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Sample records for adp-induced platelet aggregation

  1. Correlation between increased platelet ADP aggregability and silent brain infarcts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Kenichiro; Arimoto, Hirohiko; Shirotani, Toshiki

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between platelet aggregability and silent brain infarcts. The study subjects were 445 people (264 men, 181 women; mean age, 53±14 years) with no neurologic signs, history of brain tumor, trauma, cerebrovascular disease, or antiplatelet medications. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation was measured by the aggregation-size analytic method. Platelet aggregability was classified into 9 classes. The presence of headache/vertigo, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, or smoking was elicited by questioning or blood sampling. A head MRI scan was performed, and if marked atherosclerosis or obvious stenosis in the intracranial vessels was detected, it was defined as a positive MR angiography (MRA) finding. Silent brain infarcts were detected in 26.3% of subjects. Hyperaggregability defined as that above class 6, 7, and 8 was present in 43.8%, 30.8%, and 15.7% of subjects, respectively. The risk factors for silent brain infarcts by multiple logistic regression analysis were aging, hypertension, positive MRA findings, and hyperaggregability. Platelet ADP hyperaggregability might be a risk factor for silent brain infarcts. (author)

  2. Plasma kallikrein enhances platelet aggregation response by subthreshold doses of ADP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaiano, Tatiana F; Andrade, Sheila S; de Oliveira, Cleide; Silva, Mariana C C; Buri, Marcus V; Juliano, Maria A; Girão, Manoel J B C; Sampaio, Misako U; Schmaier, Alvin H; Wlodawer, Alexander; Maffei, Francisco H A; Oliva, Maria Luiza V

    2017-04-01

    Human plasma kallikrein (huPK) potentiates platelet responses to subthreshold doses of ADP, although huPK itself, does not induce platelet aggregation. In the present investigation, we observe that huPK pretreatment of platelets potentiates ADP-induced platelet activation by prior proteolysis of the G-protein-coupled receptor PAR-1. The potentiation of ADP-induced platelet activation by huPK is mediated by the integrin α IIb β 3 through interactions with the KGD/KGE sequence motif in huPK. Integrin α IIb β 3 is a cofactor for huPK binding to platelets to support PAR-1 hydrolysis that contributes to activation of the ADP signaling pathway. This activation pathway leads to phosphorylation of Src, AktS 473 , ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK, and to Ca 2+ release. The effect of huPK is blocked by specific antagonists of PAR-1 (SCH 19197) and α IIb β 3 (abciximab) and by synthetic peptides comprising the KGD and KGE sequence motifs of huPK. Further, recombinant plasma kallikrein inhibitor, rBbKI, also blocks this entire mechanism. These results suggest a new function for huPK. Formation of plasma kallikrein lowers the threshold for ADP-induced platelet activation. The present observations are consistent with the notion that plasma kallikrein promotes vascular disease and thrombosis in the intravascular compartment and its inhibition may ameliorate cardiovascular disease and thrombosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of the gelatin plasma substitutes Haemaccel, Plasmagel and Plasmion (Geloplasma) on collagen-, ADP- and adrenaline-induced aggregation of human platelets in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibbe, J; van der Plas, P M; Ong, G L; ten Hoor, F; Nauta, J; de Jong, D S; Krenning-Douma, E; Gomes, M

    1981-01-01

    The effect of some gelatin plasma substitutes (Haemaccel, plasmagel and Plasmion (Geloplasma), which are widely used in Europe) on collagen-, ADP- and adrenaline-induced platelet aggregation in human PRP in vitro was studied under controlled conditions (pH, electrolyte composition). Haemaccel inhibited these aggregations, both in citrated as well as in heparinised PRP, whereas they were enhanced by both Plasmagel and Plasmion as compared to the appropriate control. Increasing teh concentration of the inducer overcame the inhibition by Haemaccel. Haemaccel inhibited, while Plasmion enhanced 14C-serotonin release induced by collagen, ADP or adrenaline. Also in the presence of indomethacin (90 muM) Haemaccel inhibited aggregation induced by high concentrations of collagen and the primary aggregation induced by ADP and adrenaline, while Plasmion enhanced these aggregations induced by ADP and adrenaline, while Plasmion enhanced these aggregations. The inhibition by Haemaccel was not caused by binding of Ca2+ to haemaccel.

  4. Fps/Fes and Fer non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinases regulate collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senis, Y A; Sangrar, W; Zirngibl, R A; Craig, A W B; Lee, D H; Greer, P A

    2003-05-01

    Fps/Fes and Fer proto-oncoproteins are structurally related non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinases implicated in signaling downstream from cytokines, growth factors and immune receptors. We show that Fps/Fes and Fer are expressed in human and mouse platelets, and are activated following stimulation with collagen and collagen-related peptide (CRP), suggesting a role in GPVI receptor signaling. Fer was also activated following stimulation with thrombin and a protease-activated receptor4 (PAR4)-activating peptide, suggesting a role in signaling downstream from the G protein-coupled PAR4. There were no detectable perturbations in CRP-induced activation of Syk, PLCgamma2, cortactin, Erk, Jnk, Akt or p38 in platelets from mice lacking Fps/Fes, Fer, or both kinases. Platelets lacking Fps/Fes, from a targeted fps/fes null strain of mice, showed increased rates and amplitudes of collagen-induced aggregation, relative to wild-type platelets. P-Selectin expression was also elevated on the surface of Fps/Fes-null platelets in response to CRP. Fer-deficient platelets, from mice targeted with a kinase-inactivating mutation, disaggregated more rapidly than wild-type platelets in response to ADP. This report provides the first evidence that Fps/Fes and Fer are expressed in platelets and become activated downstream from the GPVI collagen receptor, and that Fer is activated downstream from a G-protein coupled receptor. Furthermore, using targeted mouse models we show that deficiency in Fps/Fes or Fer resulted in disregulated platelet aggregation and disaggregation, demonstrating a role for these kinases in regulating platelet functions.

  5. Effects of epinephrine on ADP-induced changes in platelet inositol phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickers, J.D.; Keraly, C.L.; Kinlough-Rathbone, R.L.; Mustard, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Epinephrine (EPI) does not aggregate rabbit platelets, but it does increase the labelling of inositol phosphate (IP) at 60s (21%, p + , in platelets prelabelled with [ 3 H] inositol. In contrast, 0.5 μM ADP which causes aggregation, increases the labelling of inositol bisphosphate (IP 2 ) by 30% (p 2 by 154% (p 2 stimulated by ADP + EPI was greater than the increase caused by ADP (p 2 due to 0.2 μM ADP + 0.6 μM EPI by 70% (p 2 by 108% (0 2 metabolism stimulated via the α-adrenergic receptor

  6. Taurine and platelet aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauss-Karol, C.; VanderWende, C.; Gaut, Z.N.

    1986-01-01

    Taurine is a putative neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. The endogenous taurine concentration in human platelets, determined by amino acid analysis, is 15 μM/g. In spite of this high level, taurine is actively accumulated. Uptake is saturable, Na + and temperature dependent, and suppressed by metabolic inhibitors, structural analogues, and several classes of centrally active substances. High, medium and low affinity transport processes have been characterized, and the platelet may represent a model system for taurine transport in the CNS. When platelets were incubated with 14 C-taurine for 30 minutes, then resuspended in fresh medium and reincubated for one hour, essentially all of the taurine was retained within the cells. Taurine, at concentrations ranging from 10-1000 μM, had no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP or epinephrine. However, taurine may have a role in platelet aggregation since 35-39% of the taurine taken up by human platelets appears to be secreted during the release reaction induced by low concentrations of either epinephrine or ADP, respectively. This release phenomenon would imply that part of the taurine taken up is stored directly in the dense bodies of the platelet

  7. PPARγ ligands decrease hydrostatic pressure-induced platelet aggregation and proinflammatory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Rao

    Full Text Available Hypertension is known to be associated with platelet overactivity, but the direct effects of hydrostatic pressure on platelet function remain unclear. The present study sought to investigate whether elevated hydrostatic pressure is responsible for platelet activation and to address the potential role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ. We observed that hypertensive patients had significantly higher platelet volume and rate of ADP-induced platelets aggregation compared to the controls. In vitro, Primary human platelets were cultured under standard (0 mmHg or increased (120, 180, 240 mmHg hydrostatic pressure for 18 h. Exposure to elevated pressure was associated with morphological changes in platelets. Platelet aggregation and PAC-1 (the active confirmation of GPIIb/IIIa binding were increased, CD40L was translocated from cytoplasm to the surface of platelet and soluble CD40L (sCD40L was released into the medium in response to elevated hydrostatic pressure (180 and 240 mmHg. The PPARγ activity was up-regulated as the pressure was increased from 120 mmHg to 180 mmHg. Pressure-induced platelet aggregation, PAC-1 binding, and translocation and release of CD40L were all attenuated by the PPARγ agonist Thiazolidinediones (TZDs. These results demonstrate that platelet activation and aggregation are increased by exposure to elevated pressure and that PPARγ may modulate platelet activation induced by high hydrostatic pressure.

  8. PPARγ ligands decrease hydrostatic pressure-induced platelet aggregation and proinflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Fang; Yang, Ren-Qiang; Chen, Xiao-Shu; Xu, Jin-Song; Fu, Hui-Min; Su, Hai; Wang, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is known to be associated with platelet overactivity, but the direct effects of hydrostatic pressure on platelet function remain unclear. The present study sought to investigate whether elevated hydrostatic pressure is responsible for platelet activation and to address the potential role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). We observed that hypertensive patients had significantly higher platelet volume and rate of ADP-induced platelets aggregation compared to the controls. In vitro, Primary human platelets were cultured under standard (0 mmHg) or increased (120, 180, 240 mmHg) hydrostatic pressure for 18 h. Exposure to elevated pressure was associated with morphological changes in platelets. Platelet aggregation and PAC-1 (the active confirmation of GPIIb/IIIa) binding were increased, CD40L was translocated from cytoplasm to the surface of platelet and soluble CD40L (sCD40L) was released into the medium in response to elevated hydrostatic pressure (180 and 240 mmHg). The PPARγ activity was up-regulated as the pressure was increased from 120 mmHg to 180 mmHg. Pressure-induced platelet aggregation, PAC-1 binding, and translocation and release of CD40L were all attenuated by the PPARγ agonist Thiazolidinediones (TZDs). These results demonstrate that platelet activation and aggregation are increased by exposure to elevated pressure and that PPARγ may modulate platelet activation induced by high hydrostatic pressure.

  9. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) and platelet aggregation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, R; Moilanen, E; Saxelin, M; Vapaatalo, H

    1997-06-17

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is an experimentally and clinically well documented probiotic used in different dairy products. The present study aimed to investigate the safety aspects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, particularly with respect to platelet aggregation, the initiating event in thrombosis. Platelet rich plasma was separated from the blood of healthy volunteers, and the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC 7469) and Enterococcus faecium T2L6 in different dilutions on spontaneous, ADP- and adrenaline-induced aggregation were tested. The bacteria did not influence spontaneous aggregation. Only Enterococcus faecium T2L6 enhanced the adrenaline-induced aggregation, with a less clear effect on ADP-induced aggregation.

  10. Reference intervals for platelet aggregation assessed by multiple electrode platelet aggregometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubak, Peter; Villadsen, Kirsten; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Analyses of platelet aggregation in hirudin whole blood using Multiplate® was validated. Reference intervals for the most commonly used agonists were established, and the association between platelet aggregation, age, gender and haematological values was analysed. Material...... and methods We included 121 healthy individuals to establish reference intervals and six healthy individuals for evaluation of the day-to-day variation. Platelet aggregation was evaluated on hirudin whole blood employing Multiplate® induced by arachidonic acid, ADP, collagen and ristocetin (RISTOlow...... after adjusting for age and gender except for RISTOhigh. A positive significant association was found between platelet count and platelet aggregation (p

  11. [Inhibitory mechanism of ifenprodil tartrate on rabbit platelet aggregation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irino, O; Saitoh, K; Hayashi, T; Ohkubo, K

    1985-05-01

    The effects of dl-erythro-4-benzyl-alpha-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-beta-methyl-l-piperidine-eth anol tartrate (ifenprodil tartrate) on rabbit platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo were studied. Ifenprodil tartrate inhibited platelet aggregation in vitro induced by ADP, collagen and epinephrine. It also inhibited 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) uptake into platelets and 5-HT release from platelets. Since these inhibitory effects of ifenprodil tartrate on the functions of rabbit platelets were similar to the effects of imipramine, the effects of ifenprodil tartrate may be due to the stabilizing action of ifenprodil tartrate on the platelet membrane. The platelet aggregation by ADP was significantly inhibited in rabbits after oral administration of ifenprodil tartrate, the maximal plasma level of ifenprodil being reached at 20 ng/ml ex vivo, while the maximal level was only 1/40 of the minimal concentration of ifenprodil tartrate necessary to inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro. These results indicate that factors other than ifenprodil tartrate acting directly on the platelets (e.g., PGI2 which is an endogenous inhibitor of platelet aggregation) are involved in inducing the inhibitory effects of ifenprodil tartrate on platelet aggregation ex vivo. The effects of ifenprodil tartrate on both PGI2 release from the aorta and the inhibitory effects of PGI2 on platelet aggregation in vitro were investigated: PGI2 was found to intensify the inhibitory effects of ifenprodil tartrate on platelet aggregation in vitro, but there was little effect, if any, on PGI2 release. Therefore, it is considered that the ex vivo effects of ifenprodil tartrate might be due to its interaction with endogenous PGI2 in the blood.

  12. Novel direct factor Xa inhibitory compounds from Tenebrio molitor with anti-platelet aggregation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonhwa; Kim, Mi-Ae; Park, InWha; Hwang, Jae Sam; Na, MinKyun; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2017-11-01

    Tenebrio molitor is an edible insect that has antimicrobial, anticancer, and antihypertensive effects. The aim of this study was to identify the unreported bioactive compounds from T. molitor larvae with inhibitory activities against factor Xa (FXa) and platelet aggregation. Isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-FXa and anti-platelet aggregation properties by monitoring clotting time, platelet aggregation, FXa activity, and thrombus formation. A diketopiperazine (1, cyclo( L -Pro- L -Tyr)) and a phenylethanoid (2, N-acetyltyramine) were isolated and inhibited the catalytic activity of FXa in a mixed inhibition model and inhibited platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and U46619. They inhibited ADP- and U46619-induced phosphorylation of myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) and the expression of P-selectin and PAC-1 in platelets. They also improved the production of nitric oxide and inhibited the oversecretion of endothelin-1 compared to that of the ADP- or U46619-treated group. In an animal model of arterial and pulmonary thrombosis, the isolated compounds showed enhanced antithrombotic effects. They also elicited anticoagulant effects in mice. Compounds 1-2 inhibited ADP-, collagen-, or U46619-induced platelet aggregation and showed similar anti-thrombotic efficacy to rivaroxaban, a positive control. Therefore, 1-2 could serve as candidates and provide scaffolds for the development of new anti-FXa and anti-platelet drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adrenaline potentiates PI 3-kinase in platelets stimulated with thrombin and SFRLLN: role of secreted ADP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selheim, F; Frøyset, A K; Strand, I; Vassbotn, F S; Holmsen, H

    2000-11-17

    Adrenaline significantly potentiated late thrombin- and SFRLLN-induced PtdIns(3,4)P(2) production. Furthermore, the potentiating effect of adrenaline on thrombin-induced PtdIns(3, 4)P(2) production was independent on secreted ADP, whereas, the effect of adrenaline on SFRLLN-induced PtdIns(3,4)P(2) production was completely dependent of secreted ADP. However, the ADP-dependent accumulation of PtdIns(3,4)P(2) was not required for irreversible platelet aggregation induced by SFRLLN in the presence of adrenaline. It is concluded that adrenaline can replace secreted ADP to potentiate PtdIns(3,4)P(2) production in thrombin-stimulated but not in SFRLLN-stimulated platelets, thus demonstrating a qualitative difference between platelet stimulation by thrombin and the thrombin receptor activating peptide SFRLLN.

  14. Gingival tissue-produced inhibition of platelet aggregation and the loss of inhibition in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Keiichiroh; Tamai, Kazuharu; Shirakawa, Masaharu; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Dohi, Toshihiro; Tsujimoto, Akira

    1988-01-01

    Addition of medium incubated with normal rat gingival tissue to platelet-rich plasma inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation. The ability of rat gingiva to produce activity inhibiting platelet aggregation was enhanced by the addition of arachidonic acid. Diabetic rat gingiva failed to inhibit platelet aggregation but did produce the anti-platelet aggregating activity in the presence of arachidonic acid. Indomethacin blocked the production of anti-platelet aggregating activity. There was no difference in conversion of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid to prostaglandins by normal and diabetic rat gingiva. These results suggest that an arachidonic acid metabolite released from gingiva during incubation inhibits platelet aggregation, and the synthesis of the metabolite is impaired in diabetic rat gingiva. A decrease in availability of arachidonic acid may be a causal factor of the defect in diabetic rat gingiva.

  15. Gingival tissue-produced inhibition of platelet aggregation and the loss of inhibition in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Keiichiroh; Tamai, Kazuharu; Shirakawa, Masaharu; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Dohi, Toshihiro; Tsujimoto, Akira

    1988-01-01

    Addition of medium incubated with normal rat gingival tissue to platelet-rich plasma inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation. The ability of rat gingiva to produce activity inhibiting platelet aggregation was enhanced by the addition of arachidonic acid. Diabetic rat gingiva failed to inhibit platelet aggregation but did produce the anti-platelet aggregating activity in the presence of arachidonic acid. Indomethacin blocked the production of anti-platelet aggregating activity. There was no difference in conversion of [1- 14 C]arachidonic acid to prostaglandins by normal and diabetic rat gingiva. These results suggest that an arachidonic acid metabolite released from gingiva during incubation inhibits platelet aggregation, and the synthesis of the metabolite is impaired in diabetic rat gingiva. A decrease in availability of arachidonic acid may be a causal factor of the defect in diabetic rat gingiva. (author)

  16. Platelet-collagen adhesion enhances platelet aggregation induced by binding of VWF to platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laduca, F.M.; Bell, W.R.; Bettigole, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (RIPA) was evaluated in the presence of platelet-collagen adhesion. RIPA of normal donor platelet-rich plasma (PRP) demonstrated a primary wave of aggregation mediated by the binding of von Willebrand factor (VWF) to platelets and a secondary aggregation wave, due to a platelet-release reaction, initiated by VWF-platelet binding and inhibitable by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). An enhanced RIPA was observed in PRP samples to which collagen had been previously added. These subthreshold concentrations of collagen, which by themselves were insufficient to induce aggregation, caused measurable platelet-collagen adhesion. Subthreshold collagen did not cause microplatelet aggregation, platelet release of [ 3 H]serotonin, or alter the dose-responsive binding of 125 I-labeled VWF to platelets, which occurred with increasing ristocetin concentrations. However, ASA inhibition of the platelet release reaction prevented collagen-enhanced RIPA. These results demonstrate that platelet-collagen adhesion altered the platelet-release reaction induced by the binding of VWF to platelets causing a platelet-release reaction at a level of VWF-platelet binding not normally initiating a secondary aggregation. These findings suggest that platelet-collagen adhesion enhances platelet function mediated by VWF

  17. Mechanism for release of arachidonic acid during guinea pig platelet aggregation: a role for the diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor RHC 80267

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, D.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism of the release of arachidonic acid from phospholipids after the stimulation of guinea pig platelets with collagen, thrombin and platelet activating factor (PAF) was studied. RHC 80267, a diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor, and indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, were used. Various in vitro assays for enzymes involved in arachidonic acid release and metabolism were conducted. Platelet aggregation and simultaneous release of ADP from platelets were monitored using a Chrono-log Lumiaggregometer. Platelets were labeled with ( 14 C)arachidonic acid to facilitate sensitive determination of small changes in platelet phospholipids during platelet aggregation. In the present investigation it is shown that collagen, thrombin and PAF increased phospholipase C activity. It was also discovered that cyclooxygenase products were responsible for further stimulation (a positive feed-back) of phospholipase C activity, while diacylglycerol provided a negative feed-back control over receptor-stimulated phospholipase C activity and inhibited ADP release. The guinea pig platelet is an ideal model to study phospholipase C-diacylglycerol lipase pathway for the release of arachidonic acid from platelet phospholipids because it does not have any phospholipase A 2 activity. It was observed that cyclooxygenase products were responsible for collagen-induced guinea pig platelet aggregation. Indomethacin completely inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation, was less effective against thrombin, and had no effect on PAF-induced platelet aggregation. On the other hand, RHC 80267 was a powerful inhibitor of aggregation and ADP release induced by all three of these potent aggregating agents

  18. Deciphering of ADP-induced, phosphotyrosine-dependent signaling networks in human platelets by Src-homology 2 region (SH2)-profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigel, Hardy; Geiger, Jörg; Beck, Florian; Buhs, Sophia; Gerull, Helwe; Walter, Ulrich; Sickmann, Albert; Nollau, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a central role in signal transduction controlling many important biological processes. In platelets, the activity of several signaling proteins is controlled by tyrosine phosphorylation ensuring proper platelet activation and aggregation essential for regulation of the delicate balance between bleeding and hemostasis. Here, we applied Src-homology 2 region (SH2)-profiling for deciphering of the phosphotyrosine state of human platelets activated by adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Applying a panel of 31 SH2-domains, rapid and complex regulation of the phosphotyrosine state of platelets was observed after ADP stimulation. Specific inhibition of platelet P2Y receptors by synthetic drugs revealed a major role for the P2Y1 receptor in tyrosine phosphorylation. Concomitant activation of protein kinase A (PKA) abolished ADP-induced tyrosine phosphorylation in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Given the fact that PKA activity is negatively regulated by the P2Y12 receptor, our data provide evidence for a novel link of synergistic control of the state of tyrosine phosphorylation by both P2Y receptors. By SH2 domain pull down and MS/MS analysis, we identified distinct tyrosine phosphorylation sites in cell adhesion molecules, intracellular adapter proteins and phosphatases suggesting a major, functional role of tyrosine phosphorylation of theses candidate proteins in ADP-dependent signaling in human platelets. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Anti-aggregation action of ultraviolet irradiation on platelet-rich plasma in the presence of antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshchupkin, D.I.; Anosov, A.K.; Potapenko, A.Ya.

    1983-01-01

    UV irradiation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) results in the inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. This is accounted for by the long-living photoproducts formed in plasma. Platelets destruct these photoproducts in the dark after irradiation. Lipid antioxidants α-tocopherol and BHT administered in PRP before irradiation reduce the anti-aggregation effect of UV light. Lipid photo-peroxidation is supposed to be responsible for the anti-aggregation effect of UV irradiation on platelet-rich plasma. (Auth.)

  20. Anti-aggregation action of ultraviolet irradiation on platelet-rich plasma in the presence of antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshchupkin, D.I.; Anosov, A.K.; Potapenko, A.Ya.

    1983-01-01

    UV irradiation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) results in the inhibition of ADP-induced platelets aggregation. This is accounted for by the long-living photoproducts formed in plasma. Platelets destruct these photoproducts in the dark after irradiation. Lipid antioxidants α-tocopherol and BHT administered in PRP before irradiation reduce the anti-aggregation effect of UV light. Lipid photo-peroxidation is supposed to be responsible for the anti-aggregation effect of UV irradiation on platelet-rich plasma. (Auth.)

  1. Mapuche herbal medicine inhibits blood platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Tarnow, Inge; Guzman, Alfonso; Mølgaard, Per; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2012-01-01

    12 plant species traditionally used by the Mapuche people in Chile to treat wounds and inflammations have been evaluated for their direct blood platelet inhibition. Seven of the 12 tested plant species showed platelet inhibitory effect in sheep blood, and four of these were also able to inhibit the ADP- (5.0 μM) and collagen- (2.0 μg/mL) induced aggregations in human blood. These four species in respective extracts (in brackets) were Blechnum chilense (MeOH), Luma apiculata (H(2)O), Amomyrtus luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1) and Cestrum parqui (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1). The platelet aggregating inhibitory effects of A. luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1), and L. apiculata (H(2)O) were substantial and confirmed by inhibition of platelet surface activation markers.

  2. Red Wine Inhibits Aggregation and Increases ATP-diphosphohydrolase (CD39) Activity of Rat Platelets in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Elisabetta; Tedesco, Idolo; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Russo, Gian Luigi; Ialenti, Armando; Cicala, Carla

    2016-06-01

    Moderate consumption of red wine has been shown to exert a peculiar cardioprotective effect compared with other alcoholic beverages; inhibition of platelet aggregation seems to be one of the mechanisms underlying this beneficial effect. CD39/ATP-diphosphohydrolase is an integral membrane glycoprotein metabolizing ATP and ADP to AMP; in concert with CD73/ecto-5'-nucleotidase, it contributes to extracellular adenosine accumulation. CD39 is considered a key modulator of thrombus formation; it inhibits platelet aggregation by promoting ADP hydrolysis. There is evidence that red wine consumption increases CD39 activity in platelets from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Here we show that two kinds of Aglianico red wines inhibit aggregation and increase ATP--and ADPase activity in rat platelets.

  3. Mapuche Herbal Medicine Inhibits Blood Platelet Aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Tarnow, Inge; Guzman, Alfonso; Mølgaard, Per; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2012-01-01

    12 plant species traditionally used by the Mapuche people in Chile to treat wounds and inflammations have been evaluated for their direct blood platelet inhibition. Seven of the 12 tested plant species showed platelet inhibitory effect in sheep blood, and four of these were also able to inhibit the ADP- (5.0??M) and collagen- (2.0??g/mL) induced aggregations in human blood. These four species in respective extracts (in brackets) were Blechnum chilense (MeOH), Luma apiculata (H2O), Amomyrtus l...

  4. Mapuche Herbal Medicine Inhibits Blood Platelet Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Skanderup Falkenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 12 plant species traditionally used by the Mapuche people in Chile to treat wounds and inflammations have been evaluated for their direct blood platelet inhibition. Seven of the 12 tested plant species showed platelet inhibitory effect in sheep blood, and four of these were also able to inhibit the ADP- (5.0 μM and collagen- (2.0 μg/mL induced aggregations in human blood. These four species in respective extracts (in brackets were Blechnum chilense (MeOH, Luma apiculata (H2O, Amomyrtus luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1 and Cestrum parqui (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1. The platelet aggregating inhibitory effects of A. luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1, and L. apiculata (H2O were substantial and confirmed by inhibition of platelet surface activation markers.

  5. Effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on platelet aggregation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhisa, Fumikazu; Kitamura, Nobuo; Satoh, Eiki

    2014-03-01

    Although psychological stress has long been known to alter cardiovascular function, there have been few studies on the effect of psychological stress on platelets, which play a pivotal role in cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on the aggregation of platelets and platelet cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Mice were subjected to both transportation stress (exposure to novel environment, psychological stress) and restraint stress (psychological stress) for 2 h (acute stress) or 3 weeks (2 h/day) (chronic stress). In addition, adrenalectomized mice were subjected to similar chronic stress (both transportation and restraint stress for 3 weeks). The aggregation of platelets from mice and [Ca(2+)]i was determined by light transmission assay and fura-2 fluorescence assay, respectively. Although acute stress had no effect on agonist-induced platelet aggregation, chronic stress enhanced the ability of the platelet agonists thrombin and ADP to stimulate platelet aggregation. However, chronic stress failed to enhance agonist-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i. Adrenalectomy blocked chronic stress-induced enhancement of platelet aggregation. These results suggest that chronic, but not acute, psychological stress enhances agonist-stimulated platelet aggregation independently of [Ca(2+)]i increase, and the enhancement may be mediated by stress hormones secreted from the adrenal glands.

  6. [Platelet function in acute myeloid leukemia. II. Aggregation of isolated platelets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawilska, K; Komarnicki, M; Mańka, B

    1978-01-01

    In 22 patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (17 cases of myeloblastic leukaemia, 4 cases of myelomonocytic leukaemia and 1 case of undifferentiated-cell leukaemia) platelets were isolated from the plasma by the method of Nicholls and Hampton as modified by Levy-Toledano by centrifugation in albumin gradient. The aim of platelet isolation was their "concentration" in cases of thrombocytopenia to values making possible aggregation tests, and platelet separation from the influence of plasma factors. Then aggregation of isolated platelets caused by ADP was studied. In 16 out of 22 patients a fall of aggregation was observed, with the mean values of aggregation rate and intensity were significantly lower. Parallelly done determinations of aggregating activity released from the platelets by thrombin showed lower values as compared with platelets from healthy subjects. In might be thought, in this connection, that the demonstrated reduction of isolated platelets is associated with a diminution of the nucleotide pool or disturbances of the platelet release reaction. The disturbances of the platelet release reaction. The disturbances of aggregation of isolated platelets and reduction of the aggregating activity were most pronounced in acute myelomonocytic leukaemia.

  7. Platelet aggregation responses in clinically healthy adult llamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Rosanne M; Bird, Karyn E; Kutzler, Michelle A

    2009-03-01

    Limited information exists regarding hemostasis in camelids despite the importance of platelet function testing in the accurate identification of platelet disorders. As further importation of llamas to North America is restricted, variability in breeding stock will continue to decrease, potentially leading to an increase in heritable bleeding disorders. The objective of this study was to measure platelet aggregation responses in clinically healthy llamas and provide baseline data to which abnormal platelet function may be compared in the future. Blood samples were collected from 39 healthy adult llamas, citrated, and centrifuged to produce platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Within 4 hours of the blood draw, 20 microL of each agonist reagent were added to 180 microL of PRP. Final concentrations of agonists were 2 x 10(-5) M ADP, 0.19 mg collagen/mL PRP, 1 x 10(-4) M epinephrine, and 500 microg arachidonic acid/mL PRP. Llama platelets were most responsive to ADP and collagen, with a maximum percent aggregation (mean+/-SD) of 71.3+/-18.6% and 55.8+/-19% and aggregation rates of 9.5+/-3.9 and 6.7+/-3.7 cm/min, respectively. Llama platelet aggregation in response to epinephrine and arachidonic acid was minimal to absent. This study is the first of its kind to establish baseline values for platelet aggregation in healthy adult llamas.

  8. Comparative evaluation of antiplatelet effect of lycopene with aspirin and the effect of their combination on platelet aggregation: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawardekar, Swapna B; Patel, Tejal C; Uchil, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to compare antiplatelet effect of lycopene with aspirin and to study effect of combination of the two on platelet aggregation in vitro, using platelets from healthy volunteers. Platelets were harvested; platelet count of platelet-rich plasma adjusted to 2.5 Χ 10(5)/μL. Aspirin (140 μmol/L) and lycopene (4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 μmol/L) were studied in vitro against adenosine-5'- diphosphate (ADP) (2.5 μM/L) and collagen. All the concentrations of lycopene (4-12 μmol/L) exhibited reduction in maximum platelet aggregation induced by aggregating agents ADP and collagen (P Lycopene at concentration 10 μmol/L showed maximum platelet inhibition (47.05% ± 19.56%) against ADP, whereas lycopene at concentration 8 μmol/L showed maximum platelet inhibition (54.26% ± 30.71%) against collagen. Four μmol/L of lycopene combined with 140 μmol/L and 70 μmol/L aspirin showed greater inhibition of platelets as compared to aspirin 140 μmol/L alone, against both ADP and collagen. The study favorably compares lycopene and aspirin with respect to their antiplatelet activities against ADP and collagen. Lycopene can be considered as a potential target for modifying the thrombotic and pro-inflammatory events associated with platelet activation.

  9. Morulustatin, A Disintegrin that Inhibits ADP-Induced Platelet Aggregation, Isolated from the Mexican Tamaulipan Rock Rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus morulus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Miguel; Galan, Jacob Anthony; Cantu, Esteban; Zugasti-Cruz, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Lazcano, David; Lucena, Sara; Suntravat, Montamas; Sánchez, y Elda Eliza

    2016-01-01

    The Tamaulipan rock rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus morulus) is a montane snake that occurs in the humid pine-oak forest and the upper cloud forest of the Sierra Madre Oriental in southwestern Tamaulipas, central Nuevo Leon, and southeastern Coahuila in Mexico. Venom from this rattlesnake was fractionated by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for the purpose of discovering disintegrin molecules. Disintegrins are non-enzymatic, small molecular weight peptides that interfere with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions by binding to various cell receptors. Eleven fractions were collected by anion exchange chromatography and pooled into six groups (I, II, III, IV, V, and VI). Proteins of the six groups were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and western blot using antibodies raised against a disintegrin. The antibodies recognized different protein bands in five (II, III, IV, V, and VI) of six groups in a molecular mass range of 7 to 105 kDa. Western blot analysis revealed fewer protein bands in the higher molecular mass range and two bands in the disintegrin weight range in group II compared with the other four groups. Proteins in group II were further separated into nine fractions using reverse phase C18 chromatography. Fraction 4 inhibited platelet aggregation and was named morulustatin, which exhibited a single band with a molecular mass of approximately 7 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of fraction 4 revealed the identification of disintegrin peptides LRPGAQCADGLCCDQCR (MH+ 2035.84) and AGEECDCGSPANCCDAATCK (MH+ 2328.82). Morulustatin inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation in human whole blood and was concentration-dependent with an IC50 of 89.5 nM ± 12. PMID:28713196

  10. Palmitic acid-labeled lipids selectively incorporated into platelet cytoskeleton during aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packham, M.A.; Guccione, M.A.; Bryant, N.L.; Livne, A.

    1990-01-01

    Previous experiments showed that during the early stages (20-30 seconds) of aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP, 2 microM) or thrombin (0.1 U/mL) of rabbit or human platelets prelabeled with [3H]palmitic acid, labeled lipid became associated with the cytoskeleton isolated after lysis with 1% Triton X-100, 5 mM EGTA [ethylene glycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)]-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid. The association appeared to be related to the number of sites of contact and was independent of the release of granule contents. We have now investigated the nature of the labeled lipids by thin-layer and column chromatography and found differences between the distribution of the label in intact platelets (both stimulated and unstimulated) and the isolated cytoskeletons. In both species, and with either ADP or thrombin as aggregating agent, 70-85% of the label in both intact platelets and in the cytoskeletons was in phospholipids. The distribution of label among the phospholipids in the cytoskeletons was similar to that in intact platelets except that the percentage of label in phosphatidylcholine was significantly higher in the cytoskeletons of human platelets than in the intact platelets, and the percentage of label in phosphatidylserine/phosphatidylinositol was significantly lower in the cytoskeletons of rabbit platelets and thrombin-aggregated human platelets than in intact platelets. The cytoskeletons contained a lower percentage of label in triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, and cholesterol ester than the intact platelets. Contrary to a report in the literature, we found no evidence for the incorporation of diacylglycerol and palmitic acid into the cytoskeleton

  11. (Platelet aggregation in workers chronically exposed to carbon disulfide and subjected to prophylactic treatment with Cynarex)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woyke, M.; Cwajda, H.; Wojcicki, J.; Kosmider, K.

    1981-01-01

    A group of men producing artificial fibres were administered for 2 years an artichoke extract as a preparation called Cynarex, produced by the Herbs Plant, Herbapol'' in Wroclaw. The spontaneous and ADP-induced platelets aggregation was examined by the method of Holdrinet et al. The platelets ability to aggregate, whether spontaneously or by induction was found to be statistically significantly reduced. The spontaneous aggregation after two years of Cynarex administration was reduced on average by 51%.

  12. Platelet aggregation, secretion, and coagulation changes in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukyilmaz, Gonul; Soyer, Ozge U; Buyuktiryaki, Betul; Alioglu, Bulent; Dallar, Yildiz

    2014-10-01

    The chronic inflammation in asthma evolves by cells including eosinophils, mast cells and lymphocytes. Despite their principal function in hemostasis, platelets contribute to pathogenesis of asthma that activation of platelets occurs following antigen provocation and during asthma attack. Our aim was to evaluate the platelet functions and other hemostatic features of children with asthma, both during symptom-free period and asthma attack. We enrolled patients with asthma attack (n = 33), mild intermittent asthma (n = 18), mild persistent asthma (n = 15) and healthy children (n = 20). Demographic characteristics and disease-related features were noted. Platelet aggregation and secretion tests (expressed as ATP release) were performed by lumiaggregometer method by stimulation with collagen, epinephrine, ADP, thrombin, ristocetin and arachidonic acid. Plasma levels of D-dimer, factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) were assessed. There were no differences in platelet aggregation induced by agonists between study groups. ATP release from platelets of patients with asthma exacerbation induced by ADP was lower compared with mild intermittent asthma (P asthma attack than mild intermittent (P = 0.039) and mild persistent asthma (P = 0.011) and controls (P = 0.018). vWF measurements were higher in children with asthma attack than other study groups (P = 0.001). However, FVIII was increased in patients with severe asthma attack. Asthma is a disease in which many immune cells play a role, one of which is the platelet. Distinctions in platelet secretion profiles and plasma levels of vWF and FVIII provide evidence that coagulation mechanisms might be critical for asthma pathogenesis.

  13. Effect of losartan on human platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Cuesta, J I; Montón, M; Rodríguez-Feo, J A; Jiménez, A M; González-Fernández, F; Rico, L A; García, R; Gómez, J; Farré, J; Casado, S; López-Farré, A

    1999-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that losartan can block the thromboxane A2 receptor on the vascular wall. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of losartan on human platelet activation. Platelets were obtained from 15 healthy men, aged 26-40 years. Platelet activation was measured by changes in the light transmission of platelet-rich plasma stimulated by the thromboxane A2 analog U46619 (5 x 10(-6) mol/l) or ADP (10(-5) mol/l). U46619-stimulated platelet aggregation was significantly inhibited by losartan in a dose-dependent manner. Only a high dose of EXP 3174 (5 x 10(-5) mol/l), the in vivo active metabolite of losartan, was able to attenuate U46619-induced platelet activation. Captopril, an angiotensin I converting inhibitor, failed to modify U46619-induced platelet aggregation. Furthermore, the binding of [3H]-U46619 to platelets was competitively inhibited by losartan, whereas only a high dose of EXP 3174 reduced the binding of [3H]-U46619. Captopril failed to modify the binding of [3H]-U46619 to platelets. Losartan also reduced the platelet activation induced by ADP (10(-5) mol/l), a platelet agonist partially dependent on thromboxane A2. In addition, when thromboxane A2 generation was blocked by aspirin, ADP-induced platelet aggregation was inhibited to a similar degree to the inhibition induced by losartan. Exogenous angiotensin II did not elicit any modification of either U46619- or ADP-stimulated platelet aggregation. Losartan decreased platelet aggregation by a thromboxane A2-dependent mechanism. EXP 3174 was less potent than losartan in reducing thromboxane A2-dependent platelet activation. Captopril and exogenous angiotensin II had no effect on human platelet activation. These results suggest that losartan reduced thromboxane A2-dependent platelet activation independently of its effect on angiotensin II.

  14. Modulation of platelet aggregation by areca nut and betel leaf ingredients: roles of reactive oxygen species and cyclooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Jiiang-Huei; Chen, Shiao-Yun; Liao, Chang-Hui; Tung, Yuan-Yii; Lin, Bor-Ru; Hahn, Liang-Jiunn; Chang, Mei-Chi

    2002-05-01

    There are 2 to 6 billion betel quid (BQ) chewers in the world. Areca nut (AN), a BQ component, modulates arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, which is crucial for platelet function. AN extract (1 and 2 mg/ml) stimulated rabbit platelet aggregation, with induction of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) production. Contrastingly, Piper betle leaf (PBL) extract inhibited AA-, collagen-, and U46619-induced platelet aggregation, and TXB2 and prostaglandin-D2 (PGD2) production. PBL extract also inhibited platelet TXB2 and PGD2 production triggered by thrombin, platelet activating factor (PAF), and adenosine diphosphate (ADP), whereas little effect on platelet aggregation was noted. Moreover, PBL is a scavenger of O2(*-) and *OH, and inhibits xanthine oxidase activity and the (*)OH-induced PUC18 DNA breaks. Deferoxamine, 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) and neomycin prevented AN-induced platelet aggregation and TXB2 production. Indomethacin, genistein, and PBL extract inhibited only TXB2 production, but not platelet aggregation. Catalase, superoxide dismutase, and dimethylthiourea (DMT) showed little effect on AN-induced platelet aggregation, whereas catalase and DMT inhibited the AN-induced TXB2 production. These results suggest that AN-induced platelet aggregation is associated with iron-mediated reactive oxygen species production, calcium mobilization, phospholipase C activation, and TXB2 production. PBL inhibited platelet aggregation via both its antioxidative effects and effects on TXB2 and PGD2 production. Effects of AN and PBL on platelet aggregation and AA metabolism is crucial for platelet activation in the oral mucosa and cardiovascular system in BQ chewers.

  15. Aluminum induces lipid peroxidation and aggregation of human blood platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.J.C. Neiva

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al3+ intoxication is thought to play a major role in the development of Alzheimer's disease and in certain pathologic manifestations arising from long-term hemodialysis. Although the metal does not present redox capacity, it can stimulate tissue lipid peroxidation in animal models. Furthermore, in vitro studies have revealed that the fluoroaluminate complex induces diacylglycerol formation, 43-kDa protein phosphorylation and aggregation. Based on these observations, we postulated that Al3+-induced blood platelet aggregation was mediated by lipid peroxidation. Using chemiluminescence (CL of luminol as an index of total lipid peroxidation capacity, we established a correlation between lipid peroxidation capacity and platelet aggregation. Al3+ (20-100 µM stimulated CL production by human blood platelets as well as their aggregation. Incubation of the platelets with the antioxidants nor-dihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA (100 µM and n-propyl gallate (NPG (100 µM, inhibitors of the lipoxygenase pathway, completely prevented CL and platelet aggregation. Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA (100 µM, an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase pathway, was a weaker inhibitor of both events. These findings suggest that Al3+ stimulates lipid peroxidation and the lipoxygenase pathway in human blood platelets thereby causing their aggregation

  16. Parsley extract inhibits in vitro and ex vivo platelet aggregation and prolongs bleeding time in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadi, Dounia; Bnouham, Mohamed; Aziz, Mohammed; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Legrand, Chantal; Lafeve, Françoise Fauvel; Mekhfi, Hassane

    2009-08-17

    Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with an increase in blood platelet activity. In Morocco, parsley (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) is one of the medicinal herbs used to treat cardiovascular diseases such as arterial hypertension. In this study, crude aqueous extract (CAE) of parsley was evaluated for its anti-platelet activity in experimental animals on platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo; and on bleeding time in vivo. The in vitro aggregation was monitored after pre-incubation of platelets with CAE. The bleeding time and ex vivo aggregation were performed after oral treatment. CAE inhibited dose dependently platelet aggregation in vitro induced by thrombin, ADP, collagen and epinephrine. The oral administration of CAE (3g/kg) inhibited significantly (pparsley may be benefit in the normalization of platelet hyperactivation, in the nutritional prevention of cardiovascular diseases and are potentially interesting in the development of new prevention strategies.

  17. Secreted Immunomodulatory Proteins of Staphylococcus aureus Activate Platelets and Induce Platelet Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsker, Ulrike; Palankar, Raghavendra; Wesche, Jan; Kohler, Thomas P; Prucha, Josephine; Burchhardt, Gerhard; Rohde, Manfred; Schmidt, Frank; Bröker, Barbara M; Mamat, Uwe; Pané-Farré, Jan; Graf, Anica; Ebner, Patrick; Greinacher, Andreas; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2018-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can cause bloodstream infections associated with infective endocarditis (IE) and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC). Both complications involve platelets. In view of an increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains, new approaches to control systemic S. aureus infection are gaining importance. Using a repertoire of 52 recombinant S. aureus proteins in flow cytometry-based platelet activation and aggregation assays, we identified, in addition to the extracellular adherence protein Eap, three secreted staphylococcal proteins as novel platelet activating proteins. Eap and the chemotaxis inhibitory protein of S. aureus (CHIPS), the formyl peptide receptor-like 1 inhibitory protein (FLIPr) and the major autolysin Atl induced P-selectin expression in washed platelets and platelet-rich plasma. Similarly, AtlA, CHIPS and Eap induced platelet aggregation in whole blood. Fluorescence microscopy illustrated that P-selectin expression is associated with calcium mobilization and re-organization of the platelet actin cytoskeleton. Characterization of the functionally active domains of the major autolysin AtlA and Eap indicates that the amidase domain of Atl and the tandem repeats 3 and 4 of Eap are crucial for platelet activation. These results provide new insights in S. aureus protein interactions with platelets and identify secreted proteins as potential treatment targets in case of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus infection. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  18. Flavonoids purified from parsley inhibit human blood platelet aggregation and adhesion to collagen under flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadi, Dounia; Bnouham, Mohamed; Aziz, Mohammed; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Bruel, Arlette; Berrabah, Mohamed; Legrand, Chantal; Fauvel-Lafeve, Françoise; Mekhfi, Hassane

    2012-08-10

    Blood platelets are directly involved in both haemostatic and pathologic thrombotic processes, through their adhesion, secretion and aggregation. In this study, we investigated the effect of genins (aglycone flavonoids without sugar group) isolated from parsley (Petroselinum crispum) leaves in vitro on human platelet aggregation and adhesion to a collagen-coated surface under physiologic flow conditions. The aggregation and adhesion studies were monitored after pre-incubation of platelets with genins. Genins inhibited dose dependently aggregation induced by thrombin, ADP and collagen. The strongest effect was observed in collagen induced aggregation (IC50 = 0.08 ± 0.01 mg/ml). The HPLC identification of genins compounds revealed the presence of keampferol, apigenin and other not identified compounds. The aggregation tests showed that these compounds have anti-aggregating activity. In addition, adhesion of human platelets to collagen was greatly decreased (over 75 %) by genins (0.3 mg/ml). While the mechanism by which genins act is unclear, we suggest that these compounds may interfere with a multiple target step in the haemostasis process. These results show that genins isolated from parsley has a potent antiplatelet activity. It may be an important source of beneficial antiplatelet compounds that decrease thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases.

  19. The Platelet Aggregation-Inducing Factor Aggrus/Podoplanin Promotes Pulmonary Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunita, Akiko; Kashima, Takeshi G.; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Fukayama, Masashi; Kato, Yukinari; Tsuruo, Takashi; Fujita, Naoya

    2007-01-01

    Tumor cell-induced platelet aggregation has been reported to facilitate hematogenous metastasis. Aggrus/podoplanin is a platelet aggregation-inducing factor that is up-regulated in a number of human cancers and has been implicated in tumor progression. We studied herein the role of Aggrus in tumor growth, metastasis, and survival in vivo. Aggrus expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells promoted pulmonary metastasis in both an experimental and a spontaneous mouse model. No differences in the size of metastatic foci or in primary tumor growth were found in either set of mice. Aggrus-expressing cells, which were covered with platelets, arrested in the lung microvasculature 30 minutes after injection. In addition, lung metastasis resulting from Aggrus expression decreased the survival of the mice. By generating several Aggrus point mutants, we revealed that point mutation at the platelet aggregation-stimulating domain of Aggrus (Thr34 and Thr52) obliterated both platelet aggregation and metastasis. Furthermore, administration of aspirin to mice reduced the number of metastatic foci. These results indicate that Aggrus contributes to the establishment of metastasis by promoting platelet aggregation without affecting subsequent growth. Thus, Aggrus could serve as an ideal therapeutic target for drug development to block metastasis. PMID:17392172

  20. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against rat platelet GPIIb/IIIa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, H.; Tamura, S.; Sudo, T.; Suzuki, T.

    1990-01-01

    Four murine monoclonal antibodies against rat platelets were produced by fusion of spleen cells from mice intravenously immunized with whole rat platelets. All four antibodies immunoprecipitated two major platelet membrane proteins with apparent molecular weights of 130,000 and 82,000 (nonreduced) and of 120,000 and 98,000 (reduced), which were structurally analogous to human glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa, i.e. rat GPIIb/IIIa. Two of four antibodies, named P9 and P55, strongly inhibited adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced aggregation of washed rat platelets and caused approximately 50% inhibition of human fibrinogen binding to ADP-stimulated rat platelets, suggesting that rat GPIIb/IIIa serves as a fibrinogen receptor in ADP-induced aggregation. In contrast, two other antibodies, named P14 and P34, themselves caused aggregation of rat platelets in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and the secretion of 14C-serotonin from 14C-serotonin-labeled PRP. These results indicate that rat GPIIb/IIIa plays an important role in platelet aggregation

  1. An Inherited Platelet Function Defect in Basset Hounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, I. B.; Lotz, F.

    1979-01-01

    An inherited platelet function defect occurring in a family of basset hounds has been described. The trait is transmitted as an autosomal characteristic and appears to be expressed clinically only in the homozygous state. The characteristics of this platelet defect include: 1) marked bleeding tendencies and prolonged skin bleeding times in either male or female dogs. 2) normal blood coagulation mechanism. 3) adequate numbers of circulating platelets which appear morphologically normal by light microscopy. 4) normal whole blood clot retraction. 5) deficient in vivo platelet consumption and in vitro platelet retention in glass bead columns. 6) defective ADP-induced platelet aggregation in homozygotes, apparently normal ADP response in heterozygotes, and defective collagen-induced platelet aggregation in both. PMID:509382

  2. Comparison of the effects of isobutylmethylxanthine and milrinone on ischaemia-induced arrhythmias and platelet aggregation in anaesthetized rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, M.; Coker, S. J.

    1989-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the non-selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) and the selective PDE III inhibitor, milrinone, in a rabbit model of acute myocardial ischaemia. 2. Coronary artery occlusion caused changes in the ST-segment of the ECG and ectopic activity in all control rabbits. Ventricular fibrillation occurred in 10 out of 14 (71%) of these animals. Pretreatment with IBMX 100 micrograms kg-1 plus 10 micrograms kg-1 min-1, starting 10 min before coronary artery occlusion, reduced ischaemia-induced ST-segment changes and ventricular fibrillation occurred in only 10% of this group (n = 10). A similar dose of milrinone had no antiarrhythmic activity, whereas with a lower dose of milrinone, 30 micrograms kg-1 plus 3 micrograms kg-1 min-1 (n = 10), only 30% of rabbits fibrillated and ST-segment changes were attenuated. 3. Acute administration of both IBMX and milrinone reduced arterial blood pressure. With the higher dose of milrinone a significant effect was still present after 10 min of drug infusion. A greater hypotensive response to the higher dose of milrinone was observed in the rabbits which subsequently fibrillated during ischaemia. A marked tachycardia was also observed after administration of the higher dose of milrinone. 4. At the end of the experiment platelet aggregation was studied ex vivo. ADP-induced aggregation was reduced by pretreatment of the rabbits with milrinone but not IBMX. Both PDE inhibitors enhanced the ability of isoprenaline to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation but milrinone was more effective, particularly at the higher dose.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2478245

  3. Echicetin coated polystyrene beads: a novel tool to investigate GPIb-specific platelet activation and aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Navdaev

    Full Text Available von Willebrand factor/ristocetin (vWF/R induces GPIb-dependent platelet agglutination and activation of αIIbβ3 integrin, which also binds vWF. These conditions make it difficult to investigate GPIb-specific signaling pathways in washed platelets. Here, we investigated the specific mechanisms of GPIb signaling using echicetin-coated polystyrene beads, which specifically activate GPIb. We compared platelet activation induced by echicetin beads to vWF/R. Human platelets were stimulated with polystyrene beads coated with increasing amounts of echicetin and platelet activation by echicetin beads was then investigated to reveal GPIb specific signaling. Echicetin beads induced αIIbβ3-dependent aggregation of washed platelets, while under the same conditions vWF/R treatment led only to αIIbβ3-independent platelet agglutination. The average distance between the echicetin molecules on the polystyrene beads must be less than 7 nm for full platelet activation, while the total amount of echicetin used for activation is not critical. Echicetin beads induced strong phosphorylation of several proteins including p38, ERK and PKB. Synergistic signaling via P2Y12 and thromboxane receptor through secreted ADP and TxA2, respectively, were important for echicetin bead triggered platelet activation. Activation of PKG by the NO/sGC/cGMP pathway inhibited echicetin bead-induced platelet aggregation. Echicetin-coated beads are powerful and reliable tools to study signaling in human platelets activated solely via GPIb and GPIb-triggered pathways.

  4. Echicetin Coated Polystyrene Beads: A Novel Tool to Investigate GPIb-Specific Platelet Activation and Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petunin, Alexey; Clemetson, Kenneth J.; Gambaryan, Stepan; Walter, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    von Willebrand factor/ristocetin (vWF/R) induces GPIb-dependent platelet agglutination and activation of αIIbβ3 integrin, which also binds vWF. These conditions make it difficult to investigate GPIb-specific signaling pathways in washed platelets. Here, we investigated the specific mechanisms of GPIb signaling using echicetin-coated polystyrene beads, which specifically activate GPIb. We compared platelet activation induced by echicetin beads to vWF/R. Human platelets were stimulated with polystyrene beads coated with increasing amounts of echicetin and platelet activation by echicetin beads was then investigated to reveal GPIb specific signaling. Echicetin beads induced αIIbβ3-dependent aggregation of washed platelets, while under the same conditions vWF/R treatment led only to αIIbβ3-independent platelet agglutination. The average distance between the echicetin molecules on the polystyrene beads must be less than 7 nm for full platelet activation, while the total amount of echicetin used for activation is not critical. Echicetin beads induced strong phosphorylation of several proteins including p38, ERK and PKB. Synergistic signaling via P2Y12 and thromboxane receptor through secreted ADP and TxA2, respectively, were important for echicetin bead triggered platelet activation. Activation of PKG by the NO/sGC/cGMP pathway inhibited echicetin bead-induced platelet aggregation. Echicetin-coated beads are powerful and reliable tools to study signaling in human platelets activated solely via GPIb and GPIb-triggered pathways. PMID:24705415

  5. Antiplatelet Effects of Qishen Yiqi Dropping Pill in Platelets Aggregation in Hyperlipidemic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of Qishen Yiqi Dropping Pill (QSYQ on platelets aggregation and its possible mechanisms. Hyperlipidemic model in rabbits was produced by a high fat/cholesterol diet for 6 weeks, the therapeutic effect of QSYQ with 2.0 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg, and 0.5 g/kg was observed. Fourteen days after drug treatment, platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP, arachidonic acid (AA, and collagen (COLL was significantly reduced in rabbits of model group. Moreover, β-thromboglobulin (β-TG level decreased obviously but no significant change in P-selectin and platelet factor 4 (PF4 level, while QSYQ significantly decreased the ratio of thromboxane B2 (TXB2 to 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-Keto-PGF1α and increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP level in rabbits. In summary, QSYQ can improve platelets aggregation and inhibit the over-release of β-TG in hyperlipidemic rabbits; and the increased cAMP level may be involved in this process. These results suggest that the antiplatelet aggregation effect of QSYQ may be due to its ability to increase cAMP level for improving cAMP metabolism.

  6. Collagen induced aggregation of platelets and release of 14C serotonin from platelets depending on temperature and pH during in vitro storage of platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, J.

    1978-01-01

    The paper investigates collagen-induced platelet aggregation and 14 C serotonin release in dependence of age, temperature, and pH value during the storage of the conserved platelets. The optimum pH (with adjusted CO 2 /air mixture) for platelet storage is found to be pH 6.9. The optimum temperature for platelet storage is 4-8 0 C. After 12, 24, or 48 hours of storage at pH 6.9 and 4-8 0 C and subsequent heating of the platelet-rich plasma to 37 0 C for 30 minutes, the values determined for collagen-induced platelet aggregation and 14 C serotonin release rarely differed from the initial values before storage. Cold-induced spontaneous platelet aggregation and serotonin release of the platelets stored at 4-8 0 C can be avoided by 30-60 minutes pre-incubation of the platelets at 37 0 C before transfusions. The in vitro findings for collagen-induced platelet aggregation and 14 C serotonin release indicate that platelet storage for 24-48 hours at pH 6.9 and 4-8 0 C may be permissible also for clinical purposes. The problem remains open whether the clinical effect of these platelets is still sufficient after 48 hours of storage, but literature findings suggest that this may well be the case. (orig.) [de

  7. Inhibitory Effect of Flavonolignans on the P2Y12 Pathway in Blood Platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijak, Michal; Szelenberger, Rafal; Dziedzic, Angela; Saluk-Bijak, Joanna

    2018-02-10

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is the major platelet agonist, which is important in the shape changes, stability, and growth of the thrombus. Platelet activation by ADP is associated with the G protein-coupled receptors P2Y1 and P2Y12. The pharmacologic blockade of the P2Y12 receptor significantly reduces the risk of peripheral artery disease, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and vascular death. Recent studies demonstrated the inhibition of ADP-induced blood platelet activation by three major compounds of the flavonolignans group: silybin, silychristin, and silydianin. For this reason, the aim of the current work was to verify the effects of silybin, silychristin, and silydianin on ADP-induced physiological platelets responses, as well as mechanisms of P2Y12-dependent intracellular signal transduction. We evaluated the effect of tested flavonolignans on ADP-induced blood platelets' aggregation in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) (using light transmission aggregometry), adhesion to fibrinogen (using the static method), and the secretion of PF-4 (using the ELISA method). Additionally, using the double labeled flow cytometry method, we estimated platelet vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation. We demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction of blood platelets' ability to perform ADP-induced aggregation, adhere to fibrinogen, and secrete PF-4 in samples treated with flavonolignans. Additionally, we observed that all of the tested flavonolignans were able to increase VASP phosphorylation in blood platelets samples, which is correlated with P2Y12 receptor inhibition. All of these analyses show that silychristin and silybin have the strongest inhibitory effect on blood platelet activation by ADP, while silydianin also inhibits the ADP pathway, but to a lesser extent. The results obtained in this study clearly demonstrate that silybin, silychristin, and silydianin have inhibitory properties against the P2Y12 receptor and block ADP-induced blood platelet

  8. Combined blockade of ADP receptors and PI3-kinase p110β fully prevents platelet and leukocyte activation during hypothermic extracorporeal circulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Krajewski

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal circulation (ECC and hypothermia are used to maintain stable circulatory parameters and improve the ischemia tolerance of patients in cardiac surgery. However, ECC and hypothermia induce activation mechanisms in platelets and leukocytes, which are mediated by the platelet agonist ADP and the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K p110β. Under clinical conditions these processes are associated with life-threatening complications including thromboembolism and inflammation. This study analyzes effects of ADP receptor P(2Y(12 and P(2Y(1 blockade and PI3K p110β inhibition on platelets and granulocytes during hypothermic ECC. Human blood was treated with the P(2Y(12 antagonist 2-MeSAMP, the P(2Y(1 antagonist MRS2179, the PI3K p110β inhibitor TGX-221, combinations thereof, or PBS and propylene glycol (controls. Under static in vitro conditions a concentration-dependent effect regarding the inhibition of ADP-induced platelet activation was found using 2-MeSAMP or TGX-221. Further inhibition of ADP-mediated effects was achieved with MRS2179. Next, blood was circulated in an ex vivo ECC model at 28°C for 30 minutes and various platelet and granulocyte markers were investigated using flow cytometry, ELISA and platelet count analysis. GPIIb/IIIa activation induced by hypothermic ECC was inhibited using TGX-221 alone or in combination with P(2Y blockers (p<0.05, while no effect of hypothermic ECC or antiplatelet agents on GPIIb/IIIa and GPIbα expression and von Willebrand factor binding was observed. Sole P(2Y and PI3K blockade or a combination thereof inhibited P-selectin expression on platelets and platelet-derived microparticles during hypothermic ECC (p<0.05. P(2Y blockade alone or combined with TGX-221 prevented ECC-induced platelet-granulocyte aggregate formation (p<0.05. Platelet adhesion to the ECC surface, platelet loss and Mac-1 expression on granulocytes were inhibited by combined P(2Y and PI3K blockade (p<0.05. Combined blockade of P

  9. Anti-platelet activity of water dispersible curcuminoids in rat platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswaraiah, Anikisetty; Rao, Lingamallu Jaganmohan; Naidu, Kamatham Akhilender

    2015-03-01

    Curcuminoids are active principle of turmeric with plethora of health beneficial properties. In this study, we have evaluated for the first time the effect of water dispersible curcuminoids on rat platelet aggregation. Curcuminoids (10-30 µg/mL) significantly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by agonists viz., collagen, ADP and arachidonic acid. Curcuminoids were found to be two-fold more potent than curcumin in inhibiting platelet aggregation. Intracellular curcuminoid concentration was relatively higher than curcumin in rat platelets. Curcuminoids significantly attenuated thromboxane A2 , serotonin levels in rat platelets which play an important role in platelet aggregation. Curcuminoid treatment increased nitric oxide (NO) levels in platelets treated with agonists. Curcuminoids inhibited free radicals such as superoxide anion released from activated platelets, which ultimately inhibits platelet aggregation. Further, curcuminoids inhibited 12-lipoxygenase activity and formation of 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HPETE) in activated rat platelets which regulates platelet aggregation. The results suggest that curcuminoids have remarkable anti-platelet activity by modulating multiple mechanisms involved in platelet aggregation. Thus curcuminoids may have a therapeutic potential to prevent platelet activation related disorders. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Thiols in the alphaIIbbeta3 integrin are necessary for platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Nagaraj; Sun, Xiuhua; Hakala, Kevin W; Weintraub, Susan T; Essex, David W

    2008-07-01

    Sulfhydryl groups of platelet surface proteins are important in platelet aggregation. While p-chloromercuribenzene sulphonate (pCMBS) has been used in most studies on platelet surface thiols, the specific thiol-proteins that pCMBS reacts with to inhibit aggregation have not been well defined. Since the thiol-containing P2Y(12) ADP receptor is involved in most types of platelet aggregation, we used the ADP scavenger apyrase and the P2Y(12) receptor antagonist 2-MeSAMP to examine thiol-dependent reactions in the absence of contributions from this receptor. We provide evidence for a non-P2Y(12) thiol-dependent reaction near the final alphaIIbbeta3-dependent events of aggregation. We then used 3-(N-maleimidylpropionyl)biocytin (MPB) and pCMBS to study thiols in alphaIIbbeta3. As previously reported, disruption of the receptor was required to obtain labelling of thiols with MPB. Specificity of labelling for thiols in the alphaIIb and beta3 subunits was confirmed by identification of the purified proteins by mass spectrometry and by inhibition of labelling with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid). In contrast to MPB, pCMBS preferentially reacted with thiols in alphaIIbbeta3 and blocked aggregation under physiological conditions. Similarly, pCMBS preferentially inhibited signalling-independent activation of alphaIIbbeta3 by Mn(2+). Our results suggest that the thiols in alphaIIbbeta3 that are blocked by pCMBS are important in the activation of this integrin.

  11. Gallic Acid Attenuates Platelet Activation and Platelet-Leukocyte Aggregation: Involving Pathways of Akt and GSK3β

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Sheng; Lee, Viola S. Y.; Tseng, Yu-Lun; Chang, Kuan-Cheng; Chen, Kuen-Bao; Chen, Yuh-Lien; Li, Chi-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Platelet activation and its interaction with leukocytes play an important role in atherothrombosis. Cardiovascular diseases resulted from atherothrombosis remain the major causes of death worldwide. Gallic acid, a major constituent of red wine and tea, has been believed to have properties of cardiovascular protection, which is likely to be related to its antioxidant effects. Nonetheless, there were few and inconsistent data regarding the effects of gallic acid on platelet function. Therefore, we designed this in vitro study to determine whether gallic acid could inhibit platelet activation and the possible mechanisms. From our results, gallic acid could concentration-dependently inhibit platelet aggregation, P-selectin expression, and platelet-leukocyte aggregation. Gallic acid prevented the elevation of intracellular calcium and attenuated phosphorylation of PKCα/p38 MAPK and Akt/GSK3β on platelets stimulated by the stimulants ADP or U46619. This is the first mechanistic explanation for the inhibitory effects on platelets from gallic acid. PMID:22811749

  12. Gallic Acid Attenuates Platelet Activation and Platelet-Leukocyte Aggregation: Involving Pathways of Akt and GSK3β

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Sheng Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet activation and its interaction with leukocytes play an important role in atherothrombosis. Cardiovascular diseases resulted from atherothrombosis remain the major causes of death worldwide. Gallic acid, a major constituent of red wine and tea, has been believed to have properties of cardiovascular protection, which is likely to be related to its antioxidant effects. Nonetheless, there were few and inconsistent data regarding the effects of gallic acid on platelet function. Therefore, we designed this in vitro study to determine whether gallic acid could inhibit platelet activation and the possible mechanisms. From our results, gallic acid could concentration-dependently inhibit platelet aggregation, P-selectin expression, and platelet-leukocyte aggregation. Gallic acid prevented the elevation of intracellular calcium and attenuated phosphorylation of PKCα/p38 MAPK and Akt/GSK3β on platelets stimulated by the stimulants ADP or U46619. This is the first mechanistic explanation for the inhibitory effects on platelets from gallic acid.

  13. Podoplanin enhances lung cancer cell growth in vivo by inducing platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kenichi; Takemoto, Ai; Okumura, Sakae; Nishio, Makoto; Fujita, Naoya

    2017-06-22

    Podoplanin/Aggrus, known as a platelet aggregation-inducing factor, is frequently overexpressed in lung squamous cell carcinomas (LSCC) and glioblastomas among other tumours, and its expression has been reported to be correlated with poor prognosis. However, the contribution of podoplanin to malignant progression has been elusive. Here we demonstrate that in podoplanin-positive LSCC cells, their growth was abrogated by podoplanin knockout in vivo but not in vitro. Conversely, ectopic expression of podoplanin promoted cell growth in vivo and facilitated intratumoral platelet activation. Consistently, LSCC cells evoked podoplanin-mediated platelet aggregation (PMPA), and the releasates from platelets during PMPA promoted the growth of LSCC cells in vitro. Phospho-receptor-tyrosine-kinase array analysis revealed that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation of LSCC cells was responsible for the growth promotion induced by platelet releasates. Treatment with an antiplatelet agent or podoplanin-neutralizing antibody depressed the growth of an LSCC tumour xenograft via suppression of EGFR phosphorylation. These results suggested that podoplanin in LSCC enhanced cell growth by inducing PMPA in vivo and contributed to malignant progression.

  14. Determinants of platelet aggregation in 50-70-year-old men from three Japanese communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imano, Hironori; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sato, Shinichi; Kitamura, Akihiko; Okamura, Tomonori; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Ohira, Tetsuya; Kudo, Minako; Naito, Yoshihiko; Iida, Minoru; Shimamoto, Takashi

    2002-12-01

    To investigate the association of lifestyle and constitutional variables with platelet aggregation, we examined the platelet aggregation, serum fatty acid composition, alcohol intake, smoking, and dietary intake of seafood and soybean estimated by a 1-week dietary record in 448 males aged 50-70 in three rural Japanese communities: Ikawa, Akita prefecture (northeast coast), Noichi, Kochi prefecture (southwest coast), and Kyowa, Ibaraki prefecture (central inland). Platelet aggregatory threshold index (PATI) was used to determine the minimum concentration of adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) that caused a non-reversible aggregation of platelets. Intake of seafood and n3-polyunsaturated fatty acid and ingestion of ethanol were higher in the northeast coastal community than in the other two communities. Mean platelet and white blood cell counts were lower in northeast coastal community than in the other two communities. The geometric mean PATI was higher (i.e. platelet aggregation was lower) in the northeast coastal community than the other two communities. Within the entire sample, platelet aggregation correlated inversely with serum level of n3-polyunsaturated fatty acids and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, an index of alcohol consumption, and positively with platelet and white blood cell counts. Platelet aggregation tended to correlate positively with serum arachidonic acid. There was no correlation between smoking and platelet aggregation. Our results suggest that seafood intake and moderate alcohol consumption reduce platelet aggregation.

  15. Isolation and characterization of two disintegrins inhibiting ADP-induced human platelet aggregation from the venom of Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mohave Rattlesnake)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Elda E.; Galan, Jacob A.; Russell, William K.; Soto, Julio G.; Russell, David H.; Perez, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Disintegrins and disintegrin-like proteins are molecules found in the venom of four snake families (Atractaspididae, Elapidae, Viperidae, and Colubridae). The disintegrins are nonenzymatic proteins that inhibit cell-cell interactions, cell-matrix interactions, and signal transduction, and may have potential in the treatment of strokes, heart attacks, cancers, and osteoporosis. Prior to 1983, the venom of Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mohave Rattlesnake) was known to be only neurotoxic; however, now there is evidence that these snakes can contain venom with: (1) neurotoxins; (2) hemorrhagins; and (3) both neurotoxins and hemorrhagins. In this study, two disintegrins, mojastin 1 and mojastin 2, from the venom of a Mohave rattlesnake collected in central Arizona (Pinal County), were isolated and characterized. The disintegrins in these venoms were identified by mass-analyzed laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI/TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry as having masses of 7.436 and 7.636 kDa. Their amino acid sequences are similar to crotratroxin, a disintegrin isolated from the venom of the western diamondback rattlesnake (C. atrox). The amino acid sequence of mojastin 1 was identical to the amino acid sequence of a disintegrin isolated from the venom of the Timber rattlesnake (C. horridus). The disintegrins from the Mohave rattlesnake venom were able to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole human blood both having IC 5 s of 13.8 nM, but were not effective in inhibiting the binding of human urinary bladder carcinoma cells (T24) to fibronectin

  16. Effects of heparin on platelet aggregation and release and thromboxane A2 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, S.F.; Anderson, W.H.; Smith, J.B.; Chuang, H.Y.; Mason, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    Heparin, when added to citrated platelet-rich plasma (PRP), caused potentiation of platelet aggregation and the release reaction induced by the aggregating agents adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid, collagen, and epinephrine. At low concentrations (4.7 x 10(-5) M) arachidonic acid failed to cause aggregation of platelets in citrated PRP. However, in the presence of heparin, the same concentration of arachidonic acid caused aggregation. Examination of PRP for the presence of thromboxane A2 (TxA2) by use of a bioassay revealed that heparin also stimulated release of TxA2. This finding indicated that platelets released more TxA2 when they were challenged by low concentrations of arachidonic acid in the presence of heparin than in its absence. Platelets were labeled with 3 H-arachidonic acid and 14 C-serotonin, and attempts were made to determine whether heparin stimulated the platelet release reaction first with subsequent increased production of TxA2, or alternatively, whether heparin stimulated TxA2 production first with subsequent enhancement of the release reaction. In view of the demonstrated simultaneous release of 14 C-serotonin and 3 H-arachidonic acid metabolites, it appeared that either release of 14 C and 3 H occurs concurrently or, even if one of these events is dependent on the other, both events take place in rapid succession. Timed sequential studies revealed that in the presence of arachidonic acid, the addition of heparin hastened the apparently simultaneous release of both 14 C and 3 H

  17. Nattokinase improves blood flow by inhibiting platelet aggregation and thrombus formation

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Ja-Young; Kim, Tae-Su; Cai, Jingmei; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Youngeun; Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Kwang Sei; Park, Sung Kyeong; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Rhee, Man Hee; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2013-01-01

    The effects of nattokinase on the in vitro platelet aggregation and in vivo thrombosis were investigated in comparison with aspirin. Rabbit platelet-rich plasma was incubated with nattokinase and aggregation inducers collagen and thrombin, and the platelet aggregation rate was analyzed. Nattokinase significantly inhibited both the collagen- and thrombin-induced platelet aggregations. Nattokinase also reduced thromboxane B2 formation from collagen-activated platelets in a concentration-depende...

  18. Podoplanin expression in primary brain tumors induces platelet aggregation and increases risk of venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Julia; Preusser, Matthias; Nazari, Pegah Mir Seyed; Posch, Florian; Panzer, Simon; Marosi, Christine; Birner, Peter; Thaler, Johannes; Brostjan, Christine; Lötsch, Daniela; Berger, Walter; Hainfellner, Johannes A; Pabinger, Ingrid; Ay, Cihan

    2017-03-30

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in patients with brain tumors, and underlying mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that podoplanin, a sialomucin-like glycoprotein, increases the risk of VTE in primary brain tumors via its ability to induce platelet aggregation. Immunohistochemical staining against podoplanin and intratumoral platelet aggregates was performed in brain tumor specimens of 213 patients (mostly high-grade gliomas [89%]) included in the Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study, a prospective observational cohort study of patients with newly diagnosed cancer or progressive disease aimed at identifying patients at risk of VTE. Platelet aggregation in response to primary human glioblastoma cells was investigated in vitro. During 2-year follow-up, 29 (13.6%) patients developed VTE. One-hundred fifty-one tumor specimens stained positive for podoplanin (33 high expression, 47 medium expression, 71 low expression). Patients with podoplanin-positive tumors had lower peripheral blood platelet counts ( P < .001) and higher D-dimer levels ( P < .001). Podoplanin staining intensity was associated with increasing levels of intravascular platelet aggregates in tumor specimens ( P < .001). High podoplanin expression was associated with an increased risk of VTE (hazard ratio for high vs no podoplanin expression: 5.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.52-21.26; P = 010), independent of age, sex, and tumor type. Podoplanin-positive primary glioblastoma cells induced aggregation of human platelets in vitro, which could be abrogated by an antipodoplanin antibody. In conclusion, high podoplanin expression in primary brain tumors induces platelet aggregation, correlates with hypercoagulability, and is associated with increased risk of VTE. Our data indicate novel insights into the pathogenesis of VTE in primary brain tumors. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  19. Comparative study of heavy and deuterium-depleted water on platelet aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haulica, I.; Neagu, B.; Boisteanu, C.P.; Bild, W.; Mihaila, C.; Bajenariu, M.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of timed incubation of PRP (Platelet-Rich Plasma) with various concentrations of deuterium-depleted or deuterated water were tested. Aggregation curves were obtained under constant stirring at 20 deg.C and at 37 deg.C, using 5 - 10 μM ADP as aggregation trigger, using a Specord photo colorimeter. Incubation with 10 % deuterated water showed a significant decrease in the aggregation curves, an effect consistent with the data in the literature. Incubation with deuterium depleted water in the same conditions showed a marked increase in the aggregation curves, which suggests a powerful pro-aggregating effect of deuterium depleted water. (authors)

  20. Platelet inhibition by nitrite is dependent on erythrocytes and deoxygenation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirada Srihirun

    Full Text Available Nitrite is a nitric oxide (NO metabolite in tissues and blood, which can be converted to NO under hypoxia to facilitate tissue perfusion. Although nitrite is known to cause vasodilation following its reduction to NO, the effect of nitrite on platelet activity remains unclear. In this study, the effect of nitrite and nitrite+erythrocytes, with and without deoxygenation, on platelet activity was investigated.Platelet aggregation was studied in platelet-rich plasma (PRP and PRP+erythrocytes by turbidimetric and impedance aggregometry, respectively. In PRP, DEANONOate inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP while nitrite had no effect on platelets. In PRP+erythrocytes, the inhibitory effect of DEANONOate on platelets decreased whereas nitrite at physiologic concentration (0.1 µM inhibited platelet aggregation and ATP release. The effect of nitrite+erythrocytes on platelets was abrogated by C-PTIO (a membrane-impermeable NO scavenger, suggesting an NO-mediated action. Furthermore, deoxygenation enhanced the effect of nitrite as observed from a decrease of P-selectin expression and increase of the cGMP levels in platelets. The ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole blood showed inverse correlations with the nitrite levels in whole blood and erythrocytes.Nitrite alone at physiological levels has no effect on platelets in plasma. Nitrite in the presence of erythrocytes inhibits platelets through its reduction to NO, which is promoted by deoxygenation. Nitrite may have role in modulating platelet activity in the circulation, especially during hypoxia.

  1. Measurement of platelet aggregation, independently of patient platelet count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinholt, P J; Frederiksen, H; Hvas, A-M

    2017-01-01

    with collagen-related peptide). Platelet aggregation had a negative predictive value of 100% for a bleeding tendency among patients. Conclusion The established platelet aggregation assay was applicable for thrombocytopenic patients, and improved the identification of bleeding risk.......Essentials •Platelet function may influence bleeding risk in thrombocytopenia, but useful tests are needed. •A flow cytometric platelet aggregation test independent of the patient platelet count was made. •Platelet aggregation was reduced in thrombocytopenic patients with hematological cancer....... •High platelet aggregation ruled out bleeding tendency in thrombocytopenic patients. Summary Background Methods for testing platelet aggregation in thrombocytopenia are lacking. Objective To establish a flow-cytometric test of in vitro platelet aggregation independently of the patient's platelet count...

  2. The nature of interactions between tissue-type plasminogen activator and platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torr, S.R.; Winters, K.J.; Santoro, S.A.; Sobel, B.E.

    1990-01-01

    To elucidate interactions responsible for inhibition of aggregation of platelets in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) harvested from whole blood preincubated with t-PA, experiments were performed with PRP and washed platelets under diverse conditions of preincubation. Both ADP and collagen induced aggregation were inhibited in PRP unless aprotinin had been added to the preincubated whole blood concomitantly with t-PA. However, in washed platelets prepared after the same exposure aggregation was intact. When washed platelets were supplemented with fibrinogen degradation products (FDPs) in concentrations simulating those in whole blood preincubated with t-PA, aggregation induced with either ADP or collagen was inhibited. Thus, the inhibition in PRP depended on generation of FDPs by activated plasminogen. The functional integrity of surface glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptors in washed platelets was documented by autoradiography after SDS-PAGE of surface labeled GPs and by fibrinogen binding despite preincubation of the whole blood or washed platelets themselves with t-PA and plasminogen as long as exogenous calcium (greater than or equal to 0.1 microM) was present. In contrast, when calcium was absent, the platelet GP IIb/IIIa receptor was rendered susceptible to degradation by plasmin, and aggregation was inhibited by preincubation at 37 degrees C even if aprotinin was present when aggregation was being assayed. These observations reconcile disparate results in the literature from studies in vivo and in vitro by demonstrating that inhibition of aggregation of platelets in PRP and in whole blood reflects indirect effects of plasminogen activation rather than direct effects of t-PA or plasmin on the platelets themselves

  3. Platelet aggregation and quality control of platelet concentrates produced in the Amazon Blood Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Dantas Coêlho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The study of platelet aggregation is essential to assess in vitro platelet function by different platelet activation pathways. OBJECTIVE: To assess aggregation and biochemical parameters of random platelet concentrates produced at the Fundação HEMOAM using the quality control tests defined by law. METHODS: Whole blood samples from 80 donors and the respective platelet concentrate units were tested. Platelet concentrates were tested (platelet count, aggregation and pH on days 1, 3 and 5 of storage. Additionally a leukocyte count was done only on day 1 and microbiological tests on day 5 of storage. Collagen and adenosine diphosphate were used as inducing agonists for platelet aggregation testing. RESULTS: Donor whole blood had normal aggregation (aggregation with adenosine diphosphate = 67% and with collagen = 78%. The median aggregation in platelet concentrates with adenosine diphosphate was low throughout storage (18% on day 1, 7% on day 3 and 6% on day 5 and the median aggregation with collagen was normal only on day 1 and low thereafter (54.4% on day 1, 20.5% on day 3 and 9% on day 5. CONCLUSION: Although the results were within the norms required by law, platelet concentrates had low aggregation rates. We suggest the inclusion of a functional assessment test for the quality control of platelet concentrates for a more effective response to platelet replacement therapy.

  4. Combined aspirin and cilostazol treatment is associated with reduced platelet aggregation and prevention of exercise-induced platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleanthis, M; Bhattacharya, V; Smout, J; Ashour, H; Stansby, G

    2009-05-01

    Cilostazol has proven efficacy in increasing walking distance in claudicants, but it has not been demonstrated to be more effective than placebo in secondary cardiovascular prevention. The direct effect of exercise on platelet function remains less well defined. We have investigated the effect of combination treatment with aspirin and cilostazol on platelet activity in claudicants subjected to repeated treadmill exercise. Nineteen claudicants completed a double-blind, randomised, controlled, cross-over trial. Each subject received a 2-week course of aspirin (75mg) and placebo and aspirin and cilostazol (100mg twice daily). Following each 2-week treatment period, patients participated in a standardised treadmill test (3.2kmh(-1), 10 degrees incline) walking to maximal claudication distance. The exercise was repeated thrice in total, and blood was sampled before and after exercise. Platelet activation was measured using free platelet counting aggregation, flow cytometry for surface markers of platelet activation and soluble P-selectin assay. Compared to aspirin and placebo, combination treatment with aspirin and cilostazol was associated with reduced arachidonic-acid-induced platelet aggregation (pWilcoxon signed-rank test). Aspirin and placebo treatment were associated with elevated P-selectin expression, platelet-monocyte aggregation and reduced CD42b expression (pWilcoxon signed-rank test) post-exercise. No difference was seen in spontaneous platelet aggregation whilst soluble P-selectin was reduced post-exercise with combination treatment with aspirin and cilostazol (pWilcoxon signed-rank test). Combination treatment with aspirin and cilostazol results in suppression of platelet activation and reduces the effect of exercise on platelets. The benefit seen may be a result of cilostazol enhancing the inhibitory effect of aspirin on the cyclo-oxygenase pathway.

  5. Granulocyte-platelet interactions and platelet fibrinogen receptor exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornecki, E.; Ehrlich, Y.H.; Egbring, R.; Gramse, M.; Seitz, R.; Eckardt, A.; Lukasiewicz, H.; Niewiarowski, S.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have examined the interaction of human granulocyte elastase with human platelets. Incubation of human platelets with human granulocyte elastase exposed active fibrinogen-binding sites as evidenced by 125 I-labeled fibrinogen binding and spontaneous fibrinogen-induced platelet aggregation. The aggregation of platelets by fibrinogen occurred at low concentrations of human granulocyte elastase. Platelets pretreated with human granulocyte elastase exposed an average of 10,500 fibrinogen-binding sites per platelet, i.e., about one-third the number of binding sites exposed by optimal concentrations of ADP. With the use of a polyclonal antiplatelet membrane antibody, the glycoproteins IIb (GPIIb), IIIa (GPIIIa), and a 60,000-Da (60 kDa) protein (66 kDa in a reduced system) derived from GPIIIa were immunoprecipitated from the surface of detergent extracts of human 125 I-radiolabeled platelets pretreated with increasing concentrations of human granulocyte elastase. They conclude that (1) the proteolytic action of human granulocyte elastase on platelet GPIIIa results in the formation of two major hydrolytic products, and (2) human granulocyte elastase exposes active fibrongen-binding sites associated with the GPIIb/GPIIIa complex, resulting in direct platelet aggregation by fibrinogen

  6. Ristocetin induces phosphorylated-HSP27 (HSPB1) release from the platelets of type 2 DM patients: Anti-platelet agent-effect on the release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Haruhiko; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Onuma, Takashi; Enomoto, Yukiko; Doi, Tomoaki; Iida, Hiroki; Otsuka, Takanobu; Ogura, Shinji; Iwama, Toru; Kojima, Kumi; Kozawa, Osamu

    2018-04-01

    It has been previously reported that HSP27 is released from platelets in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients according to phosphorylation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ristocetin, a glycoprotein (GP)Ib/IX/V activator, on the release of HSP27 and the effect of anti-platelet agents, such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), on this release. Forty-six patients with type 2 DM were recruited, and classified into two groups depending on administration of anti-platelet agents, resulting in 31 patients without these agents (control group) and 15 patients with them (anti-platelet group). Ristocetin potently induced the aggregation of platelets in the two groups. Ristocetin-induced changes of the area under the curve of light transmittance and the ratio of the size of platelet aggregates in the anti-platelet group were slightly different from those in the control group. On the other hand, the levels of phosphorylated-HSP27 induced by ristocetin in the platelets from a patient of the anti-platelet group taking ASA were significantly lower than those from a patient of the control group. The levels of HSP27 release from the ristocetin-stimulated platelets were significantly correlated with the levels of phosphorylated-HSP27 in the platelets from patients in the two groups. The levels of HSP27 release and those of platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB) secretion stimulated by ristocetin in the anti-platelet group were lower than those in the control group. In addition, the levels of HSP27 release and those of PDGF-AB secretion stimulated by ADP in the anti-platelet group were lower than those in the control group. These results strongly suggest that anti-platelet agents inhibit the HSP27 release from platelets stimulated by ristocetin but not the aggregation in type 2 DM patients.

  7. The effects of bupivacaine and pipecoloxylidide on platelet function in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odoom, J. A.; Sturk, A.; Dokter, P. W.; Bovill, J. G.; ten Cate, J. W.; Oosting, J.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of bupivacaine and its major metabolite, pipecoloxylidide, on human platelet function was studied in vitro. Significant inhibition of ADP and collagen-induced platelet aggregation occurred only with concentrations of bupivacaine above 10 micrograms.ml-1. This concentration (10-25

  8. Assessment of platelet function in healthy sedated cats using three whole blood platelet function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kimberly K; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C G; Wood, R Darren; O'Sullivan, M Lynne; Kirby, Gordon M; Blois, Shauna L

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to establish feline references intervals for 3 commercial whole blood platelet function test analyzer systems: Multiplate analyzer (MP; Roche Diagnostics International Ltd., Rotkreuz, Switzerland), Platelet Function Analyzer-100 (PF: Siemens Canada, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada), and Plateletworks Combo-25 kit (PW; Helena Laboratories, Beaumont, TX). Venipuncture was performed on 55 healthy sedated cats, and platelet aggregation in response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen (COL), and arachidonic acid (AA; MP only) was assessed using citrated blood. For the MP analyzer, median (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) area under curve (Units) for ADP, COL, and AA agonists were 87 (11-176), 81 (32-129), and 91 (59-129), respectively. For the PF analyzer, median (95% CIs) closure time, using COL-ADP cartridges, was 69 (46-89) sec. For the PW assay, median (95% CIs) percent aggregations for ADP and COL agonists were 71 (18-92) and 49 (9-96), respectively, using impedance hematology analyzer platelet counts, and 94 (25-98) and 68 (14-119), respectively, using flow cytometry hematology analyzer platelet counts. There were low correlations between the PF analyzer (COL-ADP cartridge) and MP analyzer (COL agonist; ρ = 0.11), and between the PF analyzer (COL-ADP cartridge) and PW assay (COL agonist using impedance platelet counts; ρ = 0.14). The PW assay percent aggregations using impedance and flow cytometric platelet counts were correlated for both ADP (ρ = 0.64) and COL (ρ = 0.64) agonists. Platelet function testing using these tests are feasible in cats, but 95% CIs are wide, so single results may be difficult to interpret. Platelet counting by impedance or flow cytometry may be used for the PW assay but are not interchangeable. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Effect of supine exercise on platelet aggregation and fibrinolytic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dag, B; Fornitz, Gitte Gleerup; Bak, A M

    1994-01-01

    In 12 healthy young men, strenuous cycling exercise in the supine position, caused platelet aggregability to decrease and the ADP threshold to rise from 7.0 microM resting, to 9.5 exercising (P ... from 178 to 68 min, PAI-1 fell from 8.91 to 5.16 IU ml-1, and t-PA rose from 0.56 to 3.95 IU ml-1, all three values were significant to P exercise, it did not increase platelet activity as expected, but caused a modest increase...... of fibrinolytic activity. These results suggest that supine exercise will not affect the haemostatic system adversely....

  10. Suppression of Aggrus/podoplanin-induced platelet aggregation and pulmonary metastasis by a single-chain antibody variable region fragment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Kenichi; Takagi, Satoshi; Sato, Shigeo; Morioka, Hiroshi; Shiba, Kiyotaka; Minamisawa, Tamiko; Takami, Miho; Fujita, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    Almost all highly metastatic tumor cells possess high platelet aggregating abilities, thereby form large tumor cell-platelet aggregates in the microvasculature. Embolization of tumor cells in the microvasculature is considered to be the first step in metastasis to distant organs. We previously identified the platelet aggregation-inducing factor expressed on the surfaces of highly metastatic tumor cells and named as Aggrus. Aggrus was observed to be identical to the marker protein podoplanin (alternative names, T1α, OTS-8, and others). Aggrus is frequently overexpressed in several types of tumors and enhances platelet aggregation by interacting with the platelet receptor C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2). Here, we generated a novel single-chain antibody variable region fragment (scFv) by linking the variable regions of heavy and light chains of the neutralizing anti-human Aggrus monoclonal antibody MS-1 with a flexible peptide linker. Unfortunately, the generated KM10 scFv failed to suppress Aggrus-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Therefore, we performed phage display screening and finally obtained a high-affinity scFv, K-11. K-11 scFv was able to suppress Aggrus-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Moreover, K-11 scFv prevented the formation of pulmonary metastasis in vivo. These results suggest that K-11 scFv may be useful as metastasis inhibitory scFv and is expected to aid in the development of preclinical and clinical examinations of Aggrus-targeted cancer therapies

  11. Nattokinase improves blood flow by inhibiting platelet aggregation and thrombus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ja-Young; Kim, Tae-Su; Cai, Jingmei; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Youngeun; Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Kwang Sei; Park, Sung Kyeong; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Rhee, Man Hee; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2013-12-01

    The effects of nattokinase on the in vitro platelet aggregation and in vivo thrombosis were investigated in comparison with aspirin. Rabbit platelet-rich plasma was incubated with nattokinase and aggregation inducers collagen and thrombin, and the platelet aggregation rate was analyzed. Nattokinase significantly inhibited both the collagen- and thrombin-induced platelet aggregations. Nattokinase also reduced thromboxane B2 formation from collagen-activated platelets in a concentration-dependent manner. Rats were orally administered with nattokinase for 1 week, and their carotid arteries were exposed. Arterial thrombosis was induced by applying 35% FeCl3-soaked filter paper for 10 min, and the blood flow was monitored with a laser Doppler probe. Nattokinase delayed the FeCl3-induced arterial occlusion in a dose-dependent manner, doubling the occlusion time at 160 mg/kg. In addition, a high dose (500 mg/kg) of nattokinase fully prevented the occlusion, as achieved with aspirin (30 mg/kg). The results indicate that nattokinase extracted from fermented soybean inhibit platelet aggregation by blocking thromboxane formation, and thereby delay thrombosis following oxidative arterial wall injury. Therefore, it is suggested that nattokinase could be a good candidate without adverse effects for the improvement of blood flow.

  12. In vitro effect of sodium nitrite on platelet aggregation in human platelet rich plasma--preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadan, M; Doğanci, S; Yildirim, V; Özgür, G; Erol, G; Karabacak, K; Avcu, F

    2015-10-01

    The role of nitrates and nitric oxide on platelet functions has obtained an increasing attention with respect to their potential effects on cardiovascular disorders. In this study we aimed to analyze the effect of sodium nitrite on platelet functions in human platelets. This in vitro study was designed to show the effect of sodium nitrite on platelet functions in seven healthy volunteers. Blood samples were centrifuged to prepare platelet rich plasma and platelet poor plasma. Platelet rich plasma was diluted with the platelet poor plasma to have a final count of 300,000 ± 25,000 platelets. Platelet rich plasma was incubated with six different increasing doses (from 10 μM to 5 mM) of sodium nitrite for 1 hour at 37°C. Then stimulating agents including collagen (3 μg ml-1), adenosine diphosphate (10 μM), and epinephrine (10 μM) were added to the cuvette. Changes in light transmission were observed for 10 minutes. In addition spontaneous aggregation were performed in control group with all aggregating agents separately. Effect of sodium nitrite on agonist-induced platelet aggregation depends on the concentration of sodium nitrite. Compared with control group, agonist-induced platelet aggregations were significantly suppressed by sodium nitrite at the concentration of 5, 1.0 and 0.5 mM. Our results suggested that sodium nitrite has inhibitory effects in vitro on platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner.

  13. [27- Hydroxycholesterol reverses estradiol induced inhibition of platelet aggregation in postmenopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Gladys; Sierralta, Walter; Valladares, Luis

    2016-11-01

    The decline of estrogen levels increases cardiovascular risk in women. Platelets express estrogen receptors and 17β-estradiol- (E2) can produce a protective effect on thrombus formation. The hydroxylation of cholesterol generates several sterols and 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC) predominates in circulation. To evaluate the effect of 27HC as an endogenous antagonist of the anti-aggregating properties of E2 in platelets of postmenopausal women. Platelet function of postmenopausal women was evaluated ex-vivo. Platelets pre-incubated with 27HC in the presence or absence of E2, were stimulated with collagen. Aggregation was evaluated using turbidimetry using a Chrono-log aggregometer. Collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation was significantly inhibited by E2. The inhibitory effect of E2 on collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation was significantly reversed in the presence of 27HC. The suppressive effect of E2 on platelet aggregation is inhibited by 27HC, which could contribute to increase cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women.

  14. The binding of fibrinogen to platelets in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minno, G. di; Cerbone, A.M.; Iride, C.; Mancini, M.

    1986-01-01

    Platelets from diabetics are known to be more sensitive in vitro to a variety of aggregating agents, to produce more prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane and to bind more 125 I-fibrinogen than platelets from normal controls. Fibrinogen binding to platelets is a pre-requisite for platelet aggregation. Previous studies suggested a role for prostaglandins and/or thrombaxane A 2 in the exposure of fibrinogen receptors on platelets. The present study compares fibrinogen binding to hyperaggregable platelets from diabetic patients and to normal platelets when prostaglandin/thromboxane formation is suppressed by aspirin. It was found that pre-treatment with aspirin reduced collagen or thrombin-induced binding to platelets from none-retinopathic diabetics to the values seen in controls. By contrast, aspirin did not normalize binding to platelets obtained from retinopathic diabetics. The combination of aspirin with apyrase (an ADP scavenger) almost completely inhibited binding and aggregation of platelets from normal controls or non-retinophatic diabetics exposed to collagen or thrombin, whereas it only partially affected binding and aggregation of platelets from retinopathics. By using a monoclonal antibody (B59.2) to the platelet receptor for fibrinogen, we determined that this receptor was quantitatively and qualitatively the same on platelets from normal controls and diabetics. We conclude that increased fibrinogen binding and hyperaggregability of platelets from none-retinopathic diabetics is related to their capacity to form more prostaglandin endoperoxides/thromboxane than normal platelets. In contrast, hyperaggregability and increased binding of platelets from retinopathics appear at least partly related to a mechanism independent of ADP release and thromboxane synthesis. (Author)

  15. Apyrase activity and adenosine diphosphate induced platelet aggregation inhibition by the salivary gland proteins of Culicoides variipennis, the North American vector of bluetongue viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de León, A A; Tabachnick, W J

    1996-02-01

    Salivary gland homogenates of Culicoides variipennis, the primary vector of bluetongue (BLU) viruses in North America, were analyzed for apyrase activity. Apyrase (ATP diphosphohydrolase, EC 3.6.1.5) is an anti-hemostatic and anti-inflammatory salivary enzyme of most hematophagous arthropods. The enzyme activity was measured by the release of orthophosphate using ATP, ADP, and AMP as substrates with Ca2+ as the divalent cation. ATPase (11.5 +/- 1 mU/pair of glands), ADPase (7.3 +/- 0.7 mU/pair of glands), and insignificant (P < 0.05) AMPase (0.07 mU/pair of glands) activities were detected in female salivary glands. Male salivary glands contained lower amounts of ATPase and ADPase activity (P < 0.05). The ATPase and ADPase activities were greatest at pH 8.5, and were similarly activated by Mg2+. Molecular sieving HPLC of salivary gland homogenates generated a single peak which coincided with ATPase and ADPase, but no AMPase, activity; the protein has an estimated molecular mass of 35,000 Da. ATPase and ADPase activity, and total protein concentration, were reduced (P < 0.05) in the salivary glands of females after taking a blood meal from a sheep. Salivary gland homogenates also inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. It is concluded that the salivary ATPase and ADPase activities of C. variipennis reside in one enzyme, and that this enzyme is likely an apyrase. The apyrase activity is thought to be responsible for the inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation, as indicated by the apparent discharge of apyrase from salivary glands into the host during blood feeding. This suggests that apyrase is one of the salivary proteins present in C. variipennis acting as antigens in the development of Culicoides hypersensitivity in ruminants and horses. Apyrase may inhibit an inflammatory response at the feeding site through the subsequent degradation of its end-product, AMP, to adenosine, a potent anti-inflammatory substance, by the ecto-5' nucleotidase

  16. Competitions between fibrinogen with its degradation products for interactions with the platelet-fibrinogen receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorsen, L.I.; Brosstad, F.; Gogstad, G.; Sletten, K.; Solum, N.O.

    1986-01-01

    Direct binding of 125 -I-labelled plasmic and CNBr-derived fibrin (ogen) fragments (pre-X, X, Y, D, Degta, Efg, E1, N-DSK, N-dsk) to gel-filtered platelets was compared to their ability to support or inhibit ADP-induced aggregation, and to compete with fibrinogen for binding to ADP-stimulated platelets. Pre-X was the only fragment that supported aggregation. All fragments tested except for E derived from fibrinogen (Efg) and Degta bound specifically to the platelets and inhibited ADP-induced aggregation in the presence of fibrinogen. Competitive binding studies with fibrinogen and fragments labelled with different isotopes of iodine, or inhibition of binding of labelled fibrinogen with unlabelled fragments showed that all of the fragments except Efg and Degta were able to compete with fibrinogen for binding. When simultaneous binding of N-dsk and fibrinogen was studied, an increased binding of both ligands was observed probably due to complex formation. The results fully agree with previous findings of binding to immunoprecipitated glycoprotein IIb-IIIa after crossed immunoelectrophoresis. We conclude that the fibrinogen molecule contains at least six sequences responsible for platelet interaction, two in the E domain and two in each of the C-terminal parts of the fibrinogen molecule

  17. Modulation of platelet functions by crude rice (Oryza sativa) bran policosanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai-Teng; Ismail, Maznah; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Zhang, Yi-Da

    2016-07-28

    Rice bran is bioactive-rich and has proven health benefits for humans. Moreover, its source, the brown rice has antioxidant, hypolipidemic and other functional properties that are increasingly making it a nutritional staple especially in Asian countries. This study investigated the antiplatelet aggregation mechanisms of crude hexane/methanolic rice bran extract, in which policosanol was the targeted bioactive. Platelets play a vital role in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases, and their increased activities could potentially cause arterial thrombus formation or severe bleeding disorders. Thus, in this study, platelet aggregation and adhesion of platelets to major components of basal lamina were examined in vitro. In addition, cellular protein secretion was quantified as a measurement of platelet activation. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen, and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation were studied using the microtiter technique. Rat platelets were pre-treated with various concentrations of policosanol extract, and the adhesion of platelets onto collagen- and laminin-coated surface (extracellular matrix) was studied using the acid phosphatase assay. The effect of crude policosanol extract on released proteins from activated platelets was measured using modified Lowry determination method. Rice bran policosanol extract significantly inhibited in vitro platelet aggregation induced by different agonists in a dose dependent manner. The IC50 of ADP-, collagen-, and AA-induced platelet aggregation were 533.37 ± 112.16, 635.94 ± 78.45 and 693.86 ± 70.57 μg/mL, respectively. The present study showed that crude rice bran policosanol extract significantly inhibited platelet adhesion to collagen in a dose dependent manner. Conversely, at a low concentration of 15.625 μg/mL, the extract significantly inhibited platelet adhesion to laminin stimulated by different platelet agonists. In addition to the alteration of cell adhesive

  18. Platelet activation and aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Sander; Larsen, O H; Christiansen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces a new laboratory model of whole blood platelet aggregation stimulated by endogenously generated thrombin, and explores this aspect in haemophilia A in which impaired thrombin generation is a major hallmark. The method was established to measure platelet aggregation initiated...

  19. The use of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) for studying nanoparticle-induced platelet aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Martinez, Maria Jose; Inkielewicz-Stepniak, Iwona; Medina, Carlos; Rahme, Kamil; D’Arcy, Deirdre M; Fox, Daniel; Holmes, Justin D; Zhang, Hongzhou; Radomski, Marek Witold

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between blood platelets and nanoparticles have both pharmacological and toxicological significance and may lead to platelet activation and aggregation. Platelet aggregation is usually studied using light aggregometer that neither mimics the conditions found in human microvasculature nor detects microaggregates. A new method for the measurement of platelet microaggregation under flow conditions using a commercially available quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) has recently been developed. The aim of the current study was to investigate if QCM-D could be used for the measurement of nanoparticle-platelet interactions. Silica, polystyrene, and gold nanoparticles were tested. The interactions were also studied using light aggregometry and flow cytometry, which measured surface abundance of platelet receptors. Platelet activation was imaged using phase contrast and scanning helium ion microscopy. QCM-D was able to measure nanoparticle-induced platelet microaggregation for all nanoparticles tested at concentrations that were undetectable by light aggregometry and flow cytometry. Microaggregates were measured by changes in frequency and dissipation, and the presence of platelets on the sensor surface was confirmed and imaged by phase contrast and scanning helium ion microscopy. PMID:22275839

  20. Mouse podoplanin supports adhesion and aggregation of platelets under arterial shear: A novel mechanism of haemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Stephanie E; Pollitt, Alice Y; Hughes, Craig E; Di, Ying; Mckinnon, Tom; O'callaghan, Chris A; Watson, Steve P

    2017-11-01

    The podoplanin-CLEC-2 axis is critical in mice for prevention of hemorrhage in the cerebral vasculature during mid-gestation. This raises the question as to how platelets are captured by podoplanin on neuroepithelial cells in a high shear environment. In this study, we demonstrate that mouse platelets form stable aggregates on mouse podoplanin at arterial shear through a CLEC-2 and Src kinase-dependent pathway. Adhesion and aggregation are also dependent on the platelet glycoprotein (GP) receptors, integrin αIIbβ3 and GPIb, and the feedback agonists ADP and thromboxane A 2 (TxA 2 ). CLEC-2 does not bind to von Willebrand factor (VWF) suggesting that the interaction with podoplanin is sufficient to both tether and activate platelets. Consistent with this, the surface plasmon resonance measurements reveal that mouse CLEC-2 binds to mouse podoplanin with nanomolar affinity. The present findings demonstrate a novel pathway of hemostasis in which podoplanin supports platelet capture and activation at arteriolar rates of shear.

  1. Platelet cytosolic 44-kDa protein is a substrate of cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation and is not recognized by antisera against the α subunit of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina Y Vedia, L.M.; Reep, B.R.; Lapetina, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation induced by cholera toxin and pertussis toxin was studied in particulate and cytosolic fractions of human platelets. Platelets were disrupted by a cycle of freezing and thawing in the presence of a hyposmotic buffer containing protease inhibitors. In both fractions, the A subunit of cholera toxin ADP-ribosylates two proteins with molecular masses of 42 and 44 kDa, whereas pertussis toxin ADP-ribosylates a 41-kDa polypeptide. Two antisera against the α subunit of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein recognize only the 42-kDa polypeptide. Cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation of the 42- and 44-kDa proteins is reduced by pretreatment of platelets with iloprost, a prostacyclin analog. The 44-kDa protein, which is substrate of cholera toxin, could be extracted completely from the membrane and recovered in the cytosolic fraction when the cells were disrupted by Dounce homogenization and the pellet was extensively washed. A 44-kDa protein can also be labeled with 8-azidoguanosine 5'-[α- 32 P]triphosphate in the cytosol and membranes. These finding indicate that cholera and pertussis toxins produced covalent modifications of proteins present in particulate and cytosolic platelet fractions. Moreover, the 44-kDa protein might be an α subunit of a guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein that is not recognized by available antisera

  2. Platelet function in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line A.; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Pedersen, Henrik D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Clinical studies investigating platelet function in dogs have had conflicting results that may be caused by normal physiologic variation in platelet response to agonists. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate platelet function in clinically healthy dogs of 4...... different breeds by whole-blood aggregometry and with a point-of-care platelet function analyzer (PFA-100), and to evaluate the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) administration on the results from both methods. Methods: Forty-five clinically healthy dogs (12 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels [CKCS], 12...... applied. However, the importance of these breed differences remains to be investigated. The PFA-100 method with Col + Epi as agonists, and ADP-induced platelet aggregation appear to be sensitive to ASA in dogs....

  3. Time-dependent inhibitory effects of cGMP-analogues on thrombin-induced platelet-derived microparticles formation, platelet aggregation, and P-selectin expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygaard, Gyrid; Herfindal, Lars; Kopperud, Reidun; Aragay, Anna M.; Holmsen, Holm; Døskeland, Stein Ove; Kleppe, Rune; Selheim, Frode

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigated the impact of cyclic nucleotide analogues on platelet activation. • Different time dependence were found for inhibition of platelet activation. • Additive effect was found using PKA- and PKG-activating analogues. • Our results may explain some of the discrepancies reported for cNMP signalling. - Abstract: In platelets, nitric oxide (NO) activates cGMP/PKG signalling, whereas prostaglandins and adenosine signal through cAMP/PKA. Cyclic nucleotide signalling has been considered to play an inhibitory role in platelets. However, an early stimulatory effect of NO and cGMP-PKG signalling in low dose agonist-induced platelet activation have recently been suggested. Here, we investigated whether different experimental conditions could explain some of the discrepancy reported for platelet cGMP-PKG-signalling. We treated gel-filtered human platelets with cGMP and cAMP analogues, and used flow cytometric assays to detect low dose thrombin-induced formation of small platelet aggregates, single platelet disappearance (SPD), platelet-derived microparticles (PMP) and thrombin receptor agonist peptide (TRAP)-induced P-selectin expression. All four agonist-induced platelet activation phases were blocked when platelets were costimulated with the PKG activators 8-Br-PET-cGMP or 8-pCPT-cGMP and low-doses of thrombin or TRAP. However, extended incubation with 8-Br-PET-cGMP decreased its inhibition of TRAP-induced P-selectin expression in a time-dependent manner. This effect did not involve desensitisation of PKG or PKA activity, measured as site-specific VASP phosphorylation. Moreover, PKG activators in combination with the PKA activator Sp-5,6-DCL-cBIMPS revealed additive inhibitory effect on TRAP-induced P-selectin expression. Taken together, we found no evidence for a stimulatory role of cGMP/PKG in platelets activation and conclude rather that cGMP/PKG signalling has an important inhibitory function in human platelet activation

  4. Negative feedback regulation of human platelets via autocrine activation of the platelet-derived growth factor alpha-receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassbotn, F S; Havnen, O K; Heldin, C H; Holmsen, H

    1994-05-13

    Human platelets contain platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in their alpha-granules which is released during platelet exocytosis. We show by immunoprecipitation and 125I-PDGF binding experiments that human platelets have functionally active PDGF alpha-receptors, but not beta-receptors. The PDGF alpha-receptor (PDGFR-alpha) was identified as a 170-kDa glycosylated protein-tyrosine kinase as found in other cell types. Stimulation of platelets with 0.1 unit/ml thrombin resulted in a significant increase (2-5-fold) of the tyrosine phosphorylation of the PDGFR-alpha, as determined by immunoprecipitation with phosphotyrosine antiserum as well as with PDGFR-alpha antiserum. The observed thrombin-induced autophosphorylation of the PDGFR-alpha was inhibited by the addition of a neutralizing monoclonal PDGF antibody. Thus, our results suggest that the platelet PDGFR-alpha is stimulated in an autocrine manner by PDGF secreted during platelet activation. Preincubation of platelets with PDGF inhibited thrombin-induced platelet aggregation and secretion of ATP + ADP and beta-hexosaminidase. Thrombin-induced platelet aggregation was also reversed when PDGF was added 30 s after thrombin stimulation. Inhibition of the autocrine PDGF pathway during platelet activation by the PDGF antibody led to a potentiation of thrombin-induced beta-hexosaminidase secretion. Thus, the PDGFR-alpha takes part in a negative feedback regulation during platelet activation. Our demonstration of PDGF alpha-receptors on human platelets and its inhibitory function during platelet activation identifies a new possible role of PDGF in the regulation of thrombosis.

  5. Effect of Cold Storage on Shear-induced Platelet Aggregation and Clot Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    hemostasis and are lifesavingwhen transfused to treat thrombocytopenia. In response to vascular injury, platelets adhere, aggregate, and along with fibrin ...Handling Platelet - rich plasma (PRP) was obtained from phlebot- omized blood or AP collection. Blood was drawn in acid cit- rate dextroseYcontaining...aging and senes- cence during storage.35,38 Platelet activation and aggregation lead to clot formation, beginning with the linear polymerization of fibrin

  6. Synergistic action between inhibition of P2Y12/P2Y1 and P2Y12/thrombin in ADP- and thrombin-induced human platelet activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylander, Sven; Mattsson, Christer; Ramström, Sofia; Lindahl, Tomas L

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if there is a synergistic effect of a combination of P2Y12 and P2Y1 inhibition and P2Y12 and thrombin inhibition, on ADP- and thrombin-induced platelet activation, respectively. The rationale being that these combinations will cause a concurrent inhibition of both Gαq and Gαi signalling.Blood from healthy volunteers was preincubated with AR-C69931MX, a reversible P2Y12 antagonist; MRS2179, a reversible P2Y1 antagonist; or melagatran, a direct reversible thrombin inhibitor; alone or in various combinations prior to activation with ADP or thrombin. Platelet function in whole blood was assessed by flow cytometry using the antibody PAC-1 to estimate the expression of active αIIbβ3 (the fibrinogen receptor GPIIb/IIIa). A synergistic effect was evaluated by comparing the concentrations in the different combinations with those of corresponding equipotent concentrations of each single inhibitor alone. The equipotent single concentrations were experimentally obtained from concentration response curves performed in parallel.A synergistic effect regarding inhibition of ADP-induced platelet activation (10 μM) was obtained with different combinations of AR-C69931MX and MRS2179.Inhibition of thrombin-induced platelet activation (2 nM) with combinations of AR-C69931MX and the thrombin inhibitor melagatran did also result in a strong synergistic effect.To our knowledge, this is the first time that data supporting a synergistic effect has been published for the inhibitor combinations described.Whether this synergistic effect in vitro also results in an improved antithrombotic effect in vivo with or without an increased risk of bleeding remains to be studied in well-conducted clinical studies. PMID:15265806

  7. Isolation of bothrasperin, a disintegrin with potent platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, A.; Angulo, Y.; Jimenez, R.; Lomonte, B.

    2003-01-01

    The venom of Bothrops asper induces severe coagulation disturbances in accidentally envenomed humans. However, only few studies have been conducted to identify components that interact with the hemostatic system in this venom. In the present work, we fractionated B. asper venom in order to investigate the possible presence of inhibitors of platelet aggregation. Using a combination of gel filtration, anion-exchange chromatography, and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography, we isolated an acidic protein which shows a single chain composition, with a molecular mass of ∼8 kDa, estimated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Its N-terminal sequence has high similarity to disintegrins isolated from different snake venoms, which are known to bind to cellular integrins such as the GPIIb/IIIa fibrinogen receptor on platelets. The purified protein exerted potent aggregation inhibitory activity on ADP-stimulated human platelets in vitro, with an estimated IC 50 of 50 nM. This biological activity, together with the biochemical characteristics observed, demonstrate that the protein isolated from B. asper venom is a disintegrin, hereby named bothrasperin. This is the first disintegrin isolated from Central American viperid snake species. (Author)

  8. Complement Activation Induces Neutrophil Adhesion and Neutrophil-Platelet Aggregate Formation on Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Riedl

    2017-01-01

    Discussion: Therefore, our findings of (i neutrophils adhering to complement-activated endothelial cells, (ii the formation of neutrophil-platelet aggregates on endothelial cells, and (iii the ability of aHUS serum to induce similar effects identify a possible role for neutrophils in aHUS manifestation.

  9. Inhibition of platelet aggregation and in vitro free radical scavenging activity of dried fruiting bodies of Pleurotus eous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseem, S R; Saral, Mary

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts of dried fruiting bodies of Pleurotus eous for its anti-platelet activity on human volunteer's blood. And also to analyze the free radical scavenging property of the extracts of P.eous by using various in vitro models. Anti-platelet activity of dried fruiting bodies of P.eous was evaluated by in vitro model using blood platelets. Inhibition of platelet aggregation was monitored after pre-incubation of platelets with the crude extracts of mushroom P.eous. Antioxidant activities of extracts of P.eous were evaluated by different in vitro experiments, namely, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, hydroxyl radical and lipid peroxide radical models. Crude extracts of mushroom P.eous inhibited platelet aggregation dose-dependently which was induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP). At a maximum concentration of 10 mg/mL, methanol extract effected 64.02% inhibition of lipid per-oxidation and 50.12% scavenging effect on superoxide anion radical. Aqueous extract of P.eous have shown 69.43% chelating ability on ferrous ions, 24.27% scavenging effect on hydroxyl radical and 49.57% scavenging effect on DPPH radical at 10 mg/mL. Increasing concentrations of the extract were found to cause progressively decreasing of the intensity of absorbance. Anti-platelet effects could be related in part to the polyphenolic compounds present in the extracts. Antioxidant activity results indicated the free radical scavenging property of the extracts of P.eous which might be due to the high content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids.

  10. Effect of ionizing radiation on platelet function in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalovidouris, A.E.; Papayannis, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on platelet function was investigated in vitro. Platelet-rich plasma (300x10 9 /l) was irradiated with doses of 1, 4, 10, 20 and 50 Gy. Platelet function tests were performed on both irradiated and control (non-irradiated) platelet samples. The platelet function tests were (1) platelet aggregation by ADP (1, 2, 4 μmol final concentration), adrenaline and collagen, (2) ADP-release from platelets, (3) clot retraction and (4) platelet factor-3 availability. It was found that roentgen irradiation of platelets in vitro did not affect these platelet function tests. (Auth.)

  11. Effects of alcohol on platelet functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, S C; Ruf, J C

    1996-03-15

    Recent epidemiologic studies have consistently shown that moderate intake of alcoholic beverages protect against morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke. By contrast, alcohol drinking may also predispose to cerebral hemorrhage. These observations suggest an effect of alcohol similar to that of aspirin. Several studies in humans and animals have shown that the immediate effect of alcohol, either added in vitro to platelets or 10 to 20 min after ingestion, is to decrease platelet aggregation in response to most agonists (thrombin, ADP, epinephrine, collagen). Several hours later, as, in free-living populations deprived of drinking since the previous day it is mostly secondary aggregation to ADP and epinephrine and aggregation to collagen that are still inhibited in alcohol drinkers. By contrast, in binge drinkers or in alcoholics after alcohol withdrawal, response to aggregation, especially that induced by thrombin, is markedly increased. This rebound phenomenon, easily reproduced in rats, may explain ischemic strokes or sudden death known to occur after episodes of drunkenness. The platelet rebound effect of alcohol drinking was not observed with moderate red wine consumption in man. The protection afforded by wine has been recently duplicated in rats by grape tannins added to alcohol. This protection was associated with a decrease in the level of conjugated dienes, the first step in lipid peroxidation. In other words, wine drinking does not seem to be associated with the increased peroxidation usually observed with spirit drinking. Although further studies are required, the platelet rebound effect of alcohol drinking could be associated with an excess of lipid peroxides known to increase platelet reactivity, especially to thrombin.

  12. Functional alterations of human platelets following indium-111 labelling using different incubation media and labelling agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaka, Yoshinari; Imaizumi, Masatoshi; Kimura, Kazufumi; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Kamada, Takenobu

    1991-01-01

    Human platelets were labelled in the absence of presence of plasma using 111 In-labelled oxine sulphate, tropolone or 2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide (MPO). Under in vitro and in vivo conditions, platelet functions were evaluated by measuring their aggregability, survival, recovery and early distribution. High labelling efficiency was achieved in saline labelling, whereas with plasma labelling, it was necessary to concentrate the platelet-rich plasma to 4.8x10 6 platelets/μl. The aggregation of platelets labelled in plasma or saline was compared with that of controls; platelets labelled in saline showed lower aggregability in 2 μM ADP but not in 5 μM ADP nor with collagen. No significant differences in platelet survival and recovery were noted between platelets labelled in plasma and those labelled in saline. Our results indicate that partial loss of ADP aggregability in vitro does not influence the in vivo viability of platelets labelled in saline. Scintigraphic studies showed that platelets labelled in a saline medium were temporarily sequestrated in the liver but not in the spleen or heart. Thus, platelet labelling in saline does not affect platelet function adversely, but platelets labelled in plasma are more desirable for assessing the early distribution of platelets in the reticuloendothelial system. (orig.)

  13. Effect of acacia nilotica leaves extract on hyperglycaemia, lipid profile and platelet aggregation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, M.; Munir, T.A.; Nadeem, A.

    2011-01-01

    To consider new hypoglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and anti-platelet aggregation sources, aqueous methanol extract of Acacia Nilotica (AN) leaves was investigated in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced in 90 out of 120 male albino rats by administering 50 mg/Kg body weight (bw) streptozotocin intraperitoneal y, and was confirmed by measuring fasting blood glucose level >200 mg/dL on fourth post-induction day. The rats were equally divided into 4 groups, A (normal control), B (diabetic control), C (diabetics rats treated with plant extract) and group D (diabetics rats treated with glyburide). The rats of group C and D were given single dose of 300 mg/Kg bw, An extract, and 900 micro g/Kg bw glyburide respectively for 3 weeks. Blood glucose levels were measured by gluco meter, platelet aggregation by Dia Med method, beta-thrombo globulin and insulin by ELISA technique, and lipid components were measured by enzymatic calorimetric method. Results: Significant differences (p<0.05) were noticed in blood glucose, serum insulin, platelet aggregation and triglyceride levels in diabetic rats treated with AN extract and glyburide as compared to diabetic controlled rats. A significant difference (p<0.05) in beta-thrombo globulin and LDL levels was also noticed in rats treated with glyburide than the diabetic controlled rats. The levels of fasting blood glucose, beta-thrombo globulin and platelet aggregation were significantly reduced (p<0.05) in diabetic rats treated with glyburide than AN extract treated rats. Conclusions: Administration of AN leaves extract showed hypoglycaemic and anti-platelet aggregation activity in diabetic rats as that of glyburide. (author)

  14. A New Platelet-Aggregation-Inhibiting Factor Isolated from Bothrops moojeni Snake Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Barbosa de Sousa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the purification and functional characterization of BmooPAi, a platelet-aggregation-inhibiting factor from Bothrops moojeni snake venom. The toxin was purified by a combination of three chromatographic steps (ion-exchange on DEAE-Sephacel, molecular exclusion on Sephadex G-75, and affinity chromatography on HiTrap™ Heparin HP. BmooPAi was found to be a single-chain protein with an apparent molecular mass of 32 kDa on 14% SDS-PAGE, under reducing conditions. Sequencing of BmooPAi by Edman degradation revealed the amino acid sequence LGPDIVPPNELLEVM. The toxin was devoid of proteolytic, haemorrhagic, defibrinating, or coagulant activities and induced no significant oedema or hyperalgesia. BmooPAi showed a rather specific inhibitory effect on ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation in human platelet-rich plasma, whereas it had little or no effect on platelet aggregation induced by collagen and adenosine diphosphate. The results presented in this work suggest that BmooPAi is a toxin comprised of disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domains, originating from autolysis/proteolysis of PIII SVMPs from B. moojeni snake venom. This toxin may be of medical interest because it is a platelet aggregation inhibitor, which could potentially be developed as a novel therapeutic agent to prevent and/or treat patients with thrombotic disorders.

  15. Hydroxychavicol, a novel betel leaf component, inhibits platelet aggregation by suppression of cyclooxygenase, thromboxane production and calcium mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M C; Uang, B J; Tsai, C Y; Wu, H L; Lin, B R; Lee, C S; Chen, Y J; Chang, C H; Tsai, Y L; Kao, C J; Jeng, J H

    2007-09-01

    Platelet hyperactivity is important in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Betel leaf (PBL) is consumed by 200-600 million betel quid chewers in the world. Hydroxychavicol (HC), a betel leaf component, was tested for its antiplatelet effect. We tested the effect of HC on platelet aggregation, thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, ex vivo platelet aggregation and mouse bleeding time and platelet plug formation in vivo. The pharmacokinetics of HC in rats was also assessed. HC inhibited arachidonic acid (AA) and collagen-induced platelet aggregation and TXB(2) production. HC inhibited the thrombin-induced TXB(2) production, but not platelet aggregation. SQ29548, suppressed collagen- and thrombin-induced TXB(2) production, but not thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. HC also suppressed COX-1/COX-2 enzyme activity and the AA-induced ROS production and Ca(2+) mobilization. HC further inhibited the ex vivo platelet aggregation of platelet-rich plasma (>100 nmole/mouse) and prolonged platelet plug formation (>300 nmole/mouse) in mesenteric microvessels, but showed little effect on bleeding time in mouse tail. Moreover, pharmacokinetics analysis found that more than 99% of HC was metabolized within 3 min of administration in Sprague-Dawley rats in vivo. HC is a potent COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor, ROS scavenger and inhibits platelet calcium signaling, TXB(2) production and aggregation. HC could be a potential therapeutic agent for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases through its anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet effects, without effects on haemostatic functions.

  16. Purification and characterization of a platelet aggregation inhibitor and anticoagulant Cc 5_NTase, CD 73-like, from Cerastes cerastes venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoud, Samah; Chérifi, Fatah; Benhassine, Traki; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima

    2017-05-01

    The present study is the first attempt to report the characterization of a nucleotidase from Cerastes cerastes venom. A 70 kDa 5'-nucleotidase (Cc-5'NTase) was purified to homogeneity. The amino acid sequence of Cc-5'NTase displayed high homology with many nucleotidases. Its activity was optimal at pH 7 with a specific hydrolytic activity toward mono-, di-, and triphosphate adenylated nucleotides. Cc-5'NTase preferentially hydrolyzed ADP and obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Among the metals and inhibitors tested, Ni 2+ and Mg 2+ completely potentiated enzyme activity, whereas EGTA, PMSF, iodoacetamide, vanillic acid, vanillyl mandelic acid, and 1,10-phenanthroline partially abolished its activity. Cc-5'NTase was not lethal for mice at 5 mg/kg and exhibited in vivo anticoagulant effect. It also dose-dependently inhibited adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation by converting adenosine diphosphate to adenosine and prohibited arachidonic acid-induced aggregation but was not effective on fibrinogen-induced aggregation. Cc-5'NTase could be a good tool as pharmacological molecule in thrombosis diagnostic and/or therapy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The use of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D for studying nanoparticle-induced platelet aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos-Martinez MJ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maria Jose Santos-Martinez1–3, Iwona Inkielewicz-Stepniak1,4, Carlos Medina1, Kamil Rahme5,6, Deirdre M D'Arcy1, Daniel Fox3, Justin D Holmes3,5, Hongzhou Zhang3, Marek Witold Radomski3,51School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2School of Medicine, 3Center for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 4Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland; 5Materials and Supercritical Fluids Group, Department of Chemistry and the Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 6Department of Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Applied Science, Notre Dame University, Zouk Mosbeh, LebanonAbstract: Interactions between blood platelets and nanoparticles have both pharmacological and toxicological significance and may lead to platelet activation and aggregation. Platelet aggregation is usually studied using light aggregometer that neither mimics the conditions found in human microvasculature nor detects microaggregates. A new method for the measurement of platelet microaggregation under flow conditions using a commercially available quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D has recently been developed. The aim of the current study was to investigate if QCM-D could be used for the measurement of nanoparticle-platelet interactions. Silica, polystyrene, and gold nanoparticles were tested. The interactions were also studied using light aggregometry and flow cytometry, which measured surface abundance of platelet receptors. Platelet activation was imaged using phase contrast and scanning helium ion microscopy. QCM-D was able to measure nanoparticle-induced platelet microaggregation for all nanoparticles tested at concentrations that were undetectable by light aggregometry and flow cytometry. Microaggregates were measured by changes in frequency and dissipation, and the presence of platelets on the sensor surface was confirmed and imaged by

  18. Dark chocolate inhibits platelet aggregation in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Andrew J; Kennedy, Gwen; McLaren, Margaret; Bancroft, Anne J; Belch, Jill J F

    2003-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in the UK. The flavonoids found in cocoa may produce a cardio-protective role for chocolate with a high cocoa content. Thirty healthy volunteers were randomised to receive 100 g of white, milk or dark chocolate, and assessments of platelet function were undertaken on venous blood samples before and after chocolate consumption. White and milk chocolate had no significant effect on platelets. However dark chocolate inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation in platelet rich plasma. In the future dark chocolate may have a role in prevention of cardiovascular and thromboembolic diseases.

  19. Dabigatran reduces thrombin-induced platelet aggregation and activation in a dose-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinholt, Pernille Just; Nielsen, Christian; Söderström, Anna Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Dabigatran is an oral anticoagulant and a reversible inhibitor of thrombin. Further, dabigatran might affect platelet function through a direct effect on platelet thrombin receptors. The aim was to investigate the effect of dabigatran on platelet activation and platelet aggregation. Healthy donor...

  20. In-111-oxine labeled platelet scintigraphy for detection of intracardiac and intravascular thrombi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanano, Masaharu; Kimura, Michio; Ojima, Kenji [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1984-06-01

    /sup 111/In-labeled platelet scintigraphy was carried out in 20 patients suspected of thrombosis, to evaluate its efficacy for the detection of intracardiac and intravascular thrombi. Hemostatic studies including PT, aPTT, fibrinogen, FDP, platelet retention by Hellem II method, platelet aggregation induced by ADP (1 ..mu..M, 10 ..mu..M), collagen (2 ..mu..g/ml) and arachidonate (2 mM), and platelet survival were examined simultaneously. Two of these patients were also studied by fibrinogen scintigraphy labeled with sup(99m)Tc. The platelets obtained from the patients were labeled with /sup 111/In-oxine according to a method originated by Yui et al. In the platelet scintigram, positive findings were demonstrated in 9 cases : 2 left ventricular, 3 left atrial, and 4 vascular thrombi. These were in a good accordance to the findings obtained by at least one from angiography, echography and surgery. Platelet aggregation induced by 1 ..mu..M ADP was elevated in 4 of the 7 patients with positive findings and 3 of the 7 patients with negative findings. Shortened platelet survivals were observed in two of the 10 patients; dissecting aortic aneurysm and infective prosthetic valve endocarditis with hepatosplenomegaly. There was no significant difference in the platelet function and the platelet survival between the patients with positive and negative findings. It was difficult to detect thrombi by the fibrinogen scintigraphy labeled with sup(99m)Tc in the two patients studied. In conclusion, /sup 111/In-labeled platelet scintigraphy seems to be very useful to detect thrombi.

  1. Myeloperoxidase modulates human platelet aggregation via actin cytoskeleton reorganization and store-operated calcium entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Gorudko

    2013-07-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO is a heme-containing enzyme released from activated leukocytes into the extracellular space during inflammation. Its main function is the production of hypohalous acids that are potent oxidants. MPO can also modulate cell signaling and inflammatory responses independently of its enzymatic activity. Because MPO is regarded as an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases associated with increased platelet activity, we studied the effects of MPO on human platelet functional properties. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to reveal carbohydrate-independent MPO binding to human platelet membrane. Adding MPO to platelets did not activate their aggregation under basal conditions (without agonist. In contrast, MPO augmented agonist-induced platelet aggregation, which was not prevented by MPO enzymatic activity inhibitors. It was found that exposure of platelets to MPO leads to actin cytoskeleton reorganization and an increase in their elasticity. Furthermore, MPO evoked a rise in cytosolic Ca2+ through enhancement of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE. Together, these findings indicate that MPO is not a direct agonist but rather a mediator that binds to human platelets, induces actin cytoskeleton reorganization and affects the mechanical stiffness of human platelets, resulting in potentiating SOCE and agonist-induced human platelet aggregation. Therefore, an increased activity of platelets in vascular disease can, at least partly, be provided by MPO elevated concentrations.

  2. Clopidogrel discontinuation and platelet reactivity following coronary stenting

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-01-01

    Summary. Aims: Antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel is recommended for 1 year after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation or myocardial infarction. However, the discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy has become an important issue as recent studies have suggested a clustering of ischemic events within 90 days of clopidogrel withdrawal. The objective of this investigation was to explore the hypothesis that there is a transient ‘rebound’ increase in platelet reactivity within 3 months of clopidogrel discontinuation. Methods and Results: In this prospective study, platelet function was assessed in patients taking aspirin and clopidogrel for at least 1 year following DES implantation. Platelet aggregation was measured using a modification of light transmission aggregometry in response to multiple concentrations of adenosine diphosphate (ADP), epinephrine, arachidonic acid, thrombin receptor activating peptide and collagen. Clopidogrel was stopped and platelet function was reassessed 1 week, 1 month and 3 months later. Thirty-two patients on dual antiplatelet therapy were recruited. Discontinuation of clopidogrel increased platelet aggregation to all agonists, except arachidonic acid. Platelet aggregation in response to ADP (2.5, 5, 10, and 20 μm) and epinephrine (5 and 20 μm) was significantly increased at 1 month compared with 3 months following clopidogrel withdrawal. Thus, a transient period of increased platelet reactivity to both ADP and epinephrine was observed 1 month after clopidogrel discontinuation. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a transient increase in platelet reactivity 1 month after clopidogrel withdrawal. This phenomenon may, in part, explain the known clustering of thrombotic events observed after clopidogrel discontinuation. This observation requires confirmation in larger populations.

  3. Spontaneous and Induced Platelet Aggregation during Pregnancy and Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Bondar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate changes in characteristics of spontaneous platelet (Pt aggregation in patients with obstetric complications associated with hereditary thrombophilia.Materials and methods. Blood samples were taken from 52 recently confined women on the first day after labor; at that, ethic regulations for the preanalytical phase were followed. Determination of PlA1/ PlA2 polymorphism enotype was performed by means of amplificationrestriction analysis. Geometrical characteristics of patients' peripheral blood Pt aggregation were studied by means of AFM Integra Prima. The degree of confidence of the parameters under test was determined using the ttest, and the significance level was considered valid at P<0.05.Results. A statistical analysis of the findings demonstrated that the length of Pt aggregates in healthy pregnant women was significantly higher than that in healthy nonpregnant women at all study phases. Patients with the P1A1/P1A2 polymorphism in the GP IIb/IIIa Pt receptor gene demonstrated increased widthm height, and density of Pt aggregates. The changes were most significant during the incubation phase lasting for 15 and 30 minutes. The study of geometric parameters of different exposures demonstrated the following: the longer the incubation period, the greater the difference between geometric parameters of the aggregates (e.g. height, length, and width. Conclusion. The analysis of obtained data demonstrated that the presence of P1A1/P1A2 polymorphism in GP IIb/IIIa Pt gene receptor contributes to the decrease in the platelet response threshold and enhances the spontaneous Pt aggregation. The imaging of aggregates provides strong evidence for the accelerated growth of the aggregates in thrombotic complications of pregnancy.

  4. Facile alkylation of 4-nitrobenzotriazole and its platelet aggregation inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dhandeep; Silakari, Om

    2017-10-15

    We explored the facile alkylation of 4-nitrobenzotriazole under basic conditions and the synthesized derivatives were tested for their potential ADP induced platelet aggregation inhibition activity in comparison with standard drug ticagrelor (selective P2Y12 inhibitor). The nitro group at 4-position is highly activating toward alkylation reactions (under strong basic conditions) and resulted in formation of degradation product like 3-nitrobenzene-1,2-diamine which make isolation of alkyl products very difficult. We optimized the reaction under mild basic condition (potassium carbonate and DMF) which is devoid of any degradation product. This is perhaps the first report of 4-nitrobenzotriazole derivatives possessing platelet aggregation inhibitory activity. Generally activity increases with increase in length of alkyl chain and 1-alkyl positional isomers were found to be more potent than 2-alkyl isomers. The benzoyl derivative was found to be the most potent [compound 22; (4-Nitro-1H-benzotriazol-1-yl)(phenyl)methanone; IC 50 =0.65±0.10mM] which may be attributed to electronegative oxygen atom and aromatic ring. Benzyl derivatives [compound 20; 1-Benzyl-4-nitro-1H-benzotriazole; IC 50 =0.81±0.08mM, compound 21; 2-Benzyl-4-nitro-2H-benzotriazole; IC 50 =0.82±0.19mM] and sulfonyl derivative [compound 23; 1-[(4-Methylphenyl)sulfonyl]-4-nitro-1H-benzotriazole; IC 50 =0.82±0.19mM] are also found to be highly active. Furthermore, all compounds possess P2Y12 binding affinity as confirmed by VASP/P2Y12 phosphorylation assay. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Reciprocal regulation of platelet responses to P2Y and thromboxane receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J F; Hardy, A R; Poole, A W; Mundell, S J

    2008-03-01

    Thromboxane A(2) and ADP are two major platelet agonists that stimulate two sets of G protein-coupled receptors to activate platelets. Although aggregation responses to ADP and thromboxane desensitize, there are no reports currently addressing whether activation by one agonist may heterologously desensitize responses to the other. To demonstrate whether responses to ADP or U46619 may be modulated by prior treatment of platelets with the alternate agonist, revealing a level of cross-desensitization between receptor systems. Here we show that pretreatment of platelets with either agonist substantially desensitizes aggregation responses to the other agonist. Calcium responses to thromboxane receptor activation are desensitized by preactivation of P2Y(1) but not P2Y(12) receptors. This heterologous desensitization is mediated by a protein kinase C (PKC)-independent mechanism. Reciprocally, calcium responses to ADP are desensitized by pretreatment of platelets with the thromboxane analogue, U46619, and P2Y(12)-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase is also desensitized by pretreatment with U46619. In this direction, desensitization is comprised of two components, a true heterologous component that is PKC-independent, and a homologous component that is mediated through stimulated release of dense granule ADP. This study reveals cross-desensitization between ADP and thromboxane receptor signaling in human platelets. Cross-desensitization is mediated by protein kinases, involving PKC-dependent and independent pathways, and indicates that alterations in the activation state of one receptor may have effects upon the sensitivity of the other receptor system.

  6. The effect of the substituted amphetamines, 2.4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and P-methoxyamphetamine (PMA), on platelet aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sluggett, A.J.; Irvine, R.J.; Bochner, F.; Rodgers, S.; Lloyd, J.V.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Illicit substituted amphetamines such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and p-methoxyamphetamine (PMA) can cause severe toxicity. Disruption of normal coagulation mechanisms have been observed in most fatal cases. However, the precise mechanisms underlying these events are not clearly understood. MDMA and PMA are known to inhibit serotonin transporter function in the central nervous system (Daws et al 2000) and platelet serotonin transporter sites (Rudnick and Wall 1992). Serotonin is in high concentrations in platelets and activation of 5HT 2 receptors on the platelet surface potentiates aggregation of platelets. Therefore, we postulated that MDMA and PMA may have effects on coagulation via inhibition of normal platelet function. Human citrated platelets were incubated in the presence of MDMA (43- 435μM) or PMA (49-498μM) and their aggregator y response to a critical dose of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) determined. These responses were compared to the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (13-130μM). All 3 compounds were found to inhibit platelet aggregation. The IC50s for % aggregation at 5 minutes were MDMA 197μM ± 63μM PMA 344μM ±76μM and fluoxetine 24μM ±1 1μM (n=4). The effect of these drugs on the uptake of 14 C-5HT (0.9 μM /ml) into platelets was also determined and the IC50s observed were MDMA 62.3 μM ±11μM , PMA 24μM ±6μM and fluoxetine 2.5μM ± 0.6μM (n=4). The in vitro effects of MDMA and PMA on aggregation and uptake observed here are close to concentrations reported to have occurred in human fatalities. Therefore it is possible that direct effects of these drugs on coagulation mechanisms may contribute to the toxicity of these compounds. Copyright (2001) Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologists and Toxicologists

  7. [Effect of L-arginine on platelet aggregation, endothelial function adn exercise tolerance in patients with stable angina pectoris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozykin, A V; Noeva, E A; Balakhonova, T V; Pogorelova, O A; Men'shikov, M Iu

    2000-01-01

    Examination of the action of donor NO (L-arginine) on platelet aggregation, endothelial function and exercise tolerance in patients with stable angina of effort (SAE). 42 patients with SAE (functional class I-II) and 10 healthy volunteers (control group) were assigned to two groups. 22 patients of group 1 were randomized to cross-over. They received cardiket (60 mg/day for 10 days or cardiket (60 mg/day) in combination with L-arginine (15 g/day for 10 days). 20 SAE patients of group 2 and control group received L-arginine (15 g/day for 10 days). In each group blood lipids were examined, and bicycle exercise test (BET) was performed. In addition, platelet aggregation and endothelial function were studied in group 2 and control group before and after the course of L-arginine. Compared to control group, endothelial function significantly improved in group 2 (from 5.0 +/- 2.9 to 7.8 +/- 4.1% vs 7.1 +/- 1.9 to 6.6 +/- 4.8%) (M +/- SD). BET duration increased in all the patients. After ADP addition in concentrations 1.5, 2.0, and 5.0 micromol/l platelet aggregation declined in 17 patients except 3 in whom the aggregation remained unchanged. Positive effect of L-arginine on endothelial function, exercise tolerance and platelet aggregation was observed in patients with stable angina of effort (functional class I-II). Therefore, arginine can be recommended as an adjuvant in the treatment of patients with ischemic heart disease.

  8. Influence of hirudin and cobra venom factor on the release of 14C-serotonin and 51chromium from human platelets induced by thrombin, collagen, aggregate gammaglobulin and HLA antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemeyer, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    The present work investigates the influence of hirudin and cobra venom factor on thrombin, collagen, aggregate gammaglobulin and HLA-antibody-induced release of 14 C-serotonin and 51 chromium from human platelets. Besides the platelet-specific release reaction ( 14 C-serotonin) the extent of platelet lysis was determined by measurement of the loss of 51 chromium from the platelets. The results showed the thrombin, collagen and aggregate-gammaglobulin-induced platelet alteration to be a non-complement-dependent reaction of the platelets with release of 14 C-serotonin. Following long-term incubation small quantities of 51 chromium are also released. As this release of 51 chromium cannot be inhibited using cobra venom factor and does not occur in washed platelets either, it is most probably a non-complement-dependent reaction. The HLA-antibody-induced, specific platelet alteration is both complement-dependent and complement-independent. Differentiation is possible by inhibition of the complement-dependent lysis. On the other hand thrombin is of no relevance to the collagen, aggregate gammaglobulin, and HLA-antibody-induced platelet alteration as the interactions of these substances with platelets are not inhibited by hirudin. The above results are confirmed by investigation of the 51 chromium uptake capacity of washed platelets treated previously with thrombin, collagen and HLA antibody. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Hypersensitivity to thrombin of platelets from hypercholesterolemic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winocour, P.D.; Rand, M.L.; Kinlough-Rathbone, R.L.; Mustard, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Hypersensitivity of platelets to thrombin has been associated with hypercholesterolemia. The authors have examined the mechanisms involved in this hypersensitivity. Rats were given diets rich in milk fat and containing added cholesterol and taurocholate to produce hypercholesterolemia (HC) (262 +/- 25 mg%) or added sitosterol as a normocholesterolemic control (NC) (89 +/- 6 mg%). Washed platelets were prelabelled with 14 C-serotonin. In the presence of acetylsalicyclic acid (ASA) (to inhibit thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2 ) formation) and creatine phosphate/creatine phosphokinase (CP/CPK) (to remove released ADP), HC platelets aggregated more (26 +/- 1%) and released more 14 C (9.1 +/- 2.0%) than NC platelets (aggregation: 0%, p 14 C release: 1.5 +/- 0.5%, p 2 formation is involved in the hypersensitivity of HC platelets to thrombin. Total binding of 125 I-thrombin to HC platelets was less than that to NC platelets but HC platelets were smaller and had less protein than NC platelets; the thrombin binding per mg platelet protein was the same for HC and NC platelets, indicating that hypersensitivity to thrombin of HC platelets does not result from increased thrombin binding. Thus, hypersensitivity of HC platelets to thrombin is not due to TXA 2 formation, the action of released ADP or increased thrombin binding

  10. Platelet aggregation following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Nis A; Sørensen, Anne M; Perner, Anders

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to elucidate platelet function in trauma patients, as it is pivotal for hemostasis yet remains scarcely investigated in this population. We conducted a prospective observational study of platelet aggregation capacity in 213 adult trauma patients on admission to an emergency department (ED...... severity score (ISS) was 17; 14 (7%) patients received 10 or more units of red blood cells in the ED (massive transfusion); 24 (11%) patients died within 28 days of trauma: 17 due to cerebral injuries, four due to exsanguination, and three from other causes. No significant association was found between...... aggregation response and ISS. Higher TRAP values were associated with death due to cerebral injuries (P 

  11. Effects of DK-002, a synthesized (6aS,cis)-9,10-Dimethoxy-7,11b-dihydro-indeno[2,1-c]chromene-3,6a-diol, on platelet activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Seon; Khil, Lee-Yong; Chae, Sang-Ho; Kim, Deukjoon; Lee, Byung-Hoon; Hwang, Gwi-Seo; Moon, Chang-Hyun; Chang, Tong-Shin; Moon, Chang-Kiu

    2006-02-02

    In the present study, the mechanism of antiplatelet activity of DK-002, a synthesized (6aS,cis)-9,10-Dimethoxy-7,11b-dihydro-indeno[2,1-c]chromene-3,6a-diol, was investigated. DK-002 inhibited the thrombin, collagen, and ADP-induced rat platelet aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 120, 27, and 47 microM, respectively. DK-002 also inhibited thrombin-induced dense granule secretion, thromboxane A2 synthesis, and [Ca2+]i elevation in platelets. DK-002 did not show any significant effect on ADP-induced inhibition of cyclic AMP elevation by prostaglandin E1, but DK-002 was confirmed to inhibit ADP-induced [Ca2+]i elevation and shape change. DK-002 inhibited 4-bromo-A23187-induced [Ca2+]i elevation in the presence of creatine phosphate/creatine phosphokinase (CP/CPK, a ADP scavenging system) and indomethacin (a specific inhibitor of cyclooxygenase). DK-002 also inhibited Ca2+ mobilization in thrombin- or 4-bromo-A23187-stimulated platelets through its inhibitory effects on both Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and Ca2+ influx, in the presence of CP/CPK and indomethacin. Taken together, the present study shows that DK-002 has inhibitory effects on stimulation of platelets, and suggests that its antiplatelet activity might be related to the inhibitory mechanism on Ca2+ mobilization in stimulated platelets.

  12. The effects of aspirin on platelet function and lysophosphatidic acids depend on plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Robert C; Abdolahi, Amir; Tu, Xin; Georas, Steve N; Brenna, J Thomas; Phipps, Richard P; Lawrence, Peter; Mousa, Shaker A

    2015-05-01

    Aspirin's prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus is controversial. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and aspirin all affect the cyclooxygenase enzyme. The relationship between plasma EPA and DHA and aspirin's effects has not been determined. Thirty adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus ingested aspirin (81 mg/day) for 7 days, then EPA+DHA (2.6g/day) for 28 days, then both for another 7 days. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) species and more classic platelet function outcomes were determined. Plasma concentrations of total EPA+DHA were associated with 7-day aspirin reduction effects on these outcomes in a "V"-shaped manner for all 11 LPA species and ADP-induced platelet aggregation. This EPA+DHA concentration was quite consistent for each of the LPA species and ADP. These results support aspirin effects on lysolipid metabolism and platelet aggregation depending on plasma EPA+DHA concentrations in individuals with a disturbed lipid milieu. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of rhesus monkey platelet glycoprotein Ibα, a major ligand-binding subunit of GPIb-IX-V complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jianlin; Shen, Yang; Shi, Meimei; Lu, Yanrong; Cheng, Jingqiu; Chen, Younan

    2014-05-01

    Through binding to von Willebrand factor (VWF), platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ibα, the major ligand-binding subunit of the GPIb-IX-V complex, initiates platelet adhesion and aggregation in response to exposed VWF or elevated fluid-shear stress. There is little data regarding non-human primate platelet GPIbα. This study cloned and characterized rhesus monkey (Macaca Mullatta) platelet GPIbα. DNAMAN software was used for sequence analysis and alignment. N/O-glycosylation sites and 3-D structure modelling were predicted by online OGPET v1.0, NetOGlyc 1.0 Server and SWISS-MODEL, respectively. Platelet function was evaluated by ADP- or ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation. Rhesus monkey GPIbα contains 2,268 nucleotides with an open reading frame encoding 755 amino acids. Rhesus monkey GPIbα nucleotide and protein sequences share 93.27% and 89.20% homology respectively, with human. Sequences encoding the leucine-rich repeats of rhesus monkey GPIbα share strong similarity with human, whereas PEST sequences and N/O-glycosylated residues vary. The GPIbα-binding residues for thrombin, filamin A and 14-3-3ζ are highly conserved between rhesus monkey and human. Platelet function analysis revealed monkey and human platelets respond similarly to ADP, but rhesus monkey platelets failed to respond to low doses of ristocetin where human platelets achieved 76% aggregation. However, monkey platelets aggregated in response to higher ristocetin doses. Monkey GPIbα shares strong homology with human GPIbα, however there are some differences in rhesus monkey platelet activation through GPIbα engagement, which need to be considered when using rhesus monkey platelet to investigate platelet GPIbα function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Formation of PI 3-kinase products in platelets by thrombin, but not collagen, is dependent on synergistic autocrine stimulation, particularly through secreted ADP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selheim, F; Idsøe, R; Fukami, M H; Holmsen, H; Vassbotn, F S

    1999-10-05

    Platelet activation by thrombin or collagen results in secretion and synthesis of several platelet agonists that enhance the responses to the primary agonists (autocrine stimulation). To disclose the effects of thrombin and collagen on the phosphorylation of 3-phosphoinositides per se we incubated platelets with five inhibitors of platelet autocrine stimulation (IAS) that act extracellularly. We found that IAS almost totally blocked thrombin-induced production of phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4)P(2)] and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)]. In contrast, collagen induced massive production of PtdIns(3,4)P(2) and PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) in the presence of IAS. When testing the effect of each inhibitor individually we found the strongest inhibition of thrombin-induced PtdIns(3,4)P(2) production with the ADP scavenger system CP/CPK. Furthermore, we found a strong synergistic effect between exogenously added ADP and thrombin on production of PtdIns(3,4)P(2). In contrast to the results from 3-phosphorylated phosphoinositides, CP/CPK had little effect on thrombin-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Our results show the importance of autocrine stimulation in thrombin-induced accumulation of 3-phosphorylated phosphoinositides and raise the question as to whether thrombin by itself is capable of inducing PI 3-K activation. In marked contrast to thrombin, collagen per se appears to be able to trigger increased production of PtdIns(3,4)P(2) and PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3). Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  15. Platelet aggregation according to body mass index in patients undergoing coronary stenting: should clopidogrel loading-dose be weight adjusted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolillo, Dominick J; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Bernardo, Esther; Barrera Ramírez, Carlos; Sabaté, Manel; Fernandez, Cristina; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Escaned, Javier; Alfonso, Fernando; Macaya, Carlos

    2004-04-01

    A 300 mg clopidogrel loading-dose (LD) is widely used as an adjunct antithrombotic treatment to reduce the risk of thrombotic events early after coronary stenting (CS). Antithrombotic drugs commonly used during percutaneous coronary interventions, such as heparin and platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, but not clopidogrel LD, are weight-adjusted, and few data are available on which is the most effective clopidogrel LD regimen. The aim of this study was to assess whether body mass index (BMI) influenced platelet response to clopidogrel LD in patients undergoing CS. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation (PA) was assessed by light transmittance aggregometry in 48 patients on aspirin treatment undergoing CS receiving a 300 mg clopidogrel LD at intervention time. PA was assessed at baseline and up to 24 hours after intervention. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to BMI: overweight (BMI greater than or equal to 25 kg/m2; 29 patients) and normal weight (BMI<25 kg/m2; 19 patients). PA was significantly higher in overweight than in normal weight patients at baseline (60.1+/-18.6%; versus 47.6+/-13.5%; p=0.01), at 24 hours (42.3+/-18.4% versus 38.5+/-18.3%; p=0.02) and during the overall study time (p=0.025). Percentage of inhibition of PA 24 hours following clopidogrel LD was suboptimal (<40%) in 59% and 26% of overweight and normal weight patients, respectively (p=0.04). An elevated BMI was the only independent predictor of suboptimal platelet response. These data suggest that overweight patients may need a higher loading-dose of clopidogrel and/or an adjunct antithrombotic treatment to adequately inhibit platelet aggregation early after CS.

  16. Rapid Purification and Procoagulant and Platelet Aggregating Activities of Rhombeobin: A Thrombin-Like/Gyroxin-Like Enzyme from Lachesis muta rhombeata Snake Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Huaco, Frank Denis; Werneck, Cláudio C.; Vicente, Cristina Pontes; Vassequi-Silva, Talita; Nery-Diez, Ana Cláudia Coelho; Mendes, Camila B.; Antunes, Edson; Marangoni, Sérgio; Damico, Daniela C. S.

    2013-01-01

    We report a rapid purification method using one-step chromatography of SVSP Rhombeobin (LMR-47) from Lachesis muta rhombeata venom and its procoagulant activities and effects on platelet aggregation. The venom was fractionated by a single chromatographic step in RP-HPLC on a C8 Discovery BIO Wide Pore, showing high degree of molecular homogeneity with molecular mass of 47035.49 Da. Rhombeobin showed amidolytic activity upon BAρNA, with a broad optimum pH (7–10) and was stable in solution up to 60°C. The amidolytic activity was inhibited by serine proteinase inhibitors and reducing agents, but not chelating agents. Rhombeobin showed high coagulant activity on mice plasma and bovine fibrinogen. The deduced amino acid sequence of Rhombeobin showed homology with other SVSPs, especially with LM-TL (L. m. muta) and Gyroxin (C. d. terrificus). Rhombeobin acts, in vitro, as a strong procoagulant enzyme on mice citrated plasma, shortening the APTT and PT tests in adose-dependent manner. The protein showed, “ex vivo”, a strong defibrinogenating effect with 1 µg/animal. Lower doses activated the intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways and impaired the platelet aggregation induced by ADP. Thus, this is the first report of a venom component that produces a venom-induced consumptive coagulopathy (VICC). PMID:24058917

  17. Estriol-induced fibrinolysis due to the activation of plasminogen to plasmin by nitric oxide synthesis in platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Pradipta; Maiti, Smarajit; Kahn, Nighat N; Sinha, Asru K

    2015-04-01

    Estriol, an oestrogen, at 0.6 nmol/l was reported to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation through nitric oxide synthesis. As nitric oxide has been reported to cause fibrinolysis due to the activation of plasminogen to plasmin, the role of estriol as a fibrinolytic agent was investigated. Also, the mechanism of estriol-induced nitric oxide synthesis in anucleated platelets was investigated. The estriol-induced lysis of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) clot was determined by photography of the clot lysis and by the assay of fibrin degradation products in the lysate and was obtained by SDS-PAGE. Nitric oxide was determined by methemoglobin method. The platelet membrane protein was isolated from the platelets by using Triton X-100 (0.05% v/v). The binding of estriol to the protein was determined by Scatchard plot by using an ELISA for estriol. Estriol at 0.6 nmol/l was found to lyse the clotted PRP due to fibrinolysis that produced fibrin degradation products in the lysate. The amino acid analysis of the platelet membrane protein, which resembles with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, was activated nearly 10-fold over the control in the presence of estriol and was identified to be a human serum albumin precursor (Mr. 69 kDa) that binds to estriol with Kd1 of 6.0 × 10 mol/l and 39 ± 2 molecules of estriol bound the NOS molecule. The estriol-induced nitric oxide is capable of inducing fibrinolysis of the clotted PRP. The binding of estriol to platelet membrane NOS activated the enzyme in the absence of DNA in the platelet.

  18. Platelet adhesion and degranulation induce pro-survival and pro-angiogenic signalling in ovarian cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Egan

    Full Text Available Thrombosis is common in ovarian cancer. However, the interaction of platelets with ovarian cancer cells has not been critically examined. To address this, we investigated platelet interactions in a range of ovarian cancer cell lines with different metastatic potentials [HIO-80, 59M, SK-OV-3, A2780, A2780cis]. Platelets adhered to ovarian cancer cells with the most significant adhesion to the 59M cell line. Ovarian cancer cells induced platelet activation [P-selectin expression] in a dose dependent manner, with the most significant activation seen in response to the 59M cell line. The platelet antagonists [cangrelor, MRS2179, and apyrase] inhibited 59M cell induced activation suggesting a P2Y12 and P2Y1 receptor mediated mechanism of platelet activation dependent on the release of ADP by 59M cells. A2780 and 59M cells potentiated PAR-1, PAR-4, and TxA2 receptor mediated platelet activation, but had no effect on ADP, epinephrine, or collagen induced activation. Analysis of gene expression changes in ovarian cancer cells following treatment with washed platelets or platelet releasate showed a subtle but valid upregulation of anti-apoptotic, anti-autophagy pro-angiogenic, pro-cell cycle and metabolic genes. Thus, ovarian cancer cells with different metastatic potential adhere and activate platelets differentially while both platelets and platelet releasate mediate pro-survival and pro-angiogenic signals in ovarian cancer cells.

  19. Superoxide dismutase of human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Akiro; Fujimura, Kingo; Kuramoto, Atsushi

    1979-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (S.O.D.) is the enzyme to protect from destructive effect of superoxide (O 2 -) produced in many metabolic pathways related to oxygen. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility that S.O.D. may play an important role in the platelet function. The cytoplasmic and mitochondrial S.O.D. has been investigated spectrophotometrically and gel electrophoretically in human platelets from eleven patients of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and three patients of primary thrombocythemia (P.Th.). Neither deficiency nor abnormality of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial S.O.D. has been found electrophoretically in any case compared to normal platelets. However, the total activity from three of the CML patients and one of the P.Th. patients were above 3 unit/mg platelet protein (normal subject: 2.11 - 2.70 unit/mg protein), suggesting the possibility either that more O 2 -production occurs in the platelets or that rather little O 2 -production due to much O 2 -deprivation by the increased S.O.D. The S.O.D. activity of human platelets has been also investigated in several conditions, where much O 2 -generation might occur in platelets. Sodium fluoride (2 mM), which increases platelet O 2 -production about 3 fold, had no effect on platelet S.O.D. The aggregated platelets induced by ADP (10 -5 M), epinephrin (50 μg/ml), ristocetin (1.5 mg/ml) or collagen (1 - 20 μg/ml) had no increase of S.O.D. activity compared to that from non aggregated platelets. X-ray irradiation (1,000 - 20,000R) had not induced its activity increase or decrease. These findings indicated the induction of platelet S.O.D. was not brought about under these conditions. (author)

  20. Inhibition of the plasma SCUBE1, a novel platelet adhesive protein, protects mice against thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Ying; Lin, Yuh-Charn; Liao, Wei-Ju; Tu, Cheng-Fen; Chen, Ming-Huei; Roffler, Steve R; Yang, Ruey-Bing

    2014-07-01

    Signal peptide-CUB-EGF domain-containing protein 1 (SCUBE1), a secreted and surface-exposed glycoprotein on activated platelets, promotes platelet-platelet interaction and supports platelet-matrix adhesion. Its plasma level is a biomarker of platelet activation in acute thrombotic diseases. However, the exact roles of plasma SCUBE1 in vivo remain undefined. We generated new mutant (Δ) mice lacking the soluble but retaining the membrane-bound form of SCUBE1. Plasma SCUBE1-depleted Δ/Δ mice showed normal hematologic and coagulant features and expression of major platelet receptors, but Δ/Δ platelet-rich plasma showed impaired platelet aggregation in response to ADP and collagen treatment. The addition of purified recombinant SCUBE1 protein restored the aggregation of platelets in Δ/Δ platelet-rich plasma and further enhanced platelet aggregation in +/+ platelet-rich plasma. Plasma deficiency of SCUBE1 diminished arterial thrombosis in mice and protected against lethal thromboembolism induced by collagen-epinephrine treatment. Last, antibodies directed against the epidermal growth factor-like repeats of SCUBE1, which are involved in trans-homophilic protein-protein interactions, protected mice against fatal thromboembolism without causing bleeding in vivo. We conclude that plasma SCUBE1 participates in platelet aggregation by bridging adjacent activated platelets in thrombosis. Blockade of soluble SCUBE1 might represent a novel antithrombotic strategy. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Mechanical Dissociation of Platelet Aggregates in Blood Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoore, Masoud; Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Gompper, Gerhard; Complex; Biological Fluids Group Team

    2017-11-01

    von Willebrand factor (VWF) and platelet aggregation is a key phenomenon in blood clotting. These aggregates form critically in high shear rates and dissolve reversibly in low shear rates. The emergence of a critical shear rate, beyond which aggregates form and below which they dissolve, has an interesting impact on aggregation in blood flow. As red blood cells (RBCs) migrate to the center of the vessel in blood flow, a RBC free layer (RBC-FL) is left close to the walls into which the platelets and VWFs are pushed back from the bulk flow. This margination process provides maximal VWF-platelet aggregation probability in the RBC-FL. Using mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations of aggregate dynamics in blood flow, it is shown that the aggregates form and grow in RBC-FL wherein shear rate is high for VWF stretching. By growing, the aggregates penetrate to the bulk flow and get under order of magnitude lower shear rates. Consequently, they dissolve and get back into the RBC-FL. This mechanical limitation for aggregates prohibits undesired thrombosis and vessel blockage by aggregates, while letting the VWFs and platelets to aggregate close to the walls where they are actually needed. The support by the DFG Research Unit FOR 1543 SHENC and CPU time Grant by the Julich Supercomputing Center are acknowledged.

  2. Acute hypertriglyceridemia induces platelet hyperactivity that is not attenuated by insulin in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Myint Myint; Kilpatrick, Eric S; Aburima, Ahmed; Wraith, Katie S; Magwenzi, Simbarashe; Spurgeon, B; Rigby, Alan S; Sandeman, Derek; Naseem, Khalid M; Atkin, Stephen L

    2014-02-28

    Atherothrombosis is associated with platelet hyperactivity. Hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance (IR) are features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The effect of induced hypertriglyceridemia on IR and platelet function was examined in young women with PCOS. Following overnight fasting, 13 PCOS and 12 healthy women were infused with saline or 20% intralipid for 5 hours on separate days. Insulin sensitivity was measured using a hyperinsulinemic euglycaemic clamp in the final 2 hours of each infusion. Platelet responses to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and prostacyclin (PGI2) were measured by flow cytometric analysis of platelet fibrinogen binding and P-selectin expression using whole blood taken during each infusion (at 2 hours) and at the end of each clamp. Lipid infusion increased triglycerides and reduced insulin sensitivity in both controls (median, interquartile range ) (5.25 [3.3, 6.48] versus 2.60 [0.88, 3.88] mg kg(-1) min(-1), P<0.001) and PCOS (3.15 [2.94, 3.85] versus 1.06 [0.72, 1.43] mg kg(-1) min(-1), P<0.001). Platelet activation by ADP was enhanced and ability to suppress platelet activation by PGI2 diminished during lipid infusion in both groups when compared to saline. Importantly, insulin infusion decreased lipid-induced platelet hyperactivity by decreasing their response to 1 μmol/L ADP (78.7% [67.9, 82.3] versus 62.8% [51.8, 73.3], P=0.02) and increasing sensitivity to 0.01 μmol/L PGI2 (67.6% [39.5, 83.8] versus 40.9% [23.8, 60.9], P=0.01) in controls, but not in PCOS. Acute hypertriglyceridemia induced IR, and increased platelet activation in both groups that was not reversed by insulin in PCOS subjects compared to controls. This suggests that platelet hyperactivity induced by acute hypertriglyceridemia and IR could contribute athero-thrombotic risk. www.isrctn.org. Unique Identifier: ISRCTN42448814.

  3. Mechanisms of the priming effect of low doses of lipopoly-saccharides on leukocyte-dependent platelet aggregation in whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Bosco, Ornella; Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Fascio Pecetto, Paolo; Lupia, Enrico; Goffi, Alberto; Omedè, Paola; Emanuelli, Giorgio; Camussi, Giovanni

    2003-11-01

    Several studies focused on the ability of bacterial lipopolysac-charides (LPS) in triggering platelet and/or leukocyte activation. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the aggregation of platelets and in their interaction with leukocytes in whole blood after stimulation with low doses of LPS. LPS did not directly induce platelet aggregation in whole blood, but they primed the aggregation of platelets induced by epinephrine, adenosine diphosphate and arachidonic acid. As shown by cytofluorimetry, platelets neither bind FITC-LPS, nor express the LPS-receptors CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). On the contrary, LPS primed monocytes and to a lesser extent polymorphonuclear neutrophils to adhere to platelets. Both platelet-leukocyte interaction and platelet aggregation in whole blood were inhibited by blockade of CD14 and TLR4. Moreover, the interaction between platelets and leukocytes was inhibited by P-selectin, and by blockade of PAF and reactive oxygen species, suggesting a role of P-selectin and of leukocyte-derived mediators. In conclusion, these results elucidate the mechanisms leading to platelet activation and interaction with leukocytes triggered by LPS. They suggest that the activation of platelets by LPS is mainly dependent on leukocytes and especially monocytes as a result of CD14 and TLR4 engagement. Moreover, we found that leukocyte-platelet interaction was triggered by the synthesis of PAF and the generation of oxygen radicals that induced upregulation of surface expression of P-selectin.

  4. Selective and rapid monitoring of dual platelet inhibition by aspirin and P2Y12 antagonists by using multiple electrode aggregometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Reinhard

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor platelet inhibition by aspirin or clopidogrel has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with cardiovascular diseases. A reliable and facile assay to measure platelet inhibition after treatment with aspirin and a P2Y12 antagonist is lacking. Multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA, which is being increasingly used in clinical studies, is sensitive to platelet inhibition by aspirin and clopidogrel, but a critical evaluation of MEA monitoring of dual anti-platelet therapy with aspirin and P2Y12 antagonists is missing. Design and Methods By performing in vitro and ex vivo experiments, we evaluated in healthy subjects the feasibility of using MEA to monitor platelet inhibition of P2Y12 antagonists (clopidogrel in vivo, cangrelor in vitro and aspirin (100 mg per day in vivo, and 1 mM or 5.4 mM in vitro alone, and in combination. Statistical analyses were performed by the Mann-Whitney rank sum test, student' t-test, analysis of variance followed by the Holm-Sidak test, where appropriate. Results ADP-induced platelet aggregation in hirudin-anticoagulated blood was inhibited by 99.3 ± 1.4% by in vitro addition of cangrelor (100 nM; p 95% and 100 ± 3.2%, respectively (p in vitro or ex vivo. Oral intake of clopidogrel did not significantly reduce AA-induced aggregation, but P2Y12 blockade by cangrelor (100 nM in vitro diminished AA-stimulated aggregation by 53 ± 26% (p Conclusions Selective platelet inhibition by aspirin and P2Y12 antagonists alone and in combination can be rapidly measured by MEA. We suggest that dual anti-platelet therapy with these two types of anti-platelet drugs can be optimized individually by measuring platelet responsiveness to ADP and AA with MEA before and after drug intake.

  5. Flavanols and Platelet Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra A. Pearson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet activity and platelet-endothelial cell interactions are important in the acute development of thrombosis, as well as in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. An increasing number of foods have been reported to have platelet-inhibitory actions, and research with a number of flavanol-rich foods, including, grape juice, cocoa and chocolate, suggests that these foods may provide some protection against thrombosis. In the present report, we review a series of in vivo studies on the effects of flavanol-rich cocoa and chocolate on platelet activation and platelet-dependent primary hemostasis. Consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa inhibited several measures of platelet activity including, epinephrine- and ADP-induced glycoprotein (GP IIb/IIIa and P-Selectin expression, platelet microparticle formation, and epinephrine-collagen and ADP-collagen induced primary hemostasis. The epinephrine-induced inhibitory effects on GP IIb/IIIa and primary hemostasis were similar to, though less robust than those associated with the use of low dose (81 mg aspirin. These data, coupled with information from other studies, support the concept that flavanols present in cocoa and chocolate can modulate platelet function through a multitude of pathways.

  6. Platelet function in the postprandial period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinzinger Helmut

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia have been related to cardiovascular events. Among different underlying mechanisms platelet activation seems to be responsible too. No comparable data between various tests in normo- vs. hyperlipidemics before and at different time intervals are available after a fat meal. We aimed to compare 9 of them within the same patients at several time points in postprandial hyperlipidemia. Results For some tests baseline values between the groups were significantly different (TXB2, platelet sensitivity, sedimentation and WU-test. However, hyperlipidemia revealed a variable influence on the tests examined. Some of the available tests apparently sensitive to show platelet activation reflect the increase in triglycerides (TG, such as the sedimentation index. ADP-induced platelet aggregatory activity in count adjusted washed isolated platelet samples during postprandial hyperlipidemia indicates mildly enhanced platelet activity, but does not seem to induce significant changes in aggregation. In patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia (> 400 mg/dl fasting changes in platelet function are more pronounced due to delayed decay and may last up to 16 hours paralleling TG reaching the prevalue. The overwhelming majority of platelet function tests do not significantly respond to postprandial hyperlipidemia. The correlation between the tests applied is poor. For standardization purpose, platelet aggregation tests, aimed to examine proaggregatory capacity in atherosclerosis, should only be performed at the same time of the day after a fasting period > 6 hours. The great variation in preanalytical work-up on comparison of various tests, large number of platelet tests available and their respective potential value are discussed. Conclusions At present, the suspicion that platelet function is significantly activated in the postprandial period cannot be supported by any of the tests used. The

  7. Rapid Purification and Procoagulant and Platelet Aggregating Activities of Rhombeobin: A Thrombin-Like/Gyroxin-Like Enzyme from Lachesis muta rhombeata Snake Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Denis Torres-Huaco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rapid purification method using one-step chromatography of SVSP Rhombeobin (LMR-47 from Lachesis muta rhombeata venom and its procoagulant activities and effects on platelet aggregation. The venom was fractionated by a single chromatographic step in RP-HPLC on a C8 Discovery BIO Wide Pore, showing high degree of molecular homogeneity with molecular mass of 47035.49 Da. Rhombeobin showed amidolytic activity upon BAρNA, with a broad optimum pH (7–10 and was stable in solution up to 60°C. The amidolytic activity was inhibited by serine proteinase inhibitors and reducing agents, but not chelating agents. Rhombeobin showed high coagulant activity on mice plasma and bovine fibrinogen. The deduced amino acid sequence of Rhombeobin showed homology with other SVSPs, especially with LM-TL (L. m. muta and Gyroxin (C. d. terrificus. Rhombeobin acts, in vitro, as a strong procoagulant enzyme on mice citrated plasma, shortening the APTT and PT tests in adose-dependent manner. The protein showed, “ex vivo”, a strong defibrinogenating effect with 1 µg/animal. Lower doses activated the intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways and impaired the platelet aggregation induced by ADP. Thus, this is the first report of a venom component that produces a venom-induced consumptive coagulopathy (VICC.

  8. The effect of centrifugation speed and time on pre-analytical platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, Anna C; Nybo, Mads; Nielsen, Christian; Vinholt, Pernille J

    2016-12-01

    The results of laboratory analyses are affected by pre-analytical variables, and in particular can platelets be activated by shear handling stress and secrete granular substances. We therefore evaluated the effect of centrifugation speed and time on pre-analytical platelet activation. Citrate- and EDTA-anticoagulated blood from healthy volunteers were centrifuged at 80-10,000 g for 5-15 min to prepare plasma and platelet-rich plasma. Pre-analytical platelet activation was assessed by flow cytometric measurement of platelet P-selectin (CD62p) expression. Blood cell counts, mean platelet volume (MPV), immature platelet fraction (IPF), and platelet distribution width (PDW) were measured. Platelet aggregation in platelet-rich plasma induced by arachidonic acid (AA), ADP or thrombin receptor activator peptide-6 (TRAP) was tested by 96-well aggregometry. The median percentage of platelets expressing P-selectin in citrate- and EDTA-plasma centrifuged at 2000 g for 10 min were 43% [interquartile range (IQR), 38%-53%] and 56% (IQR, 31%-78%), respectively (p=0.82). Platelet-rich plasma prepared at 100-250 g for 10 min had significantly lower platelet P-selectin expression (11%-15%), pcentrifuged. In platelet-rich plasma, increasing centrifugation speed significantly increased platelet yield but decreased contamination from other blood cells, platelet composition was altered as platelet parameters (MPV, IPF, and PDW) was lowered. Platelet aggregation was not affected by the centrifugation speed platelet-rich plasma was prepared. Proportional to centrifugation speed, platelets in plasma and platelet-rich plasma were activated with centrifugation speed, cell content and composition changed while platelet aggregation was unaltered.

  9. Functional characterization of recombinant snake venom rhodocytin: rhodocytin mutant blocks CLEC-2/podoplanin-dependent platelet aggregation and lung metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, T; Shirai, T; Tsukiji, N; Otake, S; Tamura, S; Ichikawa, J; Osada, M; Satoh, K; Ozaki, Y; Suzuki-Inoue, K

    2018-02-28

    Essentials We generated recombinant rhodocytin that could aggregate platelets via CLEC-2. Recombinant wild-type rhodocytin formed heterooctamer with four α- and β-subunits. Asp 4 in α-subunit of rhodocytin was required for binding to CLEC-2. Inhibitory mutant of rhodocytin blocked podoplanin-dependent hematogenous metastasis. Background Rhodocytin, a disulfide-linked heterodimeric C-type lectin from Calloselasma rhodostoma consisting of α-subunits and β-subunits, induces platelet aggregation through C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2). CLEC-2 is a physiological binding partner of podoplanin (PDPN), which is expressed on some tumor cell types, and is involved in tumor cell-induced platelet aggregation and tumor metastasis. Thus, modified rhodocytin may be a possible source of anti-CLEC-2 drugs for both antiplatelet and antimetastasis therapy. However, its molecular function has not been well characterized, because of the lack of recombinant rhodocytin that induces platelet aggregation. Objective To produce recombinant rhodocytin, in order to verify its function with mutagenesis, and to develop an anti-CLEC-2 drug based on the findings. Methods We used Chinese hamster ovary cells to express recombinant rhodocytin (wild-type [WT] and mutant), which was analyzed for induction/inhibition of platelet aggregation with light transmission aggregometry, the formation of multimers with blue native PAGE, and binding to CLEC-2 with flow cytometry. Finally, we investigated whether mutant rhodocytin could suppress PDPN-induced metastasis in an experimental lung metastasis mouse model. Results Functional WT] rhodocytin (αWTβWT) was obtained by coexpression of both subunits. Asp4 in α-subunits of rhodocytin was required for CLEC-2 binding. αWTβWT formed a heterooctamer similarly to native rhodocytin. Moreover, an inhibitory mutant of rhodocytin (αWTβK53A/R56A), forming a heterotetramer, bound to CLEC-2 without inducing platelet aggregation, and blocked CLEC-2-PDPN

  10. The Impact of Type 2 Diabetes on the Efficacy of ADP Receptor Blockers in Patients with Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Pilot Prospective Study

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    Matej Samoš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to validate the impact of type 2 diabetes (T2D on the platelet reactivity in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI treated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP receptor blockers. Methods. A pilot prospective study was performed. Totally 67 patients were enrolled. 21 patients had T2D. Among all study population, 33 patients received clopidogrel and 34 patients received prasugrel. The efficacy of ADP receptor blocker therapy had been tested in two time intervals using light transmission aggregometry with specific inducer and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation (VASP-P flow cytometry assay. Results. There were no significant differences in platelet aggregability among T2D and nondiabetic (ND group. The platelet reactivity index of VASP-P did not differ significantly between T2D and ND group (59.4±30.9% versus 60.0±25.2% and 33.9±25.3% versus 38.6±29.3% in second testing. The number of ADP receptor blocker nonresponders did not differ significantly between T2D and ND patients. The time interval from ADP receptor blocker loading dosing to the blood sampling was similar in T2D and ND patients in both examinations. Conclusion. This prospective study did not confirm the higher platelet reactivity and higher prevalence of ADP receptor blocker nonresponders in T2D acute STEMI patients.

  11. Gene targeting implicates Cdc42 GTPase in GPVI and non-GPVI mediated platelet filopodia formation, secretion and aggregation.

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    Huzoor Akbar

    Full Text Available Cdc42 and Rac1, members of the Rho family of small GTPases, play critical roles in actin cytoskeleton regulation. We have shown previously that Rac1 is involved in regulation of platelet secretion and aggregation. However, the role of Cdc42 in platelet activation remains controversial. This study was undertaken to better understand the role of Cdc42 in platelet activation.We utilized the Mx-cre;Cdc42(lox/lox inducible mice with transient Cdc42 deletion to investigate the involvement of Cdc42 in platelet function. The Cdc42-deficient mice exhibited a significantly reduced platelet count than the matching Cdc42(+/+ mice. Platelets isolated from Cdc42(-/-, as compared to Cdc42(+/+, mice exhibited (a diminished phosphorylation of PAK1/2, an effector molecule of Cdc42, (b inhibition of filopodia formation on immobilized CRP or fibrinogen, (c inhibition of CRP- or thrombin-induced secretion of ATP and release of P-selectin, (d inhibition of CRP, collagen or thrombin induced platelet aggregation, and (e minimal phosphorylation of Akt upon stimulation with CRP or thrombin. The bleeding times were significantly prolonged in Cdc42(-/- mice compared with Cdc42(+/+ mice.Our data demonstrate that Cdc42 is required for platelet filopodia formation, secretion and aggregation and therefore plays a critical role in platelet mediated hemostasis and thrombosis.

  12. Evaluation of platelet aggregation in platelet concentrates: storage implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neiva Teresinha J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of hemo-derivatives is nowadays a fundamentally important therapeutic modality in the exercise of medicine. Among the various hemo-components employed, we have the platelet concentrate (PC, indicated in cases of hemorrhagic disturbances. We previously showed that platelet function in blood donors is reduced in their screening phase and after the separation process of PCs. Currently, we are providing evidence for the existence of biochemical and functional changes in PC preparations stored for three days at temperatures of 20 ± 2 ºC. Platelet concentrates from 40 healthy donors, collected in CPD anticoagulant and PL-146 polyvinylchloride containers, were examined in order to determine the pH value, pCO2 ,pO2 and lactate concentrations. In addition, the aggregation of platelets with thrombin and collagen were examined to evaluate platelet function. A pH increase from 7.07 ± 0.04 to 7.36 ± 0.07 (p < 0.01 was observed. The pCO2 concentration decreased progressively from 69.2 ± 7.7 mmHg to 28.8 ± 6.2 mmHg (p < 0.001 during the storage period. In contrast, pO2 value increase from 103.4 ± 30.6 to 152.3 ± 24.6 mmHg (p < 0.001 was evidenced during the 48 hours of storage. The lactate concentration increased from 17.97 ± 5.2 to 57.21 ± 5.7 mg/dl (p < 0.001. Platelet aggregation using 0.25 U/ml-thrombin and 2.0 µg/ml-collagen showed significant hypofunction from 61.8 ± 2.7% to 24.8 ± 9.8% and 62.7±5.0 to 33.4± 6.2 (p < 0.001, respectively. We concluded that the evaluated biochemical parameters and the platelet function changed significantly when the platelets were kept under routine storage conditions.

  13. The hemostatic agent ethamsylate promotes platelet/leukocyte aggregate formation in a model of vascular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Maria Rosa; Alvarez-Guerra, Miriam; Escolar, Ginés; Chiavaroli, Carlo; Hannaert, Patrick; Garay, Ricardo P

    2004-08-01

    The hemostatic agent ethamsylate enhances membrane expression of P-selectin in human platelets, but whether this promotes platelet-leukocyte aggregate formation is unknown. Here we investigated this point by flow cytometry determination of human platelet-leukocyte aggregates under basal conditions and after whole-blood perfusion through a damaged rabbit aorta segment. Actions of ethamsylate on adhesive molecules of platelets and leukocytes were investigated in parallel. Under basal conditions, ethamsylate was unable to modify whole-blood platelet-leukocyte aggregation, but following whole-blood perfusion through a damaged vessel, ethamsylate produced a modest, but significant increase in platelet-leukocyte aggregates (48+/-21 and 45+/-26% above control levels at ethamsylate 20 and 40 microm respectively). In isolated leukocyte plasma membranes, 14C-ethamsylate specifically bound up to an amount of 660 pmol/mg protein. Moreover, at concentrations > or =1 microm, ethamsylate induced an important (100-200%) and significant increase in the P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) fluorescence signal in isolated leukocytes and was unable to significantly modify the percentage of CD11b-positive cells. However, no significant changes in aggregate formation were found when ethamsylate was incubated with isolated leukocytes and blood was reconstituted and perfused. In isolated platelet cell membranes, anti-P-selectin antibody and the anti-integrin RGD-containing pentapeptide (GRDGS) were unable to displace 14C-ethamsylate binding. In conclusion, ethamsylate specifically binds to plasma membranes of leukocytes, enhances membrane PSGL-1 expression and promotes leukocyte-platelet aggregation in whole-blood perfused through a damaged vascular segment. These results together with the previously observed enhancement of platelet P-selectin membrane expression [Thromb. Res. (2002)107:329-335] confirms and extends the view that ethamsylate acts on the first step of hemostasis, by

  14. The effect of 60Co-irradiation on platelet cytoskeleton and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Qingqi; Li Chengzhu

    1987-01-01

    Changes in rat platelet cytoskeleton and platelet function by 60 Co-irradiation were investigated. When platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was stimulated with ADP, PRP aggregation rates on the 3rd, 6th and 9th day after irradiation were 135%, 96% and 0% of the controls respectively. Although control rat PRP responded to collagen stimulation well, PRP from treated rats had lost the aggregation ability induced by collagen. When same amounts of platelets from the control and the treated rats were extracted with 1% triton X-100-EGTA buffer and the cytoskeleton pellet analysed by SDS-PAGE, it was found that the amount and components of the rat platelet cytoskeleton especially actin and myosin on the 3rd day after irradiation were greatly increased. Those from rat platelets on the 6th day after irradiation showed no difference from the controls, but was significantly decreased on the 9th day after irradiation. Based on these results, the authors concluded that the platelets from rats on the 3rd day after irradiation were in an active state. Exhaustion of granule contents or impairment of collagen receptors might render platelets unable to respond to collagen. Decreased platelet function on the 9th day after irradiation was due to a failure of assembly of its cytoskeleton

  15. Dietary flavanols and procyanidin oligomers from cocoa (Theobroma cacao) inhibit platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Karen J; Chronopoulos, Andriana K; Singh, Indu; Francis, Maureen A; Moriarty, Helen; Pike, Marilyn J; Turner, Alan H; Mann, Neil J; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2003-06-01

    Flavonoids may be partly responsible for some health benefits, including antiinflammatory action and a decreased tendency for the blood to clot. An acute dose of flavanols and oligomeric procyanidins from cocoa powder inhibits platelet activation and function over 6 h in humans. This study sought to evaluate whether 28 d of supplementation with cocoa flavanols and related procyanidin oligomers would modulate human platelet reactivity and primary hemostasis and reduce oxidative markers in vivo. Thirty-two healthy subjects were assigned to consume active (234 mg cocoa flavanols and procyanidins/d) or placebo (cocoa flavanols and procyanidins/d) tablets in a blinded parallel-designed study. Platelet function was determined by measuring platelet aggregation, ATP release, and expression of activation-dependent platelet antigens by using flow cytometry. Plasma was analyzed for oxidation markers and antioxidant status. Plasma concentrations of epicatechin and catechin in the active group increased by 81% and 28%, respectively, during the intervention period. The active group had significantly lower P selectin expression and significantly lower ADP-induced aggregation and collagen-induced aggregation than did the placebo group. Plasma ascorbic acid concentrations were significantly higher in the active than in the placebo group (P antioxidant status did not change in either group. Cocoa flavanol and procyanidin supplementation for 28 d significantly increased plasma epicatechin and catechin concentrations and significantly decreased platelet function. These data support the results of acute studies that used higher doses of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins.

  16. Exposure to acrolein by inhalation causes platelet activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sithu, Srinivas D.; Srivastava, Sanjay; Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Vladykovskaya, Elena; Riggs, Daniel W.; Conklin, Daniel J.; Haberzettl, Petra; O'Toole, Timothy E.; Bhatnagar, Aruni; D'Souza, Stanley E.

    2010-01-01

    Acrolein is a common air pollutant that is present in high concentrations in wood, cotton, and tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust and industrial waste and emissions. Exposure to acrolein containing environmental pollutants such as tobacco smoke and automobile exhaust has been linked to the activation of the coagulation and hemostasis pathways and thereby to the predisposition of thrombotic events in human. To examine the effects of acrolein on platelets, adult male C57Bl/6 mice were subjected acute (5 ppm for 6 h) or sub-chronic (1 ppm, 6 h/day for 4 days) acrolein inhalation exposures. The acute exposure to acrolein did not cause pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, dyslipidemia or induce liver damage or muscle injury. Platelet GSH levels in acrolein-exposed mice were comparable to controls, but acrolein-exposure increased the abundance of protein-acrolein adducts in platelets. Platelets isolated from mice, exposed to both acute and sub-chronic acrolein levels, showed increased ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Exposure to acrolein also led to an increase in the indices of platelet activation such as the formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates in the blood, plasma PF4 levels, and increased platelet-fibrinogen binding. The bleeding time was decreased in acrolein exposed mice. Plasma levels of PF4 were also increased in mice exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Similar to inhalation exposure, acrolein feeding to mice also increased platelet activation and established a pro-thrombotic state in mice. Together, our data suggest that acrolein is an important contributing factor to the pro-thrombotic risk in human exposure to pollutants such as tobacco smoke or automobile exhaust, or through dietary consumption.

  17. Exposure to acrolein by inhalation causes platelet activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sithu, Srinivas D [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Diabetes and Obesity Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Srivastava, Sanjay; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Vladykovskaya, Elena; Riggs, Daniel W; Conklin, Daniel J; Haberzettl, Petra; O' Toole, Timothy E; Bhatnagar, Aruni [Diabetes and Obesity Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); D' Souza, Stanley E., E-mail: sedsou01@louisville.ed [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Acrolein is a common air pollutant that is present in high concentrations in wood, cotton, and tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust and industrial waste and emissions. Exposure to acrolein containing environmental pollutants such as tobacco smoke and automobile exhaust has been linked to the activation of the coagulation and hemostasis pathways and thereby to the predisposition of thrombotic events in human. To examine the effects of acrolein on platelets, adult male C57Bl/6 mice were subjected acute (5 ppm for 6 h) or sub-chronic (1 ppm, 6 h/day for 4 days) acrolein inhalation exposures. The acute exposure to acrolein did not cause pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, dyslipidemia or induce liver damage or muscle injury. Platelet GSH levels in acrolein-exposed mice were comparable to controls, but acrolein-exposure increased the abundance of protein-acrolein adducts in platelets. Platelets isolated from mice, exposed to both acute and sub-chronic acrolein levels, showed increased ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Exposure to acrolein also led to an increase in the indices of platelet activation such as the formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates in the blood, plasma PF4 levels, and increased platelet-fibrinogen binding. The bleeding time was decreased in acrolein exposed mice. Plasma levels of PF4 were also increased in mice exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Similar to inhalation exposure, acrolein feeding to mice also increased platelet activation and established a pro-thrombotic state in mice. Together, our data suggest that acrolein is an important contributing factor to the pro-thrombotic risk in human exposure to pollutants such as tobacco smoke or automobile exhaust, or through dietary consumption.

  18. Ehlers-danlos syndrome with platelet aggregation defect-presenting as mysterious bleeding disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawhney M

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old girl presented with recurrent episodes of petechiae, purpura and ecchymoses since six months of age and recurrent episodes of mild to severe epistaxis since two years of age requiring repeated blood transfusions. In April '99 while being investigated for a massive epistaxis, she was found to have platelet function defect with abnormal aggregation of platelets to ADP, epinephrine, collagen as well as to ristocetin. Further investigations ruled out the possibility of Glanzmann's disorder and von-Willebrand's disease as to its cause. In May 2001 she was referred to the dermatologist for evaluation of subcutaneous tumours, which had developed since the last six months. On clinical evaluation, she was found to be having mild hyperextensibility of the skin, joint hypermobility, atrophic scars over knee, spontaneous bruises over right forearm and left thigh and nontender firm to hard subcutaneous nodules over both wrists, both shoulders, right index finger and dorsum of right foot consistent with a clinical picture of a mild form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS. Histopathology of the nodule from left wrist was consistent with molluscoid tumour of EDS and skin histopathology and ultrastructure studies showed thick irregular collagen fibrils. Only other sibling, a five-year-old male also had history of repeated mild to moderate epistaxis and on examination was found to have a milder variant of EDS. Born out of I degree consanguineous marriage of normal parents with mildly affected other sibling, she was diagnosed to be suffering from EDS with autosomal recessive inheritance, most probably EDS type X due to the associated platelet aggregation defect. Only one such family with EDS type X has been reported so far.

  19. Ehlers-danlos syndrome with platelet aggregation defect-presenting as mysterious bleeding disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawhney M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old girl presented with recurrent episodes of petechiae, purpura and ecchymoses since six months of age and recurrent episodes of mild to severe epistaxis since two years of age requiring repeated blood transfusions. In April '99 while being investigated for a massive epistaxis, she was found to have platelet function defect with abnormal aggregation of platelets to ADP, epinephrine, collagen as well as to ristocetin. Further investigations ruled out the possibility of Glanzmann's disorder and von-Willebrand's disease as to its cause. In May 2001 she was referred to the dermatologist for evaluation of subcutaneous tumours, which had developed since the last six months. On clinical evaluation, she was found to be having mild hyperextensibility of the skin, joint hypermobility, atrophic scars over knee, spontaneous bruises over right forearm and left thigh and nontender firm to hard subcutaneous nodules over both wrists, both shoulders, right index finger and dorsum of right foot consistent with a clinical picture of a mild form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS. Histopathology of the nodule from left wrist was consistent with molluscoid tumour of EDS and skin histopathology and ultrastructure studies showed thick irregular collagen fibrils. Only other sibling, a five-year-old male also had history of repeated mild to moderate epistaxis and on examination was found to have a milder variant of EDS. Born out of I degree consanguineous marriage of normal parents with mildly affected other sibling, she was diagnosed to be suffering from EDS with autosomal recessive inheritance, most probably EDS type X due to the associated platelet aggregation defect. Only one such family with EDS type X has been reported so far.

  20. The Influence of Low Platelet Count on Whole Blood Aggregometry Assessed by Multiplate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stissing, Trine; Dridi, Nadia P; Ostrowski, Sisse R

    2011-01-01

    in an artificial matrix, platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Heparinized and citrated blood was diluted with autologous plasma to platelet concentrations 200 to 25 × 10(9)/L in WB samples (n = 10) and 200 to 100 × 10(9)/L in PRP samples (n = 7). The platelet aggregation was investigated by the ADP-, ASPI-, COL-, and TRAP...

  1. Purification and Characterization of BmooAi: A New Toxin from Bothrops moojeni Snake Venom That Inhibits Platelet Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Ribeiro de Queiroz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the purification/characterization of BmooAi, a new toxin from Bothrops moojeni that inhibits platelet aggregation. The purification of BmooAi was carried out through three chromatographic steps (ion-exchange on a DEAE-Sephacel column, molecular exclusion on a Sephadex G-75 column, and reverse-phase HPLC chromatography on a C2/C18 column. BmooAi was homogeneous by SDS-PAGE and shown to be a single-chain protein of 15,000 Da. BmooAi was analysed by MALDI-TOF Spectrometry and revealed two major components with molecular masses 7824.4 and 7409.2 as well as a trace of protein with a molecular mass of 15,237.4 Da. Sequencing of BmooAi by Edman degradation showed two amino acid sequences: IRDFDPLTNAPENTA and ETEEGAEEGTQ, which revealed no homology to any known toxin from snake venom. BmooAi showed a rather specific inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation induced by collagen, adenosine diphosphate, or epinephrine in human platelet-rich plasma in a dose-dependent manner, whereas it had little or no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ristocetin. The effect on platelet aggregation induced by BmooAi remained active even when heated to 100°C. BmooAi could be of medical interest as a new tool for the development of novel therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of thrombotic disorders.

  2. Effects of pathogen reduction systems on platelet microRNAs, mRNAs, activation, and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Abdimajid; Hitzler, Walter E; Meyer, Claudius U; Landry, Patricia; Corduan, Aurélie; Laffont, Benoit; Boilard, Eric; Hellstern, Peter; Vamvakas, Eleftherios C; Provost, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen reduction (PR) systems for platelets, based on chemically induced cross-linking and inactivation of nucleic acids, potentially prevent transfusion transmission of infectious agents, but can increase clinically significant bleeding in some clinical studies. Here, we documented the effects of PR systems on microRNA and mRNA levels of platelets stored in the blood bank, and assessed their impact on platelet activation and function. Unlike platelets subjected to gamma irradiation or stored in additive solution, platelets treated with Intercept (amotosalen+ ultraviolet-A [UVA] light) exhibited significantly reduced levels of 6 of the 11 microRNAs, and 2 of the 3 anti-apoptotic mRNAs (Bcl-xl and Clusterin) that we monitored, compared with platelets stored in plasma. Mirasol (riboflavin+ UVB light) treatment of platelets did not produce these effects. PR neither affected platelet microRNA synthesis or function nor induced cross-linking of microRNA-sized endogenous platelet RNA species. However, the reduction in the platelet microRNA levels induced by Intercept correlated with the platelet activation (p < 0.05) and an impaired platelet aggregation response to ADP (p < 0.05). These results suggest that Intercept treatment may induce platelet activation, resulting in the release of microRNAs and mRNAs from platelets. The clinical implications of this reduction in platelet nucleic acids secondary to Intercept remain to be established.

  3. Glucose impairs aspirin inhibition in platelets through a NAD(P)H oxidase signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobzar, Gennadi; Mardla, Vilja; Samel, Nigulas

    2017-07-01

    Hyperglycemia has been suggested to play a role in the increased platelet resistance to antiplatelet therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus. Exposure to high glucose impairs platelet inhibition by aspirin. It has been found that antioxidant agents reduce the effect of glucose, confirming the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the effect of glucose. The aim of the study was to examine the mechanism of ROS increase by high glucose in aspirin-treated platelets. Platelet aggregation was measured by the optical method, and the production of ROS was detected using luminol-dependent horseradish peroxidase-enhanced chemiluminescence. We found that glucose did not affect ADP-induced platelet aggregation. However, it reduced the effect of aspirin on platelet aggregation, which was accompanied by an increase in ROS generation. The inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) prevented the glucose effect and ROS generation. The same result was recorded after the inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK), phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) or 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX). The inhibition of TxA 2 receptor did not decrease the effect of glucose indicating that the effect was not caused by activation of TxA 2 receptors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of steroids on the activation status of platelets in patients with Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoria, Preeti; Sharma, Saniya; Varma, Neelam; Malhotra, Pankaj; Varma, Subhash; Luthra-Guptasarma, Manni

    2015-01-01

    The activation status of platelets in Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients--which is still somewhat controversial--is of potential interest, because activated platelets tend to aggregate (leading to excessive clotting or thromboembolic events) but cannot do so when platelet numbers are low, as in ITP. Although corticosteroids are the first line of therapy in ITP, the effect of steroids on activation of platelets has not been evaluated so far. We examined the status of platelet activation (with and without stimulation with ADP) in ITP patients, at the start of therapy (pre-steroid treatment, naive) and post-steroid treatment (classified on the basis of steroid responsiveness). We used flow cytometry to evaluate the levels of expression of P-selectin, and PAC-1 binding to platelets of 55 ITP patients and a similar number of healthy controls, treated with and without ADP. We found that platelets in ITP patients exist in an activated state. In patients who are responsive to steroids, the treatment reverses this situation. Also, the fold activation of platelets upon treatment with ADP is more in healthy controls than in ITP patients; treatment with steroids causes platelets in steroid-responsive patients to become more responsive to ADP-activation, similar to healthy controls. Thus steroids may cause changes in the ability of platelets to get activated with an agonist like ADP. Our results provide new insights into how, and why, steroid therapy helps in the treatment of ITP.

  5. Response to platelet-activating factor in human platelets stored and aged in plasma. Decrease in aggregation, phosphoinositide turnover, and receptor affinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, S.D.; Morrison, W.J.; Klachko, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Human platelet concentrates were stored in polyolefin bags at 22 to 24 degrees C on a horizontal shaker for up to 8 days. At different intervals, aliquots of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) were removed aseptically and five variables, i.e., platelet counts, morphology, platelet-activating factor (PAF)-stimulated aggregation, phosphoinositide turnover, and [3H]PAF binding to platelet receptors, were studied. The number of platelets did not change during the 8 days of storage. Scanning electron microscopy of the platelets revealed a gradual morphologic change from biconcave flat discs to irregular, crenated forms. The PAF-induced aggregation of platelets declined with time of storage. A decrease to 50 percent of the Day 1 aggregatory response to PAF was evident on Day 2, and there was a further decline to about 20 percent by Day 6. Similarly, PAF receptor-coupled phosphoinositide turnover, as monitored by 32P incorporation into individual phosphoinositides, decreased dramatically with storage. After 2 to 3 days of storage, the phosphoinositide turnover was reduced to 50 percent of the original response, and it continued to decline to about 25 percent of original response by Day 5 or 6. The binding of [3H]PAF to washed human platelets indicated subtle changes between Days 2 and 4, which became more noticeable by Day 6. These results have raised the possibility of changes in the number of the receptors and/or their affinity for the ligand during storage. We conclude that although the number of platelets was maintained during storage for 8 days, a general deterioration of their responses to PAF occurred at the levels of cell surface receptor, transmembrane signaling (phosphoinositide turnover), and response (aggregation)

  6. Aggregated nanoplatelets: optical properties and optically induced deaggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayabalan, J; Singh, Asha; Chari, Rama; Srivastava, Himanshu; Srivastava, A K; Mukhopadhyay, P K; Oak, S M

    2008-01-01

    A study of aggregation and laser-induced deaggregation of silver nanospheres and nanoplatelets in colloidal form is presented. Changes in the extinction spectrum caused by aggregation are explained using a two-particle approximation. In the case of platelets, controlled laser irradiation is shown to reverse the aggregation process.

  7. Aggregated nanoplatelets: optical properties and optically induced deaggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayabalan, J; Singh, Asha; Chari, Rama [Laser Physics Application Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Srivastava, Himanshu; Srivastava, A K [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Mukhopadhyay, P K; Oak, S M [Solid State Laser Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)], E-mail: jjaya@cat.ernet.in

    2008-11-05

    A study of aggregation and laser-induced deaggregation of silver nanospheres and nanoplatelets in colloidal form is presented. Changes in the extinction spectrum caused by aggregation are explained using a two-particle approximation. In the case of platelets, controlled laser irradiation is shown to reverse the aggregation process.

  8. Functional alterations of human platelets following 111In labeling with different ligands and incubation media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieno, Masayuki; Isaka, Yoshinori; Kimura, Kazutumi

    1990-01-01

    We studied the effects of various 111 In-water soluble chelates and incubation media on labeling efficiency of platelets and in vitro platelet aggregability. High labeling efficiency of platelets in ACD-saline was achieved with 111 In-oxine sulfate, 111 In-tropolone and 111 In-MPO (2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide). In the condition with 4.8 x 10 6 /mm 3 platelets in ACD-plasma, 111 In-oxine-sulfate had low labeling efficiency and inconsistent labeling, while 111 In-tropolone and 111 In-MPO had high labeling efficiency. In vitro platelet aggregability (ADP 2μM) was reduced when platelets were labeled in the absence of plasma. However, there was no significant difference in platelet aggregability among 111 In-platelets labeled by three different chelates. In conclusion, to maintain aggregation activity of the platelets with relatively high labeling efficiency, the best result was obtained by using MPO or tropolone chelate in plasma at 4.8 x 10 6 /μl platelet concentration. (author)

  9. New Sesquiterpenoids and Anti-Platelet Aggregation Constituents from the Rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jih-Jung; Tsai, Tung-Han; Liao, Hsiang-Ruei; Chen, Li-Chai; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Chen, Chun-Lin; Wei, Chun-Sheng

    2016-10-17

    Two new sesquiterpenoids-13-hydroxycurzerenone ( 1 ) and 1-oxocurzerenone ( 2 )-have been isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria , together with 13 known compounds ( 3 - 15 ). The structures of two new compounds were determined through spectroscopic and MS analyses. Among the isolated compounds, 13-hydroxycurzerenone ( 1 ), 1-oxocurzerenone ( 2 ), curzerenone ( 3 ), germacrone ( 4 ), curcolone ( 5 ), procurcumenol ( 6 ), ermanin ( 7 ), curcumin ( 8 ), and a mixture of stigmast-4-en-3,6-dione ( 12 ) and stigmasta-4,22-dien-3,6-dione ( 13 ) exhibited inhibition (with inhibition % in the range of 21.28%-67.58%) against collagen-induced platelet aggregation at 100 μM. Compounds 1 , 5 , 7 , 8 , and the mixture of 12 and 13 inhibited arachidonic acid (AA)-induced platelet aggregation at 100 μM with inhibition % in the range of 23.44%-95.36%.

  10. Blood clotting and platelets: a delicate balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyns, A. du P.; Loetter, M.G.; Badenhorst, P.N.

    1988-01-01

    The Medical Research Council Blood Platelet Research Unit has studied many of the facets of platelets. The research highlights of the Unit include the following: the identification of ADPase, an enzyme found in the blood vessel wall, which breaks down adenosine diphospate (ADP) to adenosine, and which inhibits platelet aggregation; the determination of the relationship between the biochemical activity of the vessel wall with the development of atherosclerosis; the development of a method to label platelets with the compound In-111-oxine; the use of labelled platelets to study platelets in the spleen: an investigation of the life-span of platelets, which revealed how aged platelets are removed from circulation, and recently a study of methods to demonstrate in vivo activation of platelets. 1 fig

  11. Acacia nilotica leave extract and glyburide: comparison of fasting flood glucose, serum insulin, b-thromboglubulin levels and platelet aggregation in treptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, M.; Munir, T.A.; Afzal, N.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the hypoglycaemic and anti-platelet aggregation effect of aqueous methanol extract of Acacia Nilotica (AN) leaves compared with glyburide on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced in 90 out of 120 albino rats by administering 50 mg/kg body weight (b.w) streptozotocin and was confirmed by measuring fasting blood glucose level >200 mg/dL on fourth post-induction day. The rats were equally divided into 4 groups, A (normal control), B (diabetic control), C (diabetic rats treated with AN extract) and group D (diabetic rats treated with glyburide). The rats of group C and D were given 300 mg/kg b.w AN extract and 900 mu gm/kg b.w glyburide respectively for 3 weeks. Blood glucose was measured by gluco meter, platelet aggregation by Dia-Med method and insulin and b-thrombo globulin by ELISA technique. Results: A significant increase (p<0.05) in fasting blood glucose, b-thrombo globulin and platelet aggregation and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in insulin levels was observed in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats than the normal controls. The rats treated with AN extract and glyburide showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in fasting blood glucose and increase (p<0.05) in insulin levels than the diabetic control rats. However, the levels in both the treatment groups remained significantly different than the normal controls. A significant decrease (p<0.05) in b-thrombo globulin levels was seen in diabetic rats treated with glyburide than the diabetic control rats and diabetic rats treated with AN extract. Conclusions: AN leaves extract result into hypoglycaemic and anti-platelet aggregation activity in diabetic rats as that of glyburide. (author)

  12. Influence of caffeine on blood pressure and platelet aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wilson S. Cavalcante

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies have demonstrated that methylxanthines, such as caffeine, are A1 and A2 adenosine receptor antagonists found in the brain, heart, lungs, peripheral vessels, and platelets. Considering the high consumption of products with caffeine in their composition, in Brazil and throughout the rest of the world, the authors proposed to observe the effects of this substance on blood pressure and platelet aggregation. METHODS: Thirteen young adults, ranging from 21 to 27 years of age, participated in this study. Each individual took 750mg/day of caffeine (250mg tid, over a period of seven days. The effects on blood pressure were analyzed through the pressor test with handgrip, and platelet aggregation was analyzed using adenosine diphosphate, collagen, and adrenaline. RESULTS: Diastolic pressure showed a significant increase 24 hours after the first intake (p<0.05. This effect, however, disappeared in the subsequent days. The platelet aggregation tests did not reveal statistically significant alterations, at any time during the study. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that caffeine increases diastolic blood pressure at the beginning of caffeine intake. This hypertensive effect disappears with chronic use. The absence of alterations in platelet aggregation indicates the need for larger randomized studies.

  13. Agonist-induced platelet reactivity correlates with bleeding in haemato-oncological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, B; van Bladel, E R; van Hamersveld, M; Pasker-de Jong, P C M; Korporaal, S J A; Urbanus, R T; Roest, M; Boven, L A; Fijnheer, R

    2017-11-01

    Prophylactic platelet transfusions are administered to prevent bleeding in haemato-oncological patients. However, bleeding still occurs, despite these transfusions. This practice is costly and not without risk. Better predictors of bleeding are needed, and flow cytometric evaluation of platelet function might aid the clinician in identifying patients at risk of bleeding. This evaluation can be performed within the hour and is not hampered by low platelet count. Our objective was to assess a possible correlation between bleeding and platelet function in thrombocytopenic haemato-oncological patients. Inclusion was possible for admitted haemato-oncology patients aged 18 years and above. Furthermore, an expected need for platelet transfusions was necessary. Bleeding was graded according to the WHO bleeding scale. Platelet reactivity to stimulation by either adenosine diphosphate (ADP), cross-linked collagen-related peptide (CRP-xL), PAR1- or PAR4-activating peptide (AP) was measured using flow cytometry. A total of 114 evaluations were available from 21 consecutive patients. Platelet reactivity in response to stimulation by all four studied agonists was inversely correlated with significant bleeding. Odds ratios (OR) for bleeding were 0·28 for every unit increase in median fluorescence intensity (MFI) [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·11-0·73] for ADP; 0·59 [0·40-0·87] for CRP-xL; 0·59 [0·37-0·94] for PAR1-AP; and 0·43 [0·23-0·79] for PAR4-AP. The platelet count was not correlated with bleeding (OR 0·99 [0·96-1·02]). Agonist-induced platelet reactivity was significantly correlated to bleeding. Platelet function testing could provide a basis for a personalized transfusion regimen, in which platelet transfusions are limited to those at risk of bleeding. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  14. Platelet activation, adhesion, inflammation, and aggregation potential are altered in the presence of electronic cigarette extracts of variable nicotine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Sarah; Chen, Li; Wang, Tony; Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Yin, Wei; Rubenstein, David A

    2016-11-01

    Tobacco smoke extracts prepared from both mainstream and sidestream smoking have been associated with heightened platelet activation, aggregation, adhesion, and inflammation. Conversely, it has been shown that pure nicotine inhibits similar platelet functions. In this work, we 1) evaluated the effects of e-cigarette extracts on platelet activities and 2) elucidated the differences between the nicotine-dependent and non-nicotine dependent (e.g. fine particulate matter or toxic compounds) effects of tobacco and e-cigarette products on platelet activities. To accomplish these goals, platelets from healthy volunteers (n = 50) were exposed to tobacco smoke extracts, e-cigarette vapor extracts, and pure nicotine and changes in platelet activation, adhesion, aggregation, and inflammation were evaluated, using optical aggregation, flow cytometry, and ELISA methods. Interestingly, the exposure of platelets to e-vapor extracts induced a significant up-regulation in the expression of the pro-inflammatory gC1qR and cC1qR and induced a marked increase in the deposition of C3b as compared with traditional tobacco smoke extracts. Similarly, platelet activation, as measured by a prothrombinase based assay, and platelet aggregation were also significantly enhanced after exposure to e-vapor extracts. Finally, platelet adhesion potential toward fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, and other platelets was also enhanced after exposure to e-cigarette vapor extracts. In the presence of pure nicotine, platelet functions were observed to be inhibited, which further suggests that other constituents of tobacco smoke and electronic vapor can antagonize platelet functions, however, the presence of nicotine in extracts somewhat perpetuated the platelet functional changes in a dose-dependent manner.

  15. Platelet size and age determine platelet function independently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.B.; Jakubowski, J.A.; Quinn, P.G.; Deykin, D.; Valeri, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the interaction of platelet size and age in determining in vitro platelet function. Baboon megakaryocytes were labeled in vivo by the injection of 75Se-methionine. Blood was collected when the label was predominantly associated with younger platelets (day 2) and with older platelets (day 9). Size-dependent platelet subpopulations were prepared on both days by counterflow centrifugation. The reactivity of each platelet subpopulation was determined on both days by measuring thrombin-induced aggregation. Platelets were fixed after partial aggregation had occurred by the addition of EDTA/formalin. After removal of the aggregated platelets by differential centrifugation, the supernatant medium was assayed for remaining platelets and 75Se radioactivity. Comparing day 2 and day 9, no significant difference was seen in the rate of aggregation of a given subpopulation. However, aggregation was more rapid in the larger platelet fractions than in the smaller ones on both days. A greater percentage of the 75Se radioactivity appeared in the platelet aggregates on day 2 than on day 9. This effect was independent of platelet size, as it occurred to a similar extent in the unfractionated platelets and in each of the size-dependent platelet subpopulations. The data indicate that young platelets are more active than older platelets. This study demonstrates that size and age are both determinants of platelet function, but by independent mechanisms

  16. Platelet fibrinogen binding in Basset Hound Hereditary Thrombopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, W.; Estry, D.; Schwartz, K.; Bell, T.

    1986-01-01

    Platelets from dogs with Basset Hound Hereditary Thrombopathy (BHT) display a thrombasthenia-like aggregation defect but have been shown to have normal amounts of platelet membrane glycoproteins IIb and IIIa (GP IIb-IIIa). In order to investigate the possibility of a functionally abnormal GPIIb-IIIa complex, which might be unable to bind fibrinogen after stimulation, fibrinogen binding in BHT was evaluated. Two canine fibrinogen preparations were used, one from BHT dogs and one from normal control dogs, as well as a human fibrinogen preparation. Platelets from BHT and normal dogs were activated with 1 x 10 -5 M ADP in the presence of 125 I-labeled fibrinogen and the surface bound radioactivity quantitated. For all fibrinogen preparations, the amount of fibrinogen bound by BHT platelets was not significantly different than that bound by normal dog platelets. BHT platelets bound 23,972 +/- 3612 and normal dog platelets bound 23,033 +/- 3971 molecules of fibrinogen per platelet. The BHT platelet aggregation defect does not seem to be caused by a functionally abnormal GP IIb-IIIa complex, since BHT platelets bind normal amounts of fibrinogen. The results suggest that fibrinogen binding is not sufficient for platelet aggregation, and other factors, perhaps receptor mobility and membrane phospholipid content should be investigated in BHT

  17. In vitro model of platelet aggregation in stenotic arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, D.; Santamore, W.P.

    1988-01-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence suggest a strong relationship between arterial stenosis, platelet aggregation, and subsequent thrombus formation. To facilitate the study of platelet accumulation in stenotic arteries, we developed an in vitro preparation. Arterial segments were perfused with whole citrated blood. A stenosis was created by applying an external plastic constrictor to the artery. Platelet accumulation within the stenosis was assessed by scanning electron microscopy and by radioactive counts from Indium-111 labeled platelets. Utilizing this preparation, 30 carotid arterial segments from 10 mongrel dogs were perfused at 100 mmHg for 15 min. In 10 arteries without a stenosis, scanning electron microscopy and radioactive counts demonstrated little platelet accumulation. In contrast, extensive platelet aggregation was observed in 10 arteries with stenoses. Moreover, in 10 stenotic arteries exposed to the thromboxane mimetic, U46619 (Upjohn Diagnostic Group), scanning electron microscopy and radioactive counts demonstrated a significant increase in platelet deposition. Conversely, we demonstrated a dimunition of platelet accumulation in stenosed arterial segments exposed to the prostacyclin analogue platelet inhibitor, Iloprost. The in vitro preparation allows precise control of hemodynamic variables and makes it possible to perform multiple tests on segments of the same vessel from the same animal

  18. Flavonoids and platelet aggregation: A brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggio, Caterina; Sureda, Antoni; Morabito, Silvia; Sanches-Silva, Ana; Mocan, Andrei; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-07-15

    Platelets are small anucleated fragments derived from a megakaryocyte precursor. Platelets play a key role in many physiological functions especially in hemostasis and wound healing processes in order to maintain the integrity of the circulatory system. In addition, activated platelets release cytokines and chemokines which modulate the immune response and, in some cases of hyperactivation, they could be associated to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds ubiquosly found in plants known to be potent antioxidants with positive effects against diverse diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative or cardiovascular disease. It has been reported that some flavonoids possess anti-platelet aggregation effects though different pathways, being the inhibition of the arachidonic acid-based pathway the most representative mechanism of action. In the present review, the main sources of flavonoids, as well as their bioavailability and metabolism are summarized. Moreover, the available data about the anti-aggregation effects of flavonoids and the different mechanisms of action that has been proposed until now are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In vitro effects of recombinant activated factor VII on thrombin generation and coagulation following inhibition of platelet procoagulant activity by prasugrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeffi, Michael; Szlam, Fania; Jakubowski, Joseph A; Tanaka, Kenichi A; Sugidachi, Atsuhiro; Levy, Jerrold H

    2013-07-01

    Prasugrel is a thienopyridyl P2Y12 antagonist with potent antiplatelet effects. At present, little is known about its effects on thrombin generation or what strategies may emergently reverse its anticoagulant effects. In the current study we evaluated whether recombinant activated factor VII may reverse prasugrel induced effects and increase thrombin generation in an in vitro model. The effect of prasugrel active metabolite, PAM (R-138727), was evaluated on platelet aggregation, thrombin generation, and rotational thromboelastometry parameters using blood from 20 healthy volunteers. Additionally, we evaluated the effects of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and recombinant activated factor VII on restoring these parameters towards baseline values. PAM reduced maximum platelet aggregation and led to platelet disaggregation. It also decreased peak thrombin, increased lag time, and increased time to peak thrombin. Treatment with recombinant activated factor VII restored all three parameters of thrombin generation towards baseline. ADP decreased lag time and time to peak thrombin, but had no effect on peak thrombin. When recombinant activated factor VII and ADP were combined they had a greater effect on thrombin parameters than either drug alone. PAM also increased thromboelastometric clotting time and clot formation time, but had no effect on maximum clot firmness. Treatment with either recombinant activated factor VII or ADP restored these values towards baseline. Recombinant activated factor VII restores thrombin generation in the presence of PAM. In patients taking prasugrel with life-threatening refractory bleeding it has the potential to be a useful therapeutic approach. Additional clinical studies are needed to validate our findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pilot study of novel lab methodology and testing of platelet function in adolescent women with heavy menstrual bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, Anne D; Khader, Ayesha; Ngo, Anh T P; Boehnlein, Colin; McDavitt, Cara; Lattimore, Susan; Recht, Michael; McCarty, Owen J T; Haley, Kristina M

    2018-03-01

    BackgroundApproximately 40% of adolescent women experience heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB), and 10-62% of them have an underlying bleeding disorder (BD). Diagnosing a BD remains challenging because of limitations of available clinical platelet function assays. The aim of this study was to characterize platelet function in a population of adolescent women with HMB using small-volume whole-blood assays.MethodsAnticoagulated whole blood was used to assess platelet GPIIbIIIa activation, α-granule secretion, and aggregation in response to multiple agonists. Platelet adhesion on collagen or von Willebrand Factor (VWF) under static and shear flow was also assessed.ResultsFifteen participants with HMB were included in the study, of which eight were diagnosed with a clinically identifiable BD. Platelet activation was blunted in response to calcium ionophore in participants without a BD diagnosis compared with that in all other participants. Impaired GPIIbIIIa activation was observed in response to all GPCR agonists, except adenosine diphosphate (ADP), in participants with qualitative platelet disorders. Our assays detected platelet aggregation in the majority of participants with a BD in response to ADP, collagen-related peptide (CRP), thrombin receptor activator 6 (TRAP-6), or U46619. Platelet adhesion and aggregation on collagen and VWF was decreased for participants with VWD.ConclusionParticipants with and without BD exhibited aberrant platelet function in several assays in response to select agonists.

  1. Evaluation of the effects of several zoanthamine-type alkaloids on the aggregation of human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Rosa M; Gil-Longo, José; Daranas, Antonio H; Souto, María L; Fernández, José J; Peixinho, Solange; Barral, Miguel A; Santafé, Gilmar; Rodríguez, Jaime; Jiménez, Carlos

    2003-05-15

    Ten zoanthamine-type alkaloids from two marine zoanthids belonging to the Zoanthus genus (Zoanthus nymphaeus and Zoanthus sp.) along with one semisynthetic derivative were evaluated for their antiplatelet activities on human platelet aggregation induced by several stimulating agents. 11-Hydroxyzoanthamine (11) and a synthetic derivative of norzoanthamine (16) showed strong inhibition against thrombin-, collagen- and arachidonic acid-induced aggregation, zoanthenol (15) displayed a selective inhibitory activity induced by collagen, while zoanthaminone (10) behaved as a potent aggregant agent. These evaluations allowed us to deduce several structure-activity relationships and suggest some mechanisms of action for this type of compounds.

  2. Inibição e reversão da agregação plaquetária de eqüinos in vitro com o uso de ketoprofeno, fenilbutazona e flunixim meglumine In vitro inibition and reversion of equine platelet aggregation using ketoprophen, phenylbutazone and flunixin meglumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola O. Paes Leme

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Como são várias as enfermidades e os distúrbios que induzem à hipercoagulabilidade e à pré-ativação de plaquetas em eqüinos. A atividade de medicamentos utilizados para controle dessas enfermidades sobre a agregação de plaquetas pode, não apenas servir para avaliar sua evolução, como também a resposta terapêutica. Com o objetivo de avaliar a prevenção e a reversão da agregação plaquetária de eqüinos in vitro foram utilizados os antiinflamatórios não esteroidais (AINES: ketoprofeno, fenilbutazona e flunixim meglumine. A comparação demonstrou que a fenilbutazona e o ketoprofeno previnem a agregação de plaquetas de eqüinos induzida pelo ADP, de forma mais eficaz do que o flunixim-meglumine e, superior ao fragmento monoclonal de anticorpo Reopro, sendo semelhante a dos bloqueadores de receptores de membrana Ro-438857 e RGDS. Quanto a reverão da agregação plaquetária tanto a fenilbutazona quanto o ketoprofeno demonstraram efeitos dose-dependente.Several diseases may lead to platelet pre-activation and hypercoagulability states in horses. The activity of many drugs against platelet aggregation may, not only contribute to the evaluation of a disease but also its response to the therapy. With the aim to study in vitro prevention and reversion of platelet aggregation, the non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID: ketoprophen, phenylbutazone and flunixin-meglumin were evaluated. The comparison demonstrated that phenylbutazone and ketoprophen prevented platelet aggregation induced by ADP better than flunixin-meglumin, in a superior manner to the monoclonal antibody Reopro, and in a better way than the membrane receptor blockers Ro-438857 and RGDS. The reversion of platelet aggregation demonstrated that even phenylbutazone or ketoprophen have a dose-dependent effect.

  3. Platelet-derived growth factor inhibits platelet activation in heparinized whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selheim, F; Holmsen, H; Vassbotn, F S

    1999-08-15

    We previously have demonstrated that human platelets have functionally active platelet-derived growth factor alpha-receptors. Studies with gel-filtered platelets showed that an autocrine inhibition pathway is transduced through this tyrosine kinase receptor during platelet activation. The physiological significance of this inhibitory effect of platelet-derived growth factor on gel-filtered platelets activation is, however, not known. In the present study, we investigated whether platelet-derived growth factor inhibits platelet activation under more physiological conditions in heparinized whole blood, which represents a more physiological condition than gel-filtered platelets. Using flow cytometric assays, we demonstrate here that platelet-derived growth factor inhibits thrombin-, thrombin receptor agonist peptide SFLLRN-, and collagen-induced platelet aggregation and shedding of platelet-derived microparticles from the platelet plasma membrane during platelet aggregation in stirred heparinized whole blood. The inhibitory effect of platelet-derived growth factor was dose dependent. However, under nonaggregating conditions (no stirring), we could not demonstrate any significant effect of platelet-derived growth factor on thrombin- and thrombin receptor agonist peptide-induced platelet surface expression of P-selectin. Our results demonstrate that platelet-derived growth factor appears to be a true antithrombotic agent only under aggregating conditions in heparinized whole blood.

  4. The Influence of Low Platelet Count on Whole Blood Aggregometry Assessed by Multiplate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stissing, Trine; Dridi, Nadia P; Ostrowski, Sisse R

    2011-01-01

    in an artificial matrix, platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Heparinized and citrated blood was diluted with autologous plasma to platelet concentrations 200 to 25 × 10(9)/L in WB samples (n = 10) and 200 to 100 × 10(9)/L in PRP samples (n = 7). The platelet aggregation was investigated by the ADP-, ASPI-, COL-, and TRAP......-test. The WB responses decreased at platelet concentration of ≤100 × 10(9)/L (all P PRP samples at platelet concentrations 200 to 100 × 10(9)/L (P

  5. Effects of extracts and tannins from Arbutus unedo leaves on rat platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhfi, Hassane; ElHaouari, Mohammed; Bnouham, Mohamed; Aziz, Mohammed; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq

    2006-02-01

    Many cardiovascular diseases such as arterial hypertension are associated with an increase in blood platelet activity. Arbutus unedo (Ericaceae) is a medicinal plant reputed to treat arterial hypertension, so the present study was undertaken in order to determine the antiaggregant effect. The crude aqueous extract showed an inhibition of thrombin-induced platelet aggregation (IC50 = 1.8 +/- 0.09 g/L, n = 10). The subsequent extraction of Arbutus unedo leaves by successive solvents showed that the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts accounted for most of the antiaggregant activity (IC50 = 0.7 +/- 0.08, n = 9; 0.6 +/- 0.05; n = 9, respectively). The tannins isolated from the methanol extract exhibited a strong antiplatelet effect (% of inhibition = 75.3 +/- 1.4, n = 8) and may be the major chemical compounds responsible for this action. Our results support the traditional use of this plant in the preventive or therapeutic treatment of platelet aggregation linked to arterial hypertension. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Biologic variability and correlation of platelet function testing in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Shauna L; Lang, Sean T; Wood, R Darren; Monteith, Gabrielle

    2015-12-01

    Platelet function tests are influenced by biologic variability, including inter-individual (CVG ) and intra-individual (CVI ), as well as analytic (CVA ) variability. Variability in canine platelet function testing is unknown, but if excessive, would make it difficult to interpret serial results. Additionally, the correlation between platelet function tests is poor in people, but not well described in dogs. The aims were to: (1) identify the effect of variation in preanalytic factors (venipuncture, elapsed time until analysis) on platelet function tests; (2) calculate analytic and biologic variability of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced thromboelastograph platelet mapping (TEG-PM), ADP-, AA-, and collagen-induced whole blood platelet aggregometry (WBA), and collagen/ADP and collagen/epinephrine platelet function analysis (PFA-CADP, PFA-CEPI); and (3) determine the correlation between these variables. In this prospective observational trial, platelet function was measured once every 7 days, for 4 consecutive weeks, in 9 healthy dogs. In addition, CBC, TEG-PM, WBA, and PFA were performed. Overall coefficients of variability ranged from 13.3% to 87.8% for the platelet function tests. Biologic variability was highest for AA-induced maximum amplitude generated during TEG-PM (MAAA; CVG = 95.3%, CVI = 60.8%). Use of population-based reference intervals (RI) was determined appropriate only for PFA-CADP (index of individuality = 10.7). There was poor correlation between most platelet function tests. Use of population-based RI appears inappropriate for most platelet function tests, and tests poorly correlate with one another. Future studies on biologic variability and correlation of platelet function tests should be performed in dogs with platelet dysfunction and those treated with antiplatelet therapy. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  7. Isolation of bothrasperin, a disintegrin with potent platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Pinto

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The venom of Bothrops asper induces severe coagulation disturbances in accidentally envenomed humans. However, only few studies have been conducted to identify components that interact with the hemostatic system in this venom. In the present work, we fractionated B. asper venom in order to investigate the possible presence of inhibitors of platelet aggregation. Using a combination of gel filtration, anion-exchange chromatography, and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography, we isolated an acidic protein which shows a single chain composition, with a molecular mass of ~8 kDa, estimated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Its N-terminal sequence has high similarity to disintegrins isolated from different snake venoms, which are known to bind to cellular integrins such as the GPIIb/IIIa fibrinogen receptor on platelets. The purified protein exerted potent aggregation inhibitory activity on ADP-stimulated human platelets in vitro, with an estimated IC50 of 50 nM. This biological activity, together with the biochemical characteristics observed, demonstrate that the protein isolated from B. asper venom is a disintegrin, hereby named "bothrasperin". This is the first disintegrin isolated from Central American viperid snake species.El veneno de la serpiente Bothrops asper induce graves alteraciones de la coagulación en los humanos accidentalmente envenenados. Sin embargo, se han realizado pocos estudios para identificar los componentes del veneno que interactúan con el sistema hemostático. En el presente trabajo, fraccionamos el veneno de B. asper para investigar la posible presencia de inhibidores de la agregación plaquetaria. Empleando una combinación de técnicas cromatográficas (filtración en gel, intercambio aniónico y cromatografía líquida de alto desempeño en fase reversa, aislamos una proteína acídica de cadena simple, con una masa molecular de ~8 kDa, estimada mediante electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida con

  8. Evaluation of electrical aggregometry: comparison with optical aggregometry, secretion of ATP, and accumulation of radiolabeled platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingerman-Wojenski, C.; Smith, J.B.; Silver, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Platelet aggregation has been most commonly studied in vitro by measuring increases in light transmission as platelets aggregate in PRP (platelet-rich plasma). Recently, an electrical impedance method for measuring platelet aggregation has been introduced. This method can be used with either PRP or whole blood and measures an increase in impedance across electrodes placed in the blood samples as platelets accumulate on them. Results obtained by the two methods were compared using ADP and collagen as aggregating agents, and also have measured the secretion of platelet ATP simultaneously. Although the aggregometry results were similar, recordings obtained by the electrical method did not distinguish two waves of platelet aggregation or correlate with secretion as well as recordings obtained by the optical method. When PGI 2 (prostacyclin) or PGE 1 (prostaglandin E 1 ) was added to the PRP, both the rate and extent of the increase in light transmittance were inhibited, but the main effect on the increase in impedance was a decrease in its rate and not in its extent. Increases in impedance and secretion of ATP were also measured in whole blood after the platelets had been labeled with a 125 I-containing antibody specific for platelet surface glycoproteins. It appeared that the increases in impedance lagged several minutes behind the formation of platelet aggregates and the secretion of platelet ATP

  9. Platelet inhibitory effects of juices from Pachyrhizus erosus L. root and Psidium guajava L. fruit: a randomized controlled trial in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaptimthong, Thitiporn; Kasemsuk, Thitima; Sibmooh, Nathawut; Unchern, Supeenun

    2016-08-03

    The purpose of this study is to investigate cardiovascular benefits of juices obtained from two commonly consumed fruits in Thailand, Pachyrhizus erosus, L. (yam bean) and Psidium guajava, L. (guava), by examining their acute cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers. Possible involvements of the dietary nitrate on their effects were investigated as well. Thirty healthy volunteers were randomly divided into three groups of 10 subjects per group and each group was allocated to drink 500 ml of freshly prepared yam bean root juice, guava fruit juice, or water. Systemic nitrate and nitrite concentrations, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum K(+) concentrations, ex vivo platelet aggregation, and plasma cGMP concentrations were monitored at the baseline and at various time points after the intake of juices or water. Data were compared by repeated measures ANOVA. Following the ingestion of both yam bean root juice and guava fruit juice, collagen-induced but not ADP-induced platelet aggregation was attenuated. Ingestion of yam bean root juice increased systemic nitrate and nitrite concentrations whereby elevated nitrite concentrations correlated with the extent of inhibiting collagen-induced platelet aggregation. In addition, positive correlation between systemic nitrite and plasma cGMP concentrations and negative correlation between plasma cGMP concentrations and the extent of collagen-induced platelet aggregation were revealed. Nevertheless, yam bean root juice reduced only diastolic blood pressure while guava fruit juice reduced heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The present study has illustrated, for the first time, acute inhibitory effects of yam bean root juice and guava fruit juice on ex vivo collagen-induced platelet aggregation in healthy subjects. Dietary nitrate was shown to underlie the effect of yam bean root juice but not that of guava fruit juice. Following yam bean root juice ingestion, systemic nitrate apparently

  10. Equol is more active than soy isoflavone itself to compete for binding to thromboxane A(2) receptor in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Yenny; Garrido, Argelia; Valladares, Luis

    2009-03-01

    Several dietary intervention studies examining the health effect of soy isoflavones allude to the importance of equol in establishing the cardiovascular response to soy protein. Although, the specific mechanism by which this action occurs has not been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of soy-isoflavones and the metabolite of daidzein, equol, on agonist-induced platelet responses dependent on thromboxane A(2) (TxA(2)) receptor. Competitive radioligand binding assay was used to screen for affinity of these compounds to the TxA(2) receptor. The effect of equol on platelet activation, evaluate through of release of the ATP, by analogs of TxA(2) was analyzed. The effect of equol on platelet aggregation was investigated with ADP, U46619 (a TxA(2) mimic) and the calcium ionophore A23187. The data showed that aglycone isoflavones and equol bind to TxA(2) receptor in the micromol/L range, whereas their glucoside derivates had very low binding activity for this receptor. Under equilibrium conditions, the following order of the relative affinity in inhibiting [(3)H]-SQ29585 binding was: equol>genistein>daidzein>glycitein>genistin, daidzin, glycitin. Equol interaction was reversible and competitive for labeled-SQ29548 with not apparent decrease in the number of TxA(2) binding sites. In addition, from platelet activation studies, equol effectively inhibited ATP secretion elicited by the TxA(2) analog U46619. On the other hand, equol inhibited the platelet aggregation induced by U46619 and A23187, while it failed to inhibit that induced by ADP. The aglycone isoflavones from soy, and particularly equol, have been found to have biological effects attributable to thromboxane A(2) receptor antagonism. These findings may help elucidate how dietary isoflavone modulate platelet function and explain why soy-rich foods are claimed to have beneficial effects in the prevention of thrombotic events.

  11. Does bipolar pacemaker current activate blood platelets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesdal, Grunde; Hansen, Annebirthe Bo; Brandes, Axel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether bipolar pacemaker current lead can activate blood platelets. The null hypothesis was that 1 minute of electrical stimulation of platelets would not influence their subsequent reactivity to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). BACKGROUND: Both...... platelets and muscle cells contain actin and myosin filaments, and both cells are activated following calcium influx. Muscle cells open their calcium channels and contract when exposed to an electric current. Current through a bipolar pacemaker lead will expose a small volume of blood, including platelets......, to the depolarizing current. Platelet activation may ensue, resulting in aggregation, release reaction, and contraction. In contrast, a unipolar pacemaker system will not depolarize blood, but transmit current directly into the myocardium, and the current afterward passes through other tissues before returning...

  12. A time course study on prothrombotic parameters and their modulation by anti-platelet drugs in hyperlipidemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishal; Jain, Manish; Prakash, Prem; Misra, Ankita; Khanna, Vivek; Tiwari, Rajiv Lochan; Keshari, Ravi Shankar; Singh, Shivendra; Dikshit, Madhu; Barthwal, Manoj Kumar

    2011-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the chronology of major pathological events associated with high cholesterol (HC) diet and their modulation by anti-platelet drugs. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed HC diet up to 90 days. Plasma lipid, glucose and coagulation parameters (commercial kits), platelet activation (whole blood aggregation and static adhesion), endothelial dysfunction (aortic ring vasoreactivity), splenocyte TNF-α, IFN-γ and iNOS mRNA transcripts (RT-PCR), and ferric chloride (time to occlusion) induced thrombosis were monitored at 15, 30, 60, and 90 days after HC feeding and compared with normolipidemic hamsters. A significant increase in plasma lipid levels was observed at 15 days of HC feeding, but other parameters remain unaltered. Enhanced ADP, collagen, and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, splenocyte TNF-α expression along with endothelial dysfunction were observed from 30 to 90 days of HC feeding. Platelet adhesion on collagen-/fibrinogen-coated surface and IFN-γ expression were augmented only after 60 days, while enhanced iNOS expression, reduction in thrombin time, and potentiation of ferric chloride-induced thrombosis was observed only at 90 days of HC feeding. Thus, pathological changes induced by HC diet depend on the duration and extent of hyperlipidemia. Moreover, hamsters treated with anti-platelet drugs aspirin (5 mg/kg) or clopidogrel (10 mg/kg) along with HC feeding exhibited reduction in platelet activation as well as subsequent changes observed in the abovementioned parameters following HC feeding. Since reduction in TNF-α was associated with reversion in endothelial dysfunction and prothrombotic state, the role of platelets is implicated in the pathological changes associated with HC feeding.

  13. Effect of cocoa products and flavanols on platelet aggregation in humans: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Ilaria; Palmery, Maura; Serafini, Mauro

    2015-07-01

    Previous evidence suggested an active role of cocoa products and flavanols in modulating platelet aggregation. However, cocoa flavanols are characterized by a low bioavailability that can deeply affect their presence in biological fluids and raise questions on their biological effect in humans. We performed a systematic search on Medline, Embase, Cochrane and ProQuest databases, until April 2015, on the effect of cocoa products on platelet aggregation in human intervention studies. We identified 13 interventions, of which only five involved repeated administration. Different effects were observed on the basis of the platelet aggregation test used, whereas neither a longer duration of treatment nor a higher dose was associated with a higher inhibition of platelet aggregation. In conclusion, the reviewed results suggest that consumption of cocoa products in bolus administration positively affects platelet aggregation in both healthy subjects and diseased patients. On the other hand, more evidence is required in order to assess the effect of long-term cocoa product ingestion and to identify the bioactive components involved.

  14. Assessment of a flow cytometry technique for studying signaling pathways in platelets: Monitoring of VASP phosphorylation in clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mallouk

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available A recently released kit (PerFix EXPOSE was reported to improve the measurement of the degree of phosphorylation of proteins in leukocytes by flow cytometry. We tested its adaptation for platelets to monitor vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP phosphorylation, which is the basis of a currently used test for the assessment of the pharmacological response to P2Y12 antagonists (PLT VASP/P2Y12. The PerFix EXPOSE kit was compared to the PLT VASP/P2Y12 kit by using blood samples drawn at 24 h post clopidogrel dose from 19 patients hospitalized for a non-cardio-embolic ischemic stroke and treated with clopidogrel monotherapy for at least five days in an observational study. The platelet PerFix method was based on adaptation of the volume of the sample, the centrifugation speed and the incubation temperature. Poor agreement between prevention by adenosine diphosphate (ADP of PGE1-induced cAMP-mediated VASP phosphorylation and ADP induced aggregation assessed by Light Transmittance Aggregometry was found. We found a significant correlation between the PLT VASP/P2Y12 kit and the PerFix EXPOSE kit. The PerFix EXPOSE kit may also be helpful to monitor adverse effects of second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors on platelets. Keywords: Platelet signaling, VASP, Flow cytometry, Clopidogrel

  15. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale on Platelet Aggregation: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Marx

    Full Text Available The potential effect of ginger on platelet aggregation is a widely-cited concern both within the published literature and to clinicians; however, there has been no systematic appraisal of the evidence to date.Using the PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed the results of clinical and observational trials regarding the effect of ginger on platelet aggregation in adults compared to either placebo or baseline data. Studies included in this review stipulated the independent variable was a ginger preparation or isolated ginger compound, and used measures of platelet aggregation as the primary outcome.Ten studies were included, comprising eight clinical trials and two observational studies. Of the eight clinical trials, four reported that ginger reduced platelet aggregation, while the remaining four reported no effect. The two observational studies also reported mixed findings.Many of the studies appraised for this review had moderate risks of bias. Methodology varied considerably between studies, notably the timeframe studied, dose of ginger used, and the characteristics of subjects recruited (e.g. healthy vs. patients with chronic diseases.The evidence that ginger affects platelet aggregation and coagulation is equivocal and further study is needed to definitively address this question.

  16. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Platelet Aggregation: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Wolfgang; McKavanagh, Daniel; McCarthy, Alexandra L; Bird, Robert; Ried, Karin; Chan, Alexandre; Isenring, Liz

    2015-01-01

    The potential effect of ginger on platelet aggregation is a widely-cited concern both within the published literature and to clinicians; however, there has been no systematic appraisal of the evidence to date. Using the PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed the results of clinical and observational trials regarding the effect of ginger on platelet aggregation in adults compared to either placebo or baseline data. Studies included in this review stipulated the independent variable was a ginger preparation or isolated ginger compound, and used measures of platelet aggregation as the primary outcome. Ten studies were included, comprising eight clinical trials and two observational studies. Of the eight clinical trials, four reported that ginger reduced platelet aggregation, while the remaining four reported no effect. The two observational studies also reported mixed findings. Many of the studies appraised for this review had moderate risks of bias. Methodology varied considerably between studies, notably the timeframe studied, dose of ginger used, and the characteristics of subjects recruited (e.g. healthy vs. patients with chronic diseases). The evidence that ginger affects platelet aggregation and coagulation is equivocal and further study is needed to definitively address this question.

  17. Static platelet adhesion, flow cytometry and serum TXB2 levels for monitoring platelet inhibiting treatment with ASA and clopidogrel in coronary artery disease: a randomised cross-over study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Andreas C; Jonasson, Lena; Lindahl, Tomas L; Hedbäck, Bo; Whiss, Per A

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the use of anti-platelet agents such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and clopidogrel in coronary heart disease, some patients continue to suffer from atherothrombosis. This has stimulated development of platelet function assays to monitor treatment effects. However, it is still not recommended to change treatment based on results from platelet function assays. This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of a static platelet adhesion assay to detect platelet inhibiting effects of ASA and clopidogrel. The adhesion assay measures several aspects of platelet adhesion simultaneously, which increases the probability of finding conditions sensitive for anti-platelet treatment. Methods With a randomised cross-over design we evaluated the anti-platelet effects of ASA combined with clopidogrel as well as monotherapy with either drug alone in 29 patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome. Also, 29 matched healthy controls were included to evaluate intra-individual variability over time. Platelet function was measured by flow cytometry, serum thromboxane B2 (TXB2)-levels and by static platelet adhesion to different protein surfaces. The results were subjected to Principal Component Analysis followed by ANOVA, t-tests and linear regression analysis. Results The majority of platelet adhesion measures were reproducible in controls over time denoting that the assay can monitor platelet activity. Adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet adhesion decreased significantly upon treatment with clopidogrel compared to ASA. Flow cytometric measurements showed the same pattern (r2 = 0.49). In opposite, TXB2-levels decreased with ASA compared to clopidogrel. Serum TXB2 and ADP-induced platelet activation could both be regarded as direct measures of the pharmacodynamic effects of ASA and clopidogrel respectively. Indirect pharmacodynamic measures such as adhesion to albumin induced by various soluble activators as well as SFLLRN-induced activation measured by flow

  18. Platelet function in stored heparinised autologous blood is not superior to in patient platelet function during routine cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf C G Gallandat Huet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In cardiac surgery, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB and unfractionated heparin have negative effects on blood platelet function. In acute normovolemic haemodilution autologous unfractionated heparinised blood is stored ex-vivo and retransfused at the end of the procedure to reduce (allogeneic transfusion requirements. In this observational study we assessed whether platelet function is better preserved in ex vivo stored autologous blood compared to platelet function in the patient during CPB. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We measured platelet aggregation responses pre-CPB, 5 min after the start of CPB, at the end of CPB, and after unfractionated heparin reversal, using multiple electrode aggregometry (Multiplate® with adenosine diphosphate (ADP, thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP and ristocetin activated test cells. We compared blood samples taken from the patient with samples taken from 100 ml ex-vivo stored blood, which we took to mimick blood storage during normovolemic haemodilution. Platelet function declined both in ex-vivo stored blood as well as in blood taken from the patient. At the end of CPB there were no differences in platelet aggregation responses between samples from the ex vivo stored blood and the patient. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Ex vivo preservation of autologous blood in unfractionated heparin does not seem to be profitable to preserve platelet function.

  19. High-throughput label-free detection of aggregate platelets with optofluidic time-stretch microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yiyue; Lei, Cheng; Yasumoto, Atsushi; Ito, Takuro; Guo, Baoshan; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Yatomi, Yutaka; Goda, Keisuke

    2017-02-01

    According to WHO, approximately 10 million new cases of thrombotic disorders are diagnosed worldwide every year. In the U.S. and Europe, their related diseases kill more people than those from AIDS, prostate cancer, breast cancer and motor vehicle accidents combined. Although thrombotic disorders, especially arterial ones, mainly result from enhanced platelet aggregability in the vascular system, visual detection of platelet aggregates in vivo is not employed in clinical settings. Here we present a high-throughput label-free platelet aggregate detection method, aiming at the diagnosis and monitoring of thrombotic disorders in clinical settings. With optofluidic time-stretch microscopy with a spatial resolution of 780 nm and an ultrahigh linear scanning rate of 75 MHz, it is capable of detecting aggregated platelets in lysed blood which flows through a hydrodynamic-focusing microfluidic device at a high throughput of 10,000 particles/s. With digital image processing and statistical analysis, we are able to distinguish them from single platelets and other blood cells via morphological features. The detection results are compared with results of fluorescence-based detection (which is slow and inaccurate, but established). Our results indicate that the method holds promise for real-time, low-cost, label-free, and minimally invasive detection of platelet aggregates, which is potentially applicable to detection of platelet aggregates in vivo and to the diagnosis and monitoring of thrombotic disorders in clinical settings. This technique, if introduced clinically, may provide important clinical information in addition to that obtained by conventional techniques for thrombotic disorder diagnosis, including ex vivo platelet aggregation tests.

  20. Antiplatelet Aggregation and Antithrombosis Efficiency of Peptides in the Snake Venom of Deinagkistrodon acutus: Isolation, Identification, and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two peptides of Pt-A (Glu-Asn-Trp 429 Da and Pt-B (Glu-Gln-Trp 443 Da were isolated from venom liquor of Deinagkistrodon acutus. Their antiplatelet aggregation effects were evaluated with platelet-rich human plasma in vitro; the respective IC50 of Pt-A and Pt-B was 66 μM and 203 μM. Both peptides exhibited protection effects on ADP-induced paralysis in mice. After ADP administration, the paralysis time of different concentration of Pt-A and Pt-B lasted as the following: 80 mg/kg Pt-B (152.8 ± 57.8 s < 40 mg/kg Pt-A (163.5 ± 59.8 s < 20 mg/kg Pt-A (253.5 ± 74.5 s < 4 mg/kg clopidogrel (a positive control, 254.5 ± 41.97 s < 40 mg/kg Pt-B (400.8 ± 35.9 s < 10 mg/kg Pt-A (422.8 ± 55.4 s, all of which were statistically shorter than the saline treatment (666 ± 28 s. Pulmonary tissue biopsy confirmed that Pt-A and Pt-B prevented the formation of thrombi in the lung. Unlike ADP injection alone, which caused significant reduction of peripheral platelet count, Pt-A treatment prevented the drop of peripheral platelet counts; interestingly, Pt-B could not, even though the same amount of Pt-B also showed protection effects on ADP-induced paralysis and thrombosis. More importantly, intravenous injection of Pt-A and Pt-B did not significantly increase the hemorrhage risks as clopidogrel.

  1. Platelets Express Activated P2Y12 Receptor in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang; Chang, Lin; Zhang, Yan; Zhai, Lili; Zhang, Shenghui; Qi, Zhiyong; Yan, Hongmei; Yan, Yan; Luo, Xinping; Zhang, Si; Wang, Yiping; Kunapuli, Satya P; Ye, Hongying; Ding, Zhongren

    2017-08-29

    Platelets from patients with diabetes mellitus are hyperactive. Hyperactivated platelets may contribute to cardiovascular complications and inadequate responses to antiplatelet agents in the setting of diabetes mellitus. However, the underlying mechanism of hyperactivated platelets is not completely understood. We measured P2Y 12 expression on platelets from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and on platelets from rats with diabetes mellitus. We also assayed platelet P2Y 12 activation by measuring cAMP and VASP phosphorylation. The antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects of AR-C78511 and cangrelor were compared in rats. Finally, we explored the role of the nuclear factor-κB pathway in regulating P2Y 12 receptor expression in megakaryocytes. Platelet P2Y 12 levels are 4-fold higher in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with healthy subjects. P2Y 12 expression correlates with ADP-induced platelet aggregation (r=0.89, P diabetes mellitus is constitutively activated. Although both AR-C78511, a potent P2Y 12 inverse agonist, and cangrelor have similar antiplatelet efficacy on platelets from healthy subjects, AR-C78511 exhibits more powerful antiplatelet effects on diabetic platelets than cangrelor (aggregation ratio 36±3% versus 49±5%, respectively, P diabetes mellitus than cangrelor (thrombus weight 4.9±0.3 mg versus 8.3±0.4 mg, respectively, P diabetes mellitus. Platelet P2Y 12 receptor expression is significantly increased and the receptor is constitutively activated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which contributes to platelet hyperactivity and limits antiplatelet drug efficacy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Pneumatic tube system transport does not alter platelet function in optical and whole blood aggregometry, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, platelet count and fibrinogen in patients on anti-platelet drug therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enko, Dietmar; Mangge, Harald; Münch, Andreas; Niedrist, Tobias; Mahla, Elisabeth; Metzler, Helfried; Prüller, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess pneumatic tube system (PTS) alteration on platelet function by the light transmission aggregometry (LTA) and whole blood aggregometry (WBA) method, and on the results of platelet count, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and fibrinogen. Materials and methods Venous blood was collected into six 4.5 mL VACUETTE® 9NC coagulation sodium citrate 3.8% tubes (Greiner Bio-One International GmbH, Kremsmünster, Austria) from 49 intensive care unit (ICU) patients on dual anti-platelet therapy and immediately hand carried to the central laboratory. Blood samples were divided into 2 Groups: Group 1 samples (N = 49) underwent PTS (4 m/s) transport from the central laboratory to the distant laboratory and back to the central laboratory, whereas Group 2 samples (N = 49) were excluded from PTS forces. In both groups, LTA and WBA stimulated with collagen, adenosine-5’-diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid (AA) and thrombin-receptor-activated-peptide 6 (TRAP-6) as well as platelet count, PT, APTT, and fibrinogen were performed. Results No statistically significant differences were observed between blood samples with (Group 1) and without (Group 2) PTS transport (P values from 0.064 – 0.968). The AA-induced LTA (bias: 68.57%) exceeded the bias acceptance limit of ≤ 25%. Conclusions Blood sample transportation with computer controlled PTS in our hospital had no statistically significant effects on platelet aggregation determined in patients with anti-platelet therapy. Although AA induced LTA showed a significant bias, the diagnostic accuracy was not influenced. PMID:28392742

  3. A chemically stable analogue, 9 beta-methyl carbacyclin, with similar effects to epoprostenol (prostacyclin, PGI2) in man.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Grady, J; Hedges, A; Whittle, B J; Al-Sinawi, L A; Mekki, Q A; Burke, C; Moody, S G; Moti, M J; Hassan, S

    1984-01-01

    The effects of 9 beta-methyl carbacyclin, a chemically stable analogue of epoprostenol (prostacyclin, PGI2) were studied, in comparison with epoprostenol, both in vitro and in vivo in man. In vitro 9 beta-methyl carbacyclin and epoprostenol inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, the endoperoxide analogue U46619 and arachidonic acid. The potency of 9 beta-methyl carbacyclin relative to epoprostenol was comparable in ADP and collagen-aggregated platelet rich plasma (PRP), 9 be...

  4. Effects of drugs on platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, E E

    1977-01-01

    Numerous drugs and chemicals affect the function of human blood platelets. The mechanism of action of some medications is partly understood. Aspirin is the most frequently involved drug. It appears to interfere with the platelet release reaction by acetylation of a platelet membrane protein which may be involved in the synthesis of prostaglandins. Other anti-inflammatory drugs, including indomethacin, phenylbutazone, ibuprophen (Motrin) and clonixin, also interfere with the release reaction but have a shorter acting course than aspirin. Some drugs stimulate adenylcyclase (gliclazide) or block phosphodiesterase, (dipyridamole, caffeine) both of which actions lead to an increase in adenosine cyclic 3':5' monophosphate (cAMP) and decrease aggregation by adenosine diphosphate (ADP). These interactions should be known to clinical scientists since patients using these medicaments may manifest abnormal platelet function tests in the laboratory and mild hemorrhagic syndromes in the clinic.

  5. Evaluation of electrical aggregometry: comparison with optical aggregometry, secretion of ATP, and accumulation of radiolabeled platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingerman-Wojenski, C.; Smith, J.B.; Silver, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Platelet aggregation has been most commonly studied in vitro by measuring increases in light transmission as platelets aggregate in PRP. Recently, an electrical impedance method for measuring platelet aggregation has been introduced. This method can be used with either PRP or whole blood and measures an increase in impedance across electrodes placed in the blood samples as platelets accumulate on them. We have compared the results obtained by the two methods, using ADP and collagen as aggregating agents, and also have measured the secretion of platelet ATP simultaneously. Although the aggregometry results were similar, recordings obtained by the electrical method did not distinguish two waves of platelet aggregation or correlate with secretion as well as recordings obtained by the optical method. When PGI2 or PGE1 was added to the PRP, both the rate and extent of the increase in light transmittance were inhibited, but the main effect on the increase in impedance was a decrease in its rate and not in its extent. Increases in impedance and secretion of ATP were also measured in whole blood after the platelets had been labeled with a 125 I-containing antibody specific for platelet surface glycoproteins. It appeared that the increases in impedance lagged several minutes behind the formation of platelet aggregates and the secretion of platelet ATP. It is suggested that there are advantages and disadvantages to both methods of measurement of platelet aggregation and that the parameters being measured must be clearly understood to properly interpret the results

  6. Time-dependent association between platelet-bound fibrinogen and the Triton X-100 insoluble cytoskeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peerschke, E.I.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies indicated a correlation between the formation of EDTA-resistant (irreversible) platelet-fibrinogen interactions and platelet cytoskeleton formation. The present study explored the direct association of membrane-bound fibrinogen with the Triton X-100 insoluble cytoskeleton of aspirin-treated, gel-filtered platelets, activated but not aggregated with 20 mumol/L adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or 150 mU/mL human thrombin (THR) when bound fibrinogen had become resistant to dissociation by EDTA. Conversion of exogenous 125I-fibrinogen to fibrin was prevented by adding Gly-Pro-Arg and neutralizing THR with hirudin before initiating binding studies. After 60 minutes at 22 degrees C, the cytoskeleton of ADP-treated platelets contained 20% +/- 12% (mean +/- SD, n = 14) of membrane-bound 125I-fibrinogen, representing 10% to 50% of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding. The THR-activated cytoskeleton contained 45% +/- 15% of platelet bound fibrinogen, comprising 80% to 100% of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding. 125I-fibrinogen was not recovered with platelet cytoskeletons if binding was inhibited by the RGDS peptide, excess unlabeled fibrinogen, or disruption of the glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa complex by EDTA-treatment. Both development of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding and fibrinogen association with the cytoskeleton were time dependent and reached maxima 45 to 60 minutes after fibrinogen binding to stimulated platelets. Although a larger cytoskeleton formed after platelet stimulation with thrombin as compared with ADP, no change in cytoskeleton composition was noted with development of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding

  7. Platelet reactivity in response to loading dose of atorvastatin or rosuvastatin in patients with stable coronary disease before percutaneous coronary intervention: The STATIPLAT randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godino, Cosmo; Pavon, Anna Giulia; Mangieri, Antonio; Salerno, Anna; Cera, Michela; Monello, Alberto; Chieffo, Alaide; Magni, Valeria; Cappelletti, Alberto; Margonato, Alberto; Colombo, Antonio

    2017-08-01

    The acute effects of statin loading dose (LD) on platelet reactivity in patients with chronic stable angina (CSA) are not completely clear. We hypothesized that LDs of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin have different pharmacodynamic acute effects on platelet aggregability in CSA patients with baseline normal platelet reactivity while on dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). From September 2011 to February 2014, all consecutive CSA patients on chronic DAPT (aspirin and clopidogrel) were evaluated before elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). An initial assessment of platelet reactivity in response to thrombin receptor agonist, ADP, and ASP (respectively, indicative of the response to clopidogrel and aspirin) was performed with impedance aggregometry. Patients with high platelet reactivity to ADP test (area under the curve >47) were excluded. The remaining patients were randomized into 3 treatment groups: Group A, atorvastatin LD 80 mg; Group B, rosuvastatin LD 40 mg; and Group C, no statin LD (control group). A second assessment of platelet reactivity was performed ≥12 hours after statin LD. 682 patients were screened and 145 were randomized into the 3 groups. At baseline and after statin LD, no significant difference was found in platelet reactivity in response to 3 different agonists between the 3 groups. Subgroup analysis showed that platelet reactivity to ADP test was significantly lower in patients chronically treated with low-dose statins (n = 94) compared with statin-naïve patients (n = 51; 15.32 ± 1.50 vs 18.59 ± 1.30; P = 0.007). Loading dose of atorvastatin (80 mg) or rosuvastatin (40 mg) did not induce significant variation in platelet reactivity in CSA patients with baseline reduced platelet reactivity as in chronic DAPT. Our data confirm that chronic concomitant treatment with low-dose statins and clopidogrel resulted in significantly lower platelet reactivity compared with clopidogrel alone. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Targeted deep resequencing identifies coding variants in the PEAR1 gene that play a role in platelet aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonhee Kim

    Full Text Available Platelet aggregation is heritable, and genome-wide association studies have detected strong associations with a common intronic variant of the platelet endothelial aggregation receptor1 (PEAR1 gene both in African American and European American individuals. In this study, we used a sequencing approach to identify additional exonic variants in PEAR1 that may also determine variability in platelet aggregation in the GeneSTAR Study. A 0.3 Mb targeted region on chromosome 1q23.1 including the entire PEAR1 gene was Sanger sequenced in 104 subjects (45% male, 49% African American, age = 52±13 selected on the basis of hyper- and hypo- aggregation across three different agonists (collagen, epinephrine, and adenosine diphosphate. Single-variant and multi-variant burden tests for association were performed. Of the 235 variants identified through sequencing, 61 were novel, and three of these were missense variants. More rare variants (MAF<5% were noted in African Americans compared to European Americans (108 vs. 45. The common intronic GWAS-identified variant (rs12041331 demonstrated the most significant association signal in African Americans (p = 4.020×10(-4; no association was seen for additional exonic variants in this group. In contrast, multi-variant burden tests indicated that exonic variants play a more significant role in European Americans (p = 0.0099 for the collective coding variants compared to p = 0.0565 for intronic variant rs12041331. Imputation of the individual exonic variants in the rest of the GeneSTAR European American cohort (N = 1,965 supports the results noted in the sequenced discovery sample: p = 3.56×10(-4, 2.27×10(-7, 5.20×10(-5 for coding synonymous variant rs56260937 and collagen, epinephrine and adenosine diphosphate induced platelet aggregation, respectively. Sequencing approaches confirm that a common intronic variant has the strongest association with platelet aggregation in African Americans

  9. Ingestion of onion soup high in quercetin inhibits platelet aggregation and essential components of the collagen-stimulated platelet activation pathway in man: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Gary P; Wolffram, Siegfried; de Vos, Ric; Bovy, Arnaud; Gibbins, Jonathan M; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2006-09-01

    Epidemiological data suggest that those who consume a diet rich in quercetin-containing foods may have a reduced risk of CVD. Furthermore, in vitro and ex vivo studies have observed the inhibition of collagen-induced platelet activation by quercetin. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible inhibitory effects of quercetin ingestion from a dietary source on collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation and signalling. A double-blind randomised cross-over pilot study was undertaken. Subjects ingested a soup containing either a high or a low amount of quercetin. Plasma quercetin concentrations and platelet aggregation and signalling were assessed after soup ingestion. The high-quercetin soup contained 69 mg total quercetin compared with the low-quercetin soup containing 5 mg total quercetin. Plasma quercetin concentrations were significantly higher after high-quercetin soup ingestion than after low-quercetin soup ingestion and peaked at 2.59 (sem 0.42) mumol/l. Collagen-stimulated (0.5 mug/ml) platelet aggregation was inhibited after ingestion of the high-quercetin soup in a time-dependent manner. Collagen-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of a key component of the collagen-signalling pathway via glycoprotein VI, Syk, was significantly inhibited by ingestion of the high-quercetin soup. The inhibition of Syk tyrosine phosphorylation was correlated with the area under the curve for the high-quercetin plasma profile. In conclusion, the ingestion of quercetin from a dietary source of onion soup could inhibit some aspects of collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation and signalling ex vivo. This further substantiates the epidemiological data suggesting that those who preferentially consume high amounts of quercetin-containing foods have a reduced risk of thrombosis and potential CVD risk.

  10. Aspirin Inhibits Platelet-Derived Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Induced Endothelial Cell Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Amin; Knoop, Betül; Böhm, Andreas; Dannenberg, Lisa; Zurek, Mark; Zeus, Tobias; Kelm, Malte; Levkau, Bodo; Rauch, Bernhard H

    2018-01-01

    Aspirin plays a crucial role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. We previously described that aspirin has effects beyond inhibition of platelet aggregation, as it inhibited thrombin-mediated release of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) from human platelets. S1P is a bioactive lipid with important functions on inflammation and apoptosis. In endothelial cells (EC), S1P is a key regulator of cell migration. In this study, we aimed to analyze the effects of aspirin on platelet-induced EC migration. Human umbilical EC migration was measured by Boyden chamber assay. EC migration was induced by platelet supernatants of thrombin receptor-activating peptide-1 (AP1) stimulated platelets. To investigate the S1P receptor subtype that promotes EC migration, specific inhibitors of S1P receptor subtypes were applied. S1P induced EC migration in a concentration-dependent manner. EC migration induced by AP1-stimulated platelet supernatants was reduced by aspirin. S1P1 receptor inhibition almost completely abolished EC migration induced by activated platelets. The inhibition of S1P2 or S1P3 receptor had no effect. Aspirin inhibits EC migration induced by activated platelets that is in part due to S1P and mediated by the endothelial S1P1 receptor. The clinical significance of this novel mechanism of aspirin action has to be investigated in future studies. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Regular exercise training reverses ectonucleotidase alterations and reduces hyperaggregation of platelets in metabolic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Caroline Curry; Bagatini, Margarete Dulce; Cardoso, Andréia Machado; Zanini, Daniela; Abdalla, Fátima Husein; Baldissarelli, Jucimara; Dalenogare, Diéssica Padilha; Farinha, Juliano Boufleur; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina; Morsch, Vera Maria

    2016-02-15

    Alterations in the activity of ectonucleotidase enzymes have been implicated in cardiovascular diseases, whereas regular exercise training has been shown to prevent these alterations. However, nothing is known about it relating to metabolic syndrome (MetS). We investigated the effect of exercise training on platelet ectonucleotidase enzymes and on the aggregation profile of MetS patients. We studied 38 MetS patients who performed regular concurrent exercise training for 30 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical profiles, hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides in platelets and platelet aggregation were collected from patients before and after the exercise intervention as well as from individuals of the control group. An increase in the hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP and AMP) and a decrease in adenosine deamination in the platelets of MetS patients before the exercise intervention were observed (Pexercise training (Pexercise training prevented platelet hyperaggregation in addition to decrease the classic cardiovascular risks. An alteration of ectonucleotidase enzymes occurs during MetS, whereas regular exercise training had a protective effect on these enzymes and on platelet aggregation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A detailed examination of platelet function inhibition by nitric oxide in platelet-rich plasma and whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Robert; Krueger, Julia; Filipović, Milos R; Ivanović-Burmazović, Ivana; Calatzis, Andreas; Weiss, Dominik R; Eckstein, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether novel instruments such as multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) can be used for measurement of the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on platelets (PLTs) has not been examined. Therefore, we compared the effects of NO concentrations (1, 10, and 100 microM) on the PLT aggregation response to ADP, arachidonic acid (AA), collagen, ristocetin, and thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6 (TRAP6) using light transmission aggregometry (LTA) and multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) and examined the effects of NO using the platelet function analyzer (PFA)-100. The response of PLTs to ADP and AA was strongly inhibited by all NO concentrations in LTA and MEA. The inhibition of the responses to ristocetin and collagen was detectable in MEA at lower NO concentrations than in LTA. However, the typically increasing lag phase between collagen addition and the aggregation response in the presence of NO was more obvious in LTA. TRAP caused a reproducible early response in the presence of NO in LTA which was followed by rapid PLT disaggregation, whereas even 100 microM NO did not inhibit the response to TRAP in MEA. Finally, NO prolonged the in-vitro bleeding time remarkably more in the PFA-100 collagen-epinephrin cartridge than in the collagen-ADP cartridge. Whole blood versus PLT rich plasma, citrate versus hirudin, and high versus low shear influenced the effects of NO. This shows that a careful selection of models and potentially a combination of different methods is appropriate for a differentiated evaluation of pharmacological or physiological mechanisms of NO-donors or of NO-inhibitors.

  13. Effects of aspirin, carprofen, deracoxib, and meloxicam on platelet function and systemic prostaglandin concentrations in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Shauna L; Allen, Dana G; Wood, R Darren; Conlon, Peter D

    2010-03-01

    To determine effects of therapeutic dosages of aspirin, carprofen, deracoxib, and meloxicam on platelet function and systemic prostaglandin concentrations in healthy dogs. 10 hound-crossbred dogs. Aspirin (10 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h), carprofen (4.4 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), deracoxib (2 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), meloxicam (0.1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), and a placebo were administered for 7 days in a random order to each of 10 healthy dogs; there was a 21-day washout period between subsequent treatments. One-stage prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen concentration, and plasma concentrations of thromboxane (TX)B(2) and 6-keto prostaglandin (PG)F(1alpha) were measured before and after treatment administration. Platelet function was assessed by use of a platelet-function analyzer and aggregation. Aspirin, carprofen, and meloxicam did not significantly affect platelet function. Deracoxib caused a mild decrease in platelet aggregation induced by 50microM ADP. Platelet number, Hct, PT, aPTT, and plasma TXB(2) and 6-keto PGF(1alpha) concentrations were unchanged after NSAID administration. Meloxicam administration resulted in a significant decrease in fibrinogen concentration, but results remained within the laboratory reference interval. Oral administration of commonly used NSAIDs at therapeutic dosages in healthy dogs did not alter plasma TXB(2) and 6-keto PGF(1alpha) concentrations. Deracoxib administration resulted in a minor abnormality in platelet aggregation. Anti-inflammatory doses of aspirin did not affect platelet function as measured by use of optical aggregometry and a platelet-function analyzer. Further evaluation of the effects of aspirin and cyclooxygenase-2-selective inhibitors on hemostasis should be performed.

  14. The effects of the oral administration of fish oil concentrate on the release and the metabolism of [14C]arachidonic acid and [14C]eicosapentaenoic acid by human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, A.; Terano, T.; Hamazaki, T.

    1982-01-01

    It has been suggested by several investigators that eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 omega 3, EPA) might have anti-thrombotic effects. In this experiment, the effect of the oral administration of EPA rich fish oil concentrate on platelet aggregation and the release and the metabolism of [ 1 - 14 C]arachidonic acid and [(U)- 14 C]eicosapentaenoic acid by human platelets was studied. Eight healthy male subjects ingested 18 capsules of fish oil concentrate (EPA 1.4 g) per day for 4 weeks. Plasma and platelet concentrations of EPA markedly increased, while those of arachidonic acid (C20:4 omega 6, AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega 3, DHA) did not change. Platelet aggregation induced by collagen and ADP was reduced. Collagen induced [ 14 C]thromboxane B2 (TXB2) formation from [ 14 C]AA prelabeled platelets decreased. There was no detectable formation of [ 14 C]TXB3 from [ 14 C]EPA prelabeled platelets, and the conversion of exogenous [ 14 C]EPA to [ 14 C]TXB3 was lower than that of [ 14 C]AA to [ 14 C]TXB2. The release of [ 14 C]AA from [ 14 C]AA prelabeled platelets by collagen was significantly decreased. These observations raise the possibility that the release of arachidonic acid from platelet lipids might be affected by the alteration of EPA content in platelets

  15. Platelet-activating factor podoplanin: from discovery to drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Ai; Miyata, Kenichi; Fujita, Naoya

    2017-06-01

    Tumor cell-induced platelet aggregation facilitates hematogenous metastasis by promoting tumor embolization, preventing immunological assaults and shear stress, and the platelet-releasing growth factors support tumor growth and invasion. Podoplanin, also known as Aggrus, is a type I transmembrane mucin-like glycoprotein and is expressed on wide range of tumor cells. Podoplanin has a role in platelet aggregation and metastasis formation through the binding to its platelet receptor, C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2). The podoplanin research was originally started from the cloning of highly metastatic NL-17 subclone from mouse colon 26 cancer cell line and from the establishment of 8F11 monoclonal antibody (mAb) that could neutralize NL-17-induced platelet aggregation and hematogenous metastasis. Later on, podoplanin was identified as the antigen of 8F11 mAb, and its ectopic expression brought to cells the platelet-aggregating abilities and hematogenous metastasis phenotypes. From the 8F11 mAb recognition epitopes, podoplanin is found to contain tandemly repeated, highly conserved motifs, designated platelet aggregation-stimulating (PLAG) domains. Series of analyses using the cells expressing the mutants and the established neutralizing anti-podoplanin mAbs uncovered that both PLAG3 and PLAG4 domains are associated with the CLEC-2 binding. The neutralizing mAbs targeting PLAG3 or PLAG4 could suppress podoplanin-induced platelet aggregation and hematogenous metastasis through inhibiting the podoplanin-CLEC-2 binding. Therefore, these domains are certainly functional in podoplanin-mediated metastasis through its platelet-aggregating activity. This review summarizes the platelet functions in metastasis formation, the role of platelet aggregation-inducing factor podoplanin in pathological and physiological situations, and the possibility to develop podoplanin-targeting drugs in the future.

  16. Early impact of prescription Omega-3 fatty acids on platelet biomarkers in patients with coronary artery disease and hypertriglyceridemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serebruany, Victor L; Miller, Michael; Pokov, Alex N

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters (PO-3A) have been tested for outcome benefits in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), arrhythmias and heart failure. Some evidence suggests that PO-3A may exert their benefit via inhibiting platelets. We tested the hypothesis that PO-3A may...... randomized 1:1:1 to Omacor™ 1 g/day (DHA/EPA ratio 1.25:1.0), Omacor 2 g/day, or a placebo for 2 weeks. Platelet tests including aggregometry and flow cytometry and cartridge analyzer readings were performed at baseline and at 1 and 2 weeks following PO-3A therapy. Results: ADP-induced platelet aggregation...... (p = 0.037), GP IIb/IIIa antigen (p = 0.031) and activity (p = 0.024), and P-selectin (p = 0.041) were significantly reduced after PO-3A, while platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule (p = 0.09), vitronectin receptor (p = 0.16), formation of platelet-monocyte microparticles (p = 0...

  17. Nanodiamonds activate blood platelets and induce thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sharda; Singh, Manoj K; Singh, Sunil K; Grácio, José J A; Dash, Debabrata

    2014-03-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) have been evaluated for a wide range of biomedical applications. Thus, thorough investigation of the biocompatibility of NDs has become a research priority. Platelets are highly sensitive and are one of the most abundant cell types found in blood. They have a central role in hemostasis and arterial thrombosis. In this study, we aim to investigate the direct and acute effects of carboxylated NDs on platelet function. In this study, pro-coagulant parameters such as platelet aggregability, intracellular Ca(2+) flux, mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), generation of reactive oxygen species, surface exposure of phosphatidylserine, electron microscopy, cell viability assay and in vivo thromboembolism were analyzed in great detail. Carboxylated NDs evoked significant activation of human platelets. When administered intravenously in mice, NDs were found to induce widespread pulmonary thromboembolism, indicating the remarkable thrombogenic potential of this nanomaterial. Our findings raise concerns regarding the putative biomedical applications of NDs pertaining to diagnostics and therapeutics, and their toxicity and prothrombotic properties should be critically evaluated.

  18. Platelet aggregation during targeted temperature management after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Anni Nørgaard; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Grejs, Anders Morten

    2017-01-01

    Some studies conclude that mild hypothermia causes platelet dysfunction leading to an increased bleeding risk, whereas others state that platelet aggregation is enhanced during mild hypothermia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify whether standard or prolonged duration of targeted...... temperature management affected platelet aggregation. We randomised 82 comatose patients resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest to either 24 hours (standard group) or 48 hours (prolonged group) of targeted temperature management at 33±1°C. Blood samples were collected 22 hours, 46 hours and 70......® decreased by 14% (95% CI -8%;-20%), p management....

  19. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF CLOPIDOGREL IN ATHEROSCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Buriachkovskaia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze the literary and own data about clopidogrel influence on platelets during inflammation and to reveal particularities of its usage in ischemic heart disease (IHD patients with active inflammation. Material and methods. The platelet morphology and a number of leukocyte-platelet aggregates (LTA were investigated with scanning electron microscopy in 110 patients with stable angina pectoris of I-III functional class and 18 healthy volunteers. Spontaneous and ADP-induced platelet aggregation were assessed with laser aggregatometre manufactured by LLC “BIOLA”. Mean platelet volume (MPV was estimated with the hematological analyzer . All investigations were performed in IHD patients before and after 2 months of clopidogrel treatment 75 mg a day. Results. IHD patients demonstrated appearance of LTA and big reticular platelets in the blood, increase in MPV and spontaneous aggregation. ADP-induced platelet aggregation was rarely increased probably due to acetylsalicylic acid therapy in all IHD patients. These platelet activity changes are connected with increased risk of thrombotic events and correlated with inflammation markers levels. After 2 months of clopidogrel treatment LTA number reduced in 4 times and big reticular platelets number decreased in 2.5 times as well as MPV and spontaneous aggregation achieved the normal ranges. Conclusion. Clopidogrel has not only antithrombotic effect but also can diminish platelets morphological and functional changes connected with inflammation.

  20. Static platelet adhesion, flow cytometry and serum TXB2 levels for monitoring platelet inhibiting treatment with ASA and clopidogrel in coronary artery disease: a randomised cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedbäck Bo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the use of anti-platelet agents such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA and clopidogrel in coronary heart disease, some patients continue to suffer from atherothrombosis. This has stimulated development of platelet function assays to monitor treatment effects. However, it is still not recommended to change treatment based on results from platelet function assays. This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of a static platelet adhesion assay to detect platelet inhibiting effects of ASA and clopidogrel. The adhesion assay measures several aspects of platelet adhesion simultaneously, which increases the probability of finding conditions sensitive for anti-platelet treatment. Methods With a randomised cross-over design we evaluated the anti-platelet effects of ASA combined with clopidogrel as well as monotherapy with either drug alone in 29 patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome. Also, 29 matched healthy controls were included to evaluate intra-individual variability over time. Platelet function was measured by flow cytometry, serum thromboxane B2 (TXB2-levels and by static platelet adhesion to different protein surfaces. The results were subjected to Principal Component Analysis followed by ANOVA, t-tests and linear regression analysis. Results The majority of platelet adhesion measures were reproducible in controls over time denoting that the assay can monitor platelet activity. Adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP-induced platelet adhesion decreased significantly upon treatment with clopidogrel compared to ASA. Flow cytometric measurements showed the same pattern (r2 = 0.49. In opposite, TXB2-levels decreased with ASA compared to clopidogrel. Serum TXB2 and ADP-induced platelet activation could both be regarded as direct measures of the pharmacodynamic effects of ASA and clopidogrel respectively. Indirect pharmacodynamic measures such as adhesion to albumin induced by various soluble activators as well as SFLLRN-induced

  1. Influence of sulphate on effects of ADP, 3′,5′-cyclic amp and citrate on human platelet phosphofructokinase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Jan Willem N.; Gorter, G.; Sixma, J.J.; Staal, Gerard E.J.

    1974-01-01

    1. 1. Sulphate ions activate partially-purified human platelet phosphofructokinase. This is caused by suppression of the cooperativity of the enzyme with respect to fructose 6-phosphate. 2. 2. Sulphate therefore markedly affects the influences of allosteric modifiers such as ADP, 3′,5′-cyclic AMP

  2. Scalable Generation of Universal Platelets from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Feng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs provide a potentially replenishable source for the production of transfusable platelets. Here, we describe a method to generate megakaryocytes (MKs and functional platelets from iPSCs in a scalable manner under serum/feeder-free conditions. The method also permits the cryopreservation of MK progenitors, enabling a rapid “surge” capacity when large numbers of platelets are needed. Ultrastructural/morphological analyses show no major differences between iPSC platelets and human blood platelets. iPSC platelets form aggregates, lamellipodia, and filopodia after activation and circulate in macrophage-depleted animals and incorporate into developing mouse thrombi in a manner identical to human platelets. By knocking out the β2-microglobulin gene, we have generated platelets that are negative for the major histocompatibility antigens. The scalable generation of HLA-ABC-negative platelets from a renewable cell source represents an important step toward generating universal platelets for transfusion as well as a potential strategy for the management of platelet refractoriness.

  3. Preparation of a viable population of indium-111-labelled human blood platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyns, A.; Badenhorst, P.N.; Pieters, H.; Loetter, M.G.; Minnaar, P.C.; Duyvene de Wit, L.J.; Reenen, O.R. van; Retief, F.P.; University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein; University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein; University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein

    1980-01-01

    Factors influencing labelling of human platelets with 111 Indium-8-hydroxyquinoline ([ 111 In]-oxine) in a physiological saline medium were investigated. The efficiency of labelling is influenced by time of incubation, concentration of oxine, and pH of the incubating medium. It was found that a viable platelet population could be labelled under the following conditions: (1) centrifugation of platelet rich plasma in polystyrene conical tubes at 800 g for 15 min; (2) resuspension of the platelet pellet in saline, pH 5.5; (3) incubating for 30 min at 22 0 C with [ 111 In]-oxine at a concentration of 6.25 mg oxine/litre platelet suspension; (4) washing once with platelet poor autologous plasma (PPP); and (5) finally suspending the platelets in PPP. The labelled platelets aggregated normally with collagen and ADP. Electron microscopy, done immediately after labelling, showed internal organelle reorganization characteristic of activated platelets. These ultrastructural features were reversible on incubationin PPP at 37 0 C for 30 min. The 111 In is not released from aggregated platelets and the label does not elute from incubated platelets for at least five hr. We conclude that human platelets thus labelled are suitable for in vivo kinetic studies. (orig.) [de

  4. Demonstration of a specific C3a receptor on guinea pig platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuoka, Y.; Hugli, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    Guinea pig platelets reportedly contain receptors specific for the anaphylatoxin C3a based on both ligand-binding studies and functional responses. A portion of the human 125I-C3a that binds to guinea pig platelets is competitively displaced by excess unlabeled C3a; however, the majority of ligand uptake was nonspecific. Uptake of 125I-C3a by guinea pig platelets is maximal in 1 min, and stimulation of guinea pig platelets by thrombin, ADP, or the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 showed little influence on binding of the ligand. Scatchard analysis indicated that approximately 1200 binding sites for C3a exist per cell with an estimated Kd of 8 x 10(-10) M. Human C3a des Arg also binds to guinea pig platelets, but Scatchard analysis indicated that no specific binding occurred. Because the ligand-binding studies were complicated by high levels of nonspecific uptake, we attempted to chemically cross-link the C3a molecule to a specific component on the platelet surface. Cross-linkage of 125I-C3a to guinea pig platelets with bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate revealed radioactive complexes at 105,000 and 115,000 m.w. on SDS-PAGE gels by autoradiographic analysis. In the presence of excess unlabeled C3a, complex formation was inhibited. No cross-linkage could be demonstrated between the inactive 125I-C3a des Arg and the putative C3a-R on guinea pig platelets. Human C3a, but not C3a des Arg induces serotonin release and aggregation of the guinea pig platelets. Human C3a was unable to induce either serotonin release or promote aggregation of human platelets. Uptake of human 125I-C3a by human platelets was not saturable, and Scatchard analysis was inconclusive. Attempts to cross-link 125I-C3a to components on the surface of human platelets also failed to reveal a ligand-receptor complex. Therefore, we conclude that guinea pig platelets have specific surface receptors to C3a and that human platelets appear devoid of receptors to the anaphylatoxin

  5. Dimerization of glycoprotein Ibα is not sufficient to induce platelet clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X; Syed, A K; Russell, S R; Ware, J; Li, R

    2016-02-01

    ESSENTIALS: Many anti-glycoprotein (GP)Ibα antibodies induce platelet clearance in a dimer-dependent manner. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies that bind the mechanosensitive domain (MSD) of GPIbα. An anti-MSD antibody binds two copies of GPIbα in platelets but does not induce platelet clearance. The prevailing clustering model of GPIbα signaling is incorrect or needs revision. The mechanism of platelet clearance is not clear. Many antibodies binding the membrane-distal ligand-binding domain of glycoprotein (GP)Ibα induce rapid clearance of platelets and acute thrombocytopenia, which requires the bifurcated antibody structure. It was thought that binding of these antibodies induced lateral dimerization or clustering of GPIbα in the plasma membrane, which leads to downstream signaling and platelet clearance. However, many antibodies targeting GPIbβ and GPIX, which are associated with GPIbα in the GPIb-IX complex, do not induce platelet clearance, which is in contradiction to the clustering model. To test whether dimerization or clustering of GPIbα is sufficient to transmit the signal that leads to platelet clearance. We have recently raised several mAbs targeting the mechanosensitive domain (MSD) of GPIbα. Binding of these anti-MSD antibodies was characterized with biochemical methods. Their ability to stimulate platelets and induce platelet clearance in mice was assessed. Infusion of anti-MSD antibodies does not cause thrombocytopenia in mice. These antibodies show no detectable effects on platelet activation and aggregation in vitro. Further biochemical investigation showed that the anti-MSD antibody 3D1 binds two copies of GPIbα on the platelet surface. Therefore, lateral dimerization of GPIbα induced by antibody binding is not sufficient to initiate GPIb-IX signaling and induce platelet clearance. Our results suggest that a factor other than or in addition to clustering of GPIbα is required to induce platelet clearance. © 2015 International

  6. Portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis is not associated with intestinal barrier disruption or increased platelet aggregability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosiewicz, Piotr; Żorniak, Michał; Hartleb, Marek; Barański, Kamil; Hartleb, Maciej; Onyszczuk, Magdalena; Pilch-Kowalczyk, Joanna; Kyrcz-Krzemień, Sławomira

    2016-12-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a common complication of cirrhosis, but its pathogenesis is unclear. We tested the hypotheses that PVT is the result of platelet hyperactivity or intestinal barrier disruption. This study included 49 patients with cirrhosis (15 females) of mixed etiology. Based on spiral computed-tomography, the patients were divided into two groups: with PVT (n=16) and without PVT (n=33). Serum biomarkers of intestinal barrier integrity were endotoxins and zonulin, and platelet activity was assessed with multiple electrode aggregometry. The levels of endotoxin (43.5±18.3ng/ml vs. 36.9±7.5ng/ml; P=0.19) and zonulin (56.3±31.1ng/ml vs. 69.3±63.1ng/ml; P=0.69) were not different between the patients with and without PVT. Moreover, endotoxin and zonulin did not correlate with the coagulation and platelet parameters. The platelet aggregability measured with the TRAP and the ADP tests was decreased in PVT patients. In the logistic regression analysis the PVT incidence was related to the levels of D-dimer and bilirubin as well as the TRAP test results. Patients with PVT presented with significantly higher levels of D-dimer (4.45±2.59 vs. 3.03±2.97mg/l; P<0.05) and prothrombin levels (175±98.8μg/ml vs. 115±72.9μg/ml; P<0.05) than patients without thrombosis. PVT could be excluded with a 90% negative predictive value when the D-dimer level was below 1.82mg/l. Endotoxemia and platelet activity are not determinants of PVT in patients with cirrhosis. The D-dimer measurement has diagnostic significance for PVT in patients with liver cirrhosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. EMMPRIN (CD147) is a novel receptor for platelet GPVI and mediates platelet rolling via GPVI-EMMPRIN interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seizer, Peter; Borst, Oliver; Langer, Harald F; Bültmann, Andreas; Münch, Götz; Herouy, Yared; Stellos, Konstantinos; Krämer, Björn; Bigalke, Boris; Büchele, Berthold; Bachem, Max G; Vestweber, Dietmar; Simmet, Thomas; Gawaz, Meinrad; May, Andreas E

    2009-04-01

    The Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN, CD147, basigin) is an immunoglobulin-like receptor expressed in various cell types. During cellular interactions homotypic EMMPRIN-EMMPRIN interactions are known to induce the synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases. Recently, we have identified EMMPRIN as a novel receptor on platelets. To our knowledge EMMPRIN has not been shown to serve as adhesion receptor, yet. Here we characterise platelet glycoprotein VI (GPVI) as a novel adhesion receptor for EMMPRIN. Human platelets were prestimulated with ADP and perfused over immobilised recombinant EMMPRIN-Fc or Fc-fragments under arterial shear conditions. ADP-stimulated platelets showed significantly enhanced rolling (but not enhanced firm adhesion) on immobilised EMMPRIN-Fc compared to Fc. Pretreatment of platelets with blocking mAbs anti-EMMPRIN or anti-GPVI leads to a significant reduction of rolling platelets on immobilised EMMPRIN-Fc, whereas pretreatment with blocking mAbs anti-p-selectin, anti-alpha4-integrin or anti-GPIIb/IIIa complex (20 microg/ml each) had no effect. Consistently, chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with GPVI showed enhanced rolling (but not adhesion) on immobilised EMMPRIN-Fc in comparison to non-transfected CHO cells. Similarly, CHO cells stably transfected with EMMPRIN showed enhanced rolling on immobilised GPVI-Fc (or EMMPRIN-Fc) compared to non transfected CHO-cells. Finally, specific binding of EMMPRIN to GPVI was demonstrated by a modified ELISA and surface plasmon resonance technology with a dissociation constant of 88 nM. Platelet GPVI is a novel receptor for EMMPRIN and can mediate platelet rolling via GPVI-EMMPRIN interaction.

  8. RhoG protein regulates platelet granule secretion and thrombus formation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggs, Robert; Harper, Matthew T; Pope, Robert J; Savage, Joshua S; Williams, Christopher M; Mundell, Stuart J; Heesom, Kate J; Bass, Mark; Mellor, Harry; Poole, Alastair W

    2013-11-22

    Rho GTPases such as Rac, RhoA, and Cdc42 are vital for normal platelet function, but the role of RhoG in platelets has not been studied. In other cells, RhoG orchestrates processes integral to platelet function, including actin cytoskeletal rearrangement and membrane trafficking. We therefore hypothesized that RhoG would play a critical role in platelets. Here, we show that RhoG is expressed in human and mouse platelets and is activated by both collagen-related peptide (CRP) and thrombin stimulation. We used RhoG(-/-) mice to study the function of RhoG in platelets. Integrin activation and aggregation were reduced in RhoG(-/-) platelets stimulated by CRP, but responses to thrombin were normal. The central defect in RhoG(-/-) platelets was reduced secretion from α-granules, dense granules, and lysosomes following CRP stimulation. The integrin activation and aggregation defects could be rescued by ADP co-stimulation, indicating that they are a consequence of diminished dense granule secretion. Defective dense granule secretion in RhoG(-/-) platelets limited recruitment of additional platelets to growing thrombi in flowing blood in vitro and translated into reduced thrombus formation in vivo. Interestingly, tail bleeding times were normal in RhoG(-/-) mice, suggesting that the functions of RhoG in platelets are particularly relevant to thrombotic disorders.

  9. Effect of pretreatment with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs on hematological parameters and platelets aggregation in patients during elective coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljović Milić

    2013-01-01

    control group in adenosine diphosphate (ADP test (39 ± 11 and 42 ± 15, respectively; p = 0.701, arachidonic acid (ASPI test (64 ± 24 and 70 ± 27, respectively; p = 0.525 and trombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP test (68 ± 25 and 75 ± 26, respectively; p = 0.396, while their aggregation in collagen (COL test was statistically significantly lower in the PUFAs related to the control group (32 ± 15 and 47 ± 20, respectively; p = 0.009. Conclusion. Acute pretreatment with omega-3 PUFAs insignificantly affected the activity of platelets and did not influence postoperative blood loss.

  10. Platelets promote osteosarcoma cell growth through activation of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor-Akt signaling axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Satoshi; Takemoto, Ai; Takami, Miho; Oh-Hara, Tomoko; Fujita, Naoya

    2014-08-01

    The interactions of tumor cells with platelets contribute to the progression of tumor malignancy, and the expression levels of platelet aggregation-inducing factors positively correlate with the metastatic potential of osteosarcoma cells. However, it is unclear how tumor-platelet interaction contributes to the proliferation of osteosarcomas. We report here that osteosarcoma-platelet interactions induce the release of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) from platelets, which promotes the proliferation of osteosarcomas. Co-culture of platelets with MG63 or HOS osteosarcoma cells, which could induce platelet aggregation, enhanced the proliferation of each cell line in vitro. Analysis of phospho-antibody arrays revealed that co-culture of MG63 cells with platelets induced the phosphorylation of platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and Akt. The addition of supernatants of osteosarcoma-platelet reactants also increased the growth of MG63 and HOS cells as well as the level of phosphorylated-PDGFR and -Akt. Sunitinib or LY294002, but not erlotinib, significantly inhibited the platelet-induced proliferation of osteosarcoma cells, indicating that PDGF released from platelets plays an important role in the proliferation of osteosarcomas by activating the PDGFR and then Akt. Our results suggest that inhibitors that specifically target osteosarcoma-platelet interactions may eradicate osteosarcomas. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  11. Aggregation activity of blood formed elements in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Il'ich Kuznik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To assess differences in blood formed elements aggregation activity in patients with type 1 (T1 and type 2 (T2 diabetes mellitus(DM. Materials and methods. We studied blood samples from 88 patients with T1 and T2 DM. Platelet aggregation activity was assessed bymeans of ?Biola? aggregometer; we also determined platelet-lymphocyte and leucocyte-erythrocyte adhesion intensity. Results. We show that spontaneous platelet aggregation is markedly increased in patients with T1DM but remains normal or slightlyelevated in case of T2DM. In blood from patients with T2DM platelet aggregation in response to ADP, epinephrine, ristomycineand contact with collagen was generally increased, whereas in T1DM we often observed its secondary reduction. Data on plateletlymphocyteadhesion in T1DM is controversial, but in T2DM this process seems to be significantly suppressed. Quantity of leucocyteerythrocyteaggregates was sharply increased in both T1DM and T2DM. Conclusion. We've determined significant difference in blood formed elements aggregation activity between patients with T1 and T2 DM.

  12. Synthesis of Analogues of Gingerol and Shogaol, the Active Pungent Principles from the Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and Evaluation of Their Anti-Platelet Aggregation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hung-Cheng; Chern, Ching-Yuh; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Wu, You-Cheng; Chan, Yu-Yi; Liao, Yu-Ren; Teng, Che-Ming; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at discovering novel biologically active compounds based on the skeletons of gingerol and shogaol, the pungent principles from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. Therefore, eight groups of analogues were synthesized and examined for their inhibitory activities of platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, collagen, platelet activating factor, and thrombin. Among the tested compounds, [6]-paradol (5b) exhibited the most significant anti-platelet aggregation activity. It was the most potent candidate, which could be used in further investigation to explore new drug leads. PMID:24599082

  13. Synthesis of Analogues of Gingerol and Shogaol, the Active Pungent Principles from the Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and Evaluation of Their Anti-Platelet Aggregation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Cheng Shih

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at discovering novel biologically active compounds based on the skeletons of gingerol and shogaol, the pungent principles from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. Therefore, eight groups of analogues were synthesized and examined for their inhibitory activities of platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, collagen, platelet activating factor, and thrombin. Among the tested compounds, [6]-paradol (5b exhibited the most significant anti-platelet aggregation activity. It was the most potent candidate, which could be used in further investigation to explore new drug leads.

  14. Platelets promote osteosarcoma cell growth through activation of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor-Akt signaling axis

    OpenAIRE

    Takagi, Satoshi; Takemoto, Ai; Takami, Miho; Oh-hara, Tomoko; Fujita, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    The interactions of tumor cells with platelets contribute to the progression of tumor malignancy, and the expression levels of platelet aggregation-inducing factors positively correlate with the metastatic potential of osteosarcoma cells. However, it is unclear how tumor-platelet interaction contributes to the proliferation of osteosarcomas. We report here that osteosarcoma-platelet interactions induce the release of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) from platelets, which promotes the pro...

  15. Platelet antiheparin activity. The isolation and characterisation of platelet factor 4 released from thrombin-aggregated washed human platelets and its dissociation into subunits and the isolation of membrane-bound antiheparin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S; Pepper, D S; Cash, J D

    1975-02-27

    Platelet factor 4 was isolated by gel filtration from the soluble release products of thrombin-aggregated washed human platelets as a proteoglycan-platelet factor 4 complex of molecular weight 358 000, Stokes radius (r-s) of 14.0 nm, sedimentation coefficient (s) of 7.1 S and frictional ratio (f/f-o) of 3.04. The complex was dissociated at high ionic strength (I equals 0.75) and the proteoglycan separated from platelet factor 4 by gel filtration. Platelet factor 4 had a molecular weight of 27 100, r-s of 2.52 nm, s of 2.4 S and f/f-o of 1.26, was insoluble under physiological conditions but readily soluble at pH 3. Under these conditions platelet factor 4 dissociated into four subunits with a molecular weight of 6900, r-s of 1.92 nm, s of 0.8 S, and f/f-o of 1.52. Qualitative N-terminal amino acid analysis showed the presence of glutamic acid or glutamine as the major end group. Platelet factor 4 was compared with protamine sulphate, which has similar biological properties, by electrophoresis at pH 2.2, in which both migrated as single bands but with differing mobility, and by amino acid analysis which showed a more normal distribution of residues than occurred in protamine sulphate. Of the basic amino acids platelet factor 4 (molecular weight 27 100) contained 5.97% arginine, 3.18% histidine, and 12.31% lysine compared to protamine sulphate with 64.2% arginine, 0.6% lysine and no histidine. A partial specific volume (v) of 0.747 was calculated for platelet factor 4 from its amino acid analysis. A membrane fraction with antiheparin activity, an isopycnic density of 1.090-1.110 and r-s of 15-35 nm, was also isolated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation from the ultrasonicated insoluble platelet residue remaining after thrombin-induced aggregation of washed human platelets. Trypsin treatment of the membrane fraction neither solubilised nor destroyed the activity.

  16. [Pleural procedures in patients treated by platelet aggregation inhibitors: An opinion survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangers, L; Similowski, T; Chenivesse, C

    2016-01-01

    When pleural procedures (thoracocentesis, blind pleural biopsies and chest tube insertion) are required in patients taking long-term platelet aggregation inhibitors, the risk of bleeding must be balanced against the risk of arterial thrombosis. Currently, the bleeding risk of pleural procedures is poorly understood. The objective of the survey was to gather the opinion of respiratory physicians regarding the bleeding risk of pleural procedures in patients taking platelet aggregation inhibitors. We emailed a standardized questionnaire designed by the French National Authority for Health to 2697 French respiratory physicians. One hundred and eighty-eight of the 2697 questionnaires were returned (response rate: 7 %). The respiratory physicians declared that they performed an average of 8 pleural procedures per month. One hundred and seventy-five responders (95 %) practised pleural procedures in patients receiving platelet aggregation inhibitors; 68 of them (39 %) reported experiencing haemorrhagic complications. The bleeding risk associated with thoracentesis and chest tube insertion was considered minor by 97.8 and 65 % of responders respectively, whereas it was considered major for blind pleural biopsies by 73.4 %. Respiratory physicians were more reticent about performing pleural procedures in patients treated with clopidogrel than in those taking aspirin. This study provides an overview of how respiratory physicians perceive the bleeding risk associated with pleural procedures in patients taking platelet aggregation inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. [Evaluation of Storage Performance of Preserving Bags for Manually Separated Platelets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min-Xia; Duan, Lan; Wang, Jie-Xi; Wang, Yan; Zhuo, Hai-Long; Cai, Li-Na; Yi, Xiao-Yang; Zhou, Jian-Wei; Ang, Jian-Wei; Han, Ying

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the storage performance of the domestically made platelet storage bags (experimental group) and the United States Trima set platelet storage bags (control group). The manually separated platelets were divided in two equal parts, which was added to control blood bags and experimental blood bags respectively, all samples were stored at a 22 °C ± 2 °C. The platelet count, mean volume, aggregation activity (ADP, THR), pH, glucose, lactate concentration, lactate dehydrogenase concentration, hypotonic shock reaction, CD62P and phosphatidic acid serine content were detected at day 0, 3, 5 and 7 of storage. There was no significant difference of platelet quality at day 5 after storage between the experimental group and the control group (T-test, P > 0.05). Two kinds of platelet storage bags have the similar storage performance.

  18. Important role of platelets in modulating endotoxin-induced lung inflammation in CFTR-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiqi Zhao

    Full Text Available Mutation of CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator leads to cystic fibrosis (CF. Patients with CF develop abnormalities of blood platelets and recurrent lung inflammation. However, whether CFTR-mutated platelets play a role in the development of lung inflammation is elusive. Therefore, we intratracheally challenged wildtype and F508del (a common type of CFTR mutation mice with LPS to observe changes of F508del platelets in the peripheral blood and indexes of lung inflammation (BAL neutrophils and protein levels. Furthermore, we investigated whether or not and how F508del platelets modulate the LPS-induced acute lung inflammation by targeting anti-platelet aggregation, depletion of neutrophils, reconstitution of bone marrow or neutrophils, blockade of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1, platelet activating factor (PAF, and correction of mutated CFTR trafficking. We found that LPS-challenged F508del mice developed severe thrombocytopenia and had higher levels of plasma TXB2 coincided with neutrophilic lung inflammation relative to wildtype control. Inhibition of F508del platelet aggregation or depletion of F508del neutrophils diminished the LPS-induced lung inflammation in the F508del mice. Moreover, wildtype mice reconstituted with either F508del bone marrow or neutrophils developed worse thrombocytopenia. Blocking PSGL-1, platelet activating factor (PAF, or rectifying trafficking of mutated CFTR in F508del mice diminished and alveolar neutrophil transmigration in the LPS-challenged F508del mice. These findings suggest that F508del platelets and their interaction with neutrophils are requisite for the development of LPS-induced lung inflammation and injury. As such, targeting platelets might be an emerging strategy for dampening recurrent lung inflammation in cystic fibrosis patients.

  19. UV-C irradiation disrupts platelet surface disulfide bonds and activates the platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaar, Robin; Dekkers, David W. C.; de Cuyper, Iris M.; Ginsberg, Mark H.; de Korte, Dirk; Verhoeven, Arthur J.

    2008-01-01

    UV-C irradiation has been shown to be effective for pathogen reduction in platelet concentrates, but preliminary work indicated that UV-C irradiation of platelets can induce platelet aggregation. In this study, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon was investigated. Irradiation of platelets with

  20. Effect of rutin on virus inactivation by AMT in combination with ultraviolet-A irradiation in platelet concentrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yoshiko; Abe, Hideki; Ikebuchi, Kenji; Sekiguchi, Sadayoshi [Hokkaido Red Cross Blood Center, Sapporo (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    Treatment with psoralens and ultraviolet-A (UVA) irradiation have been found to be effective for virus sterilization of platelet concentrates (PCs). We report here a virus inactivation method using a combination of psoralen derivative 4'-aminomethyl-4,5', 8-trimethylpsoralen (AMT) and UVA irradiation (AMT/UVA). Further, we also investigated the effect of rutin, a radical scavenger, on the inactivation of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) as a model virus administered in PCs and platelet functions were investigated. Spiked VSV (about 5log{sub 10}) in PCs was inactivated by a combination of AMT (50 {mu}g/ml) and 5.2 J/cm{sup 2} UVA irradiation in the absence of rutin. To obtain equivalent levels of VSV kill in the presence of 0.35 mM rutin, treatment with 13.0 J/cm{sup 2} of UVA irradiation with AMT was performed. When PCs were treated under each condition in which 5log{sub 10} VSV was inactivated by AMT/UVA with or without rutin, platelet aggregation function was maintained for more than 80% of untreated platelets. These findings indicate that the presence of rutin during AMT/UVA treatment conferred no beneficial effect. In addition, overnight storage of PCs with AMT induced 40% loss of platelet aggregation in response to 10{mu}M ADP. The findings suggest that UVA irradiation is required immediately after the addition of AMT. (author)

  1. 21 CFR 864.5700 - Automated platelet aggregation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated platelet aggregation system. 864.5700 Section 864.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices...

  2. Flow cytometric analysis reveals the high levels of platelet activation parameters in circulation of multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Agnieszka; Rywaniak, Joanna; Bijak, Michał; Miller, Elżbieta; Niwald, Marta; Saluk, Joanna

    2017-06-01

    The epidemiological studies confirm an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in multiple sclerosis, especially prothrombotic events directly associated with abnormal platelet activity. The aim of our study was to investigate the level of blood platelet activation in the circulation of patients with chronic phase of multiple sclerosis (SP MS) and their reactivity in response to typical platelets' physiological agonists. We examined 85 SP MS patients diagnosed according to the revised McDonald's criteria and 50 healthy volunteers as a control group. The platelet activation and reactivity were assessed using flow cytometry analysis of the following: P-selectin expression (CD62P), activation of GP IIb/IIIa complex (PAC-1 binding), and formation of platelet microparticles (PMPs) and platelet aggregates (PA) in agonist-stimulated (ADP, collagen) and unstimulated whole blood samples. Furthermore, we measured the level of soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) in plasma using ELISA method, to evaluate the in vivo level of platelet activation, both in healthy and SP MS subjects. We found a statistically significant increase in P-selectin expression, GP IIb/IIIa activation, and formation of PMPs and PA, as well as in unstimulated and agonist-stimulated (ADP, collagen) platelets in whole blood samples from patients with SP MS in comparison to the control group. We also determined the higher sP-selectin level in plasma of SP MS subjects than in the control group. Based on the obtained results, we might conclude that during the course of SP MS platelets are chronically activated and display hyperreactivity to physiological agonists, such as ADP or collagen.

  3. Comparison of different procedures to prepare platelet-rich plasma for studies of platelet aggregation by light transmission aggregometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femia, Eti Alessandra; Pugliano, Mariateresa; Podda, Gianmarco; Cattaneo, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Light transmission aggregometry (LTA), the gold standard for the study of patients with defects of platelet function, is a poorly standardized technique. The guidelines that have been produced so far are largely based on consensus of experts, due to the absence of studies directly comparing different procedures. Therefore, ad hoc studies are needed to gather scientific evidence on how to choose the most appropriate procedures for LTA measurement. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the most appropriate conditions for preparing samples of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for studies of platelet aggregation by LTA. Citrate-anticoagulated blood from 32 individuals was centrifuged at 150, 200, 250 or 300×g at room temperature for 10 min. Red blood cells contamination was highest in PRP prepared at 150×g; mean platelet volume (MPV) was lowest in PRP prepared at 300×g. The extent of platelet aggregation measured by LTA was lower and more variable in PRP prepared at 300×g. Therefore, centrifugation of blood at 200×g or 250×g for 10 min appears to be the best condition for preparing PRP for LTA studies.

  4. Platelet receptor polymorphisms do not influence Staphylococcus aureus–platelet interactions or infective endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga, Shruti; Shepherd, James G.; Callaghan, J. Garreth S.; Hung, Rachel K.Y.; Dawson, Dana K.; Padfield, Gareth J.; Hey, Shi Y.; Cartwright, Robyn A.; Newby, David E.; Fitzgerald, J. Ross

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac vegetations result from bacterium–platelet adherence, activation and aggregation, and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in infective endocarditis. The GPIIb/IIIa and FcγRIIa platelet receptors play a central role in platelet adhesion, activation and aggregation induced by endocarditis pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, but the influence of known polymorphisms of these receptors on the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis is unknown. We determined the GPIIIa platelet antigen PlA1/A2 and FcγRIIa H131R genotype of healthy volunteers (n = 160) and patients with infective endocarditis (n = 40), and investigated the influence of these polymorphisms on clinical outcome in infective endocarditis and S. aureus–platelet interactions in vitro. Platelet receptor genotype did not correlate with development of infective endocarditis, vegetation characteristics on echocardiogram or the composite clinical end-point of embolism, heart failure, need for surgery or mortality (P > 0.05 for all), even though patients with the GPIIIa PlA1/A1 genotype had increased in vivo platelet activation (P = 0.001). Furthermore, neither GPIIIa PlA1/A2 nor FcγRIIa H131R genotype influenced S. aureus-induced platelet adhesion, activation or aggregation in vitro (P > 0.05). Taken together, our data suggest that the GPIIIa and FcγRIIa platelet receptor polymorphisms do not influence S. aureus–platelet interactions in vitro or the clinical course of infective endocarditis. PMID:21044892

  5. Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation by Supernates from Stored Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    450 μl of blood or 450 μl of platelet rich plasma (PRP) was mixed with 225 μl of supernate plus 225 μl of Tyrode’s buffer and incubated for ten... platelet counts, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, fibrin split products, and FVIII:Rag also measured 30 minutes...RTO-MP-HFM-182 22 - 1 Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation by Supernates from Stored Red Blood Cells Dr. Steve J. McFaul, LT Frederick A

  6. Dose-dependent platelet stimulation and inhibition induced by anti-PIA1 IgG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, T.; Davis, J.M.; Schwartz, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    The PIA1 antibody produces several clinically distinct and severe thrombocytopenias. Investigations have demonstrated divergent effects on platelet function; prior reports demonstrated inhibition, while a conflicting publication showed platelet activation. We have resolved this conflict using anti-PIA1 IgG produced by a patient with posttransfusion purpura. Relatively low concentrations stimulated platelet aggregation and release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) whereas high concentrations inhibited platelet function, producing a thrombasthenia-like state. The number of molecules of platelet-associated IgG necessary to initiate aggregation and ATP release (2,086 +/- 556) or produce maximum aggregation (23,420 +/- 3,706) or complete inhibition (63,582 +/- 2654) were measured with a quantitative radiometric assay for bound anti-PIA1. Preincubation of platelets with high concentrations of PIA1 antibody inhibited platelet aggregation with 10 mumol/L adenosine diphosphate and blocked 125I-labeled fibrinogen platelet binding. Platelet activation with nonfibrinogen dependent agonist, 1 U/ml thrombin, was not inhibited by this high concentration of PIA1 IgG. In conclusion, anti-PIAI IgG produces (1) stimulation of platelet aggregation and ATP release that is initiated with 2000 molecules IgG per platelet and is associated with an increase of 125I-fibrinogen binding; (2) conversely, inhibition of platelet aggregation is observed with maximum antibody binding, 63,000 molecules IgG per platelet, and is mediated via a blockade of fibrinogen binding

  7. Native High Density Lipoproteins (HDL Interfere with Platelet Activation Induced by Oxidized Low Density Lipoproteins (OxLDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Volf

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Platelets and lipoproteins play a crucial role in atherogenesis, in part by their ability to modulate inflammation and oxidative stress. While oxidized low density lipoproteins (OxLDL play a central role in the development of this disease, high density lipoproteins (HDL represent an atheroprotective factor of utmost importance. As platelet function is remarkably sensitive to the influence of plasma lipoproteins, it was the aim of this study to clarify if HDL are able to counteract the stimulating effects of OxLDL with special emphasis on aspects of platelet function that are relevant to inflammation. Therefore, HDL were tested for their ability to interfere with pro-thrombotic and pro-inflammatory aspects of platelet function. We are able to show that HDL significantly impaired OxLDL-induced platelet aggregation and adhesion. In gel-filtered platelets, HDL decreased both the formation of reactive oxygen species and CD40L expression. Furthermore, HDL strongly interfered with OxLDL-induced formation of platelet-neutrophil aggregates in whole blood, suggesting that platelets represent a relevant and sensitive target for HDL. The finding that HDL effectively competed with the binding of OxLDL to the platelet surface might contribute to their atheroprotective and antithrombotic properties.

  8. Platelet factor XIII increases the fibrinolytic resistance of platelet-rich clots by accelerating the crosslinking of alpha 2-antiplasmin to fibrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. L.; Matsueda, G. R.; Haber, E.

    1992-01-01

    Platelet clots resist fibrinolysis by plasminogen activators. We hypothesized that platelet factor XIII may enhance the fibrinolytic resistance of platelet-rich clots by catalyzing the crosslinking of alpha 2-antiplasmin (alpha 2AP) to fibrin. Analysis of plasma clot structure by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting revealed accelerated alpha 2AP-fibrin crosslinking in platelet-rich compared with platelet-depleted plasma clots. A similar study of clots formed with purified fibrinogen (depleted of factor XIII activity), isolated platelets, and specific factor XIII inhibitors indicated that this accelerated crosslinking was due to the catalytic activity of platelet factor XIII. Moreover, when washed platelets were aggregated by thrombin, there was evidence of platelet factor XIII-mediated crosslinking between platelet alpha 2AP and platelet fibrin(ogen). Specific inhibition (by a monoclonal antibody) of the alpha 2AP associated with washed platelet aggregates accelerated the fibrinolysis of the platelet aggregate. Thus in platelet-rich plasma clots, and in thrombin-induced platelet aggregates, platelet factor XIII actively formed alpha 2AP-fibrin crosslinks, which appeared to enhance the resistance of platelet-rich clots to fibrinolysis.

  9. Evaluation of thrombelastographic platelet-mapping in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Shauna L; Banerjee, Amrita; Wood, R Darren

    2012-06-01

    Thrombelastography (TEG) permits analysis of clot formation but it is not specific for platelet activity. TEG PlateletMapping (TEG-PM) is a modification of TEG that uses adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and arachidonic acid (AA) as platelet agonists to define the contribution of platelets to clot formation. The objectives of this study were to determine values for TEG-PM in healthy cats and the interassay variation of TEG-PM. TEG-PM analysis was performed on blood specimens collected from 12 healthy cats and was repeated using a second blood specimen collected 2 hours later. Maximum amplitudes generated by thrombin (MA(thrombin)), fibrin (MA(fibrin)), ADP-stimulated platelet activity (MA(ADP)), and AA-stimulated platelet activity (MA(AA)) were recorded. Mean ± SD for MA(thrombin) was 51.1 ± 8.5 mm, for MA(fibrin) was 32.3 ± 17.7 mm, for MA(ADP) was 32.3 ± 15.0 mm, and for MA(AA) was 24.5 ± 12.2 mm. Mean MA(ADP) and MA(fibrin) were not significantly different, whereas mean MA(AA) was significantly lower than mean MA(fibrin). Results from the first and second specimens were not significantly different. Correlation between the first and second specimens was moderate for MA(thrombin), MA(fibrin), and MA(ADP), but was poor for MA(AA). A high degree of variability (coefficient of variation 47.7-60.0%) was observed for MA(fibrin), MA(ADP), and MA(AA). As MA(ADP) and MA(AA) (AA) were the same as or lower than MA(fibrin), a valid baseline to determine platelet-stimulated clot formation could not be established. Considerable interassay variation and wide intervals for MA(fibrin), MA(ADP), and MA(AA) values in this study indicate that TEG-PM should be used cautiously in feline patients. Several preanalytical factors should be examined in further detail. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  10. Progranulin inhibits platelet aggregation and prolongs bleeding time in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yahya, A M; Al-Masri, A A; El Eter, E A; Hersi, A; Lateef, R; Mawlana, O

    2018-05-01

    Several adipokines secreted by adipose tissue have an anti-thrombotic and anti-atherosclerotic function. Recently identified adipokine progranulin was found to play a protective role in atherosclerosis. Bearing in mind the central role of platelets in inflammation and atherosclerosis, we aimed, in this study, to examine the effect of progranulin on platelet function and coagulation profile in rats. Healthy male albino Wistar rats weighing (250-300 g) were divided into 4 groups. Three groups were given increasing doses of progranulin (0.001 µg, 0.01 µg, and 0.1 µg) intraperitoneally, while the control group received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Bleeding time, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and platelet aggregation responses to adenosine diphosphate and arachidonic acid were assessed. Administration of progranulin resulted in a significant inhibition of platelet aggregation in response to both adenosine diphosphate, and arachidonic acid. Bleeding time, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were significantly prolonged in all groups that received progranulin, in particular, the 0.1 µg dose, in comparison to the control group. This preliminary data is first suggesting that the antiplatelet and anticoagulant action of progranulin could have a physiological protective function against thrombotic disorders associated with obesity and atherosclerosis. However, these results merit further exploration.

  11. Transcriptomic landscape of acute promyelocytic leukemia reveals aberrant surface expression of the platelet aggregation agonist Podoplanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Vincent-Philippe; Chagraoui, Jalila; MacRae, Tara; Marquis, Miriam; Bonnefoy, Arnaud; Krosl, Jana; Lemieux, Sébastien; Marinier, Anne; Pabst, Caroline; Rivard, Georges-Étienne; Hébert, Josée; Sauvageau, Guy

    2018-02-23

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a medical emergency because of associated lethal early bleeding, a condition preventable by prompt diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. The mechanisms underlying the hemostatic anomalies of APL are not completely elucidated. RNA-sequencing-based characterization of APL (n = 30) was performed and compared to that of other acute myeloid leukemia (n = 400) samples and normal promyelocytes. Perturbations in the transcriptome of coagulation and fibrinolysis-related genes in APL extend beyond known culprits and now include Thrombin, Factor X and Urokinase Receptor. Most intriguingly, the Podoplanin (PDPN) gene, involved in platelet aggregation, is aberrantly expressed in APL promyelocytes and is the most distinctive transcript for this disease. Using an antibody panel optimized for AML diagnosis by flow cytometry, we also found that PDPN was the most specific surface marker for APL, and that all-trans retinoic acid therapy rapidly decreases its expression. Functional studies showed that engineered overexpression of this gene in human leukemic cells causes aberrant platelet binding, activation and aggregation. PDPN-expressing primary APL cells, but not PDPN-negative primary leukemias, specifically induce platelet binding, activation and aggregation. Finally, PDPN expression on leukemia cells in a xenograft model was associated with thrombocytopenia and prolonged bleeding time in vivo. Together our results suggest that PDPN may contribute to the hemostatic perturbations found in APL.

  12. Meal-induced platelet activation in diabetes mellitus type 1 or type 2 is related to postprandial insulin rather than glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spectre, Galia; Stålesen, Ragnhild; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Hjemdahl, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Postprandial platelet activation was related to postprandial insulin rather than glucose levels in a previous meal insulin study in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We therefore compared postprandial platelet activation in type 1 (T1DM) patients without insulin secretion and T2DM patients with high postprandial insulin levels. Patients with T1DM (n=11) and T2DM (n=12) were studied before and 90min after a standardized meal without premeal insulin. Five T1DM patients volunteered for a restudy with their regular premeal insulin. Platelet activation was assessed by flow cytometry, with and without the thromboxane analogue U46619 or ADP, and by whole blood aggregometry (Multiplate®). Effects of insulin (100μU/mL) in vitro were also studied. Before the meal, glucose, insulin and platelet activation markers other than platelet-leukocyte aggregates (PLAs) were similar in T1DM and T2DM; PLAs were higher in T1DM. Postprandial glucose levels increased more markedly in T1DM (to 22.1±1.4 vs. 11.2±0.6mmol/L) while insulin levels increased only in T2DM (from 24.4±4.4 to 68.8±12.3μU/mL). Platelet P-selectin expression, fibrinogen binding and PLA formation stimulated by U46619 were markedly enhanced (approximately doubled) and whole blood aggregation stimulated by U46619 was increased (pinsulin in T1DM patients showed postprandial platelet activation when postprandial insulin levels increased. In vitro insulin mildly activated platelets in both groups. Postprandial platelet activation via the thromboxane pathway is related to postprandial hyperinsulinemia and not to postprandial hyperglycaemia in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Beneficial effects of intermittent suction and pressure treatment in intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Himmelstrup, H; Himmelstrup, Bodil

    1993-01-01

    administration. The treatment caused significant increments in the ADP thresholds for platelet aggregation, while the effects on fibrinolysis were uncertain. It is concluded that intermittent suction and pressure treatment offers a new approach for conservative treatment of intermittent claudication....... participated in an open trial investigating the possible effects of the treatment on platelet aggregation and fibrinolysis. Pain-free and maximal walking distances were measured on a treadmill, and systolic blood pressure was measured on the upper limb, the ankle, and the first toe bilaterally. The threshold...... for adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation was tested, and the fibrinolytic activity was estimated from the euglobulin clot lysis time. Active treatment resulted in significant improvements in pain-free and maximal walking distances, whereas no changes could be found during placebo...

  14. Platelet-derived-growth-factor-induced signalling in human platelets: phosphoinositide-3-kinase-dependent inhibition of platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selheim, F; Fukami, M H; Holmsen, H; Vassbotn, F S

    2000-09-01

    Human platelets release platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) from alpha-granules during platelet activation. We have previously shown that platelets have PDGF alpha-receptors, a transmembrane tyrosine kinase that takes part in negative feedback regulation during platelet activation. Here we have described a study of PDGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet substrates and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI-3K) activity in collagen-stimulated platelets. By immunoblotting with phosphotyrosine antibodies of collagen-activated platelets we found that PDGF increased the phosphorylation of several platelet substrates, e.g. pp140, pp120 and pp85. PDGF inhibited collagen-induced platelet activation in the presence of inhibitors of autocrine stimulation, thus blocking the pure collagen-induced signal transduction. PDGF enhanced the collagen-induced formation of PtdIns(3,4)P(2) and PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) as measured by HPLC. Wortmannin and LY294002, two unrelated inhibitors of PI-3K, were used to investigate the role of PI-3K in PDGF-induced platelet signalling. Incubation of platelets with wortmannin and LY294002 blocked the formation of three phosphorylated inositides as well as the inhibitory effect of PDGF on collagen-induced platelet activation. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of PDGF on platelet activation is PI-3K dependent. This is the first demonstration of a negative regulatory function of 3-phosphorylated inositides in platelets.

  15. Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation by the Leaf Extract of Carica papaya During Dengue Infection: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnappan, Shobia; Ramachandrappa, Vijayakumar Shettikothanuru; Tamilarasu, Kadhiravan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Pillai, Agiesh Kumar Balakrishna; Rajendiran, Soundravally

    2016-04-01

    Dengue cases were reported to undergo platelet activation and thrombocytopenia by a poorly understood mechanism. Recent studies suggested that Carica papaya leaf extract could recover the platelet count in dengue cases. However, no studies have attempted to unravel the mechanism of the plant extract in platelet recovery. Since there are no available drugs to treat dengue and considering the significance of C. papaya in dengue treatment, the current study aimed to evaluate two research questions: First one is to study if the C. papaya leaf extract exerts its action directly on platelets and second one is to understand if the extract can specifically inhibit the platelet aggregation during dengue viral infection. Sixty subjects with dengue positive and 60 healthy subjects were recruited in the study. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma were prepared from both the dengue-infected and healthy control blood samples. Effect of the leaf extract obtained from C. papaya leaves was assessed on plasma obtained as well as platelets collected from both healthy and dengue-infected individuals. Platelet aggregation was significantly reduced when leaf extract preincubated with dengue plasma was added into control PRP, whereas no change in aggregation when leaf extract incubated-control plasma was added into control PRP. Upon direct addition of C. papaya leaf extract, both dengue PRP and control PRP showed a significant reduction in platelet aggregation. Within the dengue group, PRP from severe and nonsevere cases showed a significant decrease in aggregation without any difference between them. From the study, it is evident that C. papaya leaf extract can directly act on platelet. The present study, the first of its kind, found that the leaf extract possesses a dengue-specific neutralizing effect on dengue viral-infected plasma that may exert a protective role on platelets.

  16. Leukocyte-reduction filters and radiation do not cause significant changes in platelet function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagura, Yutaka; Tsuno, Hirokazu; Shibata, Yoichi; Takahashi, Koki

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of radiation and leukocyte-reduction filters on platelet function. Platelet aggregation in response to collagen and ADP were measured prior to and after irradiation and filtration, as were the platelet recovery rate and complement factor C3. Four types of leukocyte-reduction filter were used, namely positively-, negatively-, and non-charged filters (all of polyester composition), as well as a polyurethane filter. Radiation itself did not significantly affect either the platelet recovery rate, platelet function, or C3 value. On the other hand, filtration through polyester leukocyte-reduction filters resulted in a significant reduction in the platelet recovery rate, an effect not observed with the polyurethane filter. However, none of the filters caused significant changes in platelet function or in C3 value. We concluded that radiation and filtration do not cause significant changes in platelet function, but polyurethane filters are superior to polyester filters in relation to platelet recovery. (author)

  17. Hemorrhagic tendency following whole-body irradiation of conventional and decontaminated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiemeyer, V.; Hohage, R.

    1974-01-01

    Female SIV 50 rats were irradiated with 700 r, and the blood platelets were counted in blood obtained by aortal puncture. A significant decrease could be observed already after a few days. The ADP-induced platelet aggregation showed only a little increase of the aggregation amplitude and a prolongation of the desaggregation time in irradiated animals. The increase of the collagen-induced platelet aggregation might be due to a reduced release of endogenic ADP rather than to reduced sensitivity to ADP. In order to examine the question whether the haemorrhagic tendency of decontaminated animals is reduced after irradiation, female rats were orally given Bacitracin, Neomycin, and Streptomycin over a period of 10 days. Increasing anaemia could be observed from the 7th day p.t. on. In decontaminated animals, anaemia occurrence was not as high as in conventional ones. The erythrocyte count of the lymph in the conventional animals was remarkably higher than in decontaminated animals, which as also the case in the haemoglobin content in the lymph notes. This proves definitely that rats kept conventionally have a stronger tendency to bleeding than decontaminated rats. (MG) [de

  18. A Study of Platelet Inhibition, Using a 'Point of Care' Platelet Function Test, following Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction [PINPOINT-PPCI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas W; Mumford, Andrew D; Scott, Lauren J; Mundell, Stuart; Butler, Mark; Strange, Julian W; Rogers, Chris A; Reeves, Barnaby C; Baumbach, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Rapid coronary recanalization following ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) requires effective anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic therapies. This study tested the impact of door to end of procedure ('door-to-end') time and baseline platelet activity on platelet inhibition within 24hours post-STEMI. 108 patients, treated with prasugrel and procedural bivalirudin, underwent Multiplate® platelet function testing at baseline, 0, 1, 2 and 24hours post-procedure. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE), bleeding and stent thrombosis (ST) were recorded. Baseline ADP activity was high (88.3U [71.8-109.0]), procedural time and consequently bivalirudin infusion duration were short (median door-to-end time 55minutes [40-70] and infusion duration 30minutes [20-42]). Baseline ADP was observed to influence all subsequent measurements of ADP activity, whereas door-to-end time only influenced ADP immediately post-procedure. High residual platelet reactivity (HRPR ADP>46.8U) was observed in 75% of patients immediately post-procedure and persisted in 24% of patients at 2hours. Five patients suffered in-hospital MACE (4.6%). Acute ST occurred in 4 patients, all were <120mins post-procedure and had HRPR. No significant bleeding was observed. In a post-hoc analysis, pre-procedural morphine use was associated with significantly higher ADP activity following intervention. Baseline platelet function, time to STEMI treatment and opiate use all significantly influence immediate post-procedural platelet activity.

  19. Comparative evaluation of Plateletworks, Multiplate analyzer and Platelet function analyzer-200 in cardiology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeeyong; Cho, Chi Hyun; Jung, Bo Kyeung; Nam, Jeonghun; Seo, Hong Seog; Shin, Sehyun; Lim, Chae Seung

    2018-04-14

    The objective of this study was to comparatively evaluate three commercial whole-blood platelet function analyzer systems: Platelet Function Analyzer-200 (PFA; Siemens Canada, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada), Multiplate analyzer (MP; Roche Diagnostics International Ltd., Rotkreuz, Switzerland), and Plateletworks Combo-25 kit (PLW; Helena Laboratories, Beaumont, TX, USA). Venipuncture was performed on 160 patients who visited a department of cardiology. Pairwise agreement among the three platelet function assays was assessed using Cohen's kappa coefficient and percent agreement within the reference limit. Kappa values with the same agonists were poor between PFA-collagen (COL; agonist)/adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and MP-ADP (-0.147), PFA-COL/ADP and PLW-ADP (0.089), MP-ADP and PLW-ADP (0.039), PFA-COL/ADP and MP-COL (-0.039), and between PFA-COL/ADP and PLW-COL (-0.067). Nonetheless, kappa values for the same assay principle with a different agonist were slightly higher between PFA-COL/ADP and PFA-COL/EPI (0.352), MP-ADP and MP-COL (0.235), and between PLW-ADP and PLW-COL (0.247). The range of percent agreement values was 38.7% to 73.8%. Therefore, various measurements of platelet function by more than one method were needed to obtain a reliable interpretation of platelet function considering low kappa coefficient and modest percent agreement rates among 3 different platelet function tests.

  20. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen) extract attenuates permanent cerebral ischemia through inhibiting platelet activation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Si-Qi; Yang, Li-Jian; Qiu, Yan-Ying; Li, Yi-Ze; Liu, Wen-Yuan; Xi, Tao; Fang, Wei-Rong; Li, Yun-Man

    2017-07-31

    Danshen is a crude herbal drug isolated from dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. This plant is widely used in oriental medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The supercritical CO 2 extract from Danshen (SCED) (57.85%, 5.67% and 4.55% for tanshinone IIA, tanshinone I and cryptotanshinone respectively) was studied in this article, whose potential molecular mechanism remains unclear, especially in anti-thrombosis. The present study was designed to observe the protective effect of SCED on ischemic stroke in rats and to explore the underlying anti-thrombosis mechanism. Following induction of cerebral ischemia in rats by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). Neurological defect score, cerebral blood flow, infarct size, and brain edema were measured to evaluate the injury. Arteriovenous shunt thrombosis model and adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) induced acute pulmonary embolism model were conducted to estimate the antithrombotic effect of SCED. In order to investigate the effects of SCED on platelet aggregation, rat platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) were incubated with SCED prior to the addition of the stimuli (ADP or 9, 11-dideoxy-11α, 9α-epoxymethanoprostaglandin F2α (U46619)). Aggregation was monitored in a light transmission aggregometer. Inhibitory effect of SCED on thromboxane A2 (TXA 2 ) release was detected by ELISA kit. Phospholipase C (PLC)/ Protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway was analyzed by a Western blot technique. The effect of the SCED was also studied in vivo on bleeding time in mice. SCED improved the neurological defect score, increased cerebral blood flow, reduced infarct size and alleviated brain edema in rats exposed to pMCAO. After administration of SCED, thrombosis formation in arteriovenous shunt was inhibited and recovery time in pulmonary embolism was shortened. The inhibitory effect of SCED on platelet activation was further confirmed by TXB 2 ELISA kit and Western blot analysis of PLC

  1. Platelet size and density affect shear-induced thrombus formation in tortuous arterioles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnutt, Jennifer K. W.; Han, Hai-Chao

    2013-10-01

    Thrombosis accounts for 80% of deaths in patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetic patients demonstrate tortuous microvessels and larger than normal platelets. Large platelets are associated with increased platelet activation and thrombosis, but the physical effects of large platelets in the microscale processes of thrombus formation are not clear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the physical effects of mean platelet volume (MPV), mean platelet density (MPD) and vessel tortuosity on platelet activation and thrombus formation in tortuous arterioles. A computational model of the transport, shear-induced activation, collision, adhesion and aggregation of individual platelets was used to simulate platelet interactions and thrombus formation in tortuous arterioles. Our results showed that an increase in MPV resulted in a larger number of activated platelets, though MPD and level of tortuosity made little difference on platelet activation. Platelets with normal MPD yielded the lowest amount of mural thrombus. With platelets of normal MPD, the amount of mural thrombus decreased with increasing level of tortuosity but did not have a simple monotonic relationship with MPV. The physical mechanisms associated with MPV, MPD and arteriole tortuosity play important roles in platelet activation and thrombus formation.

  2. Comparison of Modified Impedance Whole Blood Platelet Aggregation Method Detecting Platelet Function in ACS Patients with Different CYP2C19 Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chanjuan; Qiao, Rui; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    A reliable laboratory test to monitor onclopidogrel platelet reactivity (PR) is very necessary. In addition, genetic factors also play an important part in onclopidogrel PR. This study aimed to modify the original impedance whole blood platelet aggregation assay associated with the release assay to monitor onclopidogrel PR and assess their relationship with genotype. We adjusted the concentration of calcium in the in vitro reaction system of platelet aggregation to modify the original impedance whole blood platelet aggregation assay. Meanwhile, chronolume, which quantified the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) released from platelet dense granules, is added to this reaction system to reflect the platelet release function. In the modified assay, platelet magnified activation time (MAT) and the maximal platelet ATP release value (RV) were used to reflect platelet function parameters. In the original assay, the electrical resistance (omega) and RV were used to reflect platelet function parameters. Onclopidogrel PR was detected by the original impedance whole blood platelet aggregation assay, modified assay, and flow cytometric vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) assay in 168 patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 polymorphisms were also detected in all of these patients. This modified method showed that when 12.5 microL CaCl2 (0.2 mmol/L) was added to the reaction system, MAT was appropriate (93 +/- 23 seconds). The CVs for the modified impedance assay and release assay were 9.31% and 6.13%, respectively. The mean VASP-PRI in the patient group treated with clopidogrel was significantly lower than that in the control group without antiplatelet therapy (54.88 +/- 16.81% vs. 79.86 +/- 10.24%, p 50% group were shorter than that in the PRI 50% group were higher than that in the PRI omega) and RV of the original method showed no differences between the two groups [0 (0-2) vs. 0 (0-1.25), 0.05 (0-0.25) vs. 0.08 (0-0.24); p > 0.05, p > 0

  3. Influence of Garlic Oil and/or Taurine Intake on Modulating the Quantity and Quality of Murine Platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that enhanced platelets reactivity associated with hyperlipidaemia plays a role in the formation of atherosclerosis. Thus, platelet count, platelet aggregation in response to the agonists ADP, collagen and thromboxan B2 (TxB 2 ) were investigated in the normal and hyperlipidaemic rats to elucidate the role of some antioxidants, as modulating factors in the development of atherosclerosis. Serum concentrations of the major lipid classes, thyroid hormones, serum glutathione as well as platelet count and aggregation were determined in normal lipidemic rats (control) and compared with their corresponding levels in hyperlipidaemic ones. Hyperlipidaemia was induced by feeding rats with diet enriched with 20 g cow milk butter/100 g diet for 8 weeks. Garlic oil (200 mg/kg b.w.) and/or taurine (500 ml/kg b.w.) were peritoneal injected from the beginning of the 9th week for 15 consecutive days. Incorporation of extra fat in diet of rats for long term led to a significant (p 2 levels. On the other hand, HDL-cholesterol, serum glutathione (GSH), and T 3 and T 4 hormones level were significantly (p 2 level also showed a significant decrease. Conversely, serum HDL, T 3 , T 4 and GSH levels were significantly increased. These results denote that garlic oil and/or taurine may decrease the risk of atherosclerosis and thrombus formation associated with hyperlipidaemia through modulating the quantity and quality of platelets in male rats

  4. The Antidepressant 5-HT2A Receptor Antagonists Pizotifen and Cyproheptadine Inhibit Serotonin-Enhanced Platelet Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Olivia A.; Karim, Zubair A.; Vemana, Hari Priya; Espinosa, Enma V. P.; Khasawneh, Fadi T.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in defining new agents or targets for antithrombotic purposes. The 5-HT2A receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) expressed on many cell types, and a known therapeutic target for many disease states. This serotonin receptor is also known to regulate platelet function. Thus, in our FDA-approved drug repurposing efforts, we investigated the antiplatelet activity of cyproheptadine and pizotifen, two antidepressant 5-HT2A Receptor antagonists. Our results revealed that cyproheptadine and pizotifen reversed serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo. And the inhibitory effects of these two agents were found to be similar to that of EMD 281014, a 5-HT2A Receptor antagonist under development. In separate experiments, our studies revealed that these 5-HT2A receptor antagonists have the capacity to reduce serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced elevation in intracellular calcium levels and tyrosine phosphorylation. Using flow cytometry, we also observed that cyproheptadine, pizotifen, and EMD 281014 inhibited serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, P-selectin expression, and glycoprotein IIb-IIIa activation. Furthermore, using a carotid artery thrombosis model, these agents prolonged the time for thrombotic occlusion in mice in vivo. Finally, the tail-bleeding time was investigated to assess the effect of cyproheptadine and pizotifen on hemostasis. Our findings indicated prolonged bleeding time in both cyproheptadine- and pizotifen-treated mice. Notably, the increases in occlusion and bleeding times associated with these two agents were comparable to that of EMD 281014, and to clopidogrel, a commonly used antiplatelet drug, again, in a fashion comparable to clopidogrel and EMD 281014. Collectively, our data indicate that the antidepressant 5-HT2A antagonists, cyproheptadine and pizotifen do exert antiplatelet and thromboprotective effects, but similar to clopidogrel and EMD 281014, their

  5. Glaucocalyxin A inhibits platelet activation and thrombus formation preferentially via GPVI signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available Platelets play a pivotal role in atherothrombosis and the antiplatelet agents have been proved to be useful in preventing onset of acute clinical events including myocardial infarction and stroke. Increasing number of natural compounds has been identified to be potential antiplatelet agents. Here we report the antiplatelet effect of glaucocalyxin A (GLA, an ent-diterpenoid that we isolated and purified from the aerial parts of Rabdosia japonica (Burm. f. var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara, and investigate the molecular mechanisms by which GLA inhibits platelet activation and thrombus formation. The effect of GLA on platelet activation was measured using platelets freshly isolated from peripheral blood of healthy donors. Results showed that pretreatment of human platelets with lower concentrations of GLA (0.01 μg/ml, 0.1 μg/ml significantly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen (P<0.001 and CRP (P<0.01, a synthetic GPVI ligand, but not by ADP and U46619. Accordingly, GLA inhibited collagen-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk, LAT, and phospholipase Cγ2, the signaling events in collagen receptor GPⅥ pathway. GLA also inhibited platelet p-selectin secretion and integrin activation by convulxin, a GPVI selective ligand. Additionally, GLA was found to inhibit low-dose thrombin-induced platelet activation. Using a flow chamber device, GLA was found to attenuate platelet adhesion on collagen surfaces in high shear condition. In vivo studies showed that GLA administration increased the time for complete occlusion upon vascular injury in mice, but did not extend tail-bleeding time when mice were administered with relatively lower doses of GLA. Therefore, the present results provide the molecular basis for the inhibition effect of GLA on platelet activation and its in vivo effect on thrombus formation, suggesting that GLA could potentially be developed as an antiplatelet and antithrombotic agent.

  6. Identification of functional VEGF receptors on human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selheim, Frode; Holmsen, Holm; Vassbotn, Flemming S

    2002-02-13

    Platelets secrete platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upon stimulation. We have demonstrated that platelets have functionally active PDGF alpha-receptors, a transmembrane tyrosine kinase involved in negative feedback regulation. Here we demonstrate the presence of the related VEGF receptors fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and kinase-insert domain region on human platelets. VEGF itself did not cause platelet aggregation. However, addition of exogenous VEGF to SFRLLN or thrombin-stimulated platelets potentiated platelet aggregation. Moreover, thrombin-induced phosphoinositide 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase activity were enhanced in the presence of VEGF.

  7. Effect of Vitamin C Supplementation on platelet aggregation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease condition characterised by hyperglycemia; free radical and abnormal haematological indices. Vitamin C can reduce free radical generation and ameliorate adverse conditions of diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of vitamin C on platelet aggregation ...

  8. Autoradiographic observations of the induced vascular injuries by arachidonic acid in rabbit's brain and lung using 111In-oxine labeled platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Tsukasa; Fukushima, Yoshiharu; Suzuki, Hidenori; Kuroiwa, Kyoko; Tanoue, Kenjiro; Yamazaki, Hiroh.

    1985-01-01

    Autoradiography using 111 In-oxine labeled autologous platelets was performed to observe the behavior of platelets in induced vascular injury by activated platelets in rabbit's brain and lung. Cerebrovascular injuries were induced by injection of arachidonic acid (AA) (0.7 mg/kg) into right internal carotid artery. Fourteen animals were pretreated with antiplatelet drug, ticlopidine (200 mg/kg) and 10 were controls. Before the AA injection, 111 In-oxine (300 μCi) labeled platelets were injected intravenously. Evans blue was given as a marker of disturbances of blood brain barrier. Sixty min after the AA injection, brains were removed and autoradiographic and electron microscopic studies were done. In the nontreated animals and some of the treated animals whose platelet aggregability was not suppressed, blue staining were seen in the cerebral hemisphere of injection side and hot radioactivity in autoradiogram were revealed in corresponding area. In the treated animals whose platelet aggregability was remarkably suppressed, no or slight blue staining or radioactivity were recognized. Only in hot radioactive area, platelet thrombi and vascular injuries were seen. Vascular injuries of lung were produced by decompression after keeping animals under hyperbalic condition (6 atomosphere absolute for 40 min). Before this procedure, 111 In-oxine labeled platelets were injected. Lungs of both 4 control and 4 decompression sickness animals were removed and autoradiographic and lightmicroscopic observations were performed. In lungs of decompression sickness animals remarkable spotty high radioactivity and prominent platelet aggregates in the vessels were seen. These findings were not seen in control animals. Our results suggested important roles of platelets in induced vascular injuries. And this autoradiographic approach seemed to be quite useful for observation of platelet's behavior in injured vessels and evaluation of antiplatelet drugs. (author)

  9. A Novel Role of Eruca sativa Mill. (Rocket Extract: Antiplatelet (NF-κB Inhibition and Antithrombotic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fuentes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies have shown the prevention of cardiovascular diseases through the regular consumption of vegetables. Eruca sativa Mill., commonly known as rocket, is a leafy vegetable that has anti-inflammatory activity. However, its antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities have not been described. Methods: Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract (0.1 to 1 mg/mL, was evaluated on human platelets: (i P-selectin expression by flow cytometry; (ii platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen and arachidonic acid; (iii IL-1β, TGF-β1, CCL5 and thromboxane B2 release; and (iv activation of NF-κB and PKA by western blot. Furthermore, (v antithrombotic activity (200 mg/kg and (vi bleeding time in murine models were evaluated. Results: Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract (0.1 to 1 mg/mL inhibited P-selectin expression and platelet aggregation induced by ADP. The release of platelet inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, TGF-β1, CCL5 and thromboxane B2 induced by ADP was inhibited by Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract. Furthermore, Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract inhibited NF-κB activation. Finally, in murine models, Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract showed significant antithrombotic activity and a slight effect on bleeding time. Conclusion: Eruca sativa Mill. presents antiplatelet and antithrombotic activity.

  10. A Study of Platelet Inhibition, Using a 'Point of Care' Platelet Function Test, following Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction [PINPOINT-PPCI].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Johnson

    Full Text Available Rapid coronary recanalization following ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI requires effective anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic therapies. This study tested the impact of door to end of procedure ('door-to-end' time and baseline platelet activity on platelet inhibition within 24hours post-STEMI.108 patients, treated with prasugrel and procedural bivalirudin, underwent Multiplate® platelet function testing at baseline, 0, 1, 2 and 24hours post-procedure. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE, bleeding and stent thrombosis (ST were recorded. Baseline ADP activity was high (88.3U [71.8-109.0], procedural time and consequently bivalirudin infusion duration were short (median door-to-end time 55minutes [40-70] and infusion duration 30minutes [20-42]. Baseline ADP was observed to influence all subsequent measurements of ADP activity, whereas door-to-end time only influenced ADP immediately post-procedure. High residual platelet reactivity (HRPR ADP>46.8U was observed in 75% of patients immediately post-procedure and persisted in 24% of patients at 2hours. Five patients suffered in-hospital MACE (4.6%. Acute ST occurred in 4 patients, all were <120mins post-procedure and had HRPR. No significant bleeding was observed. In a post-hoc analysis, pre-procedural morphine use was associated with significantly higher ADP activity following intervention.Baseline platelet function, time to STEMI treatment and opiate use all significantly influence immediate post-procedural platelet activity.

  11. Comparison of effect of locally available brands of clopidogrel on platelet aggregation in patients with coronary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.B.; Hameedullah; Noor, L.; Awan, Z.A.; Din, S.U.; Muhammad Hafeezullah, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Anticoagulant effect of clopidogrel is of utmost importance in coronary artery disease, especially in prevention of coronary stent thrombosis. Recently, many new local brands of clopidogrel have been launched, with unknown efficacy. This study was conducted with the aim to compare two locally prepared clopidogrel brands, in terms of the effect of a loading dose of 600 mg on inhibition of platelet aggregation in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods: This was a double blind randomised study. Sample population consisting of 35 patients, were admitted at Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, for the management of coronary artery disease. Baseline platelet aggregation of all these patients was measured. These patients were divided in two groups randomly. Group-A consisting of 18 patients was given brand 'A' clopidogrel 600 mg, while Group-B consisting of 17 patients was give brand 'B' of clopidogrel 600 mg. The platelet aggregation of both groups was then measured at baseline, and at 2, 4, and 6 hours after taking the loading dose of 600 mg. Results: Platelet aggregation time at baseline in Group-A was 2.61+- 2.28 sec. and in Group-B it was 2.24 +- 1.52 sec. (p=0.57). After 2 hours of clopidogrel administration in Group-A the platelet aggregation time was 1.44 +- 1.58 sec. and in Group-B it was 1.53 +- 1.107 sec. (p=0.85). Platelet aggregation time after 4 hours in Group-A was 0.28 +- 0.57 sec. and in Group-B 1.06 +- 1.03 sec. (p=0.009), and after 6 hours it was 0.00 +- 0.00 sec. in Group-A and in Group-B it was 0.59 +- 0.71 sec. (p=0.001). Conclusion: The two brands of clopidogrel had a significant difference in their effect on inhibition of platelet aggregation. Different brands of clopidogrel may not be equally effective. (author)

  12. Buddleja globosa (matico) prevents collagen-induced platelet activation by decreasing phospholipase C-gamma 2 and protein kinase C phosphorylation signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Manuel; Sepúlveda, Cesar; Alarcón, Marcelo; Palomo, Iván; Fuentes, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Platelets play a key role in thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases. Medicinal plants could be one of the most important factors that influence risks for platelet activation. Buddleja globosa (known as "matico") is a medicinal plant with many biological activities. The high content of polyphenols suggest that matico could have antiplatelet activity. The present study was aimed at evaluating mechanisms of antiplatelet action of an extract of matico. We demonstrated that matico extract at low concentrations and in a concentration dependent manner (0.05-1 mg/mL) was a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation in response to collagen, convulsion and ADP (IC 50 values was 61 μg/mL, 72 μg/mL and 290 μg/mL, respectively). In this sense matico extract exerted the greatest antiaggregant activity induced by collagen. Similarly, matico showed a decrease in % of positive platelet for P-selectina (vehicle, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/mL were 32 ± 2%, 29 ± 2 (p < 0.05), 19 ± 1 (p < 0.01), 15 ± 2 (p < 0.01), 10 ± 1% (p < 0.01) and 7 ± 2% (p < 0.01), respectively) and PAC-1 binding (vehicle, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/mL were 59 ± 1, 58 ± 3 (n.s), 55 ± 2 (p < 0.05), 50 ± 2 (p < 0.01), 38 ± 1 (p < 0.01), 36 ± 2 (p < 0.01). The cellular mechanism for the antiplatelet activity of matico might be mediated by the inhibition of phospholipase C-gamma 2 and protein kinase C phosphorylation. This beneficial property of matico may be of importance in thrombosis, in which platelet activation and aggregation are important determinants of thrombus initiation and development, and may contribute to the beneficial effects of matico intake in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Buddleja globosa (matico prevents collagen-induced platelet activation by decreasing phospholipase C-gamma 2 and protein kinase C phosphorylation signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fuentes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelets play a key role in thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases. Medicinal plants could be one of the most important factors that influence risks for platelet activation. Buddleja globosa (known as “matico” is a medicinal plant with many biological activities. The high content of polyphenols suggest that matico could have antiplatelet activity. The present study was aimed at evaluating mechanisms of antiplatelet action of an extract of matico. We demonstrated that matico extract at low concentrations and in a concentration dependent manner (0.05–1 mg/mL was a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation in response to collagen, convulsion and ADP (IC50 values was 61 μg/mL, 72 μg/mL and 290 μg/mL, respectively. In this sense matico extract exerted the greatest antiaggregant activity induced by collagen. Similarly, matico showed a decrease in % of positive platelet for P-selectina (vehicle, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/mL were 32 ± 2%, 29 ± 2 (p < 0.05, 19 ± 1 (p < 0.01, 15 ± 2 (p < 0.01, 10 ± 1% (p < 0.01 and 7 ± 2% (p < 0.01, respectively and PAC-1 binding (vehicle, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/mL were 59 ± 1, 58 ± 3 (n.s, 55 ± 2 (p < 0.05, 50 ± 2 (p < 0.01, 38 ± 1 (p < 0.01, 36 ± 2 (p < 0.01. The cellular mechanism for the antiplatelet activity of matico might be mediated by the inhibition of phospholipase C-gamma 2 and protein kinase C phosphorylation. This beneficial property of matico may be of importance in thrombosis, in which platelet activation and aggregation are important determinants of thrombus initiation and development, and may contribute to the beneficial effects of matico intake in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Positiv effekt af intermitterende over- og undertryk (Vacusac) ved claudicatio intermittens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Himmelstrup, H; Himmelstrup, B

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-two patients with intermittent claudication were included in a double-blinded, randomized trial comparing the effects of 25 treatments with intermittent suction and pressure (Vacusac treatment) to 25 placebo applications given over a period of two months. Twelve patients participated in an...... treatment caused significant increments in ADP-induced platelet aggregation, while the effects on fibrinolysis were uncertain. It is concluded that intermittent suction and pressure treatment offers a new approach for conservative treatment of intermittent claudication....... in an open trial investigating the effects of the same treatment on adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation and fibrinolysis. Active treatment resulted in significant improvements in pain-free and maximal walking distances, whereas no changes could be found during placebo application. Active...

  15. Blood conservation techniques and platelet function in cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, J; Zickmann, B; Czeke, A; Herold, C; Dapper, F; Hempelmann, G

    1991-09-01

    Postoperative alterations in platelet function induced by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are of importance. The effect on platelet aggregation of three different techniques for reducing blood consumption was studied in 30 patients undergoing elective aortocoronary bypass grafting from the beginning of anesthesia until the 1st postoperative day. The patients were randomly divided into three groups, in which 1) a cell separator was used during and after CPB; 2) a hemofiltration device was used; and 3) high-dose aprotinin was used in order to reduce the need of homologous blood. A fourth group undergoing neurosurgery procedures served as a control. Platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (concentration 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 microM), collagen (4 microliters/ml), and epinephrine (25 microM) was determined by the turbidimetric method. Platelet aggregation was not significantly changed in the control group, indicating that the operation itself did not impair platelet function. At the end of the operation (after retransfusion of the salvaged pump blood), the maximum aggregation and maximum gradient of aggregation induced by all three inductors were most reduced (significantly) in the cell-separator patients. On the 1st postoperative day, platelet aggregation in the hemofiltration patients and the patients treated with aprotinin had normalized. Aggregation of patients pretreated with high-dose aprotinin was not different from that of the hemofiltration patients throughout the investigation. Blood loss was significantly highest in the cell-separator group (770 +/- 400 ml on the 1st postoperative day) but was not different between the hemofiltration (390 +/- 230 ml) and the aprotinin-treated patients (260 +/- 160 ml).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. [Effect of losartan on human platelet activation by thromboxane A2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, J I; Montón, M; Rodríguez-Feo, J A; Farré, J; Jiménez, A M; Núñez, A; Gómez, J; Rico, L; Marcos, P; Castilla, C; Sánchez De Miguel, L; Casado, S; López-Farré, A

    2000-04-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that losartan, an AT-1 receptor antagonist of angiotensin II (Ang II) could block the receptor of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) in the vascular wall. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of losartan on human platelet activation. Platelets were obtained from 15 healthy men between the age 26 and 40. Platelet activation was measured by changes in the light transmission of platelet-rich plasma stimulated by a synthetic TXA2 analogue, U46619 (5 x 10(-6) mol/l). The U46619-stimulated platelet aggregation was significantly inhibited by losartan in a dose-response manner. Only a high dose of EXP 3174 (5 10-5 mol/l), the in vivo active metabolite of losartan, was able to attenuate U46619-induced platelet activation. Captopril, an angiotensin I-converting inhibitor failed to modify U46619-induced platelet aggregation. Despite the platelets expressing AT-1 type receptors, of Ang II exogenous Ang II did not modify platelet aggregation induced by U46619. The binding of U46619 to platelets was competitively inhibited by losartan in dose-dependent manner. However, only a high dose of EXP 3174 reduced the binding of U46619. Captopril failed to modify the binding of U46619 to platelets. Losartan decreased platelet aggregation by a TXA2-dependent mechanism. EXP 3174 showed a lesser potency than losartan to reduce TXA2-platelet activation. Captopril and exogenous angiotensin II had no effect on human platelet activation. These results suggest that losartan reduced TXA2-dependent platelet activation independently of the blockade of AT-1 receptors.

  17. The Antithrombotic and Fibrinolytic Effect of Natto in Hypercholesterolemia Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Kum-Ju; Kang, Jung Il; Kim, Tae-Seok; Yeo, Ik-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Antithrombotic and fibrinolytic activity of natto was evaluated on platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo. Natto showed inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation induced by adenosine 5′diphosphate (ADP) and collagen. Orally administered natto also showed fibrinolytic activity in hypercholesterolemia rats. Normal levels of natto, when administered for four weeks, shortened euglobulin clot lysis time (ECLT) and prolonged partial thromboplastin time (PATT) significantly compared to non-treat...

  18. Dynamic modulation of platelet aggregation, albumin and nonesterified fatty acids during physical exercise in Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfuso, F; Giannetto, C; Giudice, E; Fazio, F; Piccione, G

    2016-02-01

    The effect of exercise on platelet aggregation, albumin and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) values and the correlation among these parameters were evaluated in ten clinically healthy and regularly trained Thoroughbred horses. All horses were subjected to two simulated races. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture before and after the first simulated race (T0PRE and T0POST), every 7 days at rest condition for a month (T1R-T2R-T3R), and before and after the second simulated race (T4PRE and T4POST) in order to assess platelet aggregation, albumin and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) levels. One-way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of exercise (P<0.01) on platelet aggregation, albumin and NEFAs values. A negative correlation between platelet aggregation and albumin or NEFAs values, and a positive correlation between albumin and NEFAs values, were found both at T0POST and T4POST (P<0.05). These findings are likely related to dynamic physiological adaptations to exercise that allow re-establishment of the homeostatic equilibrium of the organism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Platelets of patients with chronic kidney disease demonstrate deficient platelet reactivity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Bladel Esther R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with chronic kidney disease studies focusing on platelet function and properties often are non-conclusive whereas only few studies use functional platelet tests. In this study we evaluated a recently developed functional flow cytometry based assay for the analysis of platelet function in chronic kidney disease. Methods Platelet reactivity was measured using flow cytometric analysis. Platelets in whole blood were triggered with different concentrations of agonists (TRAP, ADP, CRP. Platelet activation was quantified with staining for P-selectin, measuring the mean fluorescence intensity. Area under the curve and the concentration of half-maximal response were determined. Results We studied 23 patients with chronic kidney disease (9 patients with cardiorenal failure and 14 patients with end stage renal disease and 19 healthy controls. Expression of P-selectin on the platelet surface measured as mean fluorescence intensity was significantly less in chronic kidney disease patients compared to controls after maximal stimulation with TRAP (9.7 (7.9-10.8 vs. 11.4 (9.2-12.2, P = 0.032, ADP (1.6 (1.2-2.1 vs. 2.6 (1.9-3.5, P = 0.002 and CRP (9.2 (8.5-10.8 vs. 11.5 (9.5-12.9, P = 0.004. Also the area under the curve was significantly different. There was no significant difference in half-maximal response between both groups. Conclusion In this study we found that patients with chronic kidney disease show reduced platelet reactivity in response of ADP, TRAP and CRP compared to controls. These results contribute to our understanding of the aberrant platelet function observed in patients with chronic kidney disease and emphasize the significance of using functional whole blood platelet activation assays.

  20. Non-redundant roles of phosphoinositide 3-kinase isoforms alpha and beta in glycoprotein VI-induced platelet signaling and thrombus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, Karen; Munnix, Imke C A; Mangin, Pierre; Cosemans, Judith M E M; Feijge, Marion A H; van der Meijden, Paola E J; Olieslagers, Servé; Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, Magdalena B; Lillian, Rivka; Schoenwaelder, Simone; Koyasu, Shigeo; Sage, Stewart O; Jackson, Shaun P; Heemskerk, Johan W M

    2009-12-04

    Platelets are activated by adhesion to vascular collagen via the immunoglobulin receptor, glycoprotein VI (GPVI). This causes potent signaling toward activation of phospholipase Cgamma2, which bears similarity to the signaling pathway evoked by T- and B-cell receptors. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) plays an important role in collagen-induced platelet activation, because this activity modulates the autocrine effects of secreted ADP. Here, we identified the PI3K isoforms directly downstream of GPVI in human and mouse platelets and determined their role in GPVI-dependent thrombus formation. The targeting of platelet PI3Kalpha or -beta strongly and selectively suppressed GPVI-induced Ca(2+) mobilization and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate production, thus demonstrating enhancement of phospholipase Cgamma2 by PI3Kalpha/beta. That PI3Kalpha and -beta have a non-redundant function in GPVI-induced platelet activation and thrombus formation was concluded from measurements of: (i) serine phosphorylation of Akt, (ii) dense granule secretion, (iii) intracellular Ca(2+) increases and surface expression of phosphatidylserine under flow, and (iv) thrombus formation, under conditions where PI3Kalpha/beta was blocked or p85alpha was deficient. In contrast, GPVI-induced platelet activation was insensitive to inhibition or deficiency of PI3Kdelta or -gamma. Furthermore, PI3Kalpha/beta, but not PI3Kgamma, contributed to GPVI-induced Rap1b activation and, surprisingly, also to Rap1b-independent platelet activation via GPVI. Together, these findings demonstrate that both PI3Kalpha and -beta isoforms are required for full GPVI-dependent platelet Ca(2+) signaling and thrombus formation, partly independently of Rap1b. This provides a new mechanistic explanation for the anti-thrombotic effect of PI3K inhibition and makes PI3Kalpha an interesting new target for anti-platelet therapy.

  1. Platelet indices as markers of platelet turnover and aggregation: pathophysiological interpretation, clinical impact, perspectives in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinova L.I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the review is to characterize existing in open access bibliographical databases such as eLibrary and PubMed evidence on clinical impact of morphometric platelet indices as markers of platelet aggregation ability and turnover as a methodology and theoretical framework of further investigation. Studies results were pooled from open access bibliographic databases (eLibrary, and PubMed according to modified PRISMA algorithm. Relevant studies were identified by systematic searches of the original studies published during the last 10 years in the Russian and English languages. Results of 96 original studies in accordance with inclusion criteria were published during the last 10 years in scientific journals indexed in eLibrary, and PubMed. The majority of publications (64.58% consist of evidence pro diagnostic and prognostic significance of platelet indices. Studies demonstrating the significance of platelet indices as possible risk markers of thrombotic events in cardiovascular patients were predominating among "pro" publications. In 15.63% published results contradict concept of platelet indices usefulness as diagnostic and prognostic markers in clinical practice. Morphometric platelet indices can be considered as useful diagnostic and prognostic markers of thrombotic events in cardiovascular patients. Existing gaps in evidence suggest the need of further investigations.

  2. Caffeic acid treatment alters the extracellular adenine nucleotide hydrolysis in platelets and lymphocytes of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Javed; Spanevello, Roselia Maria; Pimentel, Victor Camera; Gutierres, Jessié; Thomé, Gustavo; Cardoso, Andreia; Zanini, Daniela; Martins, Caroline; Palma, Heloisa Einloft; Bagatini, Margarete Dulce; Baldissarelli, Jucimara; Schmatz, Roberta; Leal, Cláudio Alberto Martins; da Costa, Pauline; Morsch, Vera Maria; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of caffeic acid on ectonucleotidase activities such as NTPDase (nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase), Ecto-NPP (nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase), 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) in platelets and lymphocytes of rats, as well as in the profile of platelet aggregation. Animals were divided into five groups: I (control); II (oil); III (caffeic acid 10 mg/kg); IV (caffeic acid 50 mg/kg); and V (caffeic acid 100 mg/kg). Animals were treated with caffeic acid diluted in oil for 30 days. In platelets, caffeic acid decreased the ATP hydrolysis and increased ADP hydrolysis in groups III, IV and V when compared to control (P<0.05). The 5'-nucleotidase activity was decreased, while E-NPP and ADA activities were increased in platelets of rats of groups III, IV and V (P<0.05). Caffeic acid reduced significantly the platelet aggregation in the animals of groups III, IV and V in relation to group I (P<0.05). In lymphocytes, the NTPDase and ADA activities were increased in all groups treated with caffeic acid when compared to control (P<0.05). These findings demonstrated that the enzymes were altered in tissues by caffeic acid and this compound decreased the platelet aggregation suggesting that caffeic acid should be considered a potentially therapeutic agent in disorders related to the purinergic system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of the stimulation of human platelets by stable analogues of PGH2/TXA2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morinelli, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    The specific effects of the TXA 2 /PGH 2 analogues, U46619 (9,11-dideoxy,9α-11α-methanoepoxy-PGF/sub 2α/), and 9,11 aza-PGH 2 , on human platelet shape change, myosin light chain phosphorylation, serotonin release, fibrinogen receptor exposure and platelet aggregation were measured and compared with binding of 3 H-U46619 to platelets. Shape change and myosin light chain phosphorylation were found to saturable and dose dependent. These two effects were competitively inhibited by specific antagonists of TXA 2 /PGH 2 receptors (BM13177 and I-PTA-OH) indicating that they are receptor mediated. Binding of 3 H-U46619 showed two components. Occupancy of high affinity binding sites correlated with platelet shape change and myosin and light chain phosphorylation. A second component with an apparent K/sub d/ of 1.46 +/- 0.47 μM, may represent a second, low-affinity site. Therefore, the platelet release reaction as not directly correlated with occupancy of high affinity receptors but could be related to the second binding component of U46619. Fibrinogen receptor exposure and platelet aggregation caused by U46619 appeared to be events mediated by the release of ADP from platelet dense granules

  4. Effects of intensive glucose control on platelet reactivity in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Results of the CHIPS Study ("Control de Hiperglucemia y Actividad Plaquetaria en Pacientes con Sindrome Coronario Agudo").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, David; García-Rubira, Juan C; Bernardo, Esther; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Martín, Patricia; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso; Núñez-Gil, Iván; Macaya, Carlos; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Hyperglycaemia has been associated with increased platelet reactivity and impaired prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Whether platelet reactivity can be reduced by lowering glucose in this setting is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the functional impact of intensive glucose control with insulin on platelet reactivity in patients admitted with ACS and hyperglycaemia. This is a prospective, randomised trial evaluating the effects of either intensive glucose control (target glucose 80-120 mg/dl) or conventional control (target glucose 180 mg/dl or less) with insulin on platelet reactivity in patients with ACS and hyperglycaemia. The primary endpoint was platelet aggregation following stimuli with 20 μM ADP at 24 h and at hospital discharge. Aggregation following collagen, epinephrine and thrombin receptor-activated peptide, as well as P2Y₁₂ reactivity index and surface expression of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and P-selectin were also measured. Of the 115 patients who underwent random assignment, 59 were assigned to intensive and 56 to conventional glucose control. Baseline platelet functions and inhospital management were similar in both groups. Maximal aggregation after ADP stimulation at hospital discharge was lower in the intensive group (47.9 ± 13.2% vs 59.1 ± 17.3%; p=0.002), whereas no differences were found at 24 h. Similarly all other parameters of platelet reactivity measured at hospital discharge were significantly reduced in the intensive glucose control group. In this randomised trial, early intensive glucose control with insulin in patients with ACS presenting with hyperglycaemia was found to decrease platelet reactivity. Clinical Trial Registration Number http://www.controlledtrials.com/ISRCTN35708451/ISRCTN35708451.

  5. Piperine Inhibits the Activities of Platelet Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 and Thromboxane A2 Synthase without Affecting Cyclooxygenase-1 Activity: Different Mechanisms of Action Are Involved in the Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation and Macrophage Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ju Son

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Piperine, a major alkaloid of black pepper (Piper nigrum and long pepper (Piper longum, was shown to have anti-inflammatory activity through the suppression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 gene expression and enzyme activity. It is also reported to exhibit anti-platelet activity, but the mechanism underlying this action remains unknown. In this study, we investigated a putative anti-platelet aggregation mechanism involving arachidonic acid (AA metabolism and how this compares with the mechanism by which it inhibits macrophage inflammatory responses; METHODS: Rabbit platelets and murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were treated with piperine, and the effect of piperine on the activity of AA-metabolizing enzymes, including cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2, COX-1, COX-2, and thromboxane A2 (TXA2 synthase, as well as its effect on AA liberation from the plasma membrane components, were assessed using isotopic labeling methods and enzyme immunoassay kit; RESULTS: Piperine significantly suppressed AA liberation by attenuating cPLA2 activity in collagen-stimulated platelets. It also significantly inhibited the activity of TXA2 synthase, but not of COX-1, in platelets. These results suggest that piperine inhibits platelet aggregation by attenuating cPLA2 and TXA2 synthase activities, rather than through the inhibition of COX-1 activity. On the other hand, piperine significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced generation of prostaglandin (PGE2 and PGD2 in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing the activity of COX-2, without effect on cPLA2; CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that piperine inhibits platelet aggregation and macrophage inflammatory response by different mechanisms.

  6. Xenon contrast CT-CBF measurements in patients with pre- and post-correction of platelet hyper-aggregability, and in the white matter lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Shigekiyo

    2004-01-01

    About 10 years ago, the author found that, patients with headache, vertigo, dizziness and dementia, had a high prevalence (about 70%) of platelet hyper-aggregability which was especially prevalent (up to 100%) in Binswanger's dementia. Correction of the platelet hyper-aggregability in those patients led to remarkable improvement of symptoms. Based on this effective result with treatment of platelet hyper-aggregability, the author hypothesized that patients may show improvement or recovery of cerebral blood flow from the decreased blood flow by the correction of the platelet hyper-aggregability. The present report consist of two parts: 1) comparison of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and after correction of platelet hyper-aggregability, 2) measurements of CBF in patients with severe white matter lesions, and the CBF within white matter lesions. The results of 1) showed CBF was decreased by about 20 to 30% before treatment and marked increase to normal CBF after correction of platelet hyper-aggregability, particularly in the thalamus and cortex. The increase was statistically significant except in bilateral frontal cortex and bilateral anterior white matter and left posterior white matter. From these results, it is confirmed that platelet hyper-aggregability is associated with decreased CBF, and after correction of platelet hyper-aggregability, CBF increases markedly. The results of 2) showed moderate to severe decreases of blood flow in all areas of the brain, and marked decreases of CBF in white matter lesions, 12.8±2.7 m1/100 g/min on average, which corresponded approximately to 60% of normal white matter CBF. (author)

  7. Platelet Dysfunction in Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: Does Imatinib Mesylate Improve It?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Meltem Akay

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of imatinib mesylate on platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP release in chronic myeloid leukemia patients. Materials and Methods: Platelet aggregation and ATP release induced by 5.0 mM adenosine diphosphate, 0.5 mM arachidonic acid, 1.0 mg/ mL ristocetin, and 2 µg/mL collagen were studied by whole blood platelet lumi-aggregometer in 20 newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia patients before and after imatinib mesylate treatment. Results: At the time of diagnosis, 17/20 patients had abnormal platelet aggregation results; 8 (40% had hypoactivity, 6 (30% had hyperactivity, and 3 (15% had mixed hypo- and hyperactivity. Repeat platelet aggregation studies were performed after a mean of 19 months (min: 5 months-max: 35 months in all patients who received imatinib mesylate during this period. After therapy, 18/20 (90% patients had abnormal laboratory results; 12 (60% had hypoactive platelets, 4 (20% had mixed hypo- and hyperactive platelets, and 2 (10% had hyperactive platelets. Three of the 8 patients with initial hypoactivity remained hypoactive, while 2 developed a mixed picture, 2 became hyperactive, and 1 normalized. Of the 6 patients with initial hyperactivity, 4 became hypoactive and 2 developed a mixed pattern. All of the 3 patients with initial hypo- and hyperactivity became hypoactive. Finally, 2 of the 3 patients with initial normal platelets became hypoactive while 1 remained normal. There was a significant decrease in ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation after therapy (p0.05. Conclusion: These findings indicate that a significant proportion of chronic myeloid leukemia patients have different patterns of platelet function abnormalities and imatinib mesylate has no effect on these abnormalities, with a significant impairment in ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation.

  8. Implementation of buffy-coat-derived pooled platelet concentrates for internal quality control of light transmission aggregometry: a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prüller, F; Rosskopf, K; Mangge, H; Mahla, E; von Lewinski, D; Weiss, E C; Riegler, A; Enko, D

    2017-12-01

    Essentials In platelet function testing, standardized internal controls (IQC) are not commercially provided. Platelet function testing was performed daily on aliquoted pooled platelet concentrates. Pooled platelet concentrates showed stability for control purposes from Monday to Friday. Pooled platelet concentrates provide the necessary steadiness to serve as IQC material. Background Standardized commercially available control material for internal quality control (IQC) of light transmission aggregometry (LTA) is still lacking. Moreover, the availability of normal blood donors to provide fresh platelets is difficult in small laboratories, where 'volunteers' may be in short supply. Objectives To evaluate the implementation of buffy-coat-derived pooled platelet concentrates (PCs) for IQC material for LTA. Methods We used buffy-coat-derived pooled PCs from the blood bank as IQC material for LTA. On each weekend one PC was prepared (> 200 mL) and aliquoted from the original storage bag on a daily basis in four baby bags (40-50 mL), which were delivered from Monday to Friday to our laboratory. The IQC measurements of at least 85 work-weeks (from Monday to Friday) were evaluated with this new IQC material. LTA was performed on a four-channel Chronolog 700 Aggregometer (Chronolog Corporation, Havertown, PA, USA) (agonists: collagen, adenosine diphosphate [ADP], arachidonic acid [AA] and thrombin receptor activator peptide-6 [TRAP-6]). Results The medians of platelet aggregation from IQC measurements with collagen, ADP and AA from Monday to Friday were 68.0-59.5, 3.0-2.0 and 51.0-50.0%, respectively, and the mean of platelet aggregation with TRAP-6 was 71.2-66.4%. Conclusions Buffy-coat-derived pooled PCs serve as a reliable and robust IQC material for LTA measurements and would be beneficial for the whole laboratory procedure and employees' safety. © 2017 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  9. Involvement of nuclear factor κB in platelet CD40 signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachem, Ahmed; Yacoub, Daniel; Zaid, Younes; Mourad, Walid; Merhi, Yahye

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► sCD40L induces TRAF2 association to CD40 and NF-κB activation in platelets. ► IκBα phosphorylation downstream of CD40L/CD40 signaling is independent of p38 MAPK phosphorylation. ► IκBα is required for sCD40L-induced platelet activation and potentiation of aggregation. -- Abstract: CD40 ligand (CD40L) is a thrombo-inflammatory molecule that predicts cardiovascular events. Platelets constitute the major source of soluble CD40L (sCD40L), which has been shown to potentiate platelet activation and aggregation, in a CD40-dependent manner, via p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Rac1 signaling. In many cells, the CD40L/CD40 dyad also induces activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Given that platelets contain NF-κB, we hypothesized that it may be involved in platelet CD40 signaling and function. In human platelets, sCD40L induces association of CD40 with its adaptor protein the tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 2 and triggers phosphorylation of IκBα, which are abolished by CD40L blockade. Inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation reverses sCD40L-induced IκBα phosphorylation without affecting p38 MAPK phosphorylation. On the other hand, inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation has no effect on IκBα phosphorylation, indicating a divergence in the signaling pathway originating from CD40 upon its ligation. In functional studies, inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation reverses sCD40L-induced platelet activation and potentiation of platelet aggregation in response to a sub-threshold concentration of collagen. This study demonstrates that the sCD40L/CD40 axis triggers NF-κB activation in platelets. This signaling pathway plays a critical role in platelet activation and aggregation upon sCD40L stimulation and may represent an important target against thrombo-inflammatory disorders.

  10. Decreased threshold of aggregation to low-dose epinephrine is evidence of platelet hyperaggregability in patients with thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Hayes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sticky platelet syndrome has been described as a hereditary thrombophilic condition. The aim of this study is to identify the presence of platelet hyperaggregability in patients who have experienced thrombosis. Light-transmittance platelet aggregometry was used to assess for spontaneous platelet aggregation, aggregation in response to full and low-dose (LD epinephrine (Epi and adenosine diphosphate, as well as arachidonic acid, and identify a distinct pattern of platelet hyperaggregability. Light-transmittance platelet aggregometry results were correlated with PFA-100® (Dade-Behring, Marburg, Germany results, when available. An exaggerated response to LD Epi was found in 68% of patients with thrombosis compared to only 36% of healthy controls (P=0.034. Patients with thrombosis, either arterial or venous, demonstrated an exaggerated response to LD Epi nearly twice as frequently as healthy controls, even without significant family history of thrombophilia or other known risk factors for thrombosis. This suggests that platelet hyperaggregability may be multifactorial in nature and not necessarily hereditary.

  11. Impaired platelet aggregation and rebalanced hemostasis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nick S.; Jespersen, Sofie; Gaardbo, Julie C.

    2017-01-01

    Increased risk of both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and bleeding has been found in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection, and a re-balanced hemostasis has been proposed. The aim of this study was to investigate functional whole blood coagulation and platelet function in CHC infection....... The prospective study included 82 patients with CHC infection (39 with advanced liver fibrosis and 43 with no or mild liver fibrosis) and 39 healthy controls. A total of 33 patients were treated for CHC infection and achieved sustained virological response (SVR). Baseline and post-treatment blood samples were...... collected. Hemostasis was assessed by both standard coagulation tests and functional whole blood hemostatic assays (thromboelastograhy (TEG), and platelet aggregation (Multiplate). Patients with CHC and advanced fibrosis had impaired platelet aggregation both compared to patients with no or mild fibrosis...

  12. PKCalpha regulates platelet granule secretion and thrombus formation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopatskaya, Olga; Gilio, Karen; Harper, Matthew T; Zhao, Yan; Cosemans, Judith M E M; Karim, Zubair A; Whiteheart, Sidney W; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Verkade, Paul; Watson, Steve P; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Poole, Alastair W

    2009-02-01

    Platelets are central players in atherothrombosis development in coronary artery disease. The PKC family provides important intracellular mechanisms for regulating platelet activity, and platelets express several members of this family, including the classical isoforms PKCalpha and PKCbeta and novel isoforms PKCdelta and PKCtheta. Here, we used a genetic approach to definitively demonstrate the role played by PKCalpha in regulating thrombus formation and platelet function. Thrombus formation in vivo was attenuated in Prkca-/- mice, and PKCalpha was required for thrombus formation in vitro, although this PKC isoform did not regulate platelet adhesion to collagen. The ablation of in vitro thrombus formation in Prkca-/- platelets was rescued by the addition of ADP, consistent with the key mechanistic finding that dense-granule biogenesis and secretion depend upon PKCalpha expression. Furthermore, defective platelet aggregation in response to either collagen-related peptide or thrombin could be overcome by an increase in agonist concentration. Evidence of overt bleeding, including gastrointestinal and tail bleeding, was not seen in Prkca-/- mice. In summary, the effects of PKCalpha ablation on thrombus formation and granule secretion may implicate PKCalpha as a drug target for antithrombotic therapy.

  13. Multiple signaling pathways mediated by dopamine and calcium ionophore A23187 in human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, S.A.; Waqar, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the mechanism(s) of platelet aggregation induced by the synergistic action of dopamine (DA) and a Ca/sup +2/-ionophore, A23187. DA showed non significant effect on platelet aggregation over a wide range of concentrations (up to 500 micro M), but did potentiate the aggregation response of A23187. Aggregation induced by A23187 was inhibited by calcium channel blockers (diltiazem and verpamil), receptor blockers (chlorpromazine and haloperidol) and a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin). However, the inhibitory effect of these blockers was more pronounced (with a selectivity ratio of 1.5-28) in the aggregation induced by synergistic effect of A23187 and DA. A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (P1 3-Kinase) inhibitor, wortmanin (1C/sub 50/. 25-30 nM), inhibited aggregation induced by either A23187 or DA and act synergistically. This synergistic effect on platelet aggregation is mediated through multiple signaling pathways. (author)

  14. Stanniocalcin 2 Regulates Non-capacitative Ca2+ Entry and Aggregation in Mouse Platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther López

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Stanniocalcin 2 (STC2 is a fish protein that controls body Ca2+ and phosphate metabolism. STC2 has also been described in mammals, and as platelet function highly depends on both extracellular and intracellular Ca2+, we have explored its expression and function in these cells. STC2−/− mice exhibit shorter tail bleeding time than WT mice. Platelets from STC2-deficient mice showed enhanced aggregation, as well as enhanced Ca2+ mobilization in response to the physiological agonist thrombin (Thr and the diacylglycerol analog, OAG, a selective activator of the non-capacitative Ca2+ entry channels. Interestingly, platelets from STC2−/− mice exhibit attenuated interaction between STIM1 and Orai1 in response to Thr, thus suggesting that STC2 is required for Thr-evoked STIM1-Orai1 interaction and the subsequent store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE. We have further assessed possible changes in the expression of the most relevant channels involved in non-capacitative Ca2+ entry in platelets. Then, protein expression of Orai3, TRPC3 and TRPC6 were evaluated by Western blotting, and the results revealed that while the expression of Orai3 was enhanced in the STC2-deficient mice, others like TRPC3 and TRPC6 remains almost unaltered. Summarizing, our results provide for the first time evidence for a role of STC2 in platelet physiology through the regulation of agonist-induced Ca2+ entry, which might be mediated by the regulation of Orai3 channel expression.

  15. TREM-like transcript-1 protects against inflammation-associated hemorrhage by facilitating platelet aggregation in mice and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, A. Valance; Gibot, Sébastien; Acevedo, Ismael; Gattis, James; Quigley, Laura; Feltz, Robert; De La Mota, Alina; Schubert, Rebecca L.; Gomez-Rodriguez, Julio; Cheng, Jun; Dutra, Amalia; Pak, Evgenia; Chertov, Oleg; Rivera, Linette; Morales, Jessica; Lubkowski, Jacek; Hunter, Robert; Schwartzberg, Pamela L.; McVicar, Daniel W.

    2009-01-01

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells–like (TREM-like) transcript-1 (TLT-1), a type 1 single Ig domain orphan receptor specific to platelet and megakaryocyte α-granules, relocates to the platelet surface upon platelet stimulation. We found here that patients diagnosed with sepsis, in contrast to healthy individuals, had substantial levels of soluble TLT-1 (sTLT-1) in their plasma that correlated with the presence of disseminated intravascular coagulation. sTLT-1 bound to fibrinogen and augmented platelet aggregation in vitro. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic domain of TLT-1 could also bind ezrin/radixin/moesin family proteins, suggesting its ability to link fibrinogen to the platelet cytoskeleton. Accordingly, platelets of Treml1–/– mice failed to aggregate efficiently, extending tail-bleeding times. Lipopolysaccharide-treated Treml1–/– mice developed higher plasma levels of TNF and D-dimers than wild-type mice and were more likely to succumb during challenge. Finally, Treml1–/– mice were predisposed to hemorrhage associated with localized inflammatory lesions. Taken together, our findings suggest that TLT-1 plays a protective role during inflammation by dampening the inflammatory response and facilitating platelet aggregation at sites of vascular injury. Therefore, therapeutic modulation of TLT-1–mediated effects may provide clinical benefit to patients with hypercoagulatory conditions, including those associated with inflammation. PMID:19436112

  16. Thromboelastography platelet mapping in healthy dogs using 1 analyzer versus 2 analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Shauna L; Banerjee, Amrita; Wood, R Darren; Park, Fiona M

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the results of thromboelastography platelet mapping (TEG-PM) carried out using 2 techniques in 20 healthy dogs. Maximum amplitudes (MA) generated by thrombin (MAthrombin), fibrin (MAfibrin), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor activity (MAADP), and thromboxane A2 (TxA2) receptor activity (stimulated by arachidonic acid, MAAA) were recorded. Thromboelastography platelet mapping was carried out according to the manufacturer's guidelines (2-analyzer technique) and using a variation of this method employing only 1 analyzer (1-analyzer technique) on 2 separate blood samples obtained from each dog. Mean [± standard deviation (SD)] MA values for the 1-analyzer/2-analyzer techniques were: MAthrombin = 51.9 mm (± 7.1)/52.5 mm (± 8.0); MAfibrin = 20.7 mm (± 21.8)/23.0 mm (± 26.1); MAADP = 44.5 mm (± 15.6)/45.6 mm (± 17.0); and MAAA = 45.7 mm (± 11.6)/45.0 mm (± 15.4). Mean (± SD) percentage aggregation due to ADP receptor activity was 70.4% (± 32.8)/67.6% (± 33.7). Mean percentage aggregation due to TxA2 receptor activity was 77.3% (± 31.6)/78.1% (± 50.2). Results of TEG-PM were not significantly different for the 1-analyzer and 2-analyzer methods. High correlation was found between the 2 methods for MAfibrin [concordance correlation coefficient (r) = 0.930]; moderate correlation was found for MAthrombin (r = 0.70) and MAADP (r = 0.57); correlation between the 2 methods for MAAA was lower (r = 0.32). Thromboelastography platelet mapping (TEG-PM) should be further investigated to determine if it is a suitable method for measuring platelet dysfunction in dogs with thrombopathy.

  17. The role of platelets during reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isermann, Berend; Nawroth, Peter P

    2006-01-01

    The availability of mice with defined defects within the hemostatic system enabled researchers to identify a role the coagulation system for embryonic and placental development. However, the role of platelets during development has only recently been experimentally addressed, giving some insight into potential functions of platelets during development. Thus, a quantitative embryonic platelet defect (severe thrombopenia secondary to NF-E2 deficiency) is associated with an embryonic growth retardation and reduced vascularisation of the placenta. Maternal platelet deficiency is associated with placental hemorrhage, which, however, does not impair embryonic or maternal survival. In vitro studies established that platelets or platelet conditioned medium regulate the invasive properties of human extravillous trophoblast cells and induce a phenotypical switch of trophoblast cells. These data imply that platelets are of relevance during placentation. Conversely, platelets and the formation of platelet-fibrin aggregates are dispensable for the development of the embryo proper, establishing that the lethal phenotypes observed in some embryo slacking coagulation regulators does not result from an inability to form platelet-fibrin aggregates, but likely reflects altered protease dependent signaling during vascular development.

  18. Synthesis of sFlt-1 by platelet-monocyte aggregates contributes to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Heather D.; Cambell, Robert A.; Silver, Robert M.; Branch, D. Ware; Weyrich, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase (sFlt-1) is an important mediator in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. We sought to determine if platelet-monocyte aggregates (PMAs) produced sFlt-1 and if PMAs contributed to sFlt-1 production in preeclampsia. Study Design Case-control study of sFlt-1 release from PMAs using blood samples from women with preeclampsia matched by gestational age to pregnant controls. A third group of nonpregnant, reproductive-age women comprised an additional control group. Experiments were also performed using blood from non-pregnant women to elucidate if inducing PMAs could stimulate sFlt-1 production, and if so, to determine the necessary receptors and pathways. Results Women with preeclampsia had increased total Flt-1 concentrations in platelets and monocytes at baseline compared to pregnant controls (25 vs. 10 pg/ml, p=0.0003). sFlt-1 production was elicited from monocytes incubated with thrombin-activated platelets from non-pregnant women. sFlt-1 production was regulated at the transcriptional level by p38 and NF-κB dependent pathways. Conclusion Activated platelets in preeclampsia bind monocytes to generate sFlt-1. PMAs are a previously unrecognized source of sFlt-1 that may contribute to endothelial dysfunction and systemic inflammation commonly observed in preeclampsia. PMID:24440566

  19. Modulation of P-selection and platelet aggregation in chronic periodontitis: A clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Ramesh; Rajendran, Maheashwari; Krishnamurthy, Malathi; Ganji, Kiran Kumar; Pendor, Sunil Dattuji

    2014-01-01

    Background: The primary etiologic factor of periodontitis is the subgingival infection with a group of Gram negative pathogens. Transient bacteremia in periodontitis patients underlie chronic production and systemic increases of various proinflammatory mediators, including Interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, C-reactive protein and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. P- selectin is a member of selectin family of cell surface receptor which is located in the membrane of the secretory granules (alpha granules) of platelets and in the membrane of the Weibel-Palade bodies of the vascular endothelial cells. P selectin redistributes from the membrane of the granules to the plasma membrane when platelets and endothelial cells are activated and thus degranulated. Aim: To compare the level of platelet activation, soluble P Selectin level and morphological changes and aggregation of platelets in patients in periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls. Materials and Methods: 80 patients were included in the study with the age group of 35-60. The patients were divided into 2 groups, 40 subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis and 40 healthy subjects taken as control. Periodontal Examination using clinical parameters namely, Bleeding Index, Plaque Index, Probing Pocket Depth and Clinical Attachment Level were recorded. Collection of blood samples for estimation of serum soluble P- selectin level by ELISA method. Evaluation of Platelet morphology and grading the platelet aggregation. Results: P-selectin expression shows that the mean value for control group is 4.97 ± 16.56 ng/mL and study group 13.05 ± 29.94 ng/mL which was significantly higher than control group with P value 0.001. Platelet morphological changes shows small form – mean value for control group is 75.83% ± 14.24% while for study group is 39.08%. ± 21.59; Big form – mean value for control group 0.80% ± 0.35% while for study group 0.48% ± 1.3%and Spider form- mean value for control group 23.88% ± 14

  20. Antiplatelet activity of Allium ursinum and Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyasat, Bahi; Sabha, Dina; Grotzinger, Kristina; Kempfert, Joerg; Rauwald, Johann-Wilhelm; Mohr, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Dhein, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has a well-established reputation as a protective agent against cardiovascular disease, while nearly nothing is known about its cousin Allium ursinum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiaggregatory mechanism of garlic and to compare the effects of A. ursinum and A. sativum. In a prospective study, extracts were prepared from A. sativum powder made from fresh A. sativum bulbs and fresh A. ursinum leaves by maceration. The extracts were characterized by thin layer chromatography. Their in vitro effects on human platelet aggregation were examined by light transmission aggregometry after induction by adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen, A23187, epinephrine and arachidonic acid (ARA) in platelets from healthy volunteers. A. ursinum and A. sativum exert similar antiaggregatory effects: they inhibit platelet aggregation induced via the ADP pathway and to a lesser extent aggregation induced by epinephrine, whereas ARA-, collagen- and A23187-induced aggregation was not affected. It became clear that the alcoholic extract of A. ursinum is the potent form, while the aqueous extract exerted an unspecific activity. The effects were strictly dose related. A. ursinum and A. sativum extracts exhibited similar potencies. Both A. ursinum and A. sativum exert antiaggregatory effects. Garlic extracts are acting by inhibition of the ADP pathway; their mechanisms of action are comparable to that of the clinically used drug clopidogrel. The pharmacologically active component of the extracts appears to be lipophilic rather than hydrophilic, but the precise chemical substance is still unknown. This is the first report on the antiplatelet activity of A. ursinum. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Stimulus-response coupling in platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of stimulus-response coupling in platelets, the potentiating effect of succinate and lithium on platelet activation was examined. The action of succinate was immediate; preincubation with succinate did not lead to desensitization. Succinate was comparable to ADP in lowering cAMP levels previously elevated by PGl 2 . Since inhibition of cAMP is not a prerequisite for platelet activation, the mechanism of potentiation of succinate remains undefined. Lithium has also been shown to inhibit adenylate cyclase in PGl 2 -pretreated platelets. Lithium, however, can also inhibit inositol phosphate (InsP) phosphatase and lead to an accumulation of InsP. In human platelets, lithium also enhanced the thrombin-induced accumulation of [ 3 H]inositol-labelled inositol trisphosphate (InsP 3 ), and inositol bisphosphate (InsP 2 ). One hour after thrombin addition, all 3 inositol phosphates returned to near basal levels. In the presence of lithium, while labelled InsP 2 and InsP 3 returned to their respective basal levels, the InsP level remained elevated, consistent with the known inhibitory effect of lithium on InsP phosphatase. In thrombin-stimulated platelets prelabeled with [ 32 P]phosphate, lithium led to a decrease in labelled phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) as well as an enhanced production of labelled lysophosphatidylinositol, suggesting multiple effects of lithium on platelet phosphoinositide metabolism. These observed effects, however, occurred too slowly to be the mechanism by which lithium potentiated agonist-induced platelet activation. To study the agonist-receptor interaction, the effect of the specific, high affinity thrombin inhibitor, hirudin, on thrombin-induced accumulation of [ 3 H]inositol-labelled inositol phosphates was studied

  2. Involvement of nuclear factor {kappa}B in platelet CD40 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachem, Ahmed [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Yacoub, Daniel [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Centre Hospitalier Universite de Montreal, 264 boul. Rene-Levesque est, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2X 1P1 (Canada); Zaid, Younes [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Mourad, Walid [Universite de Montreal, Department of Medicine, 2900 boul. Edouard-Montpetit, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1J4 (Canada); Centre Hospitalier Universite de Montreal, 264 boul. Rene-Levesque est, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2X 1P1 (Canada); Merhi, Yahye, E-mail: yahye.merhi@icm-mhi.org [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Universite de Montreal, Department of Medicine, 2900 boul. Edouard-Montpetit, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1J4 (Canada)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer sCD40L induces TRAF2 association to CD40 and NF-{kappa}B activation in platelets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation downstream of CD40L/CD40 signaling is independent of p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I{kappa}B{alpha} is required for sCD40L-induced platelet activation and potentiation of aggregation. -- Abstract: CD40 ligand (CD40L) is a thrombo-inflammatory molecule that predicts cardiovascular events. Platelets constitute the major source of soluble CD40L (sCD40L), which has been shown to potentiate platelet activation and aggregation, in a CD40-dependent manner, via p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Rac1 signaling. In many cells, the CD40L/CD40 dyad also induces activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). Given that platelets contain NF-{kappa}B, we hypothesized that it may be involved in platelet CD40 signaling and function. In human platelets, sCD40L induces association of CD40 with its adaptor protein the tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 2 and triggers phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, which are abolished by CD40L blockade. Inhibition of I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation reverses sCD40L-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation without affecting p38 MAPK phosphorylation. On the other hand, inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation has no effect on I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation, indicating a divergence in the signaling pathway originating from CD40 upon its ligation. In functional studies, inhibition of I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation reverses sCD40L-induced platelet activation and potentiation of platelet aggregation in response to a sub-threshold concentration of collagen. This study demonstrates that the sCD40L/CD40 axis triggers NF-{kappa}B activation in platelets. This signaling pathway plays a critical role in platelet activation and aggregation upon sCD40L stimulation and may represent an important target against thrombo

  3. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) suppresses the collagen-induced activation of human platelets via S1P4 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Takashi; Tanabe, Kumiko; Kito, Yuko; Tsujimoto, Masanori; Uematsu, Kodai; Enomoto, Yukiko; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Doi, Tomoaki; Nagase, Kiyoshi; Akamatsu, Shigeru; Tokuda, Haruhiko; Ogura, Shinji; Iwama, Toru; Kozawa, Osamu; Iida, Hiroki

    2017-08-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is as an extracellular factor that acts as a potent lipid mediator by binding to specific receptors, S1P receptors (S1PRs). However, the precise role of S1P in human platelets that express S1PRs has not yet been fully clarified. We previously reported that heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) is released from human platelets accompanied by its phosphorylation stimulated by collagen. In the present study, we investigated the effect of S1P on the collagen-induced platelet activation. S1P pretreatment markedly attenuated the collagen-induced aggregation. Co-stimulation with S1P and collagen suppressed collagen-induced platelet activation, but the effect was weaker than that of S1P-pretreatment. The collagen-stimulated secretion of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AB and the soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) release were significantly reduced by S1P. In addition, S1P suppressed the collagen-induced release of HSP27 as well as the phosphorylation of HSP27. S1P significantly suppressed the collagen-induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. S1P increased the levels of GTP-bound Gαi and GTP-bound Gα13 coupled to S1PPR1 and/or S1PR4. CYM50260, a selective S1PR4 agonist, but not SEW2871, a selective S1PR1 agonist, suppressed the collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation, PDGF-AB secretion and sCD40L release. In addition, CYM50260 reduced the release of phosphorylated-HSP27 by collagen as well as the phosphorylation of HSP27. The selective S1PR4 antagonist CYM50358, which failed to affect collagen-induced HSP27 phosphorylation, reversed the S1P-induced attenuation of HSP27 phosphorylation by collagen. These results strongly suggest that S1P inhibits the collagen-induced human platelet activation through S1PR4 but not S1PR1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors and platelet aggregation inhibitors among individuals with co-occurring atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and depression or anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Douglas Thornton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Medications commonly used to treat heart disease, anxiety, and depression can interact resulting in an increased risk of bleeding, warranting a cautious approach in medical decision making. This retrospective, descriptive study examined the prevalence and the factors associated with the use of both selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor and platelet aggregation inhibitor among individuals with co-occurring atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and anxiety or depression. Methods: Respondents aged 22 years and older, alive throughout the study period, and diagnosed with co-occurring atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and anxiety or depression (n = 1507 in years 2007 through 2013 of the Medical Expenditures Panel Survey were included. The use of treatment was grouped as follows: selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor and platelet aggregation inhibitor, selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor or platelet aggregation inhibitor, and neither selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor nor platelet aggregation inhibitor. Results: Overall, 16.5% used both selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor and platelet aggregation inhibitor, 61.2% used selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor or platelet aggregation inhibitor, and 22.3% used neither selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor nor platelet aggregation inhibitor. Respondents aged over 65 years (adjusted odds ratio = 1.93 (95% confidence interval = 1.08–3.45 and having a diagnosis of diabetes (adjusted odds ratio = 1.63 (95% confidence interval = 1.15–2.31 and hypertension (adjusted odds ratio = 1.84 (95% confidence interval = 1.04–3.27 were more likely to be prescribed the combination. Conclusion: The drug interaction was prevalent in patients who are already at higher risk of health disparities and worse outcomes thus requiring vigilant evaluation.

  5. Platelet transfusions reduce fibrinolysis but do not restore platelet function during trauma hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulliamy, Paul; Gillespie, Scarlett; Gall, Lewis S; Green, Laura; Brohi, Karim; Davenport, Ross A

    2017-09-01

    Platelets play a critical role in hemostasis with aberrant function implicated in trauma-induced coagulopathy. However, the impact of massive transfusion protocols on platelet function during trauma hemorrhage is unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of platelet transfusion on platelet aggregation and fibrinolytic markers during hemostatic resuscitation. Trauma patients enrolled into the prospective Activation of Coagulation and Inflammation in Trauma study between January 2008 and November 2015 who received at least four units of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) were included. Blood was drawn in the emergency department within 2 hours of injury and at intervals after every four units of PRBCs transfused. Platelet aggregation was assessed in whole blood with multiple electrode aggregometry. Plasma proteins were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 161 patients who received four or more PRBCs as part of their initial resuscitation, 44 received 8 to 11 units and 28 received 12 units or more. At each timepoint during bleeding, platelet aggregation was similar in patients who had received a platelet transfusion compared with those who had only received other blood products (p > 0.05 for all timepoints). Platelet transfusion during the four PRBC intervals was associated with a decrease in maximum lysis on rotational thromboelastometry (start of interval, 6% [2-12] vs. end of interval, 2% [0-5]; p = 0.001), an increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (start of interval, 35.9 ± 14.9 vs. end of interval, 66.7 ± 22.0; p = 0.007) and a decrease in tissue plasminogen activator (start of interval, 26.2 ± 10.5 vs. end of interval, 19.0 +/- 5.1; p = 0.04). No statistically significant changes in these parameters occurred in intervals which did not contain platelets. Current hemostatic resuscitation strategies do not appear to restore platelet aggregation during active hemorrhage. However, stored platelets may attenuate fibrinolysis

  6. Adenine and guanine nucleotide metabolism during platelet storage at 22 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edenbrandt, C.M.; Murphy, S.

    1990-01-01

    Adenine and guanine nucleotide metabolism of platelet concentrates (PCs) was studied during storage for transfusion at 22 +/- 2 degrees C over a 7-day period using high-pressure liquid chromatography. There was a steady decrease in platelet adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which was balanced quantitatively by an increase in plasma hypoxanthine. As expected, ammonia accumulated along with hypoxanthine but at a far greater rate. A fall in platelet guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and guanosine diphosphate (GDP) paralleled the fall in ATP + ADP. When adenine was present in the primary anticoagulant, it was carried over into the PC and metabolized. ATP, GTP, total adenine nucleotides, and total guanine nucleotides declined more slowly in the presence of adenine than in its absence. With adenine, the increase in hypoxanthine concentration was more rapid and quantitatively balanced the decrease in adenine and platelet ATP + ADP. Plasma xanthine rose during storage but at a rate that exceeded the decline in GTP + GDP. When platelet ATP + ADP was labeled with 14C-adenine at the initiation of storage, half of the radioactivity was transferred to hypoxanthine (45%) and GTP + GDP + xanthine (5%) by the time storage was completed. The isotopic data were consistent with the presence of a radioactive (metabolic) and a nonradioactive (storage) pool of ATP + ADP at the initiation of storage with each pool contributing approximately equally to the decline in ATP + ADP during storage. The results suggested a continuing synthesis of GTP + GDP from ATP + ADP, explaining the slower rate of fall of GTP + GDP relative to the rate of rise of plasma xanthine. Throughout storage, platelets were able to incorporate 14C-hypoxanthine into both adenine and guanine nucleotides but at a rate that was only one fourth the rate of hypoxanthine accumulation

  7. The sensitivity of tests to detect in vivo platelet activation induced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No influence on the results of the platelet function tests was found. Tile only test capable of detecting limited injury to the endothelium was the measurement of plasma PF4: The mean platelet life-span (MPLS) shortened, mean platelet density decreased, the circulating platelet aggregate ratio decreased, and plasma levels ...

  8. Reference range determination for whole-blood platelet aggregation using the Multiplate analyzer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peerschke, Ellinor I. B.; Castellone, Donna D.; Stroobants, A. K.; Francis, John

    2014-01-01

    To develop reference ranges for platelet aggregation using the Multiplate analyzer (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) in blood anticoagulated with sodium citrate (Na-citrate), lithium heparin (Li-heparin), or hirudin. The study was performed at three sites on consented, healthy adults (n = 193)

  9. Platelet function in whole-blood donors is impaired: the effects of painkillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curvers, Joyce; Dielis, Arne W J H; Heeremans, Judith; van Wersch, Jan W J

    2007-01-01

    Aspirin (ASA) or non-aspirin-like nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) influence platelet (PLT) function by inhibiting cyclooxygenase enzymes. In this study, the aim was to address the use of ASA or NSAIDs before donation and the effect on PLT function. Donors were asked questions about recent use of ASA or NSAIDs. Furthermore, PLT function was evaluated by measurement of the closure time (CT) in a PLT function analyzer (PFA-100, Dade Behring) and by aggregometry (response to ADP or arachidonic acid [AA]). Of 100 questioned donors, 22 percent had used ASA (n = 4), NSAIDs (n = 6), or paracetamol (n = 12) before donation. Upon assessment of the PLT function in the PFA-100, 27 donors showed values of greater than 180 seconds, indicative of impaired PLT function. Of these, only 7 had used pain killers before donation. Furthermore, 15 of 22 users had normal CTs. Aggregation after stimulation with AA was absent in 33 PLT-rich samples. Again only 8 had reported use of ASA (3), NSAIDs (1), or paracetamol (4). Of the 22 users, 14 had normal AA aggregation responses. All donor samples showed ADP-induced aggregation, indicating PLT integrity. There was no difference between the group of donors who reported the intake of ASA or NSAIDs and the group of donors who did not with respect to the tested PLT function assays. It is concluded that there is a considerable group of donors that use PLT-influencing medication before donation. A relation between the reported use and impaired PLT function in blood donors could not be established, however. Impaired PLT function as tested may have other causes than intake of ASA or NSAIDs.

  10. Inverse agonism at the P2Y12 receptor and ENT1 transporter blockade contribute to platelet inhibition by ticagrelor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aungraheeta, Riyaad; Conibear, Alexandra; Butler, Mark; Kelly, Eamonn; Nylander, Sven; Mumford, Andrew; Mundell, Stuart J

    2016-12-08

    Ticagrelor is a potent antagonist of the P2Y 12 receptor (P2Y 12 R) and consequently an inhibitor of platelet activity effective in the treatment of atherothrombosis. Here, we sought to further characterize its molecular mechanism of action. Initial studies showed that ticagrelor promoted a greater inhibition of adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-induced Ca 2+ release in washed platelets vs other P2Y 12 R antagonists. This additional effect of ticagrelor beyond P2Y 12 R antagonism was in part as a consequence of ticagrelor inhibiting the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) on platelets, leading to accumulation of extracellular adenosine and activation of G s -coupled adenosine A 2A receptors. This contributed to an increase in basal cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation (VASP-P). In addition, ticagrelor increased platelet cAMP and VASP-P in the absence of ADP in an adenosine receptor-independent manner. We hypothesized that this increase originated from a direct effect on basal agonist-independent P2Y 12 R signaling, and this was validated in 1321N1 cells stably transfected with human P2Y 12 R. In these cells, ticagrelor blocked the constitutive agonist-independent activity of the P2Y 12 R, limiting basal G i -coupled signaling and thereby increasing cAMP levels. These data suggest that ticagrelor has the pharmacological profile of an inverse agonist. Based on our results showing insurmountable inhibition of ADP-induced Ca 2+ release and forskolin-induced cAMP, the mode of antagonism of ticagrelor also appears noncompetitive, at least functionally. In summary, our studies describe 2 novel modes of action of ticagrelor, inhibition of platelet ENT1 and inverse agonism at the P2Y 12 R that contribute to its effective inhibition of platelet activation. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  11. Association of vinculin to the platelet cytoskeleton during thrombin-induced aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asyee, G. M.; Sturk, A.; Muszbek, L.

    1987-01-01

    Vinculin is a protein generally believed to be involved in membrane-cytoskeleton interaction, and its presence in platelets has been verified earlier. Here we show that in resting bovine platelets, vinculin is not associated with the Triton-insoluble cytoskeletal fraction but becomes incorporated

  12. Coherent Plasmon-Exciton Coupling in Silver Platelet-J-aggregate Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-27

    visible spectra of colloidal suspensions containing silver nanoplatelets and a cyanine dye, 1,1?-diethyl-2,2?-cyanine iodide (PIC). PIC was...highest reported for colloidal nanoparticles. The optical properties of the silver platelet-J-aggregate nanocomposites were supported numerically and...visible spectra of colloidal suspensions containing silver nanoplatelets and a cyanine dye, 1,1′-diethyl-2,2′-cyanine iodide (PIC). PIC was electrostati

  13. Estudo farmacognóstico e atividade in vitro sobre a coagulação sanguínea e agregação plaquetária das folhas de Passiflora nitida Kunth (Passifloraceae Pharmacognostic study and in vitro activity on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation of leaves of Passiflora nitida Kunth (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José de Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    fruits of this species by the local population for gastrointestinal disorders. Considering the pharmacological potential of the genus, this work aimed to carry out study of phytochemical characterization of this species and study the effects of the aqueous (AE, ethanol (EE and hexane (HE extracts from its leaves on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation. Thin-layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance were carried out for the phytochemical characterization. The effect of the extracts on the coagulation was evaluated by prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT tests. The effect on the platelet aggregation was evaluated in platelet-rich plasma by spectrophotometric method, using adenosine diphosphate (ADP and adrenaline (ADR as inducers of aggregation. The AE, EE and HE extracts showed coagulant activity by the PT test, and the EE showed anticoagulant activity by the aPTT. When induced by ADP, the AE, EE and HE extracts showed 50% inhibitory concentration values (IC50, µg/mL of 450.5 ± 50.7, 511.2 ± 35.5 and 394.4 ± 8.9, respectively, and when induced by ADR showed values of 438.7 ± 5.2, 21.0 ± 1.9 and 546.9 ± 49.9, respectively. The EE showed inhibitory effect on the aggregation. The phytochemical characterization was suggestive of the presence of flavonoids and coumarins, which can be attributed in part to the biological effects studied.

  14. Effects of hormones on platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Antonio López; Modrego, Javier; Zamorano-León, José J

    2014-04-01

    Platelets and their activation/inhibition mechanisms play a central role in haemostasis. It is well known agonists and antagonists of platelet activation; however, during the last years novel evidences of hormone effects on platelet activation have been reported. Platelet functionality may be modulated by the interaction between different hormones and their platelet receptors, contributing to sex differences in platelet function and even in platelet-mediated vascular damage. It has suggested aspects that apparently are well established should be reviewed. Hormones effects on platelet activity are included among them. This article tries to review knowledge about the involvement of hormones in platelet biology and activity.

  15. Hydroxysafflor yellow A of Carthamus tinctorius attenuates lung injury of aged rats exposed to gasoline engine exhaust by down-regulating platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaoyun; Wang, Chunhua; Ma, Chunlei; Huang, Qingxian; Sun, Hongliu; Zhang, Xiaomin; Bai, Xianyong

    2014-02-15

    Long-term inhalation of gasoline engine exhaust (GEE) increases the risk of respiratory disease. Studies have suggested involvement of platelets in the development of some lung diseases. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), a flavonoid compound, prevents hemostasis. Therefore, we investigated its effects on GEE-induced lung injury, and role of platelets in injury. Sixty-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to GEE for 4h/day for 6 weeks, and then grouped as follows: control, GEE, GEE+HSYA, GEE+HSYA+GW9662, and GEE+GW9662. Arterial oxygen tension (PaO2), carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2), pH, and the PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2) in the blood were detected using a blood gas analyzer. Wet/dry lung weight ratio, total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and cytokine concentrations in serum and BALF were determined. Furthermore, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level and expression levels of target proteins were analyzed. Platelets were counted and their state was evaluated. HSYA attenuated GEE-mediated decreases in PaO2, PaO2/FiO2, platelet cAMP level, protein kinase A (PKA) activity, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression. HSYA also attenuated GEE-mediated increases in lung permeability, cytokine levels in serum and BALF, plasma platelet count, and ADP-mediated platelet aggregation. Moreover, it suppressed GEE-induced increases in the expression of adhesion molecules and proinflammatory cytokines in platelets and lung tissue. Therefore, HSYA is therapeutically effective for GEE-mediated lung injury and acts by enhancing PKA activity and inhibiting platelet activation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of platelet and endothelial GARP in thrombosis and hemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, Elien; Denorme, Frederik; Maes, Wim; De Meyer, Simon F; Vanhoorelbeke, Karen; Edwards, Justin; Shevach, Ethan M; Unutmaz, Derya; Fujii, Hodaka; Deckmyn, Hans; Tersteeg, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Glycoprotein-A Repetitions Predominant protein (GARP or LRRC32) is present on among others human platelets and endothelial cells. Evidence for its involvement in thrombus formation was suggested by full knockout of GARP in zebrafish. To evaluate the role of GARP in platelet physiology and in thrombus formation using platelet and endothelial conditional GARP knock out mice. Platelet and endothelial specific GARP knockout mice were generated using the Cre-loxP recombination system. The function of platelets without GARP was measured by flow cytometry, spreading analysis and aggregometry using PAR4-activating peptide and collagen related peptide. Additionally, clot retraction and collagen-induced platelet adhesion and aggregation under flow were analyzed. Finally, in vivo tail bleeding time, occlusion time of the mesenteric and carotid artery after FeCl3-induced thrombosis were determined in platelet and endothelial specific GARP knock out mice. Platelet specific GARP knockout mice had normal surface GPIb, GPVI and integrin αIIb glycoprotein expression. Although GARP expression was increased upon platelet activation, platelets without GARP displayed normal agonist induced activation, spreading on fibrinogen and aggregation responses. Furthermore, absence of GARP on platelets did not influence clot retraction and had no impact on thrombus formation on collagen-coated surfaces under flow. In line with this, neither the tail bleeding time nor the occlusion time in the carotid- and mesenteric artery after FeCl3-induced thrombus formation in platelet or endothelial specific GARP knock out mice were affected. Evidence is provided that platelet and endothelial GARP are not important in hemostasis and thrombosis in mice.

  17. The role of platelet and endothelial GARP in thrombosis and hemostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elien Vermeersch

    Full Text Available Glycoprotein-A Repetitions Predominant protein (GARP or LRRC32 is present on among others human platelets and endothelial cells. Evidence for its involvement in thrombus formation was suggested by full knockout of GARP in zebrafish.To evaluate the role of GARP in platelet physiology and in thrombus formation using platelet and endothelial conditional GARP knock out mice.Platelet and endothelial specific GARP knockout mice were generated using the Cre-loxP recombination system. The function of platelets without GARP was measured by flow cytometry, spreading analysis and aggregometry using PAR4-activating peptide and collagen related peptide. Additionally, clot retraction and collagen-induced platelet adhesion and aggregation under flow were analyzed. Finally, in vivo tail bleeding time, occlusion time of the mesenteric and carotid artery after FeCl3-induced thrombosis were determined in platelet and endothelial specific GARP knock out mice.Platelet specific GARP knockout mice had normal surface GPIb, GPVI and integrin αIIb glycoprotein expression. Although GARP expression was increased upon platelet activation, platelets without GARP displayed normal agonist induced activation, spreading on fibrinogen and aggregation responses. Furthermore, absence of GARP on platelets did not influence clot retraction and had no impact on thrombus formation on collagen-coated surfaces under flow. In line with this, neither the tail bleeding time nor the occlusion time in the carotid- and mesenteric artery after FeCl3-induced thrombus formation in platelet or endothelial specific GARP knock out mice were affected.Evidence is provided that platelet and endothelial GARP are not important in hemostasis and thrombosis in mice.

  18. Increased platelet reactivity is associated with circulating platelet-monocyte complexes and macrophages in human atherosclerotic plaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Rutten

    Full Text Available Platelet reactivity, platelet binding to monocytes and monocyte infiltration play a detrimental role in atherosclerotic plaque progression. We investigated whether platelet reactivity was associated with levels of circulating platelet-monocyte complexes (PMCs and macrophages in human atherosclerotic carotid plaques.Platelet reactivity was determined by measuring platelet P-selectin expression after platelet stimulation with increasing concentrations of adenosine diphosphate (ADP, in two independent cohorts: the Circulating Cells cohort (n = 244 and the Athero-Express cohort (n = 91. Levels of PMCs were assessed by flow cytometry in blood samples of patients who were scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention (Circulating Cells cohort. Monocyte infiltration was semi-quantitatively determined by histological examination of atherosclerotic carotid plaques collected during carotid endarterectomy (Athero-Express cohort.We found increased platelet reactivity in patients with high PMCs as compared to patients with low PMCs (median (interquartile range: 4153 (1585-11267 area under the curve (AUC vs. 9633 (3580-21565 AUC, P<0.001. Also, we observed increased platelet reactivity in patients with high macrophage levels in atherosclerotic plaques as compared to patients with low macrophage levels in atherosclerotic plaques (mean ± SD; 8969 ± 3485 AUC vs. 7020 ± 3442 AUC, P = 0.02. All associations remained significant after adjustment for age, sex and use of drugs against platelet activation.Platelet reactivity towards ADP is associated with levels of PMCs and macrophages in human atherosclerotic carotid plaques.

  19. Platelet transfusions can induce transplantation tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claas, F.H.J.; Blankert, J.J.; Ruigrok, R.; Moerel, L.

    1982-01-01

    Recently it was shown that the induction of antibodies against the H-2 antigens after multiple platelet transfusions is due to leukocyte contamination of the platelet suspensions. Pure platelets are not able to induce a primary antibody response. The present study shows that the platelets, however, can be recognized by the immune system but they induce a suppression of the response. Mice pretreated with donor platelets will not give a primary antibody response upon a subsequent injection of donor leukocytes and the survival of donor skin grafts will be prolonged. Similar results were obtained by pretreatment of the responder mice with heat-treated donor leukocytes. Furthermore, repeated injections of heat-treated leukocytes of the recipient strain to the donor before bone marrow grafting, will graft-versus-host mortality. The recipient mice were irradiated and received spleen cell injections. These data show that cells which have only class I antigens on their surface and no activating class II antigens, induce a suppression of the response against class I antigens. (Auth.)

  20. Calcium-binding proteins from human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogstad, G.O.; Krutnes, M.B.; Solum, N.O.

    1983-01-01

    Calcium-binding platelet proteins were examined by crossed immunoelectrophoresis of solubilized platelets against antibodies to whole platelets followed by incubation of the immunoplates with 45 Ca 2 + and autoradiography. When the immunoplates had been pretreated with EDTA at pH 9.0 in order to remove divalent cations, three immunoprecipitates were markedly labelled with 45 Ca 2 + . These corresponded to the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex, glycoprotein Ia and a presently unidentified antigen termed G18. These antigens were membrane-bound and surface-oriented. When an excess of EDTA was introduced in the incubation media the results revealed that the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex and antigen G18, but not glycoprotein Ia, contained sites with a stronger affinity for calcium than has EDTA at pH 7.4 Immunoprecipitates of the separate glycoproteins IIb and IIIa both bound calcium in the same manner as the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex. As another approach, platelet-rich plasma was incubated with 45 Ca 2 + prior to crossed immunoelectrophoresis of the solubilized platelets. A single immunoprecipitate was wekly labelled. This did not correspond to any of the immunoprecipitates which were visible after staining with Coomassie blue. The labelling of this antigen was markedly increased when the platelt-rich plasma had been preincubated with EDTA and in this case a weak labelling of the glycoprotein IIB-IIIa precipitate also became apparent. No increased incorporation of calcium occured in any of these immunoprecipitates when the platelets were aggregated with ADP in the presence of 45 Ca 2 + . (orig.)

  1. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by tartrazine and a pyrazolone analogue in normal and allergic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, J S; Splansky, G L; Bernstein, I L

    1980-11-01

    The effect of tartrazine (T) (yellow dye No. 5) and one of its metabolites an aminopyrazolone analogue (1-sulphophenyl-3-carboxy-5-hydroxypyrazole, SCHP) upon collagen-induced platelet aggregation (C-PA) was investigated in fourteen atopic patients and fourteen normal subjects. Both T and SCHP inhibited C-PA in atopic patients at significantly lower doses than in normal volunteers. The mean inhibitory concentrations of SCHP were similar to aspirin in both atopic and normal individuals. Although the precise mechanism by which these chemicals block C-PA has not been elucidated, this in vitro system may be a useful method of assessing non-immune mechanisms involved in reactions to tartrazine.

  2. Anti-Platelet Aggregation and Vasorelaxing Effects of the Constituents of the Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Shung Wu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the chemical investigation of the bioactive fractions of the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale has resulted in the identification of twenty-nine compounds including one new compound, O-methyldehydrogingerol (1. Some of the isolates were subjected into the evaluation of their antiplatelet aggregation and vasorelaxing bioactivities. Among the tested compounds, [6]-gingerol (13 and [6]-shogaol (17 exhibited potent anti-platelet aggregation bioactivity. In addition, [10]-gingerol (15 inhibited the Ca2+-dependent contractions in high K+ medium. According to the results in the present research, the bioactivity of ginger could be related to the anti-platelet aggregation and vasorelaxing mechanism.

  3. Aspirin decreases platelet uptake on Dacron vascular grafts in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, W.C.; Connolly, R.J.; Callow, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of a single dose of aspirin (5.4-7.4 mg/kg) on platelet uptake on 4-mm Dacron interposition grafts was studied in a baboon model using gamma camera scanning for 111-Indium labeled platelets. In vitro assessment of platelet function after aspirin administration revealed that in the baboon, as in the human, aspirin abolished arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation, prolonged the lag time between exposure to collagen and aggregation, and decreased plasma thromboxane B2 levels. Aspirin also prolonged the template bleeding time. Scans for 111-Indium labeled platelets revealed that pretreatment with a single dose of aspirin decreased platelet uptake on 4-mm Dacron carotid interposition grafts. This decrease in platelet uptake was associated with a significant improvement in 2-hour graft patency and with a trend toward improved 2-week patency

  4. Impaired Platelet Aggregation and Rebalanced Hemostasis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick S. Nielsen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased risk of both cardiovascular disease (CVD and bleeding has been found in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC infection, and a re-balanced hemostasis has been proposed. The aim of this study was to investigate functional whole blood coagulation and platelet function in CHC infection. The prospective study included 82 patients with CHC infection (39 with advanced liver fibrosis and 43 with no or mild liver fibrosis and 39 healthy controls. A total of 33 patients were treated for CHC infection and achieved sustained virological response (SVR. Baseline and post-treatment blood samples were collected. Hemostasis was assessed by both standard coagulation tests and functional whole blood hemostatic assays (thromboelastograhy (TEG, and platelet aggregation (Multiplate. Patients with CHC and advanced fibrosis had impaired platelet aggregation both compared to patients with no or mild fibrosis and to healthy controls. Patients with CHC and advanced fibrosis also had lower antithrombin, platelet count, and coagulation factors II-VII-X compared to healthy controls. In contrast, TEG did not differ between groups. In treated patients achieving SVR, post-treatment platelet count was higher than pre-treatment counts (p = 0.033 and ADPtest, ASPItest, and RISTOhightest all increased post treatment (all p < 0.05. All Multiplate tests values, however, remained below those in the healthy controls. CHC-infected patients displayed evidence of rebalanced hemostasis with only partly hemostatic normalization in patients achieving SVR. The implications of rebalanced hemostasis and especially the impact on risk of CVD and bleeding warrants further studies.

  5. A novel thromboxane receptor antagonist, nstpbp5185, inhibits platelet aggregation and thrombus formation in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiu-Wen; Kuo, Heng-Lan; Hsu, Ming-Tsung; Tseng, Yufeng Jane; Lin, Shu-Wha; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Peng, Hui-Chin; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Huang, Tur-Fu

    2016-08-01

    A novel benzimidazole derivative, nstpbp5185, was discovered through in vitro and in vivo evaluations for antiplatelet activity. Thromaboxane receptor (TP) is important in vascular physiology, haemostasis and pathophysiological thrombosis. Nstpbp5185 concentration-dependently inhibited human platelet aggregation caused by collagen, arachidonic acid and U46619. Nstpbp5185 caused a right-shift of the concentration-response curve of U46619 and competitively inhibited the binding of 3H-SQ-29548 to TP receptor expressed on HEK-293 cells, with an IC50 of 0.1 µM, indicating that nstpbp5185 is a TP antagonist. In murine thrombosis models, nstpbp5185 significantly prolonged the latent period in triggering platelet plug formation in mesenteric and FeCl3-induced thrombi formation, and increased the survival rate in pulmonary embolism model with less bleeding than aspirin. This study suggests nstpbp5185, an orally selective anti-thrombotic agent, acting through blockade of TXA2 receptor, may be efficacious for prevention or treatment of pathologic thrombosis.

  6. Glycoprotein Ib activation by thrombin stimulates the energy metabolism in human platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona de la Peña, Norma; Gutiérrez-Aguilar, Manuel; Hernández-Reséndiz, Ileana; Marín-Hernández, Álvaro

    2017-01-01

    Thrombin-induced platelet activation requires substantial amounts of ATP. However, the specific contribution of each ATP-generating pathway i.e., oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) versus glycolysis and the biochemical mechanisms involved in the thrombin-induced activation of energy metabolism remain unclear. Here we report an integral analysis on the role of both energy pathways in human platelets activated by several agonists, and the signal transducing mechanisms associated with such activation. We found that thrombin, Trap-6, arachidonic acid, collagen, A23187, epinephrine and ADP significantly increased glycolytic flux (3–38 times vs. non-activated platelets) whereas ristocetin was ineffective. OxPhos (33 times) and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (88%) were increased only by thrombin. OxPhos was the main source of ATP in thrombin-activated platelets, whereas in platelets activated by any of the other agonists, glycolysis was the principal ATP supplier. In order to establish the biochemical mechanisms involved in the thrombin-induced OxPhos activation in platelets, several signaling pathways associated with mitochondrial activation were analyzed. Wortmannin and LY294002 (PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitors), ristocetin and heparin (GPIb inhibitors) as well as resveratrol, ATP (calcium-release inhibitors) and PP1 (Tyr-phosphorylation inhibitor) prevented the thrombin-induced platelet activation. These results suggest that thrombin activates OxPhos and glycolysis through GPIb-dependent signaling involving PI3K and Akt activation, calcium mobilization and protein phosphorylation. PMID:28817667

  7. ACE and platelet aggregation inhibitors from Tamarix hohenackeri Bunge (host plant of Herba Cistanches) growing in Xinjiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yachao; Liao, Jing; Tang, Yingzhan; Zhang, Peng; Tan, Chengyu; Ni, Hui; Wu, Xueqin; Li, Ning; Jia, Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tamarix hohenackeri Bunge is a salt cedar that grows widespread in the desert mountains in Xinjiang. T. hohenackeri has not been investigated earlier, although there are many reports of phytochemical work on other Tamarix species. Materials and Methods: To find out natural angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and platelet aggregation inhibitors, the bioactive extract (ethyl acetate [EtOAc] fraction) from the dried aerial parts of T. hohenackeri were investigated. The active fraction was purified by repeated column chromatography, including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 column, medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) (polyamide column) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The isolated major constituents were tested for their anti-platelet aggregation activity. Results: Bioassay-directed separation of the EtOAc fraction of the 70% ethanol extract from the air-dried aerial parts of T. hohenackeri led to the isolation of a new triterpenoid lactone (1), together with 13 known compounds (2-14). It was the first time to focus on screening bioactive constituents for this plant. The chemical structures were established on the basis of spectral data (ESI-MS and NMR). The results showed that the flavonoid compounds (7 and 8) and phenolic compounds (9, 10, 11, and 14) were potential ACE inhibitors. And the flavonoid compounds (5 and 7) showed significant anti-platelet aggregation activities. Conclusion: On the basis of the chemical and biological data, the material basis of ACE inhibitory activity for the active part was the phenolic constituents. However, the flavonoid compounds were responsible for the anti-platelet aggregation. The primary structure and activity relationship were also discussed respectively. PMID:24914275

  8. Adenosine, lidocaine and Mg2+ (ALM fluid therapy attenuates systemic inflammation, platelet dysfunction and coagulopathy after non-compressible truncal hemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Letson

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammation and coagulopathy are major drivers of injury progression following hemorrhagic trauma. Our aim was to examine the effect of small-volume 3% NaCl adenosine, lidocaine and Mg2+ (ALM bolus and 0.9% NaCl/ALM 'drip' on inflammation and coagulation in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock.Sprague-Dawley rats (429±4 g were randomly assigned to: 1 shams, 2 no-treatment, 3 saline-controls, 4 ALM-therapy, and 5 Hextend®. Hemorrhage was induced in anesthetized-ventilated animals by liver resection (60% left lateral lobe and 50% medial lobe. After 15 min, a bolus of 3% NaCl ± ALM (0.7 ml/kg was administered intravenously (Phase 1 followed 60 min later by 4 hour infusion of 0.9% NaCl ± ALM (0.5 ml/kg/hour with 1-hour monitoring (Phase 2. Plasma cytokines were measured on Magpix® and coagulation using Stago/Rotational Thromboelastometry.After Phase 1, saline-controls, no-treatment and Hextend® groups showed significant falls in white and red cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit (up to 30%, whereas ALM animals had similar values to shams (9-15% losses. After Phase 2, these deficits in non-ALM groups were accompanied by profound systemic inflammation. In contrast, after Phase 1 ALM-treated animals had undetectable plasma levels of IL-1α and IL-1β, and IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α were below baseline, and after Phase 2 they were less or similar to shams. Non-ALM groups (except shams also lost their ability to aggregate platelets, had lower plasma fibrinogen levels, and were hypocoagulable. ALM-treated animals had 50-fold higher ADP-induced platelet aggregation, and 9.3-times higher collagen-induced aggregation compared to saline-controls, and had little or no coagulopathy with significantly higher fibrinogen shifting towards baseline. Hextend® had poor outcomes.Small-volume ALM bolus/drip mounted a frontline defense against non-compressible traumatic hemorrhage by defending immune cell numbers, suppressing systemic inflammation, improving platelet

  9. Niacin and biosynthesis of PGD₂ by platelet COX-1 in mice and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Wen-Liang; Stubbe, Jane; Ricciotti, Emanuela

    2012-01-01

    during platelet activation in humans and, although vascular expression of DP1 is conserved between humans and mice, platelet DP1 is not present in mice. Despite this, DP1 deletion in mice augmented aneurysm formation and the hypertensive response to Ang II and accelerated atherogenesis and thrombogenesis....... Furthermore, COX inhibitors in humans, as well as platelet depletion, COX-1 knockdown, and COX-2 deletion in mice, revealed that niacin evoked platelet COX-1-derived PGD₂ biosynthesis. Finally, ADP-induced spreading on fibrinogen was augmented by niacin in washed human platelets, coincident with increased...... thromboxane (Tx) formation. However, in platelet-rich plasma, where formation of both Tx and PGD₂ was increased, spreading was not as pronounced and was inhibited by DP1 activation. Thus, PGD₂, like PGI₂, may function as a homeostatic response to thrombogenic and hypertensive stimuli and may have particular...

  10. Nucleolin down-regulation is involved in ADP-induced cell cycle arrest in S phase and cell apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenmeng Wang

    Full Text Available High concentration of extracellular ADP has been reported to induce cell apoptosis, but the molecular mechanisms remain not fully elucidated. In this study, we found by serendipity that ADP treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC and human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC down-regulated the protein level of nucleolin in a dose- and time-dependent manner. ADP treatment did not decrease the transcript level of nucloelin, suggesting that ADP might induce nucleolin protein degradation. HUVEC and HAEC expressed ADP receptor P2Y13 receptor, but did not express P2Y1 or P2Y12 receptors. However, P2Y1, 12, 13 receptor antagonists MRS2179, PSB0739, MRS2211 did not inhibit ADP-induced down-regulation of nucleolin. Moreover, MRS2211 itself down-regulated nucleolin protein level. In addition, 2-MeSADP, an agonist for P2Y1, 12 and 13 receptors, did not down-regulate nucleolin protein. These results suggested that ADP-induced nucleolin down-regulation was not due to the activation of P2Y1, 12, or 13 receptors. We also found that ADP treatment induced cell cycle arrest in S phase, cell apoptosis and cell proliferation inhibition via nucleolin down-regulation. The over-expression of nucleolin by gene transfer partly reversed ADP-induced cell cycle arrest, cell apoptosis and cell proliferation inhibition. Furthermore, ADP sensitized HUVEC to cisplatin-induced cell death by the down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression. Taken together, we found, for the first time to our knowledge, a novel mechanism by which ADP regulates cell proliferation by induction of cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis via targeting nucelolin.

  11. Targeting factor VIII expression to platelets for hemophilia A gene therapy does not induce an apparent thrombotic risk in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, C K; Mattson, J G; Weiler, H; Shi, Q; Montgomery, R R

    2017-01-01

    Essentials Platelet-Factor (F) VIII gene therapy is a promising treatment in hemophilia A. This study aims to evaluate if platelet-FVIII expression would increase the risk for thrombosis. Targeting FVIII expression to platelets does not induce or elevate thrombosis risk. Platelets expressing FVIII are neither hyper-activated nor hyper-responsive. Background Targeting factor (F) VIII expression to platelets is a promising gene therapy approach for hemophilia A, and is successful even in the presence of inhibitors. It is well known that platelets play important roles not only in hemostasis, but also in thrombosis and inflammation. Objective To evaluate whether platelet-FVIII expression might increase thrombotic risk and thereby compromise the safety of this approach. Methods In this study, platelet-FVIII-expressing transgenic mice were examined either in steady-state conditions or under prothrombotic conditions induced by inflammation or the FV Leiden mutation. Native whole blood thrombin generation assay, rotational thromboelastometry analysis and ferric chloride-induced vessel injury were used to evaluate the hemostatic properties. Various parameters associated with thrombosis risk, including D-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, fibrinogen, tissue fibrin deposition, platelet activation status and activatability, and platelet-leukocyte aggregates, were assessed. Results We generated a new line of transgenic mice that expressed 30-fold higher levels of platelet-expressed FVIII than are therapeutically required to restore hemostasis in hemophilic mice. Under both steady-state conditions and prothrombotic conditions induced by lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation or the FV Leiden mutation, supratherapeutic levels of platelet-expressed FVIII did not appear to be thrombogenic. Furthermore, FVIII-expressing platelets were neither hyperactivated nor hyperactivatable upon agonist activation. Conclusion We conclude that, in mice, more than 30-fold higher levels of

  12. Purification and characterization of Cc-Lec, C-type lactose-binding lectin: A platelet aggregation and blood-clotting inhibitor from Cerastes cerastes venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samah, Saoud; Fatah, Chérifi; Jean-Marc, Berjeaud; Safia, Kellou-Taîri; Fatima, Laraba-Djebari

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we reported for the first time the biochemical and structural characterization of Cc-Lec, a C-type lectin purified from Cerastes cerastes venom by affinity chromatography. This lectin was homogeneous by SDS-PAGE, and was shown to be a 34 271.59Da polypeptide by Electrospray mass spectrometry MS-ES-TOF. Its identified sequence of 160 amino acids corresponding to one subunit, revealed a high identity with other related proteins. Cc-Lec modeled 3D structure appeared as homodimer cross-linked by one disulfide bridge. Cc-Lec exhibited a calcium dependent hemagglutinating activity against human group O erythrocytes. Cc-Lec inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP, arachidonic acid or fibrinogen suggesting its interaction with their specific receptors namely P2Y1 and/or P2Y12, GPIIb/IIIa and TPα respectively. Cc-Lec was not lethal for mice until 10mg/kg administered by i.p. route. The lectin displayed a lasting anticoagulation on mice plasma even two days post-injection. This anticoagulation seems to be related to its interaction with coagulation factors Xa and IXa. Therefore, Cc-Lec prevented FXa amidolytic activity with Km=4.3310 -4 μg/mL and ki=14.4μg/mL. It seems to interact with these targets through CRD domain which could make it a good target as a pharmacological promising molecule in thrombosis diagnosis and therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of platelet aggregability during left ventricular bypass using a MedTech MagLev VAD in a series of chronic calf experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Taro; Yokoyama, Yoshimasa; Sakota, Daisuke; Nagaoka, Eiki; Kitao, Takashi; Takakuda, Kazuo; Takatani, Setsuo

    2013-03-01

    The impact of continuous flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) pumping on platelet aggregation was investigated in animal experiments utilizing six calves. A single-use MagLev centrifugal blood pump, MedTech MagLev, was used to bypass the calves' hearts from the left atrium to the descending aorta at a flow rate of 50 ml/kg/min. The LVAD's impact on blood coagulation activities was evaluated based on the platelet aggregability, which was measured with a turbidimetric assay method during the preoperative, operative, and postoperative periods. Heparin and warfarin were used for anticoagulation, while aspirin was used for the antiplatelet therapy. A decrease in platelet aggregation immediately after the pump started was observed in the cases of successful long-term pump operation, while the absence of such a decrease might have caused coagulation-related complications to terminate the experiments. Thus, the platelet aggregability was found to be significantly affected by the pump, and its initial trend may be related to the long-term outcome of the mechanical circulatory support.

  14. Thrombopoietin contributes to enhanced platelet activation in patients with unstable angina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, Enrico; Bosco, Ornella; Bergerone, Serena; Dondi, Anna Erna; Goffi, Alberto; Oliaro, Elena; Cordero, Marco; Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Trevi, Giampaolo; Montrucchio, Giuseppe

    2006-12-05

    We sought to investigate the potential role of elevated levels of thrombopoietin (TPO) in platelet activation during unstable angina (UA). Thrombopoietin is a humoral growth factor that does not induce platelet aggregation per se, but primes platelet activation in response to several agonists. No data concerning its contribution to platelet function abnormalities described in patients with UA are available. We studied 15 patients with UA and, as controls, 15 patients with stable angina (SA) and 15 healthy subjects. We measured TPO and C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as monocyte-platelet binding and the platelet expression of P-selectin and of the TPO receptor, c-Mpl. The priming activity of patient or control plasma on platelet aggregation and monocyte-platelet binding and the role of TPO in this effect also were studied. Patients with UA showed higher circulating TPO levels, as well as increased monocyte-platelet binding, platelet P-selectin expression, and CRP levels, than those with SA and healthy control subjects. The UA patients also showed reduced platelet expression of the TPO receptor, c-Mpl. In vitro, the plasma from UA patients, but not from SA patients or healthy controls, primed platelet aggregation and monocyte-platelet binding, which were both reduced when an inhibitor of TPO was used. Thrombopoietin may enhance platelet activation in the early phases of UA, potentially participating in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndromes.

  15. Thrombopoietin contributes to enhanced platelet activation in cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, Enrico; Bosco, Ornella; Goffi, Alberto; Poletto, Cesare; Locatelli, Stefania; Spatola, Tiziana; Cuccurullo, Alessandra; Montrucchio, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a humoral growth factor that primes platelet activation in response to several agonists. We recently showed that TPO enhances platelet activation in unstable angina and sepsis. Aim of this study was to investigate the role of TPO in platelet function abnormalities described in cigarette smokers. In a case-control study we enrolled 20 healthy cigarette smokers and 20 nonsmokers, and measured TPO and C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as platelet-leukocyte binding and P-selectin expression. In vitro we evaluated the priming activity of smoker or control plasma on platelet activation, and the role of TPO in this effect. We then studied the effects of acute smoking and smoking cessation on TPO levels and platelet activation indices. Chronic cigarette smokers had higher circulating TPO levels than nonsmoking controls, as well as increased platelet-leukocyte binding, P-selectin expression, and CRP levels. Serum cotinine concentrations correlated with TPO concentrations, platelet-monocyte aggregates and P-selectin expression. In addition, TPO levels significantly correlated with ex vivo platelet-monocyte aggregation and P-selectin expression. In vitro, the plasma from cigarette smokers, but not from nonsmoking controls, primed platelet-monocyte binding, which was reduced when an inhibitor of TPO was used. We also found that acute smoking slightly increased TPO levels, but did not affect platelet-leukocyte binding, whereas smoking cessation induced a significant decrease in both circulating TPO and platelet-leukocyte aggregation. Elevated TPO contributes to enhance platelet activation and platelet-monocyte cross-talk in cigarette smokers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preventive Effect of Aspirin Eugenol Ester on Thrombosis in κ-Carrageenan-Induced Rat Tail Thrombosis Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ma

    Full Text Available Based on the prodrug principle, aspirin eugenol ester (AEE was synthesized, which can reduce the side effects of aspirin and eugenol. As a good candidate for new antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory medicine, it is essential to evaluate its preventive effect on thrombosis. Preventive effect of AEE was investigated in κ-carrageenan-induced rat tail thrombosis model. AEE suspension liquids were prepared in 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na. AEE was administrated at the dosage of 18, 36 and 72 mg/kg. Aspirin (20 mg/kg, eugenol (18 mg/kg and 0.5% CMC-Na (30 mg/kg were used as control drug. In order to compare the effects between AEE and its precursor, integration of aspirin and eugenol group (molar ratio 1:1 was also designed in the experiment. After drugs were administrated intragastrically for seven days, each rat was injected intraperitoneally with 20 mg/kg BW κ-carrageen dissolved in physiological saline to induce thrombosis. The length of tail-thrombosis was measured at 24 and 48 hours. The blank group just was given physiological saline for seven days without κ-carrageenan administrated. The results indicated that AEE significantly not only reduced the average length of thrombus, PT values and FIB concentration, but also reduced the red blood cell (RBC, hemoglobin (HGB, hematocrit (HCT and platelet (PLT. The effects of AEE on platelet aggregation and anticoagulant in vitro showed that AEE could inhibit adenosine diphosphate (ADP-induced platelet aggregation as dose-dependence but no notable effect on blood clotting. From these results, it was concluded that AEE possessed positive effect on thrombosis prevention in vivo through the reduction of FIB, PLT, inhibition of platelet aggregation and the change of TT and PT values.

  17. An investigation of the antiplatelet effects of succinobucol (AGI-1067).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Stephanie A; Ugusman, Azizah; Gnanadesikan, Sukanya; Kennedy, Simon

    2017-05-01

    Succinobucol is a phenolic antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet effects. Given the importance of oxidant stress in modulating platelet-platelet and platelet-vessel wall interactions, the aim of this study was to establish if antioxidant activity was responsible for the antiplatelet activity of succinobucol. Platelet aggregation in response to collagen and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was studied in rabbit whole blood and platelet-rich plasma using impedance aggregometry. The effect of oxidant stress on aggregation, platelet lipid peroxides, and vascular tone was studied by incubating platelets, washed platelets or preconstricted rabbit iliac artery rings respectively with a combination of xanthine and xanthine oxidase (X/XO). To study the effect of succinobucol in vivo, anaesthetized rats were injected with up to 150 mg/kg succinobucol and aggregation measured in blood removed 15 mins later. Succinobucol (10 -5 -10 -4 M) significantly attenuated platelet aggregation to collagen and ADP in whole blood and platelet-rich plasma. X/XO significantly increased aggregation to collagen and platelet lipid peroxides and this was reversed by succinobucol. Addition of X/XO to denuded rabbit iliac arteries caused a dose-dependent relaxation which was significantly inhibited by succinobucol. In vivo administration up to 150 mg/kg had no effect on heart rate or mean arterial blood pressure but significantly inhibited platelet aggregation to collagen ex vivo. In conclusion, succinobucol displays anti-platelet activity in rabbit and rat blood and reverses the increase in platelet aggregation in response to oxidant stress.

  18. THERAPEUTIC EQUIVALENCE OF ORIGINAL CLOPIDOGREL (PLAVIX AND ITS GENERIC (EGITROMB. RESULTS OF COMPARATIVE RANDOMIZED CROSS-OVER BLIND STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Yakusevich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study therapeutic equivalence (efficacy, safety and tolerability of original clopidogrel (Plavix and its generic (Egitromb in patients of high cardiovascular risk. Material and methods. Thirty one patients with coronary heart disease and indications for clopidogrel therapy were involved into the randomized cross-over blind study. Half of the patients received original clopidogrel (75 mg daily during the first 2 weeks and then they received generic clopidogrel in the same dose during next 2 weeks. Another half of the patients received the drugs in reverse order. Antiplatelet activity of Plavix and Egitromb was estimated by effects on ADP-induced platelet aggregation initially and after 2 weeks of treatment with each drug. Study blinding was provided by the following approach: doctors of cardiology clinic performed clinical monitoring and drug distribution; coded blood samples for platelet aggregation assessment were studied in independent laboratory of thrombosis; statistical data analysis was performed by biostatistics expert in other research center. Results. 2-week therapy with each drug led to a significant decrease of ADP-induced platelet aggregation which remained low after switching from original drug to generic and vice versa. Aggregation dynamics did not depend on the first administered drug. There were no significant differences between aggregation changes as a result of treatment with original or generic drug. No one adverse event was observed in association with both drugs therapy. Conclusion. Generic drug Egitromb (Egis, Hungary and original clopidogrel Plavix (Sanofi-Aventis, France have equivalent antiplatelet effect.

  19. Effects of simvastatin/ezetimibe on microparticles, endothelial progenitor cells and platelet aggregation in subjects with coronary heart disease under antiplatelet therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, L.M.; França, C.N.; Izar, M.C.; Bianco, H.T.; Lins, L.S.; Barbosa, S.P.; Pinheiro, L.F.; Fonseca, F.A.H. [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Departamento de Medicina, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    It is not known whether the addition of ezetimibe to statins adds cardiovascular protection beyond the expected changes in lipid levels. Subjects with coronary heart disease were treated with four consecutive 1-week courses of therapy (T) and evaluations. The courses were: T1, 100 mg aspirin alone; T2, 100 mg aspirin and 40 mg simvastatin/10 mg ezetimibe; T3, 40 mg simvastatin/10 mg ezetimibe, and 75 mg clopidogrel (300 mg initial loading dose); T4, 75 mg clopidogrel alone. Platelet aggregation was examined in whole blood. Endothelial microparticles (CD51), platelet microparticles (CD42/CD31), and endothelial progenitor cells (CD34/CD133; CDKDR/CD133, or CD34/KDR) were quantified by flow cytometry. Endothelial function was examined by flow-mediated dilation. Comparisons between therapies revealed differences in lipids (T2 and T3T1 and T4, P=0.001). Decreased platelet aggregation was observed after aspirin (arachidonic acid, T1platelet aggregation, the amount of circulating endothelial and platelet microparticles, or endothelial progenitor cells. Cardiovascular protection following therapy with simvastatin/ezetimibe seems restricted to lipid changes and improvement of endothelial function not affecting the release of microparticles, mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells or decreased platelet aggregation.

  20. Effects of simvastatin/ezetimibe on microparticles, endothelial progenitor cells and platelet aggregation in subjects with coronary heart disease under antiplatelet therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, L.M.; França, C.N.; Izar, M.C.; Bianco, H.T.; Lins, L.S.; Barbosa, S.P.; Pinheiro, L.F.; Fonseca, F.A.H.

    2014-01-01

    It is not known whether the addition of ezetimibe to statins adds cardiovascular protection beyond the expected changes in lipid levels. Subjects with coronary heart disease were treated with four consecutive 1-week courses of therapy (T) and evaluations. The courses were: T1, 100 mg aspirin alone; T2, 100 mg aspirin and 40 mg simvastatin/10 mg ezetimibe; T3, 40 mg simvastatin/10 mg ezetimibe, and 75 mg clopidogrel (300 mg initial loading dose); T4, 75 mg clopidogrel alone. Platelet aggregation was examined in whole blood. Endothelial microparticles (CD51), platelet microparticles (CD42/CD31), and endothelial progenitor cells (CD34/CD133; CDKDR/CD133, or CD34/KDR) were quantified by flow cytometry. Endothelial function was examined by flow-mediated dilation. Comparisons between therapies revealed differences in lipids (T2 and T3T1 and T4, P=0.001). Decreased platelet aggregation was observed after aspirin (arachidonic acid, T1platelet aggregation, the amount of circulating endothelial and platelet microparticles, or endothelial progenitor cells. Cardiovascular protection following therapy with simvastatin/ezetimibe seems restricted to lipid changes and improvement of endothelial function not affecting the release of microparticles, mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells or decreased platelet aggregation

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 429 ... Vol 2, No 1 (2003), Placenta Percreta; Presenting As Acute Abdomen In Pregnancy – A Case Report, Abstract ... Vol 16, No 2 (2017), Platelet aggregates and ADP-induced ... Of Asymptomatic Significant Bacteriuria In Schoolgirls And ... creatinine among treated hypertensives in South-South Nigeria.

  2. Prolongation of bleeding time and inhibition of platelet aggregation by low-dose acetylsalicylic acid in patients with cerebrovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, G; Boss, A H; Ødum, Niels

    1984-01-01

    the bleeding time averaged 11.2 minutes in contrast to 7.0 minutes in the placebo group, p less than 0.001. This study confirms our previous findings of platelet inhibition by low-dose acetylsalicylic acid in patients with cerebrovascular disease. The prolongation of the bleeding time demonstrates that we......Platelet aggregation and bleeding time was measured in 43 cerebrovascular patients participating in a controlled double-blind study of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid. In 19 patients with satisfactory inhibition of the platelet aggregation obtained by 50 to 70 mg acetylsalicylic acid per day...... are dealing not merely with an in vitro phenomenon but with a significant in vivo effect. The study provides the rationale for clinical evaluations of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid in stroke prophylaxis....

  3. Influence of platelet count, platelet mass index, and platelet function on the spontaneous closure of ductus arteriosus in the prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Kahvecioglu

    2018-02-01

    Conclusion: This is the first study in the English literature providing evidence of the influence of platelet dysfunction on the spontaneous closure of ductus arteriosus in prematurity. Longer collagen-ADP duration is identified as a risk factor of ductal closure.

  4. Platelet Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Platelet Function Tests Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Also Known As Platelet Aggregation Studies PFT Platelet Function Assay PFA Formal Name Platelet Function Tests This ...

  5. DREAM plays an important role in platelet activation and thrombogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungho; Tseng, Alan; Barazia, Andrew; Italiano, Joseph E.

    2017-01-01

    Downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a transcriptional repressor, is known to modulate pain responses. However, it is unknown whether DREAM is expressed in anucleate platelets and plays a role in thrombogenesis. By using intravital microscopy with DREAM-null mice and their bone marrow chimeras, we demonstrated that both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell DREAMs are required for platelet thrombus formation following laser-induced arteriolar injury. In a FeCl3-induced thrombosis model, we found that compared with wild-type (WT) control and nonhematopoietic DREAM knockout (KO) mice, DREAM KO control and hematopoietic DREAM KO mice showed a significant delay in time to occlusion. Tail bleeding time was prolonged in DREAM KO control mice, but not in WT or DREAM bone marrow chimeric mice. In vivo adoptive transfer experiments further indicated the importance of platelet DREAM in thrombogenesis. We found that DREAM deletion does not alter the ultrastructural features of platelets but significantly impairs platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate secretion induced by numerous agonists (collagen-related peptide, adenosine 5′-diphosphate, A23187, thrombin, or U46619). Biochemical studies revealed that platelet DREAM positively regulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity during platelet activation. Using DREAM-null platelets and PI3K isoform-specific inhibitors, we observed that platelet DREAM is important for α-granule secretion, Ca2+ mobilization, and aggregation through PI3K class Iβ (PI3K-Iβ). Genetic and pharmacological studies in human megakaryoblastic MEG-01 cells showed that DREAM is important for A23187-induced Ca2+ mobilization and its regulatory function requires Ca2+ binding and PI3K-Iβ activation. These results suggest that platelet DREAM regulates PI3K-Iβ activity and plays an important role during thrombus formation. PMID:27903531

  6. Relationship between ADAMTS13 activity, von Willebrand factor antigen levels and platelet function in the early and late phases after TIA or ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Dominick J H; Murphy, Stephen J X; Starke, Richard; Harrison, Paul; Brown, Martin M; Sidhu, Paul S; Mackie, Ian J; Scully, Marie; Machin, Samuel J

    2015-01-15

    Reduced ADAMTS13 activity is seen in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), and may lead to accumulation of prothrombotic ultra-large von Willebrand factor (ULVWF) multimers in vivo. ADAMTS13 activity and its relationship with VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) levels and platelet function in 'non-TTP related' TIA or ischaemic stroke has not been comprehensively studied. In this prospective pilot observational analytical case-control study, ADAMTS13 activity and VWF:Ag levels were quantified in platelet poor plasma in 53 patients in the early phase (≤ 4 weeks) and 34 of these patients in the late phase (≥ 3 months) after TIA or ischaemic stroke on aspirin. Data were compared with those from 22 controls not on aspirin. The impact of ADAMTS13 on platelet function in whole blood was quantified by measuring Collagen-ADP (C-ADP) and Collagen-Epinephrine closure times on a platelet function analyser (PFA-100(®)). Median ADAMTS13 activity was significantly reduced in the early phase (71.96% vs. 95.5%, P TIA or stroke compared with controls (86.3% vs. 95.5%, P=0.19). There was a significant inverse relationship between ADAMTS13 activity and VWF:Ag levels in the early phase (r=-0.31; P=0.024), but not in the late phase after TIA or stroke (P=0.74). There was a positive correlation between ADAMTS13 activity and C-ADP closure times in early phase patients only, likely mediated via VWF:Ag levels. ADAMTS13 activity is reduced and VWF:Ag expression is increased within 4 weeks of TIA or ischaemic stroke onset, and can promote enhanced platelet adhesion and aggregation in response to stimulation with collagen and ADP via VWF-mediated pathways. These data improve our understanding of the dynamic haemostatic and thrombotic profiles of ischaemic cerebrovascular disease (CVD) patients, and are important in view of the potential future role that ADAMTS13 may have to play as an anti-thrombotic agent in CVD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors associated with high probability of target blood pressure non-achievement in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Zhemanyuk

    2017-12-01

    periods DBP (HS = 36,6; the average pulse blood pressure (OR = 65.9, the rate of morning rise of SBP (OR = 3.6, and the maximum aggregation time of 5-minute ADP-induced platelet aggregation (OR = 3.5. Independent factors influencing the target blood pressure level pure reaching are the average diurnal DBP (OR = 47.8; variability of diurnal SBP (HS = 4.6; the maximum aggregation time of ADP-induced platelet aggregation (OR = 3.4. Female sex is associated with the best prognosis for the target level of BP reaching (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.2‒0.8; p = 0.012. Conclusions. The independent factors influencing the target blood pressure level poor reaching in patients with EH are two ABPM parameters (the average diurnal diastolic blood pressure of more than 76 mm Hg and the variability of SBP diurnal more than 17 mm Hg; and one ADP-induced platelet aggregation parameter (the maximum aggregation time more than 143 seconds. The female sex is associated with better prediction of achieving the target level of blood pressure.

  8. In vitro effect of the herbicide glyphosate on human blood platelet aggregation and coagulation Efeito in vitro do herbicida glifosato na agregação plaquetária e coagulação sanguínea em humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresinha de Jesus C. Neiva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl-glycine] is a broad-spectrum, non-selective, post-emergence herbicide that is extensively used in agriculture. Published data referring to the effects of this product on human health are contradictory. We showed previously that long-term treatment of rats with low doses of Glyphosate-Biocarb® may induce hepatic histological changes and bleeding without decreasing platelet counts. The aim of the current study was to investigate, in vitro, the effect of glyphosate on human blood platelet aggregation and coagulation. Materials and methods: Platelet aggregation was determined in the platelet-rich plasma using the agents: 6µM-adenosine diphosphate, 6µM-epinephrine and 4µg/mL-collagen. Pretreatment with 500µg/mL glyphosate showed significant hypofunction of the three aggregating agents. The inhibitory effect was dose-dependent at concentrations from 50 to 500 µg/mL. The release of ATP was lower for glyphosate-treated platelets after stimulation by collagen. On the other hand, glyphosate did not promote any inhibitory effects on prothrombin time, thromboplastin time and thrombin time. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that glyphosate promotes changes in the platelet metabolism with an inhibitory effect on primary hemostasis.O glifosato [N-(phosphonomethyl-glycine] é um herbicida pós-emergente não seletivo de amplo espectro muito utilizado na agricultura. Dados da literatura referentes aos efeitos desse produto na saúde humana são contraditórios. Em estudos prévios demonstramos que ratos previamente tratados com glifosato apresentavam lesões hepáticas e sangramento sem alterações quantitativas de plaquetas. O objetivo do presente estudo é investigar os efeitos in vitro do glifosato (GP na agregação plaquetária e coagulação sanguínea em humanos. A agregação plaquetária foi determinada em plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP usando os agentes adenosina difosfato (ADP 6µM, epinefrina 6µM e col

  9. Increased platelet aggregation and turnover in the acute phase of ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Løkke Funck; Dalsgaard, Jens; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2013-01-01

    Newly produced platelets are present in the acute phase of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This may influence the antiplatelet effect of aspirin and clopidogrel administered prior to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). The aims of this study were to investigate the anti...... turnover may partly explain the reduced efficacy of antiplatelet drugs in the acute phase of STEMI....... the antiplatelet effect of aspirin and clopidogrel and evaluate platelet turnover in the acute phase of STEMI compared to a stable phase 3 months later. In this observational follow-up study on 48 STEMI patients transferred for PPCI, loading doses of aspirin (300 mg) and clopidogrel (600 mg) were given orally...... in the ambulance. Blood samples were obtained immediately prior to PPCI, at 4 and 12 hours after administration of bolus doses and at follow-up after 3 months. Residual platelet aggregation was evaluated by Multiplate® and VerifyNow® aggregometry. Platelet turnover was evaluated by automated flow cytometry...

  10. Radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbon production in platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radha, E.; Vaishnav, Y.N.; Kumar, K.S.; Weiss, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Generation of volatile hydrocarbons (ethane, pentane) as a measure of lipid peroxidation was followed in preparations from platelet-rich plasma irradiated in vitro. The hydrocarbons in the headspace of sealed vials containing irradiated and nonirradiated washed platelets, platelet-rich plasma, or platelet-poor plasma increased with time. The major hydrocarbon, pentane, increased linearly and significantly with increasing log radiation dose, suggesting that reactive oxygen species induced by ionizing radiation result in lipid peroxidation. Measurements of lipid peroxidation products may give an indication of suboptimal quality of stored and/or irradiated platelets

  11. cDNA cloning of a snake venom metalloproteinase from the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus), and the expression of its disintegrin domain with anti-platelet effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntravat, Montamas; Jia, Ying; Lucena, Sara E.; Sánchez, Elda E.; Pérez, John C.

    2013-01-01

    A 5′ truncated snake venom metalloproteinase was identified from a cDNA library constructed from venom glands of an eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus). The 5′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used to obtain the 1865 bp full-length cDNA sequence of a snake venom metalloproteinase (CamVMPII). CamVMPII encodes an open reading frame of 488 amino acids, which includes a signal peptide, a pro-domain, a metalloproteinase domain, a spacer, and an RGD-disintegrin domain. The predicted amino acid sequence of CamVMPII showed a 91%, 90%, 83%, and 82% sequence homology to the P-II class enzymes of C. adamanteus metalloproteinase 2, C. atrox CaVMP-II, Gloydius halys agkistin, and Protobothrops jerdonii jerdonitin, respectively. Disintegrins are potent inhibitors of both platelet aggregation and integrin-dependent cell adhesion. Therefore, the disintegrin domain (Cam-dis) of CamVMPII was amplified by PCR, cloned into a pET-43.1a vector, and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. Affinity purified recombinantly modified Cam-dis (r-Cam-dis) with a yield of 8.5 mg/L culture medium was cleaved from the fusion tags by enterokinase cleavage. r-Cam-dis was further purified by two-step chromatography consisting of HiTrap™ Benzamidine FF column, followed by Talon Metal affinity column with a final yield of 1 mg/L culture. r-Cam-dis was able to inhibit all three processes of platelet thrombus formation including platelet adhesion with an estimated IC50 of 1 nM, collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation with the estimated IC50s of 18 and 6 nM, respectively, and platelet function on clot retraction. It is a potent anti-platelet inhibitor, which should be further investigated for drug discovery to treat stroke patients or patients with thrombotic disorders. PMID:23313448

  12. [Quantitative studies on reversible thrombocyte aggregation during exertion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, P; Silberbauer, K; Sinzinger, H

    1980-10-11

    In 8 oarsmen aged 19 to 31 years a symptom-limited rectangular-progressive bicycle stress test has been conducted. Venous blood was taken before and at the end of the test, and 30 and 60 minutes afterwards. pH, base excess, pCO2, platelet count and platelet count ratio (WU and HOAK) were measured or calculated, the last in order to quantify the tendency of the platelets to form reversible aggregates. At the point of exhaustion there is a highly significant (p cunt ratio (= increase in reversible platelet aggregates). A highly significant correlation exists between base excess and the platelet count ratio. The regression line does not fall below the normal value of the platelet count ratio until the delta-base excess is -4 mval/l. This means that an increase in the tendency to form reversible platelet aggregates is not typical of the range of aerobic metabolism but of muscular work in the anaerobic range with high exercise-induced metabolic acidosis. The basis for sudden death in sport due to internal reasons is not uncommonly an unknown and asymptomatic coronary disease and platelet aggregates. Persons aged over 30 years and sports in which competition is also inherent (soccer, tennis) are often involved. Acute cardiac death in sport is not very frequent. Nevertheless, the following recomendation seems to be warranted: persons aged over 30 years in bad condition should not start competitive sports or other intensive muscular exercise. Before they do so, low-intensive, controlled, aerobic endurance training is necessary.

  13. Antiaggregant effects of Arbutus unedo extracts in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haouari, Mohammed; López, José J; Mekhfi, Hassane; Rosado, Juan A; Salido, Ginés M

    2007-09-05

    Platelet hyperaggregability plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Thrombin evokes aggregation through Ca(2+) mobilization, tyrosine phosphorylation and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We have investigated the antiaggregant properties of Arbutus unedo extracts in human platelets. Changes in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and intracellular oxidants production were registered by espectrofluorimetry using fura-2 and dichlorodihydrofluorescein, respectively, platelet aggregation was assessed by aggregometry and protein tyrosine phosphorylation was detected by Western blotting. Platelet treatment with increasing concentrations (0.015-1.5mg/mL) of crude aqueous, ethyl acetate or diethyl ether extracts reduced platelet aggregation evoked by thrombin (0.5 U/mL) and show a potent ROS scavenger activity, preventing thrombin-evoked endogenous generation of ROS. Treatment with Arbutus unedo extracts did not alter thrombin-evoked Ca(2+) release from the intracellular stores but reduced store-operated Ca(2+) entry induced by thrombin or by selective depletion of the two Ca(2+) stores in platelets, the dense tubular system and the acidic stores. In addition, platelet treatment with extracts reduced both basal and thrombin-stimulated protein tyrosine phosphorylation. We conclude that Arbutus unedo extracts show antiaggregant actions due to attenuation of Ca(2+) mobilization, ROS production and protein tyrosine phosphorylation and might be used for the treatment and/or prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Extracellular histones promote thrombin generation through platelet-dependent mechanisms: involvement of platelet TLR2 and TLR4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeraro, Fabrizio; Ammollo, Concetta T.; Morrissey, James H.; Dale, George L.; Friese, Paul; Esmon, Naomi L.

    2011-01-01

    The release of histones from dying cells is associated with microvascular thrombosis and, because histones activate platelets, this could represent a possible pathogenic mechanism. In the present study, we assessed the influence of histones on the procoagulant potential of human platelets in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and in purified systems. Histones dose-dependently enhanced thrombin generation in PRP in the absence of any trigger, as evaluated by calibrated automated thrombinography regardless of whether the contact phase was inhibited. Activation of coagulation required the presence of fully activatable platelets and was not ascribable to platelet tissue factor, whereas targeting polyphosphate with phosphatase reduced thrombin generation even when factor XII (FXII) was blocked or absent. In the presence of histones, purified polyphosphate was able to induce thrombin generation in plasma independently of FXII. In purified systems, histones induced platelet aggregation; P-selectin, phosphatidylserine, and FV/Va expression; and prothrombinase activity. Blocking platelet TLR2 and TLR4 with mAbs reduced the percentage of activated platelets and lowered the amount of thrombin generated in PRP. These data show that histone-activated platelets possess a procoagulant phenotype that drives plasma thrombin generation and suggest that TLR2 and TLR4 mediate the activation process. PMID:21673343

  15. PLATELET AGGREGATION AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF GARDEN PEA, DESI CHICKPEA AND KABULI CHICKPEA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    ZIA-UL-HAQ, M.; ALI KHAN, B.; Landa, Přemysl; Kutil, Zsófia; AHMED, S.; QAYUM, M.; Ahmad, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 4 (2012), s. 707-711 ISSN 0001-6837 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : platelet aggregation * Garden pea * Desi chickpea Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.665, year: 2012 http://home.ueb.cas.cz/publikace/2012_Haq_ACTA_POLONIAE_PHARMACEUTICA_707.pdf

  16. Serial alterations in digital hemodynamics and endothelin-1 immunoreactivity, platelet-neutrophil aggregation, and concentrations of nitric oxide, insulin, and glucose in blood obtained from horses following carbohydrate overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eades, Susan C; Stokes, Ashley M; Johnson, Philip J; LeBlanc, Casey J; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Buff, Preston R; Moore, Rustin M

    2007-01-01

    To quantify changes in endothelium-derived factors and relate those changes to various aspects of digital hemodynamics during the prodromal stages of carbohydrate overload (CHO)-induced laminitis in horses. 20 adult horses without abnormalities of the digit. Digital and jugular venous blood samples were collected at 1-hour intervals (for assessment of endothelin-1 [ET-1] immunoreactivity and measurement of glucose, insulin, and nitric oxide [NO] concentrations) or 4-hour intervals (CBC and platelet-neutrophil aggregate assessment) for 8 hours or 16 hours after induction of CHO-associated laminitis in horses treated with an ET-1 antagonist. Effects of treatment, collection site, and time and the random effects of horse on each variable were analyzed by use of a repeated-measures model. Where treatment and collection site had no significant effect, data were combined. Compared with baseline values, CHO resulted in changes in several variables, including a significant increase from baseline in digital blood ET-like immunoreactivity at 11 hours; digital blood ET-like immunoreactivity was significantly greater than that in jugular venous blood at 8, 9, 11, and 12 hours. Digital and jugular venous blood concentrations of glucose increased from baseline significantly at 3, 4, and 5 hours; insulin concentration increased significantly at 5 hours; and the number of platelet-neutrophil aggregates increased significantly at 12 hours. In horses, concurrent increases in venous blood ET-1 immunoreactivity, insulin and glucose concentrations, and platelet-neutrophil aggregates support a role of endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of CHO-induced laminitis.

  17. Platelets promote tumor growth and metastasis via direct interaction between Aggrus/podoplanin and CLEC-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Takagi

    Full Text Available The platelet aggregation-inducing factor Aggrus, also known as podoplanin, is frequently upregulated in several types of tumors and enhances hematogenous metastasis by interacting with and activating the platelet receptor CLEC-2. Thus, Aggrus-CLEC-2 binding could be a therapeutic molecular mechanism for cancer therapy. We generated a new anti-human Aggrus monoclonal antibody, MS-1, that suppressed Aggrus-CLEC-2 binding, Aggrus-induced platelet aggregation, and Aggrus-mediated tumor metastasis. Interestingly, the MS-1 monoclonal antibody attenuated the growth of Aggrus-positive tumors in vivo. Moreover, the humanized chimeric MS-1 antibody, ChMS-1, also exhibited strong antitumor activity against Aggrus-positive lung squamous cell carcinoma xenografted into NOD-SCID mice compromising antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxic and complement-dependent cytotoxic activities. Because Aggrus knockdown suppressed platelet-induced proliferation in vitro and tumor growth of the lung squamous cell carcinoma in vivo, Aggrus may be involved in not only tumor metastasis but also tumor growth by promoting platelet-tumor interaction, platelet activation, and secretion of platelet-derived factors in vivo. Our results indicate that molecular target drugs inhibiting specific platelet-tumor interactions can be developed as antitumor drugs that suppress both metastasis and proliferation of tumors such as lung squamous cell carcinoma.

  18. Cathepsin K induces platelet dysfunction and affects cell signaling in breast cancer - molecularly distinct behavior of cathepsin K in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Sheila Siqueira; Gouvea, Iuri Estrada; Silva, Mariana Cristina C.; Castro, Eloísa Dognani; Paula, Cláudia A. A. de; Okamoto, Debora; Oliveira, Lilian; Peres, Giovani Bravin; Ottaiano, Tatiana; Facina, Gil; Nazário, Afonso Celso Pinto; Campos, Antonio Hugo J. F. M.; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Juliano, Maria; Silva, Ismael D. C. G. da; Oliva, Maria Luiza V.; Girão, Manoel J. B. C.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer comprises clinically and molecularly distinct tumor subgroups that differ in cell histology and biology and show divergent clinical phenotypes that impede phase III trials, such as those utilizing cathepsin K inhibitors. Here we correlate the epithelial-mesenchymal-like transition breast cancer cells and cathepsin K secretion with activation and aggregation of platelets. Cathepsin K is up-regulated in cancer cells that proteolyze extracellular matrix and contributes to invasiveness. Although proteolytically activated receptors (PARs) are activated by proteases, the direct interaction of cysteine cathepsins with PARs is poorly understood. In human platelets, PAR-1 and −4 are highly expressed, but PAR-3 shows low expression and unclear functions. Platelet aggregation was monitored by measuring changes in turbidity. Platelets were immunoblotted with anti-phospho and total p38, Src-Tyr-416, FAK-Tyr-397, and TGFβ monoclonal antibody. Activation was measured in a flow cytometer and calcium mobilization in a confocal microscope. Mammary epithelial cells were prepared from the primary breast cancer samples of 15 women with Luminal-B subtype to produce primary cells. We demonstrate that platelets are aggregated by cathepsin K in a dose-dependent manner, but not by other cysteine cathepsins. PARs-3 and −4 were confirmed as the cathepsin K target by immunodetection and specific antagonists using a fibroblast cell line derived from PARs deficient mice. Moreover, through co-culture experiments, we show that platelets activated by cathepsin K mediated the up-regulation of SHH, PTHrP, OPN, and TGFβ in epithelial-mesenchymal-like cells from patients with Luminal B breast cancer. Cathepsin K induces platelet dysfunction and affects signaling in breast cancer cells. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2203-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  19. [Hemostasiological, lipidemic, and hemodynamic indicators associated with the risk of cardiovascular death in high- and very high-risk patients according to the SCORE scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachkovskiĭ, M A; Simerzin, V V; Rybanenko, O A; Kirichenko, N A

    2014-01-01

    To identify lipidemic, hemostasiological, and hemodynamic indicators associated with the risk of cardiovascular death in high- and very high-risk patients. One hundred and forty-eight patients whose mean age was 50.8 +/- 4.4 years were examined. All the patients were divided into high (1 group) and very high (2 group) cardiovascular death risk groups according to the SCORE scale. Lipid metabolism, hemostatic system parameters (fibrinogen, time of ADP-induced platelet aggregation initiation, D-dimer), endothelial dysfunction markers (von Willebrand factor), and echocardiographic findings were studied. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the odds ratio for a cardiovascular death risk was 1.8 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1 to 4.2; p = 0.04) in patients with a D-dimer level of greater than 1 mg/ml, 0.77 (95% CI, 0.6 to 0.97; p = 0.03) in those with an ADP-induced platelet aggregation initiation time of 13.5 sec, 1.04 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.07; p = 0.02) in those with an end-diastolic volume of more than 123 ml, 1.1 (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.2; p = 0.003) in those with an end-diastolic dimension of more than 51 mm, 1.5 (95% CI, 1.1 to 2.0; p = 0.009) in those with a ventricular septal thickness of more than 11.5 mm, and 2.1 (95% CI, 1.03 to 3.2; p = 0.0032) in those with avon Willebrand factor level of more than 140%. The high levels of von Willebrand factor, D-dimer, ADP-induced platelet aggregation, triglycerides, end-diastolic volume, end-diastolic dimension, and ventricular septal thickness are independent predictors of cardiovascular death in very high-risk patients. These indicators bear out a close relationship between lipid metabolic and hemostatic disturbances and between endothelial dysfunction and intracardiac hemodynamic worsening in these patients.

  20. Biochemical and functional abnormalities in hypercholesterolemic rabbit platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalal, K.B.; Ebbe, S.; Mazoyer, E.; Carpenter, D.; Yee, T.

    1990-01-01

    This study was designed to elucidate changes in rabbit platelet lipids induced by a cholesterol rich diet and to explore the possible correlation of these lipid changes with platelet abnormalities. Pronounced biochemical alterations were observed when serum cholesterol levels of 700-1000 mg% were reached. Hypercholesterolemic (HC) platelets contained 37% more neutral lipids and 16% less phospholipids than the controls. Lysolecithin, cholesterol esters and phosphatidylinositol (PI) levels were increased in HC platelets, and the levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC) were decreased. The cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio of lipidemic platelets increased from 0.55 +/- 0.011 to 0.89 +/- 0.016 (P less than 0.01) in eight weeks. HC platelets had 90% more arachidonic acid (AA) in the PI than normal platelets. No significant changes in AA of PC were observed. Platelet function was monitored by the uptake and release of [14C]serotonin in platelet rich plasma (PRP), using varying concentrations of collagen as an aggregating agent. The uptake of [14C]serotonin in HC and normal platelets ranged from 78-94%. The percent of [14C]serotonin released from normal and HC platelets was proportional to the concentration of collagen. However, lipidemic platelets were hyperreactive to low concentrations of collagen. Incorporation of 50 microM acetylsalicylic acid into the aggregating medium suppressed the release of [14C]serotonin in normal PRP by more than 90%, but had only a partial effect on lipidemic PRP

  1. Amarogentin, a Secoiridoid Glycoside, Abrogates Platelet Activation through PLCγ2-PKC and MAPK Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Lin Yen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amarogentin, an active principle of Gentiana lutea, possess antitumorigenic, antidiabetic, and antioxidative properties. Activation of platelets is associated with intravascular thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases. The present study examined the effects of amarogentin on platelet activation. Amarogentin treatment (15~60 μM inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen, but not thrombin, arachidonic acid, and U46619. Amarogentin inhibited collagen-induced phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLCγ2, protein kinase C (PKC, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs. It also inhibits in vivo thrombus formation in mice. In addition, neither the guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ nor the adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 affected the amarogentin-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation, which suggests that amarogentin does not regulate the levels of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. In conclusion, amarogentin prevents platelet activation through the inhibition of PLCγ2-PKC cascade and MAPK pathway. Our findings suggest that amarogentin may offer therapeutic potential for preventing or treating thromboembolic disorders.

  2. CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE IN DOGS IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED PLATELET LEUKOCYTE AGGREGATION MEASURED BY FLOW CYTOMETRY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Inge; Andreasen, Susanne SH; Olsen, Lisbeth Høier

    2010-01-01

    Sciences, Faculty of Life Science, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) in humans is associated with abnormal hemostasis, and changes in hemostatic biomarkers carry a poor prognosis. CHF in dogs has been associated with plasma markers of hypercoagulability, however......CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE IN DOGS IS ASSOCIATED WITH ENHANCED PLATELET-LEUKOCYTE AGGREGATES - A MARKER FOR PLATELET ACTIVATION. I Tarnow1, LH Olsen2, SHS Andreasen2, SG Moesgaard2, CE Rasmussen2, AT Kristensen1, T Falk2. 1Departments of Small Animal Clinical Sciences and 2Animal and Veterinary Basic......, platelet activation markers have not been investigated in dogs with clinical signs of heart disease. We hypothesized that platelet surface activation markers are higher in dogs with CHF compared to age-matched controls without clinical signs of heart failure. Dogs with compensated congestive heart failure...

  3. Platelet activation in pregnancy-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalis, Ioannis; Nadar, Sunil K; Al Yemeni, Eman; Blann, Andrew D; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2005-01-01

    Although excess platelet activation, as indicated by increased plasma beta thromboglobulin (beta-TG), has been shown in pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), platelet adhesion, platelet morphology and a comparison of platelet and soluble (plasma) levels of the adhesion molecules P-selectin (pPsel and sPsel, respectively) have not been studied. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 35 consecutive women with PIH (age 31+/-6 years), 31 consecutive women with normotensive pregnancies (age 29+/-5 years) and 30 normotensive non pregnant women (age 30+/-5 years). Platelet adhesion was studied in vitro by binding to fibrinogen-coated microwells, platelet morphology [mass and volume by flow cytometry], whole-platelet P-selectin (pPsel) by ELISA of the lysate of 2 x 10(8) cells, and the plasma markers soluble P-selectin (sP-sel) and beta-TG, by ELISA. The women with PIH had significantly raised sPsel, pPsel and (as expected) beta-TG (all p<0.05), when compared to the normotensive pregnant women and controls. However, in PIH platelet adhesion was similar to that in the normotensive pregnancy, but still higher than the normal controls (p<0.001). There was no difference among the three groups with respect to platelet mass and volume. pPsel and platelet adhesion correlated with gestational age and with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (all p<0.05). Increased platelet activation and adhesion develop during normal pregnancy, with some indices being further altered in PIH.

  4. Whole blood coagulation and platelet activation in the athlete: A comparison of marathon, triathlon and long distance cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanke AA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Serious thrombembolic events occur in otherwise healthy marathon athletes during competition. We tested the hypothesis that during heavy endurance sports coagulation and platelets are activated depending on the type of endurance sport with respect to its running fraction. Materials and Methods 68 healthy athletes participating in marathon (MAR, running 42 km, n = 24, triathlon (TRI, swimming 2.5 km + cycling 90 km + running 21 km, n = 22, and long distance cycling (CYC, 151 km, n = 22 were included in the study. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after completion of competition to perform rotational thrombelastometry. We assessed coagulation time (CT, maximum clot firmness (MCF after intrinsically activation and fibrin polymerization (FIBTEM. Furthermore, platelet aggregation was tested after activation with ADP and thrombin activating peptide 6 (TRAP by using multiple platelet function analyzer. Results Complete data sets were obtained in 58 athletes (MAR: n = 20, TRI: n = 19, CYC: n = 19. CT significantly decreased in all groups (MAR -9.9%, TRI -8.3%, CYC -7.4% without differences between groups. In parallel, MCF (MAR +7.4%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3% and fibrin polymerization (MAR +14.7%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3% were significantly increased in all groups. However, platelets were only activated during MAR and TRI as indicated by increased AUC during TRAP-activation (MAR +15.8% and increased AUC during ADP-activation in MAR (+50.3% and TRI (+57.5%. Discussion While coagulation is activated during physical activity irrespective of type we observed significant platelet activation only during marathon and to a lesser extent during triathlon. We speculate that prolonged running may increase platelet activity, possibly, due to mechanical alteration. Thus, particularly prolonged running may increase the risk of thrombembolic incidents in running athletes.

  5. Whole blood coagulation and platelet activation in the athlete: a comparison of marathon, triathlon and long distance cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Alexander A; Staib, A; Görlinger, K; Perrey, M; Dirkmann, D; Kienbaum, P

    2010-02-26

    Serious thrombembolic events occur in otherwise healthy marathon athletes during competition. We tested the hypothesis that during heavy endurance sports coagulation and platelets are activated depending on the type of endurance sport with respect to its running fraction. 68 healthy athletes participating in marathon (MAR, running 42 km, n = 24), triathlon (TRI, swimming 2.5 km + cycling 90 km + running 21 km, n = 22), and long distance cycling (CYC, 151 km, n = 22) were included in the study. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after completion of competition to perform rotational thrombelastometry. We assessed coagulation time (CT), maximum clot firmness (MCF) after intrinsically activation and fibrin polymerization (FIBTEM). Furthermore, platelet aggregation was tested after activation with ADP and thrombin activating peptide 6 (TRAP) by using multiple platelet function analyzer. Complete data sets were obtained in 58 athletes (MAR: n = 20, TRI: n = 19, CYC: n = 19). CT significantly decreased in all groups (MAR -9.9%, TRI -8.3%, CYC -7.4%) without differences between groups. In parallel, MCF (MAR +7.4%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3%) and fibrin polymerization (MAR +14.7%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3%) were significantly increased in all groups. However, platelets were only activated during MAR and TRI as indicated by increased AUC during TRAP-activation (MAR +15.8%) and increased AUC during ADP-activation in MAR (+50.3%) and TRI (+57.5%). While coagulation is activated during physical activity irrespective of type we observed significant platelet activation only during marathon and to a lesser extent during triathlon. We speculate that prolonged running may increase platelet activity, possibly, due to mechanical alteration. Thus, particularly prolonged running may increase the risk of thrombembolic incidents in running athletes.

  6. Collagen can selectively trigger a platelet secretory phenotype via glycoprotein VI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Ollivier

    Full Text Available Platelets are not only central actors of hemostasis and thrombosis but also of other processes including inflammation, angiogenesis, and tissue regeneration. Accumulating evidence indicates that these "non classical" functions of platelets do not necessarily rely on their well-known ability to form thrombi upon activation. This suggests the existence of non-thrombotic alternative states of platelets activation. We investigated this possibility through dose-response analysis of thrombin- and collagen-induced changes in platelet phenotype, with regards to morphological and functional markers of platelet activation including shape change, aggregation, P-selectin and phosphatidylserine surface expression, integrin activation, and release of soluble factors. We show that collagen at low dose (0.25 µg/mL selectively triggers a platelet secretory phenotype characterized by the release of dense- and alpha granule-derived soluble factors without causing any of the other major platelet changes that usually accompany thrombus formation. Using a blocking antibody to glycoprotein VI (GPVI, we further show that this response is mediated by GPVI. Taken together, our results show that platelet activation goes beyond the mechanisms leading to platelet aggregation and also includes alternative platelet phenotypes that might contribute to their thrombus-independent functions.

  7. Impact of Silver Nanoparticles on Haemolysis, Platelet Function and Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Laloy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs are increasingly used in biomedical applications because of their large antimicrobial spectrum. Data in the literature on the ability of Ag NPs to perform their desired function without eliciting undesirable effects on blood elements are very limited and contradictory. We studied the impact of Ag NPs on erythrocyte integrity, platelet function and blood coagulation. Erythrocyte integrity was assessed by spectrophotometric measurement of haemoglobin release. Platelet adhesion and aggregation was determined by light transmission aggregometry and scanning electron microscopy. The calibrated thrombin generation test was used to study the impact on coagulation cascade. We demonstrated that Ag NPs induced haemolysis. They also increase platelet adhesion without having any impact on platelet aggregation. Finally, they also had procoagulant potential. Bringing all data from these tests together, the no observed effect concentration is 5 μg/mL.

  8. Mechanism of smectic arrangement of montmorillonite and bentonite clay platelets incorporated in gels of poly(acrylamide) induced by the interaction with cationic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodoubtsev, S G; Lavrentyeva, E K; Khokhlov, A R; Allegra, G; Famulari, A; Meille, S V

    2006-01-03

    Structure transitions, induced by the interaction with the cationic surfactant cetylpyridinium chloride in nanocomposite gels of poly(acrylamide) with incorporated suspensions of the two closely related layered clays bentonite and montmorillonite, were studied. Unexpectedly, different behaviors were revealed. X-ray diffraction measurements confirm that, due to the interaction with the surfactant, initially disordered bentonite platelets arrange into highly ordered structures incorporating alternating clay platelets and surfactant bilayers. The formation of these smectic structures also in the cross-linked polymer gels, upon addition of the surfactant, is explained by the existence of preformed, poorly ordered aggregates of the clay platelets in the suspensions before the gel formation. In the case of montmorillonite, smectic ordering of the disordered platelets in the presence of the surfactant is observed only after drying the suspensions and the clay-gel composites. Rheology studies of aqueous suspensions of the two clays, in the absence of both surfactant and gel, evidence a much higher viscosity for bentonite than for montmorillonite, suggesting smaller clay-aggregate size in the latter case. Qualitatively consistent results are obtained from optical micrographs.

  9. Platelet storage lesion in interim platelet unit concentrates: A comparison with buffy-coat and apheresis concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sukhi; Shams Hakimi, Caroline; Jeppsson, Anders; Hesse, Camilla

    2017-12-01

    Platelet storage lesion is characterized by morphological changes and impaired platelet function. The collection method and storage medium may influence the magnitude of the storage lesion. The aim of this study was to compare the newly introduced interim platelet unit (IPU) platelet concentrates (PCs) (additive solution SSP+, 40% residual plasma content) with the more established buffy-coat PCs (SSP, 20% residual plasma content) and apheresis PCs (autologous plasma) in terms of platelet storage lesions. Thirty PCs (n=10 for each type) were assessed by measuring metabolic parameters (lactate, glucose, and pH), platelet activation markers, and in vitro platelet aggregability on days 1, 4, and 7 after donation. The expression of platelet activation markers CD62p (P-selectin), CD63 (LAMP-3), and phosphatidylserine was measured using flow cytometry and in vitro aggregability was measured with multiple electrode aggregometry. Higher platelet activation and lower in vitro aggregability was observed in IPU than in buffy-coat PCs on day 1 after donation. In contrast, metabolic parameters, expression of platelet activation markers, and in vitro aggregability were better maintained in IPU than in buffy-coat PCs at the end of the storage period. Compared to apheresis PCs, IPU PCs had higher expression of activation markers and lower in vitro aggregability throughout storage. In conclusion, the results indicate that there are significant differences in platelet storage lesions between IPU, buffy-coat, and apheresis PCs. The quality of IPU PCs appears to be at least comparable to buffy-coat preparations. Further studies are required to distinguish the effect of the preparation methods from storage conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Niacin and biosynthesis of PGD₂by platelet COX-1 in mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wen-Liang; Stubbe, Jane; Ricciotti, Emanuela; Alamuddin, Naji; Ibrahim, Salam; Crichton, Irene; Prempeh, Maxwell; Lawson, John A; Wilensky, Robert L; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Puré, Ellen; FitzGerald, Garret A

    2012-04-01

    The clinical use of niacin to treat dyslipidemic conditions is limited by noxious side effects, most commonly facial flushing. In mice, niacin-induced flushing results from COX-1-dependent formation of PGD₂ and PGE₂ followed by COX-2-dependent production of PGE₂. Consistent with this, niacin-induced flushing in humans is attenuated when niacin is combined with an antagonist of the PGD₂ receptor DP1. NSAID-mediated suppression of COX-2-derived PGI₂ has negative cardiovascular consequences, yet little is known about the cardiovascular biology of PGD₂. Here, we show that PGD₂ biosynthesis is augmented during platelet activation in humans and, although vascular expression of DP1 is conserved between humans and mice, platelet DP1 is not present in mice. Despite this, DP1 deletion in mice augmented aneurysm formation and the hypertensive response to Ang II and accelerated atherogenesis and thrombogenesis. Furthermore, COX inhibitors in humans, as well as platelet depletion, COX-1 knockdown, and COX-2 deletion in mice, revealed that niacin evoked platelet COX-1-derived PGD₂ biosynthesis. Finally, ADP-induced spreading on fibrinogen was augmented by niacin in washed human platelets, coincident with increased thromboxane (Tx) formation. However, in platelet-rich plasma, where formation of both Tx and PGD₂ was increased, spreading was not as pronounced and was inhibited by DP1 activation. Thus, PGD₂, like PGI₂, may function as a homeostatic response to thrombogenic and hypertensive stimuli and may have particular relevance as a constraint on platelets during niacin therapy.

  11. Differential labeling of platelet alpha 2 adrenoceptors by 3H dihydroergocryptine and 3H yohimbine in patients with myeloproliferative disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swart, S.S.; Wood, J.K.; Barnett, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Platelet alpha adrenoceptor status was examined using the radioligands 3 H-yohimbine ( 3 H-YOH) and 3 H-dihydroergocryptine ( 3 H-DHE) in 14 patients with myeloproliferative disorder (MPD) and 10 normal controls. Platelets from normal controls and MPD patients sensitive to adrenaline induced aggregation exhibited approximately 50% more binding sites identified by 3 H-DHE than 3 H-YOH, whereas MPD platelets insensitive to adrenaline showed selective loss of these extra 3 H-DHE sites. In functional studies after 30 minutes preincubation with the unlabelled antagonists, DHE was more potent than YOH at inhibiting adrenaline induced aggregation in normal platelets. In addition, the affinity constant for DHE was virtually identical in binding and functional experiments, whereas for YOH the affinity constant for binding was approximately 10 fold more potent than that for aggregation. These results suggest that the alpha adrenoceptor binding site on human platelets labelled by 3 H-DHE may be of more functional relevance than that labelled by 3 H-YOH alone

  12. Amarogentin, a secoiridoid glycoside, abrogates platelet activation through PLC γ 2-PKC and MAPK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ting-Lin; Lu, Wan-Jung; Lien, Li-Ming; Thomas, Philip Aloysius; Lee, Tzu-Yin; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Amarogentin, an active principle of Gentiana lutea, possess antitumorigenic, antidiabetic, and antioxidative properties. Activation of platelets is associated with intravascular thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases. The present study examined the effects of amarogentin on platelet activation. Amarogentin treatment (15~60  μM) inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen, but not thrombin, arachidonic acid, and U46619. Amarogentin inhibited collagen-induced phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC) γ2, protein kinase C (PKC), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). It also inhibits in vivo thrombus formation in mice. In addition, neither the guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ nor the adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 affected the amarogentin-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation, which suggests that amarogentin does not regulate the levels of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. In conclusion, amarogentin prevents platelet activation through the inhibition of PLC γ2-PKC cascade and MAPK pathway. Our findings suggest that amarogentin may offer therapeutic potential for preventing or treating thromboembolic disorders.

  13. Release of a human platelet specific protein measured by a radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludlam, C A; Moore, S; Bolton, A E; Pepper, D S; Cash, J D

    1975-06-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that it is possible to isolate and characterize a protein released from human platelets during thrombin-induced aggregation. This protein appeared to be unique to platelets and was named ..beta..-thromboglobulin (..beta..-TG). The following communication describes a radioimmunoassay for the measurement of ..beta..-TG and gives an account of preliminary studies to examine the potential application of this assay for the detection of platelet involvement in thromboembolic disorders.

  14. Enhanced ex vivo inhibition of platelet function following addition of dipyridamole to aspirin after transient ischaemic attack or ischaemic stroke: first results from the TRinity AntiPlatelet responsiveness (TrAP) study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tobin, William Oliver

    2012-02-01

    Ex vivo dipyridamole \\'non-responsiveness\\' has not been extensively studied in ischaemic cerebrovascular disease. Platelet surface marker expression, leucocyte-platelet complex formation and inhibition of platelet function at high shear stress as detected by the PFA-100(R) Collagen-Adenosine-diphosphate (C-ADP) and Collagen-Epinephrine cartridges was assessed in 52 patients within 4 weeks of transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or ischaemic stroke on aspirin, and then 14 d (14 d) and >90 d (90 d) after adding dipyridamole. A novel definition of \\'Dipyridamole non-responsiveness\\' was used. The median C-ADP closure time increased following addition of dipyridamole, remained elevated at 90 d (P <\\/= 0.03), and was unaffected by aspirin dose. 59% at 14 d and 56% at 90 d were \\'dipyridamole non-responders\\' on the PFA-100. The proportion of non-responders at 14 and 90 d was similar (P= 0.9). Compared with baseline (4.6%), median monocyte-platelet complexes increased at 14 d (5.0%, P= 0.03) and 90 d (4.9%, P= 0.04). Low C-ADP closure times were associated with increased monocyte-platelet complexes at 14 d (r= -0.32, P= 0.02) and 90 d (r= -0.33, P = 0.02). Monocyte-platelet complexes increased in the subgroup of dipyridamole non-responders on the PFA-100 (P<\\/= 0.045), but not in responders (P >\\/= 0.5), at 14 and 90 d versus baseline. Additional inhibition of platelet function has been detected with the PFA-100 when dipyridamole is added to aspirin. Elevated monocyte-platelet complexes may contribute to ex vivo dipyridamole non-responsiveness.

  15. Anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic effect of a traditional herbal medicine Kyung-Ok-Ko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Lee, Kyoung Mee; Hong, Nam Doo; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2016-02-03

    Kyung-Ok-Ko (KOK), a traditional herbal prescription, contains six main ingredients; Rehmannia glutinosa var. purpurae, Lycium chinense, Aquillaria agallocha, Poria cocos, Panax ginseng, and honey. KOK has been widely taken as a traditional oriental medicine for improving blood circulation or age-related symptoms, such as dementia and stroke. However, the effect of KOK on platelet activity has not been clarified. To evaluate the effect of KOK on platelet function, we evaluated its effect on functional markers of platelet activation such as aggregation and shape change. As a mechanism study for the effect of KOK, we examined its effect on granule secretion, intracellular Ca(2+) increase, and PLCγ and Akt activation. To investigate the effect of orally administered KOK (0.5, 1, 2 g/kg), we examined its ex vivo effect on platelet aggregation in rat, and its in vivo anti-thrombotic effect in mice thromboembolism model. Furthermore, the effect of KOK on bleeding time was examined to estimate its potential side effect. KOK (0.3, 1, 3, 10 mg/ml) inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation and shape change in rat platelets in a concentration-dependent manner. The mechanism for the anti-platelet effect of KOK seems to involve the inhibition of ATP release, intracellular Ca(2+) elevation, and the phosphorylation of PLCγ and Akt. In rat ex vivo study, KOK (2 g/kg, p.o. for 1 day, and 0.5, 1, 2 g/kg, p.o. for 7 days) also had significant inhibitory effects on collagen-induced platelet aggregation. In addition, KOK showed a significant protective effect against thrombosis attack in mice. The prolongation of bleeding time by KOK was much less than that by ASA, suggesting a beneficial potential of KOK than ASA in view of side effect. These findings suggest that KOK elicits remarkable anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic effects with less side effect of bleeding, and therefore, it may have a therapeutic potential for the prevention of platelet-associated cardiovascular diseases

  16. Kaempferol suppresses collagen-induced platelet activation by inhibiting NADPH oxidase and protecting SHP-2 from oxidative inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su Bin; Jang, Ji Yong; Chae, Yun Hee; Min, Ji Hyun; Baek, Jin Young; Kim, Myunghee; Park, Yunjeong; Hwang, Gwi Seo; Ryu, Jae-Sang; Chang, Tong-Shin

    2015-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated upon collagen stimulation act as second messengers to propagate various platelet-activating events. Among the ROS-generating enzymes, NADPH oxidase (NOX) plays a prominent role in platelet activation. Thus, NOX has been suggested as a novel target for anti-platelet drug development. Although kaempferol has been identified as a NOX inhibitor, the influence of kaempferol on the activation of platelets and the underlying mechanism have never been investigated. Here, we studied the effects of kaempferol on NOX activation, ROS-dependent signaling pathways, and functional responses in collagen-stimulated platelets. Superoxide anion generation stimulated by collagen was significantly inhibited by kaempferol in a concentration-dependent manner. More importantly, kaempferol directly bound p47(phox), a major regulatory subunit of NOX, and significantly inhibited collagen-induced phosphorylation of p47(phox) and NOX activation. In accordance with the inhibition of NOX, ROS-dependent inactivation of SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2) was potently protected by kaempferol. Subsequently, the specific tyrosine phosphorylation of key components (Syk, Vav1, Btk, and PLCγ2) of collagen receptor signaling pathways was suppressed by kaempferol. Kaempferol also attenuated downstream responses, including cytosolic calcium elevation, P-selectin surface exposure, and integrin-αIIbβ3 activation. Ultimately, kaempferol inhibited platelet aggregation and adhesion in response to collagen in vitro and prolonged in vivo thrombotic response in carotid arteries of mice. This study shows that kaempferol impairs collagen-induced platelet activation through inhibition of NOX-derived ROS production and subsequent oxidative inactivation of SHP-2. This effect suggests that kaempferol has therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of thrombovascular diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of platelets in hemostasis and the effects of snake venom toxins on platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Mayara Ribeiro; de Sousa, Bruna Barbosa; da Cunha Pereira, Déborah Fernanda; Mamede, Carla Cristine Neves; Matias, Mariana Santos; de Morais, Nadia Cristina Gomes; de Oliveira Costa, Júnia; de Oliveira, Fábio

    2017-07-01

    The human body has a set of physiological processes, known as hemostasis, which keeps the blood fluid and free of clots in normal vessels; in the case of vascular injury, this process induces the local formation of a hemostatic plug, preventing hemorrhage. The hemostatic system in humans presents complex physiological interactions that involve platelets, plasma proteins, endothelial and subendothelial structures. Disequilibrium in the regulatory mechanisms that control the growth and the size of the thrombus is one of the factors that favors the development of diseases related to vascular disorders such as myocardial infarction and stroke, which are among the leading causes of death in the western world. Interfering with platelet function is a strategy for the treatment of thrombotic diseases. Antiplatelet drugs are used mainly in cases related to arterial thrombosis and interfere in the formation of the platelet plug by different mechanisms. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is the oldest and most widely used antithrombotic drug. Although highly effective in most cases, aspirin has limitations compared to other drugs used in the treatment of homeostatic disorders. For this reason, research related to molecules that interfere with platelet aggregation are of great relevance. In this regard, snake venoms are known to contain a number of molecules that interfere with hemostasis, including platelet function. The mechanisms by which snake venom components inhibit or activate platelet aggregation are varied and can be used as tools for the diagnosis and the treatment of several hemostatic disorders. The aim of this review is to present the role of platelets in hemostasis and the mechanisms by which snake venom toxins interfere with platelet function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Platelet activation and platelet-leukocyte interaction in β-thalassemia/hemoglobin E patients with marked nucleated erythrocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keawvichit, Rassamon; Khowawisetsut, Ladawan; Chaichompoo, Porntip; Polsrila, Korakot; Sukklad, Suchana; Sukapirom, Kasama; Khuhapinant, Archrob; Fucharoen, Suthat; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit

    2012-11-01

    Patients with thalassemia, an inherited hemolytic anemia, have increased risk of hypercoagulable complications. A whole blood flow cytometric (FCM) method has been used for studies of platelet activation and platelet-leukocyte aggregation in these patients. However, this FCM method presents technical difficulties because of the high proportion of immature red blood cells (RBCs) in these patients. A protocol for the simultaneous measurement of platelet activation and their aggregation with leukocyte populations in whole blood using four-color FCM which excluded immature RBC was devised, and evaluated for the evaluation of platelet function in patients with β-thalassemia/hemoglobin E (HbE). Whole blood from these patients and from healthy volunteers was stained for platelet activation and platelet-leukocyte aggregates using anti-CD42a, anti-CD62P, anti-CD45 and glycophorin A (GPA) conjugated with different fluorochromes. Our FCM method is simple, effective and based on the assumption that GPA is present on all immature RBCs, but is not expressed on CD45⁺ leukocytes. Results from the studies showed that blood samples from these patients contained a high frequency of circulating activated platelets (CD42a⁺/CD62P⁺) when compared to samples from healthy individuals. The percentage of platelet-neutrophil, platelet-monocyte-but not platelet-lymphocyte-aggregates were also elevated in both thalassemia genotypes with marked increase in patients who had undergone splenectomy. These findings suggest that platelets adhere to neutrophils and monocytes are activated which support the clinical observation that splenectomized thalassemia patients have an increased risk of arterial or venous thrombotic manifestations.

  19. Radiation-induced DNA breaks detected by immuno labelling of poly(ADP-ribose) in CHO cells. Standardization by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlet, P.; Bidon, N.; Noel, G.; Averbeck, D.; Salamero, J.; DeMurcia, G.

    1998-01-01

    The poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase is an ubiquitous nuclear protein capable of binding specifically to DNA strand breaks. It synthesizes ADP-ribose polymers proportionally to DNA breaks. The actual method of reference to determine DNA double strand breaks is pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, but this requires many cells. It thus appeared of interest to use poly (ADP-ribos)ylation to follow and estimate γ-ray-induced DNA fragmentation at the level of isolated cells after γ-irradiation in chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). The results obtained by the immuno-labelling technique of ADP-ribose polymers were compared to those obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. They show that poly (ADP-ribos)ylation reflects the occurrence of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks. A clear relationship exists between the amount of ADP-ribose polymers detected and DNA double strand breaks after γ-irradiation. (authors)

  20. In vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Platelets are routinely isolated from whole blood and stored in plasma for 5 days. The present study was done to assess the in vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution at 22°C. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 30 blood donors of both sex in State Blood Bank, CSM Medical University, Lucknow. Random donor platelets were prepared by platelet rich plasma method. Whole blood (350 ml was collected in anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine triple blood bags. Random donor platelets were stored for 7 days at 22°C in platelet incubators and agitators, with and without additive solution. Results: Platelet swirling was present in all the units at 22°C on day 7, with no evidence of bacterial contamination. Comparison of the mean values of platelet count, platelet factor 3, lactate dehydrogenase, pH, glucose and platelet aggregation showed no significant difference in additive solution, whereas platelet factor 3, glucose and platelet aggregation showed significant difference (P < 0.001 on day 7 without additive solution at 22°C. Conclusion: Our study infers that platelet viability and aggregation were best maintained within normal levels on day 7 of storage in platelet additive solution at 22°C. Thus, we may conclude that in vitro storage of random donor platelets with an extended shelf life of 7 days using platelet additive solution may be advocated to improve the inventory of platelets.

  1. In vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Platelets are routinely isolated from whole blood and stored in plasma for 5 days. This study was done to assess the in vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution at 22°C. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 30 blood donors of both sex in State Blood Bank, C S M Medical University, Lucknow. Random donor platelets were prepared by the platelet-rich plasma method. Whole blood (350 ml was collected in anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine triple blood bags. Random donor platelets were stored for 7 days at 22°C in platelet incubators and agitators with and without additive solution. Results: Platelet swirling was present in all the units at 22°C on day 7 with no evidence of bacterial contamination. Comparison of the mean values of platelet count, platelet factor 3, lactate dehydrogenase, pH, glucose and platelet aggregation showed no significant difference in additive solution while platelet factor 3, glucose and platelet aggregation showed significant difference (P < 0.001 on day 7 without additive solution at 22°C. Conclusion: Our study infers that the platelet viability and aggregation were the best maintained within normal levels on day 7 of storage in platelet additive solution at 22°C. Thus, we may conclude that in vitro storage of random donor platelets with an extended shelf life of 7 days using platelet additive solution may be advocated to improve the inventory of platelets.

  2. Platelets and infections—complex interactions with bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind eHAMZEH-COGNASSE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Platelets can be considered sentinels of vascular system due to their high number in the circulation and to the range of functional immunoreceptors they express. Platelets express a wide range of potential bacterial receptors, including complement receptors, FcγRII, Toll-Like Receptors but also integrins conventionally described in the hemostatic response, such as GPIIb-IIIa or GPIb. Bacteria bind these receptors either directly, or indirectly via fibrinogen, fibronectin, the first complement C1q, the von Willebrand Factor, etc. The fate of platelet bound bacteria is questioned. Several studies reported the ability of activated platelets to internalize bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus or Porphyromonas gingivalis, though there is no clue on what happens thereafter. Are they sheltered from the immune system in the cytoplasm of platelets or are they lysed? Indeed, while the presence of phagolysosome has not been demonstrated in platelets, they contain antimicrobial peptides that were shown to be efficient on S. aureus. Besides, the fact that bacteria can bind to platelets via receptors involved in hemostasis suggests that they may induce aggregation; this has indeed been described for Streptococcus sanguinis, S. epidermidis or C. pneumoniae. On the other hand, platelets are able to display an inflammatory response to an infectious triggering. We, and others, have shown that platelet release soluble immunomodulatory factors upon stimulation by bacterial components. Moreover, interactions between bacteria and platelets are not limited to only these two partners. Indeed, platelets are also essential for the formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps by neutrophils, resulting in bacterial clearance by trapping bacteria and concentrating antibacterial factors but in enhancing thrombosis. In conclusion, the platelet-bacteria interplay is a complex game; its fine analysis is complicated by the fact that the inflammatory component adds to the

  3. The feed gas composition determines the degree of physical plasma-induced platelet activation for blood coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekeschus, Sander; Brüggemeier, Janik; Hackbarth, Christine; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Partecke, Lars-Ivo; van der Linde, Julia

    2018-03-01

    Cold atmospheric (physical) plasma has long been suggested to be a useful tool for blood coagulation. However, the clinical applicability of this approach has not been addressed sufficiently. We have previously demonstrated the ability of a clinically accepted atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet (kINPen® MED) to coagulate liver incisions in mice with similar performance compared to the gold standard electrocauterization. We could show that plasma-mediated blood coagulation was dependent on platelet activation. In the present work, we extended on this by investigating kINPen®-mediated platelet activation in anticoagulated human donor blood ex vivo. With focus on establishing high-throughput, multi-parametric platelet activation assays and performing argon feed gas parameter studies we achieved the following results: (i) plasma activated platelets in heparinized but not in EDTA-anticoagulated blood; (ii) plasma decreased total platelet counts but increased numbers of microparticles; (iii) plasma elevated the expression of several surface activation markers on platelets (CD62P, CD63, CD69, and CD41/61); (iv) in platelet activation, wet and dry argon plasma outperformed feed gas admixtures with oxygen and/or nitrogen; (v) plasma-mediated platelet activation was accompanied by platelet aggregation. Platelet aggregation is a necessary requirement for blood clot formation. These findings are important to further elucidate molecular details and clinical feasibility of cold physical plasma-mediated blood coagulation.

  4. Dual-specificity phosphatase 3 deficiency or inhibition limits platelet activation and arterial thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Lucia; Kuijpers, Marijke J; Gilio, Karen; Hego, Alexandre; Théâtre, Emilie; Maurissen, Lisbeth; Vandereyken, Maud; Diogo, Catia V; Lecut, Christelle; Guilmain, William; Bobkova, Ekaterina V; Eble, Johannes A; Dahl, Russell; Drion, Pierre; Rascon, Justin; Mostofi, Yalda; Yuan, Hongbin; Sergienko, Eduard; Chung, Thomas D Y; Thiry, Marc; Senis, Yotis; Moutschen, Michel; Mustelin, Tomas; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Tautz, Lutz; Oury, Cécile; Rahmouni, Souad

    2015-02-17

    A limitation of current antiplatelet therapies is their inability to separate thrombotic events from bleeding occurrences. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to platelet activation is important for the development of improved therapies. Recently, protein tyrosine phosphatases have emerged as critical regulators of platelet function. This is the first report implicating the dual-specificity phosphatase 3 (DUSP3) in platelet signaling and thrombosis. This phosphatase is highly expressed in human and mouse platelets. Platelets from DUSP3-deficient mice displayed a selective impairment of aggregation and granule secretion mediated by the collagen receptor glycoprotein VI and the C-type lectin-like receptor 2. DUSP3-deficient mice were more resistant to collagen- and epinephrine-induced thromboembolism compared with wild-type mice and showed severely impaired thrombus formation on ferric chloride-induced carotid artery injury. Intriguingly, bleeding times were not altered in DUSP3-deficient mice. At the molecular level, DUSP3 deficiency impaired Syk tyrosine phosphorylation, subsequently reducing phosphorylation of phospholipase Cγ2 and calcium fluxes. To investigate DUSP3 function in human platelets, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of DUSP3 was developed. This compound specifically inhibited collagen- and C-type lectin-like receptor 2-induced human platelet aggregation, thereby phenocopying the effect of DUSP3 deficiency in murine cells. DUSP3 plays a selective and essential role in collagen- and C-type lectin-like receptor 2-mediated platelet activation and thrombus formation in vivo. Inhibition of DUSP3 may prove therapeutic for arterial thrombosis. This is the first time a protein tyrosine phosphatase, implicated in platelet signaling, has been targeted with a small-molecule drug. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. A critical role of platelet TGF-β release in podoplanin-mediated tumour invasion and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Ai; Okitaka, Mina; Takagi, Satoshi; Takami, Miho; Sato, Shigeo; Nishio, Makoto; Okumura, Sakae; Fujita, Naoya

    2017-02-08

    The tumour microenvironment is critical for various characteristics of tumour malignancies. Platelets, as part of the tumour microenvironment, are associated with metastasis formation via increasing the rate of tumour embolus formation in microvasculature. However, the mechanisms underlying the ability of tumour cells to acquire invasiveness and extravasate into target organs at the site of embolization remain unclear. In this study, we reported that platelet aggregation-inducing factor podoplanin expressed on tumour cell surfaces were found to not only promote the formation of tumour-platelet aggregates via interaction with platelets, but also induced the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tumour cells by enhancing transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) release from platelets. In vitro and in vivo analyses revealed that podoplanin-mediated EMT resulted in increased invasiveness and extravasation of tumour cells. Treatment of mice with a TGF-β-neutralizing antibody statistically suppressed podoplanin-mediated distant metastasis in vivo, suggesting that podoplanin promoted haematogenous metastasis in part by releasing TGF-β from platelets that was essential for EMT of tumour cells. Therefore, our findings suggested that blocking the TGF-β signalling pathway might be a promising strategy for suppressing podoplanin-mediated haematogenous metastasis in vivo.

  6. Effect of Clopidogrel on Platelet CD Markers in Normal Individuals and in Patients with Untreated Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboor, M.; Moinuddin, M.; Ilyas, S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of clopidogrel response in patients with untreated type 2 diabetes mellitus as compared with normal individuals. One hundred and seven subjects i.e. 32 normal and 75 patients with untreated type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled in this study. In the first step, normal subjects as well as diabetic patients were selected and tested for various laboratory parameters and platelets flow cytometry. In the second step, an antiplatelet drug (clopidogrel) was administered for 10 days to each individual enrolled in the study. After 10 days blood samples were collected for platelets flow cytometry. CD41 and CD61 did not show any change after the administration of clopidogrel in resting and activated platelets. CD63 and CD62p positivity was increased in normal and in diabetic patients' platelets after activation with ADP before clopidogrel. It was decreased in normal resting and ADP stimulated platelets after clopidogrel treatment. CD63 and CD62p positivity in resting and ADP stimulated patients platelets was also decreased after clopidogrel treatment. The change was, however, not as marked as in normal subjects. (author)

  7. [Effects of lysine clonixinate on platelet function. Comparison with other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, E H; Sassetti, B; Kaminker, A J; De Los Santos, A R; Martí, M L; Di Girolamo, G

    2001-01-01

    One of the mechanisms of action of non steroid antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) consists of inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. This explains many of the pharmacological effects and adverse events observed in medical practice. Administration of NSAIDs to patients with hemostatic disorders or perioperative conditions entails the risk of bleeding due to inhibition of platelet function. This study deals with platelet changes induced by lysine clonixinate vs diclofenac, ibuprofen and aspirin in classical tests such as platelet count, platelet factor 3 (PF3) activity and platelet aggregation with various inductors and more recent procedures such as P-selectin measurement by flow cytometry. Unlike control drugs, lysine clonixinate did not induce changes in platelet count or function when administered to healthy volunteers at the commonly used therapeutic doses.

  8. Niacin and biosynthesis of PGD2 by platelet COX-1 in mice and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wen-Liang; Stubbe, Jane; Ricciotti, Emanuela; Alamuddin, Naji; Ibrahim, Salam; Crichton, Irene; Prempeh, Maxwell; Lawson, John A.; Wilensky, Robert L.; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Puré, Ellen; FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2012-01-01

    The clinical use of niacin to treat dyslipidemic conditions is limited by noxious side effects, most commonly facial flushing. In mice, niacin-induced flushing results from COX-1–dependent formation of PGD2 and PGE2 followed by COX-2–dependent production of PGE2. Consistent with this, niacin-induced flushing in humans is attenuated when niacin is combined with an antagonist of the PGD2 receptor DP1. NSAID-mediated suppression of COX-2–derived PGI2 has negative cardiovascular consequences, yet little is known about the cardiovascular biology of PGD2. Here, we show that PGD2 biosynthesis is augmented during platelet activation in humans and, although vascular expression of DP1 is conserved between humans and mice, platelet DP1 is not present in mice. Despite this, DP1 deletion in mice augmented aneurysm formation and the hypertensive response to Ang II and accelerated atherogenesis and thrombogenesis. Furthermore, COX inhibitors in humans, as well as platelet depletion, COX-1 knockdown, and COX-2 deletion in mice, revealed that niacin evoked platelet COX-1–derived PGD2 biosynthesis. Finally, ADP-induced spreading on fibrinogen was augmented by niacin in washed human platelets, coincident with increased thromboxane (Tx) formation. However, in platelet-rich plasma, where formation of both Tx and PGD2 was increased, spreading was not as pronounced and was inhibited by DP1 activation. Thus, PGD2, like PGI2, may function as a homeostatic response to thrombogenic and hypertensive stimuli and may have particular relevance as a constraint on platelets during niacin therapy. PMID:22406532

  9. Studies on screening, isolation and purification of a fibrinolytic protease from an isolate (VK12) of Ganoderma lucidum and evaluation of its antithrombotic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Sekar; Palani, Perumal; Nishanthi, Ramasami; Kaviyarasan, Venkatesan

    2011-01-01

    Antithrombotic activity of a protease purified from a medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, has been evaluated platelet aggregation in vitro and pulmonary thrombosis in vivo. The purified protease exhibited concentration dependent inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation induced by ADP (adenosine diphosphate), with an IC(50) value of 2.4 mg/mL. The purified protease protected mice against thrombotic death or paralysis induced by collagen and epinephrine in a dose dependent manner when administered orally. It produced a significant inhibition of thrombotic death or paralysis at 60 µg/kg body weight, while aspirin produced a significant inhibition of thrombosis at 10-20 mg/kg body weight. The purified protease also has showed fibrinolytic activity and alters coagulation parameters such as activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and thrombin time (TT) in rat platelet. These results suggested that the antithrombotic activity of Ganoderma lucidum protease might be due to antiplatelet activity rather than anticoagulation activity.

  10. Elevated thrombopoietin in plasma of burned patients without and with sepsis enhances platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, E; Bosco, O; Mariano, F; Dondi, A E; Goffi, A; Spatola, T; Cuccurullo, A; Tizzani, P; Brondino, G; Stella, M; Montrucchio, G

    2009-06-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a humoral growth factor that does not induce platelet aggregation per se, but enhances platelet activation in response to several agonists. Circulating levels of TPO are increased in patients with sepsis and are mainly related to sepsis severity. To investigate the potential contribution of elevated TPO levels in platelet activation during burn injury complicated or not by sepsis. We studied 22 burned patients, 10 without and 12 with sepsis, and 10 healthy subjects. We measured plasma levels of TPO, as well as leukocyte-platelet binding and P-selectin expression. The priming activity of plasma from burned patients or healthy subjects on platelet aggregation and leukocyte-platelet binding, and the role of TPO in these effects were also studied in vitro. Burned patients without and with sepsis showed higher circulating TPO levels and increased monocyte-platelet binding compared with healthy subjects. Moreover, TPO levels, monocyte-platelet binding and P-selectin expression were significantly higher in burned patients with sepsis than in burned patients without sepsis. In vitro, plasma from burned patients without and with sepsis, but not from healthy subjects, primed platelet aggregation, monocyte-platelet binding and platelet P-selectin expression. The effect of plasma from burned patients with sepsis was significantly higher than that of plasma from burned patients without sepsis. An inhibitor of TPO prevented the priming effect of plasma from burned patients. Increased TPO levels may enhance platelet activation during burn injury and sepsis, potentially participating in the pathogenesis of multi-organ failure in these diseases.

  11. Synergism between thrombin and adrenaline (epinephrine) in human platelets. Marked potentiation of inositol phospholipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, V M; Tysnes, O B; Holmsen, H

    1988-01-01

    We have studied synergism between adrenaline (epinephrine) and low concentrations of thrombin in gel-filtered human platelets prelabelled with [32P]Pi. Suspensions of platelets, which did not contain added fibrinogen, were incubated at 37 degrees C to measure changes in the levels of 32P-labelled phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidate (PA), aggregation and dense-granule secretion after stimulation. Adrenaline alone (3.5-4.0 microM) did not cause a change in any parameter (phosphoinositide metabolism, aggregation and dense-granule secretion), but markedly enhanced the thrombin-induced responses over a narrow range of thrombin concentrations (0.03-0.08 units/ml). The thrombin-induced hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids by phospholipase C, which was measured as the formation of [32P]PA, was potentiated by adrenaline, as was the increase in the levels of [32P]PIP2 and [32P]PIP. The presence of adrenaline caused a shift to the left for the thrombin-induced changes in the phosphoinositide metabolism, without affecting the maximal levels of 32P-labelled compounds obtained. A similar shift by adrenaline in the dose-response relationship was previously demonstrated for thrombin-induced aggregation and dense-granule secretion. Also, the narrow range of concentrations of thrombin over which adrenaline potentiates thrombin-induced platelet responses is the same for changes in phosphoinositide metabolism and physiological responses (aggregation and dense-granule secretion). Our observations clearly indicate that adrenaline directly or indirectly influences thrombin-induced changes in phosphoinositide metabolism. PMID:2845924

  12. Relationship between the Increased Haemostatic Properties of Blood Platelets and Oxidative Stress Level in Multiple Sclerosis Patients with the Secondary Progressive Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Morel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is the autoimmune disease of the central nervous system with complex pathogenesis, different clinical courses and recurrent neurological relapses and/or progression. Despite various scientific papers that focused on early stage of MS, our study targets selective group of late stage secondary progressive MS patients. The presented work is concerned with the reactivity of blood platelets in primary hemostasis in SP MS patients. 50 SP MS patients and 50 healthy volunteers (never diagnosed with MS or other chronic diseases were examined to evaluate the biological activity of blood platelets (adhesion, aggregation, especially their response to the most important physiological agonists (thrombin, ADP, and collagen and the effect of oxidative stress on platelet activity. We found that the blood platelets from SP MS patients were significantly more sensitive to all used agonists in comparison with control group. Moreover, the platelet hemostatic function was advanced in patients suffering from SP MS and positively correlated with increased production of O2-∙ in these cells, as well as with Expanded Disability Status Scale. We postulate that the increased oxidative stress in blood platelets in SP MS may be primarily responsible for the altered haemostatic properties of blood platelets.

  13. Identification and characterization of a novel P2Y 12 variant in a patient diagnosed with type 1 von Willebrand disease in the European MCMDM-1VWD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Martina E; Dawood, Ban B; Lester, William A; Peake, Ian R; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Goodeve, Anne C; Makris, Michael; Wilde, Jonathan T; Mumford, Andrew D; Watson, Stephen P; Mundell, Stuart J

    2009-04-23

    We investigated whether defects in the P2Y(12) ADP receptor gene (P2RY12) contribute to the bleeding tendency in 92 index cases enrolled in the European MCMDM-1VWD study. A heterozygous mutation, predicting a lysine to glutamate (K174E) substitution in P2Y(12), was identified in one case with mild type 1 von Willebrand disease (VWD) and a VWF defect. Platelets from the index case and relatives carrying the K174E defect changed shape in response to ADP, but showed reduced and reversible aggregation in response to 10 muM ADP, unlike the maximal, sustained aggregation observed in controls. The reduced response was associated with an approximate 50% reduction in binding of [(3)H]2MeS-ADP to P2Y(12), whereas binding to the P2Y(1) receptor was normal. A hemagglutinin-tagged K174E P2Y(12) variant showed surface expression in CHO cells, markedly reduced binding to [(3)H]2MeS-ADP, and minimal ADP-mediated inhibition of forskolin-induced adenylyl cyclase activity. Our results provide further evidence for locus heterogeneity in type 1 VWD.

  14. Releasing growth factors from activated human platelets after chitosan stimulation: a possible bio-material for platelet-rich plasma preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, E-Chin; Chou, Tz-Chong; Gau, Ching-Hwa; Tu, Hsiao-Pei; Chen, Yen-Teen; Fu, Earl

    2006-10-01

    Thrombin is commonly used for activating the platelets and releasing the growth factors on the application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). We have previously reported that chitosan can enhance rabbit platelet aggregation. In this study, the effects of chitosan on the subsequent growth factors release after human platelets activation were examined to evaluate the possibility of chitosan being used as a substitute for thrombin during PRP preparation. Human platelet activation was determined by aggregation, adhesion and alpha-granule membrane glycoprotein expression. Platelet aggregation was measured by the turbidimetric method, the adhesion was directly examined on chitosan-coated glass plates under light microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the alpha-granule membrane glycoprotein was detected by fluorescent isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated anti-CD61 antibody through flow cytometry. The subsequent epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AB and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 release from platelets were assayed by ELISA after mixing with chitosan. The enhancing effects on the platelet adhesion and the aggregation from chitosan were observed. Under both microscopes, the adhesive platelets on the chitosan-coated plates were not only greater in number but also earlier in activation than those on the control plates. With flow cytometry, increased glycoprotein IIIa expression in platelets was detected after chitosan treatment. Greater concentrations of growth factors were measured from PRP after chitosan treatment than after the solvent treatment. Because of the observations of growth factors releasing from activated human platelets after chitosan stimulation, we suggest that chitosan may be an appropriate substitute for thrombin in PRP preparation.

  15. Dual mechanism of integrin αIIbβ3 closure in procoagulant platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheij, Nadine J A; Gilio, Karen; van Kruchten, Roger; Jobe, Shawn M; Wieschhaus, Adam J; Chishti, Athar H; Collins, Peter; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Cosemans, Judith M E M

    2013-05-10

    Inactivation of integrin αIIbβ3 reverses platelet aggregate formation upon coagulation. Platelets from patient (Scott) and mouse (Capn1(-/-) and Ppif(-/-)) blood reveal a dual mechanism of αIIbβ3 inactivation: by calpain-2 cleavage of integrin-associated proteins and by cyclophilin D/TMEM16F-dependent phospholipid scrambling. These data provide novel insight into the switch mechanisms from aggregating to procoagulant platelets. Aggregation of platelets via activated integrin αIIbβ3 is a prerequisite for thrombus formation. Phosphatidylserine-exposing platelets with a key role in the coagulation process disconnect from a thrombus by integrin inactivation via an unknown mechanism. Here we show that αIIbβ3 inactivation in procoagulant platelets relies on a sustained high intracellular Ca(2+), stimulating intracellular cleavage of the β3 chain, talin, and Src kinase. Inhibition of calpain activity abolished protein cleavage, but only partly suppressed αIIbβ3 inactivation. Integrin αIIbβ3 inactivation was unchanged in platelets from Capn1(-/-) mice, suggesting a role of the calpain-2 isoform. Scott syndrome platelets, lacking the transmembrane protein TMEM16F and having low phosphatidylserine exposure, displayed reduced αIIbβ3 inactivation with the remaining activity fully dependent on calpain. In platelets from Ppif(-/-) mice, lacking mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) formation, agonist-induced phosphatidylserine exposure and αIIbβ3 inactivation were reduced. Treatment of human platelets with cyclosporin A gave a similar phenotype. Together, these data point to a dual mechanism of αIIbβ3 inactivation via calpain(-2) cleavage of integrin-associated proteins and via TMEM16F-dependent phospholipid scrambling with an assistant role of mPTP formation.

  16. YY-39, a tick anti-thrombosis peptide containing RGD domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Fang, Yaqun; Han, Yajun; Bai, Xuewei; Yan, Xiuwen; Zhang, Yun; Lai, Ren; Zhang, Zhiye

    2015-06-01

    Ticks are obligatory blood feeding ectoparasites, which continuously attach to their hosts for 1-2 weeks. There are many biologically active compounds in tick salivary glands interfering host haemostatic system and to successfully obtain blood meal. Several platelet aggregation inhibitors have been identified from ticks. A family of conserved peptides, which were identified from transcriptome analysis of many tick salivary glands, were found to contain unique primary structure including predicted mature peptides of 39-47 amino acid residues in length and a Pro/Glu(P/E)-Pro/His(P/H)-Lys-Gly-Asp(RGD) domain. Given their unique structure and RGD domain, they are considered a novel family of disintegrins that inhibit platelet aggregation. One of them (YY-39) was tested for its effects on platelets and thrombosis in vivo. YY-39 was found effectively to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP), thrombin and thromboxane A2 (TXA2). Furthermore, YY-39 blocked platelet adhesion to soluble collagen and bound to purified GPIIb/IIIa in a dose-dependent manner. In in vivo experiments, YY-39 reduced thrombus weight effectively in a rat arteriovenous shunt model and inhibited thrombosis in a carrageenan-induced mouse tail thrombosis model. Combined with their prevalence in ticks and platelet inhibitory functions, this family of peptides might be conserved tick anti-haemostatic molecules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute effects of 30 minutes of exposure to a smartphone call on in vitro platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Danese, Elisa; Brocco, Giorgio; Gelati, Matteo; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina

    2017-05-01

    Significant concerns are now regularly raised about the safety of excessive mobile phone use. This study was aimed to assess the acute effects of radiofrequency waves emitted by a commercial smartphone on platelet function. Two sequential citrated blood samples were collected from 16 healthy volunteers recruited from laboratory staff. The first sample was placed in a plastic rack, 1 cm distant from a commercial smartphone receiving a 30-min call and emitting 900 MHz radiofrequency waves. The second sample was placed in another plastic rack, isolated from radiofrequency wave sources, for the same period. The platelet count and the mean platelet volume were then assessed in all blood samples, whereas platelet function was evaluated using the platelet function analyser-100 (PFA-100). A 30-min exposure of citrated blood to smartphone radiofrequency waves induced significant prolongation of collagen-epinephrine aggregation (median increase, 10%) and a considerable increase of mean platelet volume (median increase, 5%), whereas collagen-adenosine diphosphate aggregation and platelet count remained unchanged. This study demonstrates that smartphone radiofrequency waves induce significant perturbation of platelet structure and function, thus providing further support to concerns regarding excessive use of mobile phones. Caution should also be taken with regards to blood products containing platelets, which should be kept far away from mobile phones and smartphones throughout the production pipeline and storage period.

  18. Histones induce rapid and profound thrombocytopenia in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Ashish A.

    2011-01-01

    Histones are released from dying cells and contribute to antimicrobial defense during infection. However, extracellular histones are a double-edged sword because they also damage host tissue and may cause death. We studied the interactions of histones with platelets. Histones bound to platelets, induced calcium influx, and recruited plasma adhesion proteins such as fibrinogen to induce platelet aggregation. Hereby fibrinogen cross-linked histone-bearing platelets and triggered microaggregation. Fibrinogen interactions with αIIbβ3 integrins were not required for this process but were necessary for the formation of large platelet aggregates. Infused histones associated with platelets in vivo and caused a profound thrombocytopenia within minutes after administration. Mice lacking platelets or αIIbβ3 integrins were protected from histone-induced death but not from histone-induced tissue damage. Heparin, at high concentrations, prevented histone interactions with platelets and protected mice from histone-induced thrombocytopenia, tissue damage, and death. Heparin and histones are evolutionary maintained. Histones may combine microbicidal with prothrombotic properties to fight invading microbes and maintain hemostasis after injury. Heparin may provide an innate counter mechanism to neutralize histones and diminish collateral tissue damage. PMID:21700775

  19. Anti-Platelet Treatment of Middle-Sized Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jen S; Björck, Martin; Michel, Jean B

    2012-01-01

    between the luminal side of the thrombus and flowing blood is a site of constant thrombus renewal, which is linked to platelet aggregation-induced fibrin generation and accumulation. In addition, red blood cells are entrapped causing an oxidative response. Through centrifugal convection are factors...

  20. Impact of ticagrelor on P2Y1 and P2Y12 localization and on cholesterol levels in platelet plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabani, Vahideh; Montange, Damien; Meneveau, Nicolas; Davani, Siamak

    2017-10-11

    Ticagrelor is an antiplatelet agent that inhibits platelet activation via P2Y12 antagonism. There are several studies showing that P2Y12 needs lipid rafts to be activated, but there are few data about how ticagrelor impacts lipid raft organization. Therefore, we aimed to investigate how ticagrelor could impact the distribution of cholesterol and consequently alter the organization of lipid rafts on platelet plasma membranes. We identified cholesterol-enriched raft fractions in platelet membranes by quantification of their cholesterol levels. Modifications in cholesterol and protein profiles (Flotillin 1, Flotillin 2, CD36, P2Y1, and P2Y12) were studied in platelets stimulated by ADP, treated by ticagrelor, or both. In ADP-stimulated and ticagrelor-treated groups, we found a decreased level of cholesterol in raft fractions of platelet plasma membrane compared to the control group. In addition, the peak of cholesterol in different experimental groups changed its localization on membrane fractions. In the control group, it was situated on fraction 2, while in ADP-stimulated platelets, it was located in fractions 3 to 5, and in fraction 4 in ticagrelor-treated group. The proteins studied also showed changes in their level of expression and localization in fractions of plasma membrane. Cholesterol levels of plasma membranes have a direct role in the organization of platelet membranes and could be modified by stimulation or drug treatment. Since ticagrelor and ADP both changed lipid composition and protein profile, investigating the lipid and protein composition of platelet membranes is of considerable importance as a focus for further research in anti-platelet management.

  1. Platelet biomechanics, platelet bioenergetics, and applications to clinical practice and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mitchell J; Bynum, James; Nair, Prajeeda; Cap, Andrew P; Wade, Charles E; Cox, Charles S; Gill, Brijesh S

    2018-07-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore the relationship between platelet bioenergetics and biomechanics and how this relationship affects the clinical interpretation of platelet function devices. Recent experimental and technological advances highlight platelet bioenergetics and biomechanics as alternative avenues for collecting clinically relevant data. Platelet bioenergetics drive energy production for key biomechanical processes like adhesion, spreading, aggregation, and contraction. Platelet function devices like thromboelastography, thromboelastometry, and aggregometry measure these biomechanical processes. Platelet storage, stroke, sepsis, trauma, or the activity of antiplatelet drugs alters measures of platelet function. However, the specific mechanisms governing these alterations in platelet function and how they relate to platelet bioenergetics are still under investigation.

  2. Evaluation of three methods of platelet labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortelmans, L; Verbruggen, A; De Roo, M; Vermylen, J

    1986-07-01

    The study of the kinetics of labelled platelets makes sense only when the platelets preserve their viability after separation and labelling. The separation and labelling procedures described in the manual of two producers of 111In-oxinate (Amersham, Mallinckrodt) have been evaluated by in vitro aggregation tests. The method of Mallinckrodt diminished the aggregation capacities of the thrombocytes. The labelled platelets with normal in vitro aggregation response (Amersham) were tested in vivo in 11 patients who underwent peripheral bypass surgery. The platelet half-life and the platelet accumulation on bypass grafts were checked one week post-operatively. Because of the poor in vivo response of both methods (exponential half-life curve and bad graft visualization), a third method was optimized in our laboratory with good in vitro and in vivo results in 12 patients.

  3. Effects of extracts and isolated compounds from safflower on some index of promoting blood circulation and regulating menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Dong; Wang, Zheng; Miao, Li; Wang, Linyan

    2016-09-15

    Carthamus tinctorius is used as one of the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) materials in prescriptions and composite to promote blood circulation to remove blood stasis, regulate menstruation and alleviate pain for over 2500 years. Modern pharmacological experiments have demonstrated that safflower has wide-reaching biological activities, including dilating coronary artery, modulating immune system, improving myocardial ischemia, anticoagulation and thromboprophylaxis, antioxidation, antihypoxic, antiaging, antifatigue, antiinflammation, anti-hepatic fibrosis, antitumor, analgesia, etc. Platelet aggregation of safflower extract and main constituents in safflower were determined by PAF-induced or ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Anticoagulation activity was measured by clotting assay of thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) according to the methods provided by the biological reagents provider (Sun Biochemical). Antioxidant effects of safflower were assessed using DPPH radical-scavenging activity test, ABTS radical-scavenging activity test and ferric reducing antioxidant power test. In addition, rats ovary granulosa cell proliferation activity was used for the bio-activity index on regulate menstruation of safflower. Safflower extract at the concentration of 0.7g/mL (P<0.001) and 0.5g/mL (P<0.01) had significantly antagonistic effect on PAF-induced platelet aggregation, compared with negative control. And the anti-platelet aggregation of 0.7g/mL safflower extract was significantly stronger than that of positive control (P<0.001). 0.7g/mL of hydroxysafflor yellow A (P<0.01), anhydrosafflor yellow B (P<0.05), 6-hydroxykaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (P<0.05), keampferol-3-O-β-rutinoside (P<0.01) had significant effect on platelet aggregation compared with negative control. Safflower extract at the concentration of 0.5g/mL (P<0.001) and 0.125g/mL (P<0.01) could significantly inhibit ADP-induced platelet

  4. Xanthohumol, a Prenylated Flavonoid from Hops (Humulus lupulus, Prevents Platelet Activation in Human Platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Ming Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthohumol is the principal prenylated flavonoid in the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.. Xanthohumol was found to be a very potent cancer chemopreventive agent through regulation of diverse mechanisms. However, no data are available concerning the effects of xanthohumol on platelet activation. The aim of this paper was to examine the antiplatelet effect of xanthohumol in washed human platelets. In the present paper, xanthohumol exhibited more-potent activity in inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen. Xanthohumol inhibited platelet activation accompanied by relative [Ca2+]i mobilization, thromboxane A2 formation, hydroxyl radical (OH● formation, and phospholipase C (PLCγ2, protein kinase C (PKC, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, and Akt phosphorylation. Neither SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, nor ODQ, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, reversed the xanthohumol-mediated inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation. Furthermore, xanthohumol did not significantly increase nitrate formation in platelets. This study demonstrates for the first time that xanthohumol possesses potent antiplatelet activity which may initially inhibit the PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK, and PLCγ2-PKC cascades, followed by inhibition of the thromboxane A2 formation, thereby leading to inhibition of [Ca2+]i and finally inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, this novel role of xanthohumol may represent a high therapeutic potential for treatment or prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Overproduction of the poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase DNA-binding domain blocks alkylation-induced DNA repair synthesis in mammalian cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Molinete; W. Vermeulen (Wim); A. Bürkle; J. Mé nissier-de Murcia; J.H. Küpper; J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); G. de Murcia

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe zinc-finger DNA-binding domain (DBD) of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP, EC 2.4.2.30) specifically recognizes DNA strand breaks induced by various DNA-damaging agents in eukaryotes. This, in turn, triggers the synthesis of polymers of ADP-ribose linked to nuclear proteins during

  6. Nanomolar concentrations of adrenaline induce platelet adhesion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Andreas C; Whiss, Per A

    2013-01-01

    Adrenaline is a platelet activator having a resting plasma concentration of adrenaline in micromolar concentrations. This makes it difficult to estimate the relevance of in vitro data for the in vivo situation. The aim of this study was to investigate experimental conditions in vitro that could detect platelet effects of adrenaline in nanomolar concentrations. Platelet adhesion to albumin and collagen was evaluated with a static platelet adhesion assay. Our results show that 10 nmol/l adrenaline induced platelet adhesion to albumin in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) prepared at 140 × g, while 100 nmol/l was necessary in order to increase adhesion of platelets prepared at 220 × g. The mean platelet volume was increased after preparation at 140 × g, suggesting that large reactive platelets contributed to the increased adrenaline sensitivity. At optimal Mg(2+)-concentration, adhesion to collagen was increased by 10 nmol/l adrenaline irrespective of centrifugal force applied during PRP preparation. More specifically, we defined two populations where adhesion to collagen was increased by 10 nmol/l adrenaline either upon centrifugation at 140 × g but not 220 × g or vice versa. In some experiments, platelet adhesion to collagen was induced by 3 nmol/l adrenaline, which corresponds to concentrations achieved during stress in vivo. In summary, the static adhesion assay is able to detect platelet activating effects of adrenaline very close to physiological concentrations. This is rare for in vitro assays and motivates further research about adrenergic signalling in platelets.

  7. Subpopulations in purified platelets adhering on glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Alessia; Gupta, Swati; Reviakine, Ilya

    2016-06-22

    Understanding how platelet activation is regulated is important in the context of cardiovascular disorders and their management with antiplatelet therapy. Recent evidence points to different platelet subpopulations performing different functions. In particular, procoagulant and aggregating subpopulations have been reported in the literature in platelets treated with the GPVI agonists. How the formation of platelet subpopulations upon activation is regulated remains unclear. Here, it is shown that procoagulant and aggregating platelet subpopulations arise spontaneously upon adhesion of purified platelets on clean glass surfaces. Calcium ionophore treatment of the adhering platelets resulted in one platelet population expressing both the procoagulant and the adherent population markers phosphatidylserine and the activated form of GPIIb/IIIa, while all of the platelets expressed CD62P independently of the ionophore treatment. Therefore, all platelets have the capacity to express all three activation markers. It is concluded that platelet subpopulations observed in various studies reflect the dynamics of the platelet activation process.

  8. Evaluation of the TEG® platelet mappingTM assay in blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsen, Louise; Wiinberg, Bo; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads Jens

    2007-01-01

    for quantification of platelet function, including the contribution of the adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and thromboxane A2 (TxA2) receptors to clot formation. Methods In 43 healthy blood donors, the analytical (CVa) and inter-individual variability (CVg) of the TEG® Platelet MappingTM assay were determined together......Background Monitoring of antiplatelet therapy in patients at cardiovascular risk is difficult because existing platelet function tests are too sophisticated for clinical routine. The whole blood TEG® Platelet MappingTM assay measures clot strength as maximal amplitude (MA) and enables...

  9. The possible protective effects of Fluoxetine and Paroxetine against experimental Myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assiri, Adel M.; Layla, E.; Awad, Hisham A.

    2003-01-01

    The study tested the hypothesis of decreased risk of acute myocardial infaraction (AMI) with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs),Rat groups; G1:control, G2A,MI was introducedisoprenaline;G2B, MI was induced by LACA ligation. In G3(Fluoxetine) and G4(Paroxetine) the drugs were given daily for two weeks .In G5(Fluoxetine) and G6(Paroxetine), MI by isopernaline (5A and 6A )was induced in last two days , and MI by coronary ligation (5B and 6B) was induced at the end of two weeks.In each group,ECG tracing, test for platelet aggregation in response to ADP and collagen , biomarkers for MI and histopathological examination for hearts were done. Induction of MI resulted in elevation of ST segment, significant increase in the platelet aggregation, total serum CK, CK-MB,and troponin I. Fluxoetine (G3) and paroxetine (G4) resulted in significant reduction in platelet aggregation, slight decrease in heart rate,insignificant changes in biomarks and no abnormal histopathalogical alterations .Pretreatment with fluoxetine or paroxetine before induction of MI , resulted in the reduction of the elevated S-T segment , significant reduction in the tested platelet aggregation ,biomarkers, ischemia and infaraction areas . In conclusion ,it was demonstrated that fluoxetine and paroxetine ,were able to to produce protective effects in AMI groups ,which were represented by the significant reduction in the biomarkers of myocardial injury ,reduction in S-T segment elevation , and the percentage of the infarct surface area .This effect is probably attributed to the reduction in platelet activation and aggregation,which is an important factor in the pathophysiology of AMI. (author)

  10. Platelet Function Analyzed by Light Transmission Aggregometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Anne-Mette; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2017-01-01

    function can also be assessed for hyper-aggregability, but this is less often evaluated. Light transmission aggregometry (LTA) was introduced in the early 1960s and has since been considered the gold standard. This optical detection system is based on changes in turbidity measured as a change in light...... transmission, which is proportional to the extent of platelet aggregation induced by addition of an agonist. LTA is a flexible method, as different agonists can be used in varying concentrations, but performance of the test requires large blood volumes and experienced laboratory technicians as well...

  11. The use of spinning-disk confocal microscopy for the intravital analysis of platelet dynamics in response to systemic and local inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig N Jenne

    Full Text Available Platelets are central players in inflammation and are an important component of the innate immune response. The ability to visualize platelets within the live host is essential to understanding their role in these processes. Past approaches have involved adoptive transfer of labelled platelets, non-specific dyes, or the use of fluorescent antibodies to tag platelets in vivo. Often, these techniques result in either the activation of the platelet, or blockade of specific platelet receptors. In this report, we describe two new methods for intravital visualization of platelet biology, intravenous administration of labelled anti-CD49b, which labels all platelets, and CD41-YFP transgenic mice, in which a percentage of platelets express YFP. Both approaches label endogenous platelets and allow for their visualization using spinning-disk confocal fluorescent microscopy. Following LPS-induced inflammation, we were able to measure a significant increase in both the number and size of platelet aggregates observed within the vasculature of a number of different tissues. Real-time observation of these platelet aggregates reveals them to be large, dynamic structures that are continually expanding and sloughing-off into circulation. Using these techniques, we describe for the first time, platelet recruitment to, and behaviour within numerous tissues of the mouse, both under control conditions and following LPS induced inflammation.

  12. Rethinking platelet function: thrombocytopenia induced immunodeficiency in critical illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Johansson, Per Ingemar

    2011-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia in critical illness predicts a poor clinical outcome. Apart from its role in microvascular thrombus formation, it is widely anticipated that this association is indirect rather than causal. Emerging evidence however indicates that platelets are also immune competent cells. Like...... per se results in immunodeficiency through loss of platelet-mediated immune functions, and propose that thrombocytopenia induced immunodeficiency in critical illness in part explain the negative predictive value of low or declining platelet count. We propose that rethinking the risks...... of thrombocytopenia to include not only bleeding but also immunodeficiency and immune dysregulation along with the conduct of studies investigating mechanisms contributing to thrombocytopenia induced poor non-hemorrhagic outcome in critical illness, may be means to improve outcome in these patients through...

  13. Evaluation of three methods of platelet labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortelmans, L.; Verbruggen, A.; Roo, M. de; Vermylen, J.

    1986-01-01

    The study of the kinetics of labelled platelets makes sense only when the platelets preserve their viability after separation and labelling. The separation and labelling procedures described in the manual of two producers of 111 In-oxinate (Amersham, Mallinckrodt) have been evaluated by in vitro aggregation tests. The method of Mallinckrodt diminished the aggregation capacities of the thrombocytes. The labelled platelets with normal in vitro aggregation response (Amersham) were tested in vivo in 11 patients who underwent peripheral bypass surgery. The platelet half-life and the platelet accumulation on bypass grafts were checked one week post-operatively. Because of the poor in vivo response of both methods (exponential half-life curve and bad graft visualization), a third method based on that described by W.A. Heaton et al. 1979 was optimized in the authors' laboratory with good in vitro and in vivo results in 12 patients. (author)

  14. Overview of platelet physiology and laboratory evaluation of platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, G M

    1999-06-01

    Appropriate laboratory testing for the platelet-type bleeding disorders hinges on an adequate assessment in the history and physical examination. Patients with histories and screening laboratory results consistent with coagulation disorders (hemophilia, disseminated intravascular coagulation) are not appropriate candidates for platelet function testing. In contrast, patients with a lifelong history of platelet-type bleeding symptoms and perhaps a positive family history of bleeding would be appropriate for testing. Figure 6 depicts one strategy to evaluate these patients. Platelet morphology can easily be evaluated to screen for two uncommon qualitative platelet disorders: Bernard-Soulier syndrome (associated with giant platelets) and gray platelet syndrome, a subtype of storage pool disorder in which platelet granulation is morphologically abnormal by light microscopy. If the bleeding disorder occurred later in life (no bleeding with surgery or trauma early in life), the focus should be on acquired disorders of platelet function. For those patients thought to have an inherited disorder, testing for vWD should be done initially because approximately 1% of the population has vWD. The complete vWD panel (factor VIII coagulant activity, vWf antigen, ristocetin cofactor activity) should be performed because many patients will have abnormalities of only one particular panel component. Patients diagnosed with vWD should be classified using multimeric analysis to identify the type 1 vWD patients likely to respond to DDAVP. If vWD studies are normal, platelet aggregation testing should be performed, ensuring that no antiplatelet medications have been ingested at least 1 week before testing. If platelet aggregation tests are normal and if suspicion for an inherited disorder remains high, vWD testing should be repeated. The evaluation of thrombocytopenia may require bone marrow examination to exclude primary hematologic disorders. If future studies with thrombopoietin assays

  15. Atick salivary protein targets cathepsin G and chymase and inhibits host inflammation and platelet aggregation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chmelař, Jindřich; Oliveira, C. J.; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Francischetti, I.M.B.; Kovářová, Zuzana; Pejler, G.; Kopáček, Petr; Ribeiro, J.M.C.; Mareš, Michael; Kopecký, Jan; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 2 (2011), s. 736-744 ISSN 0006-4971 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960811; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/10/2183 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : parasite serpin * IRS-2 * tick * Ixodes ricinus * platelet aggregation * inflammation * cathepsin G * chymase Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 9.898, year: 2011

  16. The impact of a 600-mg loading dose of clopidogrel in diabetic and non-diabetic patients undergoing elective PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohareb, Mina W; Abd Elghany, Mohamed; Sabry, Nirmeen A; Farid, Samar F

    2016-08-01

    High platelet reactivity (HPR) and suboptimal response to dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) may explain high recurrent rates of ischemic events in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of diabetes mellitus on clopidogrel activity in cardiac patients undergoing PCI. This is an observational study. Patients were categorized according to DM status into diabetic group (N.=30) and non-diabetic group (N.=33). All patients received clopidogrel in a loading dose of 600 mg before PCI. Platelet function was assessed using light transmittance aggregometry (LTA) technique at baseline (before clopidogrel administration), 24 hour after clopidogrel loading dose administration and 7-10 days after PCI. All patients were followed up for at least one year after PCI for recurrence of acute cardiac events. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups with respect to 10 µm adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation measured at baseline (P=0.64), 24 hours after PCI (P=0.874), and 7-10 days after PCI (0.643). Diabetics were not significantly different from non-diabetics in terms of post-PCI acute stent thrombosis (P=0.945), sub-acute stent thrombosis (P=0.945), unstable angina (P=0.29) and cardiac death (P=0.64). There was a statistically significant difference between patients with and without post-PCI acute events regarding ADP aggregation measured 24 hours and 7-10 days after PCI. The use of a high loading dose of clopidogrel (600 mg) in patients undergoing elective PCI can overcome the significant increase in post-PCI platelet aggregation and rate of acute cardiac events induced by diabetes mellitus as co-morbidity in those patients.

  17. An investigation on platelet transport during thrombus formation at micro-scale stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Tovar-Lopez

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an investigation of mass transport of blood cells at micro-scale stenosis where local strain-rate micro-gradients trigger platelet aggregation. Using a microfluidic flow focusing platform we investigate the blood flow streams that principally contribute to platelet aggregation under shear micro-gradient conditions. We demonstrate that relatively thin surface streams located at the channel wall are the primary contributor of platelets to the developing aggregate under shear gradient conditions. Furthermore we delineate a role for red blood cell hydrodynamic lift forces in driving enhanced advection of platelets to the stenosis wall and surface of developing aggregates. We show that this novel microfluidic platform can be effectively used to study the role of mass transport phenomena driving platelet recruitment and aggregate formation and believe that this approach will lead to a greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying shear-gradient dependent discoid platelet aggregation in the context of cardiovascular diseases such as acute coronary syndromes and ischemic stroke.

  18. Morusinol extracted from Morus alba inhibits arterial thrombosis and modulates platelet activation for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Jin; Yang, Hyun; Yoo, Yeong-Min; Hong, Seong Su; Lee, Dongho; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Hak-Ju; Myung, Chang-Seon; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2012-01-01

    Morus alba (white mulberry) has been used in traditional Chinese medicine as an anti-headache, diuretic, expectorant, and anti-diabetic agent. In previous studies, extracts of Morus alba demonstrated favorable biological properties, such as antioxidant activity, suppression of lipoxygenase (LOX)-1, cytotoxicity against cancer cells, and inhibition of the invasion and migration of cancer cells. This study further evaluated the effects of morusinol, a flavonoid derived from Morus alba root bark, on platelet aggregation and thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2) formation in vitro and thrombus formation in vivo. The antiplatelet potential of morusinol was measured using in vitro rabbit platelet aggregation and TXB(2) formation assays. Arterial thrombus formation was investigated using an in vivo ferric chloride (FeCl(3)-induced thrombosis model. Morusinol significantly inhibited collagen- and arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation and TXB(2) formation in cultured platelets in a concentration-dependent manner. Thrombus formation was reduced by 32.1, 42.0, and 99.0% for collagen-induced TXB(2) formation, and 8.0, 24.1, and 29.2% for arachadonic acid-induced TXB(2) formation, with 5, 10, and 30 µg/mL morusinol, respectively. Moreover, oral morusinol (20 mg/kg) or aspirin (20 mg/kg) for three days significantly increased the time to occlusion in vivo by 20.3±5.0 or 6.8±2.9 min, respectively, compared with the control (1% CMC, carboxymethyl cellulose). Taken together, these results indicate that morusinol may significantly inhibit arterial thrombosis in vivo due to antiplatelet activity. Thus, morusinol may exert beneficial effects on transient ischemic attacks or stroke via the modulation of platelet activation.

  19. Effects of carprofen, meloxicam and deracoxib on platelet function in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Kathleen B; Thomason, John M; Lunsford, Kari V; Pinchuk, Lesya M; Langston, Vernon C; Wills, Robert W; McLaughlin, Ronald M; Mackin, Andrew J

    2012-03-01

    To determine effects of anti-inflammatory doses of COX-2 selective NSAIDs carprofen, meloxicam, and deracoxib on platelet function in dogs and urine 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2. Randomized, blocked, crossover design with a 14-day washout period. Healthy intact female Walker Hounds aged 1-6 years and weighing 20.5-24.2 kg. Dogs were given NSAIDs for 7 days at recommended doses: carprofen (2.2 mg kg(-1), PO, every 12 hours), carprofen (4.4 mg kg(-1), PO, every 24 hours), meloxicam (0.2 mg kg(-1), PO, on the 1st day then 0.1 mg kg(-1), PO, every 24 hours), and deracoxib (2 mg kg(-1), PO, every 24 hours). Collagen/epinephrine and collagen/ADP PFA-100 cartridges were used to evaluate platelet function before and during and every other day after administration of each drug. Urine 11-dehydro-thromboxane B(2) was also measured before and during administration of each drug. All NSAIDs significantly prolonged PFA-100 closure times when measured with collagen/epinephrine cartridges, but not with collagen/ADP cartridges. The average duration from drug cessation until return of closure times (collagen/epinephrine cartridges) to baseline values was 11.6, 10.6, 11 and 10.6 days for carprofen (2.2 mg kg(-1) every 12 hours), carprofen (4.4 mg kg(-1) every 24 hours), meloxicam and deracoxib, respectively. Oral administration of some COX-2 selective NSAIDs causes detectable alterations in platelet function in dogs. As in humans, PFA-100 collagen/ADP cartridges do not reliably detect COX-mediated platelet dysfunction in dogs. Individual assessment of platelet function is advised when administering these drugs prior to surgery, particularly in the presence of other risk factors for bleeding. © 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2011 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  20. Alterations of blood platelet functional tests in whole-body irradiated rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitko, M.; Pospisil, J.; Klir, P.; Dienstbier, Z.

    1983-01-01

    With a selected spectrum of coagulation tests the functional capacity of thrombocytes was investigated in rabbits exposed to a whole-body irradiation by means of 60 Co radiation with a LD 5/30. A reduced retraction could be proved for postirradiation days 5, 8, 11, 21, 35, and 56. A reduced formation of malondialdehyde could be identified in thrombocytes on the 8th and 21st day after irradiation. No changes could be found in determining adhesiveness, platelet aggregation caused by ADP, and PF 3 A and PF 3 F tests. In the course of additional investigations (coagulation time in unprepared and siliconized glass tubes, thromboelastogram, activated partial thromboplastine time), significant changes of coagulation time could be observed in siliconized glass tubes on the 8th, 11th, 21st, and 56th postirradiation days. (author)

  1. Platelet rebound effect of alcohol withdrawal and wine drinking in rats. Relation to tannins and lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, J C; Berger, J L; Renaud, S

    1995-01-01

    We investigated in rats fed a purified diet for 2 and 4 months whether wine drinking was associated with the rebound effect on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation observed after alcohol withdrawal. With 6% ethanol drinking or its equivalent in red or white wine, platelet aggregation was reduced similarly by 70% when the animals drank the alcoholic beverages up to the venipuncture. Depriving the rats of alcoholic beverages for 18 hours was associated with an increase in the platelet response of 124% in those receiving 6% ethanol, of 46% with white wine but a decrease of 59% in those with red wine. The protective effect of red wine on platelets could be reproduced by tannins (procyanidins) extracted from grape seeds or red wine and added to 6% ethanol, but not by glycerol or wine without alcohol. That was related to inhibition of the alcohol-induced lipid peroxidation as shown by the lowering of conjugated dienes, lipid peroxides, and the increase in vitamin E in plasma. Owing to tannins, the platelets of rats drinking red wine did not exhibit the rebound effect observed hours after alcohol drinking, eventually associated with sudden death and stroke in humans.

  2. Factor H C-Terminal Domains Are Critical for Regulation of Platelet/Granulocyte Aggregate Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Z. Blatt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Platelet/granulocyte aggregates (PGAs increase thromboinflammation in the vasculature, and PGA formation is tightly controlled by the complement alternative pathway (AP negative regulator, Factor H (FH. Mutations in FH are associated with the prothrombotic disease atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS, yet it is unknown whether increased PGA formation contributes to the thrombosis seen in patients with aHUS. Here, flow cytometry assays were used to evaluate the effects of aHUS-related mutations on FH regulation of PGA formation and characterize the mechanism. Utilizing recombinant fragments of FH spanning the entire length of the protein, we mapped the regions of FH most critical for limiting AP activity on the surface of isolated human platelets and neutrophils, as well as the regions most critical for regulating PGA formation in human whole blood stimulated with thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP. FH domains 19–20 were the most critical for limiting AP activity on platelets, neutrophils, and at the platelet/granulocyte interface. The role of FH in PGA formation was attributed to its ability to regulate AP-mediated C5a generation. AHUS-related mutations in domains 19–20 caused differential effects on control of PGA formation and AP activity on platelets and neutrophils. Our data indicate FH C-terminal domains are key for regulating PGA formation, thus increased FH protection may have a beneficial impact on diseases characterized by increased PGA formation, such as cardiovascular disease. Additionally, aHUS-related mutations in domains 19–20 have varying effects on control of TRAP-mediated PGA formation, suggesting that some, but not all, aHUS-related mutations may cause increased PGA formation that contributes to excessive thrombosis in patients with aHUS.

  3. Análise dos traçados de ondas da agregação plaquetária em pacientes com doenças cardiovasculares em uso do ácido acetil salicílico comparados a doadores de sangue Analysis of the waves and aggregation patterns in patients with cardiovascular diseases in using acetylsalicylic acid compared blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia S. M. Bernardi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A agregação plaquetária avalia a função das plaquetas através de diferentes vias de ativação plaquetária in vitro, fornecendo traçados de ondas equivalentes à propriedade física dessa agregação. Sabendo-se que a aspirina acetila irrever­sivelmente a enzima cicloxigenase prevenindo a geração de tromboxana A2, potente ativador da agregação plaquetária, esta droga tem sido analisada há mais de trinta anos na clínica médica em pacientes com doenças cardiovasculares como uma potente droga antitrombótica. Foram nossos objetivos obter traçados de ondas correspondentes às fases da agregação plaquetária para nossa padronização utilizando nosso grupo controle de doadores de sangue e compará-las com nosso grupo estudo, frente a diferentes agentes agonistas em diferentes concentrações: ADP 1µM e 3µM; AA, 0,5mM; ADR, 0,05 mg/mL, 0,025 mg/mL e 0,010 mg/mL. Os grupos analisados foram constituídos por 41 cardíacos e 40 doadores de sangue considerados controle. Dos cardíacos, 33 faziam uso regular do AAS na concentração de 200 mg/dia e oito na concentração de 100 mg/dia, sendo todos considerados hipertensos. A padronização da agregometria estava na dependência do encontro de traçados correspondentes a ondas de agregação, sendo esses obtidos em porcentagem no tempo de cinco minutos estandartizados pelo aparelho utilizado. Comparando os resultados entre os pacientes e o grupo controle, foi possível observar que, na presença dos agentes agregantes ADP 1µM e ADP 3 µM, ADR 0,05 mg/mL, 0,025mg/mL e 0,010 mg/mL, os pacientes apresentaram 1ª onda, mas não 2ª onda. Por sua vez, no caso do AA 0,5 mM não houve o encontro de traçados de ondas.Platelet aggregation illustrates the function of the platelets by different ways of in vitro platelet activation providing wave traces equivalent to the physical proprieties of this aggregation. It is well known that aspirin irreversibly blocks the cyclooxygenase enzyme

  4. Hemostatic interference of Indian king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) Venom. Comparison with three other snake venoms of the subcontinent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowtham, Yashonandana J; Kumar, M S; Girish, K S; Kemparaju, K

    2012-06-01

    Unlike Naja naja, Bungarus caeruleus, Echis carinatus, and Daboia/Vipera russellii venoms, Ophiophagus hannah venom is medically ignored in the Indian subcontinent. Being the biggest poisonous snake, O. hannah has been presumed to inject several lethal doses of venom in a single bite. Lack of therapeutic antivenom to O. hannah bite in India makes any attempt to save the victim a difficult exercise. This study was initiated to compare O. hannah venom with the above said venoms for possible interference in hemostasis. Ophiophagus hannah venom was found to actively interfere in hemostatic stages such as fibrin clot formation, platelet activation/aggregation, and fibrin clot dissolution. It decreased partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin clotting time (TCT). These activities are similar to that shown by E. carinatus and D. russellii venoms, and thus O. hannah venom was found to exert procoagulant activity through the common pathway of blood coagulation, while N. naja venom increased aPTT and TCT but not PT, and hence it was found to exert anticoagulant activity through the intrinsic pathway. Venoms of O. hannah, E. carinatus, and D. russellii lack plasminogen activation property as they do not hydrolyze azocasein, while they all show plasmin-like activity by degrading the fibrin clot. Although N. naja venom did not degrade azocasein, unlike other venoms, it showed feeble plasmin-like activity on fibrin clot. Venom of E. carinatus induced clotting of human platelet rich plasma (PRP), while the other three venoms interfered in agonist-induced platelet aggregation in PRP. Venom of O. hannah least inhibited the ADP induced platelet aggregation as compared to D. russellii and N. naja venoms. All these three venoms showed complete inhibition of epinephrine-induced aggregation at varied doses. However, O. hannah venom was unique in inhibiting thrombin induced aggregation.

  5. Inhibitory Effects of Cytosolic Ca2+ Concentration by Ginsenoside Ro Are Dependent on Phosphorylation of IP3RI and Dephosphorylation of ERK in Human Platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuk-Woo Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i is platelet aggregation-inducing molecule and is involved in activation of aggregation associated molecules. This study was carried out to understand the Ca2+-antagonistic effect of ginsenoside Ro (G-Ro, an oleanane-type saponin in Panax ginseng. G-Ro, without affecting leakage of lactate dehydrogenase, dose-dependently inhibited thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration was approximately 155 μM. G-Ro inhibited strongly thrombin-elevated [Ca2+]i, which was strongly increased by A-kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS compared to G-kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cGMPS. G-Ro increased the level of cAMP and subsequently elevated the phosphorylation of inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptor I (IP3RI (Ser1756 to inhibit [Ca2+]i mobilization in thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Phosphorylation of IP3RI (Ser1756 by G-Ro was decreased by PKA inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS. In addition, G-Ro inhibited thrombin-induced phosphorylation of ERK 2 (42 kDa, indicating inhibition of Ca2+ influx across plasma membrane. We demonstrate that G-Ro upregulates cAMP-dependent IP3RI (Ser1756 phosphorylation and downregulates phosphorylation of ERK 2 (42 kDa to decrease thrombin-elevated [Ca2+]i, which contributes to inhibition of ATP and serotonin release, and p-selectin expression. These results indicate that G-Ro in Panax ginseng is a beneficial novel Ca2+-antagonistic compound and may prevent platelet aggregation-mediated thrombotic disease.

  6. PROTEOLYTIC DEGRADATION OF POLY (ADP-RIBOSE POLYMERASE IN RATS WITH CARRAGEENAN-INDUCED GASTROENTEROCOLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to study the activity of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase in small intestinal homogenate of rats with chronic carrageenan-induced gastroenterocolitis, as well as mechanisms of regulation of the enzyme in this pathology. Twenty Wistar Albino Glaxo rats were divided into two groups. Animals of group 1 (n = 10 consumed 1 % carrageenan solution for 28 days, which resulted in the development of gastroenterocolitis confirmed morphologically. The control group consisted of intact animals (n = 10. The activity of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP in the homogenate of small intestine, as well as caspase-3, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 serum levels were determined. Obtained data were statistically processed using the Mann-Whitney U test and calculating median and interquartile range (Me, 25th–75th percentile with the help of the GraphPad Prism 5 application. The development of carrageenan-induced gastroenterocolitis was accompanied by an increase in caspase-3, MMP-2, MMP-9 concentrations in blood serum and a decrease in the activity of PARP in small intestinal homogenates. The reduced activity of PARP in chronic carrageenan-induced gastroenterocolitis may be due to the proteolysis of this enzyme under the action of caspase-3, MMP-2, and MMP-9.

  7. Chitosan inhibits platelet-mediated clot retraction, increases platelet-derived growth factor release, and increases residence time and bioactivity of platelet-rich plasma in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprés-Tremblay, Gabrielle; Chevrier, Anik; Tran-Khanh, Nicolas; Nelea, Monica; Buschmann, Michael D

    2017-11-10

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used to treat different orthopedic conditions, however, the clinical benefits of using PRP remain uncertain. Chitosan (CS)-PRP implants have been shown to improve meniscus, rotator cuff and cartilage repair in pre-clinical models. The purpose of this current study was to investigate in vitro and in vivo mechanisms of action of CS-PRP implants. Freeze-dried formulations containing 1% (w/v) CS (80% degree of deacetylation and number average molar mass 38 kDa), 1% (w/v) trehalose as a lyoprotectant and 42.2 mM calcium chloride as a clot activator were solubilized in PRP. Gravimetric measurements and molecular/cellular imaging studies revealed that clot retraction is inhibited in CS-PRP hybrid clots through physical coating of platelets, blood cells and fibrin strands by chitosan, which interferes with platelet aggregation and platelet-mediated clot retraction. Flow cytometry and ELISA assays revealed that platelets are activated and granules secreted in CS-PRP hybrid clots and that cumulative release of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-AB) and epidermal growth factor is higher from CS-PRP hybrid clots compared to PRP clots in vitro. Finally, CS-PRP implants resided for up to 6 weeks in a subcutaneous implantation model and induced cell recruitment and granulation tissue synthesis, confirming greater residency and bioactivity compared to PRP in vivo.

  8. Biochemical and ultrastructural studies suggest that the effects of thapsigargin on human platelets are mediated by changes in intracellular calcium but not by intracellular histamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, S P; McNicol, A; Becker, A B

    1992-01-01

    of DPPE on Tg-induced aggregation were not reversed by the addition of histamine to saponin-permeabilized platelets suggesting non-histamine mediated effects of DPPE on Tg-induced aggregation. Tg stimulated an increase in the cytosolic free calcium concentration which was unaffected by DPPE indicating...

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of BmooPLA2-I, a platelet-aggregation inhibitor and hypotensive phospholipase A2 from Bothrops moojeni venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, Guilherme H. M.; Marchi-Salvador, Daniela P.; Silveira, Lucas B.; Soares, Andreimar M.; Fontes, Marcos R. M.

    2011-01-01

    BmooPLA 2 -I, an acidic, catalytic and nontoxic phospholipase A 2 from B. moojeni venom that is able to inhibit platelet aggregation and induce a hypotensive effect, has been crystallized. An X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 1.6 Å resolution and a molecular-replacement solution was obtained. Phospholipases A 2 (PLA 2 s) are enzymes that cause the liberation of fatty acids and lysophospholipids by the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids. In addition to their catalytic action, a wide variety of pharmacological activities have been described for snake-venom PLA 2 s. BmooPLA 2 -I is an acidic, nontoxic and catalytic PLA 2 isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom which exhibits an inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation, an immediate decrease in blood pressure, inducing oedema at a low concentration, and an effective bactericidal effect. BmooPLA 2 -I has been crystallized and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 1.6 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystals belonged to space group C222 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 39.7, b = 53.2, c = 89.2 Å. The molecular-replacement solution of BmooPLA 2 -I indicated a monomeric conformation, which is in agreement with nondenaturing electrophoresis and dynamic light-scattering experiments. A comparative study of this enzyme with the acidic PLA 2 from B. jararacussu (BthA-I) and other toxic and nontoxic PLA 2 s may provide important insights into the functional aspects of this class of proteins

  10. STUDY ON PLATELET INDICES IN PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION

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    Rabi a Parveen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Pregnancy induced hypertension includes gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and eclampsia. In PIH, lower the platelet count, greater are maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Recent studies suggest that platele t parameters like platelet indices are most simple and cost effective method for prediction of PIH, way before the appearance of derangements in PT, APTT, TT values so we undertook this study with an aim to see an association between platelet indices and pregnancy induced hypertension. MATERIAL AND METHOD : This was prospective analytical case control study. Study included 125 cases, who were diagnosed as PIH with B.P. > 140/90 mmHg, detected after 20 weeks of pregnancy. Under all aseptic precautions samples were collected randomly in EDTA vials . Samples were analysed for platelet indices . RESULT : Maximum number of cases of Preeclampsia (88.57% & Eclampsia (87.5% were fo und in age group of 21 to 25 . Controls were of same age group i.e. 21 to 25 years. It was observed that platelet count showed gradual decrease in eclampsia (1.44580± 36,210 & pre - e clampsia patients (1.97850± 39,010 as compared to normotensive subjects (2.42620± 40,412. MPV showed gradual increase in eclampsia ( 10.49 ±1.12 & pre - eclampsia ( 9.14 ±0.612 patients as compared to normotensive subjects ( 8.422 ±0.743. PDW value also shows gradual increase in eclampsia ( 18.39 ±2.62 & pre - eclampsia ( 16.29 ±2.34 p atients as compared to normotensive subjects ( 12.09 ±2.53. CONCLUSION : Study showed that platelet indices were important, simple, effortless and cost effective investigations which can be used for early recognition of preventable eclampsia complications.

  11. Effect of Antrodia camphorata on Inflammatory Arterial Thrombosis-Mediated Platelet Activation: The Pivotal Role of Protein Kinase C

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    Wan-Jung Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antrodia camphorata is a rare Taiwanese medicinal mushroom. Antrodia camphorata extract has been reported to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammation, antimetastasis, and anticancer activities and plays a role in liver fibrosis, vasorelaxation, and immunomodulation. Critical vascular inflammation leads to vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases, including abdominal aortic aneurysms, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Platelet activation plays a crucial role in intravascular thrombosis, which is involved in a wide variety of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of Antrodia camphorata on platelet activation remains unclear. We examined the effects of Antrodia camphorata on platelet activation. In the present study, Antrodia camphorata treatment (56–224 μg/mL inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen, but not U46619, an analogue of thromboxane A2, thrombin, and arachidonic acid. Antrodia camphorata inhibited collagen-induced calcium (Ca2+ mobilization and phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC and Akt. In addition, Antrodia camphorata significantly reduced the aggregation and phosphorylation of PKC in phorbol-12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu activated platelets. In conclusion, Antrodia camphorata may inhibit platelet activation by inhibiting of Ca2+ and PKC cascade and the Akt pathway. Our study suggests that Antrodia camphorata may be a potential therapeutic agent for preventing or treating thromboembolic disorders.

  12. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors suppress UV-induced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gene expression at the posttranscriptional level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagoe, S.; Kohda, T.; Oishi, M.

    1991-01-01

    Gene expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is induced not only by trans activation mediated through a gene product (tat) encoded by the virus but also by treatment of virus-carrying cells with DNA-damaging agents such as UV light. Employing an artificially constructed DNA in which the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene was placed under the control of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat, we analyzed the induction process in HeLa cells and found that inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase suppressed UV-induced HIV-1 gene expression but not tat-mediated expression. We also found that suppression occurs at the posttranscriptional level. These results indicate that HIV-1 gene expression is activated by at least two different mechanisms, one of which involves poly-ADP ribosylation. A possible new role of poly-ADP ribosylation in the regulation of specific gene expression is also discussed

  13. The mojastin mutant Moj-DM induces apoptosis of the human melanoma SK-Mel-28, but not the mutant Moj-NN nor the non-mutated recombinant Moj-WN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Agustin I; Tran, Victoria L; Sanchez, Elda E; White, Stephanie A; Choi, Jason L; Gaytán, Brandon; Chavez, Natalie; Reyes, Steven R; Ramos, Carla J; Tran, Luan H; Lucena, Sara E; Sugarek, Maria; Perez, John C; Mandal, Stephanie A; Ghorab, Shervin; Rodriguez-Acosta, Alexis; Fung, Branden K; Soto, Julio G

    2010-09-01

    In this study, three recombinant mojastin peptides (Moj-WN, Moj-NN, and Moj-DM) were produced and compared functionally. Recombinant Moj peptides were purified as GST-fusions. GST-Moj-WN and GST-Moj-NN inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation in platelet rich plasma. The GST-Moj-WN had an IC(50) of 160nM, while the GST-Moj-NN had an IC(50) of 493nM. The GST-Moj-DM did not inhibit platelet aggregation. All three GST-Moj peptides inhibited SK-Mel-28 cell adhesion to fibronectin. The GST-Moj-WN inhibited the binding of SK-Mel-28 cells to fibronectin with an IC(50) of 11nM, followed by the GST-Moj-NN (IC(50) of 28nM), and the GST-Moj-DM (IC(50) of 46nM). The GST-Moj peptides' ability to induce apoptosis on SK-Mel-28 cells was determined using Annexin-V-FITC and nuclear fragmentation assays. Cells were incubated with 5muM GST-Moj peptides for 24h. At 5microM GST-Moj-DM peptide, 13.56%+/-2.08 of treated SK-Mel-28 cells were in early apoptosis. The GST-Moj-DM peptide also caused nuclear fragmentation as determined by fluorescent microscopy and Hoechst staining. The GST-Moj-WN and GST-Moj-NN peptides failed to induce apoptosis. We characterized the SK-Mel-28 integrin expression, as the first step in determining r-Moj binding specificity. Our results indicate that SK-Mel-28 cells express alphavbeta3, alphav, alpha6, beta1, and beta3 integrin receptors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Lymphocyte-platelet crosstalk in Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznik, Boris I; Vitkovsky, Yuri A; Gvozdeva, Olga V; Solpov, Alexey V; Magen, Eli

    2014-03-01

    Platelets can modulate lymphocytes' role in the pathophysiology of thyroid autoimmune diseases. The present study was performed to clarify the status of platelet-lymphocyte subpopulations