius).

    Galli, Gina L J; Shiels, Holly A; Brill, Richard W


    We measured the temperature sensitivity, adrenergic sensitivity, and dependence on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) of ventricular muscle from pelagic fishes with different vertical mobility patterns: bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), and mahimahi (Coryphaena hippurus) and a single specimen from swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Ventricular muscle from the bigeye tuna and mahimahi exhibited a biphasic response to an acute decrease in temperature (from 26 degrees to 7 degrees C); twitch force and kinetic parameters initially increased and then declined. The magnitude of this response was larger in the bigeye tuna than in the mahimahi. Under steady state conditions at 26 degrees C, inhibition of SR Ca(2+) release and reuptake with ryanodine and thapsigargin decreased twitch force and kinetic parameters, respectively, in the bigeye tuna only. However, the initial inotropy associated with decreasing temperature was abolished by SR inhibition in both the bigeye tuna and the mahimahi. Application of adrenaline completely reversed the effects of ryanodine and thapsigargin, but this effect was diminished at cold temperatures. In the yellowfin tuna, temperature and SR inhibition had minor effects on twitch force and kinetics, while adrenaline significantly increased these parameters. Limited data suggest that swordfish ventricular muscle responds to acute temperature reduction, SR inhibition, and adrenergic stimulation in a manner similar to that of bigeye tuna ventricular muscle. In aggregate, our results show that the temperature sensitivity, SR dependence, and adrenergic sensitivity of pelagic fish hearts are species specific and that these differences reflect species-specific vertical mobility patterns.

  3. Effects of mental workload and caffeine on catecholamines and blood pressure compared to performance variations.

    Papadelis, Christos; Kourtidou-Papadeli, Chrysoula; Vlachogiannis, Emmanouil; Skepastianos, Petros; Bamidis, Panayiotis; Maglaveras, Nikos; Pappas, Kostantinos


    Caffeine is characterised as a central nervous system stimulant, also affecting metabolic and cardiovascular functions. A number of studies have demonstrated an effect of caffeine on the excretion of catecholamines and their metabolites. Urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine have been shown to increase after caffeine administration. Similar trends were observed in our study in adrenaline (ADR) and noradrenaline (NORADR) levels and additionally a dose dependent effect of caffeine. The effect of caffeine on cognitive performance, blood pressure, and catecholamines was tested under resting conditions and under mental workload. Each subject performed the test after oral administration of 1 cup and then 3 cups of coffee. Root mean square error (RMSE) for the tracking task was continuously monitored. Blood pressure was also recorded before and after each stage of the experiment. Catecholamines were collected and measured for three different conditions as: at rest, after mental stress alone, after one dose of caffeine under stress, and after triple dose of caffeine under stress. Comparison of the performance of each stage with the resting conditions revealed statistically significant differences between group of smokers/coffee drinkers compared with the other two groups of non-coffee drinkers/non-smokers and non-smokers/coffee drinkers. There was no statistically significant difference between the last two groups. There was an increase of urine adrenaline with 1 cup of coffee and statistically significant increase of urine noradrenaline. Both catecholamines were significantly increased with triple dose of caffeine. Mental workload increased catecholamines. There was a dose dependent effect of caffeine on catecholamines.

  4. The effect of heat exposure on cortisol and catecholamine excretion rates in workers in glass manufacturing unit.

    Vangelova, K; Deyanov, Ch; Velkova, D; Ivanova, M; Stanchev, V


    The aim of the investigation was to study the effect of long term repeated heat exposure on the excretion rates of stress hormones of workers in glass manufacturing unit. Sixteen operators, exposed to heat, were studied during the hot period and compared to a control group of 16 subjects, working in the same manufacturing unit. Both groups had moderate work load. The microclimate components and the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature were used for defining the heat exposure. The excretion rates of cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline were followed during the early morning shifts on three hour intervals using RIA and fluoriphotometric methods. Heart rate was followed, too. The psychosocial factors were measured by the "My job" questionnaire. Highly significantly higher cortisol, noradrenaline and adrenaline values were measured in the heat exposed operators compared to the control group, while significant differences of the psychosocial factors between the two groups lacked. Even if the heart rate was in the safe limits, the found alterations in the stress system are considerable and indicate heat stress. The work in conditions of overheat is associated with considerable heat stress and the possible health implications need to be clarified.

  5. The effect of potential fall distance on hormonal response in rock climbing.

    Baláš, Jiří; Giles, David; Chrastinová, Leona; Kárníková, Kateřina; Kodejška, Jan; Hlaváčková, Alžběta; Vomáčko, Ladislav; Draper, Nick


    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of alterations in potential lead fall distance on the hormonal responses of rock climbers. Nine advanced female climbers completed two routes while clipping all (PRO-all) or half (PRO-½) of the fixed points of protection. Venous blood samples were analysed for total catecholamines, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), adrenaline (epinephrine), dopamine, lactate, cortisol and serotonin. Differences between the two conditions pre, immediately post and 15 min post climbing were assessed using a 2 × 3 repeated measures ANOVA. All hormones and blood lactate concentrations increased significantly (P < 0.05) immediately post climb, except for cortisol. Peak cortisol concentrations did not occur until 15 min post ascent. Further, significant interactions between climbing and clipping conditions were found for total catecholamines (890% of basal concentration in PRO-½ vs. 568% in PRO-all), noradrenaline (794% vs. 532%) and dopamine (500% vs. 210%). There were no significant interactions for adrenaline (1920% vs. 1045%), serotonin (150% vs. 127%) or lactate (329% vs. 279%). The study showed a greater catecholamine response with an increase in potential lead fall distance. The most pronounced increases seen in catecholamine concentration were reported for dopamine and noradrenaline.

  6. Progesterone reduces sympathetic tone without changing blood pressure or fluid balance in men.

    Tollan, A; Oian, P; Kjeldsen, S E; Eide, I; Maltau, J M


    There is scant information on the effects of progesterone on circulation. Changes in catecholamine levels, blood pressure and transcapillary fluid balance were measured in 12 men before and during administration of natural progesterone (Utrogestan). Before administration, systolic blood pressure was significantly correlated with venous adrenaline (r = 0.67, p = 0.01). There was a significant decrease (p = 0.004) in venous noradrenaline during progesterone administration, and systolic blood pressure was significantly correlated with the arteriovenous difference for noradrenaline (r = 0.66, p = 0.02). Serum progesterone, which attained levels similar to those found in women during the luteal phase, did not significantly alter blood pressure, body weight or intra- to extravascular fluid shift. It is concluded that progesterone may have a direct action by increasing the uptake of noradrenaline from the synaptic cleft or by decreasing the nerve firing rate. Interestingly, the pretreatment finding of a significant correlation between blood pressure and adrenaline was less evident during progesterone administration.

  7. Single dose oral clonidine premedication does not enhance postoperative, single low dose epidural morphine analgesia in hysterectomy patients.

    Oofuvong, Maliwan; Chanvej, Laksamee; Thongsuksai, Paramee


    In this randomized, double blind placebo controlled study, the authors evaluated the effects of oral clonidine premedication on very low dose epidural morphine analgesia in 50 hysterectomy patients. Patients were randomized to receive a single oral clonidine 300 microg (n = 25) or a placebo (n = 25) 90 minutes before insertion of the epidural catheter. 3 ml of 2% lidocaine with adrenaline (5 microg ml(-1) mixed with 2 mg morphine were injected via epidural, followed by an additional volume of 2% lidocaine with adrenaline (5 microg ml(-1)) titrated to T6 block height before commencing general anesthesia. The postoperative analgesia regimen was 2 mg of intravenous morphine every 10 minutes for the first 48 hr and 1 gm of oral acetaminophen every 4-6 hr after initiation of oral diet at 24-48 hr as required. Morphine consumption, acetaminophen, pain scores, and side effects were recorded thoughout 48 hr after surgery. The results show patients in the clonidine and placebo groups were not different in terms of local anesthetics dose (p = 0.27), total morphine and acetaminophen requirement (p = 0.34, p = 0.1) respectively. Pain scores at rest and movement were also not different in both groups (p = 0.83, p = 0.64) respectively. No serious adverse effects were noted. The authors concluded that oral clonidine approximately 6 microg kg(-1) does not enhance the analgesic effect of epidural morphine 2 mg after hysterectomy.

  8. Endocrine responses and examination anxiety.

    Herbert, J; Moore, G F; de la Riva, C; Watts, F N


    Endocrine and psychological function (measuring both affect and attitudes to study) were studied in 38 male medical students 4 weeks and 1-2 h before a major examination. Anxiety (or tension) and emotionality increased just before the examination, as did the 'denial' subscale of a 'coping' questionnaire. Serum cortisol and prolactin increased; serum testosterone and LH were unchanged. Both urinary noradrenaline and adrenaline were elevated. Increased cortisol correlated with increased prolactin across subjects; so, too, did levels of urinary noradrenaline and adrenaline, but the two sets of endocrine responses were not correlated with each other. Several of the trait scales predicted the endocrine response to the examination. The 'lie' scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire correlated negatively with changes in both cortisol and prolactin, as did 'debilitating' anxiety, as defined by the Alpert-Haber scale. However, although there were no significant correlations between changes in hormone levels and those in any of the state scales, there was some relation between absolute hormone levels on the day of the examination. Measures of academic strategies or psychological responses to examinations do not predict the nature of the considerable hormonal response which occurs in this homogeneous set of high-achieving students.

  9. Laser-induced lipolysis on adipose cells

    Solarte, Efrain; Gutierrez, O.; Neira, Rodrigo; Arroyave, J.; Isaza, Carolina; Ramirez, Hugo; Rebolledo, Aldo F.; Criollo, Willian; Ortiz, C.


    Recently, a new liposuction technique, using a low-level laser (LLL) device and Ultrawet solution prior to the procedure, demonstrated the movement of fat from the inside to the outside of the adipocyte (Neira et al., 2002). To determine the mechanisms involved, we have performed Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy studies; Light transmittance measurements on adipocyte dilutions; and a study of laser light propagation in adipose tissue. This studies show: 1. Cellular membrane alterations. 2. LLL is capable to reach the deep adipose tissue layer, and 3. The tumescence solution enhances the light propagation by clearing the tissue. MRI studies demonstrated the appearance of fat on laser treated abdominal tissue. Besides, adipocytes were cultivated and irradiated to observe the effects on isolated cells. These last studies show: 1. 635 nm-laser alone is capable of mobilizing cholesterol from the cell membrane; this action is enhanced by the presence of adrenaline and lidocaine. 2. Intracellular fat is released from adipocytes by co joint action of adrenaline, aminophyline and 635 nm-laser. Results are consistent with a laser induced cellular process, which causes fat release from the adipocytes into the intercellular space, besides the modification of the cellular membranes.

  10. Randomised double-blind controlled trial of effect of morphine on catecholamine concentrations in ventilated pre-term babies.

    Quinn, M W; Wild, J; Dean, H G; Hartley, R; Rushforth, J A; Puntis, J W; Levene, M I


    A sick premature baby who requires intensive care will undergo many uncomfortable procedures. It is now accepted that such babies perceive pain and need adequate analgesia, but little is known about the effects of sedation in these patients. We investigated the use of morphine to provide analgesia and sedation for ventilated preterm babies in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. 41 mechanically ventilated babies who had been treated with surfactant (Curosurf) for hyaline membrane disease were randomly assigned morphine in 5% dextrose (100 micrograms/kg per h for 2 h followed by 25 micrograms/kg per h continuous infusion) or 5% dextrose (placebo). Plasma catecholamine concentrations were measured 1 h after the first dose of surfactant and 24 h later. Blood pressure was measured at study entry and after 6 h. The morphine and placebo groups showed no differences in method of delivery, Apgar scores, birthweight, gestation, or catecholamine concentrations at baseline. Morphine-treated babies showed a significant reduction in adrenaline concentrations during the first 24 h (median change -0.4 [95% CI -1.1 to -0.3] nmol/L p fall (median -4 mm Hg) in morphine-treated babies. The incidence of intraventricular haemorrhage, patent ductus arteriosus, and pneumothorax, the number of ventilator days, and the numbers of deaths did not differ significantly between the groups. Morphine, in the dose regimen we used, is safe and effective in reducing adrenaline concentrations in preterm ventilated babies.

  11. Transcriptome atlas of aromatic amino acid family metabolism-related genes in eight liver cell types uncovers the corresponding metabolic pathways in rat liver regeneration.

    Chang, Cuifang; Xu, CunShuan


    To explore gene expression of aromatic amino acid family metabolism and their metabolic pathways of eight liver cell types in rat liver regeneration, eight kinds of rat regenerating liver cells were isolated by using the combination of percoll density gradient centrifugation and immunomagnetic bead methods. Rat Genome 230 2.0 Array was used to detect the expression changes of genes associated with aromatic amino acid family metabolism. The transcriptome atlas showed that the metabolic pathway of phenylalanine was mainly catalyzed into tyrosine in hepatic stellate cells in the initiation stage, tyrosine was oxidized into dopa and norepinephrine in biliary epithelia cells and dendritic cells, and norepinephrine was finally catalyzed into adrenaline in biliary epithelia cells and pit cells in the progress stage. Thyroid hormone of tyrosine catabolites was synthesized from tyrosine in almost all cells in different stage of LR, among which genes of T3 biosynthesis were increased in HCs, BECs, SECs and DCs in the progress stage. Tryptophan was decarboxylated to 5-hydroxytryptamine in dendritic cells in the progress stage. Based on the results as above, we concluded that phenylalanine is the major source of tyrosine, proliferation of biliary epithelia cells and dendritic cells maybe promote by tyrosine catabolites-dopa and norepinephrine, biliary epithelia cells and pit cells maybe promote by adrenaline. T3 maybe play a major role on proliferation of HCs, BECs, SECs and DCs in the progress stage. The proliferation of dendritic cells maybe promote by tryptophan catabolites-5-hydroxytryptamine. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Gaye Suse Kromer: Obszöne Lust oder etablierte Unterhaltung? Zur Rezeption pornografischer Filme. Hamburg: Diplomica Verlag 2008.

    Sarah Dellmann


    Full Text Available The author questions four men and four women as to their use of pornography and their experience with the reception of the pornographic film Adrenaline (Italy 2003. The introductory chapter containing legal sources on pornography, a definition for pornography, and the history of pornographic films cannot serve as a theoretical and professional contextualization, even by dissertation standards; these are also not related to the interviews. The main section contains the interviews. The author is only partially able to develop stringent categories for analyzing the qualitative interviews – for example in the development of a research question. The interviews, published in the appendix of the book, are an interesting source for further research on the reception of pornographic films.Die Autorin befragte vier Männer und vier Frauen zu ihrer Pornografienutzung und ihren Rezeptionserfahrungen mit dem pornografischen Film Adrenalin (Italien 2003. Selbst nach Maßstäben einer Qualifikationsarbeit überzeugen die Überblickskapitel zu Rechtsgrundlagen, Definition und Geschichte des pornografischen Films, zur theoretischen und fachlichen Verortung nicht; diese werden später auch nicht auf die Interviews bezogen. Den Hauptteil stellen die Interviews dar. Der Autorin gelingt es nur teilweise – so bei der Entwicklung der Leitfragen –, stringente Kategorien für die Auswertung der qualitativen Interviews zu entwickeln. Die im Anhang des Buches abgedruckten Interviews stellen eine interessante Quelle für die Erforschung der Rezeption pornografischer Filme dar.

  13. Case Study of Hepatic Radiofrequency Ablation Causing a Systemic Inflammatory Response Under Total Intravenous Anesthesia

    Schalte, Gereon; Waning, Christian; Rossaint, Rolf; Mahnken, Andreas H. [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Aachen, (Germany); Henzler, Dietrich [Dalhousie University, Queen Elisabeth II Health Sciences Center, Halifax (Canada); Tacke, Josef [Interventional Radiology, Klinikum Passau, Passau (Germany)


    To investigate the effects of hepatic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with malignant liver disease with respect to inflammation activation and stress response. In an observational trial, we investigated the physiologic parameters of 17 patients (20 interventions) who underwent percutaneous RFA under general anesthesia after applying total intravenous anesthesia. TNF{alpha}, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, adrenaline and noradrenaline, liver enzymes, lactate and creatine kinase were determined pre-interventionally after induction of anesthesia (T1), 90 minutes after initiation of RFA (T2), immediately after the conclusion of the procedure (T3), and 24 hours after the procedure (T4). A significant increase in body temperature (p < 0.001), and mean arterial pressure (p = 0.001) were measured intraoperatively (T2) and the day after the procedure (T4). Increased levels of IL-6 were measured at T3 and T4 (p = 0.001). IL-10 increased immediately after the procedure (T3; p = 0.007). IL-6 levels correlated well with the total energy applied ({gamma} = 0.837). Significant increases in the levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline were present at T3 and T4 (p < 0.001). The RFA-induced destruction of hepatic tissue was associated with increased levels of AST, ALT, GLDH and LDH. Percutaneous RFA of hepatic malignancies causes an inflammatory and endocrine activation, similar to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. These effects have to be taken in account when dealing with patients susceptible to sepsis or multi-organ failure




    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brachial plexus nerve blocks (BPB are the most common nerve blocks used for upper limb surgeries. Techniques using only Local Anaesthetics (LA have limited duration of post-operative analgesia. Clonidine has been used to prolong the duration of LA s for neuraxial blocks. Hence the effect of clonidine on Lidocaine induced BPB was studied. METHODS: 60 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA class I and II were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group L given 30 ml of Lidocaine with adrenaline 1.5% with 0.6 ml of normal saline and the Group C given 30 ml of same LA with 0.6 ml of 90mcg of Clonidine. All the patients’ supraclavicular BPB was given using Winnies’ peri-vascular approach. The primary outcome was onset, duration of sensory and motor blockade. The secondary outcomes were motor block duration, opioid supplementation, and BPB complication. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in the onset of sensory and motor block, motor blockade quality and overall quality of block. Duration of sensory and motor blockade was prolonged in groups with Clonidine. No adverse events / hemodynamic instability noted in either group. Sedation scores were higher in Clonidine group. No patients required any intervention. CONCLUSIONS: 90µg Clonidine added to Lidocaine 1.5% with adrenaline produces prolongation of both the duration of sensory and motor blockade with minimal adverse effects.

  15. Analysis on the R-R interval time series of automobile long distance drivers; Kosoku doro no chojikan soko ni yoru R-R kankakuji keiretsu kaiseki

    Moyoshi, M.; Takata, K. [Daido Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Yokoyama, K. [Nagoya Municipal Women`s College, Nagoya (Japan); Yoshioka, T.; Watanabe, Y. [Toyota National College of Technology, Aichi (Japan)


    Analyses were performed on change in living body information as time elapses while driving a car, the differences between automobile drivers and fellow passengers, and between automobile drivers and motorcycle drivers. A comparison on body temperatures in automobile drivers and motorcycle drivers shows sharper changes in the motorcycle drivers. Motorcycles, being different from automobiles, put the drivers exposed to atmosphere during driving, applying larger living body load. Adrenalin increases its concentration when a human is under mental load, so does noradrenalin when under physical load. Both of adrenalin and noradrenalin showed an increasing trend in the afternoon as compared with in the morning. From the comparison with the normal daily life, fellow passengers have also large mental living body load, who were found to have concentration change of nearly two times or more than that in normal conditions. A subject who rode in a car in the first experiment and drove a motorcycle in the second experiment was discovered to have his right hand grasping power decreased remarkably after the second experiment. Fatigue factors unique to motorcycle driving are thought the engine vibration, the hot air, the need of taking balance of the motorcycle attitudes, and stress from noise. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Role of biogenic amines in pathogenesis of dust induced respiratory diseases

    Talakin, Yu.N.; Deinega, V.G.; Gridneva, N.V.; Levitskaya, V.A.


    Studies metabolism of biogenic amines, catecholamine, histamine and serotonin and their part in pathophysiologic mechanisms of bronchial obstruction in chronic dust bronchitits of coal miners. Three groups of miners, 50 healthy controls, 200 with pneumoconiosis and 95 with chronic dust bronchitis were tested to determine content in blood of histamine, serotonin, activity of histaminase, monoaminoxidase (MAO), daily elimination in urine of 5-oxyindoleacetic acid, adrenalin, noradrelin, dopamine and dopa. Results processed statistically are shown in a table (changes of indices of metabolism of biogenic amines in blood of coal miners). Healthy miners show increased catabolism of serotonin. During stage 1 pneumoconiosis, evacuation of noradrenalin is increased and emission of dopamine with urine decreases, level of histamine in blood rises, activity of MOA and excretion of 5-oxyindoleacetic acid increase. In chronic dust bronchitis depression of mediator link of sympathetic adrenalin system is augmented, level of histamine of blood rises with lowered histaminopexia. Activity of MAO and evacuation of 5-oxyindoleacetic increase. To evaluate the condition of metabolism of biogenic amines, it is advisable in clinical practice to use informative biochemical criteria in combination with physiologic methods of investigation to conduct provocative and pharmacologic tests in order to approach differentially establishment of a basic curative treatment complex and improve effectiveness of therapy. 16 refs.


    Boga Gogo Lucien


    Full Text Available Morinda morindoides (Backer Milne-Redhead (Rubiaceae is used by the people of west and central Africa for the treatment of diarrhea. The dichloromethane/ethanol extract of M. morindoides (Back (ETDE known to be used orally, will be in direct contact with the nobles organs. This study is conduced to see if this extract has effects on the body more precisely on blood pressure. ETDE injected intravenously (10.40 mg/kg b.w to 31.19 mg/kg b.w provoked a decrease in the arterial blood pressure (hypotension in a dose-dependent manner (ED50 = 7.08 mg/kg b.w. ETDE at 41.58 mg/kg b.w induce a maximum and irreversible hypotension which leads to the death of the animal. The effects induced by ETDE were inhibited in the presence of atropine at a concentration of 4.46 ×10-4 mg/kg b.w. Our observations, regarding the effects of ETDE on the high blood pressure initiated by adrenaline, showed that the hypertensive effects induced by adrenalin were totally inhibited by ETDE. ETDE induced a dose-dependent hypotension and reversible and his antihypertensive effect could militate for its use in the treatment of hypertension.

  18. Rapid stress system drives chemical transfer of fear from sender to receiver.

    Jasper H B de Groot

    Full Text Available Humans can register another person's fear not only with their eyes and ears, but also with their nose. Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to body odors from fearful individuals elicited implicit fear in others. The odor of fearful individuals appears to have a distinctive signature that can be produced relatively rapidly, driven by a physiological mechanism that has remained unexplored in earlier research. The apocrine sweat glands in the armpit that are responsible for chemosignal production contain receptors for adrenalin. We therefore expected that the release of adrenalin through activation of the rapid stress response system (i.e., the sympathetic-adrenal medullary system is what drives the release of fear sweat, as opposed to activation of the slower stress response system (i.e., hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. To test this assumption, sweat was sampled while eight participants prepared for a speech. Participants had higher heart rates and produced more armpit sweat in the fast stress condition, compared to baseline and the slow stress condition. Importantly, exposure to sweat from participants in the fast stress condition induced in receivers (N = 31 a simulacrum of the state of the sender, evidenced by the emergence of a fearful facial expression (facial electromyography and vigilant behavior (i.e., faster classification of emotional facial expressions.

  19. Sympathoadrenal and hypophyseal-adrenal systems in preoperative irradiation of patients with esophageal and cardiac cancer

    Tarutinov, V.I.; Starosel' skij, I.V.; Gol' dshmidt, B.Ya.; Shmal' ko, Yu.P.; Levchenko, A.M. (Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Rentgeno-Radiologicheskij i Onkologicheskij Inst., Kiev (Ukrainian SSR))


    A study was made of 74 patients with esophageal and cardiac cancer, Stages 3 and 4. The excretion of catecholamines, corticosteroids and their precursors was studied, tests with adrenalin before and after preoperative irradiation at a summary dose of 30 Gy were done. It has been shown that before the start of radiation therapy the excretion of catecholamines and corticosteroids is lowered, the reaction to adrenalin administration is negative in most patients, the phase syndrome of cardiac hypodynamics associated with disturbed function of the sympathoadrenal system was revealed. Preoperative irradiation in patients with esophageal and cardiac cancer results in an increased excretion of 17-ketosteroids (17-KS) and 17-ketogenic steroids, however 17-KS excretion does not reach the normal level. For better tolerance of irradiation and for a radiosensitization effect testenate is administered to patients before and during radiation therapy. The administration of testenate 7-10 days before the start and during radiotherapy proved to be effective which was confirmed by noticeable necrobiotic and necrotic changes of cancer cells.

  20. State of catecxolaminergine systems of the brain in forming of sydnocarb psychosis

    Al Nasir Eiad


    Full Text Available Violations of mnestic reactions are one of substantial signs of disorders of nervous activity. On the basis of it, as a criterion of forming of experimental psychosis, in our supervisions, the state of processes of conditionally-reflex memory was studied in rats. To cover up mechanisms of derangements of conditionally reflex activity in the process of forming of psychotic symptomatic complex, maintenance of adrenalin, noradrenalinum and neurospecific albumen S - 100 in the brain structures, that take a direct part in the processes of memory was studied. Derangements of cognitive function, that are the result of neurotoxic action of sydnocarb, are related to reduction of maintenance of noradrenalinum in the frontal cortex, as well as adrenalin in the pons varolii. That is, sydnocarb psychosis is accompanied by reduction of activating role of the cortex and trunk structures, negatively affecting the state of mnestic reactions. In the hippocampus and striate body excitation causes violation of memory processes and on the contrary, concentration of noradrenalinum rose. Thus, the presented model of experimental psychosis, created by subacute introduction of sydnocarb, is an adequate and alternative methodology of psychotic disorders forming in animals resulted from direct participation of the catecholaminergetic systems of CNS.