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Sample records for adrenal medulla cells

  1. Asthma pregnancy alters postnatal development of chromaffin cells in the rat adrenal medulla.

    Xiu-Ming Wu

    Full Text Available Adrenal neuroendocrine plays an important role in asthma. The activity of the sympathoadrenal system could be altered by early life events. The effects of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the adrenal medulla of offspring remain unknown.This study aims to explore the influence of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the development and function of adrenal medulla in offspring from postnatal day 3 (P3 to postnatal day 60 (P60. Asthmatic pregnant rats (AP, nerve growth factor (NGF-treated pregnant rats (NP and NGF antibody-treated pregnant rats (ANP were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA; NP and ANP were treated with NGF and NGF antibody respectively. Offspring rats from the maternal group were divided into four groups: offspring from control pregnant rats (OCP, offspring from AP (OAP, offspring from NP (ONP, and offspring from ANP (OANP. The expressions of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT protein in adrenal medulla were analyzed. The concentrations of epinephrine (EPI, corticosterone and NGF in serum were measured. Adrenal medulla chromaffin cells (AMCC were prone to differentiate into sympathetic nerve cells in OAP and ONP. Both EPI and PNMT were decreased in OAP from P3 to P14, and then reached normal level gradually from P30 to P60, which were lower from birth to adulthood in ONP. Corticosterone concentration increased significantly in OAP and ONP.Asthma pregnancy may promote AMCC to differentiate into sympathetic neurons in offspring rats and inhibit the synthesis of EPI, resulting in dysfunction of bronchial relaxation.

  2. Radioautographic study of the synthesis and migration of glycoproteins in the cells of the rat adrenal medulla

    Benchimol, Sarita; Cantin, Marc

    1978-01-01

    Rats were injected intravenously with ( 3 H) fucose to study the synthesis and migration of glycoproteins into adrenaline-storing and noradrenaline-storing cells of the adrenal medulla and to evaluate the fate of this radioactive sugar in both serum and adrenal-medulla at various time intervals. Radioactivity was decreased in serum by 50% between 5 and 20 min after the injection and by a hundred fold with 1 h. There was a sharp decrease in the radioactivity of the adrenal-medulla between 5 and 20 min after the injection and a slight, continuous decrease thereafter. The adrenal-medullae were fixed 5 min, 20 min, 1 h and 4 h after intravenous injection of [ 3 H] fucose, and radiautographs were analysed quantitatively after development in Microdol X. Kinetic analysis showed that, in both cell types, glycoprotein synthesis is completed in the Golgi complex and glycoproteins migrate subsequently to the secretory granules and to the cell coat. This analysis also revealed that [ 3 H] fucose moves much more rapidly in the Golgi complex of noradrenaline-storing cells than in that of adrenaline-storing cells and appears much earlier in the secretory granules of the former cell type [fr

  3. Nicotine-evoked cytosolic Ca2+ increase and cell depolarization in capillary endothelial cells of the bovine adrenal medulla

    RAÚL VINET

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial cells are directly involved in many functions of the cardiovascular system by regulating blood flow and blood pressure through Ca2+ dependent exocitosis of vasoactive compounds. Using the Ca2+ indicator Fluo-3 and the patch-clamp technique, we show that bovine adrenal medulla capillary endothelial cells (B AMCECs respond to acetylcholine (ACh with a cytosolic Ca2+ increase and depolarization of the membrane potential (20.3±0.9 mV; n=23. The increase in cytosolic Ca2+ induced by 10µM ACh was mimicked by the same concentration of nicotine but not by muscarine and was blocked by 100 µM of hexamethonium. On the other hand, the increase in cytosolic Ca2+ could be depressed by nifedipine (0.01 -100 µM or withdrawal of extracellular Ca2+. Taken together, these results give evidence for functional nicotinic receptors (nAChRs in capillary endothelial cells of the adrenal medulla. It suggests that nAChRs in B AMCECs may be involved in the regulation of the adrenal gland's microcirculation by depolarizing the membrane potential, leading to the opening of voltage-activated Ca2+ channels, influx of external Ca2+ and liberation of vasoactive compounds.

  4. Meta-iodobenzylguanidine adrenal medulla localization

    Guilloteau, D.; Baulieu, J.L.; Chambon, C.; Valat, C.; Baulieu, F.; Itti, R.; Pourcelot, L.; Besnard, J.C.; Huguet, F.; Narcisse, G.; Viel, C.

    1984-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of uptake of meta-iodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) by the adrenal glands, autoradiographic and pharmacologic studies were performed in mice and dogs receiving radioiodinated mIBG. In mice, on macroautoradiography of whole body section 48 h after 125 I-mIBG, most of the radioactivity was focused in the adrenal glands. On microautoradiography, silver grains were exclusively located in the adrenal medulla. Time counting after phenoxybenzamine, cocaine, and desipramine treatment resulted in 45%, 35%, and 0% inhibition of mIBG uptake, respectively. Tissue counting and scintigraphic studies demonstrated a more than 50% mIBG release from the adrenal glands. These data indicate the high affinity of mIBG for adrenal medulla and suggest that the mIBG and catecholamine uptake mechanisms are onlt partially the same. (orig.)

  5. Halothane inhibits the cholinergic-receptor-mediated influx of calcium in primary culture of bovine adrenal medulla cells

    Yashima, N.; Wada, A.; Izumi, F.

    1986-01-01

    Adrenal medulla cells are cholinoceptive cells. Stimulation of the acetylcholine receptor causes the influx of Ca to the cells, and Ca acts as the coupler of the stimulus-secretion coupling. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of halothane on the receptor-mediated influx of 45 Ca using cultured bovine adrenal medulla cells. Halothane at clinical concentrations (0.5-2%) inhibited the influx of 45 Ca caused by carbachol, with simultaneous inhibition of catecholamine secretion. The influx of 45 Ca and the secretion of catecholamines caused by K depolarization were inhibited by a large concentration of Mg, which competes with Ca at Ca channels, but not inhibited by halothane. Inhibition of the 45 Ca influx by halothane was not overcome by increase in the carbachol concentration. Inhibition of the 45 Ca influx by halothane was examined in comparison with that caused by a large concentration of Mg by the application of Scatchard analysis as the function of the external Ca concentration. Halothane decreased the maximal influx of 45 Ca without altering the apparent kinetic constant of Ca to Ca channels. On the contrary, a large concentration of Mg increased the apparent kinetic constant without altering the maximal influx of 45 Ca. Based on these findings, the authors suggest that inhibition of the 45 Ca influx by halothane was not due to the direct competitive inhibition of Ca channels, nor to the competitive antagonism of agonist-receptor interaction. As a possibility, halothane seems to inhibit the receptor-mediated activation of Ca channels through the interference of coupling between the receptor and Ca channels

  6. Comparison of P2 purinergic receptors of aortic endothelial cells with those of adrenal medulla: evidence for heterogeneity of receptor subtype and of inositol phosphate response.

    Allsup, D J; Boarder, M R

    1990-07-01

    Vascular endothelial cells from different parts of the circulation are known to show different functional responses, presumably corresponding to physiological roles. Previous studies have shown that ATP acts on P2 purinergic receptors of endothelial cells of major blood vessels, stimulating the formation of inositol phosphates. Here we have compared the action of ATP and congeners acting on endothelial cells of bovine thoracic aorta with cells derived from the microvasculature of bovine adrenal medulla. With measurement of total inositol phosphates, cells from the aorta showed a rank order of agonist potency of 2-methylthio-ATP greater than adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATP gamma S) greater than ADP greater than ATP greater than beta, gamma-imido-ATP greater than beta, gamma-methylene-ATP, consistent with action at receptors of the P2Y subtype. However, with adrenal cells the rank order of potency was ATP gamma S greater than ATP greater than beta, gamma-imido-ATP greater than ADP greater than beta, gamma-methylene-ATP = 2-methylthio-ATP. This profile is not consistent with either P2X or P2Y receptors. When the nature of this inositol phosphate response was analyzed with anion exchange chromatography, it was found that the aortic cells showed an inositol trisphosphate stimulation that peaked within a few seconds and rapidly declined, whereas the response of the adrenal medulla cells continued to rise through 5 min. Analysis of isomers of inositol phosphates revealed a different pattern of metabolism between the two cell types, which may account for the different time course of response. With adrenal cells, ATP at low micromolar concentrations caused a dose-dependent increase in levels of cyclic AMP and had a greater than additive effect on cyclic AMP levels when combined with submaximal stimulation by prostaglandin E2. These results suggest the presence of a P2Y receptor on aortic endothelial cells, with an 'atypical' purinocepter, i.e., neither P2X nor P2Y

  7. Angiotensin II potentiates prostaglandin stimulation of cyclic AMP levels in intact bovine adrenal medulla cells but not adenylate cyclase in permeabilized cells.

    Boarder, M R; Plevin, R; Marriott, D B

    1988-10-25

    The level of cyclic AMP in primary cultures of bovine adrenal medulla cells is elevated by prostaglandin E1. Angiotensin II is commonly reported to act on receptors linked to phosphoinositide metabolism or to inhibition of adenylate cyclase. We have investigated the effect of angiotensin II on prostaglandin E1-stimulated cyclic AMP levels in these primary cultures. Rather than reducing cyclic AMP levels, we have found that angiotensin II powerfully potentiates prostaglandin E1-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in intact cells, both in the presence and absence of phosphodiesterase inhibitors. The 50% maximal response was similar to that for stimulation of phosphoinositide breakdown by angiotensin II in these cultures. The potentiation of stimulated cyclic AMP levels was seen, although to a smaller maximum, with the protein kinase C (Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent enzyme) activating phorbol ester tetradecanoyl phorbolacetate and with the synthetic diacylglycerol 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol; pretreatment (24 h) with active phorbol ester, which would be expected to diminish protein kinase C levels, attenuated the angiotensin II potentiation of cyclic AMP. Using digitonin-permeabilized cells we showed that adenylate cyclase activity was stimulated by prostaglandin E1 with the same dose-response relationship as was cyclic AMP accumulation in intact cells, but the permeabilized cells showed no response to angiotensin II. The results are discussed with respect to the hypothesis that the angiotensin II influence on cyclic AMP levels is mediated, in part, by diacylglycerol stimulation of protein kinase C.

  8. The clinical significance of determination of adrenal medulla in patients with chronic cor pulmonale and analysis of its relevant factors

    Tian Yingchun; Zha Jinshun

    2002-01-01

    In order to find the function of adrenal medulla in the development of chronic cor pulmonale and the effect of smoking, anoxia and lung's work on adrenal medulla, the authors determined adrenal medulla in 63 patients with acute cor pulmonale (Group A) and 60 controls (Group B). The authors tried to find out the effect of the patients' age, course of disease, history of smoking, malfunction of lung on adrenal medulla by multiple regressive analysis. Adrenal medulla is significantly higher in Group A than that of in Group B (P 2 both contribute to the conclusion that smoking is an independent factor to affect the adrenal medulla. The study shows that the adrenal medulla in patients with cor pulmonale is higher than that of normal people, and that the level of adrenal medulla is dependent on the degree of seriousness of the disease, obstructive ventilatory disturbance and anoxia

  9. Neuronal localization of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38 in the adrenal medulla and growth-inhibitory effect on chromaffin cells

    Frödin, M; Hannibal, J; Wulff, B S

    1995-01-01

    medulla showed PACAP38 immunoreactivity in a widely distributed network of delicate nerve fibers surrounding the chromaffin cells. In a primary culture system, PACAP38 inhibited growth factor-stimulated DNA synthesis by 90% in neonatal and adult rat chromaffin cells with half-maximal inhibition at 4 and 0.......5 nM, respectively, as demonstrated by bromodeoxyuridine pulse-labeling and immunocytochemical staining of cell nuclei. In comparison, corticosterone inhibited neonatal and adult chromaffin cell proliferation by 70% and 95%, respectively, with half-maximal effect at 100 nM. In neonatal chromaffin...

  10. Imaging the primate adrenal medulla with [123I] and [131I] metaiodobenzylguanidine: concise communication

    Wieland, D.M.; Brown, L.E.; Tobes, M.C.; Rogers, W.L.; Marsh, D.D.; Mangner, T.J.; Swanson, D.P.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    An evaluation of radioiodinated meta-iodobenzylguanidine (m-IBG) as an adrenomedullary imaging agent is reported in 15 rhesus monkeys. Scintiscans of the monkey adrenal medulla have been obtained with [ 123 I]- and [m- 131 ]IBG at 2 to 6 days after injection. The imaging superiority of m-IBG over its positional isomer, para-iodobenzylguanidine (p-IBG), is documented in both dogs and monkeys. Administration of reserpine, a depletor of catecholamine stores, markedly lowers the [m- 131 I]-IBG content of the dog adrenal medulla, but the adrenergic blocking agents phenoxybenzamine and propanolol have no effect. Subcellular fractionation of the dog's adrenal medullae reveals that m-IBG is sequestered mainly in the chromaffin storage granules. The results of this study suggest that radioiodinated m-IBG, previously reported to image the primate myocardium, also merits evaluation as a clinical radiopharmaceutical for the adrenal medulla

  11. Diminished epinephrine response to hypoglycemia despite enlarged adrenal medulla in trained rats

    Stallknecht, B; Kjaer, M; Mikines, K J

    1990-01-01

    /day or served as controls being either sedentary freely eating (C), food restricted (FR), sham swim trained (ST), or cold stressed (CS). Adrenal glands were weighted and cross sectioned for light microscopic determination of size of the adrenal medulla. Endurance-trained compared with control rats had heavier...... adrenal glands (P less than 0.05), higher catecholamine content in the glands (P less than 0.05), and higher adrenal medulla volumes (P less than 0.05) [males: 2.74 +/- 0.16 (T) vs. 2.05 +/- 0.16 (C), 1.90 +/- 0.10 (ST), and 2.21 +/- 0.08 mm3 (CS)] [females: 2.55 +/- 0.11 (T) vs. 1.92 +/- 0.06 mm3 (C......)]. Cold stress or sham swim training did not increase adrenal weight or volume of adrenal medulla (P greater than 0.05). To stimulate adrenal medulla secretion, rats had an insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Insulin dose needed to suppress plasma glucose below 4.0 mM was four times greater in sedentary...

  12. Serotonin and Serotonin Transporters in the Adrenal Medulla: A Potential Hub for Modulation of the Sympathetic Stress Response.

    Brindley, Rebecca L; Bauer, Mary Beth; Blakely, Randy D; Currie, Kevin P M

    2017-05-17

    Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system where it modulates circuits involved in mood, cognition, movement, arousal, and autonomic function. The 5-HT transporter (SERT; SLC6A4) is a key regulator of 5-HT signaling, and genetic variations in SERT are associated with various disorders including depression, anxiety, and autism. This review focuses on the role of SERT in the sympathetic nervous system. Autonomic/sympathetic dysfunction is evident in patients with depression, anxiety, and other diseases linked to serotonergic signaling. Experimentally, loss of SERT function (SERT knockout mice or chronic pharmacological block) has been reported to augment the sympathetic stress response. Alterations to serotonergic signaling in the CNS and thus central drive to the peripheral sympathetic nervous system are presumed to underlie this augmentation. Although less widely recognized, SERT is robustly expressed in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, the neuroendocrine arm of the sympathetic nervous system. Adrenal chromaffin cells do not synthesize 5-HT but accumulate small amounts by SERT-mediated uptake. Recent evidence demonstrated that 5-HT 1A receptors inhibit catecholamine secretion from adrenal chromaffin cells via an atypical mechanism that does not involve modulation of cellular excitability or voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels. This raises the possibility that the adrenal medulla is a previously unrecognized peripheral hub for serotonergic control of the sympathetic stress response. As a framework for future investigation, a model is proposed in which stress-evoked adrenal catecholamine secretion is fine-tuned by SERT-modulated autocrine 5-HT signaling.

  13. Differential regulation of catecholamine synthesis and transport in rat adrenal medulla by fluoxetine treatment.

    Spasojevic, Natasa; Jovanovic, Predrag; Dronjak, Sladjana

    2015-03-01

    We have recently shown that chronic fluoxetine treatment acted significantly increasing plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations both in control and chronically stressed adult male rats. However, possible effects of fluoxetine on catecholamine synthesis and re-uptake in adrenal medulla have been largely unknown. In the present study the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on tyrosine hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis, as well as a norepinephrine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 gene expressions in adrenal medulla of animals exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for 4 weeks, were investigated. Gene expression analyses were performed using a real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Chronically stressed animals had increased tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels and decreased expression of both transporters. Fluoxetine increased tyrosine hydroxylase and decreased norepinephrine transporter gene expression in both unstressed and CUMS rats. These findings suggest that chronic fluoxetine treatment increased plasma catecholamine levels by affecting opposing changes in catecholamine synthesis and uptake.

  14. The influence of whole-body γ-irradiation with low doses on enzyme activity of rat adrenal medulla

    Amvros'ev, A.P.; Shostak, Yu.A.

    1991-01-01

    A study was made of the pattern of changes in histological indices of key enzymes of the tricarbonic acid cycle (succinate dehydrogenase) and glycolysis (lactate dehydrogenase) as well as of catecholamines (monoamine oxidase) in cells of the adrenal medulla of young and adult albino rats subjected to external whole-body γ-irradiation with doses of 0.5 and 1.0 Gy (dose-rate of 2.7·10 -4 Gy/s). Radiosensitivity of the enzyme systems under study in the adrenal gland cells of young animals was higher than in that of adult. Changes of their levels in different periods of observation were mainly of phase nature and indicated the development of adaptation syndrome in the animal organism

  15. Theoretical conformational analysis of the bovine adrenal medulla 12 residue peptide molecule

    Akhmedov, N. A.; Tagiyev, Z. H.; Hasanov, E. M.; Akverdieva, G. A.

    2003-02-01

    The spatial structure and conformational properties of the bovine adrenal medulla 12 residue peptide Tyr1-Gly2-Gly3-Phe4-Met5-Arg6-Arg7-Val8-Gly9-Arg10-Pro11-Glu12 (BAM-12P) molecule were studied by theoretical conformational analysis. It is revealed that this molecule can exist in several stable states. The energy and geometrical parameters for the low-energy conformations are obtained. The conformationally rigid and labile segments of this molecule were revealed.

  16. Differential regulation of catecholamine synthesis and transport in rat adrenal medulla by fluoxetine treatment

    NATASA SPASOJEVIC

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We have recently shown that chronic fluoxetine treatment acted significantly increasing plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations both in control and chronically stressed adult male rats. However, possible effects of fluoxetine on catecholamine synthesis and re-uptake in adrenal medulla have been largely unknown. In the present study the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on tyrosine hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis, as well as a norepinephrine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 gene expressions in adrenal medulla of animals exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS for 4 weeks, were investigated. Gene expression analyses were performed using a real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Chronically stressed animals had increased tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels and decreased expression of both transporters. Fluoxetine increased tyrosine hydroxylase and decreased norepinephrine transporter gene expression in both unstressed and CUMS rats. These findings suggest that chronic fluoxetine treatment increased plasma catecholamine levels by affecting opposing changes in catecholamine synthesis and uptake.

  17. Functional reconstitution of prostaglandin E receptor from bovine adrenal medulla with guanine nucleotide binding proteins

    Negishi, M.; Ito, S.; Yokohama, H.; Hayashi, H.; Katada, T.; Ui, M.; Hayaishi, O.

    1988-01-01

    Prostaglandin E 2 (PEG 2 ) was found to bind specifically to a 100,000 x g pellet prepared from bovine adrenal medulla. The PGE receptor was associated with a GTP-binding protein (G-protein) and could be covalently cross-linked with this G-protein by dithiobis(succinimidyl propionate) in the 100,000 x g pellet. In order to characterize the G-protein associated with the PGE receptor and reconstitute these proteins in phospholipid vesicles, the authors purified the G-protein to apparent homogeneity from the 100,000 x g pellet. The G-protein served as a substrate of pertussis toxin but differed in its α subunit from two known pertussis toxin substrate G-proteins (G/sub i/ and G 0 ) purified from bovine brain. The molecular weight of the α subunit was 40,000, which is between those of G/sub i/ and G 0 . The purified protein was also distinguished immunologically from G/sub i/ and G 0 and was referred to as G/sub am/. Reconstitution of the PGE receptor with pure C/sub am/, G/sub i/, or G 0 in phospholipid vesicles resulted in a remarkable restoration of [ 3 H]PGE 2 binding activity in a GTP-dependent manner. The efficiency of these three G-proteins in this capacity was roughly equal. When pertussis toxin- or N-ethylmaleimide-treated G-proteins, instead of the native ones, were reconstituted into vesicles, the restoration of binding activity was no longer observed. These results indicate that the PGE receptor can couple functionally with G/sub am/, G/sub i/, or G 0 in phospholipid vesicles and suggest that G/sub am/ may be involved in signal transduction of the PGE receptor in bovine adrenal medulla

  18. Response of the adrenal medulla to exogenous insulin in head X-irradiated dogs

    Yamashita, K; Mieno, M; Shimizu, T [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1976-12-01

    The observed results on the secretory response of the adrenal medulla to exogenous insulin in dogs whose heads had been irradiated with 200 rad X-irradiation at a rate of 60.6 rad/min are reported. Approximately 20 h after irradiation 2 i.u. insulin/kg body weight was administered to both irradiated and control (non-irradiated) dogs. The secretion of both adrenaline and noradrenaline in five control dogs which received insulin had increased markedly 30 min after the injection and it was sustained over the first 120 min. Five irradiated dogs also responded to the injection of insulin by secreting appreciable amounts of both adrenaline and noradrenaline, but the responsiveness was considerably lower; adrenaline and noradrenaline secretion 30 and 60 min after the injection was 59 and 33% less than that caused by insulin in control animals respectively, and these differences were significant (P < 0.01). Since insulin induces hypoglycaemia and thereby leads to an increase in the adrenal medullary secretion through the central mechanism, the present results observed 1 day after X-irradiation of the head indicate that the susceptibility of the adrenomedullary activating mechanism in the central nervous system may be diminished considerably after X-irradiation, even at doses as low as 200 rad.

  19. Response of the adrenal medulla to exogenous insulin in head X-irradiated dogs

    Yamashita, K.; Mieno, M.; Shimizu, T.

    1976-01-01

    The observed results on the secretory response of the adrenal medulla to exogenous insulin in dogs whose heads had been irradiated with 200 rad X-irradiation at a rate of 60.6 rad/min are reported. Approximately 20 h after irradiation 2 i.u. insulin/kg body weight was administered to both irradiated and control (non-irradiated) dogs. The secretion of both adrenaline and noradrenaline in five control dogs which received insulin had increased markedly 30 min after the injection and it was sustained over the first 120 min. Five irradiated dogs also responded to the injection of insulin by secreting appreciable amounts of both adrenaline and noradrenaline, but the responsiveness was considerably lower; adrenaline and noradrenaline secretion 30 and 60 min after the injection was 59 and 33% less than that caused by insulin in control animals respectively, and these differences were significant (P < 0.01). Since insulin induces hypoglycaemia and thereby leads to an increase in the adrenal medullary secretion through the central mechanism, the present results observed 1 day after X-irradiation of the head indicate that the susceptibility of the adrenomedullary activating mechanism in the central nervous system may be diminished considerably after X-irradiation, even at doses as low as 200 rad. (U.K.)

  20. Regulation of memory - from the adrenal medulla to liver to astrocytes to neurons.

    Gold, Paul E

    2014-06-01

    Epinephrine, released into blood from the adrenal medulla in response to arousing experiences, is a potent enhancer of learning and memory processing. This review examines mechanisms by which epinephrine exerts its effects on these cognitive functions. Because epinephrine is largely blocked from moving from blood to brain, it is likely that the hormone's effects on memory are mediated by peripheral actions. A classic effect of epinephrine is to act at the liver to break down glycogen stores, resulting in increased blood glucose levels. The increase in blood glucose provides additional energy substrates to the brain to buttress the processes needed for an experience to be learned and remembered. In part, it appears that the increased glucose may act in the brain in a manner akin to that evident in the liver, engaging glycogenolysis in astrocytes to provide an energy substrate, in this case lactate, to augment neuronal functions. Together, the findings reveal a mechanism underlying modulation of memory that integrates the physiological functions of multiple organ systems to support brain processes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Memory enhancement'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. REGULATION OF MEMORY – FROM THE ADRENAL MEDULLA TO LIVER TO ASTROCYTES TO NEURONS1

    Gold, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Epinephrine, released into blood from the adrenal medulla in response to arousing experiences, is a potent enhancer of learning and memory processing. This review examines mechanisms by which epinephrine exerts its effects on these cognitive functions. Because epinephrine is largely blocked from moving from blood to brain, it is likely that the hormone's effects on memory are mediated by peripheral actions. A classic effect of epinephrine is to act at the liver to break down glycogen stores, resulting in increased blood glucose levels. The increase in blood glucose provides additional energy substrates to the brain to buttress the processes needed for an experience to be learned and remembered. In part, it appears that the increased glucose may act in the brain in a manner akin to that evident in the liver, engaging glycogenolysis in astrocytes to provide an energy substrate, in this case lactate, to augment neuronal functions. Together, the findings reveal a mechanism underlying modulation of memory that integrates the physiological functions of multiple organ systems to support brain processes. PMID:24406469

  2. Inhibition of Cdc42 and Rac1 activities in pheochromocytoma, the adrenal medulla tumor.

    Croisé, Pauline; Brunaud, Laurent; Tóth, Petra; Gasman, Stéphane; Ory, Stéphane

    2017-04-03

    Altered Rho GTPase signaling has been linked to many types of cancer. As many small G proteins, Rho GTPases cycle between an active and inactive state thanks to specific regulators that catalyze exchange of GDP into GTP (Rho-GEF) or hydrolysis of GTP into GDP (Rho-GAP). Recent studies have shown that alteration takes place either at the level of Rho proteins themselves (expression levels, point mutations) or at the level of their regulators, mostly RhoGEFs and RhoGAPs. Most reports describe Rho GTPases gain of function that may participate to the tumorigenesis processes. In contrast, we have recently reported that decreased activities of Cdc42 and Rac1 as well as decreased expression of 2 Rho-GEFs, FARP1 and ARHGEF1, correlate with pheochromocytomas, a tumor developing in the medulla of the adrenal gland (Croisé et al., Endocrine Related Cancer, 2016). Here we highlight the major evidence and further study the correlation between Rho GTPases activities and expression levels of ARHGEF1 and FARP1. Finally we also discuss how the decrease of Cdc42 and Rac1 activities may help human pheochromocytomas to develop and comment the possible relationship between FARP1, ARHGEF1 and the 2 Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1 in tumorigenesis.

  3. The importance of the selection of appropriate reference genes for gene expression profiling in adrenal medulla or sympathetic ganglia of spontaneously hypertensive rat

    Vavřínová, Anna; Behuliak, Michal; Zicha, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2016), s. 401-411 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-16225P Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : adrenal medulla * gene expression profiling * reference gene selection * sympathetic nervous system Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  4. Characterisation of the effect of ion channel modulators on I1-imidazoline binding sites in bovine adrenal medulla

    Musgrave, I.F.; Kotsopoulos, D.; Hughes, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The structure of I 1 -imidazoline binding sites is still unknown and we have proposed that they represent ion channels (i). In these experiments we characterised the effects of the known ion channel modulators methyltriphenylphosphonium (MTPP), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and tetraethyl ammonium (TEA) on [ 3 H] clonidine binding in bovine adrenal medullary membranes as these membranes have a relatively well defined I 1 -imidazoline binding site (Molderings et al, 1993). Membranes from bovine adrenal medulla's were prepared by a minor modification of the method of Rapier et al. [ 3 H] Clonidine binding was performed by the method of Ernsberger et al (3), with [ 3 H] clonidine (62 Ci/mmol) used at a final concentration of 5 nM. [ 3 H] Clonidine binding was displaced from bovine adrenal medullary membranes by adrenergic drugs with the order of potency being oxymetazoline > clonidine > moxonidine = idazoxan >> yonimbine. This order of potency is consistent with previous studies of I 1 -imidazoline binding sites (4). Non-linear curve fitting to this data was consistent with a single site model. Both TEA and 4-AP displaced [ H] clonidine with similar potency to its effect on ion channels, TEA having a EC>> of 54 ± 0.3 μM (n=3). The displacement of [ 3 H] clonidine produced by both TEA and 4-AP also fitted to a single site model. Displacement of [ 3 H] clonidine by MTPP fitted a two site model (p 1 -imidazoline binding sites defined with [ 3 H] clonidine may represent ion channels. We have used this data to perform molecular modelling and have determined a common conformation of I 1 -prefering ligands which will aid in the development of I 1 -selective ligands in the future. Copyright (1998) Australian Neuroscience Society

  5. Role of the adrenal medulla in control of blood pressure and renal function during furosemide-induced volume depletion

    Hasbak, Philip; Petersen, Jørgen Søberg; Shalmi, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure......Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure...

  6. *sp131*I-3-iodobenzylguanidine (*sp131*I-3-IBG) as a scintigraphic agent for the visualization of adrenal medulla tumors

    Heggeli, D.E.; Brorson, B.I.; Bremper, P.O.

    1983-06-01

    A method of labelling 3-iodobenzylguanidine with *sp131*I is described. 3-IBG . 0.5 H*sb2*SO*sb4* and Cu(II)SO*sb4* were dissolved in a 0.1 M NH*sb4*H*sb2*PO*sb4* buffer and mixed with *sp131*I-NaI. The solution was evaporated to dryness by heating. After addition of water, the solution was heated with reflux for two hours. The I*sp-* ions were removed after labelling by anionic exchange chromatography. The final product was made isotonic and bacteriostatic by the addition of acetate buffer, saline and benzylalcohol. The product was filtered through a membrane filter with a pore size of 0.22*my*m and was apyrogenically tested by limulus test. The tumors of adrenal medulla, pheochromocytomas and neuroplastomas may in some cases be small or located extra-adrenally. In those cases *sp131*I-labelled 3-IBG is a valuable tool, since 3-IBG concentrates in adrenal medulla tumors because ot its analogy to the catecholamines. Injecting a dose of 0.5 mCi *sp131*I-3-IBG (2.5 mCi/mg), which is an adult dose, allows the scintigraphic localization of the tumours, thus guiding the surgeon. Adrenal uptake in mice and dog is described in the report, as well as a rapid method for the control of radiochemical purity. The radioactive concentration of the *sp131*I-3-IBG has been found to be important for the radiochemical stability of the product. (RF)

  7. Cholinergic regulation of protein phosphorylation in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    Haycock, J.W.; Browning, M.D.; Greengard, P.

    1988-01-01

    Chromaffin cells were isolated from bovine adrenal medullae and maintained in primary culture. After prelabeling with 32 PO 4 , exposure of the chromaffin cells to acetylcholine increased the phosphorylation of a M/sub r/ ≅ 100,000 protein and a M/sub r/ ≅ 60,000 protein (tyrosine hydroxylase), visualized after separation of total cellular proteins in NaDodSO 4 /polyacrylamide gels. Immunoprecipitation with antibodies to three known phosphoproteins (100-kDa, 87-kDa, and protein III) revealed an acetylcholine-dependent phosphorylation of these proteins. These three proteins were also shown to be present in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells by immunolabeling techniques. 100-kDa is a M/sub r/ ≅ 100,000 protein selectively phosphorylated by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III, 87-kDa is a M/sub r/ ≅ 87,000 protein selectively phosphorylated by protein kinase C, and protein III is a phosphoprotein doublet of M/sub r/ ≅ 74,000 (IIIa) and M/sub r/ ≅ 55,000 (IIIb) phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I. The data demonstrate that cholinergic activation of chromaffin cells increases the phosphorylation of several proteins and that several protein kinase systems may be involved in these effects

  8. Catecholamine secretion by chemical hypoxia in guinea-pig, but not rat, adrenal medullary cells: differences in mitochondria.

    Harada, K; Endo, Y; Warashina, A; Inoue, M

    2015-08-20

    The effects of mitochondrial inhibitors (CN(-), a complex IV inhibitor and CCCP, protonophore) on catecholamine (CA) secretion and mitochondrial function were explored functionally and biochemically in rat and guinea-pig adrenal chromaffin cells. Guinea-pig chromaffin cells conspicuously secreted CA in response to CN(-) or CCCP, but rat cells showed a little, if any, secretory response to either of them. The resting metabolic rates in rat adrenal medullae did not differ from those in guinea-pig adrenal medullae. On the other hand, the time course of depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in guinea-pig chromaffin cells in response to CN(-) was slower than that in rat chromaffin cells, and this difference was abolished by oligomycin, an F1F0-ATPase inhibitor. The extent of CCCP-induced decrease in cellular ATP in guinea-pig chromaffin cells, which was indirectly measured using a Mg(2+) indicator, was smaller than that in rat chromaffin cells. Relative expression levels of F1F0-ATPase inhibitor factor in guinea-pig adrenal medullae were smaller than in rat adrenal medullae, and the opposite was true for F1F0-ATPase α subunit. The present results indicate that guinea-pig chromaffin cells secrete more CA in response to a mitochondrial inhibitor than rat chromaffin cells and this higher susceptibility in the former is accounted for by a larger extent of reversed operation of F1F0-ATPase with the consequent decrease in ATP under conditions where ΔΨm is depolarized. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Damage effects of chronic hypoxia on medulla oblongata associated with oxidative stress and cell apoptosis].

    Hou, Xuefei; Ding, Yan; Nie, Zheng; Li, Hui; Tang, Yuhong; Zhou, Hua; Chen, Li; Zheng, Yu

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study is to study the damage effects of chronic hypoxia on medulla oblongata and to explore whether the damage is associated with oxidative stress and cell apoptosis. Adult male SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group and chronic hypoxia group. Medulla oblongata was obtained for the following methods of analyses. Nissl's staining was used to examine the Niss bodies of neurons in medullary respiratory related nuclei, biochemistry methods were utilized to examine oxidant stress damage induced by chronic hypoxia on medulla oblongata through measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and RT-PCR technique was used to study the influence of apoptosis induced by chronic hypoxia on medulla oblongata through analyzing the levels of Bax mRNA and Bcl-2 mRNA. The results showed the optical densities of Nissl's staining in pre-BötC, NA, NTS, FN, and 12N were significantly decreased in chronic hypoxia group in comparison with that in control group (P 0.05). Bax mRNA expression had no obvious change and Bcl-2 mRNA expression significantly decreased in chronic hypoxia group in comparison with that in control group (P < 0.05). The results suggest that chronic hypoxia could bring about serious damage to medullary respiratory centers through aggravating oxidative stress and increasing cell apoptosis.

  10. Identification of a membrane-bound, glycol-stimulated phospholipase A2 located in the secretory granules of the adrenal medulla

    Hildebrandt, E.; Albanesi, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Chromaffin granule membranes prepared from bovine adrenal medullae showed Ca 2+ -stimulated phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) activity when assayed at pH 9.0 with phosphatidylcholine containing an [ 14 C]-arachidonyl group in the 2-position. However, the activity occurred in both soluble and particulate subcellular fractions, and did not codistribute with markers for the secretory granule. PLA 2 activity in the granule membrane preparation was stimulated dramatically by addition of glycerol, ethylene glycole, or poly(ethylene glycol). This glycol-stimulated PLA 2 activity codistributed with membrane-bound dopamine β-hydroxylase, a marker for the granule membranes, through the sequence of differential centrifugation steps employed to prepare the granule membrane fraction, as well as on a sucrose density gradient which resolved the granules from mitochondria, lysosomes, and plasma membrane. The glycol-stimulated PLA 2 of the chromaffin granule was membrane-bound, exhibited a pH optimum of 7.8, retained activity in the presence of EDTA, and was inactivated by p-bromophenacyl bromide. When different 14 C-labeled phospholipids were incorporated into diarachidonylphosphatidylcholine liposomes, 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonylphosphatidylcholine was a better substrate for this enzyme than 1-palmitoyl-2-oleylphosphatidylcholine or 1-acyl-2-arachidonyl-phosphatidylethhanolamine, and distearoylphosphatidylcholine was not hydrolyzed

  11. Blockade of Adrenal Medulla-Derived Epinephrine Potentiates Bee Venom-Induced Antinociception in the Mouse Formalin Test: Involvement of Peripheral β-Adrenoceptors

    Suk-Yun Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The injection of diluted bee venom (DBV into an acupoint has been used traditionally in eastern medicine to treat a variety of inflammatory chronic pain conditions. We have previously shown that DBV had a potent antinociceptive efficacy in several rodent pain models. However, the peripheral mechanisms underlying DBV-induced antinociception remain unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the role of peripheral epinephrine on the DBV-induced antinociceptive effect in the mouse formalin assay. Adrenalectomy significantly enhanced the antinociceptive effect of DBV during the late phase of the formalin test, while chemical sympathectomy had no effect. Intraperitoneal injection of epinephrine blocked this adrenalectomy-induced enhancement of the DBV-induced antinociceptive effect. Moreover, injection of a phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT inhibitor enhanced the DBV-induced antinociceptive effect. Administration of nonselective β-adrenergic antagonists also significantly potentiated this DBV-induced antinociception, in a manner similar to adrenalectomy. These results demonstrate that the antinociceptive effect of DBV treatment can be significantly enhanced by modulation of adrenal medulla-derived epinephrine and this effect is mediated by peripheral β-adrenoceptors. Thus, DBV acupoint stimulation in combination with inhibition of peripheral β-adrenoceptors could be a potentially novel strategy for the management of inflammatory pain.

  12. Evidence that central dopamine receptors modulate sympathetic neuronal activity to the adrenal medulla to alter glucoregulatory mechanisms.

    Arnerić, S P; Chow, S A; Bhatnagar, R K; Webb, R L; Fischer, L J; Long, J P

    1984-02-01

    Previous reports suggest that analogs of dopamine (DA) can produce hyperglycemia in rats by interacting with DA receptors. Experiments reported here indicate the site of action and describe the metabolic sequalae associated with the hyperglycemic effect of apomorphine (APO), produced in conscious unrestrained rats. Apomorphine was more potent when administered by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection than when given subcutaneously (s.c.). Very small doses of the DA receptor antagonist pimozide, given intraventricularly, blocked the hyperglycemic effect of apomorphine administered subcutaneously. Sectioning of the spinal cord at thoracic vertebra T1-2 or sectioning the greater splanchnic nerve blocked apomorphine-induced hyperglycemia; whereas section of the superior colliculus or section at T5-6 had no effect. A dose of apomorphine or epinephrine (EPI) producing a similar degree of hyperglycemia elevated the concentration of EPI in serum to a similar degree, and the increase in EPI in serum preceded the increase in glucose in serum. Fasting animals for 2 or 18 hr had no significant effect on EPI- or apomorphine-induced hyperglycemia despite a reduction (91-93%) of the glycogen content of liver and skeletal muscle during the 18 hr fast. 5-Methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (MICA), an inhibitor of gluconeogenesis, blocked EPI- and apomorphine-induced hyperglycemia in rats fasted for 18 hr. However, 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid was ineffective in blocking hyperglycemia in animals fasted for 2 hr. Changes in insulin or glucagon in serum alone cannot account for the hyperglycemic action of apomorphine. These data demonstrate that apomorphine interacts with central DA receptors located in the hindbrain to activate sympathetic neuronal activity to the adrenal gland which subsequently releases epinephrine to alter homeostasis of glucose. Epinephrine may then, depending on the nutritional status, facilitate glycogenolytic or gluconeogenic processes to produce

  13. Plasma Catecholamines (CA) and Gene Expression of CA Biosynthetic Enzymes in Adrenal Medulla and Sympathetic Ganglia of Rats Exposed to Single or Repeated Hypergravity

    Petrak, J.; Jurani, M.; Baranovska, M.; Hapala, I.; Frollo, I.; Kvetnansky, R.

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma epinephrine (EPI) and norepinephrine (NE) levels in blood collected directly during a single or 8-times repeated centrifugation at hypergravity 4G, using remote controlled equipment. Plasma EPI levels showed a huge hypergravity-induced increase. After the last blood collection during hypergravity, the centrifuge was turned off and another blood sampling was performed immediately after the centrifuge decelerated and stopped (10 min). In these samples plasma EPI showed significantly lower levels compared to centrifugation intervals. Plasma NE levels showed none or small changes. Repeated exposure to hypergravity 4G (8 days for 60 min) eliminated the increase in plasma EPI levels at the 15 min interval but did not markedly affect plasma NE levels. To explain these findings we measured mRNA levels of CA biosynthetic enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) in the adrenal medulla (AM) and stellate ganglia (SG) of rats exposed to continuous hypergravity (2G) up to 6 days. In AM, TH, DBH and PNMT mRNA levels were significantly increased in intervals up to 3 days, however, after 6 day hypergravity exposure, no significant elevation was found. In SG, no significant changes in gene expression of CA enzymes were seen both after a single or repeated hypergravity. Thus, our data show that hypergravity highly activates the adrenomedullary system, whereas the sympathoneural system is not significantly changed. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that during repeated or continuous exposure of the organism to hypergravity the adrenomedullary system is adapted, whereas sympathoneural system is not affected.

  14. Characterisation of CART-containing neurons and cells in the porcine pancreas, gastro-intestinal tract, adrenal and thyroid glands

    Gunnarsdóttir Anna

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The peptide CART is widely expressed in central and peripheral neurons, as well as in endocrine cells. Known peripheral sites of expression include the gastrointestinal (GI tract, the pancreas, and the adrenal glands. In rodent pancreas CART is expressed both in islet endocrine cells and in nerve fibers, some of which innervate the islets. Recent data show that CART is a regulator of islet hormone secretion, and that CART null mutant mice have islet dysfunction. CART also effects GI motility, mainly via central routes. In addition, CART participates in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis. We investigated CART expression in porcine pancreas, GI-tract, adrenal glands, and thyroid gland using immunocytochemistry. Results CART immunoreactive (IR nerve cell bodies and fibers were numerous in pancreatic and enteric ganglia. The majority of these were also VIP IR. The finding of intrinsic CART containing neurons indicates that pancreatic and GI CART IR nerve fibers have an intrinsic origin. No CART IR endocrine cells were detected in the pancreas or in the GI tract. The adrenal medulla harboured numerous CART IR endocrine cells, most of which were adrenaline producing. In addition CART IR fibers were frequently seen in the adrenal cortex and capsule. The capsule also contained CART IR nerve cell bodies. The majority of the adrenal CART IR neuronal elements were also VIP IR. CART IR was also seen in a substantial proportion of the C-cells in the thyroid gland. The majority of these cells were also somatostatin IR, and/or 5-HT IR, and/or VIP IR. Conclusion CART is a major neuropeptide in intrinsic neurons of the porcine GI-tract and pancreas, a major constituent of adrenaline producing adrenomedullary cells, and a novel peptide of the thyroid C-cells. CART is suggested to be a regulatory peptide in the porcine pancreas, GI-tract, adrenal gland and thyroid.

  15. Histology and ultrastructure of the adrenal gland of the greater cane ...

    The results showed variations in the thickness of the zones of the cortex and medulla. Histological detail did not differ significantly from that of other rodents. Ultrastructural features showed typical adrenal gland zonation with capsule, cortical cells and medulla. In the cortex copious lipid droplets and myelin bodies were ...

  16. Modeling Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Testing Interventions for Adrenal Insufficiency Using Donor-Specific Reprogrammed Cells

    Gerard Ruiz-Babot

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal insufficiency is managed by hormone replacement therapy, which is far from optimal; the ability to generate functional steroidogenic cells would offer a unique opportunity for a curative approach to restoring the complex feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Here, we generated human induced steroidogenic cells (hiSCs from fibroblasts, blood-, and urine-derived cells through forced expression of steroidogenic factor-1 and activation of the PKA and LHRH pathways. hiSCs had ultrastructural features resembling steroid-secreting cells, expressed steroidogenic enzymes, and secreted steroid hormones in response to stimuli. hiSCs were viable when transplanted into the mouse kidney capsule and intra-adrenal. Importantly, the hypocortisolism of hiSCs derived from patients with adrenal insufficiency due to congenital adrenal hyperplasia was rescued by expressing the wild-type version of the defective disease-causing enzymes. Our study provides an effective tool with many potential applications for studying adrenal pathobiology in a personalized manner and opens venues for the development of precision therapies.

  17. Modeling Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Testing Interventions for Adrenal Insufficiency Using Donor-Specific Reprogrammed Cells.

    Ruiz-Babot, Gerard; Balyura, Mariya; Hadjidemetriou, Irene; Ajodha, Sharon J; Taylor, David R; Ghataore, Lea; Taylor, Norman F; Schubert, Undine; Ziegler, Christian G; Storr, Helen L; Druce, Maralyn R; Gevers, Evelien F; Drake, William M; Srirangalingam, Umasuthan; Conway, Gerard S; King, Peter J; Metherell, Louise A; Bornstein, Stefan R; Guasti, Leonardo

    2018-01-30

    Adrenal insufficiency is managed by hormone replacement therapy, which is far from optimal; the ability to generate functional steroidogenic cells would offer a unique opportunity for a curative approach to restoring the complex feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Here, we generated human induced steroidogenic cells (hiSCs) from fibroblasts, blood-, and urine-derived cells through forced expression of steroidogenic factor-1 and activation of the PKA and LHRH pathways. hiSCs had ultrastructural features resembling steroid-secreting cells, expressed steroidogenic enzymes, and secreted steroid hormones in response to stimuli. hiSCs were viable when transplanted into the mouse kidney capsule and intra-adrenal. Importantly, the hypocortisolism of hiSCs derived from patients with adrenal insufficiency due to congenital adrenal hyperplasia was rescued by expressing the wild-type version of the defective disease-causing enzymes. Our study provides an effective tool with many potential applications for studying adrenal pathobiology in a personalized manner and opens venues for the development of precision therapies. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pannexin 1 channels: new actors in the regulation of catecholamine release from adrenal chromaffin cells

    Fanny eMomboisse

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland medulla synthesize and store hormones and peptides, which are released into the blood circulation in response to stress. Among them, adrenaline is critical for the fight-or-flight response. This neurosecretory process is highly regulated and depends on cytosolic [Ca2+]. By forming channels at the plasma membrane, pannexin-1 (Panx1 is a protein involved in many physiological and pathological processes amplifying ATP release and/or Ca2+ signals. Here, we show that Panx1 is expressed in the adrenal gland where it plays a role by regulating the release of catecholamines. In fact, inhibitors of Panx1 channels, such as carbenoxolone (Cbx and probenecid, reduced the secretory activity induced with the nicotinic agonist 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl-piperazinium (DMPP, 50 µM in whole adrenal glands. A similar inhibitory effect was observed in single chromaffin cells using Cbx or 10Panx1 peptide, another Panx1 channel inhibitors. Given that the secretory response depends on cytosolic [Ca2+] and Panx1 channels are permeable to Ca2+, we studied the possible implication of Panx1 channels in the Ca2+ signaling occurring during the secretory process. In support of this possibility, Panx1 channel inhibitors significantly reduced the Ca2+ signals evoked by DMPP in single chromaffin cells. However, the Ca2+ signals induced by caffeine in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ was not affected by Panx1 channel inhibitors, suggesting that this mechanism does not involve Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Conversely, Panx1 inhibitors significantly blocked the DMPP-induce dye uptake, supporting the idea that Panx1 forms functional channels at the plasma membrane. These findings indicate that Panx1 channels participate in the control the Ca2+ signal that triggers the secretory response of adrenal chromaffin cells. This mechanism could have physiological implications during the response to stress.

  19. [A Case of an Abdominal Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor with Metastasis in the Medulla Oblongata].

    Azami, Ayaka; Takano, Yoshinao; Honda, Michitaka; Todate, Yukitoshi; Tada, Takeshi; Waragai, Mitsuru; Fukushima, Daizo; Suzuki, Nobuyasu; Sato, Atai; Abe, Tsuyoshi; Teranishi, Yasushi; Sakuma, Hideo

    2016-11-01

    A desmoplastic small round cell tumor(DSRCT)is a very rare malignant tumor that mainly occurs in the intra-abdominal cavity in young adults.This neoplasm has an extremely poor prognosis, with a clinical course characterized by rapid progression and metastasis.We present a 31-year-old man who presented with chief complaints of dysphagia, ataxic gait, and hoarseness.He first underwent surgical resection of a tumor in the medulla oblongata; however, the lesion was suspected to be a metastatic neoplasm.Following a thorough medical examination, the patient was diagnosed with retroperitoneal DSRCT with multiple metastatic lesions.He received multidisciplinary treatment including debulking surgery for the primary lesion; radiotherapy for metastatic lesions in the brain, abdomen, and cervical lymph nodes; hepatic artery embolization for liver metastasis; and systemic chemotherapy.The patient died of progressive disease 17 months after the initial diagnosis.

  20. Cell proliferation, movement and differentiation during maintenance of the adult mouse adrenal cortex.

    Su-Ping Chang

    Full Text Available Appropriate maintenance and regeneration of adult endocrine organs is important in both normal physiology and disease. We investigated cell proliferation, movement and differentiation in the adult mouse adrenal cortex, using different 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU labelling regimens and immunostaining for phenotypic steroidogenic cell markers. Pulse-labelling showed that cell division was largely confined to the outer cortex, with most cells moving inwards towards the medulla at around 13-20 µm per day, though a distinct labelled cell population remained in the outer 10% of the cortex. Pulse-chase-labelling coupled with phenotypic immunostaining showed that, unlike cells in the inner cortex, most BrdU-positive outer cortical cells did not express steroidogenic markers, while co-staining for BrdU and Ki67 revealed that some outer cortical BrdU-positive cells were induced to proliferate following acute adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH treatment. Extended pulse-chase-labelling identified cells in the outer cortex which retained BrdU label for up to 18-23 weeks. Together, these observations are consistent with the location of both slow-cycling stem/progenitor and transiently amplifying cell populations in the outer cortex. Understanding the relationships between these distinct adrenocortical cell populations will be crucial to clarify mechanisms underpinning adrenocortical maintenance and long-term adaptation to pathophysiological states.

  1. [Adrenal tumours in childhood].

    Martos-Moreno, G A; Pozo-Román, J; Argente, J

    2013-09-01

    This special article aims to summarise the current knowledge regarding the two groups of tumours with their origin in the adrenal gland: 1) adrenocortical tumours, derived from the cortex of the adrenal gland and 2) phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas, neuroendocrine tumours derived from nodes of neural crest derived cells symmetrically distributed at both sides of the entire spine (paragangliomas [PG]). These PGs can be functioning tumors that secrete catecholamines, which confers their typical dark colour after staining with chromium salts (chromaffin tumors). Among these, the term phaeochromocytoma (PC) is restricted to those PGs derived from the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla (intra-adrenal PGs), whereas the term PG is used for those sympathetic or parasympathetic ones in an extra-adrenal location. We analyse the state of the art of their pathogenic and genetic bases, as well as their clinical signs and symptoms, the tests currently available for performing their diagnosis (biochemical, hormonal, imaging and molecular studies) and management (surgery, pre- and post-surgical medical treatment), considering the current and developing strategies in chemo- and radiotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Membrane toxicity of abnormal prion protein in adrenal chromaffin cells of scrapie infected sheep.

    Gillian McGovern

    Full Text Available Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases are associated with accumulations of disease specific PrP (PrP(d in the central nervous system (CNS and often the lymphoreticular system (LRS. Accumulations have additionally been recorded in other tissues including the peripheral nervous system and adrenal gland. Here we investigate the effect of sheep scrapie on the morphology and the accumulation of PrP(d in the adrenal medulla of scrapie affected sheep using light and electron microscopy. Using immunogold electron microscopy, non-fibrillar forms of PrP(d were shown to accumulate mainly in association with chromaffin cells, occasional nerve endings and macrophages. PrP(d accumulation was associated with distinctive membrane changes of chromaffin cells including increased electron density, abnormal linearity and invaginations. Internalisation of PrP(d from the chromaffin cell plasma membrane occurred in association with granule recycling following hormone exocytosis. PrP(d accumulation and internalisation from membranes is similarly associated with perturbations of membrane structure and trafficking in CNS neurons and tingible body macrophages of the LRS. These data suggest that a major toxic effect of PrP(d is at the level of plasma membranes. However, the precise nature of PrP(d-membrane toxicity is tissue and cell specific suggesting that the normal protein may act as a multi-functional scaffolding molecule. We further suggest that the co-localisation of PrP(d with exocytic granules of the hormone trafficking system may provide an additional source of infectivity in blood.

  3. Glutamate requires NMDA receptors to modulate alpha2 adrenoceptor in medulla oblongata cultured cells of newborn rats.

    Marinho da Silva, Sergio; Carrettiero, Daniel C; Chadi, Débora R F

    2014-04-03

    α2 Adrenoceptors (α2-ARs) are important in regulating the central control of blood pressure in medulla oblongata. However, it is unclear how this receptor is modulated by different receptors, especially the glutamatergic. In the present study, we studied the influence of ionotropic glutamatergic receptors over the α2-ARs in cultured cells of the medulla oblongata of newborn rats. For this purpose, the protein level of the α2-ARs was assessed after administration to the cultured cells of glutamate (glu), the agonists NMDA and kainate (KA), the NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 and the KA receptor antagonist DNQX. Results indicate that the α2-AR protein levels were increased after the treatments with glu and NMDA, and the addition of MK801 to this treatment thwarted this increase. Notwithstanding the fact that KA did not alter the receptor protein level, the combined treatment of DNQX with glu prevented the α2-AR protein modulation. In conclusion, the present study suggests that ionotropic glutamatergic receptors could be related to the α2-AR protein regulation in the medulla oblongata. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. IN VITRO EXAMINATION OF ONTOGENESIS OF DEVELOPING NEURONAL CELLS IN VAGAL NUCLEI IN MEDULLA OBLONGATA IN NEWBORNS

    Islami, Hilmi; Shabani, Ragip; Bexheti, Sadi; Behluli, Ibrahim; Šukalo, Aziz; Raka, Denis; Koliqi, Rozafa; Haliti, Naim; Dauti, Hilmi; Krasniqi, Shaip; Disha, Mentor

    2008-01-01

    The development of neuron cells in vagal nerve nuclei in medulla oblongata was studied in vitro in live newborns and stillborns from different cases. Morphological changes were studied in respiratory nuclei of dorsal motor centre (DMNV) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) in medulla oblongata. The material from medulla oblongata was fixated in 10μ buffered formalin solution. Fixated material was cut in series of 10μ thickness, with starting point from obex in ± 4 mm thickness. Special histochemical and histoenzymatic methods for central nervous system were used: cresyl echt violet coloring, tolyidin blue, Sevier-Munger modification and Grimelius coloring. In immature newborns (abortions and immature) in dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV) population stages S1, S2, S3 are dominant. In neuron population in vagal sensory nuclei (NTS) stages S1, S2 are dominant. In more advanced stages of development of newborns (premature), in DMNV stages S3 and S4 are seen and in NTS stages S2 and S3 are dominant. In mature phase of newborns (maturity) in vagal nucleus DMNV stages S5 and S6 are dominant, while in sensory nucleus NTS stages S4 and S5 are dominant. These data suggest that neuron population in dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV) are more advanced in neuronal maturity in comparison with sensory neuron population of vagal sensory nucleus NTS. This occurrence shows that phylogenetic development of motor complex is more advanced than the sensory one, which is expected to take new information’s from the extra uterine life after birth (extra uterine vagal phenotype) PMID:19125713

  5. Influence of internal exposure on the morphofunctional characteristics of hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal gland

    Derev'yanko, L.P.; Nosov, A.T.

    2004-01-01

    The phase changes in morphofunctional states of hypothalamus, pituitary, cortex and medulla of adrenal gland of rats, which for a long time (9 month) were fed a 137 Cs diary, were determined. At early stages of experiment (7 - 30 days) the enhancing of morphofunctional and secretory activity of cells of hypothalamus, pituitary, cortex and medulla of adrenal gland cells, were observed (total absorbed doses of 0,3 sGy). After 9 months (total absorbed doses of 3,0 sGy) in cells of hypothalamus, pituitary, cortex and medulla of adrenal gland the progressions of dystrophic-destructive changes of intracellular structures with the sings of decreasing of morphofunctional and secretory activities were determined. It is necessary to underline, that the sings of intracellular reparative regeneration, were observed in a small part of cells against the background of presence of dystrophic-destructive changes. In spite of the processes of intracellular reparative regeneration which were observed 9 months later after exposure, the completely renewing of morphofunctional and secretory activities in cells of hypothalamus, pituitary, cortex and medulla of adrenal gland cells were absent

  6. Cell-to-cell communication in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia causing hypercortisolism

    Herve eLefebvre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been well established that, in the human adrenal gland, cortisol secretion is not only controlled by circulating corticotropin but is also influenced by a wide variety of bioactive signals, including conventional neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, released within the cortex by various cell types such as chromaffin cells, neurons, cells of the immune system, adipocytes and endothelial cells. These different types of cells are present in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, a rare etiology of primary adrenal Cushing’s syndrome, where they appear intermingled with adrenocortical cells in the hyperplastic cortex. In addition, the genetic events which cause the disease favor abnormal adrenal differenciation that results in illicit expression of paracrine regulatory factors and their receptors in adrenocortical cells. All these defects constitute the molecular basis for aberrant autocrine/paracrine regulatory mechanisms which are likely to play a role in the pathophysiology of bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia-associated hypercortisolism. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on this topic as well as the therapeutic perspectives offered by this new pathophysiological concept.

  7. Principles and management of adrenal cancer

    Javadpour, N.

    1987-01-01

    Principles and Management of Adrenal Cancer is a comprehensive presentation of the medical and surgical management of neoplastic diseases of the adrenal glands. It consists of two parts. The first provides an overview of the embryology, anatomy, physiology, pathology, and advances in methods of diagnosis and imaging techniques. The second deals with specific diseases of the adrenal cortex and medulla. (orig./MG)

  8. Leydig Cell Tumor Associated with Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumors in a Patient with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 11β-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Charfi, Nadia; Kamoun, Mahdi; Feki Mnif, Mouna; Mseddi, Neila; Mnif, Fatma; Kallel, Nozha; Ben Naceur, Basma; Rekik, Nabila; Fourati, Hela; Daoud, Emna; Mnif, Zainab; Hadj Sliman, Mourad; Sellami-Boudawara, Tahia; Abid, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) describes a group of inherited autosomal recessive disorders characterized by enzyme defects in the steroidogenic pathways that lead to the biosynthesis of cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens. Chronic excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation may result in hyperplasia of ACTH-sensitive tissues in adrenal glands and other sites such as the testes, causing testicular masses known as testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs). Leydig cell tumors (...

  9. Effect of α-bungarotoxin and etorphine on acetylcholine-evoked release of endogenous and radiolabeled catecholamines from primary culture of adrenal chromaffin cells

    Kageyama, H.; Guidotti, A.

    1984-01-01

    Cell cultures of adrenal medulla have become an important research tool to study basic processes that regulate catecholamine storage, release and synthesis. Release has been studied either by labeling with [ 3 H]norepinephrine and measuring release of radioactivity or by measuring the endogenous catecholamines released with HPLC. Acetylcholine (5X10 -6 -10 -4 M) appears to release preferentially norepinephrine, although the cells store more epinephrine than norepinephrine. Etorphine and α-bungarotoxin antagonize the release of catecholamines elicited by acetylcholine. This inhibitory action appears to be greater when the measurement of endogenous catecholamines rather than radioactive norepinephrine is used to monitor the action of acetylcholine. The data suggest that the measurement of endogenous catecholamines by HPLC is preferable to the [ 3 H]NE loading and release technique, especially when analyzing the effects of low concentrations of drugs that are thought to affect nicotinic receptor function. (Auth.)

  10. Angiotensin effects on calcium and steroidogenesis in adrenal glomerulosa cells

    Elliott, M.E.; Siegel, F.L.; Hadjokas, N.E.; Goodfriend, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    We investigated the role of cellular calcium pools in angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone synthesis in bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells. Angiotensin II decreased the size of the exchangeable cell calcium pool by 34%, consistent with previous observations that angiotensin II causes decreased uptake of 45 Ca+2 into cells and increased efflux of 45 Ca+2 from preloaded cells. Atomic absorption spectroscopy showed that angiotension II caused a decrease of 21% in total cellular calcium. Angiotensin II caused efflux of 45 Ca+2 in the presence of EGTA and retarded uptake of 45 Ca+2 when choline was substituted for sodium, suggesting that hormone effects on calcium pools do not involve influx of trigger calcium or sodium. Cells incubated in calcium-free buffer and 0.1 mM or 0.5 mM EGTA synthesized reduced (but still significant) amounts of the steroid in response to hormone. Cells incubated in increasing concentrations of extracellular calcium contained increasing amounts of intracellular calcium and synthesized increasing amounts of aldosterone in response to angiotensin II. These results point to the participation of intracellular calcium pools in angiotensin II-stimulated steroidogenesis and the importance of extracellular calcium in maintaining these pools

  11. Pituitary and adrenal involvement in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, with recovery of their function after chemotherapy

    Nakashima, Yasuhiro; Shiratsuchi, Motoaki; Abe, Ichiro; Matsuda, Yayoi; Miyata, Noriyuki; Ohno, Hirofumi; Ikeda, Motohiko; Matsushima, Takamitsu; Nomura, Masatoshi; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2013-01-01

    Background Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma sometimes involves the endocrine organs, but involvement of both the pituitary and adrenal glands is extremely rare. Involvement of these structures can lead to hypopituitarism and adrenal insufficiency, and subsequent recovery of their function is rarely seen. The present report describes an extremely rare case of pituitary and adrenal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting with hypopituitarism and adrenal insufficiency with subsequent recovery of p...

  12. Hindbrain medulla catecholamine cell group involvement in lactate-sensitive hypoglycemia-associated patterns of hypothalamic norepinephrine and epinephrine activity.

    Shrestha, P K; Tamrakar, P; Ibrahim, B A; Briski, K P

    2014-10-10

    Cell-type compartmentation of glucose metabolism in the brain involves trafficking of the oxidizable glycolytic end product, l-lactate, by astrocytes to fuel neuronal mitochondrial aerobic respiration. Lactate availability within the hindbrain medulla is a monitored function that regulates systemic glucostasis as insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) is exacerbated by lactate repletion of that brain region. A2 noradrenergic neurons are a plausible source of lactoprivic input to the neural gluco-regulatory circuit as caudal fourth ventricular (CV4) lactate infusion normalizes IIH-associated activation, e.g. phosphorylation of the high-sensitivity energy sensor, adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), in these cells. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that A2 neurons are unique among medullary catecholamine cells in directly screening lactate-derived energy. Adult male rats were injected with insulin or vehicle following initiation of continuous l-lactate infusion into the CV4. Two hours after injections, A1, C1, A2, and C2 neurons were collected by laser-microdissection for Western blot analysis of AMPKα1/2 and phosphoAMPKα1/2 proteins. Results show that AMPK is expressed in each cell group, but only a subset, e.g. A1, C1, and A2 neurons, exhibit increased sensor activity in response to IIH. Moreover, hindbrain lactate repletion reversed hypoglycemic augmentation of pAMPKα1/2 content in A2 and C1 but not A1 cells, and normalized hypothalamic norepinephrine and epinephrine content in a site-specific manner. The present evidence for discriminative reactivity of AMPK-expressing medullary catecholamine neurons to the screened energy substrate lactate implies that that lactoprivation is selectively signaled to the hypothalamus by A2 noradrenergic and C1 adrenergic cells. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Schwannoma of the adrenal gland

    Anunayi Jeshtadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Visceral schwannomas are extremely rare and are usually discov-ered incidentally on USG/CT-Scan. Primary schwannomas of the adrenal gland are extremely uncommon. It has been theorized that they originate from Schwann cells that insulate the nerve fi-bers innervating the adrenal medulla. Histopathological examina-tion coupled with immunohistochemistry provides the definitive diagnosis. A 55 year old normotensive female presented with pain in the right loin since 5 months. Her renal parameters were normal. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of abdomen showed a well delineated 6.5 x 5cms mass at upper pole of her right kidney. 24-hour urinary metanephrine was slightly elevated (3.07mg/24hrs. A decline in Serum cortisol levels was observed following a dexamethasone suppression test (18.89nmol/l. Histopathological examination revealed a spindle cell tumor. Immunohistochemistry showed strong and diffuse positive staining for S-100 with negative expression for CD-117, desmin, CD-34, HMB-45, synaptophysin, chromogranin, cytokeratin, and SMA. Ki-67 index was 2%.A diagnosis of cellular schwannoma of adrenal gland was confirmed.

  14. Protein kinase A mediates adenosine A2a receptor modulation of neurotransmitter release via synapsin I phosphorylation in cultured cells from medulla oblongata.

    Matsumoto, Joao Paulo Pontes; Almeida, Marina Gomes; Castilho-Martins, Emerson Augusto; Costa, Maisa Aparecida; Fior-Chadi, Debora Rejane

    2014-08-01

    Synaptic transmission is an essential process for neuron physiology. Such process is enabled in part due to modulation of neurotransmitter release. Adenosine is a synaptic modulator of neurotransmitter release in the Central Nervous System, including neurons of medulla oblongata, where several nuclei are involved with neurovegetative reflexes. Adenosine modulates different neurotransmitter systems in medulla oblongata, specially glutamate and noradrenaline in the nucleus tractussolitarii, which are involved in hypotensive responses. However, the intracellular mechanisms involved in this modulation remain unknown. The adenosine A2a receptor modulates neurotransmitter release by activating two cAMP protein effectors, the protein kinase A and the exchange protein activated by cAMP. Therefore, an in vitro approach (cultured cells) was carried out to evaluate modulation of neurotransmission by adenosine A2a receptor and the signaling intracellular pathway involved. Results show that the adenosine A2a receptor agonist, CGS 21680, increases neurotransmitter release, in particular, glutamate and noradrenaline and such response is mediated by protein kinase A activation, which in turn increased synapsin I phosphorylation. This suggests a mechanism of A2aR modulation of neurotransmitter release in cultured cells from medulla oblongata of Wistar rats and suggest that protein kinase A mediates this modulation of neurotransmitter release via synapsin I phosphorylation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Primary medulla oblongata teratomas.

    Li, Da; Hao, Shu-Yu; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Li-Wei; Zhang, Jun-Ting

    2014-09-01

    Medulla oblongata teratomas are rare. The authors report 2 new cases of teratomas that occurred exclusively in the medulla oblongata. The first case was in a 9-year-old boy who presented with a 6-month history of neck pain and repeated paroxysmal vomiting. Based on preoperative radiographic findings, the initial diagnosis was of an intraaxial medulla oblongata hemangioblastoma. Intraoperatively, the cystic component of the tumor was gray, gelatinous, and soft in consistency. The solid component was light pink, rubbery, and nodular in appearance, with an identifiable boundary. The lesion was completely removed. Histopathological investigation revealed a mature teratoma. Postoperatively, the patient was supported with ventilator assistance and received a tracheotomy, but died of intracranial infection. The second case was in a 10-year-old boy with intermittent headache for 1 month. Radiographs revealed an exophytic cystic and solid lesion with dorsal involvement of the medulla oblongata. The lesion was predominantly solid, pinkish gray, tenacious, and moderately vascularized, with clearly delineated surgical dissection planes. The histopathological examination confirmed a diagnosis of immature teratoma. Total resection was achieved, followed by postoperative chemotherapy. He was alive without recurrence of the lesion or symptoms at 59 months after surgery. Resection of medulla oblongata teratoma is challenging, with inherent surgical risks that are contingent on the tumor growth pattern. Teratomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of brainstem lesions. Chemotherapy has been suggested for immature teratomas. Long-term follow-up and larger studies of teratomas in unusual locations are required to improve practitioners' understanding of this disease's treatment and outcomes.

  16. Dopamine receptors on adrenal chromaffin cells modulate calcium uptake and catecholamine release

    Bigornia, L; Suozzo, M; Ryan, K A; Napp, D; Schneider, A S

    1988-10-01

    The presence of dopamine-containing cells in sympathetic ganglia, i.e., small, intensely fluorescent cells, has been known for some time. However, the role of dopamine as a peripheral neurotransmitter and its mechanism of action are not well understood. Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of D2 dopamine receptors on the surface of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells using radioligand binding methods and dopamine receptor inhibition of catecholamine release from perfused adrenal glands. In the present study, we provide evidence confirming a role of dopamine receptors as inhibitory modulators of adrenal catecholamine release from bovine chromaffin cell cultures and further show that the mechanism of modulation involves inhibition of stimulated calcium uptake. Apomorphine gave a dose-dependent inhibition (IC50 = 1 microM) of 45Ca2+ uptake stimulated by either nicotine (10 microM) or membrane depolarization with an elevated K+ level (60 mM). This inhibition was reversed by a series of specific (including stereospecific) dopamine receptor antagonists: haloperidol, spiperone, sulpiride, and (+)-butaclamol, but not (-)-butaclamol. In addition, the calcium channel agonist Bay K 8644 was used to stimulate uptake of 45Ca2+ into chromaffin cells, and this uptake was also inhibited by the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine. The combined results suggest that dopamine receptors on adrenal chromaffin cells alter Ca2+ channel conductance, which, in turn, modulates catecholamine release.

  17. Leydig Cell Tumor Associated with Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumors in a Patient with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 11β-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Nadia Charfi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH describes a group of inherited autosomal recessive disorders characterized by enzyme defects in the steroidogenic pathways that lead to the biosynthesis of cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens. Chronic excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH stimulation may result in hyperplasia of ACTH-sensitive tissues in adrenal glands and other sites such as the testes, causing testicular masses known as testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs. Leydig cell tumors (LCTs are make up a very small number of all testicular tumors and can be difficult to distinguish from TARTs. This distinction is interesting because LCTs and TARTs require different therapeutic approaches. Hereby, we present an unusual case of a 19-year-old patient with CAH due to 11β-hydroxylase deficiency, who presented with TARTs and an epididymal Leydig cell tumor.

  18. Astrocitary niches in human adult medulla oblongata.

    Rusu, Mugurel Constantin; Dermengiu, Dan; Loreto, Carla; Motoc, Andrei Gheorghe Marius; Pop, Elena

    2013-04-01

    Astrocytes are considered as neuromodulators of the CNS. Whereas experimental studies on astrocitary functions are gaining importance, the anatomy of the astrocitary niches in the human CNS has been overlooked. The study was performed on the brainstem of 10 adult cadavers. We aimed to determine astrocitary niches in the human medulla oblongata using immunohistochemical labeling with vimentin and also CD34 immunostaining to accurately diagnose associated microvessels. Niches rich in astrocytes were identified as follows: (a) the superficial layer of astrocytes, ventral and ventrolateral, in the rostral medulla oblongata; (b) the median raphe; (c) medullary nuclei: arcuate nucleus, area postrema, nucleus of the solitary tract; (d) the subependymal zone (SEZ, caudal medulla) and subventricular zone (SVZ, rostral medulla). Astrocytes were scarce in the ventrolateral medulla, and mostly present within the pyramidal tract and the olivary nucleus. Apart from the SEZ and SVZ, the brainstem niches of astrocytes mostly overlap those regions known to perform roles as central respiratory chemoreceptors. The astrocytes of the SEZ and SVZ, which are known as stem cell niches, are related to an increased microvascular density. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of calcium in effects of atrial natriuretic peptide on aldosterone production in adrenal glomerulosa cells

    Chartier, L.; Schiffrin, E.L.

    1987-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) inhibits the stimulation of aldosterone secretion by isolated adrenal glomerulosa cells produced by angiotensin II (ANG II), ACTH, and potassium. The effect of ANP on the dose-response curve of aldosterone stimulated by ANG II, ACTH, and potassium on isolated rat adrenal glomerulosa cells was studied. In the presence of ANP the maximal response of aldosterone output stimulated by ANG II or potassium decreased and the half-maximum (EC 50 ) of the response to ACTH was displaced to the right. Because these effects resemble those of calcium-channel blockers, the authors investigated the effect of different concentrations of nifedipine, a dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker, on the dose-response curve of aldosterone stimulated by ANG II, ACTH, and potassium. Nifedipine produced effects similar to ANP. The maximal response of aldosterone stimulated by ANG II and potassium was decreased and the dose-response curve to ACTH was displaced to the right. ANP decreased the maximal response of aldosterone to the dihydropyridine derivative BAY K8644, a calcium-channel activator, without change in its EC 50 . In contrast, nifedipine displaced the dose-response curve to BAY K8644 to the right as expected of a competitive inhibitor. The effect of ANP and nifedipine on basal and stimulated 45 Ca influx into isolated rat adrenal glomerulosa cells was studied. ANP may act on the rat adrenal glomerulosa cells at least in part by interference with calcium entry

  20. Persistent expression of BMP-4 in embryonic chick adrenal cortical cells and its role in chromaffin cell development

    Halbach Oliver

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adrenal chromaffin cells and sympathetic neurons both originate from the neural crest, yet signals that trigger chromaffin development remain elusive. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs emanating from the dorsal aorta are important signals for the induction of a sympathoadrenal catecholaminergic cell fate. Results We report here that BMP-4 is also expressed by adrenal cortical cells throughout chick embryonic development, suggesting a putative role in chromaffin cell development. Moreover, bone morphogenetic protein receptor IA is expressed by both cortical and chromaffin cells. Inhibiting BMP-4 with noggin prevents the increase in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells in adrenal explants without affecting cell proliferation. Hence, adrenal BMP-4 is likely to induce tyrosine hydroxylase in sympathoadrenal progenitors. To investigate whether persistent BMP-4 exposure is able to induce chromaffin traits in sympathetic ganglia, we locally grafted BMP-4 overexpressing cells next to sympathetic ganglia. Embryonic day 8 chick sympathetic ganglia, in addition to principal neurons, contain about 25% chromaffin-like cells. Ectopic BMP-4 did not increase this proportion, yet numbers and sizes of 'chromaffin' granules were significantly increased. Conclusion BMP-4 may serve to promote specific chromaffin traits, but is not sufficient to convert sympathetic neurons into a chromaffin phenotype.

  1. Biosynthesis of Various Steroids in vitro by Isolated Adrenal Cells in Primary Aldosteronism, Cushing's Syndrome, and Adrenogenital Syndrome due to Adrenocortical Adenoma

    MIZUNO, SHIGERU; FUNAHASHI, HIROOMI

    1981-01-01

    To a further understanding of the role of steroid hormones in adrenal disorders, we have prepared free cell system of adrenal cells, using adrenal tissues that had been removed by operation from (i) cases of Cushing's syndrome due to adrenocortical adenoma or adrenocortical hyperplasia, (ii) a case of primary aldosteronism, and (iii) a patient with virilizing adrenal tumor. Twelve important steroid hormones were measured, such as pregnenolone, cortisol and aldosterone, which were produced by ...

  2. Synthesis of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETE's) by adrenal glomerulosa cells and incorporation into cellular lipids

    Campbell, W.B.; Richards, C.F.; Brady, M.T.; Falck, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The role of lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) in the regulation of aldosterone secretion was studied in isolated rat adrenal glomerulosa cells. Cells were incubated with 14 C-AA in the presence of angiotensin (AII). The media was extracted, metabolites isolated by HPLC, and structures of the metabolites determined by UV absorbance and mass spectrometry. The major products were 12- and 15-HETE with lesser amounts of 11- and 5-HETE. When adrenal cells were incubated with 15-, 12- or 5-HPETE or their respective HETE's (0.03-300nM), there was no significant change in basal or AII-stimulated aldosterone release. Cells were incubated with [ 3 H]-AA, -5-HETE, -15-HETE, -12-HETE or -LTB. The cellular lipids were extracted and analyzed by TLC. AA was incorporated into phospholipids (22%), cholesterol esters (50%) and triglycerides (21%). Neither the HETE's or LTB 4 were incorporated into phospholipids. 5-HETE was taken up into di- and mono-glycerides. The rates of incorporation of AA and 5-HETE were similar (+ 1/2 = 10 min). The incorporation of 5-HETE into glycerol esters did not modify the release of aldosterone by the cells. Thus, while adrenal cells synthesize HETE's, these eicosanoids do not appear to alter the synthesis of aldosterone

  3. Immunohistochemical Localization of AT1a, AT1b, and AT2 Angiotensin II Receptor Subtypes in the Rat Adrenal, Pituitary, and Brain with a Perspective Commentary

    Courtney Premer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II increases blood pressure and stimulates thirst and sodium appetite in the brain. It also stimulates secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal zona glomerulosa and epinephrine from the adrenal medulla. The rat has 3 subtypes of angiotensin II receptors: AT1a, AT1b, and AT2. mRNAs for all three subtypes occur in the adrenal and brain. To immunohistochemically differentiate these receptor subtypes, rabbits were immunized with C-terminal fragments of these subtypes to generate receptor subtype-specific antibodies. Immunofluorescence revealed AT1a and AT2 receptors in adrenal zona glomerulosa and medulla. AT1b immunofluorescence was present in the zona glomerulosa, but not the medulla. Ultrastructural immunogold labeling for the AT1a receptor in glomerulosa and medullary cells localized it to plasma membrane, endocytic vesicles, multivesicular bodies, and the nucleus. AT1b and AT2, but not AT1a, immunofluorescence was observed in the anterior pituitary. Stellate cells were AT1b positive while ovoid cells were AT2 positive. In the brain, neurons were AT1a, AT1b, and AT2 positive, but glia was only AT1b positive. Highest levels of AT1a, AT1b, and AT2 receptor immunofluorescence were in the subfornical organ, median eminence, area postrema, paraventricular nucleus, and solitary tract nucleus. These studies complement those employing different techniques to characterize Ang II receptors.

  4. Biogenesis of corticosteroids in monolayer cultures of human foetal adrenal cells

    Goodyer, C.G.; Torday, J.S.; St George Hall, C.; Smith, B.T.; Giroud, C.J.P.

    1976-01-01

    Human foetal adrenal cells were grown in monolayer culture and their steroidogenic capacity observed for up to a month. The cells produced a complex array of steroids and some of their ester sulphates from endogenous as well as from [ 14 C] and[ 3 H] precursors. ACTH stimulated corticoidogenesis, particularly cortisol secretion, and markedly enhanced the incorporation of progesterone and pregnenolone into cortisol. Following incubation with the same precursors, large amounts of radioactivity remained water soluble. From the butanol extractable material of this fraction, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate was characterized as the main metabolite of pregnenolone and corticosterone and 11-deoxycorticosterone sulphates as the main metabolites of progesterone. With time in culture there was a decrease in steroidogenesis as well as a steady decline in responsiveness to ACTH, mainly manifested by cortisol secretion. The medium from homologous foetal pituitary cultures stimulated cortisol production by the human adrenal cell monolayer. (author)

  5. Effect of angiotensin II, ATP, and ionophore A23187 on potassium efflux in adrenal glomerulosa cells

    Lobo, M.V.; Marusic, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Angiotensin II stimulus on perifused bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells elicited an increase in 86Rb efflux from cells previously equilibrated with the radioisotope. When 45Ca fluxes were measured under similar conditions, it was observed that Ca and Rb effluxes occurred within the first 30 s of the addition of the hormone and were independent of the presence of external Ca. The 86Rb efflux due to angiotensin II was inhibited by quinine and apamin. The hypothesis that the angiotensin II response is a consequence of an increase in the K permeability of the glomerulosa cell membrane triggered by an increase in cytosolic Ca is supported by the finding that the divalent cation ionophore A23187 also initiated 86Rb or K loss (as measured by an external K electrode). This increased K conductance was also seen with 10(-4) M ATP. Quinine and apamin greatly reduced the effect of ATP or A23187 on 86Rb or K release in adrenal glomerulosa cells. The results suggest that Ca-dependent K channels or carriers are present in the membranes of bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells and are sensitive to hormonal stimulus

  6. CT and MR imaging of the kidney and adrenal glands: MR imaging of the kidney and adrenal glands

    Lee, J.K.T.

    1987-01-01

    The normal anatomy of the kidney is clearly demonstrated with MR imaging. The renal cortex can be differentiated from the renal medulla; renal vessels can also be identified. MR imaging can differentiate cystic from solid lesions. The signal intensity of a renal cell carcinoma varies and overlaps with the signal intensities of renal neoplasms of other etiologies. MR imaging is superior to CT in distinguishing vascular from nonvascular structures. It can distinguish collateral vessels from lymph nodes and can disclose tumoral thrombi. MR imaging can also aid in the differentiation of acute rejection from acute tubular necrosis in renal transplant recipients. Both normal and abnormal adrenal glands can be seen on MR imaging. A normal adrenal gland has a signal intensity higher than or equal to that of muscle but lower than that of fat. T1-weighted images offer excellent antomic resolution; T2-weighted images provide additional information about internal characteristics of adrenal neoplasms. Preliminary data indicate that MR imaging is useful in distinguishing nonfunctioning adenomas from adrenal metastases. The role of MR imaging of the kidney and adrenal gland is discussed

  7. Inclusões intracitoplasmáticas hialinas na medular da adrenal de bovinos

    L.P Mesquita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in adrenal medullary chromaffin cells have been described in various species including humans. These inclusions are believed to be related to certain infectious, toxic and neurodegenerative diseases. No reports concerning such adrenal inclusions have been described in bovines. Adrenal glands from twenty bovines were evaluated in a retrospective study. Seven of these exhibited inclusions - three cases of rabies, two cases of chronic suppurative bronchopneumonia, one case of chronic suppurative peritonitis, and one case of gangrenous mastitis. The inclusions were present in higher numbers especially in cases of rabies and also in one case of chronic suppurative bronchopneumonia. The inclusions were intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic, rounded, single or multiple, of various sizes, strongly stained by PAS and were present in higher numbers in the external layer of the adrenal medulla. The inclusions were negative when subjected to immunohistochemistry for detection of viral antigens in the cases of rabies. Although inclusion bodies were present in adrenal glands devoid of other histological alterations, they were more abundant in cases in which the adrenal gland had other alterations. The correlation between certain diseases and the development of inclusion bodies is not known, which highlights the importance of further studies on these inclusions in adrenal glands of bovines.

  8. Early fetal acquisition of the chromaffin and neuronal immunophenotype by human adrenal medullary cells. An immunohistological study using monoclonal antibodies to chromogranin A, synaptophysin, tyrosine hydroxylase, and neuronal cytoskeletal proteins.

    Molenaar, W M; Lee, V M; Trojanowski, J Q

    1990-01-01

    The development of chromaffin and neuronal features in the adrenal medulla was studied in normal human fetuses with gestational ages (GAs) of 6-34 weeks. Monoclonal antibodies specific for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and tyrosine hydroxylase; for different subunits and phosphoisoforms of

  9. Characterization of insulin-like growth factor I and insulin receptors on cultured bovine adrenal fasciculata cells. Role of these peptides on adrenal cell function

    Penhoat, A.; Chatelain, P.G.; Jaillard, C.; Saez, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    We have characterized insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and insulin receptors in cultured bovine adrenal cells by binding and cross-linking affinity experiments. At equilibrium the dissociation constant and the number of binding sites per cell for IGF-I were 1.4 +/- (SE) 0.3 x 10(-9) M and 19,200 +/- 2,100, respectively. Under reduction conditions, disuccinimidyl suberate cross-linked [ 125 I]iodo-IGF-I to one receptor complex with an Mr of 125,000. Adrenal cells also contain specific insulin receptors with an apparent dissociation constant (Kd) of 10(-9) M. Under reduction conditions [ 125 I]iodo-insulin binds to one band with an approximate Mr of 125,000. IGF-I and insulin at micromolar concentrations, but not at nanomolar concentrations, slightly stimulated DNA synthesis, but markedly potentiated the mitogenic action of fibroblast growth factor. Adrenal cells cultured in a serum-free medium containing transferrin, ascorbic acid, and insulin (5 micrograms/ml) maintained fairly constant angiotensin-II (A-II) receptor concentration per cell and increased cAMP release on response to ACTH and their steroidogenic response to both ACTH and A-II. When the cells were cultured in the same medium without insulin, the number of A-II receptors significantly decreased to 65% and the increased responsiveness was blunted. Treatment of such cells for 3 days with increasing concentrations of IGF-I (1-100 ng/ml) produced a 2- to 3-fold increase in A-II receptors and enhanced the cAMP response (3- to 4-fold) to ACTH and the steroidogenic response (4- to 6-fold) to ACTH and A-II. These effects were time and dose dependent (ED50 approximately equal to 10(-9) M). Insulin at micromolar concentrations produced an effect similar to that of IGF-I, but at nanomolar concentrations the effect was far less

  10. Adrenal Fatigue

    ... Search Featured Resource New Mobile App DOWNLOAD Adrenal Fatigue October 2017 Download PDFs English Editors Irina Bancos, MD Additional Resources Mayo Clinic What is adrenal fatigue? The term “adrenal fatigue” has been used to ...

  11. New and superior adrenal scanning agent, NP-59

    Sarkar, S.D.; Beierwaltes, W.H.; Ice, R.D.; Basmadjian, G.P.; Hertzel, K.R.; Kennedy, W.P.; Mason, M.M.

    1975-01-01

    The first synthesis of 131 I-19-iodocholesterol had a 10 to 25 percent radiochemical impurity that was not iodide ion. This impurity has been identified as 6β- 131 I-iodomethyl-19-nor cholest-5(10)-en-3β-ol (NP-59) and has been synthesized. Tissue distribution studies with 131 I-NP-59 in rats and dogs revealed a higher adrenal uptake and adrenal-to-tissue ratios compared to 131 I 19-iodocholesterol, probably less in vivo deiodination, and superior adrenal images. A high uptake was seen in the adrenal medulla in addition to that in the cortex. Iodine-131-NP-59 is being evaluated for the early detection of adrenal--cortical disorders and as a potential scanning agent for detecting structural abnormalities of the adrenal medulla

  12. Primary extragonadal germinoma of the medulla oblongata.

    Nakatsuka, Shin-ichi; Tateishi, Akihiro; Nagano, Teruaki; Kimura, Hayato; Nakajo, Kazuya; Takahashi, Jun; Taki, Takuyu

    2012-06-01

    Extragonadal germ cell tumors rarely arise from the brain stem. In this report, the authors present a rare case of germinoma developing in the medulla oblongata. A 31-year-old woman complained of intractable hiccups, hoarseness, and swallowing disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumor located on the dorsal part of the medulla oblongata without any abnormalities in the pineal body and suprasellar regions. Histological diagnosis of surgically resected tumor was germinoma. Tumor cells were positive for alkaline phosphatase, c-kit, octamer-binding transcription factor 3/4, cytokeratin, and epithelial membrane antigen in immunohistochemistry. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and irradiation to the residual tumor and cerebral ventricles. The patient is alive without recurrence 6 months after the surgery.

  13. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for primary renal cell carcinoma and adrenal metastases.

    Kothari, Gargi; Louie, Alexander V; Pryor, David; Vela, Ian; Lo, Simon S; Teh, Bin S; Siva, Shankar

    2017-09-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and metastatic adrenal lesions continues to rise and present evolving complexities in terms of management. Technical challenges in treatment delivery are compounded by the setting of an ageing patient population with multiple medical co-morbidities. While the standard of care treatment for both primary RCC and oligometastatic adrenal lesions has typically been surgery, a number of patients may be medically or surgically inoperable, and for whom alternative options require consideration. Additionally, in metastatic disease, surgery presents an invasive option, sometimes with unacceptable risks of perioperative morbidity and therefore is considered a less desirable option to some. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is an established radiotherapy technique that is rapidly being incorporated into many radiotherapy departments, particu-larly with the increasing availability and capabilities of modern linear accelerators to deliver precise image guided treatment. There are considerable advantages of SBRT including its ability to provide a non-invasive ablative treatment with very few treatment sessions, with emerging evidence showing promising rates of local control (LC) and low associated mor-bidity. This review details the use of SBRT for primary RCC as well as adrenal metastases, focusing on issues including patient selection, technical considerations, and patient out-comes. Furthermore, this review explores some recent insights into the radiobiology of RCC, the immunomodulatory effects of SBRT, and the use of systemic agents with SBRT.

  14. Adrenal adenomas: relationship between histologic lipid-rich cells and CT attenuation number

    Yamada, Takayuki; Ishibashi, Tadashi; Saito, Haruo; Matsuhashi, Toshio; Majima, Kazuhiro; Tsuda, Masashi; Takahashi, Shoki; Moriya, Takuya

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between lipid-rich cells of the adrenal adenoma and precontrast computed tomographic (CT) attenuation numbers in three clinical groups. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five surgically resected adrenal adenomas were used. The clinical diagnoses of the patients included 13 cases of primary aldosteronism, 15 cases of Cushing's syndrome, and 7 non-functioning tumors. The number of lipid-rich clear cells was counted using a microscopic eyepiece grid that contained 100 squares. The results were expressed as the percentages of lipid-rich areas. Results: There was a strong inverse linear relationship between the percentage of lipid-rich cells and the precontrast CT attenuation number (R 2 =0.724, P<0.0001). There were significantly more lipid-rich cells in the primary aldosteronism and non-functioning tumor cases compared to cases of Cushing's syndrome (P=0.007 and 0.015, respectively). The CT attenuation numbers of the primary aldosteronism cases were significantly lower than those of Cushing's syndrome (P=0.0052). Furthermore, the CT attenuation numbers of the non-functioning tumor cases were lower than those of Cushing's syndrome cases. Conclusion: We showed that adrenal adenomas in primary aldosteronism and non-functioning tumors contain significantly more lipid-rich cells than those in Cushing's syndrome. They also showed significantly lower attenuation than that in Cushing's syndrome on CT scans. Our results suggest that precontrast CT attenuation numbers may be helpful in the differentiation of adenomas from non-adenomatous lesions, which include malignancies

  15. Radioautographic study of the proliferative activity and cell migration in the fetal and neonatal rat adrenal cortex

    Bertholet, J.-Y.; Idelman, Simon

    1978-01-01

    On the 20th day of fetal life the cell proliferation is higher in the zona glomerulosa. The fate of marked cells in each cell compartment shows centripetal migration. Their displacement, from the 20th day of pregnancy up to five days post-partum, while at that time the adrenal growth is slowered down, suggests a real migration [fr

  16. Muscarinic receptor-mediated inositol tetrakisphosphate response in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    Sanborn, B.B.; Schneider, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    Inositol trisphosphate (IP 3 ), a product of the phosphoinositide cycle, mobilizes intracellular Ca 2+ in many cell types. New evidence suggests that inositol tetrakisphosphate (IP 4 ), an IP 3 derivative, may act as another second messenger to further alter calcium homeostasis. However, the function and mechanism of action of IP 4 are presently unresolved. We now report evidence of muscarinic receptor-mediated accumulation of IP 4 in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, a classic neurosecretory system in which calcium movements have been well studied. Muscarine stimulated an increase in [ 3 H]IP 4 and [ 3 H]IP 3 accumulation in chromaffin cells and this effect was completely blocked by atropine. [ 3 H]IP 4 accumulation was detectable within 15 sec, increased to a maximum by 30 sec and thereafter declined. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, an inhibitor of IP 3 and IP 4 hydrolysis, enhanced accumulation of these inositol polyphosphates. The results provide the first evidence of a rapid inositol tetrakisphosphate response in adrenal chromaffin cells, which should facilitate the future resolution of the relationship between IP 4 and calcium homeostasis

  17. Monkey Adrenal Chromaffin Cells Express α6β4* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Scadden, Mick´l; Carmona-Hidalgo, Beatriz; McIntosh, J. Michael; Albillos, Almudena

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that contain α6 and β4 subunits have been demonstrated functionally in human adrenal chromaffin cells, rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, and on noradrenergic terminals in the hippocampus of adolescent mice. In human adrenal chromaffin cells, α6β4* nAChRs (the asterisk denotes the possible presence of additional subunits) are the predominant subtype whereas in rodents, the predominant nAChR is the α3β4* subtype. Here we present molecular and pharmacological evidence that chromaffin cells from monkey (Macaca mulatta) also express α6β4* receptors. PCR was used to show the presence of transcripts for α6 and β4 subunits and pharmacological characterization was performed using patch-clamp electrophysiology in combination with α-conotoxins that target the α6β4* subtype. Acetylcholine-evoked currents were sensitive to inhibition by BuIA[T5A,P6O] and MII[H9A,L15A]; α-conotoxins that inhibit α6-containing nAChRs. Two additional agonists were used to probe for the expression of α7 and β2-containing nAChRs. Cells with currents evoked by acetylcholine were relatively unresponsive to the α7-selctive agonist choline but responded to the agonist 5-I-A-85380. These studies provide further insights into the properties of natively expressed α6β4* nAChRs. PMID:24727685

  18. Adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland in young woman: from clinical and radiological to pathological study

    Brankica Krstevska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adenomatoid tumors are neoplasms of mesothelial origin, usually occurring in the male and female genital tracts. Extragenital localization sites such as adrenal glands are rare but have been reported. When found in the adrenals, they represent great clinical, radiological and pathological diagnostic challenge, with wide range of differential diagnoses to be considered. We present a case of a 30 years old female, with incidental ultrasound finding of unilateral tumor in the right adrenal gland. Multi slices CT scan was of value in localizing this tumor, but not in the precise diagnosis. The tumor ranged from 5.6 cm to 6.4 cm in greatest diameter. Clinical and hormonal examinations excluded Sy. Cushing, M. Conn and pheochromocytoma. The patient underwent laparoscopic right adrenalectomy. A large tumor (d: 8×7×3 cm was removed showing no infiltration of the adrenal cortex or medulla, or extra-adrenal extension into the periadrenal adipose tissue. Histological examination showed numerous cystic spaces lined by flattened cubical epithelial cells. The small cystic spaces were separated by edematous fibrovascular stroma with rare epithelial cells with vacuolated cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical staining was positive with vimentin (+, S100 (+, MCA mesothelial Ag (+, CD 68 (+ and negative with acitin (-, CK7 (-, CD3 (-. Adenomatoid tumor is a rare benign neoplasm that should be added in the differential diagnosis of any adrenal tumor occurring in adrenal gland. The histological and immunohistochemical profiles of this adrenal adenomatoid tumor are very supportive in reaching the diagnosis of this benign tumor of a mesothelial cell origin, helping to avoid invasive treatment.

  19. Metachronous adrenal metastasis from operated contralateral renal cell carcinoma with adrenalectomy and iatrogenic Addison's disease.

    Ozturk, Hakan; Karaaslan, Serap

    2014-09-01

    Metachronous adrenal metastasis from contralateral renal cell carcinoma (RCC) surgery is an extremely rare condition. Iatrogenic Addison's disease occurring after metastasectomy (adrenalectomy) is an even rarer clinical entity. We present a case of a 68-year-old male with hematuria and left flank pain 9 years prior. The patient underwent left transperitoneal radical nephrectomy involving the ipsilateral adrenal glands due to a centrally-located, 75-mm in diameter solid mass lesion in the upper pole of the left kidney. The tumour lesion was confined within the renal capsule, and the histo-pathological examination revealed a Fuhrman nuclear grade II clear cell carcinoma. The patient underwent transperitoneal right adrenalectomy. The histopathological examination revealed metastasis of clear cell carcinoma. The patient was diagnosed with iatrogenic Addison's disease based on the measurement of serum cortisol levels and the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test, after which glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement was initiated. The patient did not have local recurrence or new metastasis in the first year of the follow-up. The decision to perform ipsilateral adrenalectomy during radical nephrectomy constitutes a challenge, and the operating surgeon must consider all these rare factors.

  20. Effect of betel quid on catecholamine secretion from adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Wang, C K; Hwang, L S

    1997-10-01

    Health damage and environmental pollution are serious problems caused by betel quid chewing in Taiwan. Many people acquire the habit of chewing betel quid due to its physiological effects, including increased stamina and a general feeling of well-being. In this study, a sympathetic model system of adrenal chromaffin cells and sensory evaluation were used to examine the physiological effects of betel quid and the interaction of all the ingredients (areca fruit, Piper betle inflorescence and red time paste) in betel quid. Physiological effects of cardioacceleration, a slightly drunk feeling, sweating and salivation occurred during the chewing of betel quid (a mixture of areca fruit, Piper betle inflorescence and red lime paste) and a mixture of areca fruit and red lime paste. Both induced much more basal catecholamine secretion from adrenal chromaffin cells than did other ingredients and combinations of ingredients. It was evident that the responses in the sympathetic model system were closely correlated with the physiological feeling of well-being. The inhibitory effects of all the chewing juices on catecholamine secretion evoked by carbachol and a high concentration of potassium (high K+) showed that they perhaps affected the calcium influx through voltage-sensitive channels or the steps involved in secretion after calcium entry to stimulate basal catecholamine secretion from chromaffin cells.

  1. Neurologic complications of disorders of the adrenal glands.

    Bertorini, Tulio E; Perez, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of the adrenal glands frequently have secondary neurological manifestations, while some diseases that involve the central nervous system are accompanied by adrenal gland dysfunction. Excessive corticosteroid secretions in primary or secondary Cushing's syndrome causes muscle weakness and behavioral disturbances, such as emotional lability and sometimes depression, while adrenal insufficiency may cause fatigue, weakness, and depression. Adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenoneuromyelopathy are X-linked recessive disorders of the metabolism of very long chain fatty acids that manifest with white matter abnormalities of the brain, myelopathy and/or neuropathy, as well as adrenal insufficiency. Other disorders of the adrenal glands include hyperaldosteroidism, which may cause weakness from hypokalemia. Dysfunction of the adrenal medulla causes excessive or deficient secretion of catecholamines, primarily causing cardiovascular symptoms. This chapter reviews the clinical manifestations and diagnostic aspects and treatment of the various disorders of the adrenal glands. Some of the congenital adrenal diseases are also discussed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mobilisation of store Ca2+ activates tyrosine hydroxylase in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    McKenzie, S.; Marley, P.D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Many receptor agonists are able to activate tyrosine hydroxylase (TOH) in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. The majority of these are dependent on extracellular Ca 2+ for this action. Entry of extracellular Ca 2+ through voltage-operated Ca 2+ channels is very effective at activating TOH. The contribution of the intracellular Ca 2+ stores to TOH activation however is not known. Previous studies have shown that mobilisation of intracellular Ca 2+ stores is effective at increasing phosphorylation of TOH, but its effect on TOH activity has not been studied. Therefore, in the present study, the effect of mobilisation of store Ca 2+ on TOH activity was investigated using primary cultures of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Cells were prepared from abattoir tissue and cultured for 3-6 days. TOH activity was determined over 10 minutes, measuring the 14 CO 2 produced following the hydroxylation and rapid decarboxylation of 14 C-tyrosine offered to intact cells. Caffeine increased TOH activity in a concentration-dependent manner with a maximum response of 100% increase at 20mM. This effect was not due to osmolarity since 20mM sucrose had no effect.Nor was it due to inhibition of phosphodiesterases, since the effect of caffeine was still seen in the presence of 1mM IBMX. However,caffeine-induced TOH activation was substantially reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ . The results suggest that TOH activity can be increased by mobilising intracellular Ca 2+ stores, but that this effect involves extracellular Ca 2+ influx, possibly through store-operated channels. Copyright (2001) Australian Neuroscience Society

  3. [3H]nitrendipine binding to adrenal capsular membranes

    Finkel, M.S.; Aguilera, G.; Catt, K.J.; Keiser, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    The physiologic regulation of aldosterone secretion is dependent on extracellular calcium and appears to be mediated by increases in cytosolic free calcium concentration in the zona glomerulosa cell. A specific role for voltage-dependent calcium channels was suggested by previous studies with the calcium channel antagonist verapamil. The authors therefore studied the [ 3 H]nitrendipine calcium channel binding site in adrenal capsules. These studies revealed a single class of saturable, high affinity sites with K/sub D/ = .26 +/- .04 nM and B/sub max/ = 105 +/- 5.7 fmol/mg protein. Specific binding of [ 3 H]nitrendipine was inhibited by calcium channel antagonists with potencies nitrendipine = nifedipine >> verapamil, while diltiazem had no inhibitory effect. In the rat, binding sites for [ 3 H]nitrendipine were located in the adrenal capsule and medulla and were undetectable in the zona fasciculata. Physiologic studies with collagenase-dispersed adrenal glomerulosa cells demonstrated that nifedipine selectively inhibited angiotensin-II and potassium-stimulated steroidogenesis. These observations suggest both a pharmacologic and physiologic role for the nitrendipine binding site in aldosterone production. 17 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  4. Calcitriol-mediated hypercalcemia in a patient with bilateral adrenal non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma case report

    Ana Abaroa-Salvatierra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcitriol-mediated hypercalcemia is a frequent manifestation of hematological malignancies. However, there are a few reports of cases presenting with increased angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE level, which suggests a possible mechanism similar to that of granulomatous diseases. We present a patient with hypercalcemia, normal parathyroid hormone, and parathyroid hormone-related protein levels but high calcitriol and ACE levels that, after further investigation, was diagnosed with bilateral adrenal non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma. Primary adrenal lymphoma represents only 1% of all non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and is usually asymptomatic but should be considered by clinicians among the malignancies that cause calcitriol-mediated hypercalcemia.

  5. POD-1/Tcf21 overexpression reduces endogenous SF-1 and StAR expression in rat adrenal cells

    M. M. França

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During gonad and adrenal development, the POD-1/capsulin/TCF21transcription factor negatively regulates SF-1/NR5A1expression, with higher SF-1 levels being associated with increased adrenal cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. In adrenocortical tumor cells, POD-1 binds to the SF-1 E-box promoter region, decreasing SF-1 expression. However, the modulation of SF-1 expression by POD-1 has not previously been described in normal adrenal cells. Here, we analyzed the basal expression of Pod-1 and Sf-1 in primary cultures of glomerulosa (G and fasciculata/reticularis (F/R cells isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats, and investigated whether POD-1 overexpression modulates the expression of endogenous Sf-1 and its target genes in these cells. POD-1 overexpression, following the transfection of pCMVMycPod-1, significantly decreased the endogenous levels of Sf-1 mRNA and protein in F/R cells, but not in G cells, and also decreased the expression of the SF-1 target StAR in F/R cells. In G cells overexpressing POD-1, no modulation of the expression of SF-1 targets, StAR and CYP11B2, was observed. Our data showing that G and F/R cells respond differently to ectopic POD-1 expression emphasize the functional differences between the outer and inner zones of the adrenal cortex, and support the hypothesis that SF-1 is regulated by POD-1/Tcf21 in normal adrenocortical cells lacking the alterations in cellular physiology found in tumor cells.

  6. Effect of head x-irradiation on adrenal medullary secretion

    Mieno, Masahiro

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the present experiments was to investigate an immediate effect of head x-irradiation on the secretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline by the adrenal medulla. When the dogs were irradiated with 200 or 800 R of x-rays to their heads under pentobarbital anesthesia, the majority of the animals showed no stimulation of the adrenal medulla but the minority showed a slight but definite increase in the secretion of adrenaline, the peak being attained within 60 min after exposure. (auth.)

  7. Localization of 3H-serotonin in the adrenal medullary cells of newborn rats

    Sudar, F.; Csaba, G.

    1979-01-01

    Newborn rats received 25 μCi 3 H-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP); 30, 60 min or 5 hours later the adrenal glands were removed. Electronmicroscopic autoradiography was carried out after fixation and embedding. As in the cells 5-HTP is formed into serotonin, the distribution of radioactivity actually represents the distribution of serotonin. Activity was found on the cellular, nuclear and catecholamine granule-membranes, and in the nucleus. The activity increased as a function of time at all the above mentioned sites, and in line with this more and more empty catecholamine-granules appeared. Data indicate the existence of intracellular serotonin-receptors and the role of serotonin in the release of catecholamines. (L.E.)

  8. [Physiological prion and activity of plasma membrane Na+,K(+)- and Ca(2+)-ATPase in the medulla oblongata cells of rats of different ages].

    Kushkevych, M V; Vlizlo, V V; Martyn, Iu V

    2013-01-01

    Based on the results of immunohistochemical analysis of the rat medulla tissue the localization of physiological prion has been established. Specifically, in rats aged one month they are placed in the gray matter near the bodies of neurons and mikrohliocytes and in animals of six and thirty months--in olive kernel core and upward path bodies. Physiological prion is localized along the nerve processes and is absent in the neuron bodies. In the medulla oblongata of animals aged six months its amount is the highest compared to animals of other age. The activity of plasma membrane ATPases in this tissue decreases with age, the content of sodium and calcium ions increases, while that of potassium is almost unchanged.

  9. [Effect of drinking boron on microtructure of adrenal gland in rats].

    Li, Shenghe; Wang, Jue; Zhou, Jinxing; Jin, Guangming; Gu, Youfang; Xu, Wanxiang

    2012-09-01

    The effects of drinking boron exposure on the mass, organ indexes and structure of adrenal gland were studied in the paper. Methods 192 Sprague-Dawley rats (28 +/- 2 days) with no bacteria infecting were divided into six groups (n = 32, male = female) randomly. Treated rats drunk the distilled water which supplemented with boron of 0, 40, 80, 160, 320 and 640 mg/L, respectively, for 60 days. At the 30th and the 60th day of experiment, 16 rats (n = 8, male = female) of each group were selected and made into narcosis with 10% Chloral Hydrate. The adrenal glands were obtained, weighted and fixed after dissection, then the samples were made into paraffin sections, stained with HE stain and chromaffin, observed and photographed by Olympus CH-30 microphotograph system. Compared with control group, the average mass of adrenal gland of male rats in each experiment group decreased significantly or most significantly at the 30th day of experiment (P boron at 60th day of experiment increased significantly (P boron were better obviously than control group, and the numbers of chromaffin granules in chromaffin cell increased obviously. The histopathological changes of different degree could be observed in the group of 80 to 640 mg/L boron, and they became remarkable with the boron supplementation. By comparative observation, the damage of cells in adrenal medulla appeared ahead of them in adrenal cortex, and the pathological change of adrenal gland in male rats were obvious than female rats. Drinking supplemented with 40 mg/L boron could prompt the structure of adrenal gland in rats, but could cause different degree damage, or even obvious toxic effect when the concentration of boron supplementation in drinking from 80 to 640 mg/L.

  10. Nanosecond electric pulses differentially affect inward and outward currents in patch clamped adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Lisha Yang

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of 5 ns electric pulses on macroscopic ionic currents in whole-cell voltage-clamped adrenal chromaffin cells. Current-voltage (I-V relationships first established that the early peak inward current was primarily composed of a fast voltage-dependent Na+ current (INa, whereas the late outward current was composed of at least three ionic currents: a voltage-gated Ca2+ current (ICa, a Ca2+-activated K+ current (IK(Ca, and a sustained voltage-dependent delayed rectifier K+ current (IKV. A constant-voltage step protocol was next used to monitor peak inward and late outward currents before and after cell exposure to a 5 ns pulse. A single pulse applied at an electric (E-field amplitude of 5 MV/m resulted in an instantaneous decrease of ~4% in peak INa that then declined exponentially to a level that was ~85% of the initial level after 10 min. Increasing the E-field amplitude to 8 or 10 MV/m caused a twofold greater inhibitory effect on peak INa. The decrease in INa was not due to a change in either the steady-state inactivation or activation of the Na+ channel but instead was associated with a decrease in maximal Na+ conductance. Late outward current was not affected by a pulse applied at 5 MV/m. However, for a pulse applied at the higher E-field amplitudes of 8 and 10 MV/m, late outward current in some cells underwent a progressive ~22% decline over the course of the first 20 s following pulse exposure, with no further decline. The effect was most likely concentrated on ICa and IK(Ca as IKV was not affected. The results of this study indicate that in whole-cell patch clamped adrenal chromaffin cells, a 5 ns pulse differentially inhibits specific voltage-gated ionic currents in a manner that can be manipulated by tuning E-field amplitude.

  11. Neurochemistry of bulbospinal presympathetic neurons of the medulla oblongata.

    Stornetta, Ruth L

    2009-11-01

    This review focuses on presympathetic neurons in the medulla oblongata including the adrenergic cell groups C1-C3 in the rostral ventrolateral medulla and the serotonergic, GABAergic and glycinergic neurons in the ventromedial medulla. The phenotypes of these neurons including colocalized neuropeptides (e.g., neuropeptide Y, enkephalin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, substance P) as well as their relative anatomical location are considered in relation to predicting their function in control of sympathetic outflow, in particular the sympathetic outflows controlling blood pressure and thermoregulation. Several explanations are considered for how the neuroeffectors coexisting in these neurons might be functioning, although their exact purpose remains unknown. Although there is abundant data on potential neurotransmitters and neuropeptides contained in the presympathetic neurons, we are still unable to predict function and physiology based solely on the phenotype of these neurons.

  12. LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE INDUCES THE PRODUCTION OF DIAGNOSTIC MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY BY HYBRIDOMA CELLS AGAINST CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA

    GEK KEE CHUA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to screen and identify the potential inducers in maximizing the production of monoclonal antibody by hybridoma 192 cell line for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia diagnostic. There are nine inducers used in this research, namely lysozyme, aldolase, sodium butyrate, sodium phosphate, potassium phosphate, dimethyl sulfoxide, lipopolysaccharide, essential amino acids, and nonessential amino acids. Hybridoma 192 cell was cultured in 5% CO2 incubator at 37°C and ˃80% humidity in the medium with different concentrations of inducer agents. The inducers were added at the beginning of the culture and the samples were taken after 72 h of culture. The performance of these inducer agents was assessed based on the maximum monoclonal antibody titer achieved using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. Lipopolysaccharide was found to increase the maximum monoclonal antibody titer when supplemented at 8 to 12 µg/mL. After optimization using one-factor central composite design at this range, the optimum point was determined to be 8 µg/mL. Verification experiments shows that lipopolysaccharide enhanced the average specific monoclonal antibody production rate by 56% relative to control. In conclusion, lipopolysaccharide at 8 µg/mL is able to increase the monoclonal antibody specific production of hybridoma 192 cell line.

  13. Essence of "Shen (Kidney) Controlling Bones": Conceptual Analysis Based on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal-Osteo-Related Cells Axis.

    Xu, Tao-Tao; Jin, Hong-Ting; Tong, Pei-Jian

    2018-04-12

    As a traditional concept of Chinese medicine (CM), the theory of "Shen (Kidney) controlling bones" has been gradually proven. And in modern allopathic medicine, the multiple mechanisms of bone growth, development and regeneration align with the theory. Shen defifi ciency as a pathological condition has a negative effect on the skeleton of body, specififi cally the disorder of bone homeostasis. Present studies indicate that Shen defifi ciency shares a common disorder characterized by dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. HPA axis may be an important regulator of bone diseases with abnormal homeostasis. Therefore, we posit the existence of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-osteo-related cells axis: cells that comprise bone tissue (osteo-related cells) are targets under the regulation of HPA axis in disorder of bone homeostasis. Chinese herbs for nourishing Shen have potential in the development of treatments for disorder of bone homeostasis.

  14. A rare adrenal incidentaloma: adrenal schwannoma.

    Adas, Mine; Ozulker, Filiz; Adas, Gokhan; Koc, Bora; Ozulker, Tamer; Sahin, Ilknur Mansuroglu

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal schwannoma is an extremely uncommon cause of incidentaloma. It originates from neural sheath Schwann cells of the adrenal gland. We report the case of a left adrenal schwannoma incidentally discovered in a 32-year-old woman during examination of bloated feeling and stomach ache. The patient was incidentally found to have a left adrenal mass of 9 cm on abdominal ultrasonography. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) were also performed. Metabolic evaluation was unremarkable. Due to the large size of the tumor, left adrenalectomy was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. Histological examination established the diagnosis of schwannoma. This diagnosis was supported by immunohistochemistry of S-100 and vimentin positivity. In conclusion, adrenal schwannoma is an extremely rare entity and can grow considerably in size. The present case report emphasizes that clinicians should be aware of the possibility of retroperitoneal schwannoma. Total excision of benign schwannoma is associated with a favorable outcome. To our knowledge, there are case reports of schwannoma with CT and magnetic resonance imaging findings in the literature, although this is the first schwannoma case with PET-CT imaging.

  15. Adrenal scintigraphy

    Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    The following items are discussed:anatomy and physiology of adrenal glands, clinical indications of scintigraphy, radiobiology and radiochemistry, scintigraphic imaging, adrenocortical hyperfunction, aldosteronism and hypertension associated with low renin level, excess of androgen, adrenocortical hyperfunction and future perspectives of adrenal scintigraphy. (M.A.) [pt

  16. Adrenal Insufficiency

    ... two kinds of AI: • Primary AI, also called Addison’s disease. In this rare condition, the adrenal glands do ... org (search for adrenal) • Information about AI and Addison’s disease from the National Institutes of Health: www. endocrine. ...

  17. Adrenal incidentaloma

    Arnaldi G.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidentally discovered adrenal masses, or adrenal incidentalomas, have become a common clinical problem owing to wide application of radiologic imaging techniques. This definition encompasses a heterogeneous spectrum of pathologic entities, including primary adrenocortical and medullary tumors, benign or malignant lesions, hormonally active or inactive lesions, metastases, and infections. Once an adrenal mass is detected, the clinician needs to address two crucial questions: is the mass malignant, and is it hormonally active? This article provides an overview of the diagnostic clinical approach and management of the adrenal incidentaloma. Mass size is the most reliable variable to distinguish benign and malignant adrenal masses. Adrenalectomy should be recommended for masses greater than 4.0 cm because of the increased risk of malignancy. Adrenal scintigraphy has proved useful in discriminating between benign and malignant lesions. Finally, fine-needle aspiration biopsy is an important tool in the evaluation of oncological patients and it may be useful in establishing the presence of metastatic disease. The majority of adrenal incidentalomas are non-hypersecretory cortical adenomas but an endocrine evaluation can lead to the identification of a significant number of cases with subclinical Cushing's syndrome (5-15%, pheochromocytoma (1.5-13% and aldosteronoma (0-7%. The first step of hormonal screening should include an overnight low dose dexamethasone suppression test, the measure of urinary catecholamines or metanephrines, serum potassium and, in hypertensive patients, upright plasma aldosterone/plasma renin activity ratio. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate measurement may show evidence of adrenal androgen excess.

  18. Receptor stimulated formation of inositol phosphates in cultures of bovine adrenal medullary cells: the effects of bradykinin, bombesin and neurotensin.

    Bunn, S J; Marley, P D; Livett, B G

    1990-04-01

    The ability of a number of drugs and neuropeptides to stimulate phosphoinositide metabolism in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells has been assessed. Low concentrations (10 nM) of angiotensin II, bradykinin, histamine, arginine-vasopressin, and bombesin, and high (10 microM) concentrations of oxytocin, prostaglandins E1, and E2, beta-endorphin, and neurotensin stimulated significant accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates in adrenal medullary cells preloaded with [3H)]inositol. Bradykinin stimulated a significant response at concentration as low as 10pM, with an EC50 of approximately 0.5 nM. The response was markedly inhibited by the bradykinin B2 antagonist [Thi5,8,D-Phe7] bradykinin but not the B1 antagonist [Des-Arg9,Leu8] bradykinin. Higher concentrations of bombesin and neurotensin were required to elicit a response (10 nM and 10 microM respectively). The bombesin response was sensitive to inhibition by the bombesin antagonist [D-Arg1,D-Pro2,D-Trp7,9Leu11]-substance P. In contrast, the neurotensin response was not reduced by the NT1 antagonist [D-Trp11]-neurotensin. These results indicate there are a number of agents that can stimulate phosphatidylinositide hydrolysis in the adrenal medullary cells by acting on different classes of receptors. Such a range of diverse agonists that stimulate inositol phosphate formation will facilitate further analysis of the phosphatidylinositide breakdown in chromaffin cell function.

  19. Regulation of alternative splicing of Slo K+ channels in adrenal and pituitary during the stress-hyporesponsive period of rat development.

    Lai, Guey-Jen; McCobb, David P

    2006-08-01

    Stress triggers release of ACTH from the pituitary, glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex, and epinephrine from the adrenal medulla. Although functions differ, these hormone systems interact in many ways. Previous evidence indicates that pituitary and steroid hormones regulate alternative splicing of the Slo gene at the stress axis-regulated exon (STREX), with functional implications for the calcium-activated K+ channels prominent in adrenal medullary and pituitary cells. Here we examine the role of corticosterone in Slo splicing regulation in pituitary and adrenal tissues during the stress-hyporesponsive period of early rat postnatal life. The sharp drop in plasma corticosterone (CORT) that defines this period offers a unique opportunity to test CORT's role in Slo splicing. We report that in both adrenal and pituitary tissues, the percentage of Slo transcripts having STREX declines and recovers in parallel with CORT. Moreover, addition of 500 nm CORT to cultures of anterior pituitary cells from 13-, 21-, and 30-d postnatal animals increased the percentage of Slo transcripts with STREX, whereas 20 microm CORT reduced STREX representation. Applied to adrenal chromaffin cells, 20 microm CORT decreased STREX inclusion, whereas neither 500 nm nor 2 microm had any effect. The mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist RU28318 abolished the effect of 500 nm CORT on splicing in pituitary cells, whereas the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU38486 blocked the effect of 20 microm CORT on adrenal chromaffin cells. These results support the hypothesis that the abrupt, transient drop in CORT during the stress-hyporesponsive period drives the transient decline in STREX splice variant representation in pituitary, but not adrenal.

  20. Detailed examination of the adrenal glands by angiography and radioimmunologic measurement of hormones in adrenal venous blood

    Yugrinov, O.G.; Slavnov, V.N.; Komissarenko, I.V.; Olejnik, V.A.; Benikova, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    In 222 patients the adrenal glands were examined in detail by arteriography and venography, and if indicated also the ovaries, kidneys, bladder and other organs were checked up. Blood samples were taken from the adrenal glands, renal veins and the vena cava inferior in the bifurcational and subdiaphragmatic region. According to the clinical requirements cortisol, corticotropine, aldosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and renine activity were determined. Comprehensive angiographic and radioimmunologic studies revealed in 54 patients tumors of the adrenal cortex. Tumors of the adrenal medulla were detected in 43 of the cases. In 103 cases a morbus Icenko-Cushing was found. The basic examination of the diagnostic schedule was selective adrenal venography. Adrenal arteriography and measurement of venous hormone levels were complementary investigations and were rarely used as independent methods. (author)

  1. Adrenal scintigraphy

    Veen, E.A. van der.

    1978-01-01

    The visualization of functioning adrenocortical tissue by scintigraphy became possible with the introduction of radioiodinated cholesterol derivatives. According to the literature, there is evidence that one of these iodinated cholesterols, 6-β-iodomethyl-nor-cholesterol, concentrates in the adrenal cortex to a much greater extent than 131 I-19-odocholesterol. Results comparing both radiopharmaceuticals are described. The authors investigated the possibility of increasing the uptake of iodinated cholesterol using simultaneous ACTH and the 'cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzymeblocker': aminoglutethimide. The results of adrenal scintigraphy performed in 37 patients are described. Finally, the literature on adrenal scintigraphy is reviewed, and results reported in various studies are compared. (Auth.)

  2. Adrenal Incidentaloma

    ... Peer Support Resources Diseases and Conditions Adrenal Disorders Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Men's Health Rare Diseases Pituitary Disorders Thyroid Disorders Transgender Health Obesity and Weight Management Women's Health You and Your ...

  3. Oxygen sensitivity of potassium- and angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone release by bovine adrenal cells.

    Brickner, R C; Raff, H

    1991-04-01

    Angiotensin II (AII) and extracellular K+, acting through different intracellular mechanisms, stimulate aldosterone release in a synergistic fashion. We have previously shown that decreases in oxygen (O2) within the physiological range inhibit AII, cyclic AMP (cAMP) and ACTH-stimulated aldosterone release. The present experiment evaluated the effect of various concentrations of O2 on K+-stimulated aldosterone release in the presence and absence of AII. Dispersed bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells were incubated with different concentrations of K+ (0.9-5.4 mmol/l) without and with AII (10 nmol/l) under different concentrations of O2 (0, 5 or 50%); 21% O2 (pO2 = 19.9 +/- 0.5 kPa,n = 9) was used as reference control for comparison. In all cases, increases in K+ stimulated aldosterone release, an effect augmented by AII. Under 0% O2 (pO2 = 8.1 +/- 0.3 kPa, n = 3) and 5% O2 (pO2 = 12.8 +/- 0.5 kPa, n = 3), aldosterone release stimulated by K+ or K+/AII was significantly inhibited compared with that under 21% O2. Conversely, under 50% O2 (pO2 = 36.3 +/- 2.5 kPa, n = 3), aldosterone release stimulated by K+ or K+/AII was significantly augmented. Cortisol secretion was not significantly affected by 5% or 50% O2 but was significantly decreased under 0% O2. The effect of O2 on K+/AII stimulation of aldosterone release, as well as previous experiments with cAMP, progesterone and ACTH, suggest a final common post-receptor oxygen-sensitive component of the aldosterone synthetic pathway. It is suggested that one or more enzymes in the aldosterone synthetic pathway is/are exquisitely sensitive to small changes in O2 within the physiological range.

  4. Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Using Cell-Free Fetal DNA in Maternal Plasma

    Tong, Yu K.; Yuen, Tony; Jiang, Peiyong; Pina, Christian; Chan, K. C. Allen; Khattab, Ahmed; Liao, Gary J. W.; Yau, Mabel; Kim, Se-Min; Chiu, Rossa W. K.; Sun, Li; Zaidi, Mone

    2014-01-01

    Context: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive condition that arises from mutations in CYP21A2 gene, which encodes for the steroidogenic enzyme 21-hydroxylase. To prevent genital ambiguity in affected female fetuses, prenatal treatment with dexamethasone must begin on or before gestational week 9. Currently used chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis provide genetic results at approximately 14 weeks of gestation at the earliest. This means that mothers who want to undergo prenatal dexamethasone treatment will be unnecessarily treating seven of eight fetuses (males and three of four unaffected females), emphasizing the desirability of earlier genetic diagnosis in utero. Objective: The objective of the study was to develop a noninvasive method for early prenatal diagnosis of fetuses at risk for CAH. Patients: Fourteen families, each with a proband affected by phenotypically classical CAH, were recruited. Design: Cell-free fetal DNA was obtained from 3.6 mL of maternal plasma. Using hybridization probes designed to capture a 6-Mb region flanking CYP21A2, targeted massively parallel sequencing (MPS) was performed to analyze genomic DNA samples from parents and proband to determine parental haplotypes. Plasma DNA from pregnant mothers also underwent targeted MPS to deduce fetal inheritance of parental haplotypes. Results: In all 14 families, the fetal CAH status was correctly deduced by targeted MPS of DNA in maternal plasma, as early as 5 weeks 6 days of gestation. Conclusions: MPS on 3.6 mL plasma from pregnant mothers could potentially provide the diagnosis of CAH, noninvasively, before the ninth week of gestation. Only affected female fetuses will thus be treated. Our strategy represents a generic approach for noninvasive prenatal testing for an array of autosomal recessive disorders. PMID:24606108

  5. Adrenal neoplasms

    Low, G.; Dhliwayo, H.; Lomas, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Adenoma, myelolipoma, phaeochromocytoma, metastases, adrenocortical carcinoma, neuroblastoma, and lymphoma account for the majority of adrenal neoplasms that are encountered in clinical practice. A variety of imaging methods are available for evaluating adrenal lesions including ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and nuclear medicine techniques such as meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy and positron-emission tomography (PET). Lipid-sensitive imaging techniques such as unenhanced CT and chemical shift MRI enable detection and characterization of lipid-rich adenomas based on an unenhanced CT attenuation of ≤10 HU and signal loss on opposed-phase compared to in-phase T1-weighted images, respectively. In indeterminate cases, an adrenal CT washout study may differentiate adenomas (both lipid-rich and lipid-poor) from other adrenal neoplasms based on an absolute percentage washout of >60% and/or a relative percentage washout of >40%. This is based on the principle that adenomas show rapid contrast washout while most other adrenal neoplasms including malignant tumours show slow contrast washout instead. 18 F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose–PET ( 18 FDG-PET) imaging may differentiate benign from malignant adrenal neoplasms by demonstrating high tracer uptake in malignant neoplasms based on the increased glucose utilization and metabolic activity found in most of these malignancies. In this review, the multi-modality imaging appearances of adrenal neoplasms are discussed and illustrated. Key imaging findings that facilitate lesion characterization and differentiation are emphasized. Awareness of these imaging findings is essential for improving diagnostic confidence and for reducing misinterpretation errors.

  6. Principles and management of adrenal cancer

    Javadpour, N.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides information on adrenal diseases of latest developments and guides the clinicians in the care of their patients. The book is divided into two parts. The first section gives an overview of the embryology, anatomy, physiology, markers, pathology, imaging and the current progress in the field. The second edition covers specific diseases of the adrenal cortex and medulla. The increasingly significant roles played by steroids, catecholamines, blockers, computed tomography and magnetic resonance are elucidated and discussed. The contents include: Overview of progress; current problems, and perspectives - embryology anatomy, physiology, and biologic markers; pathology; advances in diagnosis; imaging techniques; adrenal disorders in childhood; primary aldosteronism; Cushing's syndrome; carcinoma; pheochromocytoma; neuroblastoma; metastatic disease; surgical management; and subject index.

  7. Principles and management of adrenal cancer

    Javadpour, N.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides information on adrenal diseases of latest developments and guides the clinicians in the care of their patients. The book is divided into two parts. The first section gives an overview of the embryology, anatomy, physiology, markers, pathology, imaging and the current progress in the field. The second edition covers specific diseases of the adrenal cortex and medulla. The increasingly significant roles played by steroids, catecholamines, blockers, computed tomography and magnetic resonance are elucidated and discussed. The contents include: Overview of progress; current problems, and perspectives - embryology anatomy, physiology, and biologic markers; pathology; advances in diagnosis; imaging techniques; adrenal disorders in childhood; primary aldosteronism; Cushing's syndrome; carcinoma; pheochromocytoma; neuroblastoma; metastatic disease; surgical management; and subject index

  8. A case of treatment in a patient with synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous metastatic involvement of both adrenal glands: Clinical observation

    V. R. Latypov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma occurs in 1.4 % of cases. The probability of bilateral adrenal metastases from renal cell carcinoma is less than 0.5 %. The clinical observation presents a case of synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous metastatic involvement of both adrenal glands. A 55‑year-old male patient was adm tted with the signs of hematuria and anemia to the Unit of Urology, Clinic of General Surgery, Siberian State Medical University. He was found to have synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous bilateral adrenal involvement. Sequential surgical treatment – radical nephrectomy (with adrenal gland removal on the right side and, after 3 months, adrenalectomy and kidney resection on the left side were performed. All the organs removed displayed tumors that proved to be renal cell carcinomas (a clear cell variant. There were lymph node metastases in the right-sided renal portal. Postoperatively, the investigators performed hormone replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency, an immunotherapy cycle, three cycles of targeted therapy withsorafenib and sunitinib (at an interval of 0.5–2 years, and insulin therapy for new-onset diabetes mellitus. The duration of a follow-up was 6.2 years. When describing the case, the patient was alive and showed a generalized tumorous process with extensive tumor involvement of the solitary kidney. Sunitinib therapy was used.

  9. A case of treatment in a patient with synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous metastatic involvement of both adrenal glands: Clinical observation

    V. R. Latypov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma occurs in 1.4 % of cases. The probability of bilateral adrenal metastases from renal cell carcinoma is less than 0.5 %. The clinical observation presents a case of synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous metastatic involvement of both adrenal glands. A 55‑year-old male patient was adm tted with the signs of hematuria and anemia to the Unit of Urology, Clinic of General Surgery, Siberian State Medical University. He was found to have synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous bilateral adrenal involvement. Sequential surgical treatment – radical nephrectomy (with adrenal gland removal on the right side and, after 3 months, adrenalectomy and kidney resection on the left side were performed. All the organs removed displayed tumors that proved to be renal cell carcinomas (a clear cell variant. There were lymph node metastases in the right-sided renal portal. Postoperatively, the investigators performed hormone replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency, an immunotherapy cycle, three cycles of targeted therapy withsorafenib and sunitinib (at an interval of 0.5–2 years, and insulin therapy for new-onset diabetes mellitus. The duration of a follow-up was 6.2 years. When describing the case, the patient was alive and showed a generalized tumorous process with extensive tumor involvement of the solitary kidney. Sunitinib therapy was used.

  10. Candesartan decreases the sympatho-adrenal and hormonal response to isolation stress

    Ines Armando

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A change from group housing to isolation in unfamiliar metabolic cages represents, for rodents, a significant emotional stress. We studied the effect of candesartan, a peripheral and central angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonist, on the hormonal and sympathetic response to acute isolation. We pretreated rats with 1 mg/kg/day candesartan for 13 days via subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps, followed by 24-hour isolation in individual metabolic cages. We measured brain, pituitary and adrenal angiotensin II (Ang II receptor binding by quantitative autoradiography and adrenal hormones and catecholamines by RIA and HPLC. Isolation increased adrenal catecholamines, aldosterone and corticosterone, AT1-receptor binding in the zona glomerulosa and AT2-receptor binding in the adrenal medulla. Candesartan pretreatment decreased adrenal catecholamines, aldosterone and corticosterone, AT1-receptor binding in adrenal zona glomerulosa and medulla, pituitary gland and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, and AT2-receptor binding in adrenal medulla, but increased AT2-receptor binding in zona glomerulosa. We conclude that peripheral and central AT1-receptor blockade with candesartan decreases the sympatho-adrenal and hormonal response to acute stress. Our results indicate that Ang II is an important stress hormone and suggest that blockade of the physiologically active AT 1-receptors could influence stress-related disorders.

  11. Classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia and puberty.

    Charmandari, Evangelia; Brook, Charles G D; Hindmarsh, Peter C

    2004-11-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders resulting from deficiency of one of the five enzymes required for synthesis of cortisol in the adrenal cortex. The most common form of the disease is classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency, which is characterized by decreased synthesis of glucocorticoids and often mineralocorticoids, adrenal hyperandrogenism and impaired development and function of the adrenal medulla. The clinical management of classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency is often suboptimal, and patients are at risk of developing in tandem iatrogenic hypercortisolism and/or hyperandogenism. Limitations of current medical therapy include the inability to control hyperandrogenism without employing supraphysiologic doses of glucocorticoid, hyperresponsiveness of the hypertrophied adrenal glands to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and difficulty in suppressing ACTH secretion from the anterior pituitary. Puberty imposes increased difficulty in attaining adrenocortical suppression despite optimal substitution therapy and adherence to medical treatment. Alterations in the endocrine milieu at puberty may influence cortisol pharmacokinetics and, consequently, the handling of hydrocortisone used as replacement therapy. Recent studies have demonstrated a significant increase in cortisol clearance at puberty and a shorter half-life of free cortisol in pubertal females compared with males. Furthermore, children with classic CAH have elevated fasting serum insulin concentrations and insulin resistance. The latter may further enhance adrenal and/or ovarian androgen secretion, decrease the therapeutic efficacy of glucocorticoids and contribute to later development of the metabolic syndrome and its complications.

  12. The Effect of Cortex/Medulla Proportions on Molecular Diagnoses in Kidney Transplant Biopsies: Rejection and Injury Can Be Assessed in Medulla.

    Madill-Thomsen, K S; Wiggins, R C; Eskandary, F; Böhmig, G A; Halloran, P F

    2017-08-01

    Histologic assessment of kidney transplant biopsies relies on cortex rather than medulla, but for microarray studies, the proportion cortex in a biopsy is typically unknown and could affect the molecular readings. The present study aimed to develop a molecular estimate of proportion cortex in biopsies and examine its effect on molecular diagnoses. Microarrays from 26 kidney transplant biopsies divided into cortex and medulla components and processed separately showed that many of the most significant differences were in glomerular genes (e.g. NPHS2, NPHS1, CLIC5, PTPRO, PLA2R1, PLCE1, PODXL, and REN). Using NPHS2 (podocin) to estimate proportion cortex, we examined whether proportion cortex influenced molecular assessment in the molecular microscope diagnostic system. In 1190 unselected kidney transplant indication biopsies (Clinicaltrials.govNCT01299168), only 11% had Molecular scores for antibody-mediated rejection, T cell-mediated rejection, and injury were independent of proportion cortex. Rejection was diagnosed in many biopsies that were mostly or all medulla. Agreement in molecular diagnoses in paired cortex/medulla samples (23/26) was similar to biological replicates (32/37). We conclude that NPHS2 expression can estimate proportion cortex; that proportion cortex has little influence on molecular diagnosis of rejection; and that, although histology cannot assess medulla, rejection does occur in medulla as well as cortex. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  13. Growth-inhibitory effect of TGF-B on human fetal adrenal cells in primary monolayer culture.

    Riopel, L; Branchaud, C L; Goodyer, C G; Adkar, V; Lefebvre, Y

    1989-08-01

    We examined the effects of transforming-growth factor-B (TGF-B) on growth ([3H]-thymidine uptake) and function (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHAS] and cortisol production) of human fetal zone adrenal cells. Results indicate that TGF-B significantly inhibits, in a dose-related manner, both basal and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated cell growth: IC50 = 0.1-0.25 ng/ml. EGF is ineffective in overcoming the inhibitory effect of TGF-B, suggesting a noncompetitive antagonism between the two factors. Also, the inhibitory effect of TGF-B is additive to that of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). On the other hand, TGF-B (1 ng/ml) does not significantly change basal or ACTH-stimulated DHAS or cortisol secretion. We conclude that, unlike its effect on other steroid-producing cells, TGF-B inhibits growth of fetal zone cells and does not appear to have a significant inhibitory effect on steroidogenesis.

  14. Insulin-like growth factor I enhances proenkephalin synthesis and dopamine β-hydroxylase activity in adrenal chromaffin cells

    Wilson, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) increased both the contents of proenkephalin derived enkephalin-containing peptides and the activity of dopamine β-hydroxylase in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. These increases in dopamine β-hydroxylase and enkephalin-containing peptides continued for at least 8 days. The half-maximal IGF-I concentration for these effects was ∼ 1 nM, with maximal effects observed at 10-30 nM. In contrast, insulin was 1,000-fold less potent. Pretreatment of chromaffin cells with IGF-I increased the rate of [ 35 S]proenkephalin synthesis 4-fold compared to untreated cells. Total protein synthesis increased only 1.5-fold under these conditions. These results suggest that IGF-I may be a normal regulator of chromaffin cell function

  15. Insulin-like growth factor I enhances proenkephalin synthesis and dopamine. beta. -hydroxylase activity in adrenal chromaffin cells

    Wilson, S.P. (Univ. of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) increased both the contents of proenkephalin derived enkephalin-containing peptides and the activity of dopamine {beta}-hydroxylase in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. These increases in dopamine {beta}-hydroxylase and enkephalin-containing peptides continued for at least 8 days. The half-maximal IGF-I concentration for these effects was {approximately} 1 nM, with maximal effects observed at 10-30 nM. In contrast, insulin was 1,000-fold less potent. Pretreatment of chromaffin cells with IGF-I increased the rate of ({sup 35}S)proenkephalin synthesis 4-fold compared to untreated cells. Total protein synthesis increased only 1.5-fold under these conditions. These results suggest that IGF-I may be a normal regulator of chromaffin cell function.

  16. Direct visualization of secretion from single bovine adrenal chromaffin cells by laser-induced native fluorescence imaging microscopy

    Tong, W.; Yeung, E.S. [Ames Laboratory---USDOE and Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Direct visualization of the secretion process of individual bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was achieved with laser-induced native fluorescence imaging microscopy. By monitoring the native fluorescence of catecholamines excited by the 275 nm laser line with an intensified charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera, we obtained good temporal and spatial resolution simultaneously without using additional fluorescent probes. Large variations were found among individual cells in terms of the amounts of catecholamines secreted and the rates of secretion. Different regions of a cell also behave differently during the secretion process. However, the degree of this local heterogeneity is smaller than in neurons and neuralgia. The influence of deep-ultraviolet (UV) laser excitation on cells is also discussed. This quantitative imaging technique provides a useful noninvasive approach for the study of dynamic cellular changes and the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of secretory processes. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  17. Cortisol-dependent stress effects on cell distribution in healthy individuals and individuals suffering from chronic adrenal insufficiency.

    Geiger, Ashley M; Pitts, Kenneth P; Feldkamp, Joachim; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-11-01

    Chronic adrenal insufficiency (CAI) is characterized by a lack of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid production due to destroyed adrenal cortex cells. However, elevated cortisol secretion is thought to be a central part in a well-orchestrated immune response to stress. This raises the question to what extent lack of cortisol in CAI affects stress-related changes in immune processes. To address this question, 28 CAI patients (20 females) and 18 healthy individuals (11 females) (age: 44.3 ± 8.4 years) were exposed to a psychosocial stress test (Trier Social Stress Test: TSST). Half the patients received a 0.03 mg/kg body weight injection of hydrocortisone (HC) post-TSST to mimic a healthy cortisol stress response. Catecholamines and immune cell composition were assessed in peripheral blood and free cortisol measured in saliva collected before and repeatedly after TSST. CAI patients showed norepinephrine (NE) stress responses similar to healthy participants, however, epinephrine (E) as well as cortisol levels were significantly lower. HC treatment post-TSST resulted in cortisol increases comparable to those observed in healthy participants (interaction effects--NE: F=1.05, p=.41; E: F=2.56, p=.045; cortisol: F=13.28, pcortisol's central involvement in post-stress lymphocyte migration from blood into immune-relevant body compartments. As such, future studies should investigate whether psychosocial stress exposure may put CAI patients at an increased health risk due to attenuated immune responses to pathogens. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Intratumoral conversion of adrenal androgen precursors drives androgen receptor-activated cell growth in prostate cancer more potently than de novo steroidogenesis.

    Kumagai, Jinpei; Hofland, Johannes; Erkens-Schulze, Sigrun; Dits, Natasja F J; Steenbergen, Jacobie; Jenster, Guido; Homma, Yukio; de Jong, Frank H; van Weerden, Wytske M

    2013-11-01

    Despite an initial response to hormonal therapy, patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC) almost always progress to castration-resistant disease (CRPC). Although serum testosterone (T) is reduced by androgen deprivation therapy, intratumoral T levels in CRPC are comparable to those in prostate tissue of eugonadal men. These levels could originate from intratumoral conversion of adrenal androgens and/or from de novo steroid synthesis. However, the relative contribution of de novo steroidogenesis to AR-driven cell growth is unknown. The relative contribution of androgen biosynthetic pathways to activate androgen receptor (AR)-regulated cell growth and expression of PSA, FKBP5, and TMPRSS2 was studied at physiologically relevant levels of adrenal androgen precursors and intermediates of de novo androgen biosynthesis in human prostate cancer cell lines, PC346C, VCaP, and LNCaP. In PC346C and VCaP, responses to pregnenolone and progesterone were absent or minimal, while large effects of adrenal androgen precursors were found. VCaP CRPC clones overexpressing CYP17A1 did not acquire an increased ability to use pregnenolone or progesterone to activate AR. In contrast, all precursors stimulated growth and gene expression in LNCaP cells, presumably resulting from the mutated AR in these cells. Our data indicate that at physiological levels of T precursors PC cells can generally convert adrenal androgens, while de novo steroidogenesis is not generally possible in PC cells and is not able to support AR transactivation and PC growth. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effect of different types of stress on adrenal gland parameters and adrenal hormones in the blood serum of male Wistar rats

    Adžić M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined gross changes in the mass of whole adrenal glands and that of the adrenal cortex and medulla in mature male Wistar rats subjected to three different stress types: acute, chronic, and combined, i.e., chronic followed by acute stress. These parameters were correlated with adrenal activity as judged from serum levels of corticosterone and catecholamine, respectively, as well as with serum levels of ACTH and glucose. Under all three conditions, we observed bilaterally asymmetric and stress-type-independent hypertrophy of whole adrenals, as well as adrenal cortices and medullas. Under acute and combined stress, adrenal hypertrophy was followed by increase of adrenal hormones in the blood serum. However, under chronic stress, both cortical and medullar activities as judged from low or unaltered levels of the respective hormones and glucose were compromised and disconnected from the input signal of ACTH. Since all of the studied adrenal activities could be restored by subsequent acute stress, it is concluded that chronic isolation can be viewed as partly maladaptive stress with characteristics resembling stress resistance rather than the stress exhaustion stage of the general adaptation syndrome.

  20. The normal and pathologic renal medulla: a comprehensive overview.

    López, José I; Larrinaga, Gorka; Kuroda, Naoto; Angulo, Javier C

    2015-04-01

    The renal medulla comprises an intricate system of tubules, blood vessels and interstitium that is not well understood by most general pathologists. We conducted an extensive review of the literature on the renal medulla, in both normal and pathologic conditions. We set out in detail the points of key interest to pathologists: normal and pathological development, physiology, microscopic anatomy, histology and immunohistochemistry; and the specific and most common other types of disease associated with this part of the kidney: developmental abnormalities, (multicystic dysplastic kidney, autosomal dominant and recessive polycystic kidney diseases, medullary cystic kidney disease), inflammatory conditions (xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, malakoplakia), hyperplasia and dysplasia, and neoplastic processes (oncocytoma, atypical oncocytic tumors, chromophobe cell carcinoma, collecting duct carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma, other carcinomas, renal medullary fibroma and metastatic tumors). This condensed overview of the origin, function and pathology of the renal medulla, both in terms of development, inflammation and neoplastic processes, should help focus the interest of clinical pathologists on this widely overlooked part of the kidney. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. High grade primary adrenal intravascular large B-cell lymphoma manifesting as Addison disease Linfoma intravascular de alto grado de células B grandes y origen suprarrenal que se manifiesta en forma de enfermedad de Addison

    J. Venizelos; D. Tamiolakis; M. Lambropoulou; G. Alexiadis; G. Petrakis; N. Papadopoulos

    2007-01-01

    We report a rare case of a 68 aged male who presented with adrenal failure and was diagnosed of high grade large B-cell lymphoma primarily arising in the adrenal glands. The patient was administrated with additional chemotherapy but he passed away 7 months later due to infection in the lungs. Intravascular lymphoma should be suspected in patients with bilateral adrenal masses who present with rapidly progressive adrenal insufficiency.Publicamos el caso poco frecuente de un varón de 68 años de...

  2. Synchronous Microscopic Epstein-Barr Virus-Positive Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of the Adrenal and Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma: De Novo Disease or Transformation?

    Moonim, Mufaddal T; Nasir, Alia; Hubbard, Jonathan; Ketley, Nicholas; Fields, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Lymphomas arising in the adrenal are rare, and to our knowledge, 2 cases of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) in an adrenal pseudocyst have been reported. We report an incidental EBV-positive DLBCL arising in an adrenal pseudocyst in a 58-year-old man with a 7-year history of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL). The DLBCL was present in the fibrinous exudate, while the LPL resided in the cyst wall. The patient underwent de-roofing of the same cyst 3 years previously; review of histology revealed foci of LPL in the cyst wall, but not of DLBCL. There have been reports of similar microscopic EBV-positive DLBCLs within enclosed cystic spaces. However, all these cases were incidental extranodal primary DLBCLs. Since residual LPL was present alongside DLBCL, with similar light chain restriction, we propose that this may represent transformation, rather than a de novo primary EBV-driven lymphoma.

  3. Respiratory function after lesions in medulla oblongata.

    Woischneck, Dieter; Kapapa, Thomas; Heissler, Hans E; Reissberg, Steffen; Skalej, Martin; Firsching, Raimund

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the correlation of lesions of the brain as visualized in cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the ability of spontaneous respiration. In a prospective concept, cranial MRI after traumatic brain injury or spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage was performed in 250 subjects at an early stage. All MRI findings were correlated with respiratory conditions on the day of examination. Sedation was performed only to facilitate toleration of the artificial ventilation, as and when necessary. Spontaneous respiration could hence be registered clinically. Thirteen subjects (5.2%) had no spontaneous respiration. In these cases, a bilateral lesion of the distal medulla oblongata could be displayed. In four of these cases, no additional injuries of the brainstem were detected. These subjects awoke 2 days after the impact with tetraparesis and apnea. Combined lesions of the medulla oblongata and other brainstem regions were found in nine subjects. All these patients died without awakening. In the absence of a bilateral lesion of the caudal medulla oblongata, spontaneous respiration was always possible. A unilateral lesion of the caudal medulla oblongata was visualized in one patient who had the ability of spontaneous respiration. This work confirms the presence of autonomous respiratory centers within the caudal medulla oblongata that allows sufficient adequate respiration in coma. Respiration ceases in the presence of a bilateral lesion of this area.

  4. The Effects of Insulin-Induced Hypoglycaemia on Tyrosine Hydroxylase Phosphorylation in Rat Brain and Adrenal Gland.

    Senthilkumaran, Manjula; Johnson, Michaela E; Bobrovskaya, Larisa

    2016-07-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and TH phosphorylation in the adrenal gland, C1 cell group, locus coeruleus (LC) and midbrain dopaminergic cell groups that are thought to play a role in response to hypoglycaemia and compared the effects of different concentrations of insulin in rats. Insulin (1 and 10 U/kg) treatment caused similar reductions in blood glucose concentration (from 7.5-9 to 2-3 mmol/L); however, plasma adrenaline concentration was increased 20-30 fold in response to 10 U/kg insulin and only 14 fold following 1 U/kg. Time course studies (at 10 U/kg insulin) revealed that in the adrenal gland, Ser31 phosphorylation was increased between 30 and 90 min (4-5 fold), implying that TH was activated to increase catecholamine synthesis in adrenal medulla to replenish the stores. In the brain, Ser19 phosphorylation was limited to certain dopaminergic groups in the midbrain, while Ser31 phosphorylation was increased in most catecholaminergic regions at 60 min (1.3-2 fold), suggesting that Ser31 phosphorylation may be an important mechanism to maintain catecholamine synthesis in the brain. Comparing the effects of 1 and 10 U/kg insulin revealed that Ser31 phosphorylation was increased to similar extent in the adrenal gland and C1 cell group in response to both doses whereas Ser31 and Ser19 phosphorylation were only increased in response to 1 U/kg insulin in LC and in response to 10 U/kg insulin in most midbrain regions. Thus, the adrenal gland and some catecholaminergic brain regions become activated in response to insulin administration and brain catecholamines may be important for initiation of physiological defences against insulin-induced hypoglycaemia.

  5. [Immunoendocrine associations in adrenal glands].

    Sterzl, I; Hrdá, P

    2010-12-01

    Immune and endocrine systems are basic regulatory mechanisms of organism and, including the nervous system, maintain the organism's homeostasis. The main immune system representatives are mononuclear cells, T- and B-cells and their products, in the endocrine system the main representatives are cells of the glands with inner secretion and their products. One of the most important glands for maintaining homeostasis are adrenal glands. It has been proven that either cells of the immune system, either endocrine cells can, although in trace amounts, produce mutually mediators of both systems (hormones, cytokines). Disorders in one system can lead to pathological symptoms in the other system. Also here represent adrenals an important model.

  6. Adrenal medullary regulation of rat renal cortical adrenergic receptors

    Sundaresan, P.R.; Guarnaccia, M.M.; Izzo, J.L. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The role of the adrenal medulla in the regulation of renal cortical adrenergic receptors was investigated in renal cortical particular fractions from control rats and rats 6 wk after adrenal demedullation. The specific binding of [ 3 H]prazosin, [ 3 H]rauwolscine, and [ 125 I]iodocyanopindolol were used to quantitate α 1 -, α 2 -, and β-adrenergic receptors, respectively. Adrenal demedullation increased the concentration of all three groups of renal adrenergic receptors; maximal number of binding sites (B max , per milligram membrane protein) for α 1 -, and α 2 -, and β-adrenergic receptors were increased by 22, 18.5, and 25%, respectively. No differences were found in the equilibrium dissociation constants (K D ) for any of the radioligands. Plasma corticosterone and plasma and renal norepinephrine levels were unchanged, whereas plasma epinephrine was decreased 72% by adrenal demedullation, renal cortical epinephrine was not detectable in control or demedullated animals. The results suggest that, in the physiological state, the adrenal medulla modulates the number of renal cortical adrenergic receptors, presumably through the actions of a circulating factor such as epinephrine

  7. Adrenal scintigraphy with Scintadren

    Dabasi, G.; Irto, I.; Hernady, T.; Balint, I.

    1983-01-01

    68 patients with various adrenal disorders have been examined using Scintadren /TRC Amersham, England/. The parameters of adrenal imaging under Dexamethason suppression and after its discontinuance were established

  8. Ketamine inhibits 45Ca influx and catecholamine secretion by inhibiting 22Na influx in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells

    Takara, Hiroshi; Wada, Akihiko; Arita, Masahide; Izumi, Futoshi; Sumikawa, Koji

    1986-01-01

    The effects of ketamine, an intravenous anesthetic, on 22 Na influx, 45 Ca influx and catecholamine secretion were investigated in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells. Ketamine inhibited carbachol-induced 45 Ca influx and catecholamine secretion in a concentration-dependent manner with a similar potency. Ketamine also reduced veratridine-induced 45 Ca influx and catecholamine secretion. The influx of 22 Na caused by carbachol or by veratridine was suppressed by ketamine with a concentration-inhibition curve similar to that of 45 Ca influx and catecholamine secretion. Inhibition by ketamine of the carbachol-induced influx of 22 Na, 45 Ca and secretion of catecholamines was not reversed by the increased concentrations of carbachol. These observations indicate that ketamine, at clinical concentrations, can inhibit nicotinic receptor-associated ionic channels and that the inhibition of Na influx via the receptor-associated ionic channels is responsible for the inhibition of carbachol-induced Ca influx and catecholamine secretion. (Auth.)

  9. Rare myeloid sarcoma/acute myeloid leukemia with adrenal mass after allogeneic mobilization peripheral blood stem cell transplantation

    Wang, Ya-Fei; Li, Qian; Xu, Wen-Gui; Xiao, Jian-Yu; Pang, Qing-Song; Yang, Qing; Zhang, Yi-Zuo

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a rare hematological neoplasm that develops either de novo or concurrently with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This neoplasm can also be an initial manifestation of relapse in a previously treated AML that is in remission. A 44-year-old male patient was diagnosed with testis MS in a local hospital in August 2010. After one month, bone marrow biopsy and aspiration confirmed the diagnosis of AML. Allogeneic mobilization peripheral blood stem cell transplantation was performed, with the sister of the patient as donor, after complete remission (CR) was achieved by chemotherapy. Five months after treatment, an adrenal mass was detected by positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT). Radiotherapy was performed for the localized mass after a multidisciplinary team (MDT) discussion. The patient is still alive as of May 2013, with no evidence of recurrent MS or leukemia

  10. The affection of APA microcapsulation on catecholamine and leucine-enkephalin secretion from the bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells

    Guo Shuilong; Cui Xin; Luo Yun; Xue Yilong

    2002-01-01

    The affection of alginate-polylysine-alginate (APA) microcapsulation on catecholamine (CA) and leucine-enkephalin (L-EK) secretion from bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells was analysed. Encapsulating BCCs with the APA microcapsulation, the secretion of CA and L-EK in encapsulated BCCs was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical assay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. There is little difference between the encapsulated BCCs and the non-encapsulated BCCs in the secretion of epinephrine (E) and noradrenaline (NE) but the secretion of dopamine (DA) and L-EK in several points decline. The studies indicated that APA microcapsulation of BCCs didn't affect the secretion of E and NE, but did the secretion DA and L-EK in forepart

  11. Adrenal Gland Disorders: Condition Information

    ... About Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print About Adrenal Gland Disorders The adrenal glands, located on the top of ... as estrogen and testosterone. What are adrenal gland disorders? Adrenal gland disorders occur when the adrenal glands do not ...

  12. Dynamics of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript containing cell changes in the adrenal glands of two kidney, one clip rats.

    Kasacka, Irena; Piotrowska, Zaneta; Janiuk, Izabela; Zbucki, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Taking into consideration the homeostatic disorders resulting from renal hypertension and the essential role of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in maintaining homeostasis by regulating many functions of the body, the question arises as to what extent the renovascular hypertension affects the morphology and dynamics of changes of CART-containing cells in the adrenal glands. The aim of the present study was to examine the distribution, morphology, and dynamics of changes of CART-containing cells in the adrenal glands of "two kidney, one clip" (2K1C) renovascular hypertension model in rats. The studies were carried out on the adrenal glands of rats after 3, 14, 28, 42, and 91 days from the renal artery clipping procedure. To identify neuroendocrine cells, immunohistochemical reaction was performed with the use of a specific antibody against CART. It was revealed that renovascular hypertension causes changes in the endocrine cells containing CART in the adrenal glands of rats. The changes observed in the endocrine cells depend on the time when the rats with experimentally induced hypertension were examined. In the first period of hypertension, the number and immunoreactivity of CART-containing cells were decreased, while from the 28-day test, it significantly increased, as compared to the control rats. CART is relevant to the regulation of homeostasis in the cardiovascular system and seems to be involved in renovascular hypertension. The results of the present work open the possibility of new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of arterial hypertension, since CART function is involved in their pathophysiology. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  13. Treadmill exercise does not change gene expression of adrenal catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in chronically stressed rats

    LJUBICA GAVRILOVIC

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chronic isolation of adult animals represents a form of psychological stress that produces sympatho-adrenomedullar activation. Exercise training acts as an important modulator of sympatho-adrenomedullary system. This study aimed to investigate physical exercise-related changes in gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes (tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine-ß-hydroxylase and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding (CREB in the adrenal medulla, concentrations of catecholamines and corticosterone (CORT in the plasma and the weight of adrenal glands of chronically psychosocially stressed adult rats exposed daily to 20 min treadmill running for 12 weeks. Also, we examined how additional acute immobilization stress changes the mentioned parameters. Treadmill running did not result in modulation of gene expression of catecholamine synthesizing enzymes and it decreased the level of CREB mRNA in the adrenal medulla of chronically psychosocially stressed adult rats. The potentially negative physiological adaptations after treadmill running were recorded as increased concentrations of catecholamines and decreased morning CORT concentration in the plasma, as well as the adrenal gland hypertrophy of chronically psychosocially stressed rats. The additional acute immobilization stress increases gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in the adrenal medulla, as well as catecholamines and CORT levels in the plasma. Treadmill exercise does not change the activity of sympatho-adrenomedullary system of chronically psychosocially stressed rats.

  14. Medulla Oblongata Hemorrhage and Reverse Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy.

    Gobeske, Kevin T; Sarano, Maurice E; Fugate, Jennifer E; Wijdicks, Eelco F

    2017-12-19

    Acute brain injury with strong surges of adrenergic outflow has resulted in takotsubo cardiomyopathy, but there are surprisingly few reports of takotsubo cardiomyopathy after intracranial hemorrhage, and none have been described from hemorrhage within the brainstem. We describe a patient with reverse and reversible cardiomyopathy following a hemorrhage in the lateral medulla oblongata. While it is limited in size, the location of the hemorrhage caused acute systolic failure with left ventricular ejection fraction of 27% and vasopressor requirement for cardiogenic shock and pulmonary edema. There was full recovery after 7 days. Detailed case report. Hemorrhage into medulla oblongata pressor centers may result in acute, reversible, stress-induced cardiomyopathy, affirming the adrenergic origin of this condition.

  15. Rooibos Flavonoids Inhibit the Activity of Key Adrenal Steroidogenic Enzymes, Modulating Steroid Hormone Levels in H295R Cells

    Lindie Schloms

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Major rooibos flavonoids—dihydrochalcones, aspalathin and nothofagin, flavones—orientin and vitexin, and a flavonol, rutin, were investigated to determine their influence on the activity of adrenal steroidogenic enzymes, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD2 and cytochrome P450 (P450 enzymes, P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1, P450 21-hydroxylase (CYP21A2 and P450 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1. All the flavonoids inhibited 3βHSD2 and CYP17A1 significantly, while the inhibition of downstream enzymes, CYP21A2 and CYP11B1, was both substrate and flavonoid specific. The dihydrochalcones inhibited the activity of CYP21A2, but not that of CYP11B1. Although rutin, orientin and vitexin inhibited deoxycortisol conversion by CYP11B1 significantly, inhibition of deoxycorticosterone was <20%. These three flavonoids were unable to inhibit CYP21A2, with negligible inhibition of deoxycortisol biosynthesis only. Rooibos inhibited substrate conversion by CYP17A1 and CYP21A2, while the inhibition of other enzyme activities was <20%. In H295R cells, rutin had the greatest inhibitory effect on steroid production upon forskolin stimulation, reducing total steroid output 2.3-fold, while no effect was detected under basal conditions. Nothofagin and vitexin had a greater inhibitory effect on overall steroid production compared to aspalathin and orientin, respectively. The latter compounds contain two hydroxyl groups on the B ring, while nothofagin and vitexin contain a single hydroxyl group. In addition, all of the flavonoids are glycosylated, albeit at different positions—dihydrochalcones at C3' and flavones at C8 on ring A, while rutin, a larger molecule, has a rutinosyl moiety at C3 on ring C. Structural differences regarding the number and position of hydroxyl and glucose moieties as well as structural flexibility could indicate different mechanisms by which these flavonoids influence the activity of adrenal steroidogenic enzymes.

  16. Effect of forskolin and prostaglandin E1 on stimulus secretion coupling in cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Marriott, D; Adams, M; Boarder, M R

    1988-02-01

    Treatment of adrenal chromaffin cells with forskolin (0.1-10 microM) stimulated cyclic AMP levels, reduced the maximal stimulation of release of noradrenaline by nicotine, and increased release in response to elevated external potassium and the calcium ionophore A23187. The presence of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor Ro 20-17-24 with forskolin potentiated both the stimulation of cyclic AMP and the inhibition of nicotine-induced noradrenaline release. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP, and the elevation of cyclic AMP with prostaglandin E1, also attenuated nicotine-stimulated release. However, when the stimulation of intracellular cyclic AMP production by prostaglandin E1 was potentiated by low levels of forskolin, there was not a concomitant potentiation of effect on noradrenaline release. Dideoxyforskolin, an analogue of forskolin which does not stimulate adenylate cyclase, inhibited both potassium- and nicotine-stimulated release, probably by a mechanism unrelated to the action of forskolin in these experiments. Using Fura-2 to estimate free intracellular calcium levels, both forskolin and dideoxyforskolin (at 10 microM) reduced the calcium transient in response to nicotine. These results support a model in which elevation of cyclic AMP inhibits the activation of nicotinic receptors, but augments stimulus secretion coupling downstream of calcium entry. The data, however, do not indicate a simple relationship between total intracellular cyclic AMP levels and the attenuation of nicotinic stimulation of release.

  17. Transbilayer transport of a propyltrimethylammonium derivative of diphenylhexatriene (TMAP-DPH) in bovine blood platelets and adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Kitagawa, Shuji; Tachikawa, Eiichi; Kashimoto, Takashi

    2002-12-01

    The membrane fluorescent probe N-((4-(6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatrienyl)phenyl)propyl)trimethylammonium (TMAP-DPH) has an additional three-carbon spacer between the fluorophore and the trimethylammonium substituent of 1-(4-trimethylammoniumphenyl)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (TMA-DPH). As a basic study to clarify the transport mechanism of amphiphilic quaternary ammoniums, we observed the characteristics of the transbilayer transport of TMAP-DPH in bovine blood platelets and bovine adrenal chromaffin cells using the albumin extraction method. We compared these inward transport rates with those of TMA-DPH. TMAP-DPH crossed into the cytoplasmic layers of the membranes more slowly than TMA-DPH after rapid binding to the outer halves of the plasma membranes. The transport rate markedly depended on temperature. Time to reach the half-maximal incorporated amount of TMAP-DPH increased threefold accompanied by an increase in the concentration from 0.2 to 1.5 microM. The transport was stimulated significantly by various types of membrane perturbations such as modification of sulfhydryl-groups by N-ethylmaleimide and benzyl alcohol-induced increase in the fluidity of the lipid bilayer. The saturation phenomenon suggested the presence of the regulatory process in the transbilayer transport of TMAP-DPH.

  18. Prolactin induces adrenal hypertrophy

    E.J. Silva

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Although adrenocorticotropic hormone is generally considered to play a major role in the regulation of adrenal glucocorticoid secretion, several reports have suggested that other pituitary hormones (e.g., prolactin also play a significant role in the regulation of adrenal function. The aim of the present study was to measure the adrenocortical cell area and to determine the effects of the transition from the prepubertal to the postpubertal period on the hyperprolactinemic state induced by domperidone (4.0 mg kg-1 day-1, sc. In hyperprolactinemic adult and young rats, the adrenals were heavier, as determined at necropsy, than in the respective controls: adults (30 days: 0.16 ± 0.008 and 0.11 ± 0.007; 46 days: 0.17 ± 0.006 and 0.12 ± 0.008, and 61 days: 0.17 ± 0.008 and 0.10 ± 0.004 mg for treated and control animals, respectively; P < 0.05, and young rats (30 days: 0.19 ± 0.003 and 0.16 ± 0.007, and 60 days: 0.16 ± 0.006 and 0.13 ± 0.009 mg; P < 0.05. We selected randomly a circular area in which we counted the nuclei of adrenocortical cells. The area of zona fasciculata cells was increased in hyperprolactinemic adult and young rats compared to controls: adults: (61 days: 524.90 ± 47.85 and 244.84 ± 9.03 µm² for treated and control animals, respectively; P < 0.05, and young rats: (15 days: 462.30 ± 16.24 and 414.28 ± 18.19; 60 days: 640.51 ± 12.91 and 480.24 ± 22.79 µm²; P < 0.05. Based on these data we conclude that the increase in adrenal weight observed in the hyperprolactinemic animals may be due to prolactin-induced adrenocortical cell hypertrophy.

  19. Dyspnea and choking as presenting symptoms in primary medulla oblongata germinoma.

    Yip, Chi-Man; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Hsu, Shu-Shong; Liao, Wei-Chuan; Chen, Jun-Yih; Chen, Chih-Hao; Chang, Chia-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    The medulla oblongata is the lower half of the brainstem. It contains the cardiac, respiratory, vomiting, and vasomotor centers and deals with autonomic functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. Primary medulla oblongata germinoma is very rare and less than 20 cases have been reported in the English literature. A 22-year-old female without any particular past medical history presented to us in October 2012 with the chief complaint of dyspnea and frequent choking for 1 month. Neurological examination revealed lower cranial nerve palsies and nystagmus. Her brain computed tomography (CT) and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a mass lesion at the dorsal surface of medulla oblongata with extension into the inferior fourth ventricle and foramen magnum. She underwent bilateral suboccipital craniotomy and C1 laminoplasty with the grossly total resection of the tumor. The histological examination of the tumor proved germinoma. Postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy was arranged. The latest brain MRI and whole spine MRI done 1 year after surgery showed neither residual nor recurrent tumor in the whole axis. She is regularly followed-up at our outpatient department and is doing well except having left vocal cord palsy, which occurred before surgery. Medulloblastoma, ependymoma, glioma, hemangioblastoma, and cavernous angioma are common intraaxial tumors in the medulla oblongata and fourth ventricle. Intracranial germ cell tumors originate from extragonadal seminal cells and have been found in 0.4-3.4% of patients with primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors in Western countries, while the incidence is reported to be 5-8 times greater in Japan and the Far East. Although germinoma of medulla oblongata is rare and difficult to diagnose preoperatively, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of medulla masses with fourth ventricle extension, especially in Asian population.

  20. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  1. Acute adrenal crisis

    ... adrenal gland is damaged due to, for example, Addison disease or other adrenal gland disease, and surgery The ... Call your health care provider if you have Addison disease and are unable to take your glucocorticoid medicine ...

  2. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  3. Coexistence of Cushing syndrome from functional adrenal adenoma and Addison disease from immune-mediated adrenalitis.

    Colucci, Randall; Jimenez, Rafael E; Farrar, William; Malgor, Ramiro; Kohn, Leonard; Schwartz, Frank L

    2012-06-01

    A 56-year-old woman presented with an incidental adrenal adenoma and physical examination findings that included moderate obesity, a slight cervicothoracic fat pad ("buffalo hump"), increased supraclavicular fat pads, and white abdominal striae. Biochemical workup revealed elevated levels of 24-hour urinary free cortisol but normal serum morning cortisol and suppressed levels of corticotropin, suggestive of adrenal-dependent Cushing syndrome. The resected adrenal gland revealed macronodular cortical hyperplasia with a dominant nodule. Other findings included an absent cortisol response to corticotropin stimulation, presence of serum anti-21-hydroxylase antibodies, and mononuclear cell infiltration--consistent with adrenalitis. The findings represent, to the authors' knowledge, the first known case of a patient with coexistent functional cortisol-secreting macronodular adrenal tumor resulting in Cushing syndrome and immune-mediated adrenalitis resulting in Addison disease.

  4. Isolated medulla oblongata function after severe traumatic brain injury

    Wijdicks, E; Atkinson, J; Okazaki, H

    2001-01-01

    The objective was to report the first pathologically confirmed case of partly functionally preserved medulla oblongata in a patient with catastrophic traumatic brain injury.
A patient is described with epidural haematoma with normal breathing and blood pressure and a retained coughing reflex brought on only by catheter suctioning of the carina. Multiple contusions in the thalami and pons were found but the medulla oblongata was spared at necropsy. 
In conclusion, medulla oblong...

  5. Cytoplasmic organelles determine complexity and specificity of calcium signalling in adrenal chromaffin cells

    Garsia-Sancho, J.; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 192, č. 2 (2008), s. 263-271 ISSN 1748-1708 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Ca2+ signalling * calcium microdomains * chromaffin cells Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 2.455, year: 2008

  6. Modulation of agonist-induced inositol phosphate metabolism by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in adrenal glomerulosa cells

    Baukal, A.J.; Hunyady, L.; Balla, T.; Ely, J.A.; Catt, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    Activation of the cAMP messenger system was found to cause specific changes in angiotensin-II (All)-induced inositol phosphate production and metabolism in bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells. Pretreatment of [3H]inositol-labeled glomerulosa cells with 8-bromo-cAMP (8Br-cAMP) caused both short and long term changes in the inositol phosphate response to stimulation by All. Exposure to 8Br-cAMP initially caused dose-dependent enhancement (ED50 = 0.7 microM) of the stimulatory action of All (50 nM; 10 min) on the formation of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] and its immediate metabolites. This effect of 8Br-cAMP was also observed in permeabilized [3H]inositol-labeled glomerulosa cells in which degradation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 was inhibited, consistent with increased activity of phospholipase-C. Continued exposure to 8Br-cAMP for 5-16 h caused selective enhancement of the All-induced increases in D-myo-inositol 1,3,4,6-tetrakisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4,6)P4] and myo-inositol 1,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate. The long term effect of 8Br-cAMP on the 6-phosphorylated InsP4 isomers, but not the initial enhancement of Ins(1,4,5)P3 formation, was inhibited by cycloheximide. The characteristic biphasic kinetics of All-induced Ins(1,4,5)P3 formation were also changed by prolonged treatment with 8Br-cAMP to a monophasic response in which Ins(1,4,5)P3 increased rapidly and remained elevated during All stimulation. In permeabilized glomerulosa cells treated with 8Br-cAMP for 16 h, the conversion of D-myo-inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4)P3] to Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 was consistently increased, whereas dephosphorylation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 to D-myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate and of D-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate to Ins(1,3,4)P3, was reduced

  7. Internal Ca2+ mobilization and secretion in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    Cheek, T R; Thastrup, Ole

    1989-01-01

    and the sesquiterpene lactone thapsigargin (TG), which releases internal Ca2+ without concomitant breakdown of inositol lipids or protein kinase C activation, to examine the events which follow depletion of the releasable Ca2+ store in these cells. Monitoring [Ca2+]i using Fura-2 demonstrated that TG released Ca2+ from......-state that was dependent on the continual entry of extracellular Ca2+.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  8. Influence of bradykinin on diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid accumulation in cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Owen, P J; Boarder, M R

    1991-09-01

    Earlier studies have shown that bradykinin stimulated release of catecholamines from chromaffin cells by an influx of calcium through dihydropyridine-insensitive channels, and also that bradykinin stimulated (poly)phosphoinositide hydrolysis. To investigate membrane-bound second messengers in chromaffin cells, and to elucidate any role these may play in stimulus-secretion coupling, we have studied the influence of bradykinin on diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid (PA). Using equilibrium labelling of primary cultures of chromaffin cells with [3H]arachidonic acid or [3H]glycerol, we found no influence of bradykinin (10 nM) on labelled diacylglycerol formation, either in the presence or absence of inhibitors of diacylglycerol lipase or kinase. However, when we used cells prelabelled with 32Pi for 2.5 h, we found that bradykinin produced a substantial stimulation of label found in PA, with an EC50 value of about 1 nM. This bradykinin stimulation of [32P]PA formation was only partially dependent on extracellular calcium, in contrast to the smaller response to nicotine, which was completely dependent on extracellular calcium. Short (10 min) pretreatment with tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) almost completely eliminated the bradykinin-stimulated formation of inositol phosphates, but failed to affect bradykinin stimulation of label in PA, suggesting that PA production in response to bradykinin is not downstream of phospholipase C activation. TPA alone failed to stimulate [32P]PA substantially, whereas long-term (24 or 48 h) treatment with TPA failed to attenuate the response to bradykinin. Diacylglycerol kinase inhibitors were also without effect on the bradykinin stimulation of [32P]PA. These results suggest that bradykinin stimulates PA production by a mechanism independent of the activation of protein kinase C.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Nonislet Cell Tumor Hypoglycemia in a Patient with Adrenal Cortical Carcinoma

    Se Won Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonislet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH is a rare but serious paraneoplastic syndrome in which a tumor secretes incompletely processed precursors of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II, causing hypoglycemia. Here, we report an exceptional case of NICTH caused by nonfunctioning adrenocortical carcinoma in a 39-year-old male with recurrent hypoglycemia. The patient’s serum IGF-II/IGF-I ratio had increased to 27.8. The serum level of the IGF-II/IGF-I ratio was normalized after removal of the tumor, and the hypoglycemic attacks no longer occurred after the operation.

  10. The BAR Domain Protein PICK1 Controls Vesicle Number and Size in Adrenal Chromaffin Cells

    da Silva Pinheiro, Paulo César; Jansen, Anna M; de Wit, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    , a marker for immature granules. In chromaffin cells isolated from a PICK1 knockout (KO) mouse the amount of exocytosis was reduced, while release kinetics and Ca(2+) sensitivity were unaffected. Vesicle-fusion events had a reduced frequency and released lower amounts of transmitter per vesicle (i...... in vesicle number and size, whereas the fusion competence of generated vesicles was unaffected by the absence of PICK1. Viral rescue experiments demonstrated that long-term re-expression of PICK1 is necessary to restore normal vesicular content and secretion, while short-term overexpression is ineffective...

  11. Impact of Acute Deltamethrin Poisoning on Rat Adrenal Glands: Biochemical and Pathomorphological Study

    Eugene A. Chigrinski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deltamethrin is known all over the world as an effective preparation for the control of insects. In connection with this, its role as a chemical stressor increases. The aim of the study was to determine the features of the functioning and structure of AG after a single administration of synthetic pyrethroid deltamethrin in experimental animals at a dose of 17.4 mg/kg (1/5 LD50. Material and Methods: For the experiment, 88 male Wistar rats with a body weight of 240±10 g were divided into 8 groups of 10–12 animals each. Groups 1, 3, 5, and 7 were control groups, which were administered physiological solution intragastrically. The animals in Groups 2, 4, 6, and 8 received a single dose (17.4mg/kg of deltamethrin, which corresponds to 1/5 LD50. In the serum of rats, the content of ACTH, progesterone, DHEA-sulfate, corticosterone and aldosterone was determined by EIA. Histological preparations of adrenal glands were stained with H&E, picrofuxin according to Van Gieson, and with Bismarck brown according to Shubich. On frozen sections, lipids were detected by Sudan Black B.\tResults: One day after intoxication, we identified an increase in adrenal mass, edema of the parenchyma and blood capillary overflow, and a large number of lipids in corticocytes. In the blood serum, the concentration of ACTH and corticosteroids increased, but their level decreased in the adrenal cortex. After 3 days, the concentration of corticosterone in the blood serum of the experimental animals remained above the control value, but the content of other hormones decreased. At the border of the cortex and the medulla of the adrenal glands, there were mast cells in a state of degranulation; the amount of lipids decreased with time. In the subsequent terms of the study, a decrease in the weight of AG with a decrease in the concentration of hormones in the blood serum and adrenal tissue was detected. Conclusion: The intoxication of rats with deltamethrin causes

  12. Adrenal medullary hyperplasia. Hyperplasia-pheochromocytoma sequence.

    Kurihara, K; Mizuseki, K; Kondo, T; Ohoka, H; Mannami, M; Kawai, K

    1990-09-01

    We present a case of unilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia in a 63-year-old woman with clinical signs and symptoms of pheochromocytoma unassociated with multiple endocrine neoplasia. The surgically removed adrenal gland revealed diffuse medullary hyperplasia with multiple micronodules measuring up to 2 mm. The micronodules were composed of enlarged chromaffin cells with atypia, histologically similar to those of pheochromocytoma, forming small solid alveolar patterns separated by a fibrovascular stroma. Removal of the hyperplastic adrenal gland resulted in disappearance of paroxysmal nocturnal hypertension and palpitation. These results suggest that diffuse and nodular medullary hyperplasia is the precursor of pheochromocytoma.

  13. High grade primary adrenal intravascular large B-cell lymphoma manifesting as Addison disease Linfoma intravascular de alto grado de células B grandes y origen suprarrenal que se manifiesta en forma de enfermedad de Addison

    J. Venizelos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of a 68 aged male who presented with adrenal failure and was diagnosed of high grade large B-cell lymphoma primarily arising in the adrenal glands. The patient was administrated with additional chemotherapy but he passed away 7 months later due to infection in the lungs. Intravascular lymphoma should be suspected in patients with bilateral adrenal masses who present with rapidly progressive adrenal insufficiency.Publicamos el caso poco frecuente de un varón de 68 años de edad que debutó con insuficiencia adrenal y fue diagnosticado de linfoma de alto grado de células B grandes ubicado principalmente en las glándulas suprarrenales. Al paciente le administraron quimioterapia adicional, pero falleció 7 meses después de infección pulmonar. El linfoma intravascular debe sospecharse en los pacientes con masas suprarrenales bilaterales que presenten insuficiencia adrenal rápidamente progresiva.

  14. Synthesis, biological evaluation, and baboon PET imaging of the potential adrenal imaging agent cholesteryl-p-[18f]fluorobenzoate

    Jonson, Stephanie D.; Welch, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Cholesteryl-p-[ 18 F]fluorobenzoate ([ 18 F]CFB) was investigated as a potential adrenal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agent for the diagnostic imaging of adrenal disorders. We describe the synthesis, biodistribution, adrenal autoradiography, and baboon PET imaging of [ 18 F]CFB. The synthesis of [ 18 F]CFB was facilitated by the use of a specially designed microwave cavity that was instrumental in effecting 70-83% incorporation of fluorine-18 in 60 s via [ 18 F]fluoro-for-nitro exchange. Tissue distribution studies in mature female Sprague-Dawley rats showed good accumulation of [ 18 F]CFB in the steroid-secreting tissues, adrenals and ovaries, at 1 h postinjection. The effectiveness of [ 18 F]CFB to accumulate in diseased adrenals was shown through biodistribution studies in hypolipidemic rats, which showed a greater than threefold increase in adrenal uptake at 1 h and increased adrenal/liver and adrenal/kidney ratios. Analysis of the metabolites at 1 h in the blood, adrenals, spleen, and ovaries of hypolipidemic and control rats showed the intact tracer representing greater than 86%, 93%, 92%, and 82% of the accumulated activity, respectively. [ 18 F]CFB was confirmed to selectively accumulate in the adrenal cortex versus the adrenal medulla by autoradiography. Normal baboon PET imaging with [ 18 F]CFB effectively showed adrenal localization as early as 15 min after injection of the tracer, with enhanced adrenal contrast seen at 60-70 min. These results suggest that [ 18 F]CFB may be useful as an adrenal PET imaging agent for assessing adrenal disorders

  15. Just another abdominal pain? Psoas abscess-like metastasis in large cell lung cancer with adrenal insufficiency.

    Bernardino, Vera; Val-Flores, Luis Silva; Dias, João Lopes; Bento, Luís

    2015-06-10

    The authors report the case of a 69-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and previous pulmonary tuberculosis, who presented to the emergency department with abdominal and low back pain, anorexia and weight loss, rapidly evolving into shock. An initial CT scan revealed pulmonary condensation with associated cavitation and an iliopsoas mass suggestive of a psoas abscess. He was admitted in an intensive care unit unit; after a careful examination and laboratory assessment, the aetiology was yet undisclosed. MRI showed multiple retroperitoneal lymphadenopathies, bulky nodular adrenal lesions and bilateral iliac lytic lesions. Hypocortisolism was detected and treated with steroids. A CT-guided biopsy to the psoas mass and lytic lesions identified infiltration of non-small lung carcinoma. The patient died within days. Psoas metastases and adrenal insufficiency as initial manifestations of malignancy are rare and can be misdiagnosed, particularly in the absence of a known primary tumour. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. Giant Adrenal Myelolipoma Masquerading as Heart Failure

    Parijat S. Joy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal myelolipomas are rare benign tumors of the adrenal cortex composed of adipose and hematopoietic cells. They have been postulated to arise from repeated stimulation by stress, inflammation and ACTH oversecretion. Myelolipomas are usually detected incidentally on imaging and do not require any active intervention besides regular follow-up by imaging. However, myelolipomas may insidiously grow to large sizes and cause mass effects and hemorrhage. Timely diagnosis and surgical resection are curative and lifesaving.

  17. Comment on Tuberculoma in the Medulla Oblongata and Medulla Spinalis: Two Case Reports

    Özer, Ali Fahir

    2014-01-01

    1. Gülşen S, Caner H. Tuberculoma in the Medulla Oblongata and Me- dulla Spinalis: Two Case Reports. Balkan Med J 2013;30:442-4. 2. Talamás O, Del Brutto OH, García-Ramos G. Brain-stem tuberculoma. An analysis of 11 patients. Arch Neurol 1989;46:529-35. [CrossRef] 3. Gropper MR, Schulder M, Duran HL, Wolansky L. Cerebral tuberculo

  18. [A case of medulla oblongata compression by tortuous vertebral arteries presenting with spastic quadriplegia].

    Kamada, Takashi; Tateishi, Takahisa; Yamashita, Tamayo; Nagata, Shinji; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Kira, Jun-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    We report a 58-year-old man showing spastic paraparesis due to medulla oblongata compression by tortuous vertebral arteries. He noticed weakness of both legs and gait disturbance at the age of 58 years and his symptoms progressively worsened during the following several months. General physical findings were normal. Blood pressure was normal and there were no signs of arteriosclerosis. Neurological examination on admission revealed lower-limb-dominant spasticity in all four extremities, lower-limb weakness, hyperreflexia in all extremities with positive Wartenberg's, Babinski's and Chaddock's signs, mild hypesthesia and hypopallesthesia in both lower limbs, and spastic gait. Cranial nerves were all normal. Serum was negative for antibodies against human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 antibody. Nerve conduction and needle electromyographic studies of all four limbs revealed normal findings. Cervical, thoracic and lumbo-sacral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were all normal. Brain MRI and magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated bilateral tortuous vertebral arteries compressing the medulla oblongata. Neurovascular decompression of the right vertebral artery was performed because compression of the right side was more severe than that of the left side. Post-operative MRI revealed outward translocation of the right vertebral artery and relieved compression of the medulla oblongata on the right side. The patient's symptoms and neurological findings improved gradually after the operation. Bilateral pyramidal tract signs without cranial nerve dysfunction due to compression of the medulla oblongata by tortuous vertebral arteries are extremely rare and clinically indistinguishable from hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). Although we did not perform a genetic test for HSP, we consider that the spastic paraparesis and mild lower-limb hypesthesia were caused by compression of the medulla oblongata by bilateral tortuous vertebral arteries based on the post

  19. Hypoxia-induced increases in serotonin-immunoreactive nerve fibers in the medulla oblongata of the rat.

    Morinaga, Ryosuke; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Yamamoto, Yoshio

    2016-10-01

    Hypoxia induces respiratory responses in mammals and serotonergic neurons in the medulla oblongata participate in respiratory control. However, the morphological changes in serotonergic neurons induced by hypoxia have not yet been examined and respiratory controls of serotonergic neurons have not been clarified. We herein investigated the distribution of immunoreactivity for serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) in the medulla oblongata of control rats and rats exposed to 1-6h of hypoxia (10% O 2 ). We also examined the medulla oblongata by multiple immunofluorescence labeling for 5-HT, neurokinin 1 receptors (NK1R), a marker for some respiratory neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex (PBC), and dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), a marker for catecholaminergic neurons. The number of 5-HT-immunoreactive nerve cell bodies in the raphe nuclei was higher in rats exposed to hypoxia than in control rats. The number of 5-HT-immunoreactive nerve fibers significantly increased in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of rats exposed to 1-6h of hypoxia, caudal ventrolateral medulla of rats exposed to 2-6h of hypoxia, and lateral part of the nucleus of the solitary tract and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve of rats exposed to 1-2h of hypoxia. Multiple immunofluorescence labeling showed that 5-HT-immunoreactive nerve fibers were close to NK1R-immunoreactive neurons in ventrolateral medulla and to DBH-immunoreactive neurons in the medulla. These results suggest that serotonergic neurons partly regulate respiratory control under hypoxic conditions by modulating the activity of NK1R-expressing and catecholaminergic neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    ... Español NICHD Theme Browse AZTopics Browse A-Z Adrenal Gland Disorders Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Down Syndrome Endometriosis Learning ... Funding Opportunities & Notices Health A to Z List Adrenal Gland Disorders About NICHD Research Information Find a Study More ...

  1. High risk of adrenal toxicity of N1-desoxy quinoxaline 1,4-dioxide derivatives and the protection of oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) in the inhibition of the expression of aldosterone synthetase in H295R cells

    Wang, Xu; Yang, Chunhui; Ihsan, Awais; Luo, Xun; Guo, Pu; Cheng, Guyue; Dai, Menghong; Chen, Dongmei; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • N1-QCT, N1-MEQ and N1-CYA showed more adrenal toxicity than other metabolites. • N1-desoxy QdNOs reduced expression of CYP11B1, CYP11B2 and transcription factors. • OPC increased expression of transcription factors, including CYP11B1 and CYP11B2. • OPC reduced adrenal toxicity induced by N1-desoxy QdNOs. • The results provided a mechanism of adrenal damage caused by QdNO metabolites. - Abstract: Quinoxaline 1,4-dioxide derivatives (QdNOs) with a wide range of biological activities are used in animal husbandry worldwide. It was found that QdNOs significantly inhibited the gene expression of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2, the key aldosterone synthases, and thus reduced aldosterone levels. However, whether the metabolites of QdNOs have potential adrenal toxicity and the role of oxidative stress in the adrenal toxicity of QdNOs remains unclear. The relatively new QdNOs, cyadox (CYA), mequindox (MEQ), quinocetone (QCT) and their metabolites, were selected for elucidation of their toxic mechanisms in H295R cells. Interestingly, the results showed that the main toxic metabolites of QCT, MEQ, and CYA were their N1-desoxy metabolites, which were more harmful than other metabolites and evoked dose and time-dependent cell damage on adrenal cells and inhibited aldosterone production. Gene and protein expression of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 and mRNA expression of transcription factors, such as NURR1, NGFIB, CREB, SF-1, and ATF-1, were down regulated by N1-desoxy QdNOs. The natural inhibitors of oxidant stress, oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC), could upregulate the expression of diverse transcription factors, including CYP11B1 and CYP11B2, and elevated aldosterone levels to reduce adrenal toxicity. This study demonstrated for the first time that N1-desoxy QdNOs have the potential to be the major toxic metabolites in adrenal toxicity, which may shed new light on the adrenal toxicity of these fascinating compounds and help to provide a basic foundation for the

  2. Chapter 13. Adrenal glands

    Roux, H.; Paulin, R.

    1975-01-01

    The condition of isotopic methods to the functional and morphological exploration of the adrenal glands is shown, with emphasis on the fact that althought the cortico-adrenal responds to these methods the same does not apply to the medullo-adrenal, which expresses its morphological changes by producing deformations on the cortical image. Funtional tests, mainly directed at the cortico-adrenal, are described first: study of exchangeable sodium and potassium; determination of the plasma concentration and metabolic clearance of some steroid hormones (cortisol, corticosterone, aldosterone); evaluation of the renin activity. These tests are based on competitive analysis and radioimmunological methods. Morphological tests are examined next. Adrenal scintigraphy uses a simple technique (intraveinous administration of 131 I 19-iodocholesterol with no special preliminary preparation) which gives good images and is only limited now by the need to avoid over exposure of the gonads to ionising radiations [fr

  3. Biosynthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones by human adrenal carcinomas

    Brown, J.W.; Fishman, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    Over a 15-year period, our university-based laboratory obtained 125 adrenal tumors, of which 15 (12%) were adrenal cortical carcinomas. Of these, 6 (40% of the carcinomas) occurred in patients with clear clinical manifestations of steroid hormone excess. Adrenal cortical carcinoma cells derived from the surgically resected tumors in 4 of these patients were isolated and established in primary culture. Radiotracer steroid interconversion studies were carried out with these cultures and also on...

  4. Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma Presenting as Hypervascular Adrenal Metastasis

    Goroshi, Manjunath; Lila, Anurag R.; Bandgar, Tushar; Shah, Nalini S.

    2018-01-01

    Hypervascular adrenal masses include pheochromocytoma, metastases caused by clear renal cell carcinoma/hepatocellular carcinoma. Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) causing hypervascular metastases is not described in the literature. Here, we describe the first case of ASPS presenting as hypervascular metastasis. Our case was a 23-year-old male incidentally detected right adrenal mass during the evaluation of pain in the abdomen. On computed tomography (CT), adrenal mass showed bright enhanceme...

  5. Role of liver nerves and adrenal medulla in glucose turnover of running rats

    Sonne, B; Mikines, K J; Richter, Erik

    1985-01-01

    Sympathetic control of glucose turnover was studied in rats running 35 min at 21 m X min-1 on the level. The rats were surgically liver denervated, adrenodemedullated, or sham operated. Glucose turnover was measured by primed constant infusion of [3-3H]glucose. At rest, the three groups had...... identical turnover rates and concentrations of glucose in plasma. During running, glucose production always rose rapidly to steady levels. The increase was not influenced by liver denervation but was halved by adrenodemedullation. Similarly, hepatic glycogen depletion was identical in denervated and control...... rats but reduced after adrenodemedullation. Early in exercise, glucose uptake rose identically in all groups and, in adrenodemedullated rats, matched glucose production. Accordingly, plasma glucose concentration increased in liver-denervated and control rats but was constant in adrenodemedullated rats...

  6. Hemiparesis caused by vertebral artery compression of the medulla oblongata

    Kim, Phyo; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Yokochi, Masayuki; Ishijima, Buichi

    1984-01-01

    A case is reported of a patient with progressive left hemiparesis due to the vascular compression of the medulla oblongata. Metrizamide CT cisternography revealed the left vertebral artery to be compressing and distorting the left lateral surface of the medulla. This compression was relieved surgically, and the symptoms improved postoperatively. Neurological and symptomatic considerations are discussed in relation to the topographical anatomy of the lateral corticospinal tract. (author)

  7. Primary medulla oblongata germinoma in a male patient.

    Shuto, Takashi; Ohtake, Makoto; Matsunaga, Shigeo; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2012-05-01

    Germinoma mainly occurs in the pituitary stalk, pineal region, and basal ganglia. Sex predominance of the tumor in males in the pineal region and basal ganglia is well known. Primary germinoma of the medulla oblongata is rare, with only eight reports, mostly in females. We report the second male patient with primary medulla oblongata germinoma, without chromosomal abnormality, who was successfully treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Germinoma of the medulla oblongata - A case report.

    Budohoski, Karol P; O'Donovan, Dominic G; Harris, Fiona; Santarius, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    We describe a case of primary intracranial medulla oblongata germinoma in a 23-year-old female who presented with deteriorating balance and mobility. Imaging demonstrated an exophytic lesion arising from the dorsal medulla oblongata and extending into the fourth ventricle. The tissue sample was obtained via suboccipital craniotomy and a diagnosis of a primary medullary germinoma was made. The patient underwent whole craniospinal axis radiotherapy and remains well and recurrence-free at 1-year follow up.

  9. Architecture of the human renal inner medulla and functional implications.

    Wei, Guojun; Rosen, Seymour; Dantzler, William H; Pannabecker, Thomas L

    2015-10-01

    The architecture of the inner stripe of the outer medulla of the human kidney has long been known to exhibit distinctive configurations; however, inner medullary architecture remains poorly defined. Using immunohistochemistry with segment-specific antibodies for membrane fluid and solute transporters and other proteins, we identified a number of distinctive functional features of human inner medulla. In the outer inner medulla, aquaporin-1 (AQP1)-positive long-loop descending thin limbs (DTLs) lie alongside descending and ascending vasa recta (DVR, AVR) within vascular bundles. These vascular bundles are continuations of outer medullary vascular bundles. Bundles containing DTLs and vasa recta lie at the margins of coalescing collecting duct (CD) clusters, thereby forming two regions, the vascular bundle region and the CD cluster region. Although AQP1 and urea transporter UT-B are abundantly expressed in long-loop DTLs and DVR, respectively, their expression declines with depth below the outer medulla. Transcellular water and urea fluxes likely decline in these segments at progressively deeper levels. Smooth muscle myosin heavy chain protein is also expressed in DVR of the inner stripe and the upper inner medulla, but is sparsely expressed at deeper inner medullary levels. In rodent inner medulla, fenestrated capillaries abut CDs along their entire length, paralleling ascending thin limbs (ATLs), forming distinct compartments (interstitial nodal spaces; INSs); however, in humans this architecture rarely occurs. Thus INSs are relatively infrequent in the human inner medulla, unlike in the rodent where they are abundant. UT-B is expressed within the papillary epithelium of the lower inner medulla, indicating a transcellular pathway for urea across this epithelium. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Marked cortisol production by intracrine ACTH in GIP-treated cultured adrenal cells in which the GIP receptor was exogenously introduced.

    Hiroko Fujii

    Full Text Available The ectopic expression of the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPR in the human adrenal gland causes significant hypercortisolemia after ingestion of each meal and leads to Cushing's syndrome, implying that human GIPR activation is capable of robustly activating adrenal glucocorticoid secretion. In this study, we transiently transfected the human GIPR expression vector into cultured human adrenocortical carcinoma cells (H295R and treated them with GIP to examine the direct link between GIPR activation and steroidogenesis. Using quantitative RT-PCR assay, we examined gene expression of steroidogenic related proteins, and carried out immunofluorescence analysis to prove that forced GIPR overexpression directly promotes production of steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1 and CYP21A2 at the single cell level. Immunofluorescence showed that the transfection efficiency of the GIPR gene in H295R cells was approximately 5%, and GIP stimulation enhanced CYP21A2 and CYP17A1 expression in GIPR-introduced H295R cells (H295R-GIPR. Interestingly, these steroidogenic enzymes were also expressed in the GIPR (- cells adjacent to the GIPR (+ cells. The mRNA levels of a cholesterol transport protein required for all steroidogenesis, StAR, and steroidogenic enzymes, HSD3β2, CYP11A1, CYP21A2, and CYP17A1 increased 1.2-2.1-fold in GIP-stimulated H295R-GIPR cells. These changes were reflected in the culture medium in which 1.5-fold increase in the cortisol concentration was confirmed. Furthermore, the levels of adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH receptor and ACTH precursor proopiomelanocortin (POMC mRNA were upregulated 2- and 1.5-fold, respectively. Immunofluorescence showed that ACTH expression was detected in GIP-stimulated H295R-GIPR cells. An ACTH-receptor antagonist significantly inhibited steroidogenic gene expression and cortisol production. Immunostaining for both CYP17A1 and CYP21A2 was attenuated in cells treated with ACTH receptor antagonists

  11. Primary adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma

    Aftab S. Shaikh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal sarcomatoid carcinomas are extremely rare tumors presenting with extensive locoregional spread at the time of diagnosis. Patients succumb to metastases within a couple of months. As a result, very few cases are reported in the literature until now. We present a case of a 62-year old female with non-functional sarcomatoid carcinoma of the right adrenal gland. There was no radiological evidence of locoregional metastases. Patient underwent right adrenalectomy. Follow up after 3 months showed para-aortic lymphadenopathy and similar left adrenal mass on computed tomography. Patient refused further treatment and succumbed to the disease. A brief case report with review of literature is presented.

  12. Calcified adrenal cyst

    Kim, Chung Kyu; Choi, Byung Sook [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1970-10-15

    Calcified hemorrhagic adrenal cysts are rather rare and unusual pathologic entity. Especially, the peripheral curvilinear calcification on roentgenogram is fairly characteristic picture of the cysts. Recently, we have experienced in Severance Hospital one of the classical cases of the benign calcified adrenal cyst in 35 year old white mail patient who has had vague abdominal pain and palpable mass in right abdomen. It has been reviewed several reports for adrenal cysts and hoped that this report may call additional attention of radiological diagnosis on this unusual disease.

  13. Luteinizing hormone (LH)-responsive Cushing's syndrome: the demonstration of LH receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in hyperplastic adrenal cells, which respond to chorionic gonadotropin and serotonin agonists in vitro

    R.A. Feelders (Richard); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven); L.J. Hofland (Leo); P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter); M. Verhoef-Post (Miriam); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel); F.H. de Jong (Frank); H.J. Bonjer (Jaap); A.J. Clark (Adrian); A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn a substantial part of adrenal adenomas and hyperplasias from patients with Cushing's syndrome, cortisol production is controlled by the expression of aberrant hormone receptors on adrenocortical cells. We present in vivo and in vitro data of two patients with a

  14. Autopsy case of undiagnosed gangliocytoma in the medulla oblongata complicated with cerebral palsy.

    Takahashi, Motonori; Kondo, Takeshi; Morichika, Mai; Kuse, Azumi; Nakagawa, Kanako; Asano, Migiwa; Ueno, Yasuhiro

    2016-03-01

    A Japanese man in his 30s who had congenital cerebral palsy was found unresponsive in bed. His death was confirmed after resuscitation attempts. He had a history of occasional falling (despite the use of walking sticks and a wheelchair) owing to a slowly progressive gait disturbance, and had a medical examination without full neurological re-examination. Autopsy revealed gangliocytoma in the medulla oblongata, which was diagnosed as the cause of death. Although gangliocytoma is a well-differentiated benign tumor, the almost total replacement of the medulla oblongata by the tumor cells was assumed to result in ataxia via the olivocerebellar tract and secondary cerebellar atrophy, followed by central hypoventilation and death of the patient. The symptoms caused by gangliocytoma may be overlooked owing to long-standing cerebral palsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Possible neuro-Sweet disease mimicking brain tumor in the medulla oblongata--case report.

    Akiba, Chihiro; Esaki, Takanori; Ando, Maya; Furuya, Tsuyoshi; Noda, Kazuyuki; Nakao, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Takuji; Okuma, Yasuyuki; Mori, Kentaro

    2011-01-01

    A 62-year-old male presented with a rare case of possible neuro-Sweet Disease (NSD) mimicking brain tumor in the medulla oblongata, manifesting as numbness in the bilateral upper and lower extremities, gait disturbance, dysarthria, and swallowing disturbance which gradually deteriorated over 3 months. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass lesion in the medulla oblongata, extending to the upper cervical cord with rim enhancement by gadolinium. The preoperative diagnosis was brain tumor, such as glioma, or inflammatory disease. His neurological symptoms gradually deteriorated, so biopsy was performed through the midline suboccipital approach. Histological examination showed infiltration of inflammatory cells, mainly lymphocytes and macrophages. Human leukocyte antigen typing showed Cw1 and B54 which strongly suggested possible NSD. Steroid pulse therapy was started after surgery and the clinical symptoms improved. Neurosurgeons should be aware of inflammatory disorders such as NSD mimicking brain tumor.

  16. Cryopreservation and xenografting of human ovarian fragments: medulla decreases the phosphatidylserine translocation rate

    Vladimir Isachenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphatidylserine is the phospholipid component which plays a key role in cell cycle signaling, specifically in regards to necrosis and apoptosis. When a cell affected by some negative factors, phosphatidylserine is no longer restricted to the intracellular side of membrane and can be translocated to the extracellular surface of the cell. Cryopreservation can induce translocation of phosphatidylserine in response to hypoxia, increasing intracellular Ca2+, osmotic disruption of cellular membranes, generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. As such the aim of this study was to test the level of phosphatidylserine translocation in frozen human medulla-contained and medulla-free ovarian tissue fragments. Methods Ovarian fragments from twelve patients were divided into small pieces of two types, medulla-free cortex (Group 1, n = 42, 1.5–3.0 × 1.5–3.0 × 0.5–0.8 mm and cortex with medulla (Group 2, n = 42, 1.5–3.0 × 1.5–3.0 × 1.5–2.0 mm, pre-cooled after operative removal to 5 °C for 24 h and then conventionally frozen with 6 % dimethyl sulfoxide, 6 % ethylene glycol and 0.15 M sucrose in standard 5-ml cryo-vials. After thawing at +100 °C and step-wise removal of cryoprotectants in 0.5 M sucrose, ovarian pieces were xenografted to SCID mice for 45 days. The efficacy of tissues cryopreservation, taking into account the presence or absence of medulla, was evaluated by the development of follicles (histology with hematoxylin-eosin and through the intensity of translocation of phosphatidylserine (FACS with FITC-Annexin V and Propidium Iodide. Results For Groups 1 and 2, the mean densities of follicles per 1 mm3 were 9.8, and 9.0, respectively. In these groups, 90 and 90 % preantral follicles appeared morphologically normal. However, FACS analysis showed a significantly decreased intensity of translocation of phosphatidylserine (FITC-Annexin V positive after

  17. Functional paraganglioma extra-adrenal

    Arroyo-Martinez, Laura; Alvarez-Pertuz, Humberto; Acuna-Calvo, Jorge; Montoya-Calles, Juan Diego

    2006-01-01

    Functioning paragangliomas are rare tumours that produce catecholamines.They originate from extra-adrenal chromaffin cells. They are frequently malignant and are associated with high incidence of persistent or recurrent disease after their primary treatment. They are known as glomus, chemodectomas, chromaffin paragangliomas and glomerulocytomas. The location is diverse and reflects the paragangliomar distribution in the body from the base of the skull to the pelvic floor. The paragangliomas are found where there are nodes of the autonomous system, however, approximately 90% of these tumours appear in the adrenal glands (and they constitute the pheochromocytomas) and the remaining 10% is a location extra adrenal, but it has been said that its impact can be underestimated, ranging from 18% to 22% in adults and children up to 30%. The extra-adrenal are originated more frequently in the abdomen (85%), other in the chest (12%) and more rarely in the head and neck (3%). Imaging studies and measurement of non-physiological production of catecholamines may aid in the diagnosis of this entity. Surgery is the treatment of choice. It is presented the case of a primigravidas patient aged 32 with HTAIE requiring caesarean section, who had a postpartum torpid and despite to multiple antihypertensive treatments their pathology was difficult to deal, with ophthalmic complications. Some time later, the patient is studied by hyperhidrosis, laboratory tests and images are requested and it is documented incidentally, a left retroperitoneal tumour, the studies are expanded and reach the correct diagnosis. The tumour required surgical resection. The patient had a satisfactory postoperative period and she discharged with control in the external consultation. (author) [es

  18. The content of catecholamines in the adrenal glands and sections of the brain under hypokinesia and injection of some neurotropic agents

    Melnik, B. E.; Paladiy, E. S.

    1980-01-01

    The dynamics of catecholamine content were studied in the adrenal glands and in various region of the brain of white rats under hypokinesia and injections of neurotropic agents. Profound changes in body catecholamine balance occured as a result of prolonged acute restriction of motor activity. Adrenalin retention increased and noradrenanalin retention decreased in the adrenal glands, hypothalamus, cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. Observed alterations in catecholamine retention varied depending upon the type of neurotropic substance utilized. Mellipramine increased catecholamine retention in the tissues under observation while spasmolytin brought about an increase in adrenalin concentration in the adrenals and a decrease in the brain.

  19. Tuberculoma in the Medulla Oblongata and Medulla Spinalis: Two Case Reports

    Gülşen, Salih; Caner, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Central nervous system tuberculosis remains a prevalent problem in developing countries. Also, this disease has been an important problem in developed countries due to the increased incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system is seen in 10% of immunocompetent patients with primary tuberculosis. Case Report: We report two patients with tuberculoma in the central nervous system. The first case had a lesion located in the medulla oblongata, and the second case had a lesion in the medulla spinalis between the 5th cervical and 1st thoracic vertebral level. Both of these patients underwent surgery. Conclusion: CNS tuberculomas may not always show typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signs, but when a neurosurgeon encounters a brown-yellow rubber-like lesion that is easily extirpated from the glial tissue, tuberculoma should be considered; anti-tuberculous and corticosteroid therapy should be initiated as soon as possible to prevent meningitis and the immune-mediated destructive effects of tuberculosis on the CNS. Whether or not anti-tuberculous therapy is continued can be decided upon by following definitive pathologic diagnosis. PMID:25207157

  20. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    ... Cushing's syndrome, there's too much cortisol, while with Addison's disease, there is too little. Some people are born unable to make enough cortisol. Causes of adrenal gland disorders include Genetic mutations Tumors ...

  1. Adrenal imaging agents

    Davis, M.A.; Hanson, R.N.; Holman, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    The goals of this proposal are the development of selenium-containing analogs of the aromatic amino acids as imaging agents for the pancreas and of the adrenal cortex enzyme inhibitors as imaging agents for adrenal pathology. The objects for this year include (a) the synthesis of methylseleno derivatives of phenylalanine and tryptophan, and (b) the preparation and evaluation of radiolabeled iodobenzoyl derivatives of the selenazole and thiazole analogs of metyrapone and SU-9055

  2. Fetal Adrenal Demedullation Lowers Circulating Norepinephrine and Attenuates Growth Restriction but not Reduction of Endocrine Cell Mass in an Ovine Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Melissa A. Davis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Placental insufficiency is associated with fetal hypoglycemia, hypoxemia, and elevated plasma norepinephrine (NE that become increasingly pronounced throughout the third trimester and contribute to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. This study evaluated the effect of fetal adrenal demedullation (AD on growth and pancreatic endocrine cell mass. Placental insufficiency-induced IUGR was created by exposing pregnant ewes to elevated ambient temperatures during mid-gestation. Treatment groups consisted of control and IUGR fetuses with either surgical sham or AD at 98 days gestational age (dGA; term = 147 dGA, a time-point that precedes IUGR. Samples were collected at 134 dGA. IUGR-sham fetuses were hypoxemic, hypoglycemic, and hypoinsulinemic, and values were similar in IUGR-AD fetuses. Plasma NE concentrations were ~5-fold greater in IUGR-sham compared to control-sham, control-AD, and IUGR-AD fetuses. IUGR-sham and IUGR-AD fetuses weighed less than controls. Compared to IUGR-sham fetuses, IUGR-AD fetuses weighed more and asymmetrical organ growth was absent. Pancreatic β-cell mass and α-cell mass were lower in both IUGR-sham and IUGR-AD fetuses compared to controls, however, pancreatic endocrine cell mass relative to fetal mass was lower in IUGR-AD fetuses. These findings indicate that NE, independently of hypoxemia, hypoglycemia and hypoinsulinemia, influence growth and asymmetry of growth but not pancreatic endocrine cell mass in IUGR fetuses.

  3. Fetal Adrenal Demedullation Lowers Circulating Norepinephrine and Attenuates Growth Restriction but not Reduction of Endocrine Cell Mass in an Ovine Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Davis, Melissa A.; Macko, Antoni R.; Steyn, Leah V.; Anderson, Miranda J.; Limesand, Sean W.

    2015-01-01

    Placental insufficiency is associated with fetal hypoglycemia, hypoxemia, and elevated plasma norepinephrine (NE) that become increasingly pronounced throughout the third trimester and contribute to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). This study evaluated the effect of fetal adrenal demedullation (AD) on growth and pancreatic endocrine cell mass. Placental insufficiency-induced IUGR was created by exposing pregnant ewes to elevated ambient temperatures during mid-gestation. Treatment groups consisted of control and IUGR fetuses with either surgical sham or AD at 98 days gestational age (dGA; term = 147 dGA), a time-point that precedes IUGR. Samples were collected at 134 dGA. IUGR-sham fetuses were hypoxemic, hypoglycemic, and hypoinsulinemic, and values were similar in IUGR-AD fetuses. Plasma NE concentrations were ~5-fold greater in IUGR-sham compared to control-sham, control-AD, and IUGR-AD fetuses. IUGR-sham and IUGR-AD fetuses weighed less than controls. Compared to IUGR-sham fetuses, IUGR-AD fetuses weighed more and asymmetrical organ growth was absent. Pancreatic β-cell mass and α-cell mass were lower in both IUGR-sham and IUGR-AD fetuses compared to controls, however, pancreatic endocrine cell mass relative to fetal mass was lower in IUGR-AD fetuses. These findings indicate that NE, independently of hypoxemia, hypoglycemia and hypoinsulinemia, influence growth and asymmetry of growth but not pancreatic endocrine cell mass in IUGR fetuses. PMID:25584967

  4. [Addison's disease : Primary adrenal insufficiency].

    Pulzer, A; Burger-Stritt, S; Hahner, S

    2016-05-01

    Adrenal insufficiency, a rare disorder which is characterized by the inadequate production or absence of adrenal hormones, may be classified as primary adrenal insufficiency in case of direct affection of the adrenal glands or secondary adrenal insufficiency, which is mostly due to pituitary or hypothalamic disease. Primary adrenal insufficiency affects 11 of 100,000 individuals. Clinical symptoms are mainly nonspecific and include fatigue, weight loss, and hypotension. The diagnostic test of choice is dynamic testing with synthetic ACTH. Patients suffering from chronic adrenal insufficiency require lifelong hormone supplementation. Education in dose adaption during physical and mental stress or emergency situations is essential to prevent life-threatening adrenal crises. Patients with adrenal insufficiency should carry an emergency card and emergency kit with them.

  5. Synthesis, biological evaluation, and baboon PET imaging of the potential adrenal imaging agent cholesteryl-p-[{sup 18}f]fluorobenzoate

    Jonson, Stephanie D.; Welch, Michael J. E-mail: welch@mirlink.wustl.edu

    1999-01-01

    Cholesteryl-p-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoate ([{sup 18}F]CFB) was investigated as a potential adrenal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agent for the diagnostic imaging of adrenal disorders. We describe the synthesis, biodistribution, adrenal autoradiography, and baboon PET imaging of [{sup 18}F]CFB. The synthesis of [{sup 18}F]CFB was facilitated by the use of a specially designed microwave cavity that was instrumental in effecting 70-83% incorporation of fluorine-18 in 60 s via [{sup 18}F]fluoro-for-nitro exchange. Tissue distribution studies in mature female Sprague-Dawley rats showed good accumulation of [{sup 18}F]CFB in the steroid-secreting tissues, adrenals and ovaries, at 1 h postinjection. The effectiveness of [{sup 18}F]CFB to accumulate in diseased adrenals was shown through biodistribution studies in hypolipidemic rats, which showed a greater than threefold increase in adrenal uptake at 1 h and increased adrenal/liver and adrenal/kidney ratios. Analysis of the metabolites at 1 h in the blood, adrenals, spleen, and ovaries of hypolipidemic and control rats showed the intact tracer representing greater than 86%, 93%, 92%, and 82% of the accumulated activity, respectively. [{sup 18}F]CFB was confirmed to selectively accumulate in the adrenal cortex versus the adrenal medulla by autoradiography. Normal baboon PET imaging with [{sup 18}F]CFB effectively showed adrenal localization as early as 15 min after injection of the tracer, with enhanced adrenal contrast seen at 60-70 min. These results suggest that [{sup 18}F]CFB may be useful as an adrenal PET imaging agent for assessing adrenal disorders.

  6. Expression of the ghrelin receptor gene in neurons of the medulla oblongata of the rat.

    Bron, Romke; Yin, Lei; Russo, Domenico; Furness, John B

    2013-08-15

    There is ambiguity concerning the distribution of neurons that express the ghrelin receptor (GHSR) in the medulla oblongata. In the current study we used a sensitive nonradioactive method to investigate GHSR mRNA distribution by in situ hybridization. Strong expression of the GHSR gene was confirmed in neurons of the facial nucleus (FacN, 7), the dorsal vagal complex (DVC), and the semicompact (but not compact) nucleus ambiguus (AmbSC and AmbC). In addition, expression of GHSR was found in other regions, where it had not been described before. GHSR-positive neurons were observed in the gustatory rostral nucleus tractus solitarius and in areas involved in vestibulo-ocular processing (such as the medial vestibular nucleus and the nucleus abducens). GHSR expression was also noted in ventral areas associated with cardiorespiratory control, including the gigantocellular reticular nucleus, the lateral paragigantocellular nucleus, the rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla, the (pre)-Bötzinger complex, and the rostral and caudal ventrolateral respiratory group. However, GHSR-positive neurons in ventrolateral areas did not express markers for cardiovascular presympathetic vasomotor neurons, respiratory propriobulbar rhythmogenic neurons, or sensory interneurons. GHSR-positive cells were intermingled with catecholamine neurons in the dorsal vagal complex but these populations did not overlap. Thus, the ghrelin receptor occurs in the medulla oblongata in 1) second-order sensory neurons processing gustatory, vestibulo-ocular, and visceral sensation; 2) cholinergic somatomotor neurons of the FacN and autonomic preganglionic neurons of the DMNX and AmbSC; 3) cardiovascular neurons in the DVC, Gi, and LPGi; 4) neurons of as yet unknown function in the ventrolateral medulla. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  7. Emission tomography for adrenal imaging

    Britton, K.E.; Shapiro, B.; Hawkins, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    Single photon emission tomography (SPET) of the adrenals was compared to convential gamma camera images. Depths of 19 adrenals were assessed by both the lateral skin-upper kidney pole method and by SPET. Eleven patients with adrenal disorders were also studied. An advantage of using SPET was that the analogue transverse section image showed improvement over the conventional posterior view because the liver activity was well separated from the adrenal. Furthermore, non-adrenal tissue background was virtually eliminated and adrenal depth determination facilitated. (U.K.)

  8. Genetics Home Reference: primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia

    ... Support and Research Foundation: Genetic Changes Found in Cushing's Disease, Adrenal Tumors, and Adrenal Hyperplasia MalaCards: acth-independent ... macronodular adrenal hyperplasia 2 Merck Manual (Home Edition): Cushing ... Adrenal Diseases Foundation: Cushing's Syndrome Orphanet: Cushing syndrome due to ...

  9. Adrenal Chromaffin Cells Exposed to 5-ns Pulses Require Higher Electric Fields to Porate Intracellular Membranes than the Plasma Membrane: An Experimental and Modeling Study.

    Zaklit, Josette; Craviso, Gale L; Leblanc, Normand; Yang, Lisha; Vernier, P Thomas; Chatterjee, Indira

    2017-10-01

    Nanosecond-duration electric pulses (NEPs) can permeabilize the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), causing release of Ca 2+ into the cytoplasm. This study used experimentation coupled with numerical modeling to understand the lack of Ca 2+ mobilization from Ca 2+ -storing organelles in catecholamine-secreting adrenal chromaffin cells exposed to 5-ns pulses. Fluorescence imaging determined a threshold electric (E) field of 8 MV/m for mobilizing intracellular Ca 2+ whereas whole-cell recordings of membrane conductance determined a threshold E-field of 3 MV/m for causing plasma membrane permeabilization. In contrast, a 2D numerical model of a chromaffin cell, which was constructed with internal structures representing a nucleus, mitochondrion, ER, and secretory granule, predicted that exposing the cell to the same 5-ns pulse electroporated the plasma and ER membranes at the same E-field amplitude, 3-4 MV/m. Agreement of the numerical simulations with the experimental results was obtained only when the ER interior conductivity was 30-fold lower than that of the cytoplasm and the ER membrane permittivity was twice that of the plasma membrane. A more realistic intracellular geometry for chromaffin cells in which structures representing multiple secretory granules and an ER showed slight differences in the thresholds necessary to porate the membranes of the secretory granules. We conclude that more sophisticated cell models together with knowledge of accurate dielectric properties are needed to understand the effects of NEPs on intracellular membranes in chromaffin cells, information that will be important for elucidating how NEPs porate organelle membranes in other cell types having a similarly complex cytoplasmic ultrastructure.

  10. Evidence for a dihydropyridine-sensitive and conotoxin-insensitive release of noradrenaline and uptake of calcium in adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Owen, P. J.; Marriott, D. B.; Boarder, M. R.

    1989-01-01

    1. It has been suggested that neuronal voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) may be divided into dihydropyridine (DHP)-sensitive (L) and DHP-insensitive (N and T), and that both the L and the N type channels are attenuated by the peptide blocker omega-conotoxin. Here the effects of omega-conotoxin on release of noradrenaline and uptake of calcium in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells were investigated. 2. Release of noradrenaline in response to 25 mM K+, 65 mM K+, 10 nM bradykinin or 10 microM prostaglandin E1 was not affected by omega-conotoxin in the range 10 nM-1 microM. 3. 45Ca2+ uptake stimulated by high K+ and prostaglandin was attenuated by 1 microM nitrendipine and enhanced by 1 microM Bay K 8644; these calcium fluxes were not modified by 20 nM omega-conotoxin. 4. With superfused rat brain striatal slices in the same medium as the above cell studies, release of dopamine in response to 25 mM K+ was attenuated by 20 nM omega-conotoxin. 5. These results show that in these neurone-like cells, release may be effected by calcium influx through DHP-sensitive but omega-conotoxin-insensitive VSCC, a result inconsistent with the suggestion that omega-conotoxin blocks both L-type and N-type neuronal calcium channels. PMID:2470457

  11. Primary germinoma in the medulla oblongata - case report - .

    Yasuhara, Takao; Ichikawa, Tomotsugu; Miyoshi, Yasuyuki; Kurozumi, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Tomoko; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Date, Isao

    2011-01-01

    A 27-year-old woman presented with a case of primary medulla oblongata germinoma manifesting as sleep apnea, aspiration pneumonia, and left hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a dorsal mass in the medulla oblongata with heterogeneous enhancement by gadolinium (Gd). Emergent biopsy and foramen magnum decompression with C1 laminectomy were performed because of rapid worsening of her symptoms. The histological diagnosis was germinoma. Subsequently she received chemoradiation therapy with subsequent amelioration of her neurological deficits and disappearance of enhancement on MR imaging with Gd. Primary medulla oblongata germinoma is rare and difficult to diagnose preoperatively. However, correct diagnosis and subsequent adequate chemoradiation therapy is possible by understanding the common characteristics of the disease. Germinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of midline medullary lesion in young patients, and biopsy should be considered.

  12. Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison's Disease

    ... These conditions can lead to an adrenal crisis. Pregnancy Women with adrenal insufficiency who become pregnant are ... can benefit from following a diet rich in sodium. A health care provider or a dietitian can ...

  13. Radiologic evaluation of adrenal glands

    Pradel, J.; Bruel, J.M.; Taourel, P.; Garnier, T.; Cyteval, C.; Lamarque, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    When a diagnosis of adrenal disorder is suspected on the basis of clinical manifestations and/or laboratory findings, computed tomography (CT) is generally accepted as the imaging procedure of choice for visualization of adrenal areas and localization of lesions. Sonography keeps an important role in discovering adrenal masses during investigation for other suspected abnormality (incidentaloma). 131 I MIBG scintigraphy provides an efficious mean of pheochromocytoma localization and functional characterization. These non invasive procedures have greatly reduced the need for arteriography and venography; adrenal venous sampling is still an useful method for localizing either a tumor or hyperplasia related to primary aldosteronism. MR imaging and CT are nearly equivalent in the detection of adrenal masses: besides MR imaging has a potential for characterization of adrenal masses which might be useful, especially in distinguishing adrenal adenomas from malignant neoplasms, obviating, in some cases, the need of CT guided adrenal biopsy [fr

  14. Adrenal incidentalomas. Primary hyperaldosteronism

    Murat, A.; Dupas, B.; Zenatti, M.; Aupetit-Faisant, B.; Tenenbaum, F.; Tabarin, A.; Barrat, J.L.; Gosse, P.; Olivier-Puel, F.; Leprat, F.; Trouette, H.; Laurent, F.; Roger, P.

    1993-01-01

    Adrenal incidentalomas are masses incidentally discovered at X rays, ultrasound or MRI examination of the abdomen. In 100 CT scans, one can expect to find two incidentalomas on average. The article by Murat and Dupas is dealing with the strategy of biological, morphological and scintigraphic examinations to be performed in such patients, to assess whether the tumor is of a benign or a malignant nature. Zenatti et al propose a detailed exploration of the aldosterone pathways, since adrenal carcinoma may be responsible for a specific profile of the serum concentrations of mineralo-steroids, compatible with a blockade of the last step of the aldosterone synthesis. The exploration of primary hyperaldosteronism requires biological and imaging techniques. Tabarin et al summarize the main biological parameters and tests available for the diagnosis of this condition and delineate the indications of imaging techniques, associated to hormonal tests to distinguish between adenoma and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. (author). 104 refs

  15. Sympatho-adrenal activation by chronic intermittent hypoxia

    Kumar, Ganesh K.; Peng, Ying-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent apnea with chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a major clinical problem in adult humans and infants born preterm. Patients with recurrent apnea exhibit heightened sympathetic activity as well as elevated plasma catecholamine levels, and these phenotypes are effectively recapitulated in rodent models of CIH. This article summarizes findings from studies addressing sympathetic activation in recurrent apnea patients and rodent models of CIH and the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Available evidence suggests that augmented chemoreflex and attenuated baroreflex contribute to sympathetic activation by CIH. Studies on rodents showed that CIH augments the carotid body response to hypoxia and attenuates the carotid baroreceptor response to increased sinus pressures. Processing of afferent information from chemoreceptors at the central nervous system is also facilitated by CIH. Adult and neonatal rats exposed to CIH exhibit augmented catecholamine secretion from the adrenal medulla. Adrenal demedullation prevents the elevation of circulating catecholamines in CIH-exposed rodents. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated signaling is emerging as the major cellular mechanism triggering sympatho-adrenal activation by CIH. Molecular mechanisms underlying increased ROS generation by CIH seem to involve transcriptional dysregulation of genes encoding pro-and antioxidant enzymes by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and -2, respectively. PMID:22723632

  16. Sympatho-adrenal activation by chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    Prabhakar, Nanduri R; Kumar, Ganesh K; Peng, Ying-Jie

    2012-10-15

    Recurrent apnea with chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a major clinical problem in adult humans and infants born preterm. Patients with recurrent apnea exhibit heightened sympathetic activity as well as elevated plasma catecholamine levels, and these phenotypes are effectively recapitulated in rodent models of CIH. This article summarizes findings from studies addressing sympathetic activation in recurrent apnea patients and rodent models of CIH and the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Available evidence suggests that augmented chemoreflex and attenuated baroreflex contribute to sympathetic activation by CIH. Studies on rodents showed that CIH augments the carotid body response to hypoxia and attenuates the carotid baroreceptor response to increased sinus pressures. Processing of afferent information from chemoreceptors at the central nervous system is also facilitated by CIH. Adult and neonatal rats exposed to CIH exhibit augmented catecholamine secretion from the adrenal medulla. Adrenal demedullation prevents the elevation of circulating catecholamines in CIH-exposed rodents. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated signaling is emerging as the major cellular mechanism triggering sympatho-adrenal activation by CIH. Molecular mechanisms underlying increased ROS generation by CIH seem to involve transcriptional dysregulation of genes encoding pro-and antioxidant enzymes by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and -2, respectively.

  17. Nonclassic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Selma Feldman Witchel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH due to P450c21 (21-hydroxylase deficiency is a common autosomal recessive disorder. This disorder is due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene which is located at chromosome 6p21. The clinical features predominantly reflect androgen excess rather than adrenal insufficiency leading to an ascertainment bias favoring diagnosis in females. Treatment goals include normal linear growth velocity and “on-time” puberty in affected children. For adolescent and adult women, treatment goals include regularization of menses, prevention of progression of hirsutism, and fertility. This paper will review key aspects regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of NCAH.

  18. Laparoscopic adrenal cortex

    Peyrolou, A.; Salom, A.; Harguindeguy; Taroco, L.; Ardao, G.; Broli, F. . E mail: andresssss@adinet.com.uy

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the case of a female patient who carried an aldosterone-secreting tumor of adrenal cortex.In the analysis of diagnosis and para clinical examinations there is particular reference to the laparoscopic surgery mode of treatment.Diagnosis should be established on the basis of clinical and laboratory tests (hypopotassemia and hyperaldosteronism).Tumor topography was confirmed through CT scan, MRI and Scintiscan in left adrenal cortex.Resection was consequently made through laparoscopic surgery.The patients evolution was excellent from the surgical viewpoint,with I levels of blood pressure, potassium and aldosterone returned to normal

  19. Imaging of adrenal disorders

    Fukuchi, Soitsu

    1982-01-01

    Adrenal scintillation scanning, CT and ultrasonography are compared with the conventional imaging methods. The accuracy of retroperitoneal pneumography and adrenal venography are not high, and they detected only large tumors such as Cushing's syndrome and pheochromocytoma. Scintillation scanning is highly effective for the diagnoses of primary aldosteronism and Cushing's syndrome. However, this technique does not visualize pheochromocytoma or hypopituitarism. CT is noninvasive and of high diagnostic value. It is impossible to diagnose tumors by ultrasonography unless the size is more than 3 cm. (Chiba, N.)

  20. Phosphatidic acid accumulation and catecholamine release in adrenal chromaffin cells: stimulation by high potassium and by nicotine, and effect of a diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R 59 022.

    Owen, P J; Jones, J A; Boarder, M R

    1991-09-01

    Using primary cultures of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells labelled with 32Pi, we show that stimulation with bradykinin, nicotine, or a depolarising concentration of potassium stimulates the accumulation of [32P]phosphatidic acid. The effects of nicotine and potassium are smaller than the effect of bradykinin, and are dependent entirely on extracellular calcium. The diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R 59 022 attenuates the formation of phosphatidic acid by nicotine and depolarising concentrations of potassium. This inhibitor also blocks the nicotine and potassium stimulation of noradrenaline release from chromaffin cells. Using 45Ca2+ influx studies, we show that the nicotine-evoked calcium influx is also attenuated by R 59 022. These observations contrast with those in another report in which we showed that bradykinin stimulation of either [32P]phosphatidic acid accumulation or noradrenaline release is not affected by R 59 022. It is likely that the calcium influx produced by nicotine and depolarising potassium is blocked by R 59 022 by a mechanism that is independent of its ability to block diacylglycerol kinase. The nicotine- and potassium-stimulated [32P]phosphatidic acid accumulation is a consequence of this calcium influx and presumably reflects calcium activation of either phospholipase C or phospholipase D.

  1. Surgery for adrenal tumors

    Salamah, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the presentation, localization, pathology, surgical management and outcome of surgery for adrenal gland tumors. Design: Prospective clinico epidemiological study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Department of General Surgery, University Unit, Riyadh medical Complex Kingdom of Saudi Rabia from June, 1991 to may, 2001. Subjects and Methods: A total of 21 cases with adrenal tumors were studied for demographic data, clinical presentation, diagnostic workup, localization, surgical management, pathology and outcome. The outcome of these patients was followed prospectively. Results: The study included 12 female and 9 male patients. The mean age at surgery was 36.7 years. Hypertension (69.%) was the commonest presentation in hypersecretory functional tumors. The localization accuracy for ultrasonography, computerized tomography, MRI and MIBG scan was 95.2%, 98.3% 87.8% and 83.6% respectively. Pheochromocytoma was the most common adrenal pathology observed in 14 (66.6%) cases. The overall morbidity was 19% with no hospital mortality. Complete follow-up of available 19 patients (90.5 %) revealed no tumor recurrence and persistent hypertension in 14.3% cases. Conclusion: surgery on adrenal glands is safe in experienced hands and is recommended in institutes with all backup facilities. (author)

  2. Adrenal pseudocyst. Radiological finds

    Ortega, E.; Lopez Rasines, G.; Bustos, A.; Otero, M.; Rodriguez, M.I.; Pagola, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Adrenal cysts are infrequent, the pseudocysts being those that most often produce clinical symptoms. A case of pseudocyst in right suprarenal gland is presented in a young woman with no clinical history, who was studied by means of ultrasound (US) and computerized tomography (CT). (author)

  3. Astrocytoma in the medulla oblongata diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging

    Suga, Toshihiro; Takahashi, Shin-ichiro; Sonobe, Makoto; Koshu, Keiji; Hirota, Shigeru; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Fujii, Kyoichi; Namiki, Tsuneo.

    1987-01-01

    A 22-year-old male was admitted to Mito National Hospital with complaints of persistent, progressive dysphagia, hoarseness, and numbness over his entire body. Neurological examination showed bilateral 7th, 9th, and 10th nerve paralysis, tetraparesis, sensory disturbance of the whole body, and hyper-reflexia of all extremities. Pale, low-density areas in the medulla oblongata and upper cervical spinal cord were detected by conventional computed tomography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed low-signal masses involving those areas and in the lower cervical cord. Suboccipital craniotomy exposed a solid, firm, well demarcated intramedullary tumor in the medulla oblongata. The tumor was removed en bloc and was histologically diagnosed as a pilocytic astrocytoma. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient's symptoms improved dramatically. Postoperative MRI revealed no residual tumor in the medulla oblongata or upper cervical cord. This case illustrates the value of preoperative MRI, which precisely delineates the location and extent of the tumor and greatly facilitates direct surgery of the medulla oblongata. (author)

  4. Correlation of anatomy and function in medulla oblongata infarction.

    Eggers, C; Fink, G R; Möller-Hartmann, W; Nowak, D A

    2009-02-01

    A presentation of all aspects of the dorsolateral medulla oblongata syndrome is clinically very rare to find. In most cases patients present with fragmentary symptoms, e.g. ipsilateral axial lateropulsion, nystagmus, dysarthria, dysphagia or hemiataxia. However, the clinical presentation and lesion anatomy at the level of the medulla oblongata is still unsatisfactory. The aim of this study was to correlate the functional deficit with structural MRI-data. We included thirteen patients (eight male, five female, mean age 65.5) with medulla oblongata infarction with clinically predominant ipsilateral axial lateropulsion and correlated clinical with structural deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging lesion mapping demonstrated ipsilateral axial lateropulsion to result from lesions of the spinocerebellar tract, the inferior cerebellar peduncle or the inferior vestibular nucleus. Nystagmus was associated with lesions of the inferior vestibular nucleus, dissociated sensory loss with the spinothalamic tract and hemiataxia with the spinocerebellar tract. Correlating dysfunction and lesion anatomy is a promising approach to enhance our knowledge on medulla oblongata topography.

  5. Adrenal Disorders and the Paediatric Brain: Pathophysiological Considerations and Clinical Implications

    Vincenzo Salpietro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various neurological and psychiatric manifestations have been recorded in children with adrenal disorders. Based on literature review and on personal case-studies and case-series we focused on the pathophysiological and clinical implications of glucocorticoid-related, mineralcorticoid-related, and catecholamine-related paediatric nervous system involvement. Childhood Cushing syndrome can be associated with long-lasting cognitive deficits and abnormal behaviour, even after resolution of the hypercortisolism. Exposure to excessive replacement of exogenous glucocorticoids in the paediatric age group (e.g., during treatments for adrenal insufficiency has been reported with neurological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI abnormalities (e.g., delayed myelination and brain atrophy due to potential corticosteroid-related myelin damage in the developing brain and the possible impairment of limbic system ontogenesis. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH, a disorder of unclear pathophysiology characterised by increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure, has been described in children with hypercortisolism, adrenal insufficiency, and hyperaldosteronism, reflecting the potential underlying involvement of the adrenal-brain axis in the regulation of CSF pressure homeostasis. Arterial hypertension caused by paediatric adenomas or tumours of the adrenal cortex or medulla has been associated with various hypertension-related neurological manifestations. The development and maturation of the central nervous system (CNS through childhood is tightly regulated by intrinsic, paracrine, endocrine, and external modulators, and perturbations in any of these factors, including those related to adrenal hormone imbalance, could result in consequences that affect the structure and function of the paediatric brain. Animal experiments and clinical studies demonstrated that the developing (i.e., paediatric CNS seems to be particularly vulnerable to alterations induced by

  6. Effects of ACTH on RNA synthesis and migration in the adrenal cortex cells of the young rat, as shown by radioautography

    Magalhaes, M.C.; Vitor, A.B.; Magalhaes, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of ACTH on the RNA synthesis in adrenal zona fasciculata cells of the young rat were studied by light and electron microscope radioautography. Two units of ACTH were administered sc to animals and immediately followed by an iv injection of (/sup 3/)uridine. ACTH-injected and control rats, which received the isotope alone, were sacrificed at various time intervals. Labelling over extranucleolar areas was higher in the ACTH-treated animals at 20 min, then becoming lower than in the controls at 60 min and 24 h. Nucleolar radioactivity, however, was consistently decreased by ACTH at all experimental times. Apart from these changes in the rate of synthesis, the over-all curves of labelling were similar to those in the control animals with a striking peak at 1 h. The short-term increase in extranucleolar RNA synthesis observed after ACTH injection was considered to be consistent with the hypothesis that an enhanced extranucleolar synthesis of mRNA takes place early in stimulated animals and is associated with the synthesis of steroidogenic proteins. On the other hand, the relatively decreased uridine uptake of the label by the nucleolus in ACTH-treated animals, suggests an inhibition of nucleolar transcription with diminished pre-rRNA formation in treated animals.

  7. Effects of ACTH on RNA synthesis and migration in the adrenal cortex cells of the young rat, as shown by radioautography

    Magalhaes, M.C.; Vitor, A.B.; Magalhaes, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of ACTH on the RNA synthesis in adrenal zona fasciculata cells of the young rat were studied by light and electron microscope radioautography. Two units of ACTH were administered sc to animals and immediately followed by an iv injection of [ 3 ]uridine. ACTH-injected and control rats, which received the isotope alone, were sacrificed at various time intervals. Labelling over extranucleolar areas was higher in the ACTH-treated animals at 20 min, then becoming lower than in the controls at 60 min and 24 h. Nucleolar radioactivity, however, was consistently decreased by ACTH at all experimental times. Apart from these changes in the rate of synthesis, the over-all curves of labelling were similar to those in the control animals with a striking peak at 1 h. The short-term increase in extranucleolar RNA synthesis observed after ACTH injection was considered to be consistent with the hypothesis that an enhanced extranucleolar synthesis of mRNA takes place early in stimulated animals and is associated with the synthesis of steroidogenic proteins. On the other hand, the relatively decreased uridine uptake of the label by the nucleolus in ACTH-treated animals, suggests an inhibition of nucleolar transcription with diminished pre-rRNA formation in treated animals. (author)

  8. Primary Adrenal Lymphoma Infiltrating in to Pancreas: A Rare Cause of Adrenomegaly

    Lovelesh Kumar Nigam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary adrenal lymphoma is a rare entity and may be suspected in patients having bilateral adrenal masses, with/without lymphadenopathy, and with/without adrenal insufficiency. We report a rare case of a 45-year-old man who presented with pain in the abdomen, with no signs of adrenal insufficiency and bilateral adrenal masses on imaging. Light microscopy findings with immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The patient was offered cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisolone chemotherapy regimen and doing well till the last follow-up. [J Interdiscip Histopathol 2017; 5(1.000: 25-28

  9. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Unresolved Issues.

    Yau, Mabel; Khattab, Ahmed; Poppas, Dix; Ghizzoni, Lucia; New, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) describes a family of disorders that comes from enzymatic deficiencies in cortisol production, with 21-hydroxylase deficiency causing ∼90% of cases. Distinction is made between the severe classical form and milder nonclassical form of CAH. Molecular genetic analysis is used to confirm the hormonal diagnosis. A high rate of genotype-phenotype disconcordance has been found in 21-hydroxylase deficiency. The goal of treatment is to replace with synthetic glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids and suppress adrenal androgen production. The treatment of patients affected with nonclassical CAH, particularly males, remains controversial. Variable synthetic glucocorticoids are used and new modes of glucocorticoid delivery are under investigation. To improve height, growth hormone and other adjuvant therapies are employed. Long-term outcomes of genital surgery using modern techniques in females affected with classical CAH continue to be investigated. Prenatal treatment with dexamethasone is available to avoid ambiguous genitalia in these females. Although studies have shown its safety to mother and fetus, prenatal treatment is still regarded as experimental. Currently, prenatal diagnosis of CAH can only be obtained through invasive methods. Recently, the detection of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma has made it possible to make this diagnosis earlier and noninvasively. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. In vivo production of novel vitamin D2 hydroxy-derivatives by human placentas, epidermal keratinocytes, Caco-2 colon cells and the adrenal gland

    Slominski, Andrzej T.; Kim, Tae-Kang; Shehabi, Haleem Z.; Tang, Edith; Benson, Heather A. E.; Semak, Igor; Lin, Zongtao; Yates, Charles R.; Wang, Jin; Li, Wei; Tuckey, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the metabolism of vitamin D2 to hydroxyvitamin D2 metabolites ((OH)D2) by human placentas ex-utero, adrenal glands ex-vivo and cultured human epidermal keratinocytes and colonic Caco-2 cells, and identified 20(OH)D2, 17,20(OH)2D2, 1,20(OH)2D2, 25(OH)D2 and 1,25(OH)2D2 as products. Inhibition of product formation by 22R-hydroxycholesterol indicated involvement of CYP11A1 in 20- and 17-hydroxylation of vitamin D2, while use of ketoconazole indicated involvement of CYP27B1 in 1α-hydroxylation of products. Studies with purified human CYP11A1 confirmed the ability of this enzyme to convert vitamin D2 to 20(OH)D2 and 17,20(OH)2D2. In placentas and Caco-2 cells, production of 20(OH)D2 was higher than 25(OH)D2 while in human keratinocytes the production of 20(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D2 were comparable. HaCaT keratinocytes showed high accumulation of 1,20(OH)2D2 relative to 20(OH)D2 indicating substantial CYP27B1 activity. This is the first in vivo evidence for a novel pathway of vitamin D2 metabolism initiated by CYP11A1 and modified by CYP27B1, with the product profile showing tissue- and cell-type specificity. PMID:24382416

  11. Incorporation of radioactive sulfate (Na235SO4) by mouse adrenal medullary cells as shown by radioautography

    Munhoz, C.O.G.; Merzel, J.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary radioautographic results, observed in the adreno-medullary cells of mice injected with radiosulfate, suggested that the cells might synthetize sulfur-containing compounds. Only further studies could make-clear if sulfate groups are linked to carbohydrate molecules and/or chromaffin granules [pt

  12. Protective action of tetramethylpyrazine on the medulla oblongata in rats with chronic hypoxia.

    Ding, Yan; Hou, Xuefei; Chen, Li; Li, Hui; Tang, Yuhong; Zhou, Hua; Zhao, Shu; Zheng, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), one of the active ingredients of the Chinese herb Lingusticum Wallichii Frantchat (Chuan Xiong), plays an important role in neuroprotection. However, the protective effect of TMP on the medulla oblongata, the most important region of the brain for cardiovascular and respiratory control, during chronic hypoxia remains unclear. In this study, we examined the neuroprotective effect of TMP on the medulla oblongata after chronic hypoxic injury in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, TMP group, chronic hypoxia group, and chronic hypoxia+TMP group. Rats were exposed to hypoxia (10% (v/v) O₂) or normoxia for 6 h daily for 14 days. TMP (80 mg/kg) or vehicle (saline) was injected intraperitoneally 30 min before experimentation. Loss of neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex, the nucleus ambiguus, the nucleus tractus solitarius, the hypoglossal nucleus and the facial nucleus were evaluated by Nissl staining. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured, and apoptosis was monitored using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. The level of Bcl-2 mRNA and Bax mRNA was quantitatively measured by RT-PCR analysis. TMP protected Nissl bodies of neurons from injury in all nuclei observed, and reduced the loss of neurons in the nucleus ambiguus, the nucleus tractus solitarius, and the hypoglossal nucleus in rats subjected to chronic hypoxia. TMP upregulated SOD activity and inhibited the increase in MDA content in the medulla oblongata of hypoxic rats. In addition, TMP decreased the rate of apoptosis index (the percentage of apoptotic cells against the total number of cells) in all medullary structures examined, excepting the nucleus ambiguus and inhibited the decrease in Bcl-2 mRNA levels in the medulla oblongata following hypoxia. Our findings indicate that TMP may protect the medullary structures that are involved in

  13. Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma Presenting as Hypervascular Adrenal Metastasis

    Goroshi, Manjunath; Lila, Anurag R.; Bandgar, Tushar; Shah, Nalini S.

    2018-01-01

    Hypervascular adrenal masses include pheochromocytoma, metastases caused by clear renal cell carcinoma/hepatocellular carcinoma. Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) causing hypervascular metastases is not described in the literature. Here, we describe the first case of ASPS presenting as hypervascular metastasis. Our case was a 23-year-old male incidentally detected right adrenal mass during the evaluation of pain in the abdomen. On computed tomography (CT), adrenal mass showed bright enhancement in early arterial phase (unenhanced Hounsfield unit [HU]-45.3; arterial phase HU-158.2). 18- flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT showed multiple lesions and was confirmed histologically to be due to ASPS. PMID:29398970

  14. ACTH-induced caveolin-1 tyrosine phosphorylation is related to podosome assembly in Y1 adrenal cells

    Colonna, Cecilia; Podesta, Ernesto J.

    2005-01-01

    Y1 adrenocortical cells respond to ACTH with a characteristic rounding-up that facilitates cAMP signaling, critical for transport of cholesterol to the mitochondria and increase in steroid secretion. We here demonstrate that caveolin-1 participates in coupling activation of protein kinase A (PKA) to the control of cell shape. ACTH/8-Br-cAMP induced reorganization of caveolin-1-positive structures in correlation with the cellular rounding-up. Concomitant with this change, there was an increase in the phosphorylation of caveolin-1 (Tyr-14) localized at focal adhesions (FA) with reorganization of FA to rounded, ringlike structures. Colocalization with phalloidin showed that phosphocaveolin is present at the edge of actin filaments and that after ACTH stimulation F-actin dots at the cell periphery become surrounded by phosphocaveolin-1. These observations along with electron microscopy studies revealed these structures as podosomes. Podosome assembly was dependent on both PKA and tyrosine kinase activities because their formation was impaired after treatment with specific inhibitors [myristoylated PKI (mPKI) or PP2, respectively] previous to ACTH/8-Br-cAMP stimulation. These results show for the first time that ACTH induces caveolin-1 phosphorylation and podosome assembly in Y1 cells and support the view that the morphological and functional responses to PKA activation in steroidogenic cells are related to cytoskeleton dynamics

  15. Transforming growth factor-beta, but not ciliary neurotrophic factor, inhibits DNA synthesis of adrenal medullary cells in vitro

    Wolf, N; Krohn, K; Bieger, S

    1999-01-01

    by the neuroendocrine chromaffin cells, which also express the transforming growth factor-beta receptor type II. In contrast to the developmentally related sympathetic neurons, chromaffin cells continue to proliferate throughout postnatal life. Using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine pulse labeling and tyrosine hydroxylase...... immunocytochemistry as a marker for young postnatal rat chromaffin cells, we show that treatment with fibroblast growth factor-2 (1 nM) and insulin-like growth factor-II (10 nM) increased the fraction of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeled nuclei from 1% to about 40% of the cells in the absence of serum. In the presence...... of fibroblast growth factor-2 and insulin-like growth factor-II, transforming growth factor-beta1 (0.08 nM) reduced 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling by about 50%, without interfering with chromaffin cell survival or death. Doses lower and higher than 0.08 nM were less effective. Similar effects were seen...

  16. Isolated adrenal paracoccidioidomycosis: Case report

    Uribe Castro, Jorge Ricardo; Quintana, Humberto; Puentes, Alix Sofia and others

    2011-01-01

    Even though paracoccidioidomycosis has a relatively high prevalence in Latin America in a systemic form, isolated cases, especially compromising the adrenal glands, are uncommon, with only two reported cases. In this article, we report the case of a 55 year-old male with clinical manifestations of adrenal insufficiency. The only imaging finding was the presence of bilateral adrenal masses. The biopsy showed Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection.

  17. Review: the role of neural crest cells in the endocrine system.

    Adams, Meghan Sara; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The neural crest is a pluripotent population of cells that arises at the junction of the neural tube and the dorsal ectoderm. These highly migratory cells form diverse derivatives including neurons and glia of the sensory, sympathetic, and enteric nervous systems, melanocytes, and the bones, cartilage, and connective tissues of the face. The neural crest has long been associated with the endocrine system, although not always correctly. According to current understanding, neural crest cells give rise to the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, chief cells of the extra-adrenal paraganglia, and thyroid C cells. The endocrine tumors that correspond to these cell types are pheochromocytomas, extra-adrenal paragangliomas, and medullary thyroid carcinomas. Although controversies concerning embryological origin appear to have mostly been resolved, questions persist concerning the pathobiology of each tumor type and its basis in neural crest embryology. Here we present a brief history of the work on neural crest development, both in general and in application to the endocrine system. In particular, we present findings related to the plasticity and pluripotency of neural crest cells as well as a discussion of several different neural crest tumors in the endocrine system.

  18. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma within the medulla oblongata of a young dog.

    Hostnik, E T; Kube, S A; Jortner, B; Hager, D; Garman, R H

    2015-01-01

    A 13-week-old male intact Poodle mix dog developed an acute onset of vestibular ataxia, tetraparesis, and vomiting. The patient presented ambulatory, tetraparetic, and ataxic with a head tilt to the left and a disconjugate nystagmus (rotary nystagmus with fast phase to the right in right eye and vertical nystagmus in left eye). There were absent postural reactions in the left pelvic and left thoracic limbs and decreased right-sided postural reactions. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an intra-axial mass within the left midcaudal medulla oblongata. On gross dissection, there was a left-sided neoplasm in the medulla oblongata with surrounding hemorrhage. The histologic findings indicated that the mass was a pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. This tumor, an uncommon variant of an astrocytoma most often seen in children and young adult humans, has yet to be described in dogs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Unilateral testicular tumour associated to congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Failure of specific tumoral molecular markers to discriminate between adrenal rest and leydigioma.

    Fenichel, P; Bstandig, B; Roger, C; Chevallier, D; Michels, J-F; Sadoul, J-L; Hieronimus, S; Brucker-Davis, F

    2008-11-01

    Testicular adrenal rest tumours are frequently associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). These ACTH-dependent tumours cannot be easily distinguished histologically from Leydig-cell tumours. We report the case of a 30-year-old man who was explored for infertility, azoospermia and unilateral testicular tumour. High levels of 17-OH progesterone and ACTH, low cortisol and undetectable gonadotropins levels, associated to bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, led to the diagnosis of CAH by 21-OH deficiency with a composite heterozygoty. The testicular tumour was first considered as adrenal rest. However, histological analysis of this unilateral painful tumour showed a steroid-hormone-secreting cell proliferation with atypical and frequent mitosis. To discriminate between a benign adrenal rest tumour and a possible malignant leydigioma, tumoral expression of specific gene products was analyzed by RT-PCR. No 11-beta-hydroxylase nor ACTH receptor mRNAs could be found in the tumour, which did not behave like usual adrenal rest cells. For this unilateral testicular tumour, the lack of adrenal-specific markers associated with a high rate of mitosis and pleiomorphism supported a leydigian origin with malignant potential. However, lack of tumoral LH-R mRNA expression and a tumour-free 3-year follow-up led us to retain the diagnosis of adrenal rest tumour with loss of adrenal gene expression and progressive autonomous behaviour.

  20. Adrenal imaging with technetium-99m-labelled low density lipoproteins

    Isaacsohn, J.L.; Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Strauss, H.W.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Moore, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Evaluation of adrenal cortical function by external imaging is currently accomplished by injection of radiolabelled analogs of cholesterol. Although the adrenals do utilized exogenous cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis, the cholesterol is delivered to the glands not as free cholesterol but through the uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDL), which are subsequently degraded within the adrenal cortical cells to provide cholesterol. Thus, we sought to assess the use of /sup 99m/Tc-labelled LDL injected into rabbits to obtain external images of the adrenal glands. Adrenal images of all nine rabbits tested were obtained within 18 to 21 hours after injection of /sup 99m/Tc-LDL. Seven of the rabbits were subjected to adrenal cortical suppression with dexamethasone and then all nine rabbits were imaged a second time. In the untreated animals, visualization of the adrenal glands was accompanied by normal serum cortisol concentrations and accumulation of radiolabel in the adrenals, whereas in the dexamethasone-treated animals, lack of visualization of the adrenal glands was correlated with low serum cortisols, and greatly decreased accumulation of the radionuclide in the adrenals. These findings demonstrate for the first time that LDL, when labelled with /sup 99m/Tc, can be used to evaluate adrenal cortical function by external imaging

  1. Differential regulation of histamine- and bradykinin-stimulated phospholipase C in adrenal chromaffin cells: evidence for involvement of different protein kinase C isoforms.

    Sena, C M; Rosário, L M; Parker, P J; Patel, V; Boarder, M R

    1996-03-01

    In this report we investigate the isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC) present in cultured adrenal chromaffin cells with respect to their modulation by treatment with phorbol ester and their possible differential involvement in the regulation of responses to histamine and bradykinin. The presence of individual isoforms of PKC was investigated by using eight isoform specific antisera, as a result of which PKC-alpha, epsilon, and zeta were identified. To characterize down-regulation of these enzymes, cells were incubated for 6-48 h with 1 microM phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). PKC-epsilon down-regulated more rapidly than PKC-alpha. At 12 h, PMA pretreatment, for example, PKC-epsilon was maximally down-regulated (23 +/- 4% of controls), whereas PKC-alpha was unchanged. PKC-alpha showed partial down-regulation by 24 h of PMA pretreatment. PKC-zeta did not down-regulate at any of the times tested. Translocation from cytosol to membrane in response to PMA was also more rapid for PKC-epsilon than for PKC-alpha. The accumulation of total 3H-inositol (poly) phosphates in response to bradykinin or histamine was essentially abolished by prior treatment with 10-min PMA treatment (1 microM). However, with 12-h exposure to PMA, the bradykinin response was restored to the level seen with no prior PMA exposure. The histamine response showed no recovery by 12 h of PMA, but showed partial recovery by 24 h of PMA pretreatment. These observations showed that the restoration of the response to bradykinin corresponds to the loss of PKC-epsilon, whereas the restoration of the histamine response corresponds to the loss of PKC-alpha. This picture was confirmed with further studies on cytosolic Ca2+. The results show that chromaffin cells exhibit an unusual pattern of down-regulation of PKC isoforms on prolonged exposure to PMA, and that there is a differential effect of exposure to PMA on the histamine and bradykinin responses, suggesting that different PLC-linked receptors in chromafin

  2. Surgical treatment for hemangioblastomas in the medulla oblongata.

    Xu, Qi Wu; Xu, Rong; Du, Zhuo Ying; Gao, Xiang

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of surgical treatment of hemangioblastomas in the medulla oblongata. Between January 2006 and December 2007, 18 patients who underwent surgery for hemangioblastomas in the medulla oblongata in the Neurosurgical Department of Huashan Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The study population was 13 males and five females. The main symptoms were headache, cervical pain, and dizziness. All patients had preoperative and postoperative examination by MRI. There were five cystic tumors and 13 solid tumors. Tumor diameter ranged from 1 to 4.3 cm (mean, 2.6 cm). Complete tumor resection was achieved in all patients, but one patient died. Embolization was done in three patients. According to McCormick scale, postoperative condition was worse in one patient, unchanged in 14 patients, and improved in three patients. In follow-up assessments, no surviving patients remained in a worse condition. Compared with the preoperative condition, 11 patients were unchanged, and six patients exhibited improvement. Tumor recurrence was not observed during follow-up. Surgery is the first-line treatment for symptomatic patients with hemangioblastomas in the medulla oblongata. Good results can be achieved for the cystic or small solid tumors. Large solid tumors remain a surgical challenge due to arteriovenous malformation-like vascularization. Preoperative embolization is useful for large solid tumors. For asymptomatic tumors, careful long-term observation or radiosurgery could be chosen.

  3. Medulla oblongata damage and cardiac autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson disease.

    Pyatigorskaya, Nadya; Mongin, Marie; Valabregue, Romain; Yahia-Cherif, Lydia; Ewenczyk, Claire; Poupon, Cyril; Debellemaniere, Eden; Vidailhet, Marie; Arnulf, Isabelle; Lehéricy, Stephane

    2016-12-13

    To characterize medulla oblongata damage using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in Parkinson disease (PD) and correlate it with dysfunction of the cardiac sympathetic/vagal balance. Fifty-two patients with PD and 24 healthy controls were included in the study. All participants underwent clinical examination and 3T MRI using 3D T1-weighted imaging and DTI. DTI metrics were calculated within manually drawn regions of interest. Heart rate variability was evaluated using spectral analysis of the R-R cardiac interval during REM and slow-wave sleep based on continuous overnight electrocardiographic monitoring. Respiratory frequency was measured in 30-second contiguous epochs of REM and slow-wave sleep. The relationships between imaging and cardiac variables were calculated using partial correlations followed by the multiple comparisons permutation approach. The changes in heart rate and respiratory frequency variability from slow-wave sleep to REM sleep in healthy controls were no longer detectable in patients with PD. There were significant increases in the mean (p = 0.006), axial (p = 0.006), and radial diffusivities (p = 0.005) in the medulla oblongata of patients with PD. In PD, diffusion changes were specifically correlated with a lower heart rate and respiratory frequency variability during REM sleep. This study provides evidence that medulla oblongata damage underlies cardiac sympathetic/vagal balance and respiratory dysfunction in patients with PD. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Developmental exposure to paracetamol causes biochemical alterations in medulla oblongata.

    Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Joniec-Maciejak, Ilona; Jawna, Katarzyna; Pyrzanowska, Justyna; Piechal, Agnieszka; Wawer, Adriana; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa

    2015-09-01

    The effect and safety of prenatal and early life administration of paracetamol - routinely used over-the-counter antipyretic and analgesic medication on monoamines content and balance of amino acids in the medulla oblongata is still unknown. In this study we have determined the level of neurotransmitters in this structure in two-month old Wistar male rats exposed to paracetamol in the dose of 5 (P5, n=10) or 15mg/kg b.w. (P15, n=10) during prenatal period, lactation and till the end of the second month of life. Control group received drinking water (Con, n=10). Monoamines, their metabolites and amino acids concentration in medulla oblongata of rats were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 60 postnatal day (PND60). This experiment shows that prenatal and early life paracetamol exposure modulates neurotransmission associated with serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic system in medulla oblongata. Reduction of alanine and taurine levels has also been established. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential regulation by agonist and phorbol ester of cloned m1 and m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in mouse Y1 adrenal cells and in Y1 cells deficient in cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    Scherer, N.M.; Nathanson, N.M.

    1990-01-01

    Cloned muscarinic acetylcholine m1 and m2 receptors were expressed in stably transfected mouse Y1 adrenal cells and in a variant Y1 line, Kin-8, which is deficient in cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity (PKA - ). m1 and m2 receptors were rapidly internalized following exposure of transfected PKA + or PKA - cells to the muscarinic agonist carbachol. Thus, agonist-dependent internalization of m1 and m2 did not require PKA activity. A differential effect of PKA on regulation by agonist of the m2 receptor, but not the m1 receptor, was unmasked in PKA - cells. These data indicate that the basal activity of PKA may modulate the agonist-dependent internalization of the m2 receptor, but not the m1 receptor. The internalization of the m1 and m2 receptors in both PKA + and PKA - cells was accompanied by desensitization of functional responses. Exposure of PKA + cells to 10 -7 M phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), an activator of protein kinase C, resulted in a 30 ± 9% decrease in the number of m1 receptors on the cell surface. The m2 receptor was not internalized following treatment of either PKA + or PKA - cells with PMA. Thus, the m1 and m2 receptors show differential sensitivity to internalization by PMA. Agonist-dependent internalization of the m1 receptor appeared to be independent of activation of PKC because (1) agonist-dependent internalization of m1 was not attenuated in PKA - cells, (2) the rate and extent of internalization of m1 in cells exposed to PMA were less than those in cells exposed to agonist, and (3) treatment of cells with concanavalin A selectivity blocked internalization of m1 in cells exposed to PMA, but not to agonist. The effects of agonist and PMA on receptor internalization were not additive. Exposure of PKA + or PKA - cells to PMA reduced the magnitude of pilocarpine-stimulated PI hydrolysis by about 25%

  6. Demonstration of S-100 protein in sustentacular cells of phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas

    Schroder, H D; Johannsen, L

    1986-01-01

    to the sustentacular cells of normal paraganglia and adrenal medulla were found in all paragangliomas and in the benign and aggressively growing phaeochromocytomas. In the two malignant tumours no positive reaction was demonstrated. In one tumour the sustentacular cells were shown to contain glial fibrillary acidic......Eighteen phaeochromocytomas, including both sporadic and familial cases, four cervical paragangliomas, two jugular paragangliomas, and one abdominal paraganglioma were examined immunohistochemically for the presence of S-100 protein. Positive staining in cells morphologically similar...... protein further supporting their Schwann cell relationship. The number of S-100 positive cells varied considerably. They demonstrated a spindle celled or elongated configuration with long slender processes. The nature of the sustentacular cell proliferation, neoplastic versus reactive, is discussed....

  7. Diversity and wiring variability of visual local neurons in the Drosophila medulla M6 stratum.

    Chin, An-Lun; Lin, Chih-Yung; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Dickson, Barry J; Chiang, Ann-Shyn

    2014-12-01

    Local neurons in the vertebrate retina are instrumental in transforming visual inputs to extract contrast, motion, and color information and in shaping bipolar-to-ganglion cell transmission to the brain. In Drosophila, UV vision is represented by R7 inner photoreceptor neurons that project to the medulla M6 stratum, with relatively little known of this downstream substrate. Here, using R7 terminals as references, we generated a 3D volume model of the M6 stratum, which revealed a retinotopic map for UV representations. Using this volume model as a common 3D framework, we compiled and analyzed the spatial distributions of more than 200 single M6-specific local neurons (M6-LNs). Based on the segregation of putative dendrites and axons, these local neurons were classified into two families, directional and nondirectional. Neurotransmitter immunostaining suggested a signal routing model in which some visual information is relayed by directional M6-LNs from the anterior to the posterior M6 and all visual information is inhibited by a diverse population of nondirectional M6-LNs covering the entire M6 stratum. Our findings suggest that the Drosophila medulla M6 stratum contains diverse LNs that form repeating functional modules similar to those found in the vertebrate inner plexiform layer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The serotonergic anatomy of the developing human medulla oblongata: implications for pediatric disorders of homeostasis.

    Kinney, Hannah C; Broadbelt, Kevin G; Haynes, Robin L; Rognum, Ingvar J; Paterson, David S

    2011-07-01

    The caudal serotonergic (5-HT) system is a critical component of a medullary "homeostatic network" that regulates protective responses to metabolic stressors such as hypoxia, hypercapnia, and hyperthermia. We define anatomically the caudal 5-HT system in the human medulla as 5-HT neuronal cell bodies located in the raphé (raphé obscurus, raphé magnus, and raphé pallidus), extra-raphé (gigantocellularis, paragigantocellularis lateralis, intermediate reticular zone, lateral reticular nucleus, and nucleus subtrigeminalis), and ventral surface (arcuate nucleus). These 5-HT neurons are adjacent to all of the respiratory- and autonomic-related nuclei in the medulla where they are positioned to modulate directly the responses of these effector nuclei. In the following review, we highlight the topography and development of the caudal 5-HT system in the human fetus and infant, and its inter-relationships with nicotinic, GABAergic, and cytokine receptors. We also summarize pediatric disorders in early life which we term "developmental serotonopathies" of the caudal (as well as rostral) 5-HT domain and which are associated with homeostatic imbalances. The delineation of the development and organization of the human caudal 5-HT system provides the critical foundation for the neuropathologic elucidation of its disorders directly in the human brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The adrenal gland of the African buffalo, Syncerus caffer : A light and ...

    The medulla is characterized by two distinct regions: an outer region of cells with granules of varying electron density which do not stain specifically with the Masson-Fontana technique and an inner zone of cells containing intensely electron dense granules which are chromaffin positive. These cells are adrenaline- and ...

  10. [Adrenal insufficiency of the adult].

    Jublanc, C; Bruckert, E

    2016-12-01

    Adrenal insufficiency is a rare but life-threatening disorder. Clinical manifestations include fatigue, weight loss, gastrointestinal manifestations and skin hyperpigmentation, the latter being specific of primary adrenal failure. Because of non-specific clinical features of this rare disorder, diagnosis can be delayed and adrenal failure be revealed by an acute crisis. Adrenal insufficiency can be primary (Addison disease), most frequently autoimmune, or secondary, resulting from long term administration of exogenous glucocorticoids or more rarely from pituitary disorders. Monitoring of substitutive treatment is now well codified. Patient education is very important in this chronic disease that remains associated with a persistent high risk of adrenal crisis. Copyright © 2016 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. [The distribution of NADPH-diaphorase and neuronal no synthase in rat medulla oblongata nuclei].

    Chertok, V M; Kotsuba, A E

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of nitroxide ergic neurons in the medulla oblongata nuclei in Wistar rats (n = 8) was studied histochemically (NADPH-diaphorase) and using immunohistochemistry with an antiserum against neuronal form of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). NADPH-diaphorase activity was found in large and small neurons of the sensory, autonomic and motor nuclei. The latter were especially rich in the cells demonstrating the activity of the enzyme. Unlike NADPH-diaphorase, nNOS in the corresponding nuclei was always detected in the fewer number of neurons, predominantly of small sizes. The sensory nuclei (nucleus of solitary tract, reticular parvocellular and lateral nuclei, spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve) contained 1.5-3 times more nNOS neurons than in motor nuclei. In some nuclei (nucleus ambiguus, hypoglossal nerve nucleus), containing numerous NADPH-diaphorase-positive neurons, immunoreactive cells were particularly rare.

  12. Surgical treatment of cavernous malformations involving medulla oblongata.

    Zhang, Si; Lin, Sen; Hui, Xuhui; Li, Hao; You, Chao

    2017-03-01

    Surgical treatment of cavernous malformations (CMs) involving medulla oblongata is more difficult than the CMs in other sites because of the surrounding vital structures. However, the distinctive features and treatment strategies have not been well illustrated. Therefore, we enrolled a total of 19 patients underwent surgical treatment of CMs involving medulla oblongata in our hospital from August 2008 to August 2014. The clinical features, surgical management and clinical outcome of these patients were retrospectively analyzed, while our institutional surgical indications, approaches and microsurgical techniques were discussed. In our study, gross total resection was achieved in 17 patients and subtotal resection in 2. Two patients underwent emergency surgeries due to severe and progressive neurological deficits. The postoperative new-onset or worsened neurological deficits occurred in 6 patients. After a mean follow-up of 45.8±22.2months, the neurological status was improved in 10 patients and remained stable in 7. The mean modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was 2.58±1.26 preoperatively, 3.11±0.99 postoperatively and 1.84±1.42 at the recent follow-up, respectively. During the follow-up period, no rehemorrhage and recurrence occurred, and the residual lesions remained stable. We recommended surgical resection of symptomatic CMs involving medulla oblongata via optimal approaches, feasible entry zones and meticulous microsurgical techniques in attempting to achieve safe resection and favorable outcome. The clinical features, surgical indications, timing and microsurgical techniques of this special entity should be distinctive from the brainstem cavernous malformations in other sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Surgical resection of medulla oblongata hemangioblastomas: outcome and complications.

    Giammattei, Lorenzo; Messerer, Mahmoud; Aghakhani, Nozar; David, Philippe; Herbrecht, Anne; Richard, Stéphane; Parker, Fabrice

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the surgical outcome and complications of a single-center series of medulla oblongata (MO) hemangioblastomas. We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of all medulla oblongata hemangioblastomas operated on at our institution between 1996 and 2015. All patients had a pre- and postoperative MRI and a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Patients were scored according to the Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) and McCormick Scale at the moment of admission, discharge and the last follow-up. Thirty-one surgical procedures were performed on 27 patients (16 females and 11 males). The mean age was 33 years, and 93 % of patients had von Hippel Lindau (VHL) disease. Three patients experienced very complicated postoperative courses, with one case ending in the death of the patient. Two patients required tracheostomy. According to McCormick's classification, 7 (23 %) of the 31 operations resulted in aggravation and 23 (74 %) in no change. Considering the seven patients with aggravation at discharge, four patients (60 %) returned to their preoperative status, one (14 %) improved but remained below his preoperative McCormick grade and two (29 %) did not improve. At last follow-up, KPS was ameliorated in 53 %, stable in 40 % and worsened in 7 % of cases. Surgery of medulla oblongata hemangioblastomas is a challenging procedure characterized by an acceptable morbidity. Transient morbidity is not negligible even if the long-term outcome is in most cases favorable. A compromised neurological condition seems to be the best predictor of unfavorable outcome.

  14. Angiotensin converting enzyme in the brain, testis, epididymis, pituitary gland and adrenal gland

    Strittmatter, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    [ 3 H]Captopril binds to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in rat tissue homogenates. The pharmacology, regional distribution and copurification of [ 3 H]captopril binding with enzymatic activity demonstrate the selectivity of [ 3 H]captopril labeling of ACE. [ 3 H]Captopril binding to purified ACE reveals differences in cationic dependence and anionic regulation between substrate catalysis and inhibitor recognition. [ 3 H]Captopril association with ACE is entropically driven. The selectivity of [ 3 H]captopril binding permits autoradiographic localization of the ACE in the brain, male reproductive system, pituitary gland and adrenal gland. In the brain, ACE is visualized in a striatonigral neuronal pathway which develops between 1 and 7 d after birth. In the male reproductive system, [ 3 H]captopril associated silver grains are found over spermatid heads and in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in stages I-VIII and XII-XIV. In the pituitary gland, ACE is localized to the posterior lobe and patches of the anterior lobe. The adrenal medulla contains moderate ACE levels while low levels are found in the adrenal cortex. Adrenal medullary ACE is increased after hypophysectomy and after reserpine treatment. The general of ligand binding techniques for the study of enzymes is demonstrated by the specific labeling of another enzyme, enkephaline convertase, in crude tissue homogenates by the inhibitor [ 3 H]GEMSA

  15. Effects of Erythropoietin Administration on Adrenal Glands of Landrace/Large White Pigs after Ventricular Fibrillation

    Armando Faa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the effects of erythropoietin administration on the adrenal glands in a swine model of ventricular fibrillation and resuscitation. Methods. Ventricular fibrillation was induced via pacing wire forwarded into the right ventricle in 20 female Landrace/Large White pigs, allocated into 2 groups: experimental group treated with bolus dose of erythropoietin (EPO and control group which received normal saline. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR was performed immediately after drug administration as per the 2010 European Resuscitation Council (ERC guidelines for Advanced Life Support (ALS until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC or death. Animals who achieved ROSC were monitored, mechanically ventilated, extubated, observed, and euthanized. At necroscopy, adrenal glands samples were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and routinely processed. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results. Oedema and apoptosis were the most frequent histological changes and were detected in all animals in the adrenal cortex and in the medulla. Mild and focal endothelial lesions were also detected. A marked interindividual variability in the degree of the intensity of apoptosis and oedema at cortical and medullary level was observed within groups. Comparing the two groups, higher levels of pathological changes were detected in the control group. No significant difference between the two groups was observed regarding the endothelial changes. Conclusions. In animals exposed to ventricular fibrillation, EPO treatment has protective effects on the adrenal gland.

  16. Imaging findings of neonatal adrenal disorders

    Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Bo Kyung; Lee, Min Hee

    1999-01-01

    In newborn infants, normal adrenal glands are characterized by a relatively thin echogenic center surrounded by a thick, hypoechoic cortical rim as seen on ultrasound (US). Various disorders involving the neonatal adrenal gland include adrenal hemorrhage, hyperplasia, cyst, Wolman's disease, and congenital neuroblastoma. Adrenal hemorrhage is the most common cause of an adrenal mass in the neonate, though differentiation between adrenal hemorrhage and neuroblastoma is in many cases difficult. We describe characteristic US, CT and MR imaging findings in neonates with various adrenal disorders

  17. Imaging findings of neonatal adrenal disorders

    Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Bo Kyung; Lee, Min Hee [Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-01-01

    In newborn infants, normal adrenal glands are characterized by a relatively thin echogenic center surrounded by a thick, hypoechoic cortical rim as seen on ultrasound (US). Various disorders involving the neonatal adrenal gland include adrenal hemorrhage, hyperplasia, cyst, Wolman's disease, and congenital neuroblastoma. Adrenal hemorrhage is the most common cause of an adrenal mass in the neonate, though differentiation between adrenal hemorrhage and neuroblastoma is in many cases difficult. We describe characteristic US, CT and MR imaging findings in neonates with various adrenal disorders.

  18. Diagnosis of adrenal tumors

    Richter, E.I.; Loesch, H.

    1987-09-01

    Of 155 patients with adrenal disorders, 120 (77%) were correctly diagnosed as negative. There were no correlations between the results of computer tomography and phlebography or between computer tomography and laboratory tests. In 31 patients (20%) a correct diagnosis was obtained and these patients were sent to surgery. Four cases (3%) were shown to be false positive. In these cases (with one exception), both the computer tomography and phlebography results had been overinterpreted. Computer tomography was shown to be a method of high sensitivity and almost as great specificity. Tumors cannot be distinguished by phlebography; only pheochromocytoma shows a characteristic alteration of vessels in arteriograms. In general, an accurate diagnosis requires positive angiography (arterio- or phlebography) results and clear evidence of elevated hormone levels. Only then is surgery indicated.

  19. Diagnosis of adrenal tumors

    Richter, E.I.; Loesch, H.

    1987-01-01

    Of 155 patients with adrenal disorders, 120 (77%) were correctly diagnosed as negative. There were no correlations between the results of computer tomography and phlebography or between computer tomography and laboratory tests. In 31 patients (20%) a correct diagnosis was obtained and these patients were sent to surgery. Four cases (3%) were shown to be false positive. In these cases (with one exception), both the computer tomography and phlebography results had been overinterpreted. Computer tomography was shown to be a method of high sensitivity and almost as great specificity. Tumors cannot be distinguished by phlebography; only pheochromocytoma shows a characteristic alteration of vessels in arteriograms. In general, an accurate diagnosis requires positive angiography (arterio- or phlebography) results and clear evidence of elevated hormone levels. Only then is surgery indicated. (orig.) [de

  20. Adrenal vein catheterization. Anatomic considerations

    El-Sherief, M.A. (Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala (Sweden))

    1982-01-01

    Twenty post-mortem specimens and 93 phlebographies (56 right side, 37 left side) from 44 patients were investigated with respect to the adrenal venous anatomy. At autopsy, the venous orifices displayed in the area of adrenal drainage were injected bilaterally to identify the adrenal vein(s), the surrounding channels and the presence of interconnections. The findings were correlated with those at clinical phlebography, and the different sources of error were elicited. These were mainly found on the right side. Some guidelines are suggested in the hope that these will contribute to eliminate misconceptions.

  1. Developmental programming of adult adrenal structure and steroidogenesis: effects of fetal glucocorticoid excess and postnatal dietary omega-3 fatty acids.

    Waddell, Brendan J; Bollen, Maike; Wyrwoll, Caitlin S; Mori, Trevor A; Mark, Peter J

    2010-05-01

    Fetal glucocorticoid excess programs a range of detrimental outcomes in the adult phenotype, at least some of which may be due to altered adult adrenocortical function. In this study, we determined the effects of maternal dexamethasone treatment on offspring adrenal morphology and function, as well as the interactive effects of postnatal dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids. This postnatal dietary intervention has been shown to alleviate many of the programming outcomes in this model, but whether this is via the effects on adrenal function is unknown. Dexamethasone acetate was administered to pregnant rats (0.75 microg/ml drinking water) from day 13 to term. Cross-fostered offspring were raised on either a standard or high-n-3 diet. Adrenal weight (relative to body weight) at 6 months of age was unaffected by prenatal dexamethasone, regardless of postnatal diet, and stereological analysis showed no effect of dexamethasone on the volumes of adrenal components (zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata/reticularis or adrenal medulla). Expression of key steroidogenic genes (Cyp11a1 and Star) was unaffected by either prenatal dexamethasone or postnatal diet. In contrast, adrenal expression of Mc2r mRNA, which encodes the ACTH receptor, was higher in offspring of dexamethasone-treated mothers, an effect partially attenuated by the Hn3 diet. Moreover, stress-induced levels of plasma and urinary corticosterone and urinary aldosterone were elevated in offspring of dexamethasone-treated mothers, indicative of enhanced adrenal responsiveness. In conclusion, this study shows that prenatal exposure to dexamethasone does not increase basal adrenocortical activity but does result in a more stress-responsive adrenal phenotype, possibly via increased Mc2r expression.

  2. A case of adrenal Cushing's syndrome with bilateral adrenal masses.

    Guo, Ya-Wun; Hwu, Chii-Min; Won, Justin Ging-Shing; Chu, Chia-Huei; Lin, Liang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    A functional lesion in corticotrophin (ACTH)-independent Cushing's syndrome is difficult to distinguish from lesions of bilateral adrenal masses. Methods for distinguishing these lesions include adrenal venous sampling and (131)I-6β-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol ((131)I-NP-59) scintigraphy. We present a case of a 29-year-old Han Chinese female patient with a history of hypercholesterolaemia and polycystic ovary syndrome. She presented with a 6month history of an 8kg body weight gain and gradual rounding of the face. Serial examinations revealed loss of circadian rhythm of cortisol, elevated urinary free-cortisol level and undetectable ACTH level (Cushing's syndrome presenting with bilateral adrenal masses. The clinical presentation of Cushing' syndrome includes symptoms and signs of fat redistribution and protein-wasting features.The diagnosis of patients with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome with bilateral adrenal masses is challenging for localisation of the lesion.Both adrenal venous sampling and (131)I-NP-59 scintigraphy are good methods to use in these patients with Cushing's syndrome presenting with bilateral adrenal masses.

  3. Sublaminar wire migration into the medulla oblongata: a case report.

    Koziarz, Alex; Aref, Mohammed; Vinh, Brian; Mensinkai, Arun; Almenawer, Saleh A; Reddy, Kesava

    2017-06-01

    Atlantoaxial procedures have been developed in an effort to ensure solid C1-C2 fusion. However, techniques that involve sublaminar wiring have the potential for neural structure injury. We present the management of a patient who previously underwent Gallie fusion 10 years ago and is presenting with a dislodged titanium wire that has migrated into the medulla oblongata. A 52-year-old female patient known with rheumatoid arthritis presented with truncal ataxia and food regurgitation 10 years after undergoing a C1-C2 Gallie fusion. A computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed that a wire from her Gallie fusion procedure migrated into the medulla oblongata. The patient underwent foramen magnum decompression with C1 bilateral laminectomy, instrumentation, and removal of a migrated wire. Six months later, a CT scan showed that all occipital screws were pulled out. In the revision surgery, new occipital screws were placed with a resultant significant improvement in patient's gait postoperatively. Wire migration as a differential diagnosis should be considered in patients presenting with neurological dysfunction who underwent surgical treatment with sublaminar wire fusion techniques.

  4. Mathematical Model of Ammonia Handling in the Rat Renal Medulla

    Noiret, Lorette; Baigent, Stephen; Jalan, Rajiv; Thomas, S. Randall

    2015-01-01

    The kidney is one of the main organs that produces ammonia and release it into the circulation. Under normal conditions, between 30 and 50% of the ammonia produced in the kidney is excreted in the urine, the rest being absorbed into the systemic circulation via the renal vein. In acidosis and in some pathological conditions, the proportion of urinary excretion can increase to 70% of the ammonia produced in the kidney. Mechanisms regulating the balance between urinary excretion and renal vein release are not fully understood. We developed a mathematical model that reflects current thinking about renal ammonia handling in order to investigate the role of each tubular segment and identify some of the components which might control this balance. The model treats the movements of water, sodium chloride, urea, NH3 and NH4+, and non-reabsorbable solute in an idealized renal medulla of the rat at steady state. A parameter study was performed to identify the transport parameters and microenvironmental conditions that most affect the rate of urinary ammonia excretion. Our results suggest that urinary ammonia excretion is mainly determined by those parameters that affect ammonia recycling in the loops of Henle. In particular, our results suggest a critical role for interstitial pH in the outer medulla and for luminal pH along the inner medullary collecting ducts. PMID:26280830

  5. Adrenal Hemangioma: A Case of Retroperitoneal Tumor

    Genta Iwamoto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Adrenal hemangioma is a rare disease, with only some 60 cases reported previously. Due to the difficulty of the preoperative diagnosis of adrenal hemangioma, almost all of the cases were diagnosed by a histopathological analysis of surgical specimens. Case Presentation. A 52-year-old man was referred to our department for further examination of his left retroperitoneal tumor. He had received hemodialysis due to chronic renal failure resulting from membranous nephropathy. Computed tomography revealed a mass around his left hilum. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and positron-emission tomography (PET-CT were unable to confirm or deny malignancy, and tumor markers, including CEA and CA19-9, showed slight elevation. His tumor grew from 38 mm to 54 mm in diameter in 7 months of follow-up. We therefore planned retroperitoneal tumor resection with left nephrectomy. Histopathologically, hyperplastic small vessels with hemorrhaging and denaturation were seen. The endothelial cells showed no variants or division of the nucleus. Based on this diagnosis, no further therapy was performed. He has had no recurrence in the eight months since the surgery. Conclusion. We herein report a rare case of adrenal hemangioma.

  6. MR imaging in adrenal diseases

    Juliani, G.; Avateneo, T.; Potenzoni, F.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-five patients affected by adrenal glands pathology underwent CT and MRI: 6 nonfuctioning adenomas, 2 Cushing's adenomas, 2 Conn's adenomas, 6 metastases, 3 cystis, 2 carcinomas (Cushing's syndrome), 1 Lymphoma and 3 pheochromocytomas. Diagnosis was subsequently confirmed either at surgery, or autopsy, or with needle biopsy. In all cases normal adrenal glands and pathological lesions were showed by MRI. T1 signal intensity and mass diameter were compared with T2 signal intensity, represented by the intensity ratio between the adrenal mass vs normal hepatic parenchyma. MRI signal intensity, usually high in case of malignancy and low in adenomas, shows a mean value which is much wider than that referred to mass diameter evaluation (carcinoma is larger than adenoma); for this reason those findings have proved to be insufficiently accurate for adrenal tissue characterization, even for the evaluation of cysts and pheochromocytomas. In the same cases CT showed higher accuracy

  7. CT findings of adrenal schwannoma

    Zhang, Y.-M.; Lei, P.-F.; Chen, M.-N.; Lv, X.-F.; Ling, Y.-H.; Cai, P.-Q.; Gao, J.-M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To analyse the computed tomography (CT) imaging features of patients with adrenal schwannoma. Materials and methods: Eight cases of adrenal schwannoma confirmed by histopathology were included in this study. All eight patients had undergone multiphase CT examinations. The features of the adrenal schwannoma in the CT images were analysed retrospectively in detail, including size, shape, margin, radiodensity, calcification, and enhancement pattern. Results: There were six male and two female patients, with a median age of 44.5 years (range, 25–52 years). Two patients complained of right flank pain, and two with left upper abdominal discomfort, while the remaining patients were diagnosed by routine ultrasound examinations. On unenhanced CT images, all cases of adrenal schwannoma were well circumscribed, rounded or oval, heterogeneous masses with cystic components, with two cases exhibiting calcification, and three cases with septa. On enhanced CT images, all cases displayed mild heterogeneous enhancement of the tumour during the arterial phase, and progressive enhancement during the portal venous phase and equilibrium phase. Conclusion: Adrenal schwannoma commonly presents as a well-defined unilateral mass with cystic degeneration, septa, and a characteristic progressive contrast-enhancement pattern on multiphase enhanced scans. - Highlights: • Adrenal schwannomas were extremely rare, and eight cases' medical data of this disease were collected in this study. • They usually presented a well-defined unilateral mass with cystic degeneration and sepations. • They manifested characteristic progressive contrast enhancement pattern on enhanced CT images.

  8. Bases fisiológicas para una interacción entre las células cromafines y las endoteliales de la glándula adrenal Physiological bases for an interaction between chromaffin and endothelial cells from the adrenal gland

    MARIO LUXORO

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo tratamos de investigar las posibles interacciones entre las células endoteliales de la glándula adrenal y aquellas sustancias relacionadas con la secreción de las células cromafines. Para lo anterior, estudiamos el efecto de acetilcolina (ACh, o de catecolaminas (CA tanto en el nivel de Ca2+ citoplasmático ([Ca2+]i, como en el potencial de membrana de las células endoteliales. Nuestros resultados muestran que tanto la ACh como la nicotina, pero no la muscarina, son capaces de inducir un aumento del [Ca2+]i y una despolarización de la membrana plasmática de las células endoteliales. El antagonista nicotínico, hexametonium, bloquea tanto el efecto de la ACh como de la nicotina lo que sugiere la presencia de receptores nicotínicos. Por otra parte, las CA (tanto adrenalina como noradrenalina o agonistas a1-adrenérgicos también producen un aumento del [Ca2+]i en las células endoteliales aunque no despolarización evidente. En este caso, el aumento es bifásico siendo la primera fase de un pico rápido e independiente del Ca2+ extracelular en tanto que la segunda se presenta con oscilaciones y depende tanto de que los canales de Ca2+ no estén bloqueados como de la presencia de ese ión en el medio externo. Dado que se ha demostrado que el aumento del [Ca2+]i en las células endoteliales desencadena la secreción de sustancias vasodilatadoras (prostaciclina y óxido nítrico, proponemos que éste sería un mecanismo compensatorio del sistema para contrarestar el enorme efecto vasoconstrictor de las CA secretadas por las células cromafinesIn this work we investigated the possible interactions between the endothelial cells from the adrenal gland and the substances related with the secretion from the chromaffin cells. In order to do so, we studied the effect of acetyl-choline (ACh or of catecholamines (CA on the level of the membrane potential and the cytoplasmic concentration of free calcium ([Ca2+]i in the endothelial

  9. Profiling adrenal 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione metabolites in prostate cancer cells, tissue and plasma: UPC2-MS/MS quantification of 11β-hydroxytestosterone, 11keto-testosterone and 11keto-dihydrotestosterone.

    du Toit, Therina; Bloem, Liezl M; Quanson, Jonathan L; Ehlers, Riaan; Serafin, Antonio M; Swart, Amanda C

    2017-02-01

    Adrenal C 19 steroids serve as precursors to active androgens in the prostate. Androstenedione (A4), 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione (11OHA4) and 11β-hydroxytestosterone (11OHT) are metabolised to potent androgen receptor (AR) agonists, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) and 11-ketodihydrotestosterone (11KDHT). The identification of 11OHA4 metabolites, 11KT and 11KDHT, as active androgens has placed a new perspective on adrenal C11-oxy C 19 steroids and their contribution to prostate cancer (PCa). We investigated adrenal androgen metabolism in normal epithelial prostate (PNT2) cells and in androgen-dependent prostate cancer (LNCaP) cells. We also analysed steroid profiles in PCa tissue and plasma, determining the presence of the C 19 steroids and their derivatives using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)- and ultra-performance convergence chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPC 2 -MS/MS). In PNT2 cells, sixty percent A4 (60%) was primarily metabolised to 5α-androstanedione (5αDIONE) (40%), testosterone (T) (10%), and androsterone (AST) (10%). T (30%) was primarily metabolised to DHT (10%) while low levels of A4, 5αDIONE and 3αADIOL (≈20%) were detected. Conjugated steroids were not detected and downstream products were present at <0.05μM. Only 20% of 11OHA4 and 11OHT were metabolised with the former yielding 11keto-androstenedione (11KA4), 11KDHT and 11β-hydroxy-5α-androstanedione (11OH-5αDIONE) and the latter yielding 11OHA4, 11KT and 11KDHT with downstream products <0.03μM. In LNCaP cells, A4 (90%) was metabolised to AST-glucuronide via the alternative pathway while T was detected as T-glucuronide with negligible conversion to downstream products. 11OHA4 (80%) and 11OHT (60%) were predominantly metabolised to 11KA4 and 11KT and in both assays more than 50% of 11KT was detected in the unconjugated form. In tissue, we detected C11-oxy C 19 metabolites at significantly higher levels than the C 19 steroids, with

  10. Nonreutilizaton of adrenal chromaffin granule membranes following secretion

    Nobiletti, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    The intracellular postexocytotic fate of the adrenal chromaffin granule membrane (reutilization vs. nonreutilization) was addressed through two experimental approaches. First, ( 3 H) leucine pulse-chase labeling experiments were conducted in two systems - the isolated retrograde perfused cat adrenal gland and cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells to compare chromaffin granule soluble dopamine-B-hydroxylase (DBH) turnover (marker for granule soluble content turnover) to that of membrane-bound DBH (marker for granule membrane turnover). Experiments in cat adrenal glands showed that at all chase periods the granule distribution of radiolabeled DBH was in agreement with the DBH activity distribution (73% membrane-bound/27% soluble) - a result consistent with parallel turnover of soluble and membrane-bound DBH. Experiments in cultured bovine cells showed that labeled soluble and membrane-bound DBH had parallel turnover patterns and at all chase period, the distribution of radiolabeled DBH between the soluble contents and membranes was similar to the DBH activity distribution (50% soluble/50% membrane-bound). The above experiments showed that the soluble contents and membranes turnover in parallel and are consistent with nonreutilization of chromaffin granule membranes following exocytosis. Isolated retrograde perfused bovine adrenal glands were subjected to repetitive acetylcholine stimulation to induce exocytosis and then the dense and less-dense chromaffin granule fractions were isolated. Since both approaches gave results consistent with membrane nonreutilization, the authors conclude that once a chromaffin granule is involved in exocytosis, its membrane is not reutilized for the further synthesis, storage, and secretion of catecholamines

  11. Bilateral Primary Adrenal Lymphoma in a 59- year-old Female

    Alireza Ahmadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Occasionally, lymphoma involves the adrenal glands; however, primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL is rare and only few cases have been reported. We report a case of a 59-year-old female with primary adrenal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL manifested by weakness, fatigue, anorexia, and hyper pigmentation of skin. The patient initially responded to intravenous hydrocortisone in large doses by total remission of the symptoms. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed a hypodense mass in the right subdiaphragmatic space, which was suggestive of an adrenal gland tumor with adjacent liver involvement. Additionally, a smaller lesion with similar characteristics was found in the left adrenal gland. The results obtained from adrenal gland needle biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of DLBCL. Moreover, primary laboratory findings demonstrated hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, fasting blood sugar level of 153 mg/dl, and alkaline phosphatase level of 663 U/L. The mentioned symptoms and laboratory findings were indicative of adrenal insufficiency. After about 2 months, her level of consciousness decreased and urinary and fecal incontinence occurred. Therefore, brain involvement was suspected, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed heterogeneous enhancement (24.8 mm in the posterior aspect of the left temporal lobe together with patchy foci of enhancement in around the ventricular areas of the brain that showed metastatic lesions of PAL. This case should remind clinicians that PAL may be a cause of adrenal incidentaloma, especially when the patient presents with the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency.

  12. A case of adrenal tumour in a lion (Panthera leo: tomographic and ultrasonographic findings.

    Maurizio Longo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal gland tumors are common in humans and in several animal species. Studies concerning this neoplasia in human medicine indicate that clinical signs have a high variability. Adrenal adenomas can be occasionally observed in asymptomatic patients during tomographic studies while estrogen-secreting tumors, known as "feminizing adrenal tumors" (FATs, have been rarely reported. The aim of this study is to describe for the first time the Imaging findings of a captivity lion affected by a neoplastic secreting adrenal tumour. An 8 year-old male lion with progressive lack of secondary sex characteristics, disorexia and weight loss was referred to our Institution. The patient was chemically immobilized to undergo general clinical evaluation, hematologic, serum biochemical and hormonal profile, FIV and FeLV tests. Three months later a total body computed tomography and abdominal ultrasonography were performed. Liver and left adrenal lesions FNABs were performed. Imaging findings showed the presence of an extended expansive neoplastic lesion on the left adrenal gland (40x39x37 mm with right adrenal gland atrophy. Generalized hepatopathy associated with a suspected intrahepatic cholestasis was confirmed by ultrasonography. Cytological evaluation ruled out the presence of neuroendocrine cells without malignancy evidences compatible with the adenomatous nature of the lesion, associated with moderate degenerative hepatopathy. Blood tests reported an estradiol concentration of 462 ng/dl. To our knowledge, this is the first description of adrenal mass in a lion associated with secondary feminization, inappetence and high values of hematic estradiol, referable to a feminizing adrenal tumor (FAT.

  13. MRI Patterns of Isolated Lesions in the Medulla Oblongata.

    Prakkamakul, Supada; Schaefer, Pamela; Gonzalez, Gilberto; Rapalino, Otto

    2017-01-01

    Isolated lesions of the medulla oblongata are difficult to diagnose due to their rarity and high biopsy risk. Several individual case reports have been published, but a systematic descriptive study is lacking. Our study has three objectives that 1) provide a differential diagnosis, 2) describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and 3) propose a stepwise MRI-based approach to the isolated lesions of the medulla oblongata in nonstroke patients. We performed an institutional Review Board-approved retrospective analysis of 34 consecutive cases of isolated medullary lesions from nonstroke causes identified from our imaging database between January 2000 and May 2015. Eleven were excluded due to lack of pretreatment or follow-up MRI. MR studies were reviewed by two blinded neuroradiologists. The diagnosis, demographic data, and MR findings were reported using frequencies and proportions. An MRI-based diagnostic algorithm was proposed. Most lesions were neoplasms (47%), followed by vascular malformations (15%), demyelinating/inflammatory lesions (15%), others (12%), unknown (8%), and infection (3%). Five MRI patterns were identified: 1) cystic lesion, 2) exophytic noncystic lesion, 3) intrinsic lesion with T2 hypointensity, 4) enhancing intrinsic lesion, and 5) nonenhancing intrinsic lesion. All showing patterns 1 and 2 were neoplasms or cysts. All showing pattern 3 were vascular malformations. Patterns 4 and 5 comprised of multiple etiologies. Neoplasms are the most common cause of isolated medullary lesions in nonstroke patients. Other differential diagnoses include vascular malformations, demyelinating/inflammatory lesions, and infections. A stepwise MRI-based approach can help differentiate between various etiologies. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  14. Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins in adrenal gland physiology and beyond.

    Novoselova, T V; Jackson, D; Campbell, D C; Clark, A J L; Chan, L F

    2013-04-01

    The melanocortin receptor (MCR) family consists of five G-protein-coupled receptors (MC1R-MC5R) with diverse physiological roles. MC1R controls pigmentation, MC2R is a critical component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, MC3R and MC4R have a vital role in energy homeostasis and MC5R is involved in exocrine function. The melanocortin receptor accessory protein (MRAP) and its paralogue MRAP2 are small single-pass transmembrane proteins that have been shown to regulate MCR expression and function. In the adrenal gland, MRAP is an essential accessory factor for the functional expression of the MC2R/ACTH receptor. The importance of MRAP in adrenal gland physiology is demonstrated by the clinical condition familial glucocorticoid deficiency, where inactivating MRAP mutations account for ∼20% of cases. MRAP is highly expressed in both the zona fasciculata and the undifferentiated zone. Expression in the undifferentiated zone suggests that MRAP could also be important in adrenal cell differentiation and/or maintenance. In contrast, the role of adrenal MRAP2, which is highly expressed in the foetal gland, is unclear. The expression of MRAPs outside the adrenal gland is suggestive of a wider physiological purpose, beyond MC2R-mediated adrenal steroidogenesis. In vitro, MRAPs have been shown to reduce surface expression and signalling of all the other MCRs (MC1,3,4,5R). MRAP2 is predominantly expressed in the hypothalamus, a site that also expresses a high level of MC3R and MC4R. This raises the intriguing possibility of a CNS role for the MRAPs.

  15. [Hemorrhagic adrenal pseudocyst: case report].

    Basile, G; Buffone, A; Cicciarella, G; di Mari, P; Cirino, E

    2004-01-01

    Adrenal cysts are usually asymptomatic; they are usually identified occasionally during ultrasound or C.T. scans (incidentaloma). Among adrenal cysts the most common types are epithelial cysts and pseudocysts. Intracystic haemorrhage is one of the possible complications of adrenal pseudocysts. We report a case of a young woman with right superior abdominal pain, fever and acute anemia. A C.T. scan showed a 10 cm. mass between the liver and the right kidney. To be sure of the nature of this mass also M.R., urography and C.T.-guided biopsy were carried out. This latter only let us make the final diagnosis of hemorrhagic adrenal pseudocyst. Thereafter, a laparotomic right adrenalectomy was performed, with full recovery of the patient. Adrenal cysts may cause differential diagnostic problems with masses of contiguous organs like kidney, liver and gallbladder. For this reason, ultrasound and C.T. scans may not be sufficient and must be completed by M.R., urography and/or C.T.-guided biopsy. Intracystic hamorrhage, spontaneous or post-traumatic, may cause to the patient acute anemia which, as soon as the diagnosis is confirmed, indicates surgery. The operation usually is a laparotomic adrenalectomy, since the laparoscopic approach is not sufficient to control large masses with active bleeding inside.

  16. GATA transcription factors in testicular adrenal rest tumours

    Manon Engels

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Testicular adrenal rest tumours (TARTs are benign adrenal-like testicular tumours that frequently occur in male patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Recently, GATA transcription factors have been linked to the development of TARTs in mice. The aim of our study was to determine GATA expression in human TARTs and other steroidogenic tissues. We determined GATA expression in TARTs (n = 16, Leydig cell tumours (LCTs; n = 7, adrenal (foetal (n = 6 + adult (n = 10 and testis (foetal (n = 13 + adult (n = 8. We found testis-like GATA4, and adrenal-like GATA3 and GATA6 gene expressions by qPCR in human TARTs, indicating mixed testicular and adrenal characteristics of TARTs. Currently, no marker is available to discriminate TARTs from LCTs, leading to misdiagnosis and incorrect treatment. GATA3 and GATA6 mRNAs exhibited excellent discriminative power (area under the curve of 0.908 and 0.816, respectively, while immunohistochemistry did not. GATA genes contain several CREB-binding sites and incubation with 0.1 mM dibutyryl cAMP for 4 h stimulated GATA3, GATA4 and GATA6 expressions in a human foetal testis cell line (hs181.tes. Incubation of adrenocortical cells (H295RA with ACTH, however, did not induce GATA expression in vitro. Although ACTH did not dysregulate GATA expression in the only human ACTH-sensitive in vitro model available, our results do suggest that aberrant expression of GATA transcription factors in human TARTs might be involved in TART formation.

  17. Polycystic ovarian disease: the adrenal connection.

    Marouliss, George B; Triantafillidis, Ioannis K

    2006-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) is characterized by hyperandrogenemia, ovulatory dysfunction and polycystic ovaries (PCO). The increased androgen production in PCOD comes primarily from the ovaries. However, in about 40% of patients there is excessive adrenal androgen production (DHEA, DHEA-Sulfate, Androstenedione, Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone). The contribution of the adrenal in the PCOD is suggested by the presence of adrenal androgen excess in PCO, the presence of PCO in women with enzymatic adrenal hyperplasia as well as in women with adrenal tumors. However, the cause of adrenal androgen hypersecretion is not yet fully understood but it may include endogenous hypersecretion of the zona reticularis of unclear cause, hypersecretion of cortical-androgen-stimulating hormone (CASH), stress, hyperprolactinemia, adrenal enzymatic defects etc. This short review covers the aspects of adrenal androgen hypersecretion in PCOD.

  18. Bone Health in Adrenal Disorders

    Beom-Jun Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary osteoporosis resulting from specific clinical disorders may be potentially reversible, and thus continuous efforts to find and adequately treat the secondary causes of skeletal fragility are critical to ameliorate fracture risk and to avoid unnecessary treatment with anti-osteoporotic drugs. Among the hyperfunctional adrenal masses, Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, and primary aldosteronism are receiving particularly great attention due to their high morbidity and mortality mainly by increasing cardiovascular risk. Interestingly, there is accumulating experimental and clinical evidence that adrenal hormones may have direct detrimental effects on bone metabolism as well. Thus, the present review discusses the possibility of adrenal disorders, especially focusing on pheochromocytoma and primary aldosteronism, as secondary causes of osteoporosis.

  19. Angiomyolipoma and Malignant PEComa: Discussion of Two Rare Adrenal Tumors

    Douglas Kwazneski II

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiomyolipoma and PEComa are rare tumors descending from perivascular epithelial cells (PECs, with distinctive IHC, morphological, and ultrastructural features. The kidney is the most frequent site of origin, but not the only one; however, adrenal gland angiomyolipomas are extremely rare. We describe two cases being found in the adrenal glands. Given the paucity of literature on the subject, more information on this disease is necessary for diagnosis and treatment. Here, we describe two complete case reports, from presentation to treatment and follow-up, along with imaging and microscopic pathology samples, and provide a comprehensive review as to the history and current literature available regarding these extremely rare tumors.

  20. Differential diagnosis of adrenal gland masses

    Szolar, D.H.M.; Unger, B.; Preidler, K.; Ranner, G.; Heinz-Peer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are first line modalities in the evaluation of patients with adrenal gland masses, and have the potential to be very accurate for the localization of adrenal gland masses in patients with diseases associated with hyperfunctioning conditions of the adrenal gland. Both CT and MR imaging allow a specific diagnosis of acute adrenal hemorrhage, adrenal myelolipoma, and adrenal cysts. CT is also helpful in the assessment of patients with Addision's disease, particularly the subacute from secondary to granulomatous diseases. Quantitative evaluation of adrenal masses on unenhanced CT scans and/or qualitative analysis on chemical-shift MR imaging have been shown to be accurate in distinguishing adrenal adenomas from non-adenomas. Attenuation of 11 HE or less on unenhanced CT scans and/or signal loss on opposed phase MR images indicate adenoma with a high specificity and acceptable sensitivity. More recently, delayed-enhanced CT has yielded higher sensitivity and specificity values in distinguishing between adrenal adenomas and non-adenomas than both unenhanced CT and chemical-shift MR imaging do. On delayed-enhanced CT scans, adrenal adenomas exhibit a greater washout of contrast material than do adrenal non-adenomas. Therefore, adrenal non-adenomas have significantly higher attenuation than adenomas on delayed-enhanced CT scans obtained at several arbitrarily chosen time points (3-60 min) after the initiation of contrast material administration. (orig.) [de

  1. Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage from Adrenal Artery Aneurysm

    Gonzalez Valverde, F.M.; Balsalobre, M.; Torregrosa, N.; Molto, M.; Gomez Ramos, M.J.; Vazquez Rojas, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is a very rare but serious disorder of the adrenal gland that can require emergent treatment. We report on a 42-year-old man who underwent selective angiography for diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal hemorrhage from small adrenal artery aneurysm. This case gives further details about the value of transluminal artery embolization in the management of visceral aneurysm rupture

  2. Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage presenting as acute scrotum

    Introduction. In newborns, adrenal hemorrhage is not an uncommon event. The large size of the adrenal cortex contributes to an increased vulnerability to trauma during a difficult delivery [1]. However, the neonatal adrenal hemorrhage may rarely present as inguinoscrotal swelling [2,3]. This condition can simulate torsion of ...

  3. Bilateral primary adrenal lymphoma presenting with adrenal insufficiency

    Holm, Jakob; Breum, Leif; Stenfeldt, Katrine

    2012-01-01

    surgery was performed. A new computerized tomography scan showed rapid progression of disease with further enlargement of the adrenal masses and both pulmonary and hepatic metastasis. Needle biopsy was performed but the patient refused further treatment and died before a diagnosis was obtained...

  4. Stimulation of renal afferent fibers leads to activation of catecholaminergic and non-catecholaminergic neurons in the medulla oblongata.

    Nishi, Erika E; Martins, Beatriz S; Milanez, Maycon I O; Lopes, Nathalia R; de Melo, Jose F; Pontes, Roberto B; Girardi, Adriana C; Campos, Ruy R; Bergamaschi, Cássia T

    2017-05-01

    Presympathetic neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) including the adrenergic cell groups play a major role in the modulation of several reflexes required for the control of sympathetic vasomotor tone and blood pressure (BP). Moreover, sympathetic vasomotor drive to the kidneys influence natriuresis and diuresis by inhibiting the cAMP/PKA pathway and redistributing the Na + /H + exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) to the body of the microvilli in the proximal tubules. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effects of renal afferents stimulation on (1) the neurochemical phenotype of Fos expressing neurons in the medulla oblongata and (2) the level of abundance and phosphorylation of NHE3 in the renal cortex. We found that electrical stimulation of renal afferents increased heart rate and BP transiently and caused activation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-containing neurons in the RVLM and non-TH neurons in the NTS. Additionally, activation of the inhibitory renorenal reflex over a 30-min period resulted in increased natriuresis and diuresis associated with increased phosphorylation of NHE3 at serine 552, a surrogate for reduced activity of this exchanger, in the contralateral kidney. This effect was not dependent of BP changes considering that no effects on natriuresis or diuresis were found in the ipsilateral-stimulated kidney. Therefore, our data show that renal afferents leads to activation of catecholaminergic and non-catecholaminergic neurons in the medulla oblongata. When renorenal reflex is induced, NHE3 exchanger activity appears to be decreased, resulting in decreased sodium and water reabsorption in the contralateral kidney. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Connexin hemichannel-mediated CO2-dependent release of ATP in the medulla oblongata contributes to central respiratory chemosensitivity

    Huckstepp, Robert T R; id Bihi, Rachid; Eason, Robert; Spyer, K Michael; Dicke, Nikolai; Willecke, Klaus; Marina, Nephtali; Gourine, Alexander V; Dale, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Arterial , a major determinant of breathing, is detected by chemosensors located in the brainstem. These are important for maintaining physiological levels of in the blood and brain, yet the mechanisms by which the brain senses CO2 remain controversial. As ATP release at the ventral surface of the brainstem has been causally linked to the adaptive changes in ventilation in response to hypercapnia, we have studied the mechanisms of CO2-dependent ATP release in slices containing the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata. We found that CO2-dependent ATP release occurs in the absence of extracellular acidification and correlates directly with the level of . ATP release is independent of extracellular Ca2+ and may occur via the opening of a gap junction hemichannel. As agents that act on connexin channels block this release, but compounds selective for pannexin-1 have no effect, we conclude that a connexin hemichannel is involved in CO2-dependent ATP release. We have used molecular, genetic and immunocytochemical techniques to demonstrate that in the medulla oblongata connexin 26 (Cx26) is preferentially expressed near the ventral surface. The leptomeninges, subpial astrocytes and astrocytes ensheathing penetrating blood vessels at the ventral surface of the medulla can be loaded with dye in a CO2-dependent manner, suggesting that gating of a hemichannel is involved in ATP release. This distribution of CO2-dependent dye loading closely mirrors that of Cx26 expression and colocalizes to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells. In vivo, blockers with selectivity for Cx26 reduce hypercapnia-evoked ATP release and the consequent adaptive enhancement of breathing. We therefore propose that Cx26-mediated release of ATP in response to changes in is an important mechanism contributing to central respiratory chemosensitivity. PMID:20736421

  6. Trails on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Leading to Diagnosis of Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumor.

    Kashyap, Raghava

    2018-01-01

    Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) are secondary to hypertrophy of adrenal rest cells in the rete testis in settings of hypersecretion of androgens. We present a case of congenital adrenal hyperplasia with TART with clues to the diagnosis on 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case on the role of 18 F-FDG PET/CT in TART.

  7. Simultaneous adrenal pheochromocytoma and carotid body paraganglioma in a woman

    Han, Eun Ji; Lee, Sang Hoon; Song, In Uk; Chung, Yong An; Maeng, Lee So [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Simultaneous occurrence of carotid body tumor and pheochromocytoma is rare. Most pheochromocytomas have grown on adrenal medulla, but some of the pheochromocytoma patients have multifocal paragangliomas arising from extraaderenal tissues. Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas occur as sporadic tumors or they can be associated with several hereditary syndromes such as (1) multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2), (2) Von Hippel Lindau disease (VHL) and (3) neurofibromatosis type 1 as an unusual genetic cause of pheochromocytomas. Genetic testing is recommended for patients with an apparently sporadic pheochromocytoma under the age of 20 years with a family history or features suggestive of hereditary pheochromocytoma or for patients with sympathetic paragangliomas. For individuals who do not meet these criteria, genetic testing is optional. Discovery of pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma in a patient should lead to a careful search to rule out multifocal lesions and/or hereditary syndromes. The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma is made by biochemical testing, and imaging is done to localize the tumor for surgical planning. F 18 FDG PET has proved to be an effective tool in the localization of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.

  8. Asymptomatic myelolipoma of the adrenal.

    Hadjigeorgi, C; Lafoyianni, S; Pontikis, Y; Van Vliet-Constantinidou, C

    1992-01-01

    Myelolipoma of the adrenal gland is a rare benign tumour which seldom produces symptoms unless it attains considerable size or hemorrhages into itself. Histologically the tumor is composed of varying proportions of fat and bone marrow elements. We present a case of a male child, with homozygous beta thalassemia and asymptomatic myelolipoma.

  9. Blood sampling from adrenal gland vein

    Sun Yong; Ni Caifang

    2009-01-01

    Adrenal gland vein sampling is an interventional method to get the blood samples from the adrenal gland vein. The blood is obtained via a catheter which is selectively inserted in the adrenal gland vein. This technique is mainly used to be diagnostic for primary hyperaldosteronism. A full knowledge of the anatomy and variations of the adrenal gland vein, serious preoperative preparation and skilled catheterization manipulation are necessary for obtaining sufficient blood sample and for reducing the occurrence of complications. Providing the physicians with definite diagnostic evidence and being technically feasible, adrenal gland vein sampling should become one of the routine examinations for clarifying the cause of primary hyperaldosteronism. (authors)

  10. [Successful microvascular decompression of the medulla oblongata for a case with respiratory failure: case report].

    Koguchi, Motofumi; Nakahara, Yukiko; Kawashima, Masatou; Takase, Yukinori; Matsushima, Toshio

    2011-11-01

    We report a case of the medulla oblongata syndrome successfully treated by microvascular decompression surgery. The patient was a 75-year-old woman and had been suffering from gradual progressive dyspnea since July, 2009. Two month later, intubation and medial ventilator treatments were began because of severe respiratory problems. The central respiratory problems were considered in extensive testing by the physician. The head MR imaging showed that the left vertebral artery had markedly compressed the medulla oblongata. We thought that her respiratory problems were associated with this vertebral artery compression of the medulla oblongata. We performed the microvascular decompression surgery by left trans-condylar fossa approach. Her hypoventilation graduately improved after the surgery and she needed neither ventilator nor oxygen in several months. She is able to perform daily activities by herself. We report the case, and discuss the cause of respiratory problems especially by compression of the medulla oblongata.

  11. Primary medulla oblongata germinomas: two case reports and review of the literature.

    Hao, Shuyu; Li, Da; Feng, Jie; Wang, Liang; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Junting; Zhang, Liwei

    2013-10-15

    An intracranial germinoma is a tumor that is sensitive to radiotherapy. As medulla oblongata germinomas are extremely rare, determining an accurate preoperative diagnosis is challenging. Two cases of medulla oblongata lesions were surgically treated, and a postoperative diagnosis of germinoma was determined in both of the cases. The tumor in one patient completely resolved after a treatment course consisting of surgical intervention, radiotherapy and chemotherapy; the other patient, who did not receive any type of adjuvant treatment after surgery, suffered from tumor relapse and died from pneumonia 8 months following surgery. A preoperative diagnosis of medulla oblongata germinoma is difficult because of the lack of specific clinical signs and symptoms. If the correct diagnosis is reached, patients can have a favorable prognosis with proper evaluation and treatment. An invasive operation can potentially lesion and impair the function of the medulla oblongata, which is fatal to the patient.

  12. High density renal medulla on unenhanced CT : significance and relation with hydration status

    Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Hyun Suk; Oh, Kyung Seung; Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Sung Min; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk

    1999-01-01

    To assess the effect of hydration status on renal medullary attenuation and to evaluate the incidence of dense renal medulla, as seen on unenhanced CT. We prospectively studied unenhanced CT scans of 12 healthy volunteers. Obtained done after 10 hours and 15 hours of dehydration and after oral intake of 2L of water. BUN/Cr, urine specific gravity, urine osmole and hematocrit were evaluated after 10 hours of dehydration. CT images were reviewed for the presence of dense renal medulla and differential attenuation of dense renal and isodense medulla and cortex at the same level. The density changes of renal medulla after hydration were evaluated. and CT findings were compared with the results of biochemical studies. In addition, we retrospectively reviewed the CT scans of 200 consecutive patients for evaluation of the incidence of dense renal medulla. In 8 of 12 volunteers, dense renal medulla was seen on CT scan after dehydration. Mean attenuation was 71.3±10.42HU after 10 hours of dehydration, 68.6±13.54HU after 15 hours, and 34.5±11.47HU after hydration. No significant attenuation differences were detected between 10 hours and 15 hours of dehydration, but significantly lower attenuation values were noted after hydration. For isodense medulla, the mean attenuation value was 35.7±7.9HU after 10 hours of dehydration, 39.58±9.66HU after 15 hours, and 36.58±7.77HU after hydration. The mean attenuation values of cortex were 35.9±5.95HU after 10 hours of dehydration. 37.58±5.95HU after 15 hours, and 37.08±9.75HU after hydration. With regard not only to duration of dehydration, but also ti hydration, no differences in attenuation values were noted for renal cortex or isodense renal medulla. However, higher density was noted in dense renal medulla than in isodense medulla or cortex for the same duration of dehydration. After hydration, complete resolution was seen at five of eight sites and incomplete resolution at three of eight sites. There was no correlation

  13. Adrenal Gland Microenvironment and Its Involvement in the Regulation of Stress-induced Hormone Secretion during Sepsis.

    Waldemar Kanczkowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Survival of all living organisms depends on maintenance of a steady state of homeostasis, which process relies on its ability to react and adapt to various physical and emotional threats. The defense against stress is executed by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic-adrenal medullary system. Adrenal gland is a major effector organ of stress system. During stress adrenal gland rapidly respond with increased secretion of glucocorticoids and catecholamines into circulation, which hormones, in turn, affect metabolism, to provide acutely energy, vasculature to increase blood pressure and the immune system to prevent it from extensive activation. Sepsis resulting from microbial infections is a sustained and extreme example of stress situation. In many critical ill patients levels of both corticotropin-releasing hormone and adrenocorticotropin, two major regulators of adrenal hormone production, are suppressed. Levels of glucocorticoids however, remain normal or are elevated in these patients, suggesting a shift from central to local intraadrenal regulation of adrenal stress response. Among many mechanisms potentially involved in this process, reduced glucocorticoid metabolism and local intraadrenal activation of hormone production mediated by adrenocortical and chromaffin cell interactions, the adrenal vascular system and the immune-adrenal crosstalk play a key role. Consequently, any impairment in function of these systems, can ultimately affect adrenal stress response. The purpose of this mini review is to present and discuss recent advances in our understanding of the adrenal gland microenvironment, and its role in regulation of stress-induced hormone secretion.

  14. Activation of Akt/FKHR in the medulla oblongata contributes to spontaneous respiratory recovery after incomplete spinal cord injury in adult rats.

    Felix, M S; Bauer, S; Darlot, F; Muscatelli, F; Kastner, A; Gauthier, P; Matarazzo, V

    2014-09-01

    After incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), patients and animals may exhibit some spontaneous functional recovery which can be partly attributed to remodeling of injured neural circuitry. This post-lesion plasticity implies spinal remodeling but increasing evidences suggest that supraspinal structures contribute also to the functional recovery. Here we tested the hypothesis that partial SCI may activate cell-signaling pathway(s) at the supraspinal level and that this molecular response may contribute to spontaneous recovery. With this aim, we used a rat model of partial cervical hemisection which injures the bulbospinal respiratory tract originating from the medulla oblongata of the brainstem but leads to a time-dependent spontaneous functional recovery of the paralyzed hemidiaphragm. We first demonstrate that after SCI the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is activated in the medulla oblongata of the brainstem, resulting in an inactivation of its pro-apoptotic downstream target, forkhead transcription factor (FKHR/FOXO1A). Retrograde labeling of medullary premotoneurons including respiratory ones which project to phrenic motoneurons reveals an increased FKHR phosphorylation in their cell bodies together with an unchanged cell number. Medulla infusion of the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, prevents the SCI-induced Akt and FKHR phosphorylations and activates one of its death-promoting downstream targets, Fas ligand. Quantitative EMG analyses of diaphragmatic contractility demonstrate that the inhibition of medulla PI3K/Akt signaling prevents spontaneous respiratory recovery normally observed after partial cervical SCI. Such inhibition does not however affect either baseline contractile frequency or the ventilatory reactivity under acute respiratory challenge. Together, these findings provide novel evidence of supraspinal cellular contribution to the spontaneous respiratory recovery after partial SCI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Adrenal Oncocytic Neoplasm with Paradoxical Loss of Important Mitochondrial Steroidogenic Protein: The 18 kDA Translocator Protein

    Roberto Ruiz-Cordero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The adrenal glands produce a variety of hormones that play a key role in the regulation of blood pressure, electrolyte homeostasis, metabolism, immune system suppression, and the body’s physiologic response to stress. Adrenal neoplasms can be asymptomatic or can overproduce certain hormones that lead to different clinical manifestations. Oncocytic adrenal neoplasms are infrequent tumors that arise from cells in the adrenal cortex and display a characteristic increase in the number of cytoplasmic mitochondria. Since the rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis includes the transport of cholesterol across the mitochondrial membranes, in part carried out by the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO, we assessed the expression of TSPO in a case of adrenal oncocytic neoplasm using residual adrenal gland of the patient as internal control. We observed a significant loss of TSPO immunofluorescence expression in the adrenal oncocytic tumor cells when compared to adjacent normal adrenal tissue. We further confirmed this finding by employing Western blot analysis to semiquantify TSPO expression in tumor and normal adrenal cells. Our findings could suggest a potential role of TSPO in the tumorigenesis of this case of adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm.

  16. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of adrenal dysfunction

    Ashkar, F.S.; Fishman, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Because of their special physical and chemical properties, the adrenal secretory products were among the first hormonal substances to be measured by methods other than bioassay. Over the past several years, the development of sensitive and specific methods of hormone assay dependent on the use of radionuclides has revolutionized investigative and clinical endocrinology. While the capacity of defining most abnormalities of adrenal function antedates hormone measurement and adrenal imaging utilizing radioisotopes, the availability of such methods has greatly facilitated and made more precise the diagnostic approach to patients with suspected adrenal dysfunction. As an example of how clinical and laboratory considerations can be integrated into a rational approach to the diagnosis of adrenal disease, the problem of suspected adrenal hyperfunction is analyzed in light of current understanding of its pathophysiology. Reflection demonstrates that suspected primary aldosteronism and adrenal insufficiency are equally amenable to such an approach

  17. A genomic atlas of human adrenal and gonad development

    del Valle, Ignacio; Buonocore, Federica; Duncan, Andrew J.; Lin, Lin; Barenco, Martino; Parnaik, Rahul; Shah, Sonia; Hubank, Mike; Gerrelli, Dianne; Achermann, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In humans, the adrenal glands and gonads undergo distinct biological events between 6-10 weeks post conception (wpc), such as testis determination, the onset of steroidogenesis and primordial germ cell development. However, relatively little is currently known about the genetic mechanisms underlying these processes. We therefore aimed to generate a detailed genomic atlas of adrenal and gonad development across these critical stages of human embryonic and fetal development. Methods: RNA was extracted from 53 tissue samples between 6-10 wpc (adrenal, testis, ovary and control). Affymetrix array analysis was performed and differential gene expression was analysed using Bioconductor. A mathematical model was constructed to investigate time-series changes across the dataset. Pathway analysis was performed using ClueGo and cellular localisation of novel factors confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Results: Using this approach, we have identified novel components of adrenal development (e.g. ASB4, NPR3) and confirmed the role of SRY as the main human testis-determining gene. By mathematical modelling time-series data we have found new genes up-regulated with SOX9 in the testis (e.g. CITED1), which may represent components of the testis development pathway. We have shown that testicular steroidogenesis has a distinct onset at around 8 wpc and identified potential novel components in adrenal and testicular steroidogenesis (e.g. MGARP, FOXO4, MAP3K15, GRAMD1B, RMND2), as well as testis biomarkers (e.g. SCUBE1). We have also shown that the developing human ovary expresses distinct subsets of genes (e.g. OR10G9, OR4D5), but enrichment for established biological pathways is limited. Conclusion: This genomic atlas is revealing important novel aspects of human development and new candidate genes for adrenal and reproductive disorders. PMID:28459107

  18. Adrenal failure due to bilateral adrenal metastasis of rectal cancer: A case report.

    Imaoka, Yuki; Kuranishi, Fumito; Ogawa, Yoshiteru; Okuda, Hiroshi; Nakahara, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    It is rare for a patient to present with adrenal insufficiency secondary to bilateral adrenal metastases from a malignant colorectal tumor. An 82-year-old Japanese man presented to our hospital with high fever and malaise. He was receiving oral chemotherapy for the treatment of rectal cancer with multiple metastases. Computed tomography showed new bilateral adrenal gland metastases. A rapid adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test showed adrenal insufficiency. Treatment with hydrocortisone provided immediate symptom improvement. Adrenal insufficiency secondary to bilateral adrenal metastases from rectal cancer is rare. A rapid ACTH test is useful to diagnose adrenal insufficiency. The incidence of adrenal insufficiency may be underestimated in patients with multiple metastasis. Appropriate therapy with adrenal corticosteroid hormone supplementation may lead to a significant improvement in the patient's symptoms and quality of life. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute action of rotenone on excitability of catecholaminergic neurons in rostral ventrolateral medulla.

    Zhang, Zhaoqiang; Shi, Limin; Du, Xixun; Jiao, Qian; Jiang, Hong

    2017-09-01

    The degeneration of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) catecholaminergic neurons was responsible for some cardiovascular symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). Our previous study had observed the impairment of these neurons in the early stage of PD in the rotenone-induced PD rat model, but the related mechanisms remain unclear. Rotenone is a mitochondrial inhibitor, influencing the neuronal electrophysiological activity through activation of K-ATP channels that potentially participate in cell death processes. In the present study, effects of rotenone on electrophysiological properties of RVLM catecholaminergic neurons and its underlying mechanisms were investigated. In coronal slices of brain containing the RVLM through patch clamp technique, rotenone (0.5μM) induced gradual postsynaptic inhibition on the spontaneous firing and cell membrane hyperpolarization with outward currents of catecholaminergic neurons. The electrophysiological changes were blocked by glibenclamide (30μM), a blocker of K-ATP channels, and were nearly unchanged by diazoxide (100μM), an opener of K-ATP channels. Our results also showed that effects of rotenone on catecholaminergic neurons including reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were prevented by pretreatment of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, 100μM), a scavenger of ROS. These suggest that rotenone-induced electrophysiological changes of RVLM catecholaminergic neurons are caused by the opening of K-ATP channels, which are partly related to ROS generation. The changes of K-ATP channels might account for the vulnerability of RVLM catecholaminergic neurons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Kidney outer medulla mitochondria are more efficient compared to cortex mitochondria as a strategy to sustain ATP production in a suboptimal environment.

    Schiffer, Tomas A; Gustafsson, Håkan; Palm, Fredrik

    2018-05-30

    The kidneys receive approximately 25% of cardiac output, which is a prerequisite in order to maintain sufficient glomerular filtration rate. However, both intrarenal regional renal blood flow and tissue oxygen levels are heterogeneous with decreasing levels in the inner part of the medulla. These differences in combination with the heterogeneous metabolic activity of the different nephron segment located in the different parts of the kidney may constitute a functional problem when challenged. The proximal tubule and the medullary thick ascending limb of Henle are considered to have the highest metabolic rate, which is relating to the high mitochondria content needed to sustain sufficient ATP production from oxidative phosphorylation in order to support high electrolyte transport activity in these nephron segments. Interestingly, the cells located in kidney medulla functions at the verge of hypoxia and the mitochondria may have adapted to the surrounding environment. However, little is known about intrarenal differences in mitochondria function. We therefore investigated functional differences between mitochondria isolated from kidney cortex and medulla of healthy normoglycemic rats were estimated using high-resolution respirometry. The results demonstrate that medullary mitochondria had a higher degree of coupling, are more efficient and have higher oxygen affinity, which would make them more suitable to function in an environment with limited oxygen supply. Furthermore, these results support the hypothesis that mitochondria of medullary cells have adapted to the normal hypoxic in vivo situation as a strategy of sustaining ATP production in a suboptimal environment.

  1. Experience with surgical treatment for primary malignant adrenal tumors

    V. R. Latypov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adrenal tumors occur in 3–10 % of the population and are mostly benign adrenal cortical tumors. Adrenocortical carcinoma is a very rare tumor and has an annual incidence of 1–2 cases per million people. The U.S. National Cancer Data Base registered 4275 patients with adrenocortical carcinoma in 1985 to 2007. It is extremely difficult to assess Russia’s epidemiological data, as reports on adrenocortical carcinoma are not presented separately.Materials and methods. A total of 133 patients (49 men and 84 women (1:1.7 with adrenal tumors were operated on at the clinics of the Siberian State Medical University in the period December 1998 to March 2015. The patients’ mean age was 51.3 (16–80 years (median age 51.0 years. The right and left adrenal glands were affected in 49 (36.9 % and 77 (57.9 % patients, respectively; both adrenal glands were involved in 7 (5.3 %. A group of 21 (15.8 % people with primary malignant adrenal tumors was identified among all the patients. The clinical manifestations of the disease were evaluated from the presence of hormonal activity, gastrointestinal symptoms, pain syndrome, and hypertension. All the patients were operated on under endotracheal anesthesia. The data were statistically processed using the program package Statistica 6.0. Survival rates were analyzed by the Kaplan–Meier method. The Gehan–Wilcoxon test was used to compare the groups.Results. The investigation analyzed treatment results in 21 (15.8 % patients with primary malignant adrenal lesions (Group 1. The most common morphological form was adrenocortical carcinoma in 15 (11.3 % patients (5 men and 10 women (1:2; their mean age was 48.1 years. The right, left, and both adrenal glands were affected in 4, 9, and 2 cases, respectively. In Group 2, other malignant adrenal involvements were identified from 1 case of rare malignant adrenal tumors: malignant pheochromocytoma, sarcoma, melanoma, squamous cell

  2. A prenatally detected adrenal cyst treated by adrenal-sparing ...

    Ahmet Dursun and Munevver Ho ¸sgo¨ r. A neonatal case of left adrenal cyst detected in utero and ... Correspondence to Munevver Ho ¸sgör, MD, PhD, Department II of Pediatric. Surgery, Dr Behcet Uz Children's Hospital, Koruturk Mh. ..... Radiology 1986; 161:631–633. 13 Erbil Y, Salmasliog˘lu A, Barbaros U, Bozbora A, ...

  3. Irradiated diets and its effect on testes and adrenal gland of rats

    Kushwaha, A.K.S.; Hasan, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the feeding effects of irradiated normal diet (consisting of equal parts of gram and wheat) and irradiated low protein diet (consisting one part of normal diet and three parts of wheat) on male rats for various periods starting from weaning time. Rats maintained on irradiated low protein diets showed decrease in the activity of androgen sensitive enzymes i.e., alkaline and acid phosphatase while an increase in the cholesterol content of the testes compared with irradiated normal controls. Diminution in androgen sensitive enzymes and accumulation of cholesterol in the rat testes suggest non-conversion of cholesterol into steriod hormones after feeding of irradiated low protein. Besides, rats fed on irradiated low protein diet showed increased cellular activity in the adrenal cortex and medulla as compared to rats fed on the irradiated normal diet. (author). 12 refs., 4 tabs

  4. Primary adrenal leiomyosarcoma: A case report with immunohistochemical study and review of literature

    Sanjay D Deshmukh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary adrenal mesenchymal tumors are exceptionally rare. Diagnosis is based entirely on histological and immunohistochemical evaluation which is indispensable not only for determining tumor type but also for predicting biological behavior. We report a rare case of primary leiomyosarcoma of the left adrenal gland, in a 60 year old woman who presented with flank pain. Computed tomography revealed a well defined left adrenal tumor which was surgically resected. Histological examination of the tumor showed malignant spindle cells in interlacing fascicles and whorls. Nuclear pleomorphism, tumor giant cells and abnormal mitotic figures were seen. On immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells showed reactivity for smooth muscle actin, vimentin and desmin; and were negative for cytokeratin, S100 protein, CD117 and HMB-45. A diagnosis of primary adrenal leiomyosarcoma was offered. Postoperative recovery of the patient was uneventful and the patient was symptom free with no evidence of tumor metastasis or recurrence 21 months after surgery.

  5. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Case report.

    Jaime Avaria E.; María José Vargas F.; Loreto Triviño F.; Andrea Gleisner E.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disease whose main cause is the deficiency of 21-hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of cortisol and aldosterone. There are two forms of CAH, a classical and nonclassical form, being the first objective of analysis in the clinical case. Its clinical manifestations vary in severity, depending on the level of hormone deficiency. Within the classic is described the salt-wasting form, whose consequences are ...

  6. Extra-adrenal malignant paragangliomas presenting as mesenteric and pararectal masses: A case report

    Lee, Sun Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Mee; Kim, Baek Hui; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    Extra-adrenal paraganglioma is a rare tumor arising from the neural crest cells. Most tumors that develop in the abdomen arise from paraganglia along the paravertebral and para-aortic areas, in particular the organ of Zuckerkandl, which is close to the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery. However, extra-adrenal paraganglioma also occurs in relatively rare places such as the urinary bladder, gallbladder, hepatoduodenal ligament, and gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report imaging findings of extra-adrenal paragangliomas presenting as mesenteric and pararectal masses with lymph node metastasis.

  7. Superoxide Mediates Depressive Effects Induced by Hydrogen Sulfide in Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Haiyun Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S plays a crucial role in the regulation of blood pressure and oxidative stress. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that H2S exerts its cardiovascular effects by reducing oxidative stress via inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM. We examined cell distributions of cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS and effects of H2S on reactive oxygen species (ROS and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. We found that CBS was expressed in neurons of the RVLM, and the expression was lower in SHRs than in Wistar-Kyoto rats. Microinjection of NaHS (H2S donor, S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM, a CBS agonist, or Apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor into the RVLM reduced the ROS level, NADPH oxidase activity, and MAP, whereas microinjection of hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HA, a CBS inhibitor increased MAP. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular infusion of NaHS inhibited phosphorylation of p47phox, a key step of NADPH oxidase activation. Since decreasing ROS level in the RVLM reduces MAP and heart rate and increasing H2S reduces ROS production, we conclude that H2S exerts an antihypertensive effect via suppressing ROS production. H2S, as an antioxidant, may be a potential target for cardiovascular diseases.

  8. The unique organization of filamentous actin in the medullary canal of the medulla oblongata.

    Tan, Bai-Hong; Guo, Chun-Yan; Xiong, Tian-Qing; Chen, Ling-Meng; Li, Yan-Chao

    2017-04-01

    In the central canal, F-actin is predominantly localized in the apical region, forming a ring-like structure around the circumference of the lumen. However, an exception is found in the medulla oblongata, where the apical F-actin becomes interrupted in the ventral aspect of the canal. To clarify the precise localization of F-actin, the fluorescence signals for F-actin were converted to the peroxidase/DAB reaction products in this study by a phalloidin-based ultrastructural technique, which demonstrated that F-actin is located mainly in the microvilli and terminal webs in the ependymocytes. It is because the ventrally oriented ependymocytes do not possess well-developed microvilli or terminal web that led to a discontinuous labeling of F-actin in the medullary canal. Since spinal motions can change the shape and size of the central canal, we next examined the cytoskeletons in the medullary canal in both rats and monkeys, because these two kinds of animals show different kinematics at the atlanto-occipital articulation. Our results first demonstrated that the apical F-actin in the medullary canal is differently organized in the animals with different head-neck kinemics, which suggests that the mechanic stretching of spinal motions is capable of inducing F-actin reorganization and the subsequent cell-shape changes in the central canal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Architecture of interstitial nodal spaces in the rodent renal inner medulla.

    Gilbert, Rebecca L; Pannabecker, Thomas L

    2013-09-01

    Every collecting duct (CD) of the rat inner medulla is uniformly surrounded by about four abutting ascending vasa recta (AVR) running parallel to it. One or two ascending thin limbs (ATLs) lie between and parallel to each abutting AVR pair, opposite the CD. These structures form boundaries of axially running interstitial compartments. Viewed in transverse sections, these compartments appear as four interstitial nodal spaces (INSs) positioned symmetrically around each CD. The axially running compartments are segmented by interstitial cells spaced at regular intervals. The pairing of ATLs and CDs bounded by an abundant supply of AVR carrying reabsorbed water, NaCl, and urea make a strong argument that the mixing of NaCl and urea within the INSs and countercurrent flows play a critical role in generating the inner medullary osmotic gradient. The results of this study fully support that hypothesis. We quantified interactions of all structures comprising INSs along the corticopapillary axis for two rodent species, the Munich-Wistar rat and the kangaroo rat. The results showed remarkable similarities in the configurations of INSs, suggesting that the structural arrangement of INSs is a highly conserved architecture that plays a fundamental role in renal function. The number density of INSs along the corticopapillary axis directly correlated with a loop population that declines exponentially with distance below the outer medullary-inner medullary boundary. The axial configurations were consistent with discrete association between near-bend loop segments and INSs and with upper loop segments lying distant from INSs.

  10. The Role of gsp Mutations on the Development of Adrenal Cortical Tumors and Adrenal Hyperplasias

    Maria Candida Barisson Villares Fragoso

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Somatic GNAS point mutations, commonly known as gsp mutations, are involved in the pathogenesis of McCune Albright syndrome and have also been described in autonomous hormone-producing tumors, such as somatotropinoma, corticotrophoma, thyroid cancer, ovarian and testicular Leydig cell tumors and primary macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (PMAH. [1-3]The involvement of gsp mutations in adrenal tumors was first described by Lyons et al. in 1990. Since then, several studies have detected the presence of gsp mutations in adrenal tumors, but none of them could explain its presence along or the mechanism that leads to tumor formation and hormone hypersecretion. As a result, the molecular pathogenesis of the majority of sporadic adrenocortical tumors remains unclear. [3] PMAH has also been reported with gsp somatic mutations in a few cases. Fragoso et al. in 2003 identified two distinct gsp somatic mutations affecting arginine residues on codon 201 of GNAS in a few patients with PMAH who lacked any features or manifestations of McCune Albright syndrome. Followed by this discovery, other studies have continued looking for gsp mutations based on strong prior evidence demonstrating that increased cAMP signaling is sufficient for cell proliferation and cortisol production. [2, 4] With consideration for the previously reported findings, we conjecture that although somatic activating mutations in GNAS are a rare molecular event, these mutations could probably be sufficient to induce the development of macronodule hyperplasia and variable cortisol secretion.In this manuscript, we revised the presence of gsp mutations associated with adrenal cortical tumors and hyperplasia.

  11. Adrenal failure due to bilateral adrenal metastasis of rectal cancer: A case report

    Yuki Imaoka

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of adrenal insufficiency may be underestimated in patients with multiple metastasis. Appropriate therapy with adrenal corticosteroid hormone supplementation may lead to a significant improvement in the patient’s symptoms and quality of life.

  12. Optimal glucocorticoid replacement in adrenal insufficiency.

    Øksnes, Marianne; Ross, Richard; Løvås, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal insufficiency (glucocorticoid deficiency) comprises a group of rare diseases, including primary adrenal insufficiency, secondary adrenal insufficiency and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Lifesaving glucocorticoid therapy was introduced over 60 years ago, but since then a number of advances in treatment have taken place. Specifically, little is known about short- and long-term treatment effects, and morbidity and mortality. Over the past decade, systematic cohort and registry studies have described reduced health-related quality of life, an unfavourable metabolic profile and increased mortality in patients with adrenal insufficiency, which may relate to unphysiological glucocorticoid replacement. This has led to the development of new modes of replacement that aim to mimic normal glucocorticoid physiology. Here, evidence for the inadequacy of conventional glucocorticoid therapy and recent developments in treatment are reviewed, with an emphasis on primary adrenal insufficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of adrenal: Clinical presentation and outcomes

    Deep Dutta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET of adrenal is an extremely rare tumor of neural crest origin. A nonfunctional left adrenal mass (14.6 × 10.5 × 10.0 cm on computed tomography (CT was detected in a 40-year-old lady with abdominal pain, swelling, and left pleural effusion. She underwent left adrenalectomy and left nephrectomy with retroperitoneal resection. Histopathology revealed sheets and nest of oval tumor cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, prominent nucleoli, scanty cytoplasm, brisk mitotic activity, necrosis, lymphovascular invasion, capsular invasion, and extension to the surrounding muscles; staining positive for Mic-2 (CD-99 antigen, vimentin, synaptophysin, and Melan-A. Thoracocentesis, pleural fluid study, and pleural biopsy did not show metastasis. She responded well to vincristine, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide followed by ifosfamide and etoposide (IE. This is the first report of adrenal peripheral PNET (pPNET from India. This report intends to highlight that pPNET should be suspected in a patient presenting with huge nonfunctional adrenal mass which may be confused with adrenocortical carcinoma.

  14. Secretion of [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7-related peptides and catecholamines from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells: modification by changes in cyclic AMP and by treatment with reserpine.

    Adams, M; Boarder, M R

    1987-07-01

    Investigations into the effects of culturing bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in the presence (72 h) of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, forskolin, and reserpine on the level and release of [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity, noradrenaline, and adrenaline are reported. The assay for [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity recognises both peptide B, the 31-amino acid carboxy-terminal segment of proenkephalin, and its heptapeptide fragment, [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7. Treatments that elevate cyclic AMP increase the amount of peptide immunoreactivity in these cells; this is predominantly peptide B-like immunoreactivity in both control cells and cyclic AMP-elevated cells. Treatment with reserpine gives no change in total immunoreactivity levels, but does not result in increased accumulation of the heptapeptide [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 at the expense of immunoreactivity that elutes with its immediate precursor, peptide B. Cyclic AMP treatment causes either no change or a decrease in levels of accumulated noradrenaline and adrenaline. However, the release of [Met]enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity, noradrenaline, and adrenaline is increased by 72-h pretreatment with forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic AMP, whether release is stimulated by nicotine or elevated potassium. In each case the molecular form of [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity that is released approximately reflects the cell content. Pretreatment with reserpine has no effect on the total [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity released, but does result in an increased release of the heptapeptide and a decrease in release of peptide B-like immunoreactivity. The studies suggest that the levels of [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 and peptide B available for release are controlled both at the level of proenkephalin synthesis and at the level of double-basic residue proteolysis.

  15. Differential regulation of human 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 for steroid hormone biosynthesis by starvation and cyclic AMP stimulation: studies in the human adrenal NCI-H295R cell model.

    Sameer Udhane

    Full Text Available Human steroid biosynthesis depends on a specifically regulated cascade of enzymes including 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD3Bs. Type 2 HSD3B catalyzes the conversion of pregnenolone, 17α-hydroxypregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone to progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione in the human adrenal cortex and the gonads but the exact regulation of this enzyme is unknown. Therefore, specific downregulation of HSD3B2 at adrenarche around age 6-8 years and characteristic upregulation of HSD3B2 in the ovaries of women suffering from the polycystic ovary syndrome remain unexplained prompting us to study the regulation of HSD3B2 in adrenal NCI-H295R cells. Our studies confirm that the HSD3B2 promoter is regulated by transcription factors GATA, Nur77 and SF1/LRH1 in concert and that the NBRE/Nur77 site is crucial for hormonal stimulation with cAMP. In fact, these three transcription factors together were able to transactivate the HSD3B2 promoter in placental JEG3 cells which normally do not express HSD3B2. By contrast, epigenetic mechanisms such as methylation and acetylation seem not involved in controlling HSD3B2 expression. Cyclic AMP was found to exert differential effects on HSD3B2 when comparing short (acute versus long-term (chronic stimulation. Short cAMP stimulation inhibited HSD3B2 activity directly possibly due to regulation at co-factor or substrate level or posttranslational modification of the protein. Long cAMP stimulation attenuated HSD3B2 inhibition and increased HSD3B2 expression through transcriptional regulation. Although PKA and MAPK pathways are obvious candidates for possibly transmitting the cAMP signal to HSD3B2, our studies using PKA and MEK1/2 inhibitors revealed no such downstream signaling of cAMP. However, both signaling pathways were clearly regulating HSD3B2 expression.

  16. Severe bilateral adrenal hemorrhages in a newborn complicated by persistent adrenal insufficiency

    Zessis, Nicholas R; Nicholas, Jennifer L; Stone, Stephen I

    2018-01-01

    Summary Bilateral adrenal hemorrhages rarely occur during the neonatal period and are often associated with traumatic vaginal deliveries. However, the adrenal gland has highly regenerative capabilities and adrenal insufficiency typically resolves over time. We evaluated a newborn female after experiencing fetal macrosomia and a traumatic vaginal delivery. She developed acidosis and acute renal injury. Large adrenal hemorrhages were noted bilaterally on ultrasound, and she was diagnosed with a...

  17. Insuficiencia suprarrenal primaria por adrenalitis autoimnume

    Muzzo B,Santiago; Izquierdo C,Gianina; Verbeke P,Sandra

    2002-01-01

    We report a 10 years old boy, admitted with a history of asthenia, anorexia and weight loss of 4 kg. Initial laboratory work up showed metabolic acidosis and hyponatremia. The patient had no circadian rhythm of serum cortisol and an adrenal stimulation test confirmed the presence of adrenal insufficiency. Anti-adrenal antibodies were positive. Treatment with cortisol and fluorocortisone resulted in a complete remission of symptoms (Rev Méd Chile 2002; 130: 901-6).

  18. Radiological diagnosis of the adrenal glands

    Engelbrecht, V.

    2005-01-01

    The adrenal gland is a common site of disease involving hormonal dysfunction as well as benign and malignant masses. Radiology, especially computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR), plays a critical role in detecting and characterizing diseases affecting the adrenal gland. This paper contains a summary of the most important diseases of the adrenal gland and presents criteria for differentiating between benign and malignant masses as well as an algorithm for the diagnostic steps in incidentaloma. (orig.)

  19. Ultrasonographi assessment of congenital adrenal masses

    Muro Velilla, D.; Sanguesa, C.; Alberto, C.; Lopez, A., Benlloch, C.

    1996-01-01

    The demonstrate the utility of ultrasound (US) in the initial assessment and follow-up of newborns with adrenal masses. A series of 21 newborns presenting adrenal mass studied on the basis of US findings, clinical assessment and biochemical data. Seven patients had congenital neuroblastoma, two had a benign tumor and twelve presented adrenal hemorrhage. Postnatal US study of the course of these patients is essential for the differential diagnosis of their lesions when not diagnosed prenatally. (Author) 20 refs

  20. Computed tomography of adrenal Cushing's adenoma

    Yamada, Takayuki

    1990-01-01

    CT findings of 22 patients with surgically confirmed adrenal Cushing's adenomas were compared with pathologic findings. The cut surfaces of the adenomas showed mixture of yellow and brown areas in various proportions and were classified into three patterns; speckled brown areas in yellow background, geometrically brown areas in yellow background, totally brown or black surface. The maximum diameters of the cut surfaces were measured. The CT appearances of Cushing's adenomas after intravenous contrast administration have various patterns of enhancement and classified into three patterns; speckled, geometrical, and homoenous. The maximum diameters of the adenomas in CT images were also measured. Correlation between the CT and gross appearances of the specimens showed that while brown areas in adenomas were strongly enhanced, yellow areas were poorly enhanced. Histologically, brown areas in adenomas consist of compact-like cells with rich intercellular space and yellow areas consist of clear-like cells with poor intercellular space. The patterns of contrast enhancement some to depend on the cell types of adenomas. Difference in the intercellular space between compact and clear-like cells may have altered the patterns of contrast enhancement. The study also revealed that predominantly brownish adenomas were smaller in size than predominantly yellowish ones. As compact-like cells which make up the brown areas in Cushing's adenoma are thought to be more active in producing and secreting steroid hormones than clear-like cells, this result suggests that clinical symptoms may appear earlier in predominantly brownish adenomas than in predominantly yellowish ones. (author)

  1. An Unusual Case of Adrenal Incidentaloma

    Turker Tasliyurt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal incidentalomas are masses accidentally discovered while conducting radiological examinations for other purposes. A major part of adrenal incidentalomas are non-functional adenomas. Silently developing Cushing's syndrome or pheochromocytoma can be observed in adrenal incidentalomas. However, coexistence of Cushing's syndrome and pheochromocytoma at the same time in the same case is quite rare. In the present study, an atypical adrenal incidentaloma case is presented, whose laboratory examinations were compatible with Subclinical Cushing's syndrome, urinary catecholamine metabolites were normal, but who histopathologically had pheochromocytoma diagnosis. [J Contemp Med 2014; 4(3.000: 160-163

  2. The Lateralizing Asymmetry of Adrenal Adenomas

    Hao, Meng; Lopez, Diana; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Cote, Kathryn; Newfield, Jessica; Connors, Molly; Vaidya, Anand

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Context It is presumed that the incidence of adrenal adenomas is symmetric between the left and right adrenal gland; however, anecdotal observations suggest a potential lateralizing asymmetry. Objective To investigate the symmetry in detection of adrenal adenomas and relevance to patient care. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Population and Setting One thousand three hundred seventy-six patients with abdominal computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating benign-appearing adrenal adenomas. Main Outcome Location and size of adrenal adenomas. Results Left-sided adenomas were discovered in 65% of patients, right-sided in 21%, and bilateral adenomas in 14%. Among unilateral adenomas, 75% were left-sided. Left-sided adenomas were more prevalent than right-sided adenomas in each size category except the largest: Adrenal adenomas are substantially more likely to be identified on the left adrenal than the right. This observation may be due to detection bias attributed to the location of the right adrenal, which may preclude identification of right-sided adenomas until they are substantially larger. These findings suggest the potential for an underrecognition of right-sided adenomas that may also impair the accurate detection of bilateral adrenal diseases. PMID:29644340

  3. A prenatally detected adrenal cyst treated by adrenal-sparing surgery

    A neonatal case of left adrenal cyst detected in utero and successfully treated by adrenal-sparing surgery is presented and discussed with review of the literature. Incidentally discovered prenatal adrenal masses present a diagnostic dilemma. Benign and malignant conditions can present as a fetal suprarenal mass. There is ...

  4. Adrenal scan in 17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency: false indication of adrenal adenoma

    Shore, R.M.; Lieberman, L.M.; Newman, T.J.; Friedman, A.; Bargman, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    A patient who was thought to have testicular feminization syndrome and primary aldosteronism had an adrenal scan that suggested an adrenal adenoma. After later diagnosis of 17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency, she was treated with glucocorticoids rather than surgery. Her clinical course and a repeat adrenal scan confirmed she did not have a tumor

  5. Posttranscriptional regulation of adrenal TH gene expression contributes to the maladaptive responses triggered by insulin-induced recurrent hypoglycemia.

    Kudrick, Necla; Chan, Owen; La Gamma, Edmund F; Kim, Juhye Lena; Tank, Arnold William; Sterling, Carol; Nankova, Bistra B

    2015-02-01

    Acute metabolic stress such as insulin-induced hypoglycemia triggers a counterregulatory response during which the release of catecholamines (epinephrine), the activation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) enzyme and subsequent compensatory catecholamine biosynthesis occur in the adrenal medulla. However, recurrent exposure to hypoglycemia (RH), a consequence of tight glycemic control in individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes compromises this physiological response. The molecular mechanisms underlying the maladaptive response to repeated glucose deprivation are incompletely understood. We hypothesize that impaired epinephrine release following RH reflects altered regulation of adrenal catecholamine biosynthesis. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effect of single daily (RH) and twice-daily episodes of insulin-induced hypoglycemia (2RH) on adrenal epinephrine release and production in normal rats. Control animals received saline injections under similar conditions (RS and 2RS, respectively). Following 3 days of treatment, we assessed the counterregulatory hormonal responses during a hypoglycemic clamp. Changes in adrenal TH gene expression were also analyzed. The counterregulatory responses, relative TH transcription and TH mRNA levels and Ser40-TH phosphorylation (marker for enzyme activation) were induced to a similar extent in RS, 2RS, and RH groups. In contrast, epinephrine and glucagon responses were attenuated in the 2RH group and this was associated with a limited elevation of adrenal TH mRNA, rapid inactivation of TH enzyme and no significant changes in TH protein. Our results suggest that novel posttranscriptional mechanisms controlling TH mRNA and activated TH enzyme turnover contribute to the impaired epinephrine responses and may provide new therapeutic targets to prevent HAAF. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  6. [Case of surgical treatment for giant hemangioblastoma in the dorsal medulla oblongata].

    Kamoshima, Yuuta; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Shimoda, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Kuroda, Satoshi; Asano, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Murata, Junichi; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2012-03-01

    Hemangioblastoma in the medulla oblongata is a relatively rare tumor. We present the case of a giant hemangioblastoma occurring in the dorsal medulla oblongata. A 33-year-old man with no neurological symptoms was diagnosed with a hemangioblastoma in the dorsal medulla oblongata, and opted for observation in the outpatient department. After 22 months of observation time, MRI scans showed rapid local tumor progression and obstructive hydrocephalus. At this point, he presented with mild dysphagia as a preoperative neurological deficit. Total surgical removal of the tumor was performed after temporary ventricle drainage and preoperative embolization of the feeding artery. Postoperatively, he became fully conscious but developed bulbar palsy followed by tracheostomy. During the 12 months of postoperative follow-up, severe dysphagia was still present.

  7. An endodermal cyst mimicking an intra-axial tumor in the medulla oblongata.

    Cho, Jin Mo; Ahn, Jung Yong; Kim, Sun Ho; Lee, Kyu Sung; Chang, Jong Hee

    2010-06-01

    Endodermal cysts, also known as enterogenous, neurenteric, foregut, epithelial, bronchogenic, or respiratory cysts, are rare benign lesions lined by columnar epithelium of a presumed endodermal origin. Endodermal cysts are rarely intracranial, but when this occurs, the cysts are frequently located in the posterior fossa with the most common locations being anterior to the brainstem and within the fourth ventricle. However, an endodermal cyst located in the medulla oblongata is extremely rare. Here, we present a case of a 23-year-old man with an endodermal cyst located in the medulla oblongata. Although rare, clinicians should be aware that this lesion is differentiated from other cystic lesions of the posterior fossa by the absence of a mural nodule. Total resection of endodermal cysts in the medulla oblongata is recommended, despite their location and adhesion to surrounding structures, due to its frequent recurrence.

  8. [Disseminated metastatic tumor at dorsal surface of medulla oblongata presenting intractable hiccups. A case report].

    Arishima, Hidetaka; Kikuta, Ken-ichirou

    2011-04-01

    We report the case of disseminated metastatic tumor at dorsal surface of medulla oblongata presenting intractable hiccups. A 73-year-old man has a history of for metastatic lung tumor of the left tempral lobe. Although 3 surgeries and 4 radiotherapies were performed in the last 8 years, residual tumor grew slowly. He presented with intractable hiccups. His hiccups continued for 30 minutes, sometimes for 3 hours with obstruction of eating. Contrast-enhanced Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated the dissemination of metastatic lung tumor at dorsal surface of medulla oblongata and ventral surface of midbrain. Some literatures reported the patients with intractable hiccups caused by dorsal medullary lesions. Therefore, we thought that the small disseminated tumor at dorsal surface of medulla oblongata caused the hiccups. Evaluation of dorsal medullay area by MR imaging is important to reveal the cause of intractable hiccups.

  9. Primary glioblastoma multiforme of medulla oblongata: Case report and review of literature

    Chotai, Silky P.; Moon, Hong-Joo; Kim, Joo-Han; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kwon, Taek-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common glial tumor of the adult brain. However, the primary GBM of medulla oblongata is a rarity. To the best of our knowledge, only four cases of GBM of medulla oblongata have been reported so far in the literature, and this is the second report of conventional GBM of the medulla oblongata in adults. We describe a case of 51-year-old female, who presented with a heterogeneous mass with exophytic feature located in the caudal brain stem that was approached and a near total tumor removal was achieved by median suboccipital route. A literature review with emphasis on anatomical location, radiological and histopathological findings, extent of tumor resectibility, and outcome is included. PMID:22639691

  10. Neuronal Activation in the Medulla Oblongata during Selective Elicitation of the Laryngeal Adductor Response

    Ambalavanar, Ranjinidevi; Tanaka, Yasumasa; Selbie, W. Scott; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2008-01-01

    Swallow and cough are complex motor patterns elicited by rapid and intense electrical stimulation of the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (ISLN). The laryngeal adductor response (LAR) includes only a laryngeal response, is elicited by single stimuli to the ISLN, and is thought to represent the brain stem pathway involved in laryngospasm. To identify which regions in the medulla are activated during elicitation of the LAR alone, single electrical stimuli were presented once every 2 s to the ISLN. Two groups of 5 cats each were studied; an experimental group with unilateral ISLN stimulation at 0.5 Hz and a surgical control group. Three additional cats were studied to evaluate whether other oral, pharyngeal or respiratory muscles were activated during ISLN stimulation eliciting LAR. We quantified up to 22 sections for each of 14 structures in the medulla to determine if regions had increased Fos-like immunoreactive neurons in the experimental group. Significant increases (p medulla. PMID:15212423

  11. Adrenal Castleman's disease mimicking other adrenal neoplasms: A case report

    Hong, Seung Baek; Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Suk; Han, Ga Jin; Ha, Hong Koo; Ku, Ja Yoon; Ahn, Sang Jeong; Lee, Chang Hun [Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    We present a rare case of adrenal Castleman's disease with hyaline vascular type mimicking other adrenal neoplasms in a 65-year-old woman. Although rare, the hyaline vascular type of adrenal Castleman's disease should be included in the differential diagnosis if an adrenal mass shows a well-defined, highly enhancing solid adrenal mass with peripheral rim enhancement, multiple satellite lymph nodes, and peritoneal thickening around the dominant mass on computed tomography as shown in this patient.

  12. Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumors (TARTS With Unusual Histological Features in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH

    Valeri Marianovsky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH patients with testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs with testicular enlargement present a serious diagnostic challenge. According to the data TARTs are usually benign. They are rare, resulting in paucity in the medical literature regarding their pathological features. We report a case of bilateral synchronous mass-forming TARTs with marked cytological and nuclear atypia misinterpreted as malignant testicular tumors in a 40-years-old man with CAH and CT and MRI data for pheochromocytoma of the right adrenal gland and paraaortal and paracaval lymphadenomegaly. He was previously diagnosed with adrenal cortical carcinoma of the left adrenal gland.

  13. Image characteristics of adrenal ganglioneuroma

    Ohishi, Yukihiko; Machida, Toyohei; Tashiro, Kazuya

    1994-01-01

    The image characteristics of adrenal ganglioneuroma observed in various types of imaging were examined. The subjects of the study were 6 cases of adrenal ganglioneuroma which had been histologically confirmed: the ages of the subjects ranged from 25 to 54 (mean age 41), and the maximum diameter of the tumors were 4 to 7 cm. The diagnostic methods employed in their detection were ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) in all 6 cases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 5 cases, and arteriography in 3 cases. On US and CT images, all 6 tumors had clear and smooth boundaries, and were homogeneous. They were hypoechoic on US images and low density on CT images. Of the 5 cases for which contrast CT images had been obtained, one showed a slightly heterogeneous staining. On MRI, the tumors were of lower intensity in comparison to the liver in 4 of 5 cases on the T 1 -weighted images, and the internal structure was homogeneous in 3 cases and heterogeneous in one case. The remaining one case was of isointensity and homogeneous. On the T 2 -weighted images, all 5 cases were of high intensity and heterogeneous. The blood flow distribution in the 3 tumors which were examined by Gd-DTPA dynamic MRI was low and of isointensity to the liver: 2 were heterogeneous and one was homogeneous. T 1 -enhanced images were obtained in 4 cases: 2 were of high intensity and heterogeneous, one was of isointensity and homogeneous, and one was of heterogeneously isointensity. Arteriography indicated that all 3 cases were hypovascular and no vascularization or ruptures were evident. It appeared that the imaging characteristics of adrenal ganglioneuroma were as follows: (1) homogeneous on US and CT images; (2) hypoechoic on US images, low density on CT images and little enhancement on contrast CT images; (3) of low intensity homogeneous on T 1 -weighted images and of high intensity heterogeneous on T 2 -weighted images and little blood flow distribution on dynamic MRI. (author)

  14. Direct and indirect pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat

    Holstege, Gert

    1988-01-01

    The pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat were traced using horse-radish-peroxidase (HRP) and autoradiographic techniques. The HRP results indicated that several neuronal cell groups in the brain stem and hypothalamus project to the spinal cord throughout its total length. The autoradiographic tracing results demonstrated that the strongest projections to lamina I are derived from the following four areas: the caudal nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), the ventral part of the caudal pontine and NRM, the contralaterally projecting lateral pontine or paralemniscal tegmentum, and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a limited, especially at lumbosacral levels, distinct projection to lamina I was found to originate in the most caudal part of the medullary tegmentum.

  15. Children with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia have elevated serum leptin concentrations and insulin resistance: potential clinical implications.

    Charmandari, Evangelia; Weise, Martina; Bornstein, Stefan R; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Keil, Margaret F; Chrousos, George P; Merke, Deborah P

    2002-05-01

    Leptin is secreted by the white adipose tissue and modulates energy homeostasis. Nutritional, neural, neuroendocrine, paracrine, and autocrine factors, including the sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal medulla, have been implicated in the regulation of leptin secretion. Classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is characterized by a defect in cortisol and aldosterone secretion, impaired development and function of the adrenal medulla, and adrenal hyperandrogenism. To examine leptin secretion in patients with classic CAH in relation to their adrenomedullary function and insulin and androgen secretion, we studied 18 children with classic CAH (12 boys and 6 girls; age range 2-12 yr) and 28 normal children (16 boys and 12 girls; age range 5-12 yr) matched for body mass index (BMI). Serum leptin concentrations were significantly higher in patients with CAH than in control subjects (8.1 +/- 2.0 vs. 2.5 +/- 0.6 ng/ml, P = 0.01), and this difference persisted when leptin values were corrected for BMI. When compared with their normal counterparts, children with CAH had significantly lower plasma epinephrine (7.1 +/- 1.3 vs. 50.0 +/- 4.2, P fasting serum insulin (10.6 +/- 1.4 vs. 3.2 +/- 0.2 microU/ml, P Insulin resistance determined by the homeostasis model assessment method was significantly greater in children with classic CAH than in normal children (2.2 +/- 0.3 vs. 0.7 +/- 0.04, P patients and controls. Gender predicted serum leptin concentrations in controls but not in patients with classic CAH. No association was found between the dose of hydrocortisone and serum leptin (r = -0.17, P = 0.5) or insulin (r = 0.24, P = 0.3) concentrations in children with CAH. Our findings indicate that children with classic CAH have elevated fasting serum leptin and insulin concentrations, and insulin resistance. These most likely reflect differences in long-term adrenomedullary hypofunction and glucocorticoid therapy. Elevated leptin and insulin concentrations in patients

  16. Variations in adrenal hormones in law enforcement servicemen during a mission to local armed conflict

    Roman Victorovich Koubassov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we reported changes in the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and cortisol secretion in blood samples from law enforcement personnel during the mission to local armed conflict region. In the present study, we demonstrate those changes collectively with additional data on changes in the adrenaline and noradrenaline in the urine samples of the same individuals. The study was conducted on 48 male officers who were deployed to an army conflict teritory for a duration of 4 months.At the onset of the mission, there was a modestincreasein all hormones corresponding to the general adaptation syndrome theory. As the mission started, significant increases were observed in the mean levels of the hormonal parameters in both serum and urine at different time points as compared to those before the mission. At first week of deployment, a sharp increase in the secretory activity of medulla and cortical adrenal gland was found and at the termination of the mission a dysfunction of hypophysis-adrenal gland regulation system was identified. These findings might lead to disturbances in interhormonal relationships and causedecreased stress tolerance in the relevant individals.

  17. THE EFFECT OF ADRENAL MEDULLECTOMY ON METABOLIC RESPONSES TO CHRONIC INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA

    Shin, Mi-Kyung; Han, Woobum; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Jun, Jonathan C.; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea causes intermittent hypoxia (IH) and is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. IH increases plasma catecholamine levels, which may increase insulin resistance and suppress insulin secretion. The objective of this study was to determine if adrenal medullectomy (MED) prevents metabolic dysfunction in IH. MED or sham surgery was performed in 60 male C57BL/6J mice, which were then exposed to IH or control conditions (intermittent air) for 6 weeks. IH increased plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels, increased fasting blood glucose and lowered basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. MED decreased baseline epinephrine and prevented the IH induced increase in epinephrine, whereas the norepinephrine response remained intact. MED improved glucose tolerance in mice exposed to IH, attenuated the impairment in basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, but did not prevent IH-induced fasting hyperglycemia or insulin resistance. We conclude that the epinephrine release from the adrenal medulla during IH suppresses insulin secretion causing hyperglycemia. PMID:25179887

  18. Anhelation due to formation of tuberculomas at the medulla oblongata during chemotherapy of tuberculous meningitis.

    Ge, Pengfei; Zhang, Xiaojie; Zhong, Yangping; Bian, Xinchao; Fu, Shuanglin; Luo, Yinan

    2012-01-01

    Formation of tuberculoma is a rare response of neurotuberculosis in patients regularly and adequately treated with anti-tuberculous drugs. We report a 13-year-old girl with two tuberculomas which formed in the dorsal part of the medulla oblongata during chemotherapy for tuberculous meningitis. The tuberculomas were both removed via a suboccipital midline approach and were demonstrated by pathological findings but the girl died of cardiac arrest that was thought to be caused by postoperative medulla oblongata oedema. In combination with a literature review, we discuss the clinical features and treatment options of brainstem tuberculomas.

  19. Intracranial hemorrhage associated with medulla oblongata dysplasia in a premature infant: A case report.

    Jiang, Li-Na; Wei, Mei-Chen; Cui, Hong

    2018-04-01

    Medulla oblongata dysplasia is an extremely rare form of neurodevelopmental immaturity in premature infants. Intracranial hemorrhage in premature infants may be closely related to neurodevelopmental immaturity. We report a female premature infant who succumbed to intracranial hemorrhage caused by medulla oblongata dysplasia. The infant was born at 31 weeks gestation. The onset manifestation was symptomatic epilepsy associated with subependymal hemorrhage. Levetiracetam and sodium valproate were administered. During the hospitalization, hydrocephalus developed and the intracranial hemorrhage aggravated. The infant died on day 171 after birth. Early identification and prompt treatment should be emphasized. Clinicians should be aware of this condition, as it can potentially cause neonatal intracranial hemorrhage.

  20. Rare primary retroperitoneal teratoma masquerading as adrenal ...

    J.M. Ratkal

    Abstract. Objectives: To present a rare case of Primary mature cystic teratoma of right adrenal gland in adult female with an aim to review the published literature. Materials and Methods: The case details of a lady presenting with vague upper abdominal pain and on investigation was found to have a right adrenal mass were ...

  1. Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage mimicking an acute scrotum.

    Adorisio, O; Mattei, R; Ciardini, E; Centonze, N; Noccioli, B

    2007-02-01

    Twenty-two cases of scrotal hematoma caused by neonatal adrenal hemorrhage are reported in the literature and unnecessary surgical exploration was performed in nine (41%), suspecting testicular torsion. In this paper, we present a newborn male with right adrenal gland hemorrhage causing right scrotal swelling and discoloration of groin managed conservatively.

  2. Bilateral spontaneous adrenal haemorrhage complicating acute pancreatitis

    Pianta, M.; Varma, D. K.

    2007-01-01

    Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage is an event that mandates prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent primary adrenocortical insufficiency and potential death. Presentation can be non-specific and incidentally diagnosed with imaging alone, primarily CT. We present a case of acute pancreatitis with spontaneous bilateral adrenal haemorrhage and briefly discuss imaging and treatment implications

  3. Hypoadrenia following adrenal venography in Cushing's disease

    Goth, M.; Szilagy, G.; Irsy, G.; Szabolcs, I.; Berentey, E.; Molnar, F.; Magyar, E.

    1984-01-01

    Three patients with Cushing's disease are reported. In two patients the hyperfunction of the adrenal glands creased following selective adrenal venography, moreover hypoadrenia has developed. In the third case necrosis following venography was proved by surgery and confirmed by histology. Regarding the therapeutic possibilities of Cushing's diesease the use of this diagnostic procedure is taken into consideration but not recommended. (orig.)

  4. [Neonatal adrenal hematoma: various modes of presentation].

    Fadil, F-Z; Lehlimi, M; Chemsi, M; Habzi, A; Benomar, S

    2014-09-01

    Neonatal adrenal hematoma is a rare condition, most frequently caused by trauma. We report three cases of adrenal hematoma admitted to the Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in the A. Harouchi Children's Hospital, the Ibn Rushd University Hospital in Casablanca, Morocco, over a 2-year period from January 2011 to December 2012. The average age of these patients was 5 days. The clinical presentations were diverse; the most common manifestations were intense jaundice in one case, acute adrenal insufficiency in one case, and severe anemia in the other case. Abdominal ultrasonography was used to confirm the diagnosis and monitor adrenal hemorrhage in all the patients. Analysis of clinical, laboratory, and ultrasonography data showed a favorable prognosis in all the patients. Based on these observations, we discuss the risk factors, clinical presentations, progression and management of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  5. Biosynthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones by human adrenal carcinomas

    Brown J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a 15-year period, our university-based laboratory obtained 125 adrenal tumors, of which 15 (12% were adrenal cortical carcinomas. Of these, 6 (40% of the carcinomas occurred in patients with clear clinical manifestations of steroid hormone excess. Adrenal cortical carcinoma cells derived from the surgically resected tumors in 4 of these patients were isolated and established in primary culture. Radiotracer steroid interconversion studies were carried out with these cultures and also on mitochondria isolated from homogenized tissues. Large tumors had the lowest steroidogenic activities per weight, whereas small tumors had more moderately depressed enzyme activities relative to cells from normal glands. In incubations with pregnenolone as substrate, 1 mM metyrapone blocked the synthesis of corticosterone and cortisol and also the formation of aldosterone. Metyrapone inhibition was associated with a concomitant increase in the formation of androgens (androstenedione and testosterone from pregnenolone. Administration of metyrapone in vivo before surgery in one patient resulted in a similar increase in plasma androstenedione, though plasma testosterone levels were not significantly affected. In cultures of two of four tumors examined, dibutyryl cAMP stimulated 11ß-hydroxylase activity modestly; ACTH also had a significant stimulatory effect in one of these tumors. Unlike results obtained with normal or adenomatous adrenal cortical tissues, mitochondria from carcinomatous cells showed a lack of support of either cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme complex or steroid 11ß-hydroxylase activity by Krebs cycle intermediates (10 mM isocitrate, succinate or malate. This finding is consistent with the concept that these carcinomas may tend to function predominantly in an anaerobic manner, rather than through the oxidation of Krebs cycle intermediates.

  6. Adrenal Mass Causing Secondary Hypertension.

    Robinson, Darlene Y

    2015-11-01

    Most hypertensive patients have essential (primary) hypertension; only 5% to 10% have a secondary cause. Two clinical characteristics suggestive of secondary hypertension are early onset (hypertension (>180/110 mm Hg). When faced with these findings, clinicians should consider a secondary cause of hypertension. A 22-year-old woman being evaluated for asthma exacerbation in the emergency department was noted to have severe persistent hypertension. Additional evaluation revealed severe hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and hypernatremia. The patient was admitted to the hospital for blood pressure management, electrolyte replacement, and further evaluation of presumed hyperaldosteronism. Diagnostic imaging revealed a large adrenal mass. Surgical resection was performed, leading to a diagnosis of hyperaldosteronism caused by adrenal carcinoma. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Secondary hypertension is far less common than essential hypertension; however, considering the large volume of patients seen in emergency departments, it is likely that some will have secondary hypertension. Emergency physicians should be aware of the clinical characteristics that suggest secondary hypertension so that the appropriate diagnostic and treatment pathways can be pursued. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Incorporation of (14)C-cholesterol in human adrenal corticocarcinoma H295R cell line and online-radiodetection of produced (14)C-steroid hormone metabolites

    Abdel-Khalik, Jonas; Björklund, Erland; Nielsen, Frederik Knud

    2017-01-01

    in the steroidogenesis of H295R cells, radioactive cholesterol may potentially only need to be added just before the cells are incubated for 72h in well plates. Based on the obtained HPLC-FSA chromatograms, and confirmation of the observations by studies in the literature, a qualitative time profile for the production......, the concept of radiolabeling the steroidogenesis in H295R cells with (14)C-cholesterol and detecting the radiolabeled steroid hormones online was proved and may assist in further toxicological studies....

  8. Release of galanin from isolated perfused porcine adrenal glands

    Holst, J J; Ehrhart-Bornstein, M; Messell, T

    1991-01-01

    We found a high concentration of galanin in extracts of porcine adrenal glands (114 pmol/g). By immunohistochemistry, galanin was localized to groups of medullary cells previously shown to produce norepinephrine. To study mechanisms for the release of galanin, we developed the following in vitro...... model: isolated perfused porcine adrenals with intact splanchnic nerve supply. When the nerves were electrically stimulated, epinephrine and norepinephrine secretion increased 276- and 291-fold, respectively, and galanin release increased up to 1,300-fold. Acetylcholine at 10(-6) M stimulated galanin...... release, and hexamethonium almost abolished the response to nerve stimulation. Galanin infusions had no effect on epinephrine and norepinephrine secretion in concentrations of 10(-8) and 10(-7) M, but increased both cortisol and aldosterone secretion (P less than 0.05). Splanchnic nerve stimulation...

  9. Control of sympathetic vasomotor tone by catecholaminergic C1 neurones of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata

    Marina, Nephtali; Abdala, Ana P.L.; Korsak, Alla; Simms, Annabel E.; Allen, Andrew M.; Paton, Julian F.R.; Gourine, Alexander V.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Increased sympathetic tone in obstructive sleep apnoea results from recurrent episodes of systemic hypoxia and hypercapnia and might be an important contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we re-evaluated the role of a specific population of sympathoexcitatory catecholaminergic C1 neurones of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata in the control of sympathetic vasomotor tone, arterial blood pressure, and hypercapnia-evoked sympathetic and cardiovascular responses. Methods and results In anaesthetized rats in vivo and perfused rat working heart brainstem preparations in situ, C1 neurones were acutely silenced by application of the insect peptide allatostatin following cell-specific targeting with a lentiviral vector to express the inhibitory Drosophila allatostatin receptor. In anaesthetized rats with denervated peripheral chemoreceptors, acute inhibition of 50% of the C1 neuronal population resulted in ∼50% reduction in renal sympathetic nerve activity and a profound fall in arterial blood pressure (by ∼25 mmHg). However, under these conditions systemic hypercapnia still evoked vigorous sympathetic activation and the slopes of the CO2-evoked sympathoexcitatory and cardiovascular responses were not affected by inhibition of C1 neurones. Inhibition of C1 neurones in situ resulted in a reversible fall in perfusion pressure and the amplitude of respiratory-related bursts of thoracic sympathetic nerve activity. Conclusion These data confirm a fundamental physiological role of medullary catecholaminergic C1 neurones in maintaining resting sympathetic vasomotor tone and arterial blood pressure. However, C1 neurones do not appear to mediate sympathoexcitation evoked by central actions of CO2. PMID:21543384

  10. Intra- and Extramedullary Dumbbell-Shaped Schwannoma of the Medulla Oblongata: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Zhang, Qing; Ni, Ming; Liu, Wei-Ming; Jia, Wang; Jia, Gui-Jun; Zhang, Jun-Ting

    2017-02-01

    Brainstem intramedullary schwannomas (ISs) are extremely rare. Various theories have been suggested to explain its origin. It was first speculated that ISs arise from the region where the nerve roots lose their sheaths on penetrating the pia mater. Later, it was further predicted that ISs would contain both intra- and extramedullary parts and would be shaped like a dumbbell. However, no cases reported previously can support this assumption adequately. A 40-year-old woman presented with constant cervical pain, accompanied by progressive weakness of upper extremities and glove distribution numbness. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a rare intra- and extramedullary dumbbell-shaped lesion of the medulla oblongata, which was partially removed via a midline suboccipital craniectomy. Histologic and immunohistochemical examinations confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. Routine imaging performed 20 months after the initial resection revealed a regrowth of the intramedullary part, which was subsequently partially removed through a far-lateral approach, with symptoms alleviated. At 2-year follow-up, there continued to be no radiologic or clinical evidence of regrowth. To date and to our knowledge, there are only 16 reported cases of brainstem ISs, none of which contained both intra- and extramedullary components. We believe this is the first report of dumbbell schwannoma of the medulla oblongata with adequate radiologic evidence. The relevant literature is reviewed, and an assumption has been proposed that dumbbell or surfacing ISs arising near entry zones of sensory nerves, mixed cranial nerves, or ventral root may originate from the aberrant Schwann cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF MIDBRAIN PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY INFLUENCE ON CARDIOVASCULAR NEURONS IN THE VENTROLATERAL MEDULLA-OBLONGATA

    VANDERPLAS, J; MAES, FW; BOHUS, B

    1995-01-01

    Stimulation of sites in the rostral or caudoventral periaqueductal gray (PAG) results in substantial increases in mean blood pressure (MBP) and heart rate (HR). The efferent pathways from these PAG subregions possibly include a relay in the ventrolateral medulla oblongata (VLM), where neurons

  12. Hypoglossal motoneurons in newborn mice receive respiratory drive from both sides of the medulla

    Tarras-Wahlberg, S; Rekling, J C

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory motor output in bilateral cranial nerves is synchronized, but the underlying synchronizing mechanisms are not clear. We used an in vitro slice preparation from newborn mice to investigate the effect of systematic transsections on respiratory activity in bilateral XII nerves. Complete...... in bilateral XII nerves. Hypoglossal motoneurons receive respiratory drive from both sides of the medulla, possibly mediated by contralaterally projecting dendrites....

  13. Hox gene colinear expression in the avian medulla oblongata is correlated with pseudorhombomeric domains.

    Marín, Faustino; Aroca, Pilar; Puelles, Luis

    2008-11-15

    The medulla oblongata (or caudal hindbrain) is not overtly segmented, since it lacks observable interrhombomeric boundaries. However, quail-chick fate maps showed that it is formed by 5 pseudorhombomeres (r7-r11) which were empirically found to be delimited consistently at planes crossing through adjacent somites (Cambronero and Puelles, 2000). We aimed to reexamine the possible segmentation or rostrocaudal regionalisation of this brain region attending to molecular criteria. To this end, we studied the expression of Hox genes from groups 3 to 7 correlative to the differentiating nuclei of the medulla oblongata. Our results show that these genes are differentially expressed in the mature medulla oblongata, displaying instances of typical antero-posterior (3' to 5') Hox colinearity. The different sensory and motor columns, as well as the reticular formation, appear rostrocaudally regionalised according to spaced steps in their Hox expression pattern. The anterior limits of the respective expression domains largely fit boundaries defined between the experimental pseudorhombomeres. Therefore the medulla oblongata shows a Hox-related rostrocaudal molecular regionalisation comparable to that found among rhombomeres, and numerically consistent with the pseudorhombomere list. This suggests that medullary pseudorhombomeres share some AP patterning mechanisms with the rhombomeres present in the rostral, overtly-segmented hindbrain, irrespective of variant boundary properties.

  14. Intractable vomiting caused by vertebral artery compressing the medulla: A case report

    Lauren Gorton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral artery compressing the medulla and causing intractable vomiting has only been reported once previously. We report a case of a 69-year-old woman with intractable nausea and vomiting causing a 50 pound weight loss and who failed medical management and whose symptoms were completely reversed following microvascular decompression (MVD.

  15. Optical properties of the medulla and the cortex of human scalp hair

    Kharin, Aleksey; Varghese, Babu; Verhagen, Rieko; Uzunbajakava, Natallia

    2009-03-01

    An increasing number of applications, including non- or minimally invasive diagnostics and treatment as well as various cosmetic procedures, has resulted in a need to determine the optical properties of hair and its structures. We report on the measurement of the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex and the medulla of blond, gray, and Asian black human scalp hair at a 633-nm wavelength. Our results show that for blond and gray hair the total attenuation coefficient of the medulla is more than 200 times higher compared to that of the cortex. This difference is only 1.5 times for Asian black hair. Furthermore, we present the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex of blond, gray, light brown, and Asian black hair measured at wavelengths of 409, 532, 633, 800, and 1064 nm. The total attenuation coefficient consistently decreases with an increase in wavelength, as well as with a decrease in hair pigmentation. Additionally, we demonstrate the dependence of the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex and the medulla of Asian black hair on the polarization of incident light. A similar dependence is observed for the cortex of blond and gray hair but not for the medulla of these hair types.

  16. Sudden cardiac death in multiple sclerosis caused by active demyelination of the medulla oblongata

    Hengstman, G.J.D.; Kusters, B.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is not uncommon in multiple sclerosis (MS) and is related to the involvement of the vegetative areas of cardiac innervations in the medulla oblongata. It has been suggested that this may contribute to the occurrence of sudden death in MS. In this case report, we

  17. Research on alteration of neurons in vagal nuclei in medulla oblongata in newborns with respiratory distress.

    Islami, Hilmi; Shabani, Ragip; Shabani, Driton; Dacaj, Ramadan; Manxhuka, Suzana; Azemi, Mehmedali; Krasniqi, Shaip; Kurtishi, Ilir

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal and axonal degenerative changes in motor vagal neurons (DMNV) and sensory vagal neurons (nTS) in the medulla oblongata in newborns were studied. Material was taken from the autopsies of newborns, live and dead newborns, in different gestational weeks (aborted, immature, premature and mature). 46 cases were studied. Material for research was taken from the medulla oblongata and lung tissue. Serial horizontal incisions were made in the medulla oblongata (± 4 mm), commencing from the obex, where the DMNV and nTS vagal nuclei were explored. Fixed cuttings in buffered formalin (10%) were used for histochemical staining. Serial cuttings were done with a microtome (7 µm). Pulmonary infections, being significant (p medulla oblongata in newborns in different gestational weeks are more emphasized in matures in comparison to aborted and immature (p < 0.05). Depending on the lifetime of dead newborns, neuronal morphological changes in vagus nerve nuclei are significant (p < 0.05). Therefore, it can be concluded that pulmonary infections are often caused due to dramatic respiratory distress in newborns, while hypoxaemic changes in the population of vagus nerve neurons in respiratory distress are more emphasized in matures.

  18. Depletion of catecholaminergic neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla in multiple systems atrophy with autonomic failure

    Benarroch, E. E.; Smithson, I. L.; Low, P. A.; Parisi, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    The ventrolateral portion of the intermediate reticular formation of the medulla (ventrolateral medulla, VLM), including the C1/A1 groups of catecholaminergic neurons, is thought to be involved in control of sympathetic cardiovascular outflow, cardiorespiratory interactions, and reflex control of vasopressin release. As all these functions are affected in patients with multiple systems atrophy (MSA) with autonomic failure, we sought to test the hypothesis that catecholaminergic (tyrosine hydroxylase [TH]-positive) neurons of the VLM are depleted in these patients. Medullas were obtained at autopsy from 4 patients with MSA with prominent autonomic failure and 5 patients with no neurological disease. Patients with MSA had laboratory evidence of severe adrenergic sudomotor and cardiovagal failure. Tissue was immersion fixed in 2% paraformaldehyde at 4 degrees C for 24 hours and cut into 1-cm blocks in the coronal plane from throughout the medulla. Serial 50-microm sections were collected and one section every 300 microm was stained for TH. There was a pronounced depletion of TH neurons in the rostral VLM in all cases of MSA. There was also significant reduction of TH neurons in the caudal VLM in 3 MSA patients compared with 3 control subjects. In 2 MSA cases and in 2 control subjects, the thoracic spinal cord was available for study. There was also depletion of TH fibers and sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs) in the 2 MSA cases examined. Thus, depletion of catecholaminergic neurons in the VLM may provide a substrate for some of the autonomic and endocrine manifestations of MSA.

  19. Isolation of pre-antral follicles from human ovarian medulla tissue

    Kristensen, Stine Gry; Rasmussen, Annette; Byskov, Anne Grete

    2011-01-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for fertility preservation is based on the ovarian cortex that contains the vast majority of the follicular reserve, while the remaining tissue, the medulla is discarded. The present study describes the development of a gentle method for isolating pre...

  20. The rostral medulla of bullfrog tadpoles contains critical lung rhythmogenic and chemosensitive regions across metamorphosis.

    Reed, Mitchell D; Iceman, Kimberly E; Harris, Michael B; Taylor, Barbara E

    2018-06-08

    The development of amphibian breathing provides insight into vertebrate respiratory control mechanisms. Neural oscillators in the rostral and caudal medulla drive ventilation in amphibians, and previous reports describe ventilatory oscillators and CO 2 sensitive regions arise during different stages of amphibian metamorphosis. However, inconsistent findings have been enigmatic, and make comparisons to potential mammalian counterparts challenging. In the current study we assessed amphibian central CO 2 responsiveness and respiratory rhythm generation during two different developmental stages. Whole-nerve recordings of respiratory burst activity in cranial and spinal nerves were made from intact or transected brainstems isolated from tadpoles during early or late stages of metamorphosis. Brainstems were transected at the level of the trigeminal nerve, removing rostral structures including the nucleus isthmi, midbrain, and locus coeruleus, or transected at the level of the glossopharyngeal nerve, removing the putative buccal oscillator and caudal medulla. Removal of caudal structures stimulated the frequency of lung ventilatory bursts and revealed a hypercapnic response in normally unresponsive preparations derived from early stage tadpoles. In preparations derived from late stage tadpoles, removal of rostral or caudal structures reduced lung burst frequency, while CO 2 responsiveness was retained. Our results illustrate that structures within the rostral medulla are capable of sensing CO 2 throughout metamorphic development. Similarly, the region controlling lung ventilation appears to be contained in the rostral medulla throughout metamorphosis. This work offers insight into the consistency of rhythmic respiratory and chemosensitive capacities during metamorphosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Severe diffuse axon injury in chronic alcoholic rat medulla oblongata following a concussion blow.

    Luo, Jianming; Chen, Guang; Wei, Lai; Qian, Hong; Lai, Xiaoping; Wang, Dian; Lv, Junyao; Yu, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the axonal morphological changes and expression of both tau protein and β-APP following concussion to the medulla oblongata, in a rat model of chronic alcoholism. Fifty-nine male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into EtOH, EtOH-TBI and control groups (water group, water-TBI group). To establish chronic alcoholic rats, rats were intragastrically given edible spirituous liquor twice daily. Rats also received a blow on the occipital tuberosity with an iron pendulum. Morphological changes and expression of tau and β-APP proteins in the medulla oblongata were examined. (a) Nerve fibre thickening and twisting were observed in alcoholic rats, with nerve fibre changes becoming more significant following a concussion blow, which leads to some nerve fibres fracturing. (b) Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the nerve fibre myelin became loosened and displayed lamellar separation, which became more significant following concussion. (c) The integral optical density (IOD) sum value of β-APP of the EtOH-TBI group was lower than that in the EtOH group (P Chronic alcoholism caused nerve fibre and neuronal morphology damage in the rat medulla oblongata, with structural damage becoming more significant following concussion. (b) Concussion changed the expression of β-APP and tau protein in chronic alcoholic rat medulla oblongata, suggesting that chronic alcoholism can lead to severe axonal injury following a concussion blow. (c) The effect of chronic alcoholism may be synergistic the concussion blow to promote animal injury and death.

  2. Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage presenting as late onset neonatal jaundice

    Qureshi, Umar Amin; Ahmad, Nisar; Rasool, Akhter; Choh, Suhail

    2009-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of adrenal hemorrhage vary depending on the degree and rate of hemorrhage, as well as the amount of adrenal cortex compromised by hemorrhage. We report here a case of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage that presented with late onset neonatal jaundice. The cause of adrenal hemorrhage was birth asphyxia.

  3. Patient-specific workup of adrenal incidentalomas

    Romy R. de Haan

    Full Text Available Purpose: : To develop a clinical prediction model to predict a clinically relevant adrenal disorder for patients with adrenal incidentaloma. Materials and methods: : This retrospective study is approved by the institutional review board, with waiver of informed consent. Natural language processing is used for filtering of adrenal incidentaloma cases in all thoracic and abdominal CT reports from 2010 till 2012. A total of 635 patients are identified. Stepwise logistic regression is used to construct the prediction model. The model predicts if a patient is at risk for malignancy or hormonal hyperfunction of the adrenal gland at the moment of initial presentation, thus generates a predicted probability for every individual patient. The prediction model is evaluated on its usefulness in clinical practice using decision curve analysis (DCA based on different threshold probabilities. For patients whose predicted probability is lower than the predetermined threshold probability, further workup could be omitted. Results: : A prediction model is successfully developed, with an area under the curve (AUC of 0.78. Results of the DCA indicate that up to 11% of patients with an adrenal incidentaloma can be avoided from unnecessary workup, with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 11%. Conclusion: : A prediction model can accurately predict if an adrenal incidentaloma patient is at risk for malignancy or hormonal hyperfunction of the adrenal gland based on initial imaging features and patient demographics. However, with most adrenal incidentalomas labeled as nonfunctional adrenocortical adenomas requiring no further treatment, it is likely that more patients could be omitting from unnecessary diagnostics. Keywords: Adrenal incidentaloma, Patient-specific workup, Prediction model

  4. Effect of adrenal medullectomy on metabolic responses to chronic intermittent hypoxia in the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test.

    Shin, Mi-Kyung; Han, Woobum; Joo, Hoon; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Shiota, Masakazu; Stefanovski, Darko; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2017-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with type 2 diabetes. We have previously developed a mouse model of intermittent hypoxia (IH) mimicking oxyhemoglobin desaturations in patients with sleep apnea and have shown that IH increases fasting glucose, hepatic glucose output, and plasma catecholamines. We hypothesize that adrenal medulla modulates glucose responses to IH and that such responses can be prevented by adrenal medullectomy. We performed adrenal medullectomy or sham surgery in lean C57BL/6J mice, which were exposed to IH or intermittent air (control) for 4 wk followed by the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) in unanesthetized unrestrained animals. IH was administered during the 12-h light phase (9 AM to 9 PM) by decreasing inspired oxygen from 21 to 6.5% 60 cycles/h. Insulin sensitivity (S I ), insulin independent glucose disposal [glucose effectiveness (S G )], and the insulin response to glucose (AIR G ) were determined using the minimal model method. In contrast to our previous data obtained in restrained mice, IH did not affect fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin levels in sham-operated mice. IH significantly decreased S G but did not affect S I and AIR G Adrenal medullectomy decreased fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin levels and increased glycogen synthesis in the liver in hypoxic mice but did not have a significant effect on the FSIVGTT metrics. We conclude that, in the absence of restraints, IH has no effect on glucose metabolism in lean mice with exception of decreased S G , whereas adrenal medullectomy decreases fasting glucose and insulin levels in the IH environment. NEW & NOTEWORTHY To our knowledge, this is the first study examining the role of adrenal catecholamines in glucose metabolism during intermittent hypoxia (IH) in unanesthetized unrestrained C57BL/6J mice. We report that IH did not affect fasting glucose and insulin levels nor insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion during, whereas glucose

  5. Mechanisms of blood pressure changes following renal irradiation of intact, adrenalectomized, and adrenal regenerating rats

    Rosenblum, M.

    1977-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the differences in changes in systolic arterial blood pressure following renal x irradiation (1100 R) in adrenal-intact, adrenalectomized, and adrenal-regenerating rats and to elucidate the involvement or roles of the kidneys and of the adrenal glands in the blood pressure changes. The parameters studied included the following: systolic blood pressure; body weight; food and fluid consumption; urine output; plasma and urine electrolytes; sodium balance; plasma renin activity; plasma corticosterone; renal vascular volume; renal vascular permeability (using 125 I-polyvinylpyrrolidone extravasation rate as an indicator); renal blood flow (using 42 K extraction); kidney weight; hematocrit; and total vascular, plasma, and red cell volumes. Renal x irradiation of intact rats caused polydipsia, polyuria, and reduced urine concentrations of sodium and potassium without significantly affecting blood pressure during the period of study (80 days); plasma renin activity was significantly lowered and had a positive correlation with blood volume; an abnormal blood volume-plasma renin activity relationship is suggested. Adrenalectomy caused prolonged hypotension in saline-maintained rats even though their sodium balance was more positive than that in adrenal-intact or adrenal-regenerating rats with normal or elevated blood pressure. The blood pressure of renally irrradiated, adrenalectomized rats was greater than non-irradiated adrenalectomized rats, but with only borderline significance; it is concluded that the absence of the adrenal glands does not affect the degree or duration of the effects of renal irradiation on blood pressure

  6. Adrenal Ewing's Sarcoma in an Elderly Man.

    Toda, Kazuyoshi; Ishii, Sumiyasu; Yasuoka, Hidetoshi; Nishioka, Masaki; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Horiguchi, Kazuhiko; Tomaru, Takuya; Ozawa, Atsushi; Shibusawa, Nobuyuki; Satoh, Tetsurou; Koshi, Hiromi; Segawa, Atsuki; Shimizu, Shin-Ichi; Oyama, Tetsunari; Yamada, Masanobu

    2018-02-15

    Ewing's sarcoma usually arises in the bones of children and adolescents. We herein report a 74-year-old man with Ewing's sarcoma in the adrenal gland. The diagnosis was confirmed by a genetic test, pathological studies, and several imaging studies. He already had multiple liver metastases when he was transferred to our hospital and died on the 37th day. The diagnosis was further confirmed by autopsy studies. Adrenal Ewing's sarcoma is very rare, and our patient was older than other reported cases. Ewing's sarcoma should be considered even in elderly patients with adrenal tumors.

  7. Severe bilateral adrenal hemorrhages in  a  newborn complicated by persistent adrenal insufficiency

    Nicholas R Zessis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral adrenal hemorrhages rarely occur during the neonatal period and are often associated with traumatic vaginal deliveries. However, the adrenal gland has highly regenerative capabilities and adrenal insufficiency typically resolves over time. We evaluated a newborn female after experiencing fetal macrosomia and a traumatic vaginal delivery. She developed acidosis and acute renal injury. Large adrenal hemorrhages were noted bilaterally on ultrasound, and she was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency based on characteristic electrolyte changes and a low cortisol (4.2 μg/dL. On follow-up testing, this patient was unable to be weaned off of hydrocortisone or fludrocortisone despite resolution of hemorrhages on ultrasound. Providers should consider bilateral adrenal hemorrhage when evaluating critically ill neonates after a traumatic delivery. In extreme cases, this may be a persistent process.

  8. Persistent Primary Aldosteronism Despite Iatrogenic Adrenal Hemorrhage After Adrenal Vein Sampling.

    Okamura, Keisuke; Okuda, Tetsu; Shirai, Kazuyuki; Abe, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Ishii, Tatsu; Haraoka, Seiji; Urata, Hidenori

    2018-01-01

    Before surgery for primary aldosteronism (PA), localization is evaluated with adrenal vein sampling (AVS). A 56-year-old Japanese woman had a right adrenal mass, hypokalemia, and a high aldosterone/renin ratio. Stress tests confirmed the diagnosis of PA. Subsequently, preoperative AVS was performed and right adrenal hemorrhage (AH) occurred unexpectedly. Because hypertension persisted, laparoscopic right adrenalectomy was performed. Postoperatively, the blood pressure was normalized. Pathological examination revealed an adrenal cortical adenoma largely unaffected by necrosis and hemorrhage. Previous reports have also indicated that AH may not ameliorate PA. We discussed the clinical progress of AH and the measures to prevent causing AH.

  9. A case of adrenal Cushing’s syndrome with bilateral adrenal masses

    Ya-Wun Guo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A functional lesion in corticotrophin (ACTH-independent Cushing’s syndrome is difficult to distinguish from lesions of bilateral adrenal masses. Methods for distinguishing these lesions include adrenal venous sampling and 131I-6β-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (131I-NP-59 scintigraphy. We present a case of a 29-year-old Han Chinese female patient with a history of hypercholesterolaemia and polycystic ovary syndrome. She presented with a 6month history of an 8kg body weight gain and gradual rounding of the face. Serial examinations revealed loss of circadian rhythm of cortisol, elevated urinary free-cortisol level and undetectable ACTH level (<5pg/mL. No suppression was observed in both the low- and high-dose dexamethasone suppression tests. Adrenal computed tomography revealed bilateral adrenal masses. Adrenal venous sampling was performed, and the right-to-left lateralisation ratio was 14.29. The finding from adrenal scintigraphy with NP-59 was consistent with right adrenal adenoma. The patient underwent laparoscopic right adrenalectomy, and the pathology report showed adrenocortical adenoma. Her postoperative cortisol level was 3.2μg/dL, and her Cushingoid appearance improved. In sum, both adrenal venous sampling and 131I-NP-59 scintigraphy are good diagnostic methods for Cushing’s syndrome presenting with bilateral adrenal masses.

  10. Persistent Primary Aldosteronism Despite Iatrogenic Adrenal Hemorrhage After Adrenal Vein Sampling

    Okamura, Keisuke; Okuda, Tetsu; Shirai, Kazuyuki; Abe, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Ishii, Tatsu; Haraoka, Seiji; Urata, Hidenori

    2018-01-01

    Before surgery for primary aldosteronism (PA), localization is evaluated with adrenal vein sampling (AVS). A 56-year-old Japanese woman had a right adrenal mass, hypokalemia, and a high aldosterone/renin ratio. Stress tests confirmed the diagnosis of PA. Subsequently, preoperative AVS was performed and right adrenal hemorrhage (AH) occurred unexpectedly. Because hypertension persisted, laparoscopic right adrenalectomy was performed. Postoperatively, the blood pressure was normalized. Pathological examination revealed an adrenal cortical adenoma largely unaffected by necrosis and hemorrhage. Previous reports have also indicated that AH may not ameliorate PA. We discussed the clinical progress of AH and the measures to prevent causing AH. PMID:29238437

  11. Testosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma in a peripubertal girl

    Kamilaris, T.C.; DeBold, C.R.; Manolas, K.J.; Hoursanidis, A.; Panageas, S.; Yiannatos, J.

    1987-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl who presented with primary amenorrhea and virilization had an adrenocortical adenoma that secreted predominantly testosterone. To the authors' knowledge, she is the first peripubertal and second youngest patient with a testosterone-secreting adrenal tumor described. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and urinary 17-ketosteroid an 17-hydroxycorticosteroid levels were normal. A tumor was located by a computed tomographic (CT) scan and by uptake of 6-β-[ 75 Se] selenomethylnorcholesterol. Microscopic examination of the tumor showed typical features of an adrenocortical adenoma with no histologic features characteristic of Leydig cells. Postoperatively, her hirsutism regressed, she rapidly went through puberty, and regular monthly menstruation started four months later. Finding the source of testosterone in a virilized patient can be difficult. Eleven of the 14 previously described patients with testosterone-secreting adrenal tumors initially underwent misdirected surgery on the ovaries. Review of these cases revealed that results of hormone stimulation and suppression tests are unreliable and that these tumors are usually large. Therefore, CT scanning of the adrenal glands is recommended in all patients suspected of having a testosterone-secreting tumor

  12. Testosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma in a peripubertal girl

    Kamilaris, T.C.; DeBold, C.R.; Manolas, K.J.; Hoursanidis, A.; Panageas, S.; Yiannatos, J.

    1987-11-13

    A 15-year-old girl who presented with primary amenorrhea and virilization had an adrenocortical adenoma that secreted predominantly testosterone. To the authors' knowledge, she is the first peripubertal and second youngest patient with a testosterone-secreting adrenal tumor described. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and urinary 17-ketosteroid an 17-hydroxycorticosteroid levels were normal. A tumor was located by a computed tomographic (CT) scan and by uptake of 6-..beta..-(/sup 75/Se) selenomethylnorcholesterol. Microscopic examination of the tumor showed typical features of an adrenocortical adenoma with no histologic features characteristic of Leydig cells. Postoperatively, her hirsutism regressed, she rapidly went through puberty, and regular monthly menstruation started four months later. Finding the source of testosterone in a virilized patient can be difficult. Eleven of the 14 previously described patients with testosterone-secreting adrenal tumors initially underwent misdirected surgery on the ovaries. Review of these cases revealed that results of hormone stimulation and suppression tests are unreliable and that these tumors are usually large. Therefore, CT scanning of the adrenal glands is recommended in all patients suspected of having a testosterone-secreting tumor.

  13. Extra-adrenal glucocorticoid synthesis: immune regulation and aspects on local organ homeostasis.

    Talabér, Gergely; Jondal, Mikael; Okret, Sam

    2013-11-05

    Systemic glucocorticoids (GCs) mainly originate from de novo synthesis in the adrenal cortex under the control of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis. However, research during the last 1-2 decades has revealed that additional organs express the necessary enzymes and have the capacity for de novo synthesis of biologically active GCs. This includes the thymus, intestine, skin and the brain. Recent research has also revealed that locally synthesized GCs most likely act in a paracrine or autocrine manner and have significant physiological roles in local homeostasis, cell development and immune cell activation. In this review, we summarize the nature, regulation and known physiological roles of extra-adrenal GC synthesis. We specifically focus on the thymus in which GC production (by both developing thymocytes and epithelial cells) has a role in the maintenance of proper immunological function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Giant adrenal incidentaloma in young patient

    Andrade, Cristiano Feijo; Espirito Santo, Paulo Rogerio Quieregatto do; Teixeira, Antonio Roberto Franchi

    2000-01-01

    Incidental adrenal tumors are lesions occasionally observed during abdominal US or CT scans. These tumors have been observed in patients without clinical or laboratorial signs of adrenal disease. The authors report a case of a 18 - years - old young man who was admitted to the Franco da Rocha Hospital, Sao Paulo, with abdominal pain and a palpated mass in the epigastrium which began one month ago. These findings were preceded by a blunt trauma at the epigastrium three months earlier. First clinical hypothesis was of a traumatic pancreatic pseudocyst. However, investigation and laparotomy showed a large left adrenal solid mass, weighting 700 g. The mass was removed and histology was performed. There was no evidence of malignant neoplasm, then the diagnostic of incidental adenoma of adrenal was confirmed. The authors hope to stimulate surgeons for early detection of these lesions in order to prevent the complications and improve the prognosis. (author)

  15. Lateral retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy for complicated adrenal ...

    sected completely, a self-made bag was used to dress up the adrenal ... were stable, and the patients had regained consciousness ... diet and normal ambulation as regards to the requirement ..... The Malaysian Journal of Medical Scienc-.

  16. The Eosinophil Count Tends to Be Negatively Associated with Levels of Serum Glucose in Patients with Adrenal Cushing Syndrome

    Younghak Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCushing syndrome is characterized by glucose intolerance, cardiovascular disease, and an enhanced systemic inflammatory response caused by chronic exposure to excess cortisol. Eosinopenia is frequently observed in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome, but the relationship between the eosinophil count in peripheral blood and indicators of glucose level in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome has not been determined.MethodsA retrospective study was undertaken of the clinical and laboratory findings of 40 patients diagnosed with adrenal Cushing syndrome at Chungnam National University Hospital from January 2006 to December 2016. Clinical characteristics, complete blood cell counts with white blood cell differential, measures of their endocrine function, description of imaging studies, and pathologic findings were obtained from their medical records.ResultsEosinophil composition and count were restored by surgical treatment of all of the patients with adrenal Cushing disease. The eosinophil count was inversely correlated with serum and urine cortisol, glycated hemoglobin, and inflammatory markers in the patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome.ConclusionSmaller eosinophil populations in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome tend to be correlated with higher levels of blood sugar and glycated hemoglobin. This study suggests that peripheral blood eosinophil composition or count may be associated with serum glucose levels in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome.

  17. The Eosinophil Count Tends to Be Negatively Associated with Levels of Serum Glucose in Patients with Adrenal Cushing Syndrome.

    Lee, Younghak; Yi, Hyon Seung; Kim, Hae Ri; Joung, Kyong Hye; Kang, Yea Eun; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Koon Soon; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ku, Bon Jeong; Shong, Minho

    2017-09-01

    Cushing syndrome is characterized by glucose intolerance, cardiovascular disease, and an enhanced systemic inflammatory response caused by chronic exposure to excess cortisol. Eosinopenia is frequently observed in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome, but the relationship between the eosinophil count in peripheral blood and indicators of glucose level in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome has not been determined. A retrospective study was undertaken of the clinical and laboratory findings of 40 patients diagnosed with adrenal Cushing syndrome at Chungnam National University Hospital from January 2006 to December 2016. Clinical characteristics, complete blood cell counts with white blood cell differential, measures of their endocrine function, description of imaging studies, and pathologic findings were obtained from their medical records. Eosinophil composition and count were restored by surgical treatment of all of the patients with adrenal Cushing disease. The eosinophil count was inversely correlated with serum and urine cortisol, glycated hemoglobin, and inflammatory markers in the patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome. Smaller eosinophil populations in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome tend to be correlated with higher levels of blood sugar and glycated hemoglobin. This study suggests that peripheral blood eosinophil composition or count may be associated with serum glucose levels in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Korean Endocrine Society

  18. Immunologic, hemodynamic, and adrenal incompetence in cirrhosis

    Risør, Louise Madeleine; Bendtsen, Flemming; Møller, Søren

    2015-01-01

    dysfunction, but is not responsive to volume expansion. Recent research indicates that development of hepatic nephropathy represents a continuous spectrum of functional and structural dysfunction and may be precipitated by the inherent immunologic, adrenal, and hemodynamic incompetence in cirrhosis. New...... research explores several new markers of renal dysfunction that may replace serum creatinine in the future and give new insight on the hepatic nephropathy. Our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms causing the immunologic, adrenal, and hemodynamic incompetence, and the impact on renal...

  19. Ultrasound diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage in meningococcemia

    Sarnaik, A.P.; Sanfilippo, D.J.K.; Slovis, T.L.; Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit; Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI

    1988-01-01

    Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) is a well-described complication of the neonatal period, anticoagulant therapy, and overwhelming bacterial infection especially with N. meningitis. Until recently the diagnosis of acute AH was based predominantly on autopsy findings. Ultrasound and computed tomography examinations have been successfully used for antemortem detection of AH in neonates and anticoagulated patients. We report two patients with fulminant meningococcal infection who demonstrated bilateral adrenal hemorrhages on ultrasonography. (orig.)

  20. Chronic Heroin Dependence Leading to Adrenal Insufficiency

    Gautam Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Opioids have been the mainstay for pain relief and palliation over a long period of time. They are commonly abused by drug addicts and such dependence usually imparts severe physiologic effects on multiple organ systems. The negative impact of opioids on the endocrine system is poorly understood and often underestimated. We describe a patient who developed severe suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA axis leading to secondary adrenal insufficiency due to long standing abuse of opioids.

  1. Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Khattab, Ahmed; Yuen, Tony; Sun, Li; Yau, Mabel; Barhan, Ariella; Zaidi, Mone; Lo, Y M Dennis; New, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    A major hallmark of classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is genital ambiguity noted at birth in affected females, which leads to psychological and psychosexual issues in adult life. Attempts to correct genital ambiguity through surgical intervention have been partially successful. Fetal hyperandrogenemia and genital ambiguity have been shown to be preventable by prenatal administration of low-dose dexamethasone initiated before the 9th week of gestation. In 7 of 8 at-risk pregnancies, the unaffected fetus is unnecessarily exposed to dexamethasone for weeks until the diagnosis of classical CAH is ruled out by invasive procedures. This therapeutic dilemma calls for early prenatal diagnosis so that dexamethasone treatment can be directed to affected female fetuses only. We describe the utilization of cell-free fetal DNA in mothers carrying at-risk fetuses as early as 6 gestational weeks by targeted massively parallel sequencing of the genomic region including and flanking the CYP21A2 gene. Our highly personalized and innovative approach should permit the diagnosis of CAH before genital development begins, therefore restricting the purposeful administration of dexamethasone to mothers carrying affected females. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulation of sheep fetal adrenal cortex can occur without increased expression of ACTH receptor (ACTH-R) mRNA

    Carter, A M; Petersen, Y M; Towstoless, M

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, it was hypothesized that the adrenocorticotrophin hormone receptor (ACTH-R) would be up-regulated in the adrenal gland of the sheep fetus following infusion of physiological amounts of ACTH, as shown for adrenal cortical cells in culture. In chronically catheterized sheep...

  3. Determination of adrenal volume by MRI in healthy children

    Mouritsen, Annette; Johansen, Marie Lindhardt; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine

    2014-01-01

    , to estimate adrenal size in healthy children and to evaluate determinants of adrenal volume such as age, gender, body size, pubic hair stage and serum levels of adrenal androgens. DESIGN: Two hundred and thirty-five healthy children (116 girls and 119 boys) (age range 10.0-14.8 years) were examined by MRI......% of healthy children aged 10-15 years. Adrenal volume increased with age and Tanner stage of pubic hair. Future studies will unravel whether adrenal MRI is useful when evaluating children with adrenal diseases....... (estimate B = 0.34 ml/year, P = 0.03), age (estimate B = 0.05 ml/year, P = 0.021) and pubic hair stage (estimate B = 0.05 ml/stage, P = 0.075). No associations between adrenal size and serum levels of adrenal androgens were observed. CONCLUSION: It was possible to determine adrenal volume by MRI in only 50...

  4. Failure to visualize adrenal glands in a patient with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia

    Gordon, L.; Mayfield, R.K.; Levine, J.H.; Lopes-Virella, M.F.; Sagel, J.; Buse, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    A patient with clinical and biochemical evidence of Cushing's disease and severe hyperlipidemia underwent an adrenal imaging procedure with NP-59 (6β-[ 131 I]iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol), without visualization of either gland. Correction of the hyperlipidemia followed by repeated adrenal imaging resulted in bilateral visualization. A pituitary tumor was removed at surgery, confirming the diagnosis of Cushing's disease

  5. Adrenomegaly and septic adrenal hemorrhage (Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome) in the setting of congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Saad, Amin F.; Ford, Kenneth L.; dePrisco, Gregory; Smerud, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia refers to a spectrum of autosomal recessive inherited disorders of steroidogenesis most commonly identified on newborn screenings. We describe a young woman who presented with abdominal pain and on subsequent imaging was found to have features of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Imaging findings, treatment, and potential complications are discussed.

  6. Adrenomegaly and septic adrenal hemorrhage (Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome) in the setting of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Saad, Amin F; Ford, Kenneth L; Deprisco, Gregory; Smerud, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia refers to a spectrum of autosomal recessive inherited disorders of steroidogenesis most commonly identified on newborn screenings. We describe a young woman who presented with abdominal pain and on subsequent imaging was found to have features of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Imaging findings, treatment, and potential complications are discussed.

  7. The renin-angiotensin system; development and differentiation of the renal medulla

    Madsen, Kirsten; Robdrup Tinning, Anne; Marcussen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    on mechanisms of postnatal development the renal medulla and putting medullary developmental lesions into perspective with regard to the programming effect. Moreover, the renin-angiotensin system is critically involved in mammalian kidney development and signaling disorders give rise to developmental renal...... disturbances reaching into adulthood. A review of current knowledge of the role of the renin-angiotensin system for renal medullary development will be given. Acta Physiologica © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society....... lesions that has been associated with hypertension later in life. A consistent finding in both experimental animal models and in human case reports is atrophy of the renal medulla with developmental lesions to both medullary nephron segments and vascular development with concomitant functional...

  8. Autoradiographic localization of peptide YY and neuropeptide Y binding sites in the medulla oblongata

    Leslie, R.A.; McDonald, T.J.; Robertson, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Peptide YY is a highly potent emetic when given intravenously in dogs. We hypothesized that the area postrema, a small brain stem nucleus that acts as a chemoreceptive trigger zone for vomiting and lies outside the blood-brain barrier, might have receptors that PYY would bind to, in order to mediate the emetic response. We prepared [ 125 I]PYY and used autoradiography to show that high affinity binding sites for this ligand were highly localized in the area postrema and related nuclei of the dog medulla oblongata. Furthermore, the distribution of [ 125 I]PYY binding sites in the rat medulla oblongata was very similar to that in the dog; the distribution of [ 125 I]PYY binding sites throughout the rat brain was seen to be similar to the distribution of [ 125 I]NPY binding sites

  9. A Case Involving Needles in the Medulla Oblongata, Cervical Spinal Cord, and Abdomen.

    Zhang, Hao-Yu; Li, Da; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Li-Wei; Zhang, Jun-Ting

    2014-10-01

    It is extremely rare to encounter intracranial foreign bodies caused by penetrating injuries other than gunshot wounds or low-velocity wounds. We present a case describing a 5-year-old girl with metallic foreign bodies in the medulla oblongata, cervical spinal cord, and abdomen. The foreign bodies may have been there and remained silent for several years until the patient developed nausea and vomiting that persisted for 3 months. A craniotomy and a laparotomy were performed after a thorough discussion. Five pieces of metallic foreign bodies were removed, and the patient had a good outcome. Despite the precarious location of the needles in the medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord, this rare case supports the use of surgery to remove the foreign bodies.

  10. Adrenic acid as an inflammation enhancer in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Horas H Nababan, Saut; Nishiumi, Shin; Kawano, Yuki; Kobayashi, Takashi; Yoshida, Masaru; Azuma, Takeshi

    2017-06-01

    This study was designed to identify novel links between lipid species and disease progression in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We analyzed lipid species in the liver and plasma of db/db mice fed a choline-deficient l-amino acid-defined, high-fat diet (CDAHFD) using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). An in vitro experiment was performed using HepG2 cells stimulated with recombinant human TNFα or IL1β. The expression of steatosis-, inflammation-, and fibrosis-related genes were analyzed. Plasma samples from NAFLD patients were also analyzed by LC/MS. The CDAHFD-fed db/db mice with hepatic steatosis, inflammation, mild fibrosis, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia displayed significantly higher hepatic and plasma levels of free adrenic acid (p < 0.05). The accumulated adrenic acid in the CDAHFD-fed db/db mice was associated with increased expression of ELOVL2 and 5, and the suppression of the acyl-CoA oxidase 1 gene during peroxisomal β-oxidation. The pretreatment of HepG2 cells with adrenic acid enhanced their cytokine-induced cytokines and chemokines mRNA expression. In NAFLD patients, the group with the highest ALT levels exhibited higher plasma adrenic acid concentrations than the other ALT groups (p-value for trend <0.001). Data obtained demonstrated that adrenic acid accumulation contributes to disease progression in NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Developmental competence of oocytes isolated from surplus medulla tissue in connection with cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for fertility preservation

    Wilken-Jensen, Helle N; Kristensen, Stine G; Jeppesen, Janni V

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the developmental competence of immature oocytes collected from surplus medulla tissue in connection with ovarian tissue cryopreservation for fertility preservation. DESIGN: Cohort comparative study. SETTING: University laboratory in Denmark from 2011-2012. POPULATION: 69...

  12. Study of morphological alterations of the adrenal glands in the neoplastic cachexia
    Estudo das alterações morfológicas da glândula adrenal na caquexia neoplásica

    Tânia Longo Mazzuco; Karina Garcia Cotrim; Alexandre Yukio Saito; Marcelo Abbá Macioszek; Eveline Aparecida Isquierdo Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Advanced cancer occurs with nutritional and metabolic alterations that characterize neoplastic cachexia. When homeostasis is compromised, the adrenal glands have a fundamental role in the neuroendocrine response. Our purpose in this research was to study morphological alterations of the adrenal glands in the development of cancer associated to cachexia. Cachexia experimental model induced by Walker 256 tumor in Wistar rats, was used. Animals were sacrificed 12 days after tumor cells inoculati...

  13. Combined CMV- and HSV-1 brainstem encephalitis restricted to medulla oblongata.

    Katchanov, J; Branding, G; Stocker, H

    2014-04-15

    We report a very rare case of a combined CMV- and HSV-1 isolated brainstem encephalitis restricted to medulla oblongata in a patient with advanced HIV disease. Neither limbic nor general ventricular involvement was detected on neuroimaging. The case highlights the importance of testing for HSV-1 and CMV in HIV-infected patients presenting with an isolated brainstem syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chronic intermittent hypoxia promotes expression of 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase in adult rat medulla oblongata.

    Li, Mingqiang; Nie, Lihong; Hu, Yajie; Yan, Xiang; Xue, Lian; Chen, Li; Zhou, Hua; Zheng, Yu

    2013-12-01

    The present experiments were carried out to investigate the expression of 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST) in medulla oblongata of rats and effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) on its expression. Sprague Dawley adult rats were randomly divided into two groups, including control (Con) group and CIH group. The endogenous production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in medulla oblongata tissue homogenates was measured using the methylene blue assay method, 3MST mRNA and protein expression were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively, and the expression of 3MST in the neurons of respiratory-related nuclei in medulla oblongata of rats was investigated with immunohistochemical technique. CIH elevated the endogenous H2S production in rat medulla oblongata (Pmedulla oblongata of rats and CIH promoted their expression (P<0.01). Immunohistochemical staining indicated that 3MST existed in the neurons of pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC), hypoglossal nucleus (12N), ambiguous nucleus (Amb), facial nucleus (FN) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) in the animals and the mean optical densities of 3MST-positive neurons in the pre-BötC, 12N and Amb, but not in FN and NTS, were significantly increased in CIH group (P<0.05). In conclusion, 3MST exists in the neurons of medullary respiratory nuclei and its expression can be up-regulated by CIH in adult rat, suggesting that 3MST-H2S pathway may be involved in regulation of respiration and protection on medullary respiratory centers from injury induced by CIH. © 2013.

  15. Computed tomography of the adrenal glands in Addision's disease

    Rzymski, K.; Sobieszczyk, S.; Kosowicz, J.; Akademia Medyczna, Poznan

    1984-01-01

    In 30 cases of chronic adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease) CT of the adrenal glands was performed using a fourth generation scanner and a 2 mm slice thickness. Adrenal glands were visualized in all the cases. In 26 patients the adrenals were atrophied; the adrenal shape was abnormal in 21 patients. In 15 patients CT disclosed calcifications in one or both glands, which were particularly frequent in patients over the age of 50. Atrophy of adrenal glands was of high occurrence in cases of autoimmune origin. (orig.) [de

  16. Clinicopathological correlates of adrenal Cushing's syndrome.

    Duan, Kai; Gomez Hernandez, Karen; Mete, Ozgur

    2015-03-01

    Endogenous Cushing's syndrome is a rare endocrine disorder that incurs significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, due to glucocorticoid excess. It comprises adrenal (20%) and non-adrenal (80%) aetiologies. While the majority of cases are attributed to pituitary or ectopic corticotropin (ACTH) overproduction, primary cortisol-producing adrenal cortical lesions are increasingly recognised in the pathophysiology of Cushing's syndrome. Our understanding of this disease has progressed substantially over the past decade. Recently, important mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of adrenal hypercortisolism have been elucidated with the discovery of mutations in cyclic AMP signalling (PRKACA, PRKAR1A, GNAS, PDE11A, PDE8B), armadillo repeat containing 5 gene (ARMC5) a putative tumour suppressor gene, aberrant G-protein-coupled receptors, and intra-adrenal secretion of ACTH. Accurate subtyping of Cushing's syndrome is crucial for treatment decision-making and requires a complete integration of clinical, biochemical, imaging and pathology findings. Pathological correlates in the adrenal glands include hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma. While the most common presentation is diffuse adrenocortical hyperplasia secondary to excess ACTH production, this entity is usually treated with pituitary or ectopic tumour resection. Therefore, when confronted with adrenalectomy specimens in the setting of Cushing's syndrome, surgical pathologists are most commonly exposed to adrenocortical adenomas, carcinomas and primary macronodular or micronodular hyperplasia. This review provides an update on the rapidly evolving knowledge of adrenal Cushing's syndrome and discusses the clinicopathological correlations of this important disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Assessment of adrenal function in liver diseases

    Sandeep Kharb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent times, there are reports of adrenal dysfunction in whole spectrum of liver disease. Adrenal insufficiency (AI has been shown to correlate with progression of liver disease. Hence this study was conducted to assess adrenal function in subjects with acute liver disease (ALD, chronic liver disease (CLD and post liver transplantation (LT. Material and Methods: This study included 25 healthy controls, 25 patients of ALD, 20 subjects of CLD with Child-Pugh stage A (CLD-1 and 30 with Child-Pugh stage B or C (CLD-2, and 10 subjects with LT. All subjects were assessed clinically, biochemically and for adrenal functions. Results: AI was present in 9 (34.6% patients with ALD, 20 (40% patients with CLD and 4 (40% in subjects with LT. AI was more common in CLD-2 (18 patients - 60% than CLD-1 (2 patients - 10%. All patients with chronic liver disease had significantly lower basal cortisol (8.8±4.8, P=0.01, stimulated cortisol (18.2±6.3, P <0.00001 and incremental cortisol (9.4±4.6, P <0.00001 as compared to controls. There was increase in percentage of subjects with adrenal dysfunction with progression of liver disease as assessed by Child-Pugh staging. AI was predicted by lower levels of serum protein, serum albumin, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol and higher levels of serum bilirubin and INR. Adrenal functions showed recovery following liver transplantation. Conclusions: AI forms important part of spectrum of acute and chronic liver disease. Deterioration of synthetic functions of liver disease predicts presence of AI, and these patients should be evaluated for adrenal dysfunction periodically.

  18. Dorsally exophytic glioblastoma arising from the medulla oblongata in an adult presenting as 4th ventricular mass

    Das, Kuntal Kanti; Bettaswamy, Guru Prasad; Mehrotra, Anant; Jaiswal, Sushila; Jaiswal, Awadhesh Kumar; Behari, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Brainstem gliomas are relatively rare in adults (medulla oblongata in a 55-year-old lady who presented with a 4th ventricular mass, and present a brief review of the literature. Till now, six cases of glioblastoma arising from the medulla oblongata have been reported. So, ours is the seventh such report. To the best of our knowledge, it also happens to be the sixth reported case of dorsally exophytic brainstem glioblastoma till date. PMID:28484537

  19. Crypto-rhombomeres of the mouse medulla oblongata, defined by molecular and morphological features.

    Tomás-Roca, Laura; Corral-San-Miguel, Rubén; Aroca, Pilar; Puelles, Luis; Marín, Faustino

    2016-03-01

    The medulla oblongata is the caudal portion of the vertebrate hindbrain. It contains major ascending and descending fiber tracts as well as several motor and interneuron populations, including neural centers that regulate the visceral functions and the maintenance of bodily homeostasis. In the avian embryo, it has been proposed that the primordium of this region is subdivided into five segments or crypto-rhombomeres (r7-r11), which were defined according to either their parameric position relative to intersomitic boundaries (Cambronero and Puelles, in J Comp Neurol 427:522-545, 2000) or a stepped expression of Hox genes (Marín et al., in Dev Biol 323:230-247, 2008). In the present work, we examine the implied similar segmental organization of the mouse medulla oblongata. To this end, we analyze the expression pattern of Hox genes from groups 3 to 8, comparing them to the expression of given cytoarchitectonic and molecular markers, from mid-gestational to perinatal stages. As a result of this approach, we conclude that the mouse medulla oblongata is segmentally organized, similarly as in avian embryos. Longitudinal structures such as the nucleus of the solitary tract, the dorsal vagal motor nucleus, the hypoglossal motor nucleus, the descending trigeminal and vestibular columns, or the reticular formation appear subdivided into discrete segmental units. Additionally, our analysis identified an internal molecular organization of the migrated pontine nuclei that reflects a differential segmental origin of their neurons as assessed by Hox gene expression.

  20. Vagal afferents modulate cytokine-mediated respiratory control at the neonatal medulla oblongata.

    Balan, Kannan V; Kc, Prabha; Hoxha, Zana; Mayer, Catherine A; Wilson, Christopher G; Martin, Richard J

    2011-09-30

    Perinatal sepsis and inflammation trigger lung and brain injury in preterm infants, and associated apnea of prematurity. We hypothesized that endotoxin exposure in the immature lung would upregulate proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in the medulla oblongata and be associated with impaired respiratory control. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.1mg/kg) or saline was administered intratracheally to rat pups and medulla oblongatas were harvested for quantifying expression of mRNA for proinflammatory cytokines. LPS-exposure significantly increased medullary mRNA for IL-1β and IL-6, and vagotomy blunted this increase in IL-1β, but not IL-6. Whole-body flow plethysmography revealed that LPS-exposed pups had an attenuated ventilatory response to hypoxia both before and after carotid sinus nerve transection. Immunochemical expression of IL-1β within the nucleus of the solitary tract and area postrema was increased after LPS-exposure. In summary, intratracheal endotoxin-exposure in rat pups is associated with upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in the medulla oblongata that is vagally mediated for IL-1β and associated with an impaired hypoxic ventilatory response. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mapping of FGF1 in the Medulla Oblongata of Macaca fascicularis.

    Bisem, Naomi J; Takeuchi, Shigeko; Imamura, Toru; Abdelalim, Essam M; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2012-12-26

    FGF1 is highly expressed in neurons and it has been proposed to play a role in the neuroprotection and in regeneration. Low FGF1 expression in neurons has been linked to increased vulnerability in cholinergic neurons. Previous reports have shown that the expression of FGF1 in rat brain is localized to the cholinergic nuclei of the medulla oblongata, with low ratio of neurons positive for FGF1 in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV). The role of FGF1 in the primate brain has yet to be clarified. In this study, we mapped FGF1 immunoreactivity in the medulla oblongata of cynomolgus monkey brainstems. Our results demonstrated that FGF1 immunoreactivity follows the pattern of distribution of cholinergic nuclei in the medulla oblongata; with strong localization of FGF1 to cholinergic neurons of the hypoglossal nucleus, the facial nucleus and the nucleus ambiguus. In contrast, the DMNV shows markedly lower FGF1 immunoreactivity. Localization of FGF1 to cholinergic neurons was only observed in the lateral region of the DMNV, with higher immunoreactivity in the rostral ventral-lateral region of the DMNV. These findings are consistent with the distribution of FGF1 immunoreactivity in previous studies of the rat brain.

  2. Mapping of FGF1 in the Medulla Oblongata of Macaca fascicularis

    Bisem, Naomi J.; Takeuchi, Shigeko; Imamura, Toru; Abdelalim, Essam M.; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2012-01-01

    FGF1 is highly expressed in neurons and it has been proposed to play a role in the neuroprotection and in regeneration. Low FGF1 expression in neurons has been linked to increased vulnerability in cholinergic neurons. Previous reports have shown that the expression of FGF1 in rat brain is localized to the cholinergic nuclei of the medulla oblongata, with low ratio of neurons positive for FGF1 in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV). The role of FGF1 in the primate brain has yet to be clarified. In this study, we mapped FGF1 immunoreactivity in the medulla oblongata of cynomolgus monkey brainstems. Our results demonstrated that FGF1 immunoreactivity follows the pattern of distribution of cholinergic nuclei in the medulla oblongata; with strong localization of FGF1 to cholinergic neurons of the hypoglossal nucleus, the facial nucleus and the nucleus ambiguus. In contrast, the DMNV shows markedly lower FGF1 immunoreactivity. Localization of FGF1 to cholinergic neurons was only observed in the lateral region of the DMNV, with higher immunoreactivity in the rostral ventral-lateral region of the DMNV. These findings are consistent with the distribution of FGF1 immunoreactivity in previous studies of the rat brain

  3. Localization and characterization of angiotensin II receptor binding and angiotensin converting enzyme in the human medulla oblongata.

    Allen, A M; Chai, S Y; Clevers, J; McKinley, M J; Paxinos, G; Mendelsohn, F A

    1988-03-08

    Angiotensin II receptor and angiotensin converting enzyme distributions in the human medulla oblongata were localised by quantitative in vitro autoradiography. Angiotensin II receptors were labelled with the antagonist analogue 125I-[Sar1, Ile8] AII while angiotensin converting enzyme was labelled with 125I-351A, a derivative of the specific converting enzyme inhibitor, lisinopril. Angiotensin II receptor binding and angiotensin converting enzyme are present in high concentrations in the nucleus of the solitary tract, the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus, the rostral and caudal ventrolateral reticular nucleus, and in a band connecting the dorsal and ventral regions. In the rostral and caudal ventrolateral reticular nucleus, angiotensin II receptors are distributed in a punctate pattern that registers with neuronal cell bodies. The distribution and density of these cell bodies closely resemble those of catecholamine-containing neurones mapped by others. In view of the known interactions of angiotensin II with both central and peripheral catecholamine-containing neurons of laboratory animals, the current anatomical findings suggest similar interactions between these neuroactive compounds in the human central nervous system. The presence of angiotensin II receptors and angiotensin converting enzyme in the nucleus of the solitary tract, dorsal motor nucleus of vagus, and rostral and caudal ventrolateral reticular nucleus demonstrates sites for central angiotensin II to exert its known actions on vasopressin release and autonomic functions including blood pressure control. These data also suggest a possible interaction between angiotensin II and central catecholeminergic systems.

  4. Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, facilitates tyrosine hydroxylase transcription and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase mRNA expression to enhance catecholamine synthesis and its nicotine-evoked elevation in PC12D cells.

    Kawahata, Ichiro; Yamakuni, Tohru

    2018-02-01

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide acting as an agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the target insects. However, questions about the safety to mammals, including human have emerged. Overactivation of mammalian peripheral catecholaminergic systems leads to onset of tachycardia, hypertension, vomiting, etc., which have been observed in acutely imidacloprid-poisoned patients as well. Physiological activation of the nAChRs is known to drive catecholamine biosynthesis and secretion in mammalian adrenal chromaffin cells. Yet, the impacts of imidacloprid on the catecholaminergic function of the chromaffin cells remain to be evaluated. In this study using PC12D cells, a catecholaminergic cell line derived from the medulla chromaffin-cell tumors of rat adrenal gland, we examined whether imidacloprid itself could impact the catecholamine-synthesizing ability. Imidacloprid alone did facilitate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) transcription via activation of α3β4 nAChR and the α7 subunit-comprising receptor. The insecticide showed the TH transcription-facilitating ability at the concentrations of 3 and 30 μM, at which acetylcholine is known to produce physiological responses, including catecholamine secretion through the nAChRs in adrenal chromaffin cells. The insecticide-facilitated TH transcription was also dependent on PKA- and RhoA-mediated signaling pathways. The insecticide coincidentally raised levels of TH and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) mRNA, and as a consequence, increased catecholamine production, although the efficacy of the neonicotinoid was lesser than that of nicotine, indicating its partial agonist-like action. Intriguingly, in cultured rat adrenal chromaffin cells, imidacloprid did increase levels of TH and PNMT protein. When the chromaffin cells were treated with nicotine in the presence of the insecticide, nicotine-elevated adrenaline production was enhanced due to facilitation of nicotine-increased TH and PNMT

  5. Cell Culture in Microgravity: Opening the Door to Space Cell Biology

    Pellis, Neal R.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Adaptational response of human cell populations to microgravity is investigated using simulation, short-term Shuttle experiments, and long-term microgravity. Simulation consists of a clinostatically-rotated cell culture system. The system is a horizontally-rotated cylinder completely filled with culture medium. Low speed rotation results in continuous-fall of the cells through the fluid medium. In this setting, cells: 1) aggregate, 2) propagate in three dimensions, 3) synthesize matrix, 4) differentiate, and 5) form sinusoids that facilitate mass transfer. Space cell culture is conducted in flight bioreactors and in static incubators. Cells grown in microgravity are: bovine cartilage, promyelocytic leukemia, kidney proximal tubule cells, adrenal medulla, breast and colon cancer, and endothelium. Cells were cultured in space to test specific hypotheses. Cartilage cells were used to determine structural differences in cartilage grown in space compared to ground-based bioreactors. Results from a 130-day experiment on Mir revealed that cartilage grown in space was substantially more compressible due to insufficient glycosaminoglycan in the matrix. Interestingly, earth-grown cartilage conformed better to the dimensions of the scaffolding material, while the Mir specimens were spherical. The other cell populations are currently being analyzed for cell surface properties, gene expression, and differentiation. Results suggest that some cells spontaneously differentiate in microgravity. Additionally, vast changes in gene expression may occur in response to microgravity. In conclusion, the transition to microgravity may constitute a physical perturbation in cells resulting in unique gene expressions, the consequences of which may be useful in tissue engineering, disease modeling, and space cell biology.

  6. Factors predicting the duration of adrenal insufficiency in patients successfully treated for Cushing disease and nonmalignant primary adrenal Cushing syndrome.

    Prete, Alessandro; Paragliola, Rosa Maria; Bottiglieri, Filomena; Rota, Carlo Antonio; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Salvatori, Roberto; Corsello, Salvatore Maria

    2017-03-01

    Successful treatment of Cushing syndrome causes transient or permanent adrenal insufficiency deriving from endogenous hypercortisolism-induced hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis suppression. We analyzed pre-treatment factors potentially affecting the duration of adrenal insufficiency. We conducted a retrospective analysis on patients successfully treated for Cushing disease (15 patients) who underwent transsphenoidal surgery, and nonmalignant primary adrenal Cushing syndrome (31 patients) who underwent unilateral adrenalectomy, divided into patients with overt primary adrenal Cushing syndrome (14 patients) and subclinical primary adrenal Cushing syndrome (17 patients). Epidemiological data, medical history, and hormonal parameters depending on the etiology of hypercortisolism were collected and compared to the duration of adrenal insufficiency. The median duration of follow-up after surgery for Cushing disease and primary adrenal Cushing syndrome was 70 and 48 months, respectively. In the Cushing disease group, the median duration of adrenal insufficiency after transsphenoidal surgery was 15 months: younger age at diagnosis and longer duration of signs and symptoms of hypercortisolism before diagnosis and surgery were associated with longer duration of adrenal insufficiency. The median duration of adrenal insufficiency was 6 months for subclinical primary adrenal Cushing syndrome and 18.5 months for overt primary adrenal Cushing syndrome. The biochemical severity of hypercortisolism, the grade of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis suppression, and treatment with ketoconazole before surgery accounted for longer duration of adrenal insufficiency. In patients with Cushing disease, younger age and delayed diagnosis and treatment predict longer need for glucocorticoid replacement therapy after successful transsphenoidal surgery. In patients with primary adrenal Cushing syndrome, the severity of hypercortisolism plays a primary role in influencing the duration of

  7. Adrenal hypoplasia congenita: a rare cause of primary adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

    Marta Loureiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary adrenal insufficiency is defined by the impaired synthesis of adrenocortical hormones due to an intrinsic disease of the adrenal cortex. Determining its etiology is crucial to allow adequate long-term management and genetic counseling. We report the case of a male adolescent that presented in the neonatal period with adrenal crisis and received replacement therapy for primary adrenal insufficiency. During follow-up, adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC was suspected given his persistently raised adrenocorticotropic hormone levels, with markedly low 17-OH progesterone and androstenedione levels. DNA sequence analysis revealed a mutation in NR0B1 gene (c.1292delG, confirming the diagnosis. Delayed puberty and persistent low levels of gonadotropins led to testosterone replacement therapy. X-linked AHC is a rare cause of primary adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, related to mutations in NR0B1 gene. Despite its rarity, AHC should be considered in patients who present with primary adrenal failure, low levels of 17-OH progesterone and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

  8. What Are Some Types of Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    ... until the adrenal glands start functioning normally again. Addison's Disease This rare disorder develops when the adrenal glands ... not make enough cortisol. In most cases of Addison's disease, the body also doesn't make enough of ...

  9. Spontaneous rupture of adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma

    Lim, Chae Hun; Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Soo Youn; Hwang, Seong Su; Choi, Hyun Joo [St. Vincent Hospital, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    Rupture of adrenal tumor from various primary origins is a rather rare event. We report here on a ruptured adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma, and this ruptured metastasis was observed at the time of the initial diagnosis.

  10. REVIEW ARTICLE Adrenal lesions encountered in current medical ...

    help to characterise an adrenal mass and guide diagnosis. .... Longitudinal ultrasound image demonstrating a well- defined, solid ... Adrenal metastases in a 56-year-old woman with advanced breast carcinoma. ..... of cancer patients.[3].

  11. Clinical significance of adrenal computed tomography in Addison's disease

    Sun, Zhong-Hua; Nomura, Kaoru; Toraya, Shohzoh; Ujihara, Makoto; Horiba, Nobuo; Suda, Toshihiro; Tsushima, Toshio; Demura, Hiroshi; Kono, Atsushi

    1992-01-01

    Adrenal computed tomographic (CT) scanning was conducted in twelve patients with Addison's disease during the clinical course. In tuberculous Addison's disease (n=8), three of four patients examined during the first two years after disease onset had bilaterally enlarged adrenals, while one of four had a unilaterally enlarged one. At least one adrenal gland was enlarged after onset in all six patients examined during the first four years. Thereafter, the adrenal glands was atrophied bilaterally, in contrast to adrenal glands in idiopathic Addison's disease which was atrophied bilaterally from disease onset (n=2). Adrenal calcification was a less sensitive clue in tracing pathogenesis, i.e., adrenal calcification was observed in five of eight patients with tuberculous Addison's disease, but not idiopathic patients. Thus, adrenal CT scanning could show the etiology of Addison's disease (infection or autoimmunity) and the phase of Addison's disease secondary to tuberculosis, which may be clinically important for initiating antituberculous treatment. (author)

  12. Magnetic resonance appearance of adrenal hemorrhage in a neonate

    Willemse, A.P.P.; Feldberg, M.A.M.; Witkamp, T.D.; Coppes, M.J.; Kramer, P.P.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Magnetic Resonance (MR) appearance of adrenal hemorrhage in a neonate is described and compared with Ultrasound (US). The value of US studies in adrenal neonatal hemorrhage is well known. We present the MR appearance of this common condition. (orig.)

  13. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Keith Herr

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

  14. Computed tomography of the adrenal glands

    Buck, J.; Reiser, U.; Heuck, F.

    1982-01-01

    Whole body CT opens a third dimension - in addition with the advantage of being a non-invasive method with relatively negligible risk. Both, the normal CT findings of the adrenal gland and the normal variants in shape and position are described. With help of morphometry and image processing measurements of the size of the adrenal gland of 20 healthy patients were made and are listed; not only the respective normal variants but also hypo-hyperplasia are pointed out. Some examples are suitable for the illustration of pathologic conditions, such as inflammation and benign and malignant primary and secondary neoplasis. Finally, the value of adrenal gland CT is discussed with reference to the other radiologic methods. (orig.)

  15. Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in polycythemia vera

    Shruti Bhandari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage (BAH is a rare complication typically seen in critically ill patients, which can lead to acute adrenal insufficiency and death unless it is recognized promptly and treated appropriately. We describe the case of a 64-year-old man with polycythemia vera found to be unresponsive with fever, hypotension, tachycardia, and hypoglycemia. Electrocardiogram showed ST-elevation with elevated troponin, hemoglobin, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time. He required aggressive ventilator and vasopressor support. Despite primary coronary intervention, he remained hypotensive. Random cortisol level was low. He received stress dose hydrocortisone with immediate hemodynamic stability. BAH was highly suspected and was confirmed by non-contrast abdominal computed tomography. Prompt recognition and timely initiated treatment remain crucial to impact the mortality associated with acute adrenal insufficiency.

  16. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Herr, Keith [Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Muglia, Valdair F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Koff, Walter Jose [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: antonio.westphalen@ucsf.edu [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging and Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or 'incidentaloma', has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of m alignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. (author)

  17. Adrenal insufficiency in pakistani hiv infected patients

    Afreen, B.; Khan, K.A.; Riaz, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is the most common endocrine complication among patients with AIDS/HIV infection and there are number of causes of AI in HIV patients. Human immunodeficiency virus directly as well as indirectly destroys adrenal glands. The estimates of its prevalence and severity vary. AI is the most life threatening but readily correctable endocrine complication that occurs in persons with HIV infection. This study was carried out to determine the frequency of Adrenal Insufficiency in HIV patients and their clinical features as proper diagnosis and timely treatment have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients. Methods: It was a cross sectional survey conducted at HIV clinic and Jinnah Allama Iqbal Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Jinnah Hospital Lahore. Sixty-four HIV positive patients, both male and female, aged above 15 years were included in the study. HIV patients who had recently taken steroids, ketoconazole or rifampicin, determined on history, were excluded from the study. The data was collected on a structured proforma and analysis was performed in SPSS-21.0. Frequency and percentages for adrenal insufficiency and its characteristics were calculated. Chi-square test was used with p<0.05 as statistically significant. Results: In this study, 9 (14.06%) HIV patients were diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency, male to female ratio was 3.5:1 and AI was found statistically significantly associated with fatigue (p<0.008) and weight loss (p<0.001). Conclusion: Adrenal insufficiency was high among the patients with HIV, it was not gender specific but it was found to be associated with fatigue and weight loss. (author)

  18. Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage and primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome

    Garcia de Iturrospe, C.; Quilez, I.J.; Echevarria, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is an uncommon entity that is difficult to diagnose given the ambiquity of the clinical signs. Computerized tomography plays a major role in the diagnosis, disclosing enlarged adrenal glands presenting the hyperdense aspect that characterizes this disorders. We present a case of bilateral adrenal hemoorrhage in a patient diagnosed as having primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, which is a less common cause of adrenal hemorrhage than those classically reported, such as anticoagulant therapy, sepsis, shock and abdominal injury. (Author) 8 refs

  19. Two cases of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage presenting with persistent jaundice.

    Ruffini, E; De Petris, L; Zorzi, G; Paoletti, P; Mambelli, G; Carlucci, A

    2013-01-01

    The adrenal hemorrhage is a relatively rare event in newborns but must be considered in the presence of a persistent unexplained jaundice, especially in presence of predisposing factors. Serial ultrasonography is the modality of choice for initial diagnosis and follow-up of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage. We report two cases of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage presenting with persistent jaundice. The causes of the neonatal adrenal hemorrhages were a difficult vaginal delivery in macrosomic infant and a neonatal infection.

  20. Adult adrenal haemorrhage: an unrecognised complication of renal vein thrombosis

    Loke, T.K.L. E-mail: lokekl@ha.org.hk

    2001-07-01

    There are many predisposing factors for neonatal adrenal haemorrhage but the causative factors are different in adults. Several cases of neonatal adrenal haemorrhage have been reported in association with renal vein thrombosis. This complication has not been documented in the adults. The presence of an adrenal mass in the setting of renal vein thrombosis should raise the possibility of adrenal haemorrhage even though this is extremely uncommon in adults.

  1. Automatic computer aided analysis algorithms and system for adrenal tumors on CT images.

    Chai, Hanchao; Guo, Yi; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Guohui

    2017-12-04

    The adrenal tumor will disturb the secreting function of adrenocortical cells, leading to many diseases. Different kinds of adrenal tumors require different therapeutic schedules. In the practical diagnosis, it highly relies on the doctor's experience to judge the tumor type by reading the hundreds of CT images. This paper proposed an automatic computer aided analysis method for adrenal tumors detection and classification. It consisted of the automatic segmentation algorithms, the feature extraction and the classification algorithms. These algorithms were then integrated into a system and conducted on the graphic interface by using MATLAB Graphic user interface (GUI). The accuracy of the automatic computer aided segmentation and classification reached 90% on 436 CT images. The experiments proved the stability and reliability of this automatic computer aided analytic system.

  2. Ectopic adrenal tissue of spermatic cord in a 3- year- old boy, an incidental finding during orchidopexy: A case report

    Biserka Pigac

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic adrenal tissue is usually found in kidney and retroperitoneum, yet other locations are considered uncommon. Spermatic cord remains one of the sites where this entity is mostly incidentally found during surgical procedure in childhood. Macroscopically, it represents as yellowish, lipomatous nodule. We present a case of ectopic adrenal tissue of spermatic cord in a 3- year- old boy, found during orchidopexy of the right testicle. Histopathological analysis of the spermatic cord nodule revealed adrenal cortical tissue composed of zona fasciculata cells. Although usually being benign and asymptomatic, cases of hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma arising from ectopic adrenal tissue have been reported. Therefore, removal of this tissue, when detected, is recommended.

  3. Ewing's Sarcoma of the Adrenal Gland.

    Pal, Dilip Kumar; Chandra, Vipin; Ranjan, Kumar Rajiv; Chakrabortty, Debasis; Banerjee, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma (ES) or primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor (PNET) typically occurs in long or flat bones, the chest wall, extra-skeletal soft tissue, and rarely in solid organs. Incidence of adrenal Ewing's sarcoma is very rare. Here we report a case of Ewing's sarcoma of the right adrenal gland in an 8-year-old girl who presented with an abdominal mass. The huge tumor was managed by preoperative neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgical resection. She died due to metastasis after five months of surgery.

  4. [Association between Williams syndrome and adrenal insufficiency].

    Rchachi, Meryem; Larwanou, Maazou Mahamane; El Ouahabi, Hanan; Ajdi, Farida

    2017-01-01

    Williams syndrome is a developmental disorder including dysmorphia, cardiovascular malformations and a specific neuropsychological profile together with other associated disorders. We report the case of a 17-year old girl, born of a non-inbred marriage, with Williams syndrome discovered during an assessment of degree of failure to thrive. Its association with primary adrenal insufficiency makes it unique. Diagnosis is confirmed by cytogenetic and molecular analysis. Its management consists of the implementation of treatment for adrenal insufficiency associated with a clinico-biological monitoring.

  5. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Yau, Mabel; Khattab, Ahmed; New, Maria I

    2016-06-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) owing to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a monogenic disorder of adrenal steroidogenesis. To prevent genital ambiguity, in girls, prenatal dexamethasone treatment is administered early in the first trimester. Prenatal genetic diagnosis of CAH and fetal sex determination identify affected female fetuses at risk for genital virilization. Advancements in prenatal diagnosis are owing to improved understanding of the genetic basis of CAH and improved technology. Cloning of the CYP21A2 gene ushered in molecular genetic analysis as the current standard of care. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis allows for targeted treatment and avoids unnecessary treatment of males and unaffected females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Plasma metanephrine for assessing the selectivity of adrenal venous sampling

    Dekkers, T.; Deinum, J.; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Blondin, D.; Vonend, O.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Peitzsch, M.; Rump, L.C.; Antoch, G.; Sweep, F.C.; Bornstein, S.R.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Willenberg, H.S.; Eisenhofer, G.

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal vein sampling is used to establish the origins of excess production of adrenal hormones in primary aldosteronism. Correct catheter positioning is confirmed using adrenal vein measurements of cortisol, but this parameter is not always reliable. Plasma metanephrine represents an alternative

  7. [Adrenal tumors. Principles of diagnostics and operative treatment].

    Gonsior, A; Pfeiffer, H; Führer, D; Liatsikos, E; Schwalenberg, T; Stolzenburg, J-U

    2010-05-01

    Adrenal masses are very heterogeneous and comprise benign or malignant tumors, unilateral or bilateral masses and variable endocrine activity. Because of these attributes adrenal gland masses are a clinical challenge. This article gives a summary of diagnostic steps and indications for adrenal surgery including perioperative management.

  8. Radiological findings of congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia: a case report

    Kim, Mi Jeong; Shin, Joo Yong; Lee, Hee Jung; Lee, Jin Hee; Sohn, Cheol Ho; Lee, Sung Moon; Kim, Hong; Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Ji

    2001-01-01

    Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the marked accumulation of lipids and cholesterol in the adrenal cortex, and the failure of adrenal steroids to synthesise. We report the ultrasound (US), computed tomographic (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in a four-day-old female neonate with CLAH

  9. Gene Expression Profiling and Association with Prion-Related Lesions in the Medulla Oblongata of Symptomatic Natural Scrapie Animals

    Filali, Hicham; Martin-Burriel, Inmaculada; Harders, Frank; Varona, Luis; Lyahyai, Jaber; Zaragoza, Pilar; Pumarola, Martí; Badiola, Juan J.; Bossers, Alex; Bolea, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of natural scrapie and other prion diseases remains unclear. Examining transcriptome variations in infected versus control animals may highlight new genes potentially involved in some of the molecular mechanisms of prion-induced pathology. The aim of this work was to identify disease-associated alterations in the gene expression profiles of the caudal medulla oblongata (MO) in sheep presenting the symptomatic phase of natural scrapie. The gene expression patterns in the MO from 7 sheep that had been naturally infected with scrapie were compared with 6 controls using a Central Veterinary Institute (CVI) custom designed 4×44K microarray. The microarray consisted of a probe set on the previously sequenced ovine tissue library by CVI and was supplemented with all of the Ovis aries transcripts that are currently publicly available. Over 350 probe sets displayed greater than 2-fold changes in expression. We identified 148 genes from these probes, many of which encode proteins that are involved in the immune response, ion transport, cell adhesion, and transcription. Our results confirm previously published gene expression changes that were observed in murine models with induced scrapie. Moreover, we have identified new genes that exhibit differential expression in scrapie and could be involved in prion neuropathology. Finally, we have investigated the relationship between gene expression profiles and the appearance of the main scrapie-related lesions, including prion protein deposition, gliosis and spongiosis. In this context, the potential impacts of these gene expression changes in the MO on scrapie development are discussed. PMID:21629698

  10. The 64-MSCT study of relationship between renal corticomedullary differentiation, contrast between renal cortex and medulla, renal cortex and medulla CT peak value with the single renal function in hydronephrotic kidney

    Wang Yunhua; Hou Weiwei; Liu Ruihong; He Jianjun; Zhi Ke

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study 64-MSCT perfusion imaging features about renal corticomedullary differentiation, contrast between renal cortex and medulla (CMC), renal cortex and medulla CT peak value in normal and hydronephrotic kidneys, and to explore the relationship between them and the unilateral renal function. Methods: Thirty-six patients with obstructive nephrohydrosis underwent 64-MSCT perfusion scanning. The split renal glomerular filtration rates (GFR) of their kidneys were measured by SPECT renal dynamic imaging. The 72 kidneys were divided into groups of normal renal function group, mild and severe renal impairment groups according to GFR. Renal corticomedullary differentiation on CT images was graded as clear, obscure, part clear. The CT intensity of cortex and medulla was measured in order to calculate contrast between renal cortex and medulla (CMC). Using Pearson correlation test, the correlation between them and renal GFR were examined. Results: (1) In the 24 kidneys of normal group, all kidneys showed clear CMD. In the 21 kidneys of mild renal impairment group, 14 kidneys showed clear CMD, 2 showed obscure CMD and 5 showed part clear of CMD. In the 27 kidneys of severe renal impairment group, 7 kidneys showed clear CMD, 5 showed obscure CMD and 15 showed part clear of CMD. (2)The CMC of normal group was 0.62 ± 0.20, while it was 0.52 ± 0.14 and 0.37 ± 0.11 for mild renal impairment group and severe renal impairment group CMC respectively. The CMC had positive linear correlation with GFR (r=0.536,P<0.05). (3) The renal cortex and medulla CT peak value of normal group were (133 ± 22) and (104 ± 16) HU; The renal cortex and medulla CT peak value of mild renal impairment group were (91 ± 29) and (76 ± 25) HU; The renal cortex and medulla CT peak value of severe renal impairment group were (68 ± 24) and (57 ± 21) HU(F=42.76 and 32.68,P<0.05). The renal cortex and medulla CT peak value had positive linear correlation with GFR (r=0.672 and 0.623, P<0

  11. Physiological Basis for the Etiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Adrenal Disorders: Cushing’s Syndrome, Adrenal Insufficiency, and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Raff, Hershel; Sharma, Susmeeta T.; Nieman, Lynnette K.

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a classic neuroendocrine system. One of the best ways to understand the HPA axis is to appreciate its dynamics in the variety of diseases and syndromes that affect it. Excess glucocorticoid activity can be due to endogenous cortisol overproduction (spontaneous Cushing’s syndrome) or exogenous glucocorticoid therapy (iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome). Endogenous Cushing’s syndrome can be subdivided into ACTH-dependent and ACTH-independent, the latter of which is usually due to autonomous adrenal overproduction. The former can be due to a pituitary corticotroph tumor (usually benign) or ectopic ACTH production from tumors outside the pituitary; both of these tumor types overexpress the proopiomelanocortin gene. The converse of Cushing’s syndrome is the lack of normal cortisol secretion and is usually due to adrenal destruction (primary adrenal insufficiency) or hypopituitarism (secondary adrenal insufficiency). Secondary adrenal insufficiency can also result from a rapid discontinuation of long-term, pharmacological glucocorticoid therapy because of HPA axis suppression and adrenal atrophy. Finally, mutations in the steroidogenic enzymes of the adrenal cortex can lead to congenital adrenal hyperplasia and an increase in precursor steroids, particularly androgens. When present in utero, this can lead to masculinization of a female fetus. An understanding of the dynamics of the HPA axis is necessary to master the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of pituitary-adrenal diseases. Furthermore, understanding the pathophysiology of the HPA axis gives great insight into its normal control. PMID:24715566

  12. Hyponatraemia secondary to nivolumab-induced primary adrenal failure

    Harris Trainer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Checkpoint inhibitors, such as ipilimumab and pembrolizumab, have transformed the prognosis for patients with advanced malignant melanoma and squamous non-small-cell lung cancer, and their use will only expand as experience is gained in a variety of other malignancies, for instance, renal and lymphoma. As the use of checkpoint inhibitors increases, so too will the incidence of their unique side effects, termed immune-related adverse events (irAEs, which can affect dermatological, gastrointestinal, hepatic, endocrine and other systems. Nivolumab is a monoclonal antibody that blocks the human programmed death receptor-1 ligand (PD-L1 found on many cancer cells and is licensed for the treatment of advanced malignant melanoma. We describe the first case of nivolumab-induced adrenalitis resulting in primary adrenal failure presenting with hyponatraemia in a 43-year-old man with malignant melanoma. The case highlights the potentially life-threatening complications of checkpoint inhibitors and the need for patient education and awareness of irAEs among the wider clinical community because such side effects require prompt recognition and treatment.

  13. Effects of Carbenoxolone on the Canine Pituitary-Adrenal Axis.

    Teshima, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Okusa, Tomoko; Nakamura, Yumi; Koyama, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    Cushing's disease caused by pituitary corticotroph adenoma is a common endocrine disease in dogs. A characteristic biochemical feature of corticotroph adenomas is their relative resistance to suppressive negative feedback by glucocorticoids. The abnormal expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11HSD), which is a cortisol metabolic enzyme, is found in human and murine corticotroph adenomas. Our recent studies demonstrated that canine corticotroph adenomas also have abnormal expression of 11HSD. 11HSD has two isoforms in dogs, 11HSD type1 (HSD11B1), which converts cortisone into active cortisol, and 11HSD type2 (HSD11B2), which converts cortisol into inactive cortisone. It has been suggested that glucocorticoid resistance in corticotroph tumors is related to the overexpression of HSD11B2. Therefore it was our aim to investigate the effects of carbenoxolone (CBX), an 11HSD inhibitor, on the healthy dog's pituitary-adrenal axis. Dogs were administered 50 mg/kg of CBX twice each day for 15 days. During CBX administration, no adverse effects were observed in any dogs. The plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and serum cortisol and cortisone concentrations were significantly lower at day 7 and 15 following corticotropin releasing hormone stimulation. After completion of CBX administration, the HSD11B1 mRNA expression was higher, and HSD11B2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the pituitaries. Moreover, proopiomelanocortin mRNA expression was lower, and the ratio of ACTH-positive cells in the anterior pituitary was also significantly lower after CBX treatment. In adrenal glands treated with CBX, HSD11B1 and HSD11B2 mRNA expression were both lower compared to normal canine adrenal glands. The results of this study suggested that CBX inhibits ACTH secretion from pituitary due to altered 11HSD expressions, and is potentially useful for the treatment of canine Cushing's disease.

  14. Ultrasound follow up of testicular adrenal rest tumors with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Report of three cases

    Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Dong Won; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Nam, Kyung Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Dong-A University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    While testicular adrenal rest tumor is generally a rare intratesticular tumor, it is frequent in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The tumors are diagnosed and followed up by ultrasound examination because these tumors are non-palpable and symptomless in most cases and always benign. Ultrasound imaging features change depending on how congenital adrenal hyperplasia is controlled. We herein report three cases of testicular adrenal rest tumors with different usual and unusual imaging findings and follow-up imaging. Patient 1 was a 14-year-old boy who presented with poor compliance to medication. Patient 2 and 3 were a 10-year-old and 13-year-old boy who presented with precocious puberty and short stature, respectively. Ultrasound examinations demonstrated oval hypoechoic masses and irregular speculated hyperechoic masses in the testes and different serial imaging findings.

  15. Ultrasound follow up of testicular adrenal rest tumors with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Report of three cases

    Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Dong Won; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Nam, Kyung Jin

    2014-01-01

    While testicular adrenal rest tumor is generally a rare intratesticular tumor, it is frequent in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The tumors are diagnosed and followed up by ultrasound examination because these tumors are non-palpable and symptomless in most cases and always benign. Ultrasound imaging features change depending on how congenital adrenal hyperplasia is controlled. We herein report three cases of testicular adrenal rest tumors with different usual and unusual imaging findings and follow-up imaging. Patient 1 was a 14-year-old boy who presented with poor compliance to medication. Patient 2 and 3 were a 10-year-old and 13-year-old boy who presented with precocious puberty and short stature, respectively. Ultrasound examinations demonstrated oval hypoechoic masses and irregular speculated hyperechoic masses in the testes and different serial imaging findings

  16. Origin and neurochemical properties of bulbospinal neurons projecting to the rat lumbar spinal cord via the medal longitudinal fasciculus and caudal ventrolateral medulla

    Zilli eHuma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bulbospinal systems (BS originate from various regions of the brainstem and influence spinal neurons by classical synaptic and modulatory mechanisms. Our aim was to determine the brainstem locations of cells of origin of BS pathways passing through the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF and the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM. We also examined the transmitter content of spinal terminations of the CVLM pathway. Six adult rats received Fluorogold (FG injections to the right intermediate grey matter of the lumbar cord (L1-L2 and the b-subunit of cholera toxin (CTb was injected either into the MLF or the right CVLM (3 animals each. Double-labelled cells were identified within brainstem structures with confocal microscopy and mapped onto brainstem diagrams. An additional 3 rats were injected with CTb in the CVLM to label axon terminals in the lumbar spinal cord. Double-labelled cells projecting via the MLF or CVLM were found principally in reticular regions of the medulla and pons but small numbers of cells were also located within the midbrain. CVLM projections to the lumbar cord were almost exclusively ipsilateral and concentrated within the intermediate grey matter. Most (62% of terminals were immunoreactive for the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 while 23% contained the vesicular GABA transporter. The inhibitory subpopulation was glycinergic, GABAergic or contained both transmitters. The proportions of excitatory and inhibitory axons projecting via the CVLM to the lumbar cord are similar to those projecting via the MLF. Unlike the MLF pathway, CVLM projections are predominantly ipsilateral and concentrated within intermediate grey but do not extend into motor nuclei or laminia VIII. Terminations of the CVLM pathway are located in a region of the grey matter that is rich in premotor interneurons; thus its primary function may be to coordinate activity of premotor networks.

  17. Diagnosis of adrenal adenoma and hyperplasia by CT and adrenal scintigraphy

    Miura, Kentaro; Itami, Jun; Nawano, Shigeru; Okada, Junichi; Ogino, Takashi; Uno, Koichi; Arimizu, Noboru

    1985-01-01

    The evaluation of X-CT and adrenal scintigraphy in diagnosis of Cushing syndrome and primary aldosteronism was studied in 18 patients. In Cushing syndrome, CT appearance of adenoma is commonly larger than that of primary aldosteronism and cleary deliniated by surrounding fat. So, in Cushing syndrome, diagnosis of adenoma on CT is much easier than that of primary aldosteronism, and absence of adenoma on CT suggests adrenal hyperplasia. In primary aldosteronism both of CT and scintigraphy must be performed. (author)

  18. Implications of infectious diseases and the adrenal hypothesis for the etiology of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    F. Azevedo-Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukemia is the most frequent cancer in children. Recently, a new hypothesis was proposed for the pathogenesis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. The so-called "adrenal hypothesis" emphasized the role of endogenous cortisol in the etiology of B-cell precursor ALL. The incidence peak of ALL in children between 3 to 5 years of age has been well documented and is consistent with this view. The adrenal hypothesis proposes that the risk of childhood B-cell precursor ALL is reduced when early childhood infections induce qualitative and quantitative changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. It suggests that the increased plasma cortisol levels would be sufficient to eliminate all clonal leukemic cells originating during fetal life. Because Brazil is a continental and tropical country, the exposure to infections is diversified with endemic viral and regionally non-viral infections, with some characteristics that support the recent adrenal hypothesis. Here we discuss this new hypothesis in terms of data from epidemiological studies and the possible implications of the diversity of infections occurring in Brazilian children.

  19. Neuroanatomic Relationships between the GABAergic and Serotonergic Systems in the Developing Human Medulla

    Broadbelt, Kevin G.; Paterson, David S.; Rivera, Keith D.; Trachtenberg, Felicia L.; Kinney, Hannah C.

    2010-01-01

    γ-Amino butyric (GABA) critically influences serotonergic (5-HT) neurons in the raphé and extra-raphé of the medulla oblongata. In this study we hypothesize there are marked changes in the developmental profile of markers of the human medullary GABAergic system relative to the 5-HT system in early life. We used single- and double-label immunocytochemistry and tissue receptor autoradiography in 15 human medullae from fetal and infant cases ranging from 15 gestational weeks to 10 postnatal months, and compared our findings with an extensive 5-HT-related database in our laboratory. In the raphé obscurus, we identified two subsets of GABAergic neurons using glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65/67) immunostaining: one comprised of small, round neurons; the other, medium, spindle-shaped neurons. In three term medullae cases, positive immunoflorescent neurons for both tryptophan hydroxylase and GAD65/67 were counted within the raphé obscurus. This revealed approximately 6% of the total neurons counted in this nucleus expressed both GAD65/67 and TPOH suggesting co-production of GABA by a subset of 5-HT neurons. The distribution of GABAA binding was ubiquitous across medullary nuclei, with highest binding in the raphé obscurus. GABAA receptor subtypes α1 and α3 were expressed by 5-HT neurons, indicating the site of interaction of GABA with 5-HT neurons. These receptor subtypes and KCC2, a major chloride transporter, were differentially expressed across early development, from mid-gestation (20wks) and thereafter. The developmental profile of GABAergic markers changed dramatically relative to the 5-HT markers. These data provide baseline information for medullary studies of human pediatric disorders, such as sudden infant death syndrome. PMID:19926534

  20. Adrenal Steroids: Biphasic Effects on Neurons

    Joels, M.; Karst, H.; Squire, L.R.

    2009-01-01

    Corticosteroid hormones are released from the adrenal gland after stress. They enter the brain and bind to high-affinity mineralocorticoid and lower affinity glucocorticoid receptors. Through these nuclear receptors, corticosteroids exert long-lasting effects on essential properties of neurons, such

  1. Total Body Opacification 'Technique Neonatal Adrenal Haemorrhage

    1971-12-11

    Dec 11, 1971 ... A case is reported illustrating the possible usefulness of total body opacification in the diagnosis of neonatal adrenal haemorrhage. To derive maximum benefit from this principle, the routine use of an early film coupled with high dosage is urged whenever an intravenous pyelogram is performed for ...

  2. Adrenal metabolism of mitotane and related compounds

    Djanegara, T.K.S.

    1989-01-01

    Mitotane (o,p'-DDD; 1-[2-chlorophenyl]-1-[4-chlorophenyl]-2,2-dichloroethane) has been used in the treatment of Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal hyperfunction and it the drug of choice for adrenocortical carcinoma. The object of this investigation is to study the biotransformation of o,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDD in dogs and bovine adrenal cortex to explain its selective toxicity and mechanism of action. The in vitro biotransformation of 14 C-labeled o,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDD by dog and bovine adrenal cortex as studied. Of the cortex subcellular fractions, the cytosol fraction was found to be the most active in metabolizing the substrates, followed by the mitochondrial fraction. This metabolism including that in cytosolic fractions, did not take place with boiled enzyme preparations and required an NADPH generating system. This study has been directed towards establishing the metabolic activation mechanism which may account for the adrenocorticolytic effect of mitotane in contrast to detoxication by the liver. HPLC and TLC metabolic profiles have been generated from incubations of bovine and dog adrenal cortex homogenates and their subfractions for 14 C-labeled p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDD and its monochloroethylene derivative, o,p'-DDMU

  3. Unilateral nodular adrenal hyperplasia: Case series

    A.F. Kotb

    2016-07-26

    Jul 26, 2016 ... Abstract. Introduction: Nodular adrenal hyperplasia is one of rare causes of adrenocortical hyperplasia. The disease usually presents bilaterally. Few publications discussed the possibility of unilateral disease, in association with hyperaldosteronism or Cushing syndrome. Case series: We are reporting 3 ...

  4. Imaging features of benign adrenal cysts

    Sanal, Hatice Tuba; Kocaoglu, Murat; Yildirim, Duzgun; Bulakbasi, Nail; Guvenc, Inanc; Tayfun, Cem; Ucoz, Taner

    2006-01-01

    Benign adrenal gland cysts (BACs) are rare lesions with a variable histological spectrum and may mimic not only each other but also malignant ones. We aimed to review imaging features of BACs which can be helpful in distinguishing each entity and determining the subsequent appropriate management

  5. Diagnosis and classification of Addison's disease (autoimmune adrenalitis).

    Brandão Neto, Rodrigo Antonio; de Carvalho, Jozélio Freire

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune adrenalitis, or autoimmune Addison disease (AAD), is the most prevalent cause of primary adrenal insufficiency in the developed world. AAD is rare and can easily be misdiagnosed as other conditions. The diagnosis depends on demonstrating inappropriately low cortisol production and the presence of high titers of adrenal cortex autoantibodies (ACAs), along with excluding other causes of adrenal failure using other tests as necessary. The treatment corticosteroid replacement, and the prognosis following the treatment is the same as the normal population. Spontaneous recovery of adrenal function has been described but is rare. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage revealed by jaundice: a case report].

    Oulmaati, A; Hays, S; Mory-Thomas, N; Bretones, P; Bensaid, M; Jordan, I; Bonfils, M; Godbert, I; Picaud, J-C

    2012-04-01

    The clinical presentation of adrenal hemorrhage varies, depending on the extent of hemorrhage as well as the amount of adrenal cortex involved by the hemorrhage. We report here a case of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage revealed by late onset of neonatal jaundice. This adrenal hemorrhage most probably resulted from shoulder dystocia. The aim of this work was to focus on the fact that jaundice can be caused by adrenal hemorrhage and to emphasize the crucial importance of abdominal ultrasound in cases of persistent jaundice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Functioning adrenal myelolipoma: A rare cause of hypertension

    Nagendar Jakka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-occurrence of adrenal incidentaloma with hypertension calls for evaluation of endocrine causes including pheochromocytoma, Cushing′s disease, and primary aldosteronism. We are reporting 40-years-old man who presented with hypertension and adrenal mass. He had elevated metanephrines, histology of resected adrenal mass revealed adrenal myelolipoma, and immuno-histochemistry was positive for chromogranin A. Both his blood pressure and urinary metanephrines returned to normal after surgery. The association of hypertension and adrenal myelolipoma may not be entirely coincidental, as it may be associated with secreting catecholamine. Literature on such an uncommon association is reviewed briefly as well.

  8. 2-deoxy-D-glucose but not 2-mercaptoacetate increases Fos-like immunoreactivity in adrenal medulla and sympathetic preganglionic neurons

    Ritter, S; Scheurink, A; Singer, LK

    1995-01-01

    2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) and 2-mercaptoacetate (MA) are drugs that competetively inhibit metabolism of glucose and fatty acids, respectively, Both 2DG and MA stimulate food intake, In addition, 2DG-induced glucoprivation is a known stimulus for adrenomedullary secretion, However, very little is known

  9. Frequency and clinical significance of transient hyperechoic renal medulla in neonates

    Cho, Sung Shick; Kim, Jung Hoon; Hong, Hyun Sook; Shin, Ji Hoon; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Goo, Dong Erk; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of transient hyperechogenicity of the renal medulla in neonates by comparing the clinical features, urinalysis and follow-up ultrasonographic examination of the control group. One hundred ten neonates were divided into 2 groups, hyperechoic and normal renal medulla groups, and all of them underwent abdominal ultrasound with a 7.5 MHz linear transducer (Sonoace 8800MT, Medicine, Korea) from November 1999 to January 2000. Whether there was any difference in clinical features including birth weight, body surface area, gestational age, sex, date of examination and mode of delivery between two groups was evaluated. In addition, any difference in their urinary osmolarity, albumin, uric acid and calcium in 41 neonates who underwent urinalysis was evaluated. In ten neonates with hyperechoic renal medulla underwent follow-up study, the follow-up ultrasonographic findings were compared with the initial study. In 67 of 110 (61%) neonates, ultrasonography demonstrated hyperechoic renal medulla. There was no difference in clinical features between the hyperechoic renal medullary group and normal group. In 41 neonates, there was no significant difference in urinalysis between two groups. (Osmolarity=146.46 ± 68.4 mOsml/KgH 2 O in the hyperechoic renal medullary group vs. 149.8 ± 77.7 mOsml/KgH 2 O in the normal group; albumin=13.9 ± 10.2 mg/ml vs. 17.6 ± 13.6 mg/dl; uric acid=50.0 ± 23.3 mg/dl vs. 44.9 ± 34.1 mg/dl; calcium=1.38 ± 3.0 mg/ dl vs. 0.44 ± 0.07 mg/dl.) Ten neonates who underwent follow-up ultrasonography within 20 days after the initial study showed the normal medullary echogenicity. There were no significant difference between the hyperechoic renal medullary group and the normal echogenic group in their clinical features and urinalysis. Therefore, the hyperechoic renal medullar in neonate is considered as an usual and transient finding which disappears on follow-up study.

  10. Adrenal hormones before and after venography during adrenal venous sampling: a self-controlled study.

    Koike, Yuya; Matsui, Seishi; Omura, Masao; Makita, Kohzoh; Obara, Alfonso W D; Moriya, Nobukazu; Nishikawa, Tetsuo

    2017-03-01

    A stress reaction involving increased adrenal hormone release occurs when starting adrenal venous sampling (AVS). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of single shot venography on adrenal hormone production during AVS. This was a prospective self-controlled study. We enrolled 54 consecutive patients (21 men, 33 women; mean age 52 ± 11 years) with primary aldosteronism who underwent AVS from May 2014 to February 2015. Under non-stimulated conditions, blood samples were obtained from a common trunk of the left adrenal vein before and after single shot venography. The initial plasma aldosterone and cortisol concentration (PAC and PCC) were compared with those measured after venography for each patient. PAC and PCC were slightly but significantly decreased between before and after venography (after log transformation 2.12 ± 0.73 vs 2.07 ± 0.72, P = 0.00066, 1.89 ± 0.52 vs 1.83 ± 0.53, P = 0.00031, respectively). During non-stimulated left AVS, adrenal hormone secretion was slightly but significantly decreased after venography, similar to the normal time-related stress reaction. Venography did not increase the adrenal hormone secretion.

  11. Abscess of the medulla oblongata in a toddler: case report and technical considerations based on magnetic resonance imaging tractography.

    Arzoglou, Vasileios; D'Angelo, Luca; Koutzoglou, Michael; Di Rocco, Concezio

    2011-08-01

    We report a unique case of a toddler (the only one reported) successfully operated on for a medulla oblongata abscess and comment on the influence of neuroimaging modalities in the preoperative planning of the surgical approach. We report a case of a 20-month-old child with a solitary medulla oblongata abscess. The abscess appeared to be in close proximity to the anterior medulla oblongata, but preoperative planning based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography motivated us to try to remove this lesion through a midline suboccipital approach. The ventral medulla oblongata abscess was surgically removed via a telovelar approach. At the anterior wall of the 4th ventricle, a fenestration was made with pus release and evacuation of the cavity. The child was discharged 1 week later with an uneventful and full recovery. Modern imaging modalities of the nervous system can be very helpful in preoperative planning. Functional visualization of the nervous system provided by modern imaging techniques, such as the DTI tractography, can alter the classic topographic concept of surgical approach. In the case presented, approaching an anterior medulla oblongata abscess based on DTI tractography data, through a suboccipital midline transventricular approach, proved to be an effective and safe technique.

  12. A radioimmunoassay for the detection of adrenal autoantibodies

    Kosowicz, J.; Gryczynska, M.; Bottazzo, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    A solid phase radioimmunoassay for adrenal antibodies is described. In the assay plastic tubes coated with adrenal microsomes (100 μg/ml) were incubated with human sera diluted from 1:50 to 1:5000 and the retained antibodies detected by subsequent incubation with 125 I-labelled protein A. The method was precise over the range of serum dilution of 1:250 to 1:5000. In the group of 30 patients with Addison's disease 19 had positive results in adrenal antibody radioimmunoassay (RIA). Comparative studies of RIA and immunofluorescence (IFL) revealed that there was partial correlation of adrenal antibody results in patients with high titre antibodies whereas RIA usually was more sensitive than IFL in patients with low titre antibodies. Computerized tomography (CT) displayed bilateral adrenal atrophy in most patients who had adrenal antibodies. On the other hand, patients with low RIA results and negative IFL antibodies had predominantly adrenal calcifications on scans. (author)

  13. Computed tomography of the adrenals in patients with tuberculosis

    Yamashita, Seizo; Machado, Jussara Marcondes; Morceli, Jose

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the adrenals of individuals without tuberculosis (group 1 - G1) and with tuberculosis (group 2 - G2) using computed tomography. The antero-posterior length, the thickness, and the longitudinal length of the adrenals were compared in G1 and G2. The duration of the disease, the occurrence of morphologic abnormalities in G2, the distribution according to sex, age and skin color were also studied. There was difference in the antero-posterior length and thickness of right adrenal between G1 and G2. A higher prevalence of white skin male individuals was observed in G2. There was no association between duration of the disease and the occurrence of morphologic abnormalities in G2. A higher occurrence of adrenal enlargement was observed in G2. The main computed tomography findings in patients with tuberculosis were enlargement of the adrenal without calcification, enlargement of the adrenal with punctiform calcifications, and residual calcification of the adrenal. (author)

  14. Different Levels of Expression of the Clock Protein PER and the Glial Marker REPO in Ensheathing and Astrocyte-Like Glia of the Distal Medulla of Drosophila Optic Lobe.

    Krzeptowski, Wojciech; Walkowicz, Lucyna; Płonczyńska, Alicja; Górska-Andrzejak, Jolanta

    2018-01-01

    Circadian plasticity of the visual system of Drosophila melanogaster depends on functioning of both the neuronal and glial oscillators. The clock function of the former is already quite well-recognized. The latter, however, is much less known and documented. In this study we focus on the glial oscillators that reside in the distal part of the second visual neuropil, medulla (dMnGl), in vicinity of the PIGMENT-DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF) releasing terminals of the circadian clock ventral Lateral Neurons (LNvs). We reveal the heterogeneity of the dMnGl, which express the clock protein PERIOD (PER) and the pan-glial marker REVERSED POLARITY (REPO) at higher (P1) or lower (P2) levels. We show that the cells with stronger expression of PER display also stronger expression of REPO, and that the number of REPO-P1 cells is bigger during the day than during the night. Using a combination of genetic markers and immunofluorescent labeling with anti PER and REPO Abs, we have established that the P1 and P2 cells can be associated with two different types of the dMnGl, the ensheathing (EnGl), and the astrocyte-like glia (ALGl). Surprisingly, the EnGl belong to the P1 cells, whereas the ALGl, previously reported to play the main role in the circadian rhythms, display the characteristics of the P2 cells (express very low level of PER and low level of REPO). Next to the EnGl and ALGl we have also observed another type of cells in the distal medulla that express PER and REPO, although at very low levels. Based on their morphology we have identified them as the T1 interneurons. Our study reveals the complexity of the distal medulla circadian network, which appears to consist of different types of glial and neuronal peripheral clocks, displaying molecular oscillations of higher (EnGl) and lower (ALGl and T1) amplitudes.

  15. A genomic atlas of human adrenal and gonad development [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Ignacio del Valle

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In humans, the adrenal glands and gonads undergo distinct biological events between 6-10 weeks post conception (wpc, such as testis determination, the onset of steroidogenesis and primordial germ cell development. However, relatively little is currently known about the genetic mechanisms underlying these processes. We therefore aimed to generate a detailed genomic atlas of adrenal and gonad development across these critical stages of human embryonic and fetal development. Methods: RNA was extracted from 53 tissue samples between 6-10 wpc (adrenal, testis, ovary and control. Affymetrix array analysis was performed and differential gene expression was analysed using Bioconductor. A mathematical model was constructed to investigate time-series changes across the dataset. Pathway analysis was performed using ClueGo and cellular localisation of novel factors confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Results: Using this approach, we have identified novel components of adrenal development (e.g. ASB4, NPR3 and confirmed the role of SRY as the main human testis-determining gene. By mathematical modelling time-series data we have found new genes up-regulated with SOX9 in the testis (e.g. CITED1, which may represent components of the testis development pathway. We have shown that testicular steroidogenesis has a distinct onset at around 8 wpc and identified potential novel components in adrenal and testicular steroidogenesis (e.g. MGARP, FOXO4, MAP3K15, GRAMD1B, RMND2, as well as testis biomarkers (e.g. SCUBE1. We have also shown that the developing human ovary expresses distinct subsets of genes (e.g. OR10G9, OR4D5, but enrichment for established biological pathways is limited. Conclusion: This genomic atlas is revealing important novel aspects of human development and new candidate genes for adrenal and reproductive disorders.

  16. A genomic atlas of human adrenal and gonad development [version 2; referees: 4 approved

    Ignacio del Valle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In humans, the adrenal glands and gonads undergo distinct biological events between 6-10 weeks post conception (wpc, such as testis determination, the onset of steroidogenesis and primordial germ cell development. However, relatively little is currently known about the genetic mechanisms underlying these processes. We therefore aimed to generate a detailed genomic atlas of adrenal and gonad development across these critical stages of human embryonic and fetal development. Methods: RNA was extracted from 53 tissue samples between 6-10 wpc (adrenal, testis, ovary and control. Affymetrix array analysis was performed and differential gene expression was analysed using Bioconductor. A mathematical model was constructed to investigate time-series changes across the dataset. Pathway analysis was performed using ClueGo and cellular localisation of novel factors confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Results: Using this approach, we have identified novel components of adrenal development (e.g. ASB4, NPR3 and confirmed the role of SRY as the main human testis-determining gene. By mathematical modelling time-series data we have found new genes up-regulated with SOX9 in the testis (e.g. CITED1, which may represent components of the testis development pathway. We have shown that testicular steroidogenesis has a distinct onset at around 8 wpc and identified potential novel components in adrenal and testicular steroidogenesis (e.g. MGARP, FOXO4, MAP3K15, GRAMD1B, RMND2, as well as testis biomarkers (e.g. SCUBE1. We have also shown that the developing human ovary expresses distinct subsets of genes (e.g. OR10G9, OR4D5, but enrichment for established biological pathways is limited. Conclusion: This genomic atlas is revealing important novel aspects of human development and new candidate genes for adrenal and reproductive disorders.

  17. Adrenal GIPR expression and chromosome 19q13 microduplications in GIP-dependent Cushing’s syndrome

    Lecoq, Anne-Lise; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Viengchareun, Say; Chaligné, Ronan; Tosca, Lucie; Hage, Mirella; Berthon, Annabel; Faucz, Fabio R.; Hanna, Patrick; Boyer, Hadrien-Gaël; Servant, Nicolas; Salenave, Sylvie; Tachdjian, Gérard; Adam, Clovis; Benhamo, Vanessa; Clauser, Eric; Guiochon-Mantel, Anne; Young, Jacques; Lombès, Marc; Bourdeau, Isabelle; Maiter, Dominique; Tabarin, Antoine; Bertherat, Jérôme; Lefebvre, Hervé; Louiset, Estelle; Lacroix, André; Bouligand, Jérôme; Kamenický, Peter

    2017-01-01

    GIP-dependent Cushing’s syndrome is caused by ectopic expression of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPR) in cortisol-producing adrenal adenomas or in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasias. Molecular mechanisms leading to ectopic GIPR expression in adrenal tissue are not known. Here we performed molecular analyses on adrenocortical adenomas and bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasias obtained from 14 patients with GIP-dependent adrenal Cushing’s syndrome and one patient with GIP-dependent aldosteronism. GIPR expression in all adenoma and hyperplasia samples occurred through transcriptional activation of a single allele of the GIPR gene. While no abnormality was detected in proximal GIPR promoter methylation, we identified somatic duplications in chromosome region 19q13.32 containing the GIPR locus in the adrenocortical lesions derived from 3 patients. In 2 adenoma samples, the duplicated 19q13.32 region was rearranged with other chromosome regions, whereas a single tissue sample with hyperplasia had a 19q duplication only. We demonstrated that juxtaposition with cis-acting regulatory sequences such as glucocorticoid response elements in the newly identified genomic environment drives abnormal expression of the translocated GIPR allele in adenoma cells. Altogether, our results provide insight into the molecular pathogenesis of GIP-dependent Cushing’s syndrome, occurring through monoallelic transcriptional activation of GIPR driven in some adrenal lesions by structural variations. PMID:28931750

  18. The evaluation of computed tomography of the normal adrenal glands

    Baek, Seung Yon; Kook, Shin Ho; Lee, Cho Hye; Choi, Kyung Hee; Rhee, Chung Sik [Ewha Womens University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-08-15

    Radiology plays an important role in evaluating patients with suspected adrenal gland pathology. Morphologic delineation of adrenal gland is especially valuable in patients with clinical and/or biochemical evidence of a disturbance in adrenal function. Many diagnostic radiologic methods are available for demonstrating adrenal lesions. Computed tomography overcomes many of the disadvantages of these other radiologic techniques. The high degree of spatial and density resolution allows precise demonstration of the normal adrenal glands as well as detection of both small and large tumors in almost all patients. So CT of adrenal gland is an excellent noninvasive screening method and definitive imaging technique. The anthers have investigated the capability of CT to image the normal size, location and shape of both glands. Knowledge of the range of normal is useful for optimal interpretation of CT scans in patients with suspected adrenal pathology. We reviewed CT scan of 150 cases without evidence of adrenal disease. The following results were obtained; 1. There were 90 male and 60 female patients. 2. Their ages ranged from 20 to 60 years. 3. On CT, both glands were shown in 135 (90.0%), the right in 143 (95.3%), the left in 142 (94.6%). 4. In the shape of adrenal glands, most of right adrenal gland was linear or comet shaped; 68 (47.6%), most of left adrenal gland was inverted-Y shaped; 103 (72.6%). 5. In the length of adrenal glands, the right was 2.5{+-}0.77cm, the left was 2.9{+-}0.75cm. 6. In the width of adrenal glands, the right was 3.2{+-}0.74cm, the left was 2.7{+-}0.57cm. 7. In the thickness of adrenal glands, the right was 0.5{+-}0.14cm, the left was 0.6{+-}0.16cm.

  19. Intractable hiccup as the presenting symptom of cavernous hemangioma in the medulla oblongata: a case report and literature review.

    Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Moon, Kyung-Sub; Jung, Min-Young; Jung, Shin

    2014-06-01

    A case of intractable hiccup developed by cavernous hemangioma in the medulla oblongata is reported. There have been only five previously reported cases of medullary cavernoma that triggered intractable hiccup. The patient was a 28-year-old man who was presented with intractable hiccup for 15 days. It developed suddenly, then aggravated progressively and did not respond to any types of medication. On magnetic resonance images, a well-demarcated and non-enhancing mass with hemorrhagic changes was noted in the left medulla oblongata. Intraoperative findings showed that the lesion was fully embedded within the brain stem and pathology confirmed the diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma. The hiccup resolved completely after the operation. Based on the presumption that the medullary cavernoma may trigger intractable hiccup by displacing or compression the hiccup arc of the dorsolateral medulla, surgical excision can eliminate the symptoms, even in the case totally buried in brainstem.

  20. Segmental sensory disturbance in brain stem infarctions of the lateral lower pons and lateral medulla

    Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi; Imai, Terukuni; Okuda, Bungo.

    1987-01-01

    We reported on seven cases of brainstem infarctions of the lateral lower pons and lateral medulla, the sensory deficit manifested over the trunk or the leg namely segmental sensory disturbances. All patients showed dissociated sensory disturbance of pain and temperature with retained deep sensations except two cases in which touch was also slightly impaired. The sensory distribution was classified into two types. The first ''crossed type'', ipsilatral face and contralateral trunk and leg below the level was involved in 4 cases, and the second ''unilateral type'' contralateral face and trunk above the level in 3 cases. Clinico-anatomical evaluation was executed by MRI. Lesions were detected in the lateral lower pons in two cases and in the lateral medulla in one case. The location of lesions by MRI revealed more lateral lesions showed ''crossed type'' of segmental sensory disturbance and more medial lesions ''unilateral type''. It was shown that the segmental sensory disturbance could be explained by the partial involvement of the lateral spinothalamic tract, which is arranged with the fibers from the sacral segments most lateral. We considered it very important to differentiate the segmental sensory disturbance by brainstem lesion in practical clinical diagnosis. We also emphasize the type of segmental sensory disturbance could be a localizing sign in the lateral brainstem as such, ''crossed type'' indicating the lesion of the lateral portion and ''unilateral type'' the medial portion of the lateral lower brainstem. (author)

  1. A dual-color luciferase assay system reveals circadian resetting of cultured fibroblasts by co-cultured adrenal glands.

    Takako Noguchi

    Full Text Available In mammals, circadian rhythms of various organs and tissues are synchronized by pacemaker neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN of the hypothalamus. Glucocorticoids released from the adrenal glands can synchronize circadian rhythms in other tissues. Many hormones show circadian rhythms in their plasma concentrations; however, whether organs outside the SCN can serve as master synchronizers to entrain circadian rhythms in target tissues is not well understood. To further delineate the function of the adrenal glands and the interactions of circadian rhythms in putative master synchronizing organs and their target tissues, here we report a simple co-culture system using a dual-color luciferase assay to monitor circadian rhythms separately in various explanted tissues and fibroblasts. In this system, circadian rhythms of organs and target cells were simultaneously tracked by the green-emitting beetle luciferase from Pyrearinus termitilluminans (ELuc and the red-emitting beetle luciferase from Phrixothrix hirtus (SLR, respectively. We obtained tissues from the adrenal glands, thyroid glands, and lungs of transgenic mice that expressed ELuc under control of the promoter from a canonical clock gene, mBmal1. The tissues were co-cultured with Rat-1 fibroblasts as representative target cells expressing SLR under control of the mBmal1 promoter. Amplitudes of the circadian rhythms of Rat-1 fibroblasts were potentiated when the fibroblasts were co-cultured with adrenal gland tissue, but not when co-cultured with thyroid gland or lung tissue. The phases of Rat-1 fibroblasts were reset by application of adrenal gland tissue, whereas the phases of adrenal gland tissue were not influenced by Rat-1 fibroblasts. Furthermore, the effect of the adrenal gland tissue on the fibroblasts was blocked by application of a glucocorticoid receptor (GR antagonist. These results demonstrate that glucocorticoids are strong circadian synchronizers for fibroblasts and that

  2. Brainstem neurons projecting to the rostral ventral respiratory group (VRG) in the medulla oblongata of the rat revealed by co-application of NMDA and biocytin

    Zheng, Y; Riche, D; Rekling, J C

    1998-01-01

    retrogradely brainstem neurons reciprocally connected to a population of inspiratory neurons in the rat rVRG. The procedure excited rVRG neurons in multi-unit recordings and led to a Golgi-like labelling of distant cells presumably excited by efferents from the rVRG. Injection of biocytin without NMDA did...... dendrites of labelled neurons, suggesting monosynaptic connections between the rVRG and these nuclei.......Groups of neurons in the medulla and pons are essential for the rhythm generation, pattern formation and modulation of respiration. The rostral Ventral Respiratory Group (rVRG) is thought to be a crucial area for rhythm generation. Here we co-applied biocytin and NMDA in the rVRG to label...

  3. Brainstem neurons projecting to the rostral ventral respiratory group (VRG) in the medulla oblongata of the rat revealed by co-application of NMDA and biocytin

    Zheng, Y; Riche, D; Rekling, J C

    1998-01-01

    retrogradely brainstem neurons reciprocally connected to a population of inspiratory neurons in the rat rVRG. The procedure excited rVRG neurons in multi-unit recordings and led to a Golgi-like labelling of distant cells presumably excited by efferents from the rVRG. Injection of biocytin without NMDA did......Groups of neurons in the medulla and pons are essential for the rhythm generation, pattern formation and modulation of respiration. The rostral Ventral Respiratory Group (rVRG) is thought to be a crucial area for rhythm generation. Here we co-applied biocytin and NMDA in the rVRG to label...... not label neurons in distant structures. Several brainstem ipsi- and contralateral structures were found to project to the rVRG, but three major respiratory-related structures, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the parabrachialis medialis and Kölliker-Fuse nuclei (PB/KF) and the caudal VRG, which...

  4. Steroidogenesis in the testes and the adrenals of adult male rats after γ-irradiation in utero at late pregnancy

    Suzuki, Keiko; Takahashi, Masakazu; Ishii-Ohba, Hiroko; Ikeda, Kiyomi; Inano, Hiroshi

    1990-01-01

    Pregnant rats were irradiated with 2.1Gy γ-ray of 60 Co at day 20 of gestation. Seventy days after birth, the body weight of the fetally irradiated male pups was significantly lower than the control. The testes, ventral prostates and seminal vesicles were atrophied by irradiation, whereas no decreased weight of the adrenals was observed. Histological examination of the testes of the irradiated rats revealed a complete disappearance of germinal cells. Sertoli cells and Leydig cells appeared normal, and no apparent histological difference was observed in the adrenals between the control and the irradiated rats. Examination of steroidgenesis in testes and adrenals led to the conclusion that irreversible damage was induced in spermatogenesis and androgen production by the fetal irradiation, whereas corticoidogenesis was not affected. (author)

  5. Chemoresistance, Cancer Stem Cells, and miRNA Influences: The Case for Neuroblastoma

    Alfred Buhagiar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is a type of cancer that develops most often in infants and children under the age of five years. Neuroblastoma originates within the peripheral sympathetic ganglia, with 30% of the cases developing within the adrenal medulla, although it can also occur within other regions of the body such as nerve tissue in the spinal cord, neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate cellular pathways, differentiation, apoptosis, and stem cell maintenance. Such miRNAs regulate genes involved in cellular processes. Consequently, they are implicated in the regulation of a spectrum of signaling pathways within the cell. In essence, the role of miRNAs in the development of cancer is of utmost importance for the understanding of dysfunctional cellular pathways that lead to the conversion of normal cells into cancer cells. This review focuses on highlighting the recent, important implications of miRNAs within the context of neuroblastoma basic research efforts, particularly concerning miRNA influences on cancer stem cell pathology and chemoresistance pathology for this condition, together with development of translational medicine approaches for novel diagnostic tools and therapies for this neuroblastoma.

  6. Adrenal incidentaloma and the Janus Kinase 2 V617F mutation: A case-based review of the literature

    Mustafa Unubol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal incidentaloma was detected in an 81-year-old male patient and a 37-year-old female patient who had been diagnosed with essential thrombocytosis. Each patient′s Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2 V617F mutation was positive, and they were evaluated as having non-functional adrenal incidentaloma. The JAK2 activates the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT proteins which then activate the phosphoinositol-3 kinases, Ras, mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases, and transcription. Constitutive activation causes cell proliferation and dysregulation of apoptosis. It is thought that STAT3 activation-mediated JAK family kinases have a central role in the solid tumor cell series. Permanent activation of STAT3 and STAT5 causes tumor cell proliferation, survival, metastasis, and an increase in tumor-mediated inflammation in solid and hematologic tumors. According to our literature screening, irregular JAK signaling, seen at the pathogenesis of many solid and hematologic tumors, has not been previously evaluated with regard to adrenal tumors. As a result, our cases are the first coexistence of JAK V617F mutation with adrenal incidentaloma in the literature. Because of this, we think that JAK2 mutation must be evaluated to clarify the etiology of adrenal incidentalomas.

  7. Sexual Differentiation of Circadian Clock Function in the Adrenal Gland.

    Kloehn, Ian; Pillai, Savin B; Officer, Laurel; Klement, Claire; Gasser, Paul J; Evans, Jennifer A

    2016-05-01

    Sex differences in glucocorticoid production are associated with increased responsiveness of the adrenal gland in females. However, the adrenal-intrinsic mechanisms that establish sexual dimorphic function remain ill defined. Glucocorticoid production is gated at the molecular level by the circadian clock, which may contribute to sexual dimorphic adrenal function. Here we examine sex differences in the adrenal gland using an optical reporter of circadian clock function. Adrenal glands were cultured from male and female Period2::Luciferase (PER2::LUC) mice to assess clock function in vitro in real time. We confirm that there is a pronounced sex difference in the intrinsic capacity to sustain PER2::LUC rhythms in vitro, with higher amplitude rhythms in adrenal glands collected from males than from females. Changes in adrenal PER2::LUC rhythms over the reproductive life span implicate T as an important factor in driving sex differences in adrenal clock function. By directly manipulating hormone levels in adult mice in vivo, we demonstrate that T increases the amplitude of PER2::LUC rhythms in adrenal glands of both male and female mice. In contrast, we find little evidence that ovarian hormones modify adrenal clock function. Lastly, we find that T in vitro can increase the amplitude of PER2::LUC rhythms in male adrenals but not female adrenals, which suggests the existence of sex differences in the mechanisms of T action in vivo. Collectively these results reveal that activational effects of T alter circadian timekeeping in the adrenal gland, which may have implications for sex differences in stress reactivity and stress-related disorders.

  8. Validity of computerized tomography in adrenal diseases

    Galanski, M.; Cramer, B.M.; Vetter, H.

    1981-01-01

    For diagnosis of adenomas in primary aldosteronism CT proved to be helpful. Although microadenomas have to be ruled out by selective venous sampling from both adrenal glands adenomas down to 8 mm in diameter can be visualized. Scintigraphy does not always permit reliable differentiation of unilateral adenoma from bilateral hyperplasia. - In endogenous Cushing's syndrome adrenal carcinomas are underlying etiologically in about 10% of the cases. Since carcinomas are detected easily by CT it should be performed in the first place. Whereas adenomas and hyperplasia are easily diagnosed by scintigraphy carcinomas may escape scintigraphy. - Pheochromocytomas, if situated in the vicinity of the kidneys, can be localiced safely by CT. Contrary to adenomas, carcinomas and pheochromocytomas may be detected by CT without difficulty because of their size. (orig.) [de

  9. Adrenal scintigraphy using 131I-Adosterol

    Fukunaga, Masao; Dokoh, Shigeharu; Yamamoto, Itsuo; Morita, Rikushi; Torizuka, Kanji

    1977-01-01

    131 I-Adosterol (6β-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-3β-ol) was administered to evaluate adrenal grand in 20 patients including 9 patients with primary aldosteronism, 5 with Cushing's syndrome, one with pheochromocytoma, one with retroperitoneal tumor, 3 with essential hypertension and one with obesity. Standard scintigraphies were performed at 3rd day and again 6th day after administration of 131 I-adosterol (1-1.5 mCi). Suppression scintigraphies were obtained while the patients were taking dexamethasone 2 to 3 mg daily from 3 days prior to injection of the tracer until adrenal imaging. In the cases with essential hypertension and obesity, both adrenal glands were delineated equally by standard scintigraphy, and in one patient, undergone suppression scintigraphy, the uptake of 131 I-adosterol by both glands were completely inhibited by dexamethasone administration. In primary aldosteronism, six of the 9 patients demonstrated the increased radioactivity in one side, and were diagnosed as aldosteronoma. In 3 cases, failed to show the lesions on standard scintigraphy, the lesions could be detected by suppression scintigraphy, and aldosteronomas measuring 1 x 1 x 0.7, 2 x 2 x 1 and 1.7 x 1.5 x 0.8 cm were confirmed by operation. In Cushing's syndrome, standard scintigraphy could easily distinguish between adenoma (one case) and bilateral hyperplasia (4 cases). Adrenal scintigraphy was also a useful method in order to assess the effect of pituitary irradiation therapy in the case of hyperplasia. In pheochromocytoma and retroperitoneal tumor, the side of the lesion was identified by the absence of a functioning gland. Suppression scintigraphy was particularly useful in detecting the localization of the small tumor in primary aldosteronism. (auth.)

  10. Adrenal Hyperandrogenism: Multidisciplinary Approach to Solving Problemss

    L.A. Lutsenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence and possible consequences of the hyperandrogenic states in women of reproductive age stipulate the importance of timely differential diagnosis of hyperandrogenism. Taking into account the level of the development of radiological and laboratory methods of researches, an accurate diagnosis is possible, especially when diagnosing adrenal hyperandrogenism, which often occurs without significant clinical symptoms, but is associated with menstrual disorders, infertility, miscarriage.

  11. Functional ectopic adrenal carcinoma in a dog

    Taylor, Jim A.; Lee, Maris S.; Nicholson, Matthew E.; Justin, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    An 11-year-old spayed female pit bull terrier was presented with a 2-month history of polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and panting. Serum chemistry, blood and urine analysis, and tests for hyperadrenocorticism suggested an adrenal tumor. Abdominal ultrasound identified a mass caudal to the right kidney. The mass was completely excised and histopathology was consistent with endocrine carcinoma. Three years later there was no evidence of recurrence or metastasis.

  12. Functional ectopic adrenal carcinoma in a dog

    Taylor, Jim A.; Lee, Maris S.; Nicholson, Matthew E.; Justin, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    An 11-year-old spayed female pit bull terrier was presented with a 2-month history of polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and panting. Serum chemistry, blood and urine analysis, and tests for hyperadrenocorticism suggested an adrenal tumor. Abdominal ultrasound identified a mass caudal to the right kidney. The mass was completely excised and histopathology was consistent with endocrine carcinoma. Three years later there was no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. PMID:25183891

  13. Subclinical hypercortisolism in patients with adrenal incidentaloma

    Fernández, B.; Betancourt, V.C.; Padilla, P.; De la Barca, M.

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical hypercortisolism (HS) is diagnosed in a patient with no Cushing's syndrome manifest phenotype but with autonomic cortisol secretion. Harmful effects of chronic subtle excess of cortisol have been demonstrated, such as hypertension (AHT), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) or glucose intolerance, obesity, osteoporosis, vertebral fractures and dyslipidemia. It has been suggested that subclinical hypercortisolism may itself be a vascular risk factor. In order to identify the presence of subclinical hypercortisolism and its main clinical manifestations in patients with adrenal incidentalomas treated at the endocrinology service of the 'Arnaldo Milian Castro' Clinical Surgical Hospital, a descriptive cross-sectional investigation was carried out from 2012 to 2015 The sample of intentional type was made up of 34 patients older than 18 years and diagnosis of adrenal incidentalomas. Age, sex, toxic habits, questioning results, physical examination and the necessary diagnostic investigations were analyzed. The results showed a predominance of females, over 60 years old, with toxic habits and family and personal history of hypertension and DM2. Palpitations, low back pain, asthenia and obesity with pigmentation of the skin were the most frequent clinical manifestations. Hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and elevated levels of cortisol occurred in the majority of patients. Imaging diagnosis showed left lesions and less than 4.0 cm and adrenal adenoma was the most frequent histopathological diagnosis. It was demonstrated that subclinical hypercortisolism is present in an important group of patients with adrenal incidentalomas, is not as asymptomatic, and is related to the presence of vascular risk factors, and other comorbidities

  14. Genitourinary MR: Kidneys and adrenal glands

    Krestin, G.P.

    1999-01-01

    Due to its high tissue contrast and multiplanar imaging capabilites, MRI provides a detailed display of renal and adrenal anatomy. Recent technical developments overcoming the problem of respiration induced motion artifacts and the use of paramagnetic contrast agents have further improved the performance of MRI which has now evolved as an alternative or complementary imaging modality to ultrasound, excretory urography and computed tomography. Dynamic contrast-enhanced studies will usually allow to detect even small enhancing solid areas within the cyst wall. Use of a fast (turbo) spoiled gradient echo sequence allows for assessment of contrast enhancement dynamics in renal and adrenal masses. For tumor staging, the multiplanar imaging capabilities of MRI are advantageous. Perinephric extent is best detected using opposed-phase GRE images resulting in an artifical accentuation of renal contours. Extension into venous structures is best diagnosed by using a GRE sequence allowing for distinction between flowing blood and tumor thrombus. Noninvasive differentiation of adrenal lesions can be performed with an unprecedented accuracy using chemical-shift imaging. (orig.)

  15. Morphometric study of the avian adrenal gland.

    Aire, T A

    1980-01-01

    The interrenal and medullary cords as well as the blood vessels and connective tissue proportions in the adrenal glands of the male Nigerian fowl (Gallus domesticus) and guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris) were studied by microstereological techniques. Laying domestic fowl of the Rhode Island Red breed were entirely defeathered and maintained in a hot, humid pen for a period of three months, after which the adrenal glands were also studied microstereologically. Interrenal cord width was also measured in all the birds studied. The interrenal cords of the subscapular zone were consistently wider than those cords in the inner zone of the adrenal glands. This clearly suggested morphological zoning. The proportion of interrenal tissue was significantly greater in the guinea-fowl than in the Nigerian fowl, but the medullary tissue and the blood vessels and connective tissue were not significantly different. Interrenal hypoplasia or medullary hyperplasia occurred in the defeathered Rhode Island Red fowl as compared to the control birds of the same breed and sex. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:7440402

  16. The kidney, adrenal gland, and retroperitoneum

    Demas, B.; Thurnher, S.; Hricak, H.

    1987-01-01

    Although its unparalleled tissue contrast resolution and multiplanar imaging capability, and the fact that it does not require exogeneous contrast agents, allow very detailed anatomic delineation of retroperitoneal anatomy in a safe and completely noninvasive fashion, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cannot at this time be used a screening procedure for evaluation of the adrenal glands and kidneys. At present, MRI remains time-consuming and expensive when compared with conventional X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT), sonography, and quantitative scintigraphy. It is recommended, rather, that MRI can be reserved for situations in which its particular advantages can be expected to resolve questions raised by other imaging modalities. For example, MRI can be used t characterize an adrenal mass detected by CT, to evaluate extension of renal or adrenal neoplasms into adjacent organs when CT findings are equivocal, to assess vascular patency when intravenous contrast material is contraindicated or CT findings are equivocal, and to evaluate the cause of renal allograft failure when findings with other radiologic modalities are inconclusive and biopsy is medically contraindicated. Evaluation of the cause of ureteral obstruction and detection of calculi or lesional calcification are more reliably achieved with CT

  17. Uptake of 14C-labelled chloroquine and an 125I-labelled chloroquine analogue in some polypeptide hormone producing cell systems

    Dencker, L.; Lindquist, N.G.; Tjaelve, H.

    1976-01-01

    After the injection of 14 C-labelled chloroquine and the 125 I-labelled chloroquine analogue 4-(3 1 -dimethylaminopropylamino)-7-iodoquinoline [ 125 I]DAPQ into mice, rats and a monkey the distribution of the radioactivity was studied by autoradiographical methods. A high and persistent uptake occurred in some endocrine cell systems, such as the pancreatic islets, the hypophysis, the adrenal medulla and the thyroid (in cells that were probably identical with the parafollicular cells). The melanin-containing tissues were the only ones which showed a higher uptake and retention of radioactivity. The above mentioned endocrine cells and the melanocytes have a common embryological origin and common morphological and cytochemical characteristics. They have been called the APUD (Amine Precursor Uptake and Decarboxylation)-cell series. It is proposed that the polypeptide hormone producing cells and the melanocytes may use a similar mechanism for accumulating chloroquine and (as shown earlier) also some other drugs such as nicotine, alprenolol, local anesthetics and atropine. These drugs however, accumulate stronger within the melanocytes and become bound to the melanin for a long time. The ability to accumulate these drugs may be considered another characteristic of the APUD-cell series. (author)

  18. Surgical management of medulla oblongata hemangioblastomas in one institution: an analysis of 62 cases.

    Liu, Xuesong; Zhang, Yuekang; Hui, Xuhui; You, Chao; Yuan, Fang; Chen, Wenjing; Zhang, Si

    2015-01-01

    Hemangioblastomas of the central nervous system are highly vascularized benign tumors. When the tumors are located in the medulla oblongata, intraoperative bleeding can make the surgical procedure very difficult. Preoperative embolism has been performed in cases of hemangioblastoma in recent decades. However, the complications of the embolization can result in fatal consequences, especially when the lesions are located in the brainstem. In recent years, selectively blocking the suspicious feeding arteries of the tumors during operation in conjunction with intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring has been performed in the Department of Neurosurgery at the West China Hospital. The purpose of this study is to review all cases that underwent this surgical management and to evaluate their outcomes. Between 2003 and 2014, 62 patients (36 female and 26 male, mean age 35.6 years) underwent microsurgery resection of 67 medulla oblongata hemangioblastomas. The suspicious feeding arteries were identified preoperatively by CTA or DSA. During the operation, the suspicious feeding arteries were blocked selectively by motor evoked potential (MEP) and somatosensory evoked potential monitoring (SEP). Based on the retrospectively review of the clinical records and outpatient long-term follow-up visits, their clinical courses were analyzed. Functional outcomes were evaluated according to the classification of McCormick and the Karnofsky Performance Scale. The maximum tumor diameter ranged from 0.8 to 5.1 cm (mean, 2.9 cm). Total tumor resection was achieved in 60 patients. Sixty-one tumors were removed en bloc, and the other six were resected in a piecemeal fashion. The mean follow-up period was 47 months. During the follow-up period, 34 patients remained neurologically stable, 27 patients recovered to a better status and 16 patients developed new transient neurological dysfunction. One patient died. Karnofsky performance scale scores were 100 in 14 patients (22.9%), 90 in 18

  19. Percutaneous needle-biopsy of the adrenal glands

    Wernecke, K.; Galanski, M.

    1986-01-01

    This account of techniques, range of indications and results of percutaneous adrenal biopsy refers to communications in the literature and to the authors' own experience. Lateral, transhepatic aspiration of adrenal material guided by sonographic control is more easy in the right adrenal gland. Punctation of the left adrenal gland ought to be done from the back and guided by computerized tomography, also in order to leave spleen, kidney, pancreas and stomach as unaffected as possible. The most frequent problem indicating adrenal biopsy still is differentiation between metastases or encretorily non-active adenomas in tumor patients. Experienced examiners will achieve an 80 to 90% sensitivity of adrenal biopsy. Clinically established, suspected phaeochromocytoma is an absolute contra-indication to fine-needle biopsy. (orig./MG) [de

  20. [Primary hyperaldosteronism due to unilateral adrenal hyperplasia with surgical resolution].

    Rubio-Puchol, O; Garzón-Pastor, S; Salom-Vendrell, C; Hernández-Mijares, A

    Unilateral adrenal hyperplasia is a rare cause of primary hyperaldosteronism (around a 3%) that has surgical treatment. A case of a patient with hypertension resistant to conventional therapy in treatment with 7 drugs who presented with primary hyperaldosteronism due to unilateral adrenal hyperplasia is presented. A left adrenalectomy was performed, and the patient had a good clinical response, with no need of any drug after 2 years of surgery. Unilateral adrenal hyperplasia is a different entity and it is not an asymmetric variant of the bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. In the study of patients with primary hyperaldosteronism and imaging tests with absence of adenoma is a diagnosis that must be considered before cataloguing patients with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia and start a medical treatment, because unilateral adrenal hyperplasia would have a surgical resolution. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Nivolumab, a new immunomodulatory drug, a new adverse effect; adrenal crisis

    Funda Karbek Akarca

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the advancements in medicine, new information is obtained regarding cancer, new antineoplastic agents are developed. Frequent use of these new pharmacological agents emergency physicians to be vigilant about their side effects. We present a case of adrenal crisis in a patient with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, caused by an immunomodulatory drug; nivolumab. While adverse events are related to other immunomodulatory drugs have been reported in literature, our case is the first nivolumab-related adrenal failure to be reported. A patient with lung cancer presented to the emergency room(ER with nausea and vomiting. Hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, persistent hypoglycemia led to the diagnosis of adrenal crisis. Having direct effect on the immune system, these drugs were claimed to be highly reliable. However, there is no reliable data on the side effect profile of these agents. It should be kept in mind that life-threatening auto-immune reactions may occur. Keywords: Nivolumab, Immunomodulation, CTLA 4 antigen, Adrenal crisis

  2. Rare adrenal gland incidentaloma: an unusual Ewing's sarcoma family of tumor presentation and literature review.

    Guo, Hui; Chen, Shuaiqi; Liu, Shukun; Wang, Kaixuan; Liu, Erpeng; Li, Faping; Hou, Yuchuan

    2017-04-04

    Members of the Ewing's sarcoma family of tumor (ESFT) are malignant neoplasms and rarely observed in the adrenal gland. We report an extremely exceptional case of ESFT rising from the adrenal gland in a 57-year-old Chinese man. The patient was hospitalized with abdominal swelling for 2 months. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a nearly-circular mass measuring about 8.1 × 10.6 cm in the right adrenal region. The patient underwent right adrenal resection. Histopathologic examination found the tumor was composed of small round blue cells forming typical Homer-Wright rosettes in focal area. The immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the case to be ESFT, which was positive for membranous CD99 and nuclear FLI-1. The patient was scheduled for four courses of large doses of chemotherapy and died for cancer metastasis one year later after surgery. Histopathological evidence of Homer-Wright rosettes and immunohistochemical markers positivity, such as CD99 and FLI-1, are valuable factors for ESFT diagnosis, although cytogenetic analysis is considered as the gold standard. Complete surgery is the treatment of choice for ESFT and adjuvant radiotherapy and combination chemotherapy can significantly improve the survival rate of postoperative patients.

  3. Prenatal nicotinic exposure suppresses fetal adrenal steroidogenesis via steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) deacetylation

    Yan, You-e [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Liu, Lian [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Department of Pharmacology, Medical School of Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434000 (China); Wang, Jian-fei; Liu, Fang; Li, Xiao-hai; Qin, Hai-quan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-06-15

    This study aimed to investigate the suppressive effect of nicotine on fetal adrenal steroidogenesis and to explore the potential role of epigenetic modification of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) transcriptional activity in this process. Nicotine was intragastrically administered to pregnant rats and NCI-H295A cells were treated with nicotine or trichostatin A (TSA). The pathomorphology of fetal adrenals, steroid hormone levels, the expression of SF-1 and its target genes, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) mRNA were analyzed. Histone modification and DNA methylation of the SF-1 promoter region were assessed using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and bisulfite sequencing PCR. The interaction between SF1 and its target genes was observed. Prenatal nicotinic exposure decreased fetal body weight, increased the IUGR rate and caused detrimental changes in fetal adrenal. In addition, the levels of corticosterone, the expression of SF-1 and its target genes were decreased while HDAC2 expression was enhanced. Nicotine treatment decreased histone H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation levels while there was no effect on the methylation frequency on the SF-1 promoter region. Furthermore, in nicotine-treated NCI-H295A cells, lower levels of steroidogenic synthesis, lower expression of SF-1 and its target genes were observed while the expression of HDACs was enhanced. The interaction between SF1 and StAR decreased with nicotine treatment. Nicotine treatment decreased histone H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation levels, and addition of TSA reversed the inhibition of nicotine-mediated SF-1 and its partial target genes. Thus, nicotine-mediated reduction of SF-1 expression resulted in an inhibitory effect on the expression of its target genes and steroid production via histone deacetylation. - Highlights: • Prenatal nicotine-exposed suppresses fetal adrenal steroidogenesis. • Nicotine-supressed fetal adrenal steroidogenesis is related to SF-1 deacetylation. • Prenatal nicotinic exposure decreased

  4. Prenatal nicotinic exposure suppresses fetal adrenal steroidogenesis via steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) deacetylation

    Yan, You-e; Liu, Lian; Wang, Jian-fei; Liu, Fang; Li, Xiao-hai; Qin, Hai-quan; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the suppressive effect of nicotine on fetal adrenal steroidogenesis and to explore the potential role of epigenetic modification of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) transcriptional activity in this process. Nicotine was intragastrically administered to pregnant rats and NCI-H295A cells were treated with nicotine or trichostatin A (TSA). The pathomorphology of fetal adrenals, steroid hormone levels, the expression of SF-1 and its target genes, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) mRNA were analyzed. Histone modification and DNA methylation of the SF-1 promoter region were assessed using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and bisulfite sequencing PCR. The interaction between SF1 and its target genes was observed. Prenatal nicotinic exposure decreased fetal body weight, increased the IUGR rate and caused detrimental changes in fetal adrenal. In addition, the levels of corticosterone, the expression of SF-1 and its target genes were decreased while HDAC2 expression was enhanced. Nicotine treatment decreased histone H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation levels while there was no effect on the methylation frequency on the SF-1 promoter region. Furthermore, in nicotine-treated NCI-H295A cells, lower levels of steroidogenic synthesis, lower expression of SF-1 and its target genes were observed while the expression of HDACs was enhanced. The interaction between SF1 and StAR decreased with nicotine treatment. Nicotine treatment decreased histone H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation levels, and addition of TSA reversed the inhibition of nicotine-mediated SF-1 and its partial target genes. Thus, nicotine-mediated reduction of SF-1 expression resulted in an inhibitory effect on the expression of its target genes and steroid production via histone deacetylation. - Highlights: • Prenatal nicotine-exposed suppresses fetal adrenal steroidogenesis. • Nicotine-supressed fetal adrenal steroidogenesis is related to SF-1 deacetylation. • Prenatal nicotinic exposure decreased

  5. The serological and biochemical markers of adrenal cortex and endocrine pancreas dysfunction in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A hospital-based pilot study

    Jaya Prakash Sahoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of both islet cell and adrenal autoimmunity among Asian Indian hypothyroidism patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT is lacking in literature. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of Addison's disease (AD and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM in patients with HT. Materials and Methods: The patients with hypothyroidism due to HT were included in this study over 2 years. Primary hypothyroidism was defined as high serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (>5.5 mIU/L with or without low thyroxine level. HT was defined by the presence of high thyroid peroxidase antibody (Ab titer (>35 IU/ml. Autoimmune markers of AD and T1DM, i.e., adrenal (21-hydroxylase Ab, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD Ab, and insulinoma-associated antigen-2 (IA-2 Ab were measured among them. In addition, 250 μg adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH stimulation test was done in patients with adrenal Ab. Similarly, beta cell function was assessed in patients with GAD and/or IA-2 Ab. Results: Out of 150 patients screened, 136 patients were included in this study. Seven patients had adrenal Ab while 15 had IA-2 Ab. The GAD Ab was not present in any of the patients in the study. ACTH stimulation test was done in four of seven patients with adrenal Ab and beta cell function was assessed in 8 of 15 patients with islet cell Ab. All patients with adrenal Ab had normal adrenal function and 1 out of 15 with IA-2 Ab developed diabetes mellitus during follow-up. Conclusions: Either adrenal or islet cell Ab was found in 16% Asian Indian hypothyroidism patients with HT.

  6. Curative surgical management of isolated adrenal recurrence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

    O'Sullivan, K E

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal metastases of oesophageal adenocarcinoma are rarely detected in the clinical setting, more frequently being found as an incidental postmortem finding in the presence of widespread metastases. With improvements in the sensitivity of radiological diagnostic modalities, the incidence of adrenal tumour detection is on the rise. We report herein a particularly rare case of primary operative management by adrenalectomy for an isolated right-sided adrenal metastasis secondary to oesophageal adenocarcinoma, with a long-term survival.

  7. Computed tomography in the diagnosis of adrenal disease

    Hirosawa, Kunihiro

    1980-01-01

    From June 1977 through June 1980, sixty-one patients who were suspected to have adrenal diseases were examined with a CT scanner at Tokyo Women's Medical College. They consist of twenty five primary hyperaldosteronism, eight Cushing's syndrome, twenty pheochromocytoma and eight other adrenal masses. Ten patients were unexpectedly found to have adrenal lesion or mass simulating an adrenal tumor on CT performed for other reasons. CT findings were reviewed and correlated with surgical findings, postmortem studies and with results of other diagnostic modalities. 1. Primary hyperaldosteronism. Fifteen of twenty-five patients underwent surgery. Thirteen were pathologically proved to have aldosteronoma and two hyperplasia. Ten of thirteen patients with aldosteronoma were correctly diagnosed by CT scan. 2. Cushing's syndrome. Unilateral adenoma was correctly diagnosed preoperatively by CT scan on two surgically proved cases. CT showed marked enlargement of the adrenal gland with multiple nodules measuring less than 2 cm in diameter in the patient with nodular hyperplasia. Four patients were found to have normal-appearing adrenals with CT scan. 3. Pheochromocytoma. Three adrenal and one juxta-adrenal pheochromocytomas were detected by CT scan. Pheochromocytoma was considered as very unlikely on the basis of CT scan as well as further clinical investigation in sixteen patients. The value of CT scan for localization of extraadrenal pheochromocytoma remains established. 4. Miscellaneous adrenal disease and extra-adrenal masses simulating adrenal lesions. Two primary carcinoma, two bilateral metastasis, two adrenal neuroblastoma and a cyst were detected by CT scan. In cases with a huge mass, however, the origin and histologic diagnosis could not always be determined by CT scan. (author)

  8. The distribution of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) in the medulla oblongata, spinal cord, cranial and spinal nerves of frog, Microhyla ornata.

    Jadhao, Arun G; Biswas, Saikat P; Bhoyar, Rahul C; Pinelli, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) enzymatic activity has been reported in few amphibian species. In this study, we report its unusual localization in the medulla oblongata, spinal cord, cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and ganglions of the frog, Microhyla ornata. In the rhombencephalon, at the level of facial and vagus nerves, the NADPH-d labeling was noted in the nucleus of the abducent and facial nerves, dorsal nucleus of the vestibulocochlear nerve, the nucleus of hypoglossus nerve, dorsal and lateral column nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the dorsal field of spinal grey, the lateral and medial motor fields of spinal grey and radix ventralis and dorsalis (2-10). Many ependymal cells around the lining of the fourth ventricle, both facial and vagus nerves and dorsal root ganglion, were intensely labeled with NADPH-d. Most strikingly the NADPH-d activity was seen in small and large sized motoneurons in both medial and lateral motor neuron columns on the right and left sides of the brain. This is the largest stained group observed from the caudal rhombencephalon up to the level of radix dorsalis 10 in the spinal cord. The neurons were either oval or elongated in shape with long processes and showed significant variation in the nuclear and cellular diameter. A massive NADPH-d activity in the medulla oblongata, spinal cord, and spinal nerves implied an important role of this enzyme in the neuronal signaling as well as in the modulation of motor functions in the peripheral nervous systems of the amphibians. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro research of the alteration of neurons in vagal core in medulla oblongata at asphyxic deaths.

    Haliti, Naim; Islami, Hilmi; Elezi, Nevzat; Shabani, Ragip; Abdullahu, Bedri; Dragusha, Gani

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to research the morphological changes of neurons in the vagus nerve nuclei in medulla oblongata in asphyxia related death cases. Morphological changes that were investigated were mainly in the dorsal motor respiratory center (DMRC), nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS) and nucleus ambigus (nA) in the medulla oblongata. In our research, the autopsy material from asphyxia related death cases was used from various etiologies: monoxide carbon (CO), liquid drowning, strangulation, electricity, clinical-pathological death, firing weapon, explosive weapon, sharp and blunt objects and death cases due to accident. The material selected for research was taken from medulla oblongata and lungs from all lobes. The material from the medulla oblongata and lungs was fixed in a 10% solution of buffered formalin. Special histochemical methods for central nervous system (CNS) were employed like: Cresyl echt violet, toluidin blue, Sevier-Munger modification and Grimelius. For stereometrical analysis of the quantitative density of the neurons the universal testing system Weibel M42 was used. The acquired results show that in sudden asphyxia related death cases, there are alterations in the nuclei of vagal nerve in form of: central chromatolysis, axonal retraction, axonal fragmentation, intranuclear vacuolization, cytoplasmic vacuolization, edema, condensation and dispersion of substance of Nissl, proliferation of oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia. The altered population of vagus nerve neurons does not show an important statistical significance compared to the overall quantity of the neurons in the nuclei of the vagus nerve (p<0.05).

  10. In Vitro Research of the Alteration of Neurons in Vagal Core in Medulla Oblongata at Asphyxic Deaths

    Naim Haliti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to research the morphological changes of neurons in the vagus nerve nuclei in medulla oblongata in asphyxia related death cases. Morphological changes that were investigated were mainly in the dorsal motor respiratory center (DMRC, nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS and nucleus ambigus (nA in the medulla oblongata. In our research, the autopsy material from asphyxia related death cases was used from various etiologies: monoxide carbon (CO, liquid drowning, strangulation, electricity, clinical-pathological death, firing weapon, explosive weapon, sharp and blunt objects and death cases due to accident. The material selected for research was taken from medulla oblongata and lungs from all lobes. The material from the medulla oblongata and lungs was fixed in a 10% solution of buffered formalin. Special histochemical methods for central nervous system (CNS were employed like: Cresyl echt violet, toluidin blue, Sevier-Munger modification and Grimelius. For stereometrical analysis of the quantitative density of the neurons the universal testing system Weibel M42 was used. The acquired results show that in sudden asphyxia related death cases, there are alterations in the nuclei of vagal nerve in form of: central chromatolysis, axonal retraction, axonal fragmentation, intranuclear vacuolization, cytoplasmic vacuolization, edema, condensation and dispersion of substance of Nissl, proliferation of oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia. The altered population of vagus nerve neurons does not show an important statistica! significarne compared to the overall quantity of the neurons in the nuclei of the vagus nerve (p<0,05.

  11. Chronic alcoholism-mediated impairment in the medulla oblongata: a mechanism of alcohol-related mortality in traumatic brain injury?

    Lai, Xiao-ping; Yu, Xiao-jun; Qian, Hong; Wei, Lai; Lv, Jun-yao; Xu, Xiao-hu

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common condition in medical and forensic practice, and results in high prehospital mortality. We investigated the mechanism of chronic alcoholism-related mortality by examining the effects of alcohol on the synapses of the medulla oblongata in a rat model of TBI. Seventy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either ethanol (EtOH) group, EtOH-TBI group, or control groups (water group, water-TBI group). To establish chronic alcoholism model, rats in the EtOH group were given EtOH twice daily (4 g/kg for 2 weeks and 6 g/kg for another 2 weeks). The rats also received a minor strike on the occipital tuberosity with an iron pendulum. Histopathologic and ultrastructure changes and the numerical density of the synapses in the medulla oblongata were examined. Expression of postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) in the medulla oblongata was measured by ELISA. Compared with rats in the control group, rats in the chronic alcoholism group showed: (1) minor axonal degeneration; (2) a significant decrease in the numerical density of synapses (p Chronic alcoholism induces significant synapse loss and axonal impairment in the medulla oblongata and renders the brain more susceptible to TBI. The combined effects of chronic alcoholism and TBI induce significant synapse and axon impairment and result in high mortality.

  12. Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenal surgery for clinical and subclinical Cushing's syndrome in patients with bilateral adrenal disease.

    Lowery, Aoife J; Seeliger, Barbara; Alesina, Pier F; Walz, Martin K

    2017-08-01

    The treatment of hypercortisolism for patients with bilateral adrenal disease (BAD) is controversial. Bilateral total adrenalectomy results in permanent hypocortisolaemia requiring lifelong steroid replacement. A more conservative surgical approach, with less than bilateral total adrenalectomy (leaving functional adrenal tissue either unilaterally or bilaterally), represents an alternative option; however, long-term outcome or recurrence data are limited. We report our experience with the surgical management of hypercortisolism caused by BAD. Between 2004 and 2016, 42 patients (12 male, 30 female; mean age 58 ± 10 years) with clinical or subclinical Cushing's syndrome (CS/sCS) caused by BAD underwent adrenal surgery via the posterior retroperitoneoscopic approach. Adrenal surgery was defined as "adrenalectomy" when total gland excision was performed or "resection" when a partial or subtotal adrenal resection was performed. Clinical, radiological and biochemical parameters were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively. Seventy adrenal operations performed in total included unilateral resection (n = 3), unilateral adrenalectomy (n = 15), bilateral resection (n = 9), adrenalectomy and contralateral resection (n = 14) and bilateral total adrenalectomy (n = 3). Median operating time was 47.5 min (30-150) with no difference between unilateral and bilateral (synchronous included) procedures (p = 0.15). Mortality was zero. Clavien-Dindo grade of postoperative complications was I (n = 5) and IV (n = 3). All but one patient with CS and 17/31 patients with sCS received postoperative steroid supplementation for a median duration of 20 (1.5-129) months. After median follow-up of 40 months (3-129), the remission rate was 92%; 11 patients required ongoing steroid supplementation. There were three biochemical recurrences (two underwent contralateral resection); two patients with new/progressive radiological nodularity are biochemically eucortisolaemic. A

  13. An Exact Solution to the Central Core Model of the Renal Medulla

    Mickens, Ronald E.

    1998-11-01

    The central core model of the renal medulla provides a mathematical representation of the urine concentration mechanism. The model consists of eight coupled, nonlinear ODE's subject to certain initial and boundary conditions. Many investigators have studied the properties of the solutions to these equations, however no general analytic solution is known to exist. Thus, special exact solutions assume a position of significance by providing a basis for insight into the understanding of more realistic models used to analyze actual data. We calculate an exact solution for the case in which the water permeabilities are zero and a particular, but realistic, functional form is used for the metabolic pump. A detailed discussion will be given for the results obtained on the four cencentration and four flux functions that define the model. If invited to do so, the author is willing to expand the talk for the above abstract to twenty minutes.

  14. Distribution of angiotensin converting enzyme in sheep hypothalamus and medulla oblongata visualized by in vitro autoradiography

    Chai, S.Y.; McKinley, M.J.; Mendelsohn, F.A.

    1987-01-01

    In vitro autoradiographic mapping of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in sheep brain using the specific ACE inhibitor, 125 I-351A, revealed very high densities of binding in large blood vessels and choroid plexus. In the a very high density of labelling occurred in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and median eminence and a high density in the subfornical organ and moderate density in supraoptic, suprachiasmatic, arcuate and paraventricular nuclei. All fiber tracts were unlabelled. In the medulla oblongata, a very high density of binding was detected in the area postrema and a high density in the nucleus of the solitary tract and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus; a moderate density was found in the substantia gelatinosa of the spinal tract and the inferior olivary nucleus

  15. Addison's disease with adrenal enlargement on sonography and computed toimography

    Renner, F.; Graninger, W.

    1986-01-01

    One of the major causes of chronic adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease) is tuberculous adrenalopathy. Since sonography and computed tomography have become generally available in recent years and are of potential help in the diagnosis of this disease the merits of these methods are discussed in the light of 2 cases of adrenal tuberculosis, followed by a review of the literature. Adrenal calcification is the most significant, although not specific sign of adrenal insufficiency due to tuberculosis. Computed tomography has proven to be the method of choice in the non-invasive diagnosis of tuberculous adrenalopathy and in the monitoring of tuberculostatic treatment in this disease. Sonography is helpful as a preliminary investigation. (Author)

  16. How Do I Find an Experienced Adrenal Surgeon?

    ... List Adrenal Gland Disorders About NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Amenorrhea About NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) ...

  17. Clinical evaluation of adrenal computed tomography and scintigraphy

    Hayasaka, Kazumasa; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Asano, Akira; Kikuchi, Yuzo; Amo, Kazuo

    1983-01-01

    In 15 cases with adrenal lesion, we studied the clinical usefulness of computed tomography (CT) and scintigram. CT and RI have been successfully to locate adrenal funtioning cortical tumors (6/6) as small as 10 mm in diameter. In 5 adrenal non-funtioning cortical and medullary disorders, RI finding only shows RI activity is decreasing, but CT may be helpful in differential diagnosis. At present, CT is a reliable technique for locating adrenal disorders, and we should suggest that it should be the initial radiographic investigation. (author)

  18. Adrenal scintiscanning with NP-59: a new radioiodinated cholesterol agent

    Miles, J.M.; Wahner, H.W.; Carpenter, P.C.; Salassa, R.M.; Northcutt, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    Adrenal imaging in the past has been limited in its clinical application by the long interval between administration of dose and visualization of adrenal glands. We review our experience with the use of a newer labeling agent, NP-59, in 29 patients with various adrenal disorders and in 4 normal subjects. With this agent, identification of adrenal lesions is possible with a high degree of accuracy, and diagnostic information is usually available within 48 hrs. NP-59 is particularly useful in evaluating primary aldosteronism and selected cases of Cushing's syndrome

  19. Hypoxia-induced hypothermia mediated by GABA in the rostral parapyramidal area of the medulla oblongata.

    Osaka, T

    2014-05-16

    Hypoxia evokes a regulated decrease in the body core temperature (Tc) in a variety of animals. The neuronal mechanisms of this response include, at least in part, glutamatergic activation in the lateral preoptic area (LPO) of the hypothalamus. As the sympathetic premotor neurons in the medulla oblongata constitute a cardinal relay station in the descending neuronal pathway from the hypothalamus for thermoregulation, their inhibition can also be critically involved in the mechanisms of the hypoxia-induced hypothermia. Here, I examined the hypothesis that hypoxia-induced hypothermia is mediated by glutamate-responsive neurons in the LPO that activate GABAergic transmission in the rostral raphe pallidus (rRPa) and neighboring parapyramidal region (PPy) of the medulla oblongata in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized, neuromuscularly blocked, artificially ventilated rats. Unilateral microinjection of GABA (15nmol) into the rRPa and PPy regions elicited a prompt increase in tail skin temperature (Ts) and decreases in Tc, oxygen consumption rate (VO2), and heart rate. Next, when the GABAA receptor blocker bicuculline methiodide (bicuculline methiodide (BMI), 10pmol) alone was microinjected into the rRPa, it elicited unexpected contradictory responses: simultaneous increases in Ts, VO2 and heart rate and a decrease in Tc. Then, when BMI was microinjected bilaterally into the PPy, no direct effect on Ts was seen; and thermogenic and tachycardic responses were slight. However, pretreatment of the PPy with BMI, but not vehicle saline, greatly attenuated the hypothermic responses evoked by hypoxic (10%O2-90%N2, 5min) ventilation or bilateral microinjections of glutamate (5nmol, each side) into the LPO. The results suggest that hypoxia-induced hypothermia was mediated, at least in part, by the activation of GABAA receptors in the PPy. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Surgical treatment of hemangioblastoma in medulla oblongata:a report of 12 cases].

    Yan, Yong; Chen, Ju-xiang; Lu, Yi-cheng; Hu, Guo-han; Sun, Ke-hua; Ding, Xue-hua; Luo, Chun; Wu, Xiao-jun; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Tao; Lin, Jing

    2013-09-17

    To explore the clinical characteristics, diagnostic strategies and surgical techniques of hemangioblastoma (HB) in medulla oblongata. The clinical and radiological characteristics, therapeutic processes and outcomes of 12 HB cases treated at our department from 2002 to 2012 were studied by retrospective analysis. Headache, somatic numbness and limb muscle weakness were the major symptoms of oblongata HB. Magnetic resonance imaging before surgery revealed a total of 12 single tumors. Among these tumors, upper (n = 1), middle (n = 7) and lower (n = 4) parts of medulla oblongata were involved. The locations were surface (n = 9) and intramedullary (n = 3). Three tumors had cyst. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed on 5 cases and it revealed that the main blood supply arteries of tumors were branches of posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA).One case underwent pre-surgical embolism during angiography. Eleven tumors were totally resected and 1 was fulgurized.Symptoms improved (n = 8) and worsened (n = 2). And two patients died. All survivors were followed up for 3 months to 10 years and had a McCormick functional grading of I-II.One case relapsed 7 year later. For Cystic HB, small or medium sized substantial HB in middle and lower part of oblongata, surgical removal is often safe and symptoms may be lessened.It can be used as a first-line treatment. For large ( ≥ 3 cm) substantial HB or HB in upper part of oblongata, serious postoperative complications such as respiratory failure, neurogenic pulmonary edema or acute obstructive hydrocephalus may occur. Thus surgical resection should be prudently considered and possible consequences thoroughly discussed with the patients.

  1. Role of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in adrenal lesions: analysis of 32 patients

    Rakesh K Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (EUS-FNAC is a precise and safe technique that provides both radiological and pathological diagnosis with a better diagnostic yield and minimal adverse events. EUS-FNAC led to the remarkable increase in the detection rate of incidentaloma found during radiologic staging or follow-up in various malignancy or unrelated conditions. Aims: We did this preliminary study with an aim to evaluate the role of EUS-FNA in diagnosing and classifying adrenal lesions, clinical impact, and compare the outcome with the previously published literature. Materials and Methods: We included 32 consecutive cases (both retrospective and prospective of EUS-guided adrenal aspirate performed over a period of 3.3 years. The indications for the aspirate in decreasing order were metastasis (most common carcinoma gall bladder > primary adrenal mass > disseminated tuberculosis > pyrexia of unknown origin. On EUS, 28 cases revealed space occupying lesion or mass (two cases bilateral and four cases revealed diffuse enlargement (two cases bilateral with a mean size of 21 mm. Results: The cytology reports were benign adrenal aspirate (43.8%, metastatic adenocarcinoma (15.6%, histoplasmosis (9.4%, tuberculosis (9.4%, round cell tumor (6.2%, adrenocortical carcinoma (3.1%, and descriptive (3.1%. Three cases (9.4% yielded inadequate sample. The TNM staging was altered in 22.23% of the cases by result of adrenal aspirate. Conclusions: EUS-FNA of the adrenal gland is a safe, quick, and sensitive and real-time diagnostic technique, which requires an integrated approach of clinician, endoscopist, and cytopathologist for high precision in diagnosis. Although the role of EUS-FNA for right adrenal is not much described, we found adequate sample yield in all the four patients that underwent the procedure.

  2. GFAP and Fos immunoreactivity in lumbo-sacral spinal cord and medulla oblongata after chronic colonic inflammation in rats

    Sun, Yi-Ning; Luo, Jin-Yan; Rao, Zhi-Ren; Lan, Li; Duan, Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the response of astrocytes and neurons in rat lumbo-sacral spinal cord and medulla oblongata induced by chronic colonic inflammation, and the relationship between them. METHODS: Thirty-three male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: experimental group (n = 17), colonic inflammation was induced by intra-luminal administration of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS); control group (n = 16), saline was administered intra-luminally. After 3, 7, 14, and 28 d of administration, the lumbo-sacral spinal cord and medulla oblongata were removed and processed for anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Fos and GFAP/Fos immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Activated astrocytes positive for GFAP were mainly distributed in the superficial laminae (laminae I-II) of dorsal horn, intermediolateral nucleus (laminae V), posterior commissural nucleus (laminae X) and anterolateral nucleus (laminae IX). Fos-IR (Fos-immunoreactive) neurons were mainly distributed in the deeper laminae of the spinal cord (laminae III-IV, V-VI). In the medulla oblongata, both GFAP-IR astrocytes and Fos-IR neurons were mainly distributed in the medullary visceral zone (MVZ). The density of GFAP in the spinal cord of experimental rats was significantly higher after 3, 7, and 14 d of TNBS administration compared with the controls (50.4±16.8, 29.2±6.5, 24.1±5.6, P0.05). CONCLUSION: Astrocytes in spinal cord and medulla oblongata can be activated by colonic inflammation. The activated astrocytes are closely related to Fos-IR neurons. With the recovery of colonic inflammation, the activity of astrocytes in the spinal cord and medulla oblongata is reduced. PMID:16097052

  3. Adrenal hormones and circulating leukocyte subtypes in stroke patients treated with reperfusion therapy.

    Miró-Mur, Francesc; Laredo, Carlos; Renú, Arturo; Rudilosso, Salvatore; Zhao, Yashu; Amaro, Sergio; Llull, Laura; Urra, Xabier; Planas, Anna M; Chamorro, Ángel

    2018-03-13

    Ischemic stroke sets in motion a dialogue between the central nervous and the immune systems that includes the sympathetic/adrenal system. We investigated the course of immune cells and adrenocortical and adrenomedullary effectors in a cohort of 51 patients with acute stroke receiving reperfusion therapy (intravenous alteplase or mechanical thrombectomy) and its correlation with stroke outcomes and infarct growth. Cortisol increased rapidly and fleetingly after stroke, but 39% of patients who had larger infarctions on admission showed a positive delta cortisol at day 1. It was associated with enhanced infarct growth (p = 0.002) and poor outcome [OR (95% CI) 5.30 (1.30-21.69)], and correlated with less lymphocytes and T cells at follow up. Likewise, fewer circulating lymphocytes, T cells, and Tregs were associated with infarct growth. By contrast, metanephrines did not increase at clinical onset, and decreased over time. Higher levels of NMN correlated with more Treg and B cells. Eventually, complete reperfusion at the end of therapy headed the identification of more circulating Tregs at day 1. Then activation of cortical or medullar compartments of the adrenal gland result in specific signatures on leukocyte subpopulations. Manipulation of the adrenal gland hormone levels warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The rat cochlea in the absence of circulating adrenal hormones: an electrophysiological and morphological study.

    Lohuis, P J; Börjesson, P K; Klis, S F; Smoorenburg, G F

    2000-05-01

    Circulating adrenal hormones affect strial function. Removal of endogenous levels of adrenal steroids by bilateral adrenalectomy (ADX) in rats causes a decrease of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in the cochlear lateral wall [Rarey et al., 1989. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 115, 817-821] and a decrease of the volume of the marginal cells in the stria vascularis [Lohuis et al., 1990. Acta Otolaryngol. (Stockh.) 110, 348-356]. To study further the effect of absence of circulating adrenocorticosteroids on cochlear function, 18 male Long Evans rats underwent either an ADX or a SHAM operation. Electrocochleography was performed 1 week after surgery for tone bursts in a frequency range of 1-16 kHz. Thereafter, the cochleas were harvested and examined histologically. No significant changes in the amplitude growth curves of the summating potential (SP), the compound action potential (CAP) and the cochlear microphonics (CM) were detected after ADX. However, visually, there appeared to be a decrease of endolymphatic volume (tentatively called imdrops). Reissner's membrane (RM) extended less into scala vestibuli in ADX animals than in SHAM-operated animals. The ratio between the length of RM and the straight distance between the medial and lateral attachment points of RM were used as an objective measure to quantify this effect in each sub-apical half turn of the cochlea. The decrease in length of RM was statistically significant. Thus, circulating adrenal hormones appear to be necessary for normal cochlear fluid homeostasis. Absence of one or more of these hormones leads to shrinkage of the scala media (imdrops). However, the absence of adrenal hormones does not affect the gross cochlear potentials. Apparently, the cochlea is capable of compensating for the absence of circulating adrenal hormones to sustain the conditions necessary for proper cochlear transduction.

  5. Recovery of adrenal function in a patient with confirmed Addison's disease

    Baxter, M; Gorick, S; Swords, F M

    2013-01-01

    Summary Addison's disease is a condition characterised by immune-mediated destruction of the adrenal glands leading to a requirement of lifelong replacement therapy with mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid. We present a case of a 53-year-old man who presented at the age of 37 years with nausea, fatigue and dizziness. He was found to have postural hypotension and buccal pigmentation. His presenting cortisol level was 43 nmol/l with no response to Synacthen testing. He made an excellent response to conventional replacement therapy with hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone and then remained well for 16 years. On registering with a new endocrinologist, his hydrocortisone dose was revised downwards and pre- and post-dose serum cortisol levels were assessed. His pre-dose cortisol was surprisingly elevated, and so his dose was further reduced. Subsequent Synacthen testing was normal and has remained so for further 12 months. He is now asymptomatic without glucocorticoid therapy, although he continues on fludrocortisone 50 μg daily. His adrenal antibodies are positive, although his ACTH and renin levels remain elevated after treatment. Addison's disease is generally deemed to lead to irreversible cell-mediated immune destruction of the adrenal glands. For this reason, patients receive detailed counselling and education on the need for lifelong replacement therapy. To our knowledge, this is the third reported case of spontaneous recovery of the adrenal axis in Addison's disease. Recovery may therefore be more common than previously appreciated, which may have major implications for the treatment and monitoring of this condition, and for the education given to patients at diagnosis. Learning points Partial recovery from Addison's disease is possible although uncommon.Patients with long-term endocrine conditions on replacement therapy still benefit from regular clinical and biochemical assessment, to revisit optimal management.As further reports of adrenal axis recovery

  6. Recovery of adrenal function in a patient with confirmed Addison's disease.

    Baxter, M; Gorick, S; Swords, F M

    2013-01-01

    Addison's disease is a condition characterised by immune-mediated destruction of the adrenal glands leading to a requirement of lifelong replacement therapy with mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid. We present a case of a 53-year-old man who presented at the age of 37 years with nausea, fatigue and dizziness. He was found to have postural hypotension and buccal pigmentation. His presenting cortisol level was 43 nmol/l with no response to Synacthen testing. He made an excellent response to conventional replacement therapy with hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone and then remained well for 16 years. On registering with a new endocrinologist, his hydrocortisone dose was revised downwards and pre- and post-dose serum cortisol levels were assessed. His pre-dose cortisol was surprisingly elevated, and so his dose was further reduced. Subsequent Synacthen testing was normal and has remained so for further 12 months. He is now asymptomatic without glucocorticoid therapy, although he continues on fludrocortisone 50 μg daily. His adrenal antibodies are positive, although his ACTH and renin levels remain elevated after treatment. Addison's disease is generally deemed to lead to irreversible cell-mediated immune destruction of the adrenal glands. For this reason, patients receive detailed counselling and education on the need for lifelong replacement therapy. To our knowledge, this is the third reported case of spontaneous recovery of the adrenal axis in Addison's disease. Recovery may therefore be more common than previously appreciated, which may have major implications for the treatment and monitoring of this condition, and for the education given to patients at diagnosis. Partial recovery from Addison's disease is possible although uncommon.Patients with long-term endocrine conditions on replacement therapy still benefit from regular clinical and biochemical assessment, to revisit optimal management.As further reports of adrenal axis recovery emerge, this may

  7. Computed tomography findings in diseases of the adrenal gland

    Ozturk, E.; Sildiroglu, H.O.; Sonmez, G.; Basekim, C.C.; Kantarci, M.; Gueven, F.; Doganay, S.; Bozkurt, M.

    2009-01-01

    The adrenal gland is a common site of disease, with an abnormality prevalence as high as 9% in autopsy series. With the increasing use of CT, adrenal lesions are frequently found in the daily practice of radiology and are diagnosed in up to 5% of CT examinations performed for varied reasons. Imaging features on CT can establish a specific diagnosis of many of these lesions, including myelolipoma, hematoma and cysts. Once a diagnostic dilemma, now adenomas can be accurately diagnosed using unenhanced CT, chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging and CT contrast washout analysis. Because the adrenal gland is also a frequent site of metastasis, recent literature has focused on imaging characterization of adrenal masses for differentiation of adenomas from metastases. In patients without known malignancy, most adrenal lesions are benign and a specific diagnosis can now be made on the basis of imaging features. It is important to understand the prevalence of adrenal abnormalities because the gland is a common site of disorders, and the increased use of cross-sectional imaging has increased the frequency of detection of adrenal lesions. The prevalence of disease is important in predicting the risk of malignancy when an adrenal mass is discovered in a patient without known cancer. Detection of adrenal gland diseases has increased substantially with the advent and widespread use of imaging techniques. Although several imaging modalities can be used, CT has a central role in both detection and differential diagnosis of an adrenal lesion. The aim of this article is to review the CT findings of adrenal gland diseases. (author) [de

  8. MDCT Findings of Traumatic Adrenal Injury in Children

    Choi, Seung Joon; Kim, Jee Eun; Ryu, Il; Kim, Jin Joo; Choi, Hye Young

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the MDCT findings and concomitant injuries of traumatic adrenal injury in children. Among 375 children who had undergone a MDCT scan for abdominal trauma during the recent five years at our institution, 27 children who had revealed adrenal injury on their CT scan were included in the study. We retrospectively evaluated the causes of the trauma, the patterns of adrenal injury, the associated CT findings and the concomitant injuries of the other organs in the abdomen. We identified 27 children (7.5%) (17 boys and 10 girls, mean age: 9.9 years, range: 2-18 years) with adrenal injury. The causes of adrenal injury were a traffic accident for 20 patients (74%), falls for four patients (15%) and blunt trauma for three patients (11%). The right adrenal gland was injured in 20 patients (74%), while the left adrenal gland was injured in three patients and bilateral involvement was noted in four patients. The patterns of adrenal injury were round or oval shaped hematoma in 23 lesions (74%), irregular hemorrhage with obliterating the gland in six lesions (19%) and active extravasation of contrast material from the adrenal region in two lesions (7%). Concomitant injuries were noted in 22 patients (81%), including 15 patients with liver laceration (56%), 11 patients with lung contusion (41%) and nine patients with renal injury (33%). The frequency of adrenal injury was 7.5%. The right adrenal gland was more frequently involved. Concomitant organ injury was noted 81% of the patients and the most frequently involved organ was the liver (56%)

  9. Adrenal clocks and the role of adrenal hormones in the regulation of circadian physiology.

    Leliavski, Alexei; Dumbell, Rebecca; Ott, Volker; Oster, Henrik

    2015-02-01

    The mammalian circadian timing system consists of a master pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and subordinate clocks that disseminate time information to various central and peripheral tissues. While the function of the SCN in circadian rhythm regulation has been extensively studied, we still have limited understanding of how peripheral tissue clock function contributes to the regulation of physiological processes. The adrenal gland plays a special role in this context as adrenal hormones show strong circadian secretion rhythms affecting downstream physiological processes. At the same time, they have been shown to affect clock gene expression in various other tissues, thus mediating systemic entrainment to external zeitgebers and promoting internal circadian alignment. In this review, we discuss the function of circadian clocks in the adrenal gland, how they are reset by the SCN and may further relay time-of-day information to other tissues. Focusing on glucocorticoids, we conclude by outlining the impact of adrenal rhythm disruption on neuropsychiatric, metabolic, immune, and malignant disorders. © 2014 The Author(s).

  10. Study of morphological alterations of the adrenal glands in the neoplastic cachexia Estudo das alterações morfológicas da glândula adrenal na caquexia neoplásica

    Tânia Longo Mazzuco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced cancer occurs with nutritional and metabolic alterations that characterize neoplastic cachexia. When homeostasis is compromised, the adrenal glands have a fundamental role in the neuroendocrine response. Our purpose in this research was to study morphological alterations of the adrenal glands in the development of cancer associated to cachexia. Cachexia experimental model induced by Walker 256 tumor in Wistar rats, was used. Animals were sacrificed 12 days after tumor cells inoculation and adrenal glands removal for histopathologic analysis by means of hematoxylin and eosin stain. Nutritional parameters, cachexia index and adrenal glands weight, were evaluated. Animals with tumor presented cachexia index of 16,6 ± 4%. Adrenal glands average weight was significantly higher in the tumor group (40 mg ± 10 than in the control group (25 mg ± 3. Adrenal cortex of animals with cachexia showed hypertrophy of the zona fasciculata and reticular layer, with voluminous spongiocytes; vascular congestion and stasis were observed in the medullar region. Results were similar in the pair and ad libitum-fed groups. Animals with cancer cachexia showed compromised morphology of the adrenal glands which showed alterations related to stress response, suggesting increased cathecolamine secretion and activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis.   Advanced cancer occurs with nutritional and metabolic alterations that characterize neoplastic cachexia. When homeostasis is compromised, the adrenal glands have a fundamental role in the neuroendocrine response. Our purpose in this research was to study morphological alterations of the adrenal glands in the development of cancer associated to cachexia. Cachexia experimental model induced by Walker 256 tumor in Wistar rats, was used. Animals were sacrificed 12 days after tumor cells inoculation and adrenal glands removal for histopathologic analysis by means of hematoxylin and eosin stain. Nutritional

  11. Parental management of adrenal crisis in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Fleming, Louise; Knafl, Kathleen; Knafl, George; Van Riper, Marcia

    2017-10-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) requires parents to inject their child with hydrocortisone intramuscularly during times of illness and adrenal crisis. The purpose of this study was to describe circumstances surrounding adrenal crisis events in children with CAH; to explore parents' perceptions of the consequences of having a child with a life-threatening condition; and to examine a relationship between parents' perceived management ability and the impact CAH has on the family. In Phase 1 of this mixed-methods, cross-sectional study, 77 parents were asked to complete questionnaires comprising measures of family life in the context of childhood illness. Descriptive statistics were computed with four separate analyses using linear mixed models allowing for correlation between responses from parents of the same family and for the variance to be different for fathers and mothers. The following relationships were examined: (1) parental management ability and type of provider instruction on how to manage adrenal crises; (2) parental management ability and child age; (3) the perceived impact of the condition on the family and management ability; and (4) the age of the child and number of adrenal crisis events. In Phase 2, 16 semi-structured interviews were conducted to elicit detailed descriptions of parents' experiences in managing crises. There was a significant, positive relationship between detailed provider instruction to parents on adrenal crisis management and perceived management ability (p = .02), additionally the stronger the perceived management ability, the less impact CAH had on the family (p crisis events and less perceived ability to manage the condition when compared with parents of older children (p = .009). The threat of an adrenal crisis event is a pervasive concern for parents, especially when they are not being properly prepared by providers. Provider support is needed for these parents throughout childhood, but especially in the first 5 years of

  12. Cellular and biochemical actions of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones on rat thymic lymphocytes.

    Young, D A; Voris, B P; Nicholson, M L

    1981-01-01

    The molecular, biochemical, and cellular effects of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones on thymic lymphocytes are reviewed, with emphasis on their relationship to the growth suppressive and lethal actions that occur in lymphoid tissues when glucocorticoids are administered to the whole animal. The data support the hypothesis that the hormonal inhibition of growth and development is a consequence of its ability to suppress cellular energy production, causing the cells to behave as though they were...

  13. Extra-adrenal Pheochromocytoma in an Adolescent

    Abdullah, Ibrahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A 17-year-old male with symptoms of headache and diaphoresis presented to the emergency department. He had eight months of noted hypertension attributed to medications. On arrival his blood pressure was 229/117mmHg, and he was ill-appearing. His blood pressure was managed aggressively, and he was diagnosed with extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma by computed tomography. He eventually underwent resection of the mass. Children with severe, symptomatic hypertension should be evaluated for pheochromocytoma. Although rare, it is curable. Failure to diagnose carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(2:258-261.

  14. Effects of hyperthyroidism on expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and apoptosis in fetal adrenal glands.

    Karaca, T; Hulya Uz, Y; Karabacak, R; Karaboga, I; Demirtas, S; Cagatay Cicek, A

    2015-11-26

    This study investigated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vascular density, and apoptosis in fetal rat adrenal glands with hyperthyroidism in late gestation. Twelve mature female Wistar albino rats with the same biological and physiological features were used for this study. Rats were divided into two groups: control and hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism was induced by daily subcutaneous injections of L-thyroxine (250 μg/kg) before pregnancy for 21 days and during pregnancy. Rats in the control and hyperthyroidism groups were caged according to the number of male rats. Zero day of pregnancy (Day 0) was indicated when the animals were observed to have microscopic sperm in vaginal smears. Pregnant rats were sacrificed on the 20th day of pregnancy; blood from each animal was collected to determine the concentrations of maternal adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroxine. Rat fetuses were then quickly removed from the uterus, and the adrenal glands of the fetuses were dissected. VEGF expression, vascular density, and apoptosis were analyzed in fetal rat adrenal glands. Maternal serum levels of the adrenocorticotropic hormone and free thyroxine were significantly higher in the hyperthyroidism group than in the control group. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of VEGF positive cells and vessel density significantly increased in the hyperthyroidism rat fetal adrenal group compared with the control group. Hyperthyroidism did not change the fetal and placental weights and the number of fetuses. This study demonstrates that hyperthyroidism may have an effect on the development of rat adrenal glands mediated by VEGF expression, angiogenesis, and apoptosis.

  15. Cushing's syndrome and fetal features resurgence in adrenal cortex-specific Prkar1a knockout mice.

    Isabelle Sahut-Barnola

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Carney complex (CNC is an inherited neoplasia syndrome with endocrine overactivity. Its most frequent endocrine manifestation is primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD, a bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia causing pituitary-independent Cushing's syndrome. Inactivating mutations in PRKAR1A, a gene encoding the type 1 alpha-regulatory subunit (R1alpha of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA have been found in 80% of CNC patients with Cushing's syndrome. To demonstrate the implication of R1alpha loss in the initiation and development of PPNAD, we generated mice lacking Prkar1a specifically in the adrenal cortex (AdKO. AdKO mice develop pituitary-independent Cushing's syndrome with increased PKA activity. This leads to autonomous steroidogenic genes expression and deregulated adreno-cortical cells differentiation, increased proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. Unexpectedly, R1alpha loss results in improper maintenance and centrifugal expansion of cortisol-producing fetal adrenocortical cells with concomitant regression of adult cortex. Our data provide the first in vivo evidence that loss of R1alpha is sufficient to induce autonomous adrenal hyper-activity and bilateral hyperplasia, both observed in human PPNAD. Furthermore, this model demonstrates that deregulated PKA activity favors the emergence of a new cell population potentially arising from the fetal adrenal, giving new insight into the mechanisms leading to PPNAD.

  16. Adrenal insufficiency in critically ill septic patients at Dr George ...

    Adele

    eosinophillia and hypoglycemia. Hyponatremia and hyperkalemia are uncommon. There has been much controversy regarding the criteria for the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency.10,11,12 The diagnosis would be best made using an end-organ marker of adrenal steroid action. No such marker is available at present. Free.

  17. Incidence and Cause of Hypertension During Adrenal Radiofrequency Ablation

    Yamakado, Koichiro; Takaki, Haruyuki; Yamada, Tomomi; Yamanaka, Takashi; Uraki, Junji; Kashima, Masataka; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Takeda, Kan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence and cause of hypertension prospectively during adrenal radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Methods: For this study, approved by our institutional review board, written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Patients who received RFA for adrenal tumors (adrenal ablation) and other abdominal tumors (nonadrenal ablation) were included in this prospective study. Blood pressure was monitored during RFA. Serum adrenal hormone levels including epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and cortisol levels were measured before and during RFA. The respective incidences of procedural hypertension (systolic blood pressure >200 mmHg) of the two patient groups were compared. Factors correlating with procedural systolic blood pressure were evaluated by regression analysis.ResultsNine patients underwent adrenal RFA and another 9 patients liver (n = 5) and renal (n = 4) RFA. Asymptomatic procedural hypertension that returned to the baseline by injecting calcium blocker was found in 7 (38.9%) of 18 patients. The incidence of procedural hypertension was significantly higher in the adrenal ablation group (66.7%, 6/9) than in the nonadrenal ablation group (11.1%, 1/9, P 2 = 0.68, P 2 = 0.72, P < 0.0001) levels during RFA. The other adrenal hormones did not show correlation with procedural systolic blood pressure. Conclusion: Hypertension occurs frequently during adrenal RFA because of the release of catecholamine.

  18. The Influence of Adrenal Secretons on Leucocyte Distribution and ...

    Many apparently, health Africans present with leuko-neutropenia. The origin of the so-called benign ethnic leuko-neutropenia remains uncertain. Africans are also, known to have small adrenal cortices. Cortisol is the major secretion of the adrenal cortex, which profoundly influences leukocyte profile. We investigated the ...

  19. Volume of the adrenal and pituitary glands in depression

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Knorr, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyperactive in some depressed patients. It is unclear whether such hyperactivity results in changed volumes of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. We systematically reviewed all controlled studies ...

  20. Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy is Feasible for Large Adrenal Masses > 6cm

    H. Sanjay Bhat

    2007-01-01

    Conclusion: LA is the procedure of choice for small adrenal masses but is also feasible for large functioning and nonfunctioning adrenal masses with equally good results. Even bilateral large functioning tumours can be treated safely by LA in a single stage when sufficient experience with the procedure is attained.