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Sample records for adp-glucose pyrophosphorylase uncovered

  1. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupp-Vickery, Jill R.; Igarashi, Robert Y.; Meyer, Christopher R.

    2005-01-01

    Crystallization and X-ray diffraction methods for native A. tumefaciens ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and its selenomethionyl derivative are described. Two crystal forms are identified, both of which diffract to 2 Å

  2. Structural Analysis of ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase From the Bacterium Agrobacterium Tumefaciens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cupp-Vickery, J.R.; Igarashi, R.Y.; Perez, M.; Poland, M.; Meyer, C.R.

    2009-05-14

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADPGlc PPase) catalyzes the conversion of glucose 1-phosphate and ATP to ADP-glucose and pyrophosphate. As a key step in glucan synthesis, the ADPGlc PPases are highly regulated by allosteric activators and inhibitors in accord with the carbon metabolism pathways of the organism. Crystals of Agrobacterium tumefaciens ADPGlc PPase were obtained using lithium sulfate as a precipitant. A complete anomalous selenomethionyl derivative X-ray diffraction data set was collected with unit cell dimensions a = 85.38 {angstrom}, b = 93.79 {angstrom}, and c = 140.29 {angstrom} ({alpha} = {beta} = {gamma} = 90{sup o}) and space group I{sub 222}. The A. tumefaciens ADPGlc PPase model was refined to 2.1 {angstrom} with an R{sub factor} = 22% and R{sub free} = 26.6%. The model consists of two domains: an N-terminal {alpha}{beta}{alpha} sandwich and a C-terminal parallel {beta}-helix. ATP and glucose 1-phosphate were successfully modeled in the proposed active site, and site-directed mutagenesis of conserved glycines in this region (G20, G21, and G23) resulted in substantial loss of activity. The interface between the N- and the C-terminal domains harbors a strong sulfate-binding site, and kinetic studies revealed that sulfate is a competitive inhibitor for the allosteric activator fructose 6-phosphate. These results suggest that the interface between the N- and C-terminal domains binds the allosteric regulator, and fructose 6-phosphate was modeled into this region. The A. tumefaciens ADPGlc PPase/fructose 6-phosphate structural model along with sequence alignment analysis was used to design mutagenesis experiments to expand the activator specificity to include fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. The H379R and H379K enzymes were found to be activated by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate.

  3. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene plays a key role in the quality of corm and yield of cormels in gladiolus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seng, Shanshan; Wu, Jian; Sui, Juanjuan; Wu, Chenyu; Zhong, Xionghui; Liu, Chen; Liu, Chao; Gong, Benhe; Zhang, Fengqin; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the main storage compound in underground organs like corms. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) plays a key role in regulating starch biosynthesis in storage organs and is likely one of the most important determinant of sink strength. Here, we identify an AGPase gene (GhAGPS1) from gladiolus. The highest transcriptional levels of GhAGPS1 were observed in cormels and corms. Transformation of GhAGPS1 into Arabidopsis rescued the phenotype of aps1 mutant. Silencing GhAGPS1 in gladiolus corms by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) decreased the transcriptional levels of two genes and starch content. Transmission electron microscopy analyses of leaf and corm sections confirmed that starch biosynthesis was inhibited. Corm weight and cormel number reduced significantly in the silenced plants. Taken together, these results indicate that inhibiting the expression of AGPase gene could impair starch synthesis, which results in the lowered corm quality and cormel yield in gladiolus. -- Highlights: •Cormel quantity was reduced significantly in silenced Gladiolus plants. •Corm quality was declined significantly in silenced Gladiolus plants. •Starch synthesis was inhibited in silenced Gladiolus plants.

  4. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene plays a key role in the quality of corm and yield of cormels in gladiolus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seng, Shanshan, E-mail: seshsh108@126.com [Beijing Key Laboratory of Development and Quality Control of Ornamental Crops, Department of Ornamental Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, China Agricultural University, Yuan Mingyuan Western Road 2#, Beijing 100193 (China); Wu, Jian [Beijing Key Laboratory of Development and Quality Control of Ornamental Crops, Department of Ornamental Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, China Agricultural University, Yuan Mingyuan Western Road 2#, Beijing 100193 (China); Sui, Juanjuan [Beijing Key Laboratory of Development and Quality Control of Ornamental Crops, Department of Ornamental Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, China Agricultural University, Yuan Mingyuan Western Road 2#, Beijing 100193 (China); College of Biology, Fuyang Normal College, Qinghe Western Road 100#, Fuyang 236037, Anhui (China); Wu, Chenyu; Zhong, Xionghui; Liu, Chen; Liu, Chao; Gong, Benhe; Zhang, Fengqin; He, Junna [Beijing Key Laboratory of Development and Quality Control of Ornamental Crops, Department of Ornamental Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, China Agricultural University, Yuan Mingyuan Western Road 2#, Beijing 100193 (China); Yi, Mingfang, E-mail: ymfang@cau.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of Development and Quality Control of Ornamental Crops, Department of Ornamental Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, China Agricultural University, Yuan Mingyuan Western Road 2#, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2016-05-20

    Starch is the main storage compound in underground organs like corms. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) plays a key role in regulating starch biosynthesis in storage organs and is likely one of the most important determinant of sink strength. Here, we identify an AGPase gene (GhAGPS1) from gladiolus. The highest transcriptional levels of GhAGPS1 were observed in cormels and corms. Transformation of GhAGPS1 into Arabidopsis rescued the phenotype of aps1 mutant. Silencing GhAGPS1 in gladiolus corms by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) decreased the transcriptional levels of two genes and starch content. Transmission electron microscopy analyses of leaf and corm sections confirmed that starch biosynthesis was inhibited. Corm weight and cormel number reduced significantly in the silenced plants. Taken together, these results indicate that inhibiting the expression of AGPase gene could impair starch synthesis, which results in the lowered corm quality and cormel yield in gladiolus. -- Highlights: •Cormel quantity was reduced significantly in silenced Gladiolus plants. •Corm quality was declined significantly in silenced Gladiolus plants. •Starch synthesis was inhibited in silenced Gladiolus plants.

  5. Enhanced activity of ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase and formation of starch induced by Azospirillum brasilense in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choix, Francisco J; Bashan, Yoav; Mendoza, Alberto; de-Bashan, Luz E

    2014-05-10

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) regulates starch biosynthesis in higher plants and microalgae. This study measured the effect of the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense on AGPase activity in the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris and formation of starch. This was done by immobilizing both microorganisms in alginate beads, either replete with or deprived of nitrogen or phosphorus and all under heterotrophic conditions, using d-glucose or Na-acetate as the carbon source. AGPase activity during the first 72h of incubation was higher in C. vulgaris when immobilized with A. brasilense. This happened simultaneously with higher starch accumulation and higher carbon uptake by the microalgae. Either carbon source had similar effects on enzyme activity and starch accumulation. Starvation either by N or P had the same pattern on AGPase activity and starch accumulation. Under replete conditions, the population of C. vulgaris immobilized alone was higher than when immobilized together, but under starvation conditions A. brasilense induced a larger population of C. vulgaris. In summary, adding A. brasilense enhanced AGPase activity, starch formation, and mitigation of stress in C. vulgaris. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Allosterically Unregulated Isoform of ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase from Barley Endosperm Is the Most Likely Source of ADP-Glucose Incorporated into Endosperm Starch1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Danny N.P.; Rudi, Heidi; Olsen, Odd-Arne

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of studies of an unmodified version of the recombinant major barley (Hordeum vulgare) endosperm ADP-glucose pyrophoshorylase (AGPase) expressed in insect cells, which corroborate previous data that this isoform of the enzyme acts independently of the allosteric regulators 3-phosphoglycerate and inorganic phosphate. We also present a characterization of the individual subunits expressed separately in insect cells, showing that the SS AGPase is active in the presence of 3-phosphoglycerate and is inhibited by inorganic phosphate. As a step toward the elucidation of the role of the two AGPase isoforms in barley, the temporal and spatial expression profile of the four barley AGPase transcripts encoding these isoforms were studied. The results show that the steady-state level of beps and bepl, the transcripts encoding the major endosperm isoform, correlated positively with the rate of endosperm starch accumulation. In contrast, blps and blpl, the transcripts encoding the major leaf isoform, were constitutively expressed at a very low steady-state level throughout the barley plant. The implications of these findings for the evolution of plant AGPases are discussed. PMID:10557246

  7. The Allosterically Unregulated Isoform of ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase from Barley Endosperm Is the Most Likely Source of ADP-Glucose Incorporated into Endosperm Starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan; Rudi; Olsen

    1999-11-01

    We present the results of studies of an unmodified version of the recombinant major barley (Hordeum vulgare) endosperm ADP-glucose pyrophoshorylase (AGPase) expressed in insect cells, which corroborate previous data that this isoform of the enzyme acts independently of the allosteric regulators 3-phosphoglycerate and inorganic phosphate. We also present a characterization of the individual subunits expressed separately in insect cells, showing that the SS AGPase is active in the presence of 3-phosphoglycerate and is inhibited by inorganic phosphate. As a step toward the elucidation of the role of the two AGPase isoforms in barley, the temporal and spatial expression profile of the four barley AGPase transcripts encoding these isoforms were studied. The results show that the steady-state level of beps and bepl, the transcripts encoding the major endosperm isoform, correlated positively with the rate of endosperm starch accumulation. In contrast, blps and blpl, the transcripts encoding the major leaf isoform, were constitutively expressed at a very low steady-state level throughout the barley plant. The implications of these findings for the evolution of plant AGPases are discussed.

  8. Novel Bioengineered Cassava Expressing an Archaeal Starch Degradation System and a Bacterial ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase for Starch Self-Digestibility and Yield Increase

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    Ayalew Ligaba-Osena

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To address national and global low-carbon fuel targets, there is great interest in alternative plant species such as cassava (Manihot esculenta, which are high-yielding, resilient, and are easily converted to fuels using the existing technology. In this study the genes encoding hyperthermophilic archaeal starch-hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylase and amylopullulanase from Pyrococcus furiosus and glucoamylase from Sulfolobus solfataricus, together with the gene encoding a modified ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (glgC from Escherichia coli, were simultaneously expressed in cassava roots to enhance starch accumulation and its subsequent hydrolysis to sugar. A total of 13 multigene expressing transgenic lines were generated and characterized phenotypically and genotypically. Gene expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR showed that the microbial genes are expressed in the transgenic roots. Multigene-expressing transgenic lines produced up to 60% more storage root yield than the non-transgenic control, likely due to glgC expression. Total protein extracted from the transgenic roots showed up to 10-fold higher starch-degrading activity in vitro than the protein extracted from the non-transgenic control. Interestingly, transgenic tubers released threefold more glucose than the non-transgenic control when incubated at 85°C for 21-h without exogenous application of thermostable enzymes, suggesting that the archaeal enzymes produced in planta maintain their activity and thermostability.

  9. PCR amplification and sequences of cDNA clones for the small and large subunits of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from barley tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villand, P; Aalen, R; Olsen, O A; Lüthi, E; Lönneborg, A; Kleczkowski, L A

    1992-06-01

    Several cDNAs encoding the small and large subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP) were isolated from total RNA of the starchy endosperm, roots and leaves of barley by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sets of degenerate oligonucleotide primers, based on previously published conserved amino acid sequences of plant AGP, were used for synthesis and amplification of the cDNAs. For either the endosperm, roots and leaves, the restriction analysis of PCR products (ca. 550 nucleotides each) has revealed heterogeneity, suggesting presence of three transcripts for AGP in the endosperm and roots, and up to two AGP transcripts in the leaf tissue. Based on the derived amino acid sequences, two clones from the endosperm, beps and bepl, were identified as coding for the small and large subunit of AGP, respectively, while a leaf transcript (blpl) encoded the putative large subunit of AGP. There was about 50% identity between the endosperm clones, and both of them were about 60% identical to the leaf cDNA. Northern blot analysis has indicated that beps and bepl are expressed in both the endosperm and roots, while blpl is detectable only in leaves. Application of the PCR technique in studies on gene structure and gene expression of plant AGP is discussed.

  10. Substrate Specificity and Inhibitor Sensitivity of Plant UDP-Sugar Producing Pyrophosphorylases

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    Daniel Decker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available UDP-sugars are essential precursors for glycosylation reactions producing cell wall polysaccharides, sucrose, glycoproteins, glycolipids, etc. Primary mechanisms of UDP sugar formation involve the action of at least three distinct pyrophosphorylases using UTP and sugar-1-P as substrates. Here, substrate specificities of barley and Arabidopsis (two isozymes UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylases (UGPase, Arabidopsis UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase (USPase and Arabidopsis UDP-N-acetyl glucosamine pyrophosphorylase2 (UAGPase2 were investigated using a range of sugar-1-phosphates and nucleoside-triphosphates as substrates. Whereas all the enzymes preferentially used UTP as nucleotide donor, they differed in their specificity for sugar-1-P. UGPases had high activity with D-Glc-1-P, but could also react with Fru-1-P and Fru-2-P (Km values over 10 mM. Contrary to an earlier report, their activity with Gal-1-P was extremely low. USPase reacted with a range of sugar-1-phosphates, including D-Glc-1-P, D-Gal-1-P, D-GalA-1-P (Km of 1.3 mM, β-L-Ara-1-P and α-D-Fuc-1-P (Km of 3.4 mM, but not β-L-Fuc-1-P. In contrast, UAGPase2 reacted only with D-GlcNAc-1-P, D-GalNAc-1-P (Km of 1 mM and, to some extent, D-Glc-1-P (Km of 3.2 mM. Generally, different conformations/substituents at C2, C4, and C5 of the pyranose ring of a sugar were crucial determinants of substrate specificity of a given pyrophosphorylase. Homology models of UDP-sugar binding to UGPase, USPase and UAGPase2 revealed more common amino acids for UDP binding than for sugar binding, reflecting differences in substrate specificity of these proteins. UAGPase2 was inhibited by a salicylate derivative that was earlier shown to affect UGPase and USPase activities, consistent with a common structural architecture of the three pyrophosphorylases. The results are discussed with respect to the role of the pyrophosphorylases in sugar activation for glycosylated end-products.

  11. UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otozai, Kiyotaka; Taniguchi, Hajime; Nakamura, Michinori

    1973-01-01

    UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase of Jerusalem artichoke tubers was purified 90-fold over the crude extract. The purified enzyme preparation absolutely required magnesium ions for activity. Cobalt ions were 60% as effective as magnesium ions; other divalent cations including manganese showed little or no effect. This enzyme had a pH optimum of 8.5 and a temperature optimum of 40 deg C. ATP and UDP inhibited the activity of this enzyme in both forward and backward directions. Km values for UDP-glucose, inorganic pyrophosphate, glucose-1-phosphate - 14 C and UTP were determined to be 4.45 x 10 -4 , 2.33 x 10 -4 , 9.38 x 10 -4 and 2.98 x 10 -4 M, respectively. These results are discussed in comparison with those of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylases isolated from other plants. (author)

  12. [Enhancement of photoassimilate utilization by manipulation of the ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase gene]. Progress report, [March 15, 1989--April 14, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, T.W.

    1990-12-31

    The long term aim of this project is to assess the feasibility of increasing the conversion of photosynthate into starch via manipulation of the gene that encodes for ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase, a key regulatory enzyme of starch biosynthesis. In developing storage tissues such as cereal seeds and tubers, starch biosynthesis is regulated by the gene activation and expression of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase, branching enzyme and other ancillary starch modifying enzymes, as well as the allosteric-controlled behavior of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase activity. During the last two years we have obtained information on the structure of this enzyme from both potato tuber and rice endosperm, using a combination of biochemical and molecular biological approaches. Moreover, we present evidence that this enzyme may be localized at discrete regions of the starch grain within the amyloplast, and plays a role in controlling overall starch biosynthesis in potato tubers.

  13. Comparative study of structural models of Leishmania donovani and human GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daligaux, Pierre; Bernadat, Guillaume; Tran, Linh; Cavé, Christian; Loiseau, Philippe M; Pomel, Sébastien; Ha-Duong, Tâp

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania is the parasite responsible for the neglected disease leishmaniasis. Its virulence and survival require biosynthesis of glycoconjugates, whose guanosine diphospho-d-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GDP-MP) is a key player. However, experimentally resolved structures of this enzyme are still lacking. We herein propose structural models of the GDP-MP from human and Leishmania donovani. Based on a multiple sequences alignment, the models were built with MODELLER and then carefully refined with all atom molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent. Their quality was evaluated against several standard criteria, including their ability to bind GDP-mannose assessed by redocking calculations. Special attention was given in this study to interactions of the catalytic site residues with the enzyme substrate and competitive inhibitors, opening the perspective of medicinal chemistry developments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular cloning of a novel glucuronokinase/putative pyrophosphorylase from zebrafish acting in an UDP-glucuronic acid salvage pathway.

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    Roman Gangl

    Full Text Available In animals, the main precursor for glycosaminoglycan and furthermore proteoglycan biosynthesis, like hyaluronic acid, is UDP-glucuronic acid, which is synthesized via the nucleotide sugar oxidation pathway. Mutations in this pathway cause severe developmental defects (deficiency in the initiation of heart valve formation. In plants, UDP-glucuronic acid is synthesized via two independent pathways. Beside the nucleotide sugar oxidation pathway, a second minor route to UDP-glucuronic acid exist termed the myo-inositol oxygenation pathway. Within this myo-inositol is ring cleaved into glucuronic acid, which is subsequently converted to UDP-glucuronic acid by glucuronokinase and UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase. Here we report on a similar, but bifunctional enzyme from zebrafish (Danio rerio which has glucuronokinase/putative pyrophosphorylase activity. The enzyme can convert glucuronic acid into UDP-glucuronic acid, required for completion of the alternative pathway to UDP-glucuronic acid via myo-inositol and thus establishes a so far unknown second route to UDP-glucuronic acid in animals. Glucuronokinase from zebrafish is a member of the GHMP-kinase superfamily having unique substrate specificity for glucuronic acid with a Km of 31 ± 8 µM and accepting ATP as the only phosphate donor (Km: 59 ± 9 µM. UDP-glucuronic acid pyrophosphorylase from zebrafish has homology to bacterial nucleotidyltransferases and requires UTP as nucleosid diphosphate donor. Genes for bifunctional glucuronokinase and putative UDP-glucuronic acid pyrophosphorylase are conserved among some groups of lower animals, including fishes, frogs, tunicates, and polychaeta, but are absent from mammals. The existence of a second pathway for UDP-glucuronic acid biosynthesis in zebrafish likely explains some previous contradictory finding in jekyll/ugdh zebrafish developmental mutants, which showed residual glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in knockout mutants of UDP

  15. Expression and crystallographic studies of the Arabidopsis thaliana GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase VTC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shun; Liu, Lin

    2016-10-01

    GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase catalyzes the production of GDP-D-mannose, an intermediate product in the plant ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthetic pathway. This enzyme is a key regulatory target in AsA biosynthesis and is encoded by VITAMIN C DEFECTIVE 1 (VTC1) in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Here, recombinant VTC1 was expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were obtained from VTC1 crystals grown in the absence and presence of substrate using X-rays. The ligand-free VTC1 crystal diffracted X-rays to 3.3 Å resolution and belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 183.6, c = 368.5 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°; the crystal of VTC1 in the presence of substrate diffracted X-rays to 1.75 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 70.8, b = 83.9, c = 74.5 Å, α = γ = 90.0, β = 114.9°.

  16. Determination of the energetics of the UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase reaction by positional isotope exchange inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hester, L.S.; Raushel, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been developed for obtaining qualitative information about enzyme-catalyzed reactions by measuring the inhibitory effects of added substrates on positional isotope exchange rates. It has been demonstrated for ordered kinetic mechanisms that an increase in the concentration of the second substrate to add to the enzyme will result in a linear increase in the ratio of the chemical and positional isotope exchange rates. The slopes and intercepts from these plots can be used to determine the partitioning ratios of binary and ternary enzyme complexes. The method has been applied to the reaction catalyzed by UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. A positional isotope exchange reaction was measured within oxygen-18-labeled UTP as a function of variable glucose 1-phosphate concentration in the forward reaction. In the reverse reaction, a positional isotope exchange reaction was measured within oxygen-18-labeled UDP-glucose as a function of increasing pyrophosphate concentration. The results have been interpreted to indicate that the interconversion of the ternary central complexes is fast relative to product dissociation in either direction. In the forward direction, the release of UDP-glucose is slower than the release of pyrophosphate. The release of glucose 1-phosphate is slower than the release of UTP in the reverse reaction

  17. Positional isotope exchange analysis of the uridine-diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hester, L.; Hilscher, L.; Raushel, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    The enzyme uridine-diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase catalyzes the reversible formation of pyrophosphate and UDP-glucose from UTP and glc-1P. The positional isotope exchange reaction was measured using oxygen-18 labelled UTP. The synthesis of [β- 18 O 2 , βγ- 18 O, γ- 18 O 3 ]UTP was accomplished by the coupled activities of carbamate kinase, nucleoside diphosphate kinase, and nucleoside monophosphate kinase. The exchange of an oxygen-18 from a β-nonbridge position of the labelled UTP to the αβ-bridge position was measured with 31 P NMR. The ratio of the rate of net substrate turnover and the positional isotope exchange rate was measured as a function of the initial glc-1P concentration. This ratio was found to increase with an increasing concentration of glc-1P. The intercept at low glc-1P was found to be 1.2 and the slope was 4.5 mM -1 . These results have been interpreted to mean that this enzyme has an ordered addition of substrates. The lower limit for the release of pyrophosphate from E-UDPG-PP/sub i/ relative to V 2 is 1.2. The rate constant for the release of UTP from E-UTP relative to V 1 is 9

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase from Candida albicans

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    Maruyama, Daisuke; Nishitani, Yuichi; Nonaka, Tsuyoshi; Kita, Akiko [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Fukami, Takaaki A.; Mio, Toshiyuki; Yamada-Okabe, Hisafumi [Kamakura Research Laboratory, Chugai Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, 200 Kajiwara, Kamakura, Kanagawa 247-8530 (Japan); Yamada-Okabe, Toshiko [Department of Hygiene, School of Medicine, Yokohama City University, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan); Miki, Kunio, E-mail: miki@kuchem.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center at Harima Institute, Koto 1-1-1, Sayocho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2006-12-01

    UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase was purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.3 Å resolution. UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase (UAP) is an essential enzyme in the synthesis of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. UAP from Candida albicans was purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals of the substrate and product complexes both diffract X-rays to beyond 2.3 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystals of the substrate complex belong to the triclinic space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.77, b = 62.89, c = 90.60 Å, α = 90.01, β = 97.72, γ = 92.88°, whereas those of the product complex belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.95, b = 90.87, c = 94.88 Å.

  19. UDP-N-Acetyl glucosamine pyrophosphorylase as novel target for controlling Aedes aegypti – molecular modeling, docking and simulation studies

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    Bhagath Kumar Palaka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is a vector that transmits diseases like dengue fever, chikungunya, and yellow fever. It is distributed in all tropical and subtropical regions of the world. According to WHO reports, 40% of the world’s population is currently at risk for dengue fever. As vaccines are not available for such diseases, controlling mosquito population becomes necessary. Hence, this study aims at UDP-N-acetyl glucosamine pyrophosphorylase of Aedes aegypti (AaUAP, an essential enzyme for chitin metabolim in insects, as a drug target. Structure of AaUAP was predicted and validated using in-silico approach. Further, docking studies were performed using a set of 10 inhibitors out of which NAG9 was found to have good docking score, which was further supported by simulation studies. Hence, we propose that NAG9 can be considered as a potential hit in designing new inhibitors to control Aedes aegypti.

  20. Biochemical analysis of leishmanial and human GDP-Mannose Pyrophosphorylases and selection of inhibitors as new leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei; Daligaux, Pierre; Lazar, Noureddine; Ha-Duong, Tâp; Cavé, Christian; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Loiseau, Philippe M; Pomel, Sébastien

    2017-04-07

    Leishmaniases are an ensemble of diseases caused by the protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania. Current antileishmanial treatments are limited and present main issues of toxicity and drug resistance emergence. Therefore, the generation of new inhibitors specifically directed against a leishmanial target is an attractive strategy to expand the chemotherapeutic arsenal. GDP-Mannose Pyrophosphorylase (GDP-MP) is a prominent therapeutic target involved in host-parasite recognition which has been described to be essential for parasite survival. In this work, we produced and purified GDP-MPs from L. mexicana (LmGDP-MP), L. donovani (LdGDP-MP), and human (hGDP-MP), and compared their enzymatic properties. From a rationale design of 100 potential inhibitors, four compounds were identified having a promising and specific inhibitory effect on parasite GDP-MP and antileishmanial activities, one of them exhibits a competitive inhibition on LdGDP-MP and belongs to the 2-substituted quinoline series.

  1. Uncovering Black Womanhood in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sheree L.; Espino, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing research that outlines the experiences of Blacks and women undergraduates in engineering, little is known about Black women in this field. The purpose of this qualitative study was to uncover how eight Black undergraduate women in engineering understood their race and gender identities in a culture that can be oppressive to…

  2. Plastidic Phosphoglucose Isomerase Is an Important Determinant of Starch Accumulation in Mesophyll Cells, Growth, Photosynthetic Capacity, and Biosynthesis of Plastidic Cytokinins in Arabidopsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bahaji, A.; Sanchez-Lopez, A.M.; De Diego, N.; Munoz, F.J.; Humplík, J.F.; Novák, Ondřej; Spíchal, L.; Doležal, K.; Pozueta-Romero, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2015) E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : ADP-GLUCOSE PYROPHOSPHORYLASE * PENTOSE-PHOSPHATE PATHWAY * POSTTRANSLATIONAL REDOX-MODIFICATION Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  3. Uncovering student ideas in physical science

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    Keeley, Page

    2014-01-01

    If you and your students can't get enough of a good thing, Volume 2 of Uncovering Student Ideas in Physical Science is just what you need. The book offers 39 new formative assessment probes, this time with a focus on electric charge, electric current, and magnets and electromagnetism. It can help you do everything from demystify electromagnetic fields to explain the real reason balloons stick to the wall after you rub them on your hair.

  4. Familial Brugada syndrome uncovered by hyperkalaemic diabetic ketoacidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, Pieter G.; Vlaar, Alexander P. J.; DeVries, J. Hans; Tan, Hanno L.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a case of diabetic ketoacidosis with concomitant hyperkalaemia that uncovered a typical Brugada syndrome electrocardiogram (ECG). Further provocation testing in the patient and his son confirmed familial Brugada syndrome. Diabetic ketoacidosis with hyperkalaemia may uncover an

  5. Uncovering client retention antecedents in service organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Jansen van Rensburg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a multi-dimensional model of retention to provide a more complete and integrated view of client retention and its determinants in service contexts. To uncover the antecedents of client retention, social and economic exchanges were reviewed under the fundamental ideas of the Social Exchange Theory. Findings from a survey of senior South African advertising executives suggest that client retention is the result of evaluative as well as relational factors that can influence client responses. Despite contractual obligations, advertisers are willing to pay the costs and make the sacrifices of switching should their expectations be unmet. An important contribution of this study is the use of multi-item scales to measure retention. The model developed provides valuable insight to agencies on client retention management and the optimal allocation of resources for maximum customer equity. This model may also be applied to other service organisations to provide insight to client retention.

  6. Hepatitis C virus host cell interactions uncovered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottwein, Judith; Bukh, Jens

    2007-01-01

      Insights into virus-host cell interactions as uncovered by Randall et al. (1) in a recent issue of PNAS further our understanding of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle, persistence, and pathogenesis and might lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets. HCV persistently infects 180...... million individuals worldwide, causing chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The only approved treatment, combination therapy with IFN- and ribavirin, targets cellular pathways (2); however, a sustained virologic response is achieved only in approximately half of the patients...... treated. Therefore, there is a pressing need for the identification of novel drugs against hepatitis C. Although most research focuses on the development of HCV-specific antivirals, such as protease and polymerase inhibitors (3), cellular targets could be pursued and might allow the development of broad...

  7. Sustained response with ixekizumab treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis with scalp involvement: results from three phase 3 trials (UNCOVER-1, UNCOVER-2, UNCOVER-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Kristian; Leonardi, Craig; Lebwohl, Mark; Kerdel, Francisco; Okubo, Yukari; Romiti, Ricardo; Goldblum, Orin; Dennehy, Ellen B; Kerr, Lisa; Sofen, Howard

    2017-06-01

    Scalp is a frequently affected and difficult-to-treat area in psoriasis patients. We assessed the efficacy of ixekizumab in the treatment of patients with scalp psoriasis over 60 weeks using the Psoriasis Scalp Severity Index (PSSI). In three Phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis in UNCOVER-1 (N = 1296), UNCOVER-2 (N = 1224) and UNCOVER-3 (N = 1346) were randomized to subcutaneous 80 mg ixekizumab every two weeks (Q2W) or every four weeks (Q4W) after a 160 mg starting dose, or placebo through Week 12. Additional UNCOVER-2 and UNCOVER-3 cohorts were randomized to 50 mg bi-weekly etanercept through Week 12. Patients entering the open-label long-term extension (LTE) (UNCOVER-3) received ixekizumab Q4W; UNCOVER-1 and UNCOVER-2 included a blinded maintenance period in which static physician global assessment (sPGA) 0/1 responders were re-randomized to placebo, ixekizumab Q4W, or 80 mg ixekizumab every 12 weeks (Q12W) through Week 60. In patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis with baseline scalp involvement, PSSI 90 and 100 were achieved at Week 12 in higher percentages of patients treated with ixekizumab Q2W (81.7% and 74.6%) or ixekizumab Q4W (75.6% and 68.9%) compared with patients treated with placebo (7.6% and 6.7%; p psoriasis in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis, with most patients achieving complete or near-complete resolution of scalp psoriasis and maintaining this response over 60 weeks.

  8. Hydraulic behaviour of a partially uncovered core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.; Hafner, W.

    1989-10-01

    A critical review of experimental data and theoretical models relevant to the thermohydraulic processes in a partially uncovered core has been performed. Presently available optimized thermohydraulic codes should be able to predict swell level elevations within an error band of ± 0.5 m. Rod temperature rising velocities could be predicted within an error bandwidth of ± 10%, provided the correct rod heat capacity is given. A general statement about the accuracy of predicted rod temperatures is not possible because the errors increase with simulation time. Highest errors are expected for long transients with low heating rates and low steam velocities. As a result, three areas for additional research are suggested: - a high-pressure test at 120 bar to complete the void correlation data base, - a low steam flow - low power experiment to improve heat transfer correlations, - a numerical investigation of three-dimensional effects in the reactor core with unequally heated rod bundles. For the present state of 1-dimensional experiments and models, suggestions for a satisfactory modeling have been derived. The suggested further work could improve the modelling capabilities and the code reliability for some limiting cases like high pressure boil-off, low-power long-term steam cooling, and unequal heating of neighbouring bundles considerably

  9. Uncovering Indicators of Commercial Sexual Exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounds, Dawn; Delaney, Kathleen R; Julion, Wrenetha; Breitenstein, Susan

    2017-07-01

    It is estimated that annually 100,000 to 300,000 youth are at risk for sex trafficking; a commercial sex act induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or any such act where the person induced to perform such an act is younger than 18 years of age. Increasingly, such transactions are occurring online via Internet-based sites that serve the commercial sex industry. Commercial sex transactions involving trafficking are illegal; thus, Internet discussions between those involved must be veiled. Even so, transactions around sex trafficking do occur. Within these transactions are innuendos that provide one avenue for detecting potential activity. The purpose of this study is to identify linguistic indicators of potential commercial sexual exploitation within the online comments of men posted on an Internet site. Six hundred sixty-six posts from five Midwest cities and 363 unique members were analyzed via content analysis. Three main indicators were found: the presence of youth or desire for youthfulness, presence of pimps, and awareness of vulnerability. These findings begin a much-needed dialogue on uncovering online risks of commercial sexual exploitation and support the need for further research on Internet indicators of sex trafficking.

  10. Uncovering missing links with cold ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Lü, Linyuan; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Zhou, Tao

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the performance of prediction of missing links, the known data are randomly divided into two parts, the training set and the probe set. We argue that this straightforward and standard method may lead to terrible bias, since in real biological and information networks, missing links are more likely to be links connecting low-degree nodes. We therefore study how to uncover missing links with low-degree nodes, namely links in the probe set are of lower degree products than a random sampling. Experimental analysis on ten local similarity indices and four disparate real networks reveals a surprising result that the Leicht-Holme-Newman index [E.A. Leicht, P. Holme, M.E.J. Newman, Vertex similarity in networks, Phys. Rev. E 73 (2006) 026120] performs the best, although it was known to be one of the worst indices if the probe set is a random sampling of all links. We further propose an parameter-dependent index, which considerably improves the prediction accuracy. Finally, we show the relevance of the proposed index to three real sampling methods: acquaintance sampling, random-walk sampling and path-based sampling.

  11. The uncovered parity properties of the Czech Koruna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Derviz, Alexis

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2002), s. 17-37 ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1019101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : uncovered parity * asset prices * international consumption-based capital asset pricing model Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  12. Uncovering the Density of Matter from Multiplicity Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialas, A.

    2010-01-01

    Multiplicity distributions in the form of superposition of Poisson distributions which are observed in multiparticle production are interpreted as reflection of a two-step nature of this process: the creation and evolution of the strongly interacting fluid, followed by its uncorrelated decay into observed hadrons. A method to uncover the density of the fluid from the observed multiplicity distribution is described. (author)

  13. Molecular and biochemical analysis of the plastidic ADP-glucose transporter (ZmBT1) from Zea mays.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchberger, S.; Leroch, M.; Huynen, M.A.; Wahl, M.; Neuhaus, H.E.; Tjaden, J.

    2007-01-01

    Physiological studies on the Brittle1 maize mutant have provided circumstantial evidence that ZmBT1 (Zea mays Brittle1 protein) is involved in the ADP-Glc transport into maize endosperm plastids, but up to now, no direct ADP-Glc transport mediated by ZmBT1 has ever been shown. The heterologous

  14. Molecular and biochemical analysis of the plastidic ADP-glucose transporter (ZmBT1) from Zea mays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchberger, S.; Leroch, M.; Huynen, M.A.; Wahl, M.; Neuhaus, H.E.; Tjaden, J.

    2007-01-01

    Physiological studies on the Brittle1 maize mutant have provided circumstantial evidence that ZmBT1 (Zea mays Brittle1 protein) is involved in the ADP-Glc transport into maize endosperm plastids, but up to now, no direct ADP-Glc transport mediated by ZmBT1 has ever been shown. The heterologous

  15. The Uncovered Interest Parity in the Foreign Exchange (FX Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Ricardo Micheloto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This work verifies the uncovered interest rates parity (UIP in the FX (foreign exchange emerging markets by using the panel cointegration technique. The data involves several developing countries that compose the EMBI+ Global Index. We compare the results of several panel estimators: OLS (ordinary list square, DOLS (dynamic OLS and FMOLS (fully modified OLS. This new panel technique can handle problems of either non-stationary series (spurious regression or small problem. This latter problem has being considered one of the main causes for distorting the UIP empirical results. By using this approach, we check the UIP in the FX (foreign exchange emerging markets. These markets are more critical because they have been subjected to changing FX regimes and speculative attacks. Our results do not corroborate the uncovered interest parity for the developing countries in the recent years. Thus, the forward premium puzzle may hold in the FX emergent markets.

  16. Uncovering Student Ideas in Astronomy 45 Formative Assessment Probes

    CERN Document Server

    Keeley, Page

    2012-01-01

    What do your students know-or think they know-about what causes night and day, why days are shorter in winter, and how to tell a planet from a star? Find out with this book on astronomy, the latest in NSTA's popular Uncovering Student Ideas in Science series. The 45 astronomy probes provide situations that will pique your students' interest while helping you understand how your students think about key ideas related to the universe and how it operates.

  17. Malignant Gastroduodenal Obstruction: Treatment with Self-Expanding Uncovered Wallstent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutzeit, Andreas; Binkert, Christoph A.; Schoch, Eric; Sautter, Thomas; Jost, Res; Zollikofer, Christoph L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a self-expanding uncovered Wallstent in patients with malignant gastroduodenal obstruction. Materials and Methods: Under combined endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance, 29 patients with a malignant gastroduodenal stenosis were treated with a self-expanding uncovered metallic Wallstent. A dysphagia score was assessed before and after the intervention to measure the success of this palliative therapy. The dysphagia score ranged between grade 0 to grade 4: grade 0 = able to tolerate solid food, grade 1 = able to tolerate soft food, grade 2 = able to tolerate thick liquids, grade 3 = able to tolerate water or clear fluids, and grade 4 = unable to tolerate anything perorally. Stent patency and patients survival rates were calculated. Results: The insertion of the gastroduodenal stent was technically successful in 28 patients (96.5%). After stenting, 25 patients (86.2%) showed clinical improvement by at least one score point. During follow-up, 22 (78.5%) of 28 patients showed no stent occlusion until death and did not have to undergo any further intervention. In six patients (20.6%), all of whom were treated with secondary stent insertions, occlusion with tumor ingrowth and/or overgrowth was observed after the intervention. The median period of primary stent patency in our study was 240 days. Conclusion: Placement of an uncovered Wallstent is clinically effective in patients with malignant gastroduodenal obstruction. Stent placement is associated with high technical success, good palliation effect, and high durability of stent function.

  18. 77 FR 12227 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental... review of the uncovered finished water reservoir requirement in the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water... uncovered finished water reservoir requirement and the agency's Six Year Review process. EPA also plans to...

  19. Organization of physical interactomes as uncovered by network schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Eric; Nabieva, Elena; Chazelle, Bernard; Singh, Mona

    2008-10-01

    Large-scale protein-protein interaction networks provide new opportunities for understanding cellular organization and functioning. We introduce network schemas to elucidate shared mechanisms within interactomes. Network schemas specify descriptions of proteins and the topology of interactions among them. We develop algorithms for systematically uncovering recurring, over-represented schemas in physical interaction networks. We apply our methods to the S. cerevisiae interactome, focusing on schemas consisting of proteins described via sequence motifs and molecular function annotations and interacting with one another in one of four basic network topologies. We identify hundreds of recurring and over-represented network schemas of various complexity, and demonstrate via graph-theoretic representations how more complex schemas are organized in terms of their lower-order constituents. The uncovered schemas span a wide range of cellular activities, with many signaling and transport related higher-order schemas. We establish the functional importance of the schemas by showing that they correspond to functionally cohesive sets of proteins, are enriched in the frequency with which they have instances in the H. sapiens interactome, and are useful for predicting protein function. Our findings suggest that network schemas are a powerful paradigm for organizing, interrogating, and annotating cellular networks.

  20. DOES UNCOVERED INTEREST RATE PARITY HOLD IN TURKEY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcan Karahan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the earlier empirical studies focusing on developed countries failed to give evidence in favor of the Uncovered Interest Rate Parity (UIP. After intensive financial liberalization processes and mostly preferred free exchange rate regimes, a new area of research starts to involve the investigation whether UIP holds for developing economies differently. Accordingly, we tested the UIP for Turkey’s monthly interest rate and exchange rate data between 2002 and 2011. We run conventional regressions in the form of Ordinary Least Squares (OLS and used a simple Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH analysis. The empirical results of both methods do not support the validity of UIP for Turkey. Thus, together with most of the earlier empirical studies focusing on developed countries and detecting the invalidity of UIP, we can argue that the experience of Turkey and developed economies are not different.

  1. Uncovering growth-suppressive MicroRNAs in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xi; Sempere, Lorenzo F; Galimberti, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles improve classification, diagnosis, and prognostic information of malignancies, including lung cancer. This study uncovered unique growth-suppressive miRNAs in lung cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: miRNA arrays were done on normal lung tissues...... and adenocarcinomas from wild-type and proteasome degradation-resistant cyclin E transgenic mice to reveal repressed miRNAs in lung cancer. Real-time and semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR as well as in situ hybridization assays validated these findings. Lung cancer cell lines were derived from each......-malignant human lung tissue bank. RESULTS: miR-34c, miR-145, and miR-142-5p were repressed in transgenic lung cancers. Findings were confirmed by real-time and semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR as well as in situ hybridization assays. Similar miRNA profiles occurred in human normal versus malignant lung...

  2. Uncovering transcriptional regulation of metabolism by using metabolic network topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Kiran Raosaheb; Nielsen, Jens

    2005-01-01

    in the metabolic network that follow a common transcriptional response. Thus, the algorithm enables identification of so-called reporter metabolites (metabolites around which the most significant transcriptional changes occur) and a set of connected genes with significant and coordinated response to genetic......Cellular response to genetic and environmental perturbations is often reflected and/or mediated through changes in the metabolism, because the latter plays a key role in providing Gibbs free energy and precursors for biosynthesis. Such metabolic changes are often exerted through transcriptional...... therefore developed an algorithm that is based on hypothesis-driven data analysis to uncover the transcriptional regulatory architecture of metabolic networks. By using information on the metabolic network topology from genome-scale metabolic reconstruction, we show that it is possible to reveal patterns...

  3. Uncovering Listeria monocytogenes hypervirulence by harnessing its biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Caroline; Touchon, Marie; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Leclercq, Alexandre; Criscuolo, Alexis; Gaultier, Charlotte; Roussel, Sophie; Brisabois, Anne; Disson, Olivier; Rocha, Eduardo P. C.; Brisse, Sylvain; Lecuit, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Microbial pathogenesis studies are typically performed with reference strains, thereby overlooking microbial intra-species virulence heterogeneity. Here we integrated human epidemiological and clinical data with bacterial population genomics to harness the biodiversity of the model foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes and decipher the basis of its neural and placental tropisms. Taking advantage of the clonal structure of this bacterial species, we identify clones epidemiologically associated with either food or human central nervous system (CNS) and maternal-neonatal (MN) listeriosis. The latter are also most prevalent in patients without immunosuppressive comorbidities. Strikingly, CNS and MN clones are hypervirulent in a humanized mouse model of listeriosis. By integrating epidemiological data and comparative genomics, we uncovered multiple novel putative virulence factors and demonstrated experimentally the contribution of the first gene cluster mediating Listeria monocytogenes neural and placental tropisms. This study illustrates the exceptional power of harnessing microbial biodiversity to identify clinically relevant microbial virulence attributes. PMID:26829754

  4. TIME HORIZON AND UNCOVERED INTEREST PARITY IN EMERGING ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlida Hanim Mohd Salleh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to re-examine the well-known empirical puzzle of uncovered interest parity (UIP for emerging market economies with different prediction time horizons. The empirical results obtained using dynamic panel and time series techniques for monthly data from January 1995 to December 2009 eventually show that the panel data estimates are more powerful than those obtained by applying individual time series estimations and the significant contribution of the exchange rate prediction horizons in determining the status of UIP. This finding reveals that at the longer time horizon, the model has better econometric specification and thus more predictive power for exchange rate movements compared to the shorter time period. The findings can also be a signalling of well-integrated currency markets and a reliable guide to international investors as well as for the orderly conduct of monetary authorities.

  5. Uncovering Transcriptional Regulatory Networks by Sparse Bayesian Factor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Yuan(Alan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The problem of uncovering transcriptional regulation by transcription factors (TFs based on microarray data is considered. A novel Bayesian sparse correlated rectified factor model (BSCRFM is proposed that models the unknown TF protein level activity, the correlated regulations between TFs, and the sparse nature of TF-regulated genes. The model admits prior knowledge from existing database regarding TF-regulated target genes based on a sparse prior and through a developed Gibbs sampling algorithm, a context-specific transcriptional regulatory network specific to the experimental condition of the microarray data can be obtained. The proposed model and the Gibbs sampling algorithm were evaluated on the simulated systems, and results demonstrated the validity and effectiveness of the proposed approach. The proposed model was then applied to the breast cancer microarray data of patients with Estrogen Receptor positive ( status and Estrogen Receptor negative ( status, respectively.

  6. Uncovering the Geometry of Barrierless Reactions Using Lagrangian Descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junginger, Andrej; Hernandez, Rigoberto

    2016-03-03

    Transition-state theories describing barrierless chemical reactions, or more general activated problems, are often hampered by the lack of a saddle around which the dividing surface can be constructed. For example, the time-dependent transition-state trajectory uncovering the nonrecrossing dividing surface in thermal reactions in the framework of the Langevin equation has relied on perturbative approaches in the vicinity of the saddle. We recently obtained an alternative approach using Lagrangian descriptors to construct time-dependent and recrossing-free dividing surfaces. This is a nonperturbative approach making no reference to a putative saddle. Here we show how the Lagrangian descriptor can be used to obtain the transition-state geometry of a dissipated and thermalized reaction across barrierless potentials. We illustrate the method in the case of a 1D Brownian motion for both barrierless and step potentials; however, the method is not restricted and can be directly applied to different kinds of potentials and higher dimensional systems.

  7. Consolidity: Mystery of inner property of systems uncovered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen T. Dorrah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uncovers the mystery of consolidity, an inner property of systems that was amazingly hidden. Consolidity also reveals the secrecy of why strong stable and highly controllable systems are not invulnerable of falling and collapsing. Consolidity is measured by its Consolidity Index, defined as the ratio of overall changes of output parameters over combined changes of input and system parameters, all operating in fully fuzzy environment. Under this notion, systems are classified into consolidated, quasi-consolidated, neutrally consolidated, unconsolidated, quasi-unconsolidated and mixed types. The strategy for the implementation of consolidity is elaborated for both natural and man-made existing systems as well as the new developed ones. An important critique arises that the by-product consolidity of natural or built-as-usual system could lead to trapping such systems into a completely undesired unconsolidity. This suggests that the ample number of conventional techniques that do not take system consolidity into account should gradually be changed, and adjusted with improved consolidity-based techniques. Four Golden Rules are highlighted for handling system consolidity, and applied to several illustrative case studies. These case studies cover the consolidity analysis of the Drug Concentration problem, Predator-Prey Population problem, Spread of Infectious Disease problem, AIDS Epidemic problem and Arm Race model. It is demonstrated that consolidity changes are contrary (opposite in sign to changes of both stability and controllability. This is a very significant result showing that our present practice of stressing on building strong stable and highly controllable systems could have already jeopardized the consolidity behavior of an ample family of existing real life systems. It is strongly recommended that the four Golden Rules of consolidity should be enforced as future strict regulations of systems modeling, analysis, design and

  8. Uncovering transcriptional interactions via an adaptive fuzzy logic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chung-Ming

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, only a limited number of transcriptional regulatory interactions have been uncovered. In a pilot study integrating sequence data with microarray data, a position weight matrix (PWM performed poorly in inferring transcriptional interactions (TIs, which represent physical interactions between transcription factors (TF and upstream sequences of target genes. Inferring a TI means that the promoter sequence of a target is inferred to match the consensus sequence motifs of a potential TF, and their interaction type such as AT or RT is also predicted. Thus, a robust PWM (rPWM was developed to search for consensus sequence motifs. In addition to rPWM, one feature extracted from ChIP-chip data was incorporated to identify potential TIs under specific conditions. An interaction type classifier was assembled to predict activation/repression of potential TIs using microarray data. This approach, combining an adaptive (learning fuzzy inference system and an interaction type classifier to predict transcriptional regulatory networks, was named AdaFuzzy. Results AdaFuzzy was applied to predict TIs using real genomics data from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Following one of the latest advances in predicting TIs, constrained probabilistic sparse matrix factorization (cPSMF, and using 19 transcription factors (TFs, we compared AdaFuzzy to four well-known approaches using over-representation analysis and gene set enrichment analysis. AdaFuzzy outperformed these four algorithms. Furthermore, AdaFuzzy was shown to perform comparably to 'ChIP-experimental method' in inferring TIs identified by two sets of large scale ChIP-chip data, respectively. AdaFuzzy was also able to classify all predicted TIs into one or more of the four promoter architectures. The results coincided with known promoter architectures in yeast and provided insights into transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. Conclusion AdaFuzzy successfully integrates multiple types of

  9. Uncovering patterns of technology use in consumer health informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Man; Conrad, Jillian; Hon, Shirley D.; Cheng, Christine; Franklin, Jeremy D.; Tang, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage and accessibility has grown at a staggering rate, influencing technology use for healthcare purposes. The amount of health information technology (Health IT) available through the Internet is immeasurable and growing daily. Health IT is now seen as a fundamental aspect of patient care as it stimulates patient engagement and encourages personal health management. It is increasingly important to understand consumer health IT patterns including who is using specific technologies, how technologies are accessed, factors associated with use, and perceived benefits. To fully uncover consumer patterns it is imperative to recognize common barriers and which groups they disproportionately affect. Finally, exploring future demand and predictions will expose significant opportunities for health IT. The most frequently used health information technologies by consumers are gathering information online, mobile health (mHealth) technologies, and personal health records (PHRs). Gathering health information online is the favored pathway for healthcare consumers as it is used by more consumers and more frequently than any other technology. In regard to mHealth technologies, minority Americans, compared with White Americans utilize social media, mobile Internet, and mobile applications more frequently. Consumers believe PHRs are the most beneficial health IT. PHR usage is increasing rapidly due to PHR integration with provider health systems and health insurance plans. Key issues that have to be explicitly addressed in health IT are privacy and security concerns, health literacy, unawareness, and usability. Privacy and security concerns are rated the number one reason for the slow rate of health IT adoption. PMID:24904713

  10. Testing and interpreting uncovered interest parity in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Vasilyev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The failure of uncovered interest rate parity (UIP is a well-known phenomenon of the last thirty years. UIP failure is more prominent in advanced economies than in emerging market economies. Typically, UIP estimation for an advanced economy generates a negative coefficient, meaning that a higher interest rate in advanced economy A will result in the appreciation of economy A's exchange rate. For emerging market economies, higher interest rates usually correspond to future depreciation, although this depreciation is not sufficient for UIP to hold. This paper shows that UIP holds in Russia better than in other emerging market economies when the UIP equation accounts for a constant risk premium. Consequently, there is no forward premium puzzle for Russian data for 2001–2014. To determine the results for Russia and to compare them with the results for other countries, we estimate UIP first for Russia and then for advanced and emerging market economies using seemingly unrelated regressions and panel data analysis. By comparing the profitability of static and dynamic carry trade strategies, we also confirm that in emerging market economies, risk premiums are often constant, whereas in advanced economies, risk premiums are almost always volatile. This may explain why UIP holds better in emerging market economies. It also enables us to formulate a hypothesis that macroeconomic policies of emerging market economies (e.g., the accumulation of large foreign exchange reserves stabilize risk premiums.

  11. Uncovering the mechanism(s) of deep brain stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Gang; Yu Chao; Lin Ling; Lu, Stephen C-Y

    2005-01-01

    Deep brain stimulators, often called 'pacemakers for the brain', are implantable devices which continuously deliver impulse stimulation to specific targeted nuclei of deep brain structure, namely deep brain stimulation (DBS). To date, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the most effective clinical technique for the treatment of several medically refractory movement disorders (e.g., Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia). In addition, new clinical applications of DBS for other neurologic and psychiatric disorders (e.g., epilepsy and obsessive-compulsive disorder) have been put forward. Although DBS has been effective in the treatment of movement disorders and is rapidly being explored for the treatment of other neurologic disorders, the scientific understanding of its mechanisms of action remains unclear and continues to be debated in the scientific community. Optimization of DBS technology for present and future therapeutic applications will depend on identification of the therapeutic mechanism(s) of action. The goal of this review is to address our present knowledge of the effects of high-frequency stimulation within the central nervous system and comment on the functional implications of this knowledge for uncovering the mechanism(s) of DBS

  12. Uncovering Aberrant Mutant PKA Function with Flow Cytometric FRET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Rong Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biology has been revolutionized by tools that allow the detection and characterization of protein-protein interactions (PPIs. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET-based methods have become particularly attractive as they allow quantitative studies of PPIs within the convenient and relevant context of living cells. We describe here an approach that allows the rapid construction of live-cell FRET-based binding curves using a commercially available flow cytometer. We illustrate a simple method for absolutely calibrating the cytometer, validating our binding assay against the gold standard isothermal calorimetry (ITC, and using flow cytometric FRET to uncover the structural and functional effects of the Cushing-syndrome-causing mutation (L206R on PKA’s catalytic subunit. We discover that this mutation not only differentially affects PKAcat’s binding to its multiple partners but also impacts its rate of catalysis. These findings improve our mechanistic understanding of this disease-causing mutation, while illustrating the simplicity, general applicability, and power of flow cytometric FRET.

  13. Comparison between uncovered and covered self-expandable metal stent placement in malignant duodenal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Won; Jeong, Ji Bong; Lee, Kook Lae; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Ahn, Dong Won; Lee, Jae Kyung; Kim, Su Hwan

    2015-02-07

    To compare the clinical outcomes of uncovered and covered self-expandable metal stent placements in patients with malignant duodenal obstruction. A total of 67 patients were retrospectively enrolled from January 2003 to June 2013. All patients had symptomatic obstruction characterized by nausea, vomiting, reduced oral intake, and weight loss. The exclusion criteria included asymptomatic duodenal obstruction, perforation or peritonitis, concomitant small bowel obstruction, or duodenal obstruction caused by benign strictures. The technical and clinical success rate, complication rate, and stent patency were compared according to the placement of uncovered (n = 38) or covered (n = 29) stents. The technical and clinical success rates did not differ between the uncovered and covered stent groups (100% vs 96.6% and 89.5% vs 82.8%). There were no differences in the overall complication rates between the uncovered and covered stent groups (31.6% vs 41.4%). However, stent migration occurred more frequently with covered than uncovered stents [20.7% (6/29) vs 0% (0/38), P stent patency was longer in uncovered than in covered stents [251 d (95%CI: 149.8 d-352.2 d) vs 139 d (95%CI: 45.5 d-232.5 d), P stent (70 d) and covered stent groups (60 d). Uncovered stents may be preferable in malignant duodenal obstruction because of their greater resistance to stent migration and longer stent patency than covered stents.

  14. 76 FR 4290 - Uncovered Innerspring Units From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of First...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230; telephone: (202) 482-1655. Case History With the issuance of the... material and then glued together in a linear fashion. Uncovered innersprings are classified under...

  15. 78 FR 17635 - Uncovered Innerspring Units From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-928] Uncovered Innerspring Units... AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: On... Operations, Office 9, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce...

  16. Uncovering cognitive processes: Different techniques that can contribute to cognitive load research and instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth; Nievelstein, Fleurie; Giesbers, Bas; Fred, Paas

    2009-01-01

    Van Gog, T., Kester, L., Nievelstein, F., Giesbers, B., & Paas, F. (2009). Uncovering cognitive processes: Different techniques that can contribute to cognitive load research and instruction. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 325-331.

  17. Use of (Time-Domain) Vector Autoregressions to Test Uncovered Interest Parity

    OpenAIRE

    Takatoshi Ito

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, a vector autoregression model (VAR) is proposed in order to test uncovered interest parity (UIP) in the foreign exchange market. Consider a VAR system of the spot exchange rate (yen/dollar), the domestic (US) interest rate and the foreign (Japanese) interest rate, describing the interdependence of the domestic and international financia lmarkets. Uncovered interest parity is stated as a null hypothesis that the current difference between the two interest rates is equal to the d...

  18. Comparison of Covered Versus Uncovered Stents for Benign Superior Vena Cava (SVC) Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Mustafa M; Simmons, Benjamin; McPhail, Ian R; Kalra, Manju; Neisen, Melissa J; Johnson, Matthew P; Stockland, Andrew H; Andrews, James C; Misra, Sanjay; Bjarnason, Haraldur

    2018-05-01

    To identify whether long-term symptom relief and stent patency vary with the use of covered versus uncovered stents for the treatment of benign SVC obstruction. We retrospectively identified all patients with benign SVC syndrome treated to stent placement between January 2003 and December 2015 (n = 59). Only cases with both clinical and imaging follow-up were included (n = 47). In 33 (70%) of the patients, the obstruction was due to a central line or pacemaker wires, and in 14 (30%), the cause was fibrosing mediastinitis. Covered stents were placed in 17 (36%) of the patients, and 30 (64%) patients had an uncovered stent. Clinical and treatment outcomes, complications, and the percent stenosis of each stent were evaluated. Technical success was achieved in all cases at first attempt. Average clinical and imaging follow-up in years was 2.7 (range 0.1-11.1) (covered) and 1.7 (range 0.2-10.5) (uncovered), respectively. There was a significant difference (p = 0.044) in the number of patients who reported a return of symptoms between the covered (5/17 or 29.4%) and uncovered (18/30 or 60%) groups. There was also a significant difference (p = stenosis after stent placement between the covered [17.9% (range 0-100) ± 26.2] and uncovered [48.3% (range 6.8-100) ± 33.5] groups. No significant difference (p = 0.227) was found in the time (days) between the date of the procedure and the date of clinical follow-up where a return of symptoms was reported [covered: 426.6 (range 28-1554) ± 633.9 and uncovered 778.1 (range 23-3851) ± 1066.8]. One patient in the uncovered group had non-endovascular surgical intervention (innominate to right atrial bypass), while none in the covered group required surgical intervention. One major complication (SIR grade C) occurred that consisted of a pericardial hemorrhagic effusion after angioplasty that required covered stent placement. There were no procedure-related deaths. Both covered and uncovered stents can be used for

  19. Covered versus uncovered self-expandable metal stents for malignant biliary strictures: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moole, Harsha; Bechtold, Matthew L; Cashman, Micheal; Volmar, Fritz H; Dhillon, Sonu; Forcione, David; Taneja, Deepak; Puli, Srinivas R

    2016-09-01

    Self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) are used for palliating inoperable malignant biliary strictures. It is unclear if covered metal stents are superior to uncovered metal stents in these patients. We compared clinical outcomes in patients with covered and uncovered stents. Studies using covered and uncovered metallic stents for palliation in patients with malignant biliary stricture were reviewed. Articles were searched in MEDLINE, PubMed, and Ovid journals. Fixed and random effects models were used to calculate the pooled proportions. Initial search identified 1436 reference articles, of which 132 were selected and reviewed. Thirteen studies (n = 2239) for covered and uncovered metallic stents which met the inclusion criteria were included in this analysis. Odds ratio for stent occlusion rates in covered vs. uncovered stents was 0.79 (95 % CI = 0.65 to 0.96). Survival benefit in patients with covered vs. uncovered stents showed the odds ratio to be 1.29 (95 % CI = 0.95 to 1.74). Pooled odds ratio for migration of covered vs. uncovered stents was 9.9 (95 % CI = 4.5 to 22.3). Covered stents seemed to have significantly lesser occlusion rates, increased odds of migration, and increased odds of pancreatitis compared to uncovered stents. There was no statistically significant difference in the survival benefit, overall adverse event rate, and patency period of covered vs. uncovered metal stents in patients with malignant biliary strictures.

  20. Epistemically Virtuous Risk Management : Financial Due Diligence and Uncovering the Madoff Fraud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Boudewijn; Luetge, Christoph; Jauernig, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    The chapter analyses how Bernard Madoff’s Ponzi scheme was uncovered by Harry Markopolos, an employee of Rampart Investment Management, LLC, and the contribution of so-called epistemic virtues to Markopolos’ success. After Rampart had informed the firm about an allegedly highly successful hedge fund

  1. Uncovering the Best Skill Multimap by Constraining the Error Probabilities of the Gain-Loss Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, Pasquale; Robusto, Egidio; Stefanutti, Luca

    2012-01-01

    The Gain-Loss model is a probabilistic skill multimap model for assessing learning processes. In practical applications, more than one skill multimap could be plausible, while none corresponds to the true one. The article investigates whether constraining the error probabilities is a way of uncovering the best skill assignment among a number of…

  2. Using Text Mining to Uncover Students' Technology-Related Problems in Live Video Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdous, M'hammed; He, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Because of their capacity to sift through large amounts of data, text mining and data mining are enabling higher education institutions to reveal valuable patterns in students' learning behaviours without having to resort to traditional survey methods. In an effort to uncover live video streaming (LVS) students' technology related-problems and to…

  3. Feminist Approaches to Triangulation: Uncovering Subjugated Knowledge and Fostering Social Change in Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the deployment of triangulation in the service of uncovering subjugated knowledge and promoting social change for women and other oppressed groups. Feminist approaches to mixed methods praxis create a tight link between the research problem and the research design. An analysis of selected case studies of feminist praxis…

  4. 77 FR 21961 - Uncovered Innerspring Units From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... material and then glued together in a linear fashion. Uncovered innersprings are classified under... responsibility concerning the return or destruction of proprietary information disclosed under the APO, which... notification of the return/destruction of APO materials or conversion to judicial protective order is hereby...

  5. 76 FR 80337 - Uncovered Innerspring Units From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... fashion. Uncovered innersprings are classified under subheading 9404.29.9010, 9404.29.9005 and 9404.29... (``APO'') of their responsibility concerning the return or destruction of proprietary information... written notification of the return or destruction of APO materials or conversion to judicial protective...

  6. Evaluating the thermal and electrical performance of several uncovered PVT collectors with a field test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Keizer, C.; de Jong, M.; Mendes, T.; Katiyar, M.; Folkerts, W.; Rindt, C.C.M.; Zondag, H.A.

    Recently, there has been a lot of interest in PV thermal systems, which generate both heat and power. Within the WenSDak project, several companies and research institutes work together to (further) develop several uncovered PVT collectors. The outdoor performance of prototypes of these collectors

  7. Uncovering the Motivating Factors behind Writing in English in en EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükyavuz, Oya; Çakir, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Writing in a language, whether the target or native, is regarded as a complex activity operating on multiple cognitive levels. This study aimed to uncover the factors which motivate teacher trainees of English to write in English in an EFL context. The study also investigated the differences in the ways teacher trainees are motivated in terms of…

  8. Comparison of covered and uncovered self-expandable stents in the treatment of malignant biliary obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Carmona, Diana Yamel; Alonso Lárraga, Juan Octavio; Hernández Guerrero, Angélica; Ramírez Solís, Mauro Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Drainage with metallic stents is the treatment of choice in malignant obstructive jaundice. Technical and clinical success with metallic stents is obtained in over 90% and 80% of cases, respectively. There are self-expandable metallic stents designed to increase permeability. The aim of this study was to describe the results obtained with totally covered self-expandable and uncovered self-expandable metallic stents in the palliative treatment of malignant biliary obstruction. Sixty eight patients with malignant obstructive jaundice secondary to pancreatobiliary or metastatic disease not amenable to surgery were retrospectively included. Two groups were created: group A (covered self-expandable metallic stents) (n = 22) and group B (uncovered self-expandable metallic stents) (n = 46). Serum total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transferase levels decreased in both groups and no statistically significant difference was detected (p = 0.800, p = 0.190, p = 0.743, p = 0.521). Migration was greater with covered stents but it was not statistically significant either (p = 0.101). Obstruction was greater in the group with uncovered stents but it was not statistically significant either (p = 0.476). There are no differences when using covered self-expandable stents or uncovered self-expandable stents in terms of technical and clinical success or complications in the palliative treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice.

  9. Community Mapping in Action: Uncovering Resources and Assets for Young Children and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez-Jasis, Rosario; Myck-Wayne, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Community mapping is a promising practice that can assist early intervention/early childhood special education (EI/ECSE) professionals uncover the depth and diversity of community needs, resources, and learning opportunities, in the neighborhoods surrounding their schools. Community mapping is an inquiry-based method that situates learning in the…

  10. Revisiting Uncovered Interest Rate Parity: Switching Between UIP and the Random Walk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Huisman (Ronald); R.J. Mahieu (Ronald)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we examine in which periods uncovered interest rate parity was likely to hold. Empirical research has shown mixed evidence on UIP. The main finding is that it doesn’t hold, although some researchers were not able to reject UIP in periods with large interest differentials

  11. Long Term Follow-up of a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt: A Comparison of Covered and Uncovered Stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Seung Moon; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Jae, Hwan Jun; Chung, Jin Wook [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-01-15

    To evaluate the long term patency of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) and to compare the patency rate of covered and uncovered stents in TIPS. The study population included 78 patients with portal hypertension that underwent TIPS between January 1999 and July 2007 at our institution using uncovered stents in 53 patients and covered stents in 25 patients. The primary and secondary patency rates of TIPS were estimated to compare the uncovered and covered stent groups. The primary and secondary patency rates of the TIPS patients were found to be 83.9% and 93.9% at the 6 month follow-up and 73.5% and 88.5% at the12 month follow-up for uncovered and covered stents, respectively. A breakdown patency rates for the 12 month follow-up revealed that the primary patency rates were 76.6% and 66.3% for uncovered and covered stents, respectively; whereas, the secondary patency rates were 94.3% and 73.8% for the uncovered and covered stents, respectively. A comparative analysis did not provide evidence to suggest that a difference exists between the patency rates of the uncovered and covered stent groups (p>0.05). No significant difference was found between the patency rates of the uncovered and covered stent groups. A follow-up to this study would be a more thorough randomized evaluation of the different types of covered stents to compare long-term patency rates.

  12. Partially Covered Metal Stents May Not Prolong Stent Patency Compared to Uncovered Stents in Unresectable Malignant Distal Biliary Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Yun; Ko, Gyu Bong; Lee, Tae Hoon; Park, Sang-Heum; Lee, Yun Nah; Cho, Young Sin; Jung, Yunho; Chung, Il-Kwun; Choi, Hyun Jong; Cha, Sang-Woo; Moon, Jong Ho; Cho, Young Deok; Kim, Sun-Joo

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Controversy still exists regarding the benefits of covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) compared to uncovered SEMSs. We aimed to compare the patency and stent-related adverse events of partially covered SEMSs (PC-SEMSs) and uncovered SEMSs in unresectable malignant distal biliary obstruction. Methods A total of 134 patients who received a PC-SEMS or uncovered SEMS for palliation of unresectable malignant distal biliary obstruction were reviewed retrospectively. The main outcome measures were stent patency, stent-related adverse events, and overall survival. Results The median stent patency was 118 days (range, 3 to 802 days) with PC-SEMSs and 105 days (range, 2 to 485 days) with uncovered SEMSs (p=0.718). The overall endoscopic revision rate due to stent dysfunction was 36.6% (26/71) with PC-SEMSs and 36.5% (23/63) with uncovered SEMSs (p=0.589). Tumor ingrowth was more frequent with uncovered SEMSs (4.2% vs 19.1%, p=0.013), but migration was more frequent with PC-SEMSs (11.2% vs 1.5%, p=0.04). The incidence of stent-related adverse events was 2.8% (2/71) with PC-SEMSs and 9.5% (6/63) with uncovered SEMSs (p=0.224). The median overall survival was 166 days with PC-SEMSs and 168 days with uncovered SEMSs (p=0.189). Conclusions Compared to uncovered SEMSs, PC-SEMSs did not prolong stent patency in unresectable malignant distal biliary obstruction. Stent migration was more frequent with PC-SEMSs. However, tumor ingrowth was less frequent with PC-SEMSs compared to uncovered SEMSs. PMID:28208003

  13. Uncovering Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Many ground-dwelling amphibians, reptiles, small mammals, insects, and other arthropods seek cover during their resting hours. Their natural hideaways include underground burrows, rotting logs, and leaf litter, which are widely distributed and difficult to discover and observe. To make observation easier, scientists, educators, and students can…

  14. Epistemically Virtuous Risk Management: Financial Due Diligence and Uncovering the Madoff Fraud

    OpenAIRE

    de Bruin, Boudewijn; Luetge, Christoph; Jauernig, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    The chapter analyses how Bernard Madoff’s Ponzi scheme was uncovered by Harry Markopolos, an employee of Rampart Investment Management, LLC, and the contribution of so-called epistemic virtues to Markopolos’ success. After Rampart had informed the firm about an allegedly highly successful hedge fund run by Madoff, Markopolos used qualitative and quantitative methods from financial due diligence to examine Madoff’s risks, returns and strategy, ultimately to conclude that Madoff was running a l...

  15. Conformable covered versus uncovered self-expandable metallic stents for palliation of malignant gastroduodenal obstruction: a randomized prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sun Gyo; Kim, Jin Hong; Lee, Kee Myung; Shin, Sung Jae; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Kim, Kyung Ho; Kim, Ho Gak; Yang, Chang Heon

    2014-07-01

    A conformable self-expandable metallic stent was developed to overcome the limitation of previous self-expandable metallic stents. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes after placement of conformable covered and uncovered self-expandable metallic stents for palliation of malignant gastroduodenal obstruction. A single-blind, randomized, parallel-group, prospective study were conducted in 4 medical centres between March 2009 and July 2012. 134 patients with unresectable malignant gastroduodenal obstruction were assigned to a covered double-layered (n=66) or uncovered unfixed-cell braided (n=68) stent placement group. Primary analysis was performed to compare re-intervention rates between two groups. 120 patients were analysed (59 in the covered group and 61 in the uncovered group). Overall rates of re-intervention were not significantly different between the two groups: 13/59 (22.0%) in the covered group vs. 13/61 (21.3%) in the uncovered group, p=0.999. Stent migration was more frequent in the covered group than in the uncovered group (p=0.003). The tumour ingrowth rate was higher in the uncovered group than in the covered group (p=0.016). The rates of re-intervention did not significantly differ between the two stents. Conformable covered double-layered and uncovered unfixed-cell braided stents were associated with different patterns of stent malfunction. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multi-frequency complex network from time series for uncovering oil-water flow structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhong-Ke; Yang, Yu-Xuan; Fang, Peng-Cheng; Jin, Ning-De; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Hu, Li-Dan

    2015-02-04

    Uncovering complex oil-water flow structure represents a challenge in diverse scientific disciplines. This challenge stimulates us to develop a new distributed conductance sensor for measuring local flow signals at different positions and then propose a novel approach based on multi-frequency complex network to uncover the flow structures from experimental multivariate measurements. In particular, based on the Fast Fourier transform, we demonstrate how to derive multi-frequency complex network from multivariate time series. We construct complex networks at different frequencies and then detect community structures. Our results indicate that the community structures faithfully represent the structural features of oil-water flow patterns. Furthermore, we investigate the network statistic at different frequencies for each derived network and find that the frequency clustering coefficient enables to uncover the evolution of flow patterns and yield deep insights into the formation of flow structures. Current results present a first step towards a network visualization of complex flow patterns from a community structure perspective.

  17. Structural insight to mutation effects uncover a common allosteric site in class C GPCRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Kasper; Boesgaard, Michael W; Munk, Christian

    2017-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Class C G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate important physiological functions and allosteric modulators binding to the transmembrane domain constitute an attractive and, due to a lack of structural insight, a virtually unexplored potential for therapeutics and the food industry....... Combining pharmacological site-directed mutagenesis data with the recent class C GPCR experimental structures will provide a foundation for rational design of new therapeutics. RESULTS: We uncover one common site for both positive and negative modulators with different amino acid layouts that can...

  18. The invisible Web uncovering information sources search engines can't see

    CERN Document Server

    Sherman, Chris

    2001-01-01

    Enormous expanses of the Internet are unreachable with standard web search engines. This book provides the key to finding these hidden resources by identifying how to uncover and use invisible web resources. Mapping the invisible Web, when and how to use it, assessing the validity of the information, and the future of Web searching are topics covered in detail. Only 16 percent of Net-based information can be located using a general search engine. The other 84 percent is what is referred to as the invisible Web-made up of information stored in databases. Unlike pages on the visible Web, informa

  19. Integrative Genetic and Epigenetic Analysis Uncovers Regulatory Mechanisms of Autoimmune Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooshtari, Parisa; Huang, Hailiang; Cotsapas, Chris

    2017-07-06

    Genome-wide association studies in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases (AID) have uncovered hundreds of loci mediating risk. These associations are preferentially located in non-coding DNA regions and in particular in tissue-specific DNase I hypersensitivity sites (DHSs). While these analyses clearly demonstrate the overall enrichment of disease risk alleles on gene regulatory regions, they are not designed to identify individual regulatory regions mediating risk or the genes under their control, and thus uncover the specific molecular events driving disease risk. To do so we have departed from standard practice by identifying regulatory regions which replicate across samples and connect them to the genes they control through robust re-analysis of public data. We find significant evidence of regulatory potential in 78/301 (26%) risk loci across nine autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and we find that individual genes are targeted by these effects in 53/78 (68%) of these. Thus, we are able to generate testable mechanistic hypotheses of the molecular changes that drive disease risk. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Uncovering Sundanese Values by Analyzing Symbolic Meaning of Ménak Priangan Clothing (1800-1942)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmila, M.; Suciati; Widiaty, I.

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates symbolic meanings found in the Sunda ethnic clothing, particularly the Menak Priangan clothing. This study aims to uncover and document those symbolic meanings found in the Menak Priangan clothing as an effort to develop Sunda cultural artefacts of West Java. This study on Menak Priangan clothing applies ethnography (visual) and aesthetic methods. The visual method is utilized in order to uncover local cultural (Sunda) values found in Menak Priangan clothing visualization, including: design, model, name, and representing colours, which then directed towards local Sundanese aesthetic concepts living within the Priangan community. Furthermore, aesthetic method is used to explore role of aesthetic values in empowering visual cultural values within certain community, particularly Sunda aesthetic values. The study results show that since the 19th century, Sunda ethnic clothing was limited to Priangan Sunda only, while traditional clothing wearing by Priangan people reflects their social strata, consisting of: a. Menak Gede (Menak pangluhurna: mayor), bearing raden title, b. Menak Leutik/Santana (mayor assistant), titles: asep, mas, agus, ujang, (Nyimas for woman), c. Somah/Cacah: ordinary people/lower class. Clothing is a cultural phenomenon within certain culture reflecting such society experiences. For Menak people, clothing and its accessories have important meanings. They wear such traditional clothing and accessories as a symbol of power they have within bureaucratic structure and as a symbol of social status they bear within traditional community structure.

  1. Cryptic diversity in Australian stick insects (Insecta; Phasmida) uncovered by the DNA barcoding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velonà, A; Brock, P D; Hasenpusch, J; Mantovani, B

    2015-05-18

    The barcoding approach was applied to analyze 16 Australian morphospecies of the order Phasmida, with the aim to test if it could be suitable as a tool for phasmid species identification and if its discrimination power would allow uncovering of cryptic diversity. Both goals were reached. Eighty-two specimens representing twelve morphospecies (Sipyloidea sp. A, Candovia annulata, Candovia sp. A, Candovia sp. B, Candovia sp. C, Denhama austrocarinata, Xeroderus kirbii, Parapodacanthus hasenpuschorum, Tropidoderus childrenii, Cigarrophasma tessellatum, Acrophylla wuelfingi, Eurycantha calcarata) were correctly recovered as clades through the molecular approach, their sequences forming monophyletic and well-supported clusters. In four instances, Neighbor-Joining tree and barcoding gap analyses supported either a specific (Austrocarausius mercurius, Anchiale briareus) or a subspecific (Anchiale austrotessulata, Extatosoma tiaratum) level of divergence within the analyzed morphospecies. The lack of an appropriate database of homologous coxI sequences prevented more detailed identification of undescribed taxa.

  2. Uncovered Interest Parity in Central and Eastern Europe: Convergence and the Global Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Filipozzi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents tests of uncovered interest parity in Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Romania; all countries in Central and Eastern Europe with floating exchange rates. Data are monthly and the trading horizon is three months. The estimations show that the UIP hypothesis is rejected for the full sample from 1999 to 2011 for all five countries. A number of reasons for the rejection were investigated. Rolling regressions show that standard versions of the UIP essentially lose all explanatory power in 2008-10, which was a period in which the global financial crisis led to instability in currency and interest markets in Central and Eastern Europe. Two indicators of global risk aversion were also found to enter significantly in the many UIP estimations. Finally, the size of the interest rates spread also seems to be of importance, at least for Poland and Romania

  3. Parasitic resistive switching uncovered from complementary resistive switching in single active-layer oxide memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lisha; Hu, Wei; Gao, Chao; Guo, Yongcai

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports the reversible transition processes between the bipolar and complementary resistive switching (CRS) characteristics on the binary metal-oxide resistive memory devices of Pt/HfO x /TiN and Pt/TaO x /TiN by applying the appropriate bias voltages. More interestingly, by controlling the amplitude of the negative bias, the parasitic resistive switching effect exhibiting repeatable switching behavior is uncovered from the CRS behavior. The electrical observation of the parasitic resistive switching effect can be explained by the controlled size of the conductive filament. This work confirms the transformation and interrelationship among the bipolar, parasitic, and CRS effects, and thus provides new insight into the understanding of the physical mechanism of the binary metal-oxide resistive switching memory devices.

  4. Intermittent fasting uncovers and rescues cognitive phenotypes in PTEN neuronal haploinsufficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Costa, J V; Andreotti, D Z; Mello, N P; Scavone, C; Camandola, S; Kawamoto, E M

    2018-06-05

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is an important protein with key modulatory functions in cell growth and survival. PTEN is crucial during embryogenesis and plays a key role in the central nervous system (CNS), where it directly modulates neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. Loss of PTEN signaling function is associated with cognitive deficits and synaptic plasticity impairment. Accordingly, Pten mutations have a strong link with autism spectrum disorder. In this study, neuronal Pten haploinsufficient male mice were subjected to a long-term environmental intervention - intermittent fasting (IF) - and then evaluated for alterations in exploratory, anxiety and learning and memory behaviors. Although no significant effects on spatial memory were observed, mutant mice showed impaired contextual fear memory in the passive avoidance test - an outcome that was effectively rescued by IF. In this study, we demonstrated that IF modulation, in addition to its rescue of the memory deficit, was also required to uncover behavioral phenotypes otherwise hidden in this neuronal Pten haploinsufficiency model.

  5. Health Detectives: Uncovering the Mysteries of Disease (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, Mina; Canaria, Christie; Celnicker, Susan; Karpen, Gary

    2012-04-23

    In this April 23, 2012 Science at the Theater event, Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how they uncover the mysteries of disease in unlikely places. Speakers and topics include: World-renowned cancer researcher Mina Bissell's pioneering research on the role of the cellular microenvironment in breast cancer has changed the conversation about the disease. How does DNA instability cause disease? To find out, Christie Canaria images neural networks to study disorders such as Huntington's disease. Fruit flies can tell us a lot about ourselves. Susan Celniker explores the fruit fly genome to learn how our genome works. DNA is not destiny. Gary Karpen explores how environmental factors shape genome function and disease through epigenetics.

  6. Strategies and approaches in plasmidome studies—uncovering plasmid diversity disregarding of linear elements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Julián R.; Wagenknecht, Martin; Farías, María E.; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2015-01-01

    The term plasmid was originally coined for circular, extrachromosomal genetic elements. Today, plasmids are widely recognized not only as important factors facilitating genome restructuring but also as vehicles for the dissemination of beneficial characters within bacterial communities. Plasmid diversity has been uncovered by means of culture-dependent or -independent approaches, such as endogenous or exogenous plasmid isolation as well as PCR-based detection or transposon-aided capture, respectively. High-throughput-sequencing made possible to cover total plasmid populations in a given environment, i.e., the plasmidome, and allowed to address the quality and significance of self-replicating genetic elements. Since such efforts were and still are rather restricted to circular molecules, here we put equal emphasis on the linear plasmids which—despite their frequent occurrence in a large number of bacteria—are largely neglected in prevalent plasmidome conceptions. PMID:26074886

  7. Heuristic Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Uncovering Community in Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuquan Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Community structure is important for us to understand the functions and structure of the complex networks. In this paper, Heuristic Artificial Bee Colony (HABC algorithm based on swarm intelligence is proposed for uncovering community. The proposed HABC includes initialization, employed bee searching, onlooker searching, and scout bee searching. In initialization stage, the nectar sources with simple community structure are generated through network dynamic algorithm associated with complete subgraph. In employed bee searching and onlooker searching stages, the searching function is redefined to address the community problem. The efficiency of searching progress can be improved by a heuristic function which is an average agglomerate probability of two neighbor communities. Experiments are carried out on artificial and real world networks, and the results demonstrate that HABC will have better performance in terms of comparing with the state-of-the-art algorithms.

  8. The hidden Heuchera: How science Twitter uncovered a globally imperiled species in Pennsylvania, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Schuette

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Heuchera is recognized as one of the most diverse endemic radiations of Saxifragaceae in North America, yet species delimitation and geographic distribution within the group remain controversial. Many species remain difficult to identify, including Heuchera alba, a narrow Appalachian endemic and globally imperiled (G2 taxon recorded only from West Virginia and Virginia that occurs in sympatry with H. pubescens and H. americana. A recent survey of the cliffside flora of the Shikellamy Bluffs, PA recorded dozens of Heuchera individuals that, through the use of social media, were positively identified as H. alba. Aided by examination of historical herbarium records, subsequent searches of similar habitats in Pennsylvania led to the discovery of seven more populations and established a significant range expansion for this rare species. The uncovering of H. alba in Pennsylvania is an exciting conservation outcome and an example of what can happen when botanists embrace a combination of modern and classical approaches to discovery and collaboration.

  9. Uncovering values-based practice: VBP's implicit commitments to subjectivism and relativism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Ben

    2013-06-01

    Despite assertions to the contrary, KWM Fulford's values-based practice is implicitly committed to subjectivism when it comes to reasoning about values. This renders the approach unworkable. The act of merely uncovering underlying values is not enough to effect change and, therefore, resolve problems if we have no way, even in principle, of determining which values are right and which are wrong. Fulford's only departure from subjectivism about value is his commitment to 'framework values', which seems grounded in a version of ethical relativism. I argue that we need to reject both subjectivism and relativism if progress within ethical discussions about practice is to be meaningful and a real possibility. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Uncovering beat deafness: detecting rhythm disorders with synchronized finger tapping and perceptual timing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Bella, Simone; Sowiński, Jakub

    2015-03-16

    A set of behavioral tasks for assessing perceptual and sensorimotor timing abilities in the general population (i.e., non-musicians) is presented here with the goal of uncovering rhythm disorders, such as beat deafness. Beat deafness is characterized by poor performance in perceiving durations in auditory rhythmic patterns or poor synchronization of movement with auditory rhythms (e.g., with musical beats). These tasks include the synchronization of finger tapping to the beat of simple and complex auditory stimuli and the detection of rhythmic irregularities (anisochrony detection task) embedded in the same stimuli. These tests, which are easy to administer, include an assessment of both perceptual and sensorimotor timing abilities under different conditions (e.g., beat rates and types of auditory material) and are based on the same auditory stimuli, ranging from a simple metronome to a complex musical excerpt. The analysis of synchronized tapping data is performed with circular statistics, which provide reliable measures of synchronization accuracy (e.g., the difference between the timing of the taps and the timing of the pacing stimuli) and consistency. Circular statistics on tapping data are particularly well-suited for detecting individual differences in the general population. Synchronized tapping and anisochrony detection are sensitive measures for identifying profiles of rhythm disorders and have been used with success to uncover cases of poor synchronization with spared perceptual timing. This systematic assessment of perceptual and sensorimotor timing can be extended to populations of patients with brain damage, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Parkinson's disease), and developmental disorders (e.g., Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder).

  11. Biallelic mutations in the 3' exonuclease TOE1 cause pontocerebellar hypoplasia and uncover a role in snRNA processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lardelli, Rea M.; Schaffer, Ashleigh E.; Eggens, Veerle R C

    2017-01-01

    ) is a unique recessive syndrome characterized by neurodegeneration and ambiguous genitalia. We studied 12 human families with PCH7, uncovering biallelic, loss-of-function mutations in TOE1, which encodes an unconventional deadenylase. toe1-morphant zebrafish displayed midbrain and hindbrain degeneration...... of TOE1 accumulated 3'-end-extended pre-snRNAs, and the immunoisolated TOE1 complex was sufficient for 3'-end maturation of snRNAs. Our findings identify the cause of a neurodegenerative syndrome linked to snRNA maturation and uncover a key factor involved in the processing of snRNA 3' ends....

  12. The influence of altered gravity on carbohydrate metabolism in excised wheat leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenland, D. M.; Brown, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    We developed a system to study the influence of altered gravity on carbohydrate metabolism in excised wheat leaves by means of clinorotation. The use of excised leaves in our clinostat studies offered a number of advantages over the use of whole plants, most important of which were minimization of exogenous mechanical stress and a greater amount of carbohydrate accumulation during the time of treatment. We found that horizontal clinorotation of excised wheat leaves resulted in significant reductions in the accumulation of fructose, sucrose, starch and fructan relative to control, vertically clinorotated leaves. Photosynthesis, dark respiration and the extractable activities of ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase (EC 2.7.7.27), sucrose phosphate synthase (EC 2.4.4.14), sucrose sucrose fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.99), and fructan hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.80) were unchanged due to altered gravity treatment.

  13. Uncovering the Links between Prospective Teachers' Personal Responsibility, Academic Optimism, Hope, and Emotions about Teaching: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Altay

    2014-01-01

    Prospective teachers' sense of personal responsibility has not been examined together with their academic optimism, hope, and emotions about teaching in a single study to date. However, to consider hope, academic optimism, and emotions about teaching together with personal responsibility is important to uncover the factors affecting…

  14. Combining Novel Simulation Methods and Nucleation Theory to Uncover the Secrets of Gas Hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, Thomas [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-04-14

    Conventional computer simulation methods fail for some of the most important problems. With the design and application of innovative algorithms, this project achieved a breakthrough for the case of systems undergoing first-order phase transitions. We gave a complete simulation protocol based upon a well optimized version of our "generalized replica exchange method". The transition of primary interest was gas hydrate formation, a process of significance for climate science and natural gas retrieval. Since hydrates consist of guest molecules in the cages of a water matrix, β ice, the freezing and melting of water was also studied. New information was uncovered about the transition pathways and thermodynamics. Some highlights are 1. the finding that in a very dilute solution without deep supercooling, representative of real-world conditions and very challenging to conventional algorithms, methane can act as a catalyst to drive the formation of large amounts of β ice with empty cages as metastable intermediates, which might be filled by additional methane in a mechanism for hydrate formation, and 2. illumination of the role of metastable cubic ice in water freezing, with determination of the surface tensions of the cubic, hexagonal, and β ices, and the free energy difference of cubic vs hexagonal ice. Work was begun on lipid systems, bilayers and nanoreactors promising for energy-related photoreductions, and targets for future research. Our methods yielded what is arguably the most complete description of the composite lipid/water phases and the transition pathways among them.

  15. The proteome and phosphoproteome of maize pollen uncovers fertility candidate proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Qing; Gao, Zhi-Fang; Wang, Yue-Feng; Li, Zhe; Huang, Xia-He; Wang, Ying-Chun; Mei, Ying-Chang; Zhao, Biligen-Gaowa; Li, Liang; Jiang, Yu-Bo; Wang, Bai-Chen

    2016-06-01

    Maize is unique since it is both monoecious and diclinous (separate male and female flowers on the same plant). We investigated the proteome and phosphoproteome of maize pollen containing modified proteins and here we provide a comprehensive pollen proteome and phosphoproteome which contain 100,990 peptides from 6750 proteins and 5292 phosphorylated sites corresponding to 2257 maize phosphoproteins, respectively. Interestingly, among the total 27 overrepresented phosphosite motifs we identified here, 11 were novel motifs, which suggested different modification mechanisms in plants compared to those of animals. Enrichment analysis of pollen phosphoproteins showed that pathways including DNA synthesis/chromatin structure, regulation of RNA transcription, protein modification, cell organization, signal transduction, cell cycle, vesicle transport, transport of ions and metabolisms, which were involved in pollen development, the following germination and pollen tube growth, were regulated by phosphorylation. In this study, we also found 430 kinases and 105 phosphatases in the maize pollen phosphoproteome, among which calcium dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), leucine rich repeat kinase, SNF1 related protein kinases and MAPK family proteins were heavily enriched and further analyzed. From our research, we also uncovered hundreds of male sterility-associated proteins and phosphoproteins that might influence maize productivity and serve as targets for hybrid maize seed production. At last, a putative complex signaling pathway involving CDPKs, MAPKs, ubiquitin ligases and multiple fertility proteins was constructed. Overall, our data provides new insight for further investigation of protein phosphorylation status in mature maize pollen and construction of maize male sterile mutants in the future.

  16. Uncovering neurodevelopmental windows of susceptibility to manganese exposure using dentine microspatial analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus Henn, Birgit; Austin, Christine; Coull, Brent A; Schnaas, Lourdes; Gennings, Chris; Horton, Megan K; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O; Arora, Manish

    2018-02-01

    Associations between manganese (Mn) and neurodevelopment may depend on dose and exposure timing, but most studies cannot measure exposure variability over time well. We apply temporally informative tooth-matrix biomarkers to uncover windows of susceptibility in early life when Mn is associated with visual motor ability in childhood. We also explore effect modification by lead (Pb) and child sex. Participants were drawn from the ELEMENT (Early Life Exposures in MExico and NeuroToxicology) longitudinal birth cohort studies. We reconstructed dose and timing of prenatal and early postnatal Mn and Pb exposures for 138 children by analyzing deciduous teeth using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Neurodevelopment was assessed between 6 and 16 years of age using the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA). Mn associations with total WRAVMA scores and subscales were estimated with multivariable generalized additive mixed models. We examined Mn interactions with Pb and child sex in stratified models. Levels of dentine Mn were highest in the second trimester and declined steeply over the prenatal period, with a slower rate of decline after birth. Mn was positively associated with visual spatial and total WRAVMA scores in the second trimester, among children with lower (windows in which Mn was associated with visual-spatial abilities. Our results suggest that Mn associations are driven in large part by exposure timing, with beneficial effects found for prenatal levels and toxic effects found for postnatal levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ethnomathematics study: uncovering units of length, area, and volume in Kampung Naga Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septianawati, T.; Turmudi; Puspita, E.

    2017-02-01

    During this time, mathematics is considered as something neutral and not associated with culture. It can be seen from mathematics learning in the school which adopt many of foreign mathematics learning are considered more advanced (western). In fact, Indonesia is a rich country in cultural diversity. In the cultural activities, there are mathematical ideas that were considered a important thing in the mathematics learning. A study that examines the idea or mathematical practices in a variety of cultural activities are known as ethnomathematics. In Indonesia, there are some ethnic maintain their ancestral traditions, one of them is Kampung Naga. Therefore, this study was conducted in Kampung Naga. This study aims to uncover units of length, area, and volume used by Kampung Naga society. This study used a qualitative approach and ethnography methods. In this research, data collection is done through the principles of ethnography such as observation, interviews, documentation, and field notes. The results of this study are units of length, area, and volume used by Kampung Naga society and its conversion into standard units. This research is expected to give information to the public that mathematics has a relationship with culture and become recommendation to mathematics curriculum in Indonesia.

  18. The work is never ending: uncovering teamwork sustainability using realistic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frykman, Mandus; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Muntlin Athlin, Åsa; Hasson, Henna; Mazzocato, Pamela

    2017-03-20

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to uncover the mechanisms influencing the sustainability of behavior changes following the implementation of teamwork. Design/methodology/approach Realistic evaluation was combined with a framework (DCOM®) based on applied behavior analysis to study the sustainability of behavior changes two and a half years after the initial implementation of teamwork at an emergency department. The DCOM® framework was used to categorize the mechanisms of behavior change interventions (BCIs) into the four categories of direction, competence, opportunity, and motivation. Non-participant observation and interview data were used. Findings The teamwork behaviors were not sustained. A substantial fallback in managerial activities in combination with a complex context contributed to reduced direction, opportunity, and motivation. Reduced direction made staff members unclear about how and why they should work in teams. Deterioration of opportunity was evident from the lack of problem-solving resources resulting in accumulated barriers to teamwork. Motivation in terms of management support and feedback was reduced. Practical implications The implementation of complex organizational changes in complex healthcare contexts requires continuous adaption and managerial activities well beyond the initial implementation period. Originality/value By integrating the DCOM® framework with realistic evaluation, this study responds to the call for theoretically based research on behavioral mechanisms that can explain how BCIs interact with context and how this interaction influences sustainability.

  19. Gene Expression Deconvolution for Uncovering Molecular Signatures in Response to Therapy in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Cui

    Full Text Available Gene expression-based signatures help identify pathways relevant to diseases and treatments, but are challenging to construct when there is a diversity of disease mechanisms and treatments in patients with complex diseases. To overcome this challenge, we present a new application of an in silico gene expression deconvolution method, ISOpure-S1, and apply it to identify a common gene expression signature corresponding to response to treatment in 33 juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA patients. Using pre- and post-treatment gene expression profiles only, we found a gene expression signature that significantly correlated with a reduction in the number of joints with active arthritis, a measure of clinical outcome (Spearman rho = 0.44, p = 0.040, Bonferroni correction. This signature may be associated with a decrease in T-cells, monocytes, neutrophils and platelets. The products of most differentially expressed genes include known biomarkers for JIA such as major histocompatibility complexes and interleukins, as well as novel biomarkers including α-defensins. This method is readily applicable to expression datasets of other complex diseases to uncover shared mechanistic patterns in heterogeneous samples.

  20. Antisocial behaviour and psychopathy: Uncovering the externalizing link in the P3 modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasion, Rita; Fernandes, Carina; Pereira, Mariana R; Barbosa, Fernando

    2017-03-22

    In 2009, Gao and Raine's meta-analysis analysed P3 modulation over the antisocial spectrum. However, some questions remained open regarding the P3 modulation patterns across impulsive and violent manifestations of antisocial behaviour, phenotypic components of psychopathy, and P3 components. A systematic review of 36 studies was conducted (N=3514) to extend previous results and to address these unresolved questions. A clear link between decreased P3 amplitude and antisocial behaviour was found. In psychopathy, dimensional approaches become more informative than taxonomic models. Distinct etiological pathways of psychopathy were evidenced in cognitive tasks: impulsive-antisocial psychopathic traits mainly predicted blunted P3 amplitude, while interpersonal-affective psychopathic traits explained enhanced P3 amplitude. Supporting the low fear hypothesis, the interpersonal-affective traits were associated with reduced P3 amplitude in emotional-affective learning tasks. From the accumulated knowledge we propose a framework of P3 amplitude modulation that uncovers the externalizing link between psychopathy and antisocial behaviour. However, the main hypotheses are exploratory and call for more data before stablishing robust conclusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Uncovering a New Moral Dilemma of Economic Optimization in Biotechnological Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vochozka, Marek; Stehel, Vojtěch; Maroušková, Anna

    2017-06-08

    The trend of emerging biorefineries is to process the harvest as efficiently as possible and without any waste. From the most valuable phytomass, refined medicines, enzymes, dyes and other special reactants are created. Functional foods, food ingredients, oils, alcohol, solvents, plastics, fillers and a wide variety of other chemical products follow. After being treated with nutrient recovery techniques (for fertilizer production), biofuels or soil improvers are produced from the leftovers. Economic optimization algorithms have confirmed that such complex biorefineries can be financially viable only when a high degree of feedstock concentration is included. Because the plant material is extremely voluminous before processing, the farming intensity of special plants increases in the nearest vicinity of agglomerations where the biorefineries are built for logistical reasons. Interdisciplinary analyses revealed that these optimization measures lead to significantly increased pollen levels in neighbouring urban areas and subsequently an increased risk of allergies, respectively costs to the national health system. A new moral dilemma between the shareholder's profit and public interest was uncovered and subjected to disputation.

  2. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, P B; Erickson, A S; Mayer, M; Nattress, J; Jovanovic, I

    2016-04-18

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as "searching for a needle in a haystack" because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material's areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications.

  3. Uncovering the Connection Between Low-Frequency Dynamics and Phase Transformation Phenomena in Molecular Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Michael T.; Zhang, Wei; Bond, Andrew D.; Mittleman, Daniel M.; Zeitler, J. Axel

    2018-05-01

    The low-frequency motions of molecules in the condensed phase have been shown to be vital to a large number of physical properties and processes. However, in the case of disordered systems, it is often difficult to elucidate the atomic-level details surrounding these phenomena. In this work, we have performed an extensive experimental and computational study on the molecular solid camphor, which exhibits a rich and complex structure-dynamics relationship, and undergoes an order-disorder transition near ambient conditions. The combination of x-ray diffraction, variable temperature and pressure terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, ab initio molecular dynamics, and periodic density functional theory calculations enables a complete picture of the phase transition to be obtained, inclusive of mechanistic, structural, and thermodynamic phenomena. Additionally, the low-frequency vibrations of a disordered solid are characterized for the first time with atomic-level precision, uncovering a clear link between such motions and the phase transformation. Overall, this combination of methods allows for significant details to be obtained for disordered solids and the associated transformations, providing a framework that can be directly applied for a wide range of similar systems.

  4. Affinity purification mass spectrometry analysis of PD-1 uncovers SAP as a new checkpoint inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Michael; Tocheva, Anna S; Sandigursky, Sabina; Nayak, Shruti; Philips, Elliot A; Nichols, Kim E; Strazza, Marianne; Azoulay-Alfaguter, Inbar; Askenazi, Manor; Neel, Benjamin G; Pelzek, Adam J; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Mor, Adam

    2018-01-16

    Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is an essential inhibitory receptor in T cells. Antibodies targeting PD-1 elicit durable clinical responses in patients with multiple tumor indications. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of patients do not respond to anti-PD-1 treatment, and a better understanding of the signaling pathways downstream of PD-1 could provide biomarkers for those whose tumors respond and new therapeutic approaches for those whose tumors do not. We used affinity purification mass spectrometry to uncover multiple proteins associated with PD-1. Among these proteins, signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) was functionally and mechanistically analyzed for its contribution to PD-1 inhibitory responses. Silencing of SAP augmented and overexpression blocked PD-1 function. T cells from patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), who lack functional SAP, were hyperresponsive to PD-1 signaling, confirming its inhibitory role downstream of PD-1. Strikingly, signaling downstream of PD-1 in purified T cell subsets did not correlate with PD-1 surface expression but was inversely correlated with intracellular SAP levels. Mechanistically, SAP opposed PD-1 function by acting as a molecular shield of key tyrosine residues that are targets for the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2, which mediates PD-1 inhibitory properties. Our results identify SAP as an inhibitor of PD-1 function and SHP2 as a potential therapeutic target in patients with XLP.

  5. Novel resistance functions uncovered using functional metagenomic investigations of resistance reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica C. Pehrsson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rates of infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria have increased precipitously over the past several decades, with far-reaching healthcare and societal costs. Recent evidence has established a link between antibiotic resistance genes in human pathogens and those found in non-pathogenic, commensal, and environmental organisms, prompting deeper investigation of natural and human-associated reservoirs of antibiotic resistance. Functional metagenomic selections, in which shotgun-cloned DNA fragments are selected for their ability to confer survival to an indicator host, have been increasingly applied to the characterization of many antibiotic resistance reservoirs. These experiments have demonstrated that antibiotic resistance genes are highly diverse and widely distributed, many times bearing little to no similarity to known sequences. Through unbiased selections for survival to antibiotic exposure, functional metagenomics can improve annotations by reducing the discovery of false-positive resistance and by allowing for the identification of previously unrecognizable resistance genes. In this review, we summarize the novel resistance functions uncovered using functional metagenomic investigations of natural and human-impacted resistance reservoirs. Examples of novel antibiotic resistance genes include those highly divergent from known sequences, those for which sequence is entirely unable to predict resistance function, bifunctional resistance genes, and those with unconventional, atypical resistance mechanisms. Overcoming antibiotic resistance in the clinic will require a better understanding of existing resistance reservoirs and the dissemination networks that govern horizontal gene exchange, informing best practices to limit the spread of resistance-conferring genes to human pathogens.

  6. Plastome Sequencing of Ten Nonmodel Crop Species Uncovers a Large Insertion of Mitochondrial DNA in Cashew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabah, Samar O; Lee, Chaehee; Hajrah, Nahid H; Makki, Rania M; Alharby, Hesham F; Alhebshi, Alawiah M; Sabir, Jamal S M; Jansen, Robert K; Ruhlman, Tracey A

    2017-11-01

    In plant evolution, intracellular gene transfer (IGT) is a prevalent, ongoing process. While nuclear and mitochondrial genomes are known to integrate foreign DNA via IGT and horizontal gene transfer (HGT), plastid genomes (plastomes) have resisted foreign DNA incorporation and only recently has IGT been uncovered in the plastomes of a few land plants. In this study, we completed plastome sequences for l0 crop species and describe a number of structural features including variation in gene and intron content, inversions, and expansion and contraction of the inverted repeat (IR). We identified a putative in cinnamon ( J. Presl) and other sequenced Lauraceae and an apparent functional transfer of to the nucleus of quinoa ( Willd.). In the orchard tree cashew ( L.), we report the insertion of an ∼6.7-kb fragment of mitochondrial DNA into the plastome IR. BLASTn analyses returned high identity hits to mitogenome sequences including an intact open reading frame. Using three plastome markers for five species of , we generated a phylogeny to investigate the distribution and timing of the insertion. Four species share the insertion, suggesting that this event occurred <20 million yr ago in a single clade in the genus. Our study extends the observation of mitochondrial to plastome IGT to include long-lived tree species. While previous studies have suggested possible mechanisms facilitating IGT to the plastome, more examples of this phenomenon, along with more complete mitogenome sequences, will be required before a common, or variable, mechanism can be elucidated. Copyright © 2017 Crop Science Society of America.

  7. Degenerate primer MOB typing of multiresistant clinical isolates of E. coli uncovers new plasmid backbones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcillán-Barcia, M Pilar; Ruiz del Castillo, Belén; Alvarado, Andrés; de la Cruz, Fernando; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Degenerate Primer MOB Typing is a PCR-based protocol for the classification of γ-proteobacterial transmissible plasmids in five phylogenetic relaxase MOB families. It was applied to a multiresistant E. coli collection, previously characterized by PCR-based replicon-typing, in order to compare both methods. Plasmids from 32 clinical isolates of multiresistant E. coli (19 extended spectrum beta-lactamase producers and 13 non producers) and their transconjugants were analyzed. A total of 95 relaxases were detected, at least one per isolate, underscoring the high potential of these strains for antibiotic-resistance transmission. MOBP12 and MOBF12 plasmids were the most abundant. Most MOB subfamilies detected were present in both subsets of the collection, indicating a shared mobilome among multiresistant E. coli. The plasmid profile obtained by both methods was compared, which provided useful data upon which decisions related to the implementation of detection methods in the clinic could be based. The phylogenetic depth at which replicon and MOB-typing classify plasmids is different. While replicon-typing aims at plasmid replication regions with non-degenerate primers, MOB-typing classifies plasmids into relaxase subfamilies using degenerate primers. As a result, MOB-typing provides a deeper phylogenetic depth than replicon-typing and new plasmid groups are uncovered. Significantly, MOB typing identified 17 plasmids and an integrative and conjugative element, which were not detected by replicon-typing. Four of these backbones were different from previously reported elements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Uncovering buffered pleiotropy: a genome-scale screen for mel-28 genetic interactors in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Anita G; Mis, Emily K; Lai, Allison; Mauro, Michael; Quental, Angela; Bock, Carly; Piano, Fabio

    2014-01-10

    mel-28 (maternal-effect-lethal-28) encodes a conserved protein required for nuclear envelope function and chromosome segregation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Because mel-28 is a strict maternal-effect lethal gene, its function is required in the early embryo but appears to be dispensable for larval development. We wanted to test the idea that mel-28 has postembryonic roles that are buffered by the contributions of other genes. To find genes that act coordinately with mel-28, we did an RNA interference-based genetic interaction screen using mel-28 and wild-type larvae. We screened 18,364 clones and identified 65 genes that cause sterility in mel-28 but not wild-type worms. Some of these genes encode components of the nuclear pore. In addition we identified genes involved in dynein and dynactin function, vesicle transport, and cell-matrix attachments. By screening mel-28 larvae we have bypassed the requirement for mel-28 in the embryo, uncovering pleiotropic functions for mel-28 later in development that are normally provided by other genes. This work contributes toward revealing the gene networks that underlie cellular processes and reveals roles for a maternal-effect lethal gene later in development.

  9. Uncovering the lived experiences of junior and senior undergraduate female science majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adornato, Philip

    The following dissertation focuses on a case study that uses critical theory, social learning theory, identity theory, liberal feminine theory, and motivation theory to conduct a narrative describing the lived experience of females and their performance in two highly selective private university, where students can cross-register between school, while majoring in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Through the use of narratives, the research attempts to shed additional light on the informal and formal science learning experiences that motivates young females to major in STEM in order to help increase the number of women entering STEM careers and retaining women in STEM majors. In the addition to the narratives, surveys were performed to encompass a larger audience while looking for themes and phenomena which explore what captivates and motivates young females' interests in science and continues to nurture and facilitate their growth throughout high school and college, and propel them into a major in STEM in college. The purpose of this study was to uncover the lived experiences of junior and senior undergraduate female science majors during their formal and informal education, their science motivation to learn science, their science identities, and any experiences in gender inequity they may have encountered. The findings have implications for young women deciding on future careers and majors through early exposure and guidance, understanding and recognizing what gender discrimination, and the positive effects of mentorships.

  10. Uncovering the inertia of dislocation motion and negative mechanical response in crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yizhe

    2018-01-09

    Dislocations are linear defects in crystals and their motion controls crystals' mechanical behavior. The dissipative nature of dislocation propagation is generally accepted although the specific mechanisms are still not fully understood. The inertia, which is undoubtedly the nature of motion for particles with mass, seems much less convincing for configuration propagation. We utilize atomistic simulations in conditions that minimize dissipative effects to enable uncovering of the hidden nature of dislocation motion, in three typical model metals Mg, Cu and Ta. We find that, with less/no dissipation, dislocation motion is under-damped and explicitly inertial at both low and high velocities. The inertia of dislocation motion is intrinsic, and more fundamental than the dissipative nature. The inertia originates from the kinetic energy imparted from strain energy and stored in the moving core. Peculiar negative mechanical response associated with the inertia is also discovered. These findings shed light on the fundamental nature of dislocation motion, reveal the underlying physics, and provide a new physical explanation for phenomena relevant to high-velocity dislocations.

  11. Newly Uncovered Large-Scale Component of the Northern Jet in R Aqr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montez, Rodolfo; Karovska, Margarita; Nichols, Joy S.; Kashyap, Vinay

    2017-06-01

    R Aqr is a symbiotic system comprised a compact white dwarf and Mira giant star. The interaction of these stars is responsible for the presence of a two-sided jet structure that is seen across the electromagnetic spectrum. X-ray emission from the jet was first discovered in 2000 with an observation by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Since then follow-up observations have traced the evolution of the X-ray emission from the jet and a central compact source. In X-rays, the NE jet is brighter than the SW jet, but the full extent of the SW jet was larger - before it began fading below the detection threshold. However, we have uncovered evidence for large-scale emission associated with the NE jet that matches the extent of the SW jet. The emission has escaped previous identification because it is near the detection threshold, but it has been present since the first 2000 observation and clearly evolves in subsequent observations. We present our study of the emission from this component of the NE jet, its relationship to multiwavelength observations, and how it impacts our interpretation of the jet-phenomenon in R Aqr.

  12. Seeing the forest through the trees: uncovering phenomic complexity through interactive network visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jeremy L; Denny, Joshua C; Kreda, David A; Alterovitz, Gil

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to uncover unrecognized phenomic relationships using force-based network visualization methods, based on observed electronic medical record data. A primary phenotype was defined from actual patient profiles in the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II database. Network visualizations depicting primary relationships were compared to those incorporating secondary adjacencies. Interactivity was enabled through a phenotype visualization software concept: the Phenomics Advisor. Subendocardial infarction with cardiac arrest was demonstrated as a sample phenotype; there were 332 primarily adjacent diagnoses, with 5423 relationships. Primary network visualization suggested a treatment-related complication phenotype and several rare diagnoses; re-clustering by secondary relationships revealed an emergent cluster of smokers with the metabolic syndrome. Network visualization reveals phenotypic patterns that may have remained occult in pairwise correlation analysis. Visualization of complex data, potentially offered as point-of-care tools on mobile devices, may allow clinicians and researchers to quickly generate hypotheses and gain deeper understanding of patient subpopulations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Methods uncovering usability issues in medication-related alerting functions: results from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcilly, Romaric; Vasseur, Francis; Ammenwerth, Elske; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at listing the methods used to evaluate the usability of medication-related alerting functions and at knowing what type of usability issues those methods allow to detect. A sub-analysis of data from this systematic review has been performed. Methods applied in the included papers were collected. Then, included papers were sorted in four types of evaluation: "expert evaluation", "user- testing/simulation", "on site observation" and "impact studies". The types of usability issues (usability flaws, usage problems and negative outcomes) uncovered by those evaluations were analyzed. Results show that a large set of methods are used. The largest proportion of papers uses "on site observation" evaluation. This is the only evaluation type for which every kind of usability flaws, usage problems and outcomes are detected. It is somehow surprising that, in a usability systematic review, most of the papers included use a method that is not often presented as a usability method. Results are discussed about the opportunity to provide usability information collected after the implementation of the technology during their design process, i.e. before their implementation.

  14. Uncovering molecular relaxation processes with nonlinear spectroscopies in the deep UV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, Brantley A.; Molesky, Brian P.; Giokas, Paul G.; Moran, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We discuss the outlook for multidimensional spectroscopies in the deep UV. • Photophysics are examined in small DNA components at cryogenic temperatures. • Wavepacket motions are detected in ring-opening systems with 2DUV spectroscopy. • Measurements of electronic wavepacket motions in molecules are proposed. - Abstract: Nonlinear laser spectroscopies in the deep UV spectral range are motivated by studies of biological systems and elementary processes in small molecules. This perspective article discusses recent technical advances in this area with a particular emphasis on diffractive optic based approaches to four-wave mixing spectroscopies. Applications to two classes of systems illustrate present experimental capabilities. First, experiments on DNA components at cryogenic temperatures are used to uncover features of excited state potential energy surfaces and vibrational cooling mechanisms. Second, sub-200 fs internal conversion processes and coherent wavepacket motions are investigated in cyclohexadiene and α-terpinene. Finally, we propose new experimental directions that combine methods for producing few-cycle UV laser pulses in noble gases with incoherent detection methods (e.g., photoionization) in experiments with time resolution near a singlefemtosecond. These measurements are motivated by knowledge of extremely fast non-adiabatic dynamics and the resolution of electronic wavepacket motions in molecules

  15. MARS A Cosmic Stepping Stone Uncovering Humanity’s Cosmic Context

    CERN Document Server

    Nolan, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    The questions of our origin and cosmic abundance of life are among the most compelling facing humanity. We have determined much about the nature and origin of the Universe and our place in it, but with virtually all evidence of our origin long since gone from our world and an unimaginably vast Universe still to explore, defining answers are difficult to obtain. For all of the difficulties facing us however, the planet Mars may act as a ‘cosmic stepping stone’ in uncovering some of the answers. Although different today, the origin and early history of both Earth and Mars may have been similar enough to consider an origin to life on both. But because Mars’ planetary processes collapsed over three billion years ago – just as life was beginning to flourish on Earth – a significant and unique record of activity from that era perhaps relevant to the origin of life still resides there today. In recognition of this, both the US and Europe are currently engaged in one of the most ambitious programs of explor...

  16. The Production and Utilization of GDP-glucose in the Biosynthesis of Trehalose 6-Phosphate by Streptomyces venezuelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asención Diez, Matías D; Miah, Farzana; Stevenson, Clare E M; Lawson, David M; Iglesias, Alberto A; Bornemann, Stephen

    2017-01-20

    Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase OtsA from streptomycetes is unusual in that it uses GDP-glucose as the donor substrate rather than the more commonly used UDP-glucose. We now confirm that OtsA from Streptomyces venezuelae has such a preference for GDP-glucose and can utilize ADP-glucose to some extent too. A crystal structure of the enzyme shows that it shares twin Rossmann-like domains with the UDP-glucose-specific OtsA from Escherichia coli However, it is structurally more similar to Streptomyces hygroscopicus VldE, a GDP-valienol-dependent pseudoglycosyltransferase enzyme. Comparison of the donor binding sites reveals that the amino acids associated with the binding of diphosphoribose are almost all identical in these three enzymes. By contrast, the amino acids associated with binding guanine in VldE (Asn, Thr, and Val) are similar in S. venezuelae OtsA (Asp, Ser, and Phe, respectively) but not conserved in E. coli OtsA (His, Leu, and Asp, respectively), providing a rationale for the purine base specificity of S. venezuelae OtsA. To establish which donor is used in vivo, we generated an otsA null mutant in S. venezuelae The mutant had a cell density-dependent growth phenotype and accumulated galactose 1-phosphate, glucose 1-phosphate, and GDP-glucose when grown on galactose. To determine how the GDP-glucose is generated, we characterized three candidate GDP-glucose pyrophosphorylases. SVEN_3027 is a UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, SVEN_3972 is an unusual ITP-mannose pyrophosphorylase, and SVEN_2781 is a pyrophosphorylase that is capable of generating GDP-glucose as well as GDP-mannose. We have therefore established how S. venezuelae can make and utilize GDP-glucose in the biosynthesis of trehalose 6-phosphate. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. The Production and Utilization of GDP-glucose in the Biosynthesis of Trehalose 6-Phosphate by Streptomyces venezuelae*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asención Diez, Matías D.; Miah, Farzana; Stevenson, Clare E. M.; Lawson, David M.; Iglesias, Alberto A.; Bornemann, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase OtsA from streptomycetes is unusual in that it uses GDP-glucose as the donor substrate rather than the more commonly used UDP-glucose. We now confirm that OtsA from Streptomyces venezuelae has such a preference for GDP-glucose and can utilize ADP-glucose to some extent too. A crystal structure of the enzyme shows that it shares twin Rossmann-like domains with the UDP-glucose-specific OtsA from Escherichia coli. However, it is structurally more similar to Streptomyces hygroscopicus VldE, a GDP-valienol-dependent pseudoglycosyltransferase enzyme. Comparison of the donor binding sites reveals that the amino acids associated with the binding of diphosphoribose are almost all identical in these three enzymes. By contrast, the amino acids associated with binding guanine in VldE (Asn, Thr, and Val) are similar in S. venezuelae OtsA (Asp, Ser, and Phe, respectively) but not conserved in E. coli OtsA (His, Leu, and Asp, respectively), providing a rationale for the purine base specificity of S. venezuelae OtsA. To establish which donor is used in vivo, we generated an otsA null mutant in S. venezuelae. The mutant had a cell density-dependent growth phenotype and accumulated galactose 1-phosphate, glucose 1-phosphate, and GDP-glucose when grown on galactose. To determine how the GDP-glucose is generated, we characterized three candidate GDP-glucose pyrophosphorylases. SVEN_3027 is a UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, SVEN_3972 is an unusual ITP-mannose pyrophosphorylase, and SVEN_2781 is a pyrophosphorylase that is capable of generating GDP-glucose as well as GDP-mannose. We have therefore established how S. venezuelae can make and utilize GDP-glucose in the biosynthesis of trehalose 6-phosphate. PMID:27903647

  18. Uncovering China’s transport CO2 emission patterns at the regional level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Bin; Geng, Yong; Franke, Bernd; Hao, Han; Liu, Yaxuan; Chiu, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    With China’s rapid economic development, its transport sector has experienced a dramatic growth, leading to a large amount of related CO 2 emission. This paper aims to uncover China’s transport CO 2 emission patterns at the regional and provincial level. We first present the CO 2 emission features from transport sector in 30 Chinese provinces, including per capita emissions, emission intensities, and historical evolution of annual CO 2 emission. We then quantify the related driving forces by adopting both period-wise and time-series LMDI analysis. Results indicate that significant regional CO 2 emission disparities exist in China’s transport sector. The eastern region had higher total CO 2 emissions and per capita CO 2 emissions, but lower CO 2 emission intensities in its transport sector. The western region had higher CO 2 emission intensities and experienced a rapid CO 2 emission increase. The CO 2 emission increments in the eastern provinces were mainly contributed by both economic activity effect and population effect, while energy intensity partially offset the emission growth and energy structure had a marginal effect. However, in the central and western provinces, both economic activity effect and energy intensity effect induced the CO 2 emission increases, while the effects from population and energy structure change were limited. - Highlights: • The CO 2 emission features from transport sector in 30 Chinese provinces were presented. • The driving forces of CO 2 emissions from transport sector were quantified. • Regional disparities on China’s transport sector CO 2 emission exist. • Region-specific mitigation policies on transport sector CO 2 emission are needed

  19. Uncovering the Mechanisms Responsible for Why Language Learning May Promote Healthy Cognitive Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Antoniou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the great challenges facing humankind in the 21st century is preserving healthy brain function in our aging population. Individuals over 60 are the fastest growing age group in the world, and by 2050, it is estimated that the number of people over the age of 60 will triple. The typical aging process involves cognitive decline related to brain atrophy, especially in frontal brain areas and regions that subserve declarative memory, loss of synaptic connections, and the emergence of neuropathological symptoms associated with dementia. The disease-state of this age-related cognitive decline is Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, which may cause older adults to lose their independence and rely on others to live safely, burdening family members and health care systems in the process. However, there are two lines of research that offer hope to those seeking to promote healthy cognitive aging. First, it has been observed that lifestyle variables such as cognitive leisure activities can moderate the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, which has led to the development of plasticity-based interventions for older adults designed to protect against the adverse effects of cognitive decline. Second, there is evidence that lifelong bilingualism acts as a safeguard in preserving healthy brain function, possibly delaying the incidence of dementia by several years. In previous work, we have suggested that foreign language learning programs aimed at older populations are an optimal solution for building cognitive reserve because language learning engages an extensive brain network that is known to overlap with the regions negatively affected by the aging process. Here, we will outline potential future lines of research that may uncover the mechanism responsible for the emergence of language learning related brain advantages, such as language typology, bi- vs. multi-lingualism, age of acquisition, and the elements that are likely to result in the largest

  20. Uncovering phenotypes of poor-pitch singing: the Sung Performance Battery (SPB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowska, Magdalena; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Singing is as natural as speaking for humans. Increasing evidence shows that the layman can carry a tune (e.g., when asked to sing a well-known song or to imitate single pitches, intervals and short melodies). Yet, important individual differences exist in the general population with regard to singing proficiency. Some individuals are particularly inaccurate or imprecise in producing or imitating pitch information (poor-pitch singers), thus showing a variety of singing phenotypes. Unfortunately, so far there is not a standard set of tasks for assessing singing proficiency in the general population, allowing to uncover and characterize individual profiles of poor-pitch singing. Different tasks and analysis methods are typically used in various experiments, making the comparison of the results across studies arduous. To fill this gap we propose here a new tool for assessing singing proficiency (the Sung Performance Battery, SPB). The SPB starts from the assessment of participants' vocal range followed by five tasks: (1) single-pitch matching, (2) pitch-interval matching, (3) novel-melody matching, (4) singing from memory of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable), and (5) singing of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable) at a slow tempo indicated by a metronome. Data analysis via acoustical methods provides objective measures of pitch accuracy and precision in terms of absolute and relative pitch. The SPB has been tested in a group of 50 occasional singers. The results indicate that the battery is useful for characterizing proficient singing and for detecting cases of inaccurate and/or imprecise singing. PMID:24151475

  1. RNA shotgun metagenomic sequencing of northern California (USA mosquitoes uncovers viruses, bacteria, and fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Angus eChandler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes, most often recognized for the microbial agents of disease they may carry, harbor diverse microbial communities that include viruses, bacteria, and fungi, collectively called the microbiota. The composition of the microbiota can directly and indirectly affect disease transmission through microbial interactions that could be revealed by its characterization in natural populations of mosquitoes. Furthermore, the use of shotgun metagenomic sequencing (SMS approaches could allow the discovery of unknown members of the microbiota. In this study, we use RNA SMS to characterize the microbiota of seven individual mosquitoes (species include Culex pipiens, Culiseta incidens, and Ochlerotatus sierrensis collected from a variety of habitats in California, USA. Sequencing was performed on the Illumina HiSeq platform and the resulting sequences were quality-checked and assembled into contigs using the A5 pipeline. Sequences related to single stranded RNA viruses of the Bunyaviridae and Rhabdoviridae were uncovered, along with an unclassified genus of double-stranded RNA viruses. Phylogenetic analysis finds that in all three cases, the closest relatives of the identified viral sequences are other mosquito-associated viruses, suggesting widespread host-group specificity among disparate viral taxa. Interestingly, we identified a Narnavirus of fungi, also reported elsewhere in mosquitoes, that potentially demonstrates a nested host-parasite association between virus, fungi, and mosquito. Sequences related to 8 bacterial families and 13 fungal families were found across the seven samples. Bacillus and Escherichia/Shigella were identified in all samples and Wolbachia was identified in all Cx. pipiens samples, while no single fungal genus was found in more than two samples. This study exemplifies the utility of RNA SMS in the characterization of the natural microbiota of mosquitoes and, in particular, the value of identifying all microbes associated with

  2. Comparative genomics of Beauveria bassiana: uncovering signatures of virulence against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A; Faino, Luigi; Spring In't Veld, Daphne; Smit, Sandra; Zwaan, Bas J; van Kan, Jan A L

    2016-12-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are promising biological agents for control of malaria mosquitoes. Indeed, infection with B. bassiana reduces the lifespan of mosquitoes in the laboratory and in the field. Natural isolates of B. bassiana show up to 10-fold differences in virulence between the most and the least virulent isolate. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of five isolates representing the extremes of low/high virulence and three RNA libraries, and applied a genome comparison approach to uncover genetic mechanisms underpinning virulence. A high-quality, near-complete genome assembly was achieved for the highly virulent isolate Bb8028, which was compared to the assemblies of the four other isolates. Whole genome analysis showed a high level of genetic diversity between the five isolates (2.85-16.8 SNPs/kb), which grouped into two distinct phylogenetic clusters. Mating type gene analysis revealed the presence of either the MAT1-1-1 or the MAT1-2-1 gene. Moreover, a putative new MAT gene (MAT1-2-8) was detected in the MAT1-2 locus. Comparative genome analysis revealed that Bb8028 contains 163 genes exclusive for this isolate. These unique genes have a tendency to cluster in the genome and to be often located near the telomeres. Among the genes unique to Bb8028 are a Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthetase (NRPS) secondary metabolite gene cluster, a polyketide synthase (PKS) gene, and five genes with homology to bacterial toxins. A survey of candidate virulence genes for B. bassiana is presented. Our results indicate several genes and molecular processes that may underpin virulence towards mosquitoes. Thus, the genome sequences of five isolates of B. bassiana provide a better understanding of the natural variation in virulence and will offer a major resource for future research on this important biological control agent.

  3. Destroyed documents: uncovering the science that Imperial Tobacco Canada sought to conceal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Chaiton, Michael; Lee, Alex; Collishaw, Neil

    2009-11-10

    In 1992, British American Tobacco had its Canadian affiliate, Imperial Tobacco Canada, destroy internal research documents that could expose the company to liability or embarrassment. Sixty of these destroyed documents were subsequently uncovered in British American Tobacco's files. Legal counsel for Imperial Tobacco Canada provided a list of 60 destroyed documents to British American Tobacco. Information in this list was used to search for copies of the documents in British American Tobacco files released through court disclosure. We reviewed and summarized this information. Imperial Tobacco destroyed documents that included evidence from scientific reviews prepared by British American Tobacco's researchers, as well as 47 original research studies, 35 of which examined the biological activity and carcinogenicity of tobacco smoke. The documents also describe British American Tobacco research on cigarette modifications and toxic emissions, including the ways in which consumers adapted their smoking behaviour in response to these modifications. The documents also depict a comprehensive research program on the pharmacology of nicotine and the central role of nicotine in smoking behaviour. British American Tobacco scientists noted that ".. the present scale of the tobacco industry is largely dependent on the intensity and nature of the pharmacological action of nicotine," and that "... should nicotine become less attractive to smokers, the future of the tobacco industry would become less secure." The scientific evidence contained in the documents destroyed by Imperial Tobacco demonstrates that British American Tobacco had collected evidence that cigarette smoke was carcinogenic and addictive. The evidence that Imperial Tobacco sought to destroy had important implications for government regulation of tobacco.

  4. Uncovering the Mechanisms Responsible for Why Language Learning May Promote Healthy Cognitive Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Mark; Wright, Sarah M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the great challenges facing humankind in the 21st century is preserving healthy brain function in our aging population. Individuals over 60 are the fastest growing age group in the world, and by 2050, it is estimated that the number of people over the age of 60 will triple. The typical aging process involves cognitive decline related to brain atrophy, especially in frontal brain areas and regions that subserve declarative memory, loss of synaptic connections, and the emergence of neuropathological symptoms associated with dementia. The disease-state of this age-related cognitive decline is Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, which may cause older adults to lose their independence and rely on others to live safely, burdening family members and health care systems in the process. However, there are two lines of research that offer hope to those seeking to promote healthy cognitive aging. First, it has been observed that lifestyle variables such as cognitive leisure activities can moderate the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, which has led to the development of plasticity-based interventions for older adults designed to protect against the adverse effects of cognitive decline. Second, there is evidence that lifelong bilingualism acts as a safeguard in preserving healthy brain function, possibly delaying the incidence of dementia by several years. In previous work, we have suggested that foreign language learning programs aimed at older populations are an optimal solution for building cognitive reserve because language learning engages an extensive brain network that is known to overlap with the regions negatively affected by the aging process. Here, we will outline potential future lines of research that may uncover the mechanism responsible for the emergence of language learning related brain advantages, such as language typology, bi- vs. multi-lingualism, age of acquisition, and the elements that are likely to result in the largest gains. PMID:29326636

  5. Uncovering multiple populations with washington photometry. I. The globular cluster NGC 1851

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, Jeffrey D.; Geisler, D.; Villanova, S. [Departamento de Astronomía, Casilla 160-C, Universidad de Concepción (Chile); Carraro, G. [ESO, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago de Chile (Chile)

    2014-08-01

    The analysis of multiple populations (MPs) in globular clusters (GCs) has become a forefront area of research in astronomy. Multiple red giant branches (RGBs), subgiant branches (SGBs), and even main sequences (MSs) have now been observed photometrically in many GCs, while broad abundance distributions of certain elements have been detected spectroscopically in most, if not all, GCs. UV photometry has been crucial in discovering and analyzing these MPs, but the Johnson U and the Stromgren and Sloan u filters that have generally been used are relatively inefficient and very sensitive to reddening and atmospheric extinction. In contrast, the Washington C filter is much broader and redder than these competing UV filters, making it far more efficient at detecting MPs and much less sensitive to reddening and extinction. Here, we investigate the use of the Washington system to uncover MPs using only a 1 m telescope. Our analysis of the well-studied GC NGC 1851 finds that the C filter is both very efficient and effective at detecting its previously discovered MPs in the RGB and SGB. Remarkably, we have also detected an intrinsically broad MS best characterized by two distinct but heavily overlapping populations that cannot be explained by binaries, field stars, or photometric errors. The MS distribution is in very good agreement with that seen on the RGB, with ∼30% of the stars belonging to the second population. There is also evidence for two sequences in the red horizontal branch, but this appears to be unrelated to the MPs in this cluster. Neither of these latter phenomena have been observed previously in this cluster. The redder MS stars are also more centrally concentrated than the blue MS. This is the first time MPs in an MS have been discovered from the ground, and using only a 1 m telescope. The Washington system thus proves to be a very powerful tool for investigating MPs, and holds particular promise for extragalactic objects where photons are limited.

  6. Uncovering highly obfuscated plagiarism cases using fuzzy semantic-based similarity model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salha M. Alzahrani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Highly obfuscated plagiarism cases contain unseen and obfuscated texts, which pose difficulties when using existing plagiarism detection methods. A fuzzy semantic-based similarity model for uncovering obfuscated plagiarism is presented and compared with five state-of-the-art baselines. Semantic relatedness between words is studied based on the part-of-speech (POS tags and WordNet-based similarity measures. Fuzzy-based rules are introduced to assess the semantic distance between source and suspicious texts of short lengths, which implement the semantic relatedness between words as a membership function to a fuzzy set. In order to minimize the number of false positives and false negatives, a learning method that combines a permission threshold and a variation threshold is used to decide true plagiarism cases. The proposed model and the baselines are evaluated on 99,033 ground-truth annotated cases extracted from different datasets, including 11,621 (11.7% handmade paraphrases, 54,815 (55.4% artificial plagiarism cases, and 32,578 (32.9% plagiarism-free cases. We conduct extensive experimental verifications, including the study of the effects of different segmentations schemes and parameter settings. Results are assessed using precision, recall, F-measure and granularity on stratified 10-fold cross-validation data. The statistical analysis using paired t-tests shows that the proposed approach is statistically significant in comparison with the baselines, which demonstrates the competence of fuzzy semantic-based model to detect plagiarism cases beyond the literal plagiarism. Additionally, the analysis of variance (ANOVA statistical test shows the effectiveness of different segmentation schemes used with the proposed approach.

  7. Radiation protection of waterlogged archaeological catalpa wood uncovered from Changtaiguan Xingyang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hongying; Wang Jingwu; Cui Guoshi

    2008-01-01

    Waterlogged archaeological catalpa wood uncovered from Changtaiguan was tentatively treated by gradient dehydration of ethanol concentration, replacement of PEG200DMA gradually, and 60 Co γ-rays radiation cur- ing with absorbed dose 30.72 kGy at dose rate 90.35 Gy/min. It can be found that the color and appearance of rein- forced archaeological wood with clear texture looks like original one. There is no cracking, no warping, and no glare on the wood surface. The Compression strength of reinforced ancient wood (33.06 MPa) is close to that of modem Catalpa wood. The maximum linear shrinkage of reinforced ancient wood is 1.05% in grain direction, 4.10% in radial direction, and 4.32% in tangential direction respectively compared with that of original sample. The linear shrinkage under the condition of 180 days storage in the ambient temperature and humidity is 0.076% in grain direction, 1.17% in radial direction, and 1.86% in tangential direction respectively. The linear shrinkage under the condition of 90 days storage in the temperature (25 ± 2) degree C and relative humidity (5 ± 2)% is 0.066% in grain direction, 0.115% in radial di- rection, and 0.279% in tangential direction respectively. The linear swelling ratio after 90 days storage in the temperature (25 ± 2) degree C and relative humidity (98 ± 2)% is 1.79% in grain direction, 2.42% in radial direction, and 2.61% in tangential direction respectively. It is confirmed by microstructure study that capillaries in residual wood has been filled with polymers, so that the wood mechanical strength and the shape stability is improved respectively. (authors)

  8. Uncovering phenotypes of poor-pitch singing: The Sung Performance Battery (SPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena eBerkowska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Singing is as natural as speaking for humans. Increasing evidence shows that the layman can carry a tune (e.g., when asked to sing a well-known song or to imitate single pitches, intervals and short melodies. Yet, important individual differences exist in the general population with regard to singing proficiency. Some individuals are particularly inaccurate or imprecise in producing or imitating pitch information (poor-pitch singers, thus showing a variety of singing phenotypes. Unfortunately, so far there is not a standard set of tasks for assessing singing proficiency in the general population, allowing to uncover and characterize individual profiles of poor-pitch singing. Different tasks and analysis methods are typically used in various experiments, making the comparison of the results across studies arduous. To fill this gap we propose here a new tool for assessing singing proficiency (the Sung Performance Battery, SPB. The SPB starts from the assessment of participants’ vocal range followed by five tasks: 1 single-pitch matching, 2 pitch-interval matching, 3 novel-melody matching, 4 singing from memory of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable, and 5 singing of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable at a slow tempo indicated by a metronome. Data analysis via acoustical methods provides objective measures of pitch accuracy and precision in terms of absolute and relative pitch. The SPB has been tested in a group of 50 occasional singers. The results indicate that the battery is useful for characterizing proficient singing and for detecting cases of inaccurate and/or imprecise singing.

  9. Multivariate weighted recurrence network inference for uncovering oil-water transitional flow behavior in a vertical pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhong-Ke; Yang, Yu-Xuan; Cai, Qing; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Jin, Ning-De

    2016-06-01

    Exploring the dynamical behaviors of high water cut and low velocity oil-water flows remains a contemporary and challenging problem of significant importance. This challenge stimulates us to design a high-speed cycle motivation conductance sensor to capture spatial local flow information. We systematically carry out experiments and acquire the multi-channel measurements from different oil-water flow patterns. Then we develop a novel multivariate weighted recurrence network for uncovering the flow behaviors from multi-channel measurements. In particular, we exploit graph energy and weighted clustering coefficient in combination with multivariate time-frequency analysis to characterize the derived complex networks. The results indicate that the network measures are very sensitive to the flow transitions and allow uncovering local dynamical behaviors associated with water cut and flow velocity. These properties render our method particularly useful for quantitatively characterizing dynamical behaviors governing the transition and evolution of different oil-water flow patterns.

  10. Uncovering patterns of consumers' interest for beer: A case study with craft beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadini, Gianluca; Porretta, Sebastiano

    2017-01-01

    To uncover patterns of consumer interest in craft beers, the authors explored the quality perception of craft beers in a panel of industrial mass-marketed beer drinkers (n=150) and examined the differences in interest for this beer segment between men and women. The authors adopted a conjoint rating experiment in which the respondents were given forty-nine beer profiles to evaluate and were asked to score the degree of interest in each profile on a 9-point scale. Each profile was described on eight attributes (type of brewery, brewing technology, characterizing raw materials, brewhouse equipment, location of the brewery, type of container, retail price, where to buy) varied at different levels. Results showed that Italian consumers placed greatest importance on type of container (30.49%) and on brewing technology (17.64%). Characterizing raw materials (13.44%) and type of brewery (12.64) rank 3 and 4 and were placed in the same band some way below brewing technology. Retail price (9.87%) and where to buy (8.73%) were of far less importance. The least importance of all was attached to brewhouse equipment (4.44%) and to location of the brewery (2.75%). As far as utility values are concerned, the factor level glass bottle+crown cap and the factor level microfiltration are the utilities that most increased the interest of consumers. They were followed by the factor level local grains, stainless steel keg and monastery. In contrast, the factor level PET Keg, aluminum can and large scale corporate brewery showed the greatest negative impact on interest. Men and women shared similar patterns of interest. However, men placed more importance than women on retail price, location of the brewery and where to buy. Women attached more importance than men on type of container, brewing technology and type of brewer. These findings are relevant to understanding consumers'behavior in the beer market and to translating consumer needs, wants and expectations into manufacturing

  11. Uncovering the Repertoire of Endogenous Flaviviral Elements in Aedes Mosquito Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Frangeul, Lionel; Dickson, Laura B; Blanc, Hervé; Verdier, Yann; Vinh, Joelle; Lambrechts, Louis; Saleh, Maria-Carla

    2017-08-01

    antiviral defense. Because mosquitoes also have EVEs in their genomes, characterizing these EVEs is a prerequisite for their potential use to manipulate the mosquito antiviral response. In the study described here, we focused on EVEs related to the Flavivirus genus, to which dengue and Zika viruses belong, in individual Aedes mosquitoes from geographically distinct areas. We show the existence in vivo of flaviviral EVEs previously identified in mosquito cell lines, and we detected new ones. We show that EVEs have evolved differently in each mosquito population. They produce transcripts and small RNAs but not proteins, suggesting a function at the RNA level. Our study uncovers the diverse repertoire of flaviviral EVEs in Aedes mosquito populations and contributes to an understanding of their role in the host antiviral system. Copyright © 2017 Suzuki et al.

  12. Uncovering configurations of HRM service provider intellectual capital and worker human capital for creating high HRM service value using fsQCA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, Jeroen Gerard; Bondarouk, Tatiana

    Although traditionally applied independently, this study combines two theoretical perspectives – the intellectual capital theory and the consumer perspective – to uncover value-creating configurations of human resource management (HRM) service providers' and workers' knowledge resources. We examined

  13. Uncovering trophic positions and food resources of soil animals using bulk natural stable isotope composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, Anton M; Tiunov, Alexei V; Scheu, Stefan

    2018-06-19

    Despite the major importance of soil biota in nutrient and energy fluxes, interactions in soil food webs are poorly understood. Here we provide an overview of recent advances in uncovering the trophic structure of soil food webs using natural variations in stable isotope ratios. We discuss approaches of application, normalization and interpretation of stable isotope ratios along with methodological pitfalls. Analysis of published data from temperate forest ecosystems is used to outline emerging concepts and perspectives in soil food web research. In contrast to aboveground and aquatic food webs, trophic fractionation at the basal level of detrital food webs is large for carbon and small for nitrogen stable isotopes. Virtually all soil animals are enriched in 13 C as compared to plant litter. This 'detrital shift' likely reflects preferential uptake of 13 C-enriched microbial biomass and underlines the importance of microorganisms, in contrast to dead plant material, as a major food resource for the soil animal community. Soil organic matter is enriched in 15 N and 13 C relative to leaf litter. Decomposers inhabiting mineral soil layers therefore might be enriched in 15 N resulting in overlap in isotope ratios between soil-dwelling detritivores and litter-dwelling predators. By contrast, 13 C content varies little between detritivores in upper litter and in mineral soil, suggesting that they rely on similar basal resources, i.e. little decomposed organic matter. Comparing vertical isotope gradients in animals and in basal resources can be a valuable tool to assess trophic interactions and dynamics of organic matter in soil. As indicated by stable isotope composition, direct feeding on living plant material as well as on mycorrhizal fungi is likely rare among soil invertebrates. Plant carbon is taken up predominantly by saprotrophic microorganisms and channelled to higher trophic levels of the soil food web. However, feeding on photoautotrophic microorganisms and non

  14. No Place to Hide: Missing Primitive Stars Outside Milky Way Uncovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    After years of successful concealment, the most primitive stars outside our Milky Way galaxy have finally been unmasked. New observations using ESO's Very Large Telescope have been used to solve an important astrophysical puzzle concerning the oldest stars in our galactic neighbourhood - which is crucial for our understanding of the earliest stars in the Universe. "We have, in effect, found a flaw in the forensic methods used until now," says Else Starkenburg, lead author of the paper reporting the study. "Our improved approach allows us to uncover the primitive stars hidden among all the other, more common stars." Primitive stars are thought to have formed from material forged shortly after the Big Bang, 13.7 billion years ago. They typically have less than one thousandth the amount of chemical elements heavier than hydrogen and helium found in the Sun and are called "extremely metal-poor stars" [1]. They belong to one of the first generations of stars in the nearby Universe. Such stars are extremely rare and mainly observed in the Milky Way. Cosmologists think that larger galaxies like the Milky Way formed from the merger of smaller galaxies. Our Milky Way's population of extremely metal-poor or "primitive" stars should already have been present in the dwarf galaxies from which it formed, and similar populations should be present in other dwarf galaxies. "So far, evidence for them has been scarce," says co-author Giuseppina Battaglia. "Large surveys conducted in the last few years kept showing that the most ancient populations of stars in the Milky Way and dwarf galaxies did not match, which was not at all expected from cosmological models." Element abundances are measured from spectra, which provide the chemical fingerprints of stars [2]. The Dwarf galaxies Abundances and Radial-velocities Team [3] used the FLAMES instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope to measure the spectra of over 2000 individual giant stars in four of our galactic neighbours, the Fornax

  15. Radiologic Placement of Uncovered Stents for the Treatment of Malignant Colonic Obstruction Proximal to the Descending Colon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jehong; Kwon, Se Hwan, E-mail: Kwon98@khu.ac.kr [Kyung Hee University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Kyun [Kyung Hee University, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sun Jin [Kyung Hee University, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Ji Young [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Joo Hyeong [Kyung Hee University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the safety, feasibility, and patency rates of radiologic placement of uncovered stents for the treatment of malignant colonic obstruction proximal to the descending colon.Materials and MethodsThis was a retrospective, single-center study. From May 2003 to March 2015, 53 image-guided placements of uncovered stents (44 initial placements, 9 secondary placements) were attempted in 44 patients (male:female = 23:21; mean age, 71.8 years). The technical and clinical success, complication rates, and patency rates of the stents were also evaluated. Technical success was defined as the successful deployment of the stent under fluoroscopic guidance alone and clinical success was defined as the relief of obstructive symptoms or signs within 48 h of stent deployment.ResultsIn total, 12 (27.3 %) patients underwent preoperative decompression, while 32 (72.7 %) underwent decompression with palliative intent. The technical success rate was 93.2 % (41/44) for initial placement and 88.9 % (8/9) for secondary placement. Secondary stent placement in the palliative group was required in nine patients after successful initial stent placement due to stent obstruction from tumor ingrowth (n = 7) and stent migration (n = 2). The symptoms of obstruction were relieved in all successful cases (100 %). In the palliative group, the patency rates were 94.4 % at 1 month, 84.0 % at 3 months, 64.8 % at 6 months, and 48.6 % at 12 months.ConclusionsThe radiologic placement of uncovered stents for the treatment of malignant obstruction proximal to the descending colon is feasible and safe, and provides acceptable clinical results.

  16. Uncovering student thinking about mathematics in the common core, grades 6-8 25 formative assessment probes

    CERN Document Server

    Tobey, Cheryl Rose

    2013-01-01

    Pinpoint and reverse math misconceptions with laser-like accuracyQuickly and reliably uncover common math misconceptions in Grades 6-8 with these convenient and easy-to-implement diagnostic tools! Bestselling authors Cheryl Tobey and Carolyn Arline provide 25 new assessment probes that pinpoint subconcepts within the new Common Core Standards for Mathematics to promote deep learning and expert math instruction--while learning is already underway.Completely CCSM aligned, these grade-specific probes eliminate the guesswork and help teachers: Systematically address conceptual and procedural mistakes Help students better understand areas of struggle Plan targeted instruction that covers Grades 6-8 CCSM mathematical processes and proficiencies.

  17. A distinctive avian assemblage (Aves: Passeriformes in Western Darién, Panama is uncovered through a disease surveillance program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Basic knowledge about the distribution of flora and fauna is lacking for most tropical areas. Improving our knowledge of the tropical biota will help address contemporary global problems, including emerging tropical diseases. Less appreciated is the role that applied studies can have in improving our understanding of basic biological patterns and processes in the tropics. Here, I describe a novel avifauna assemblage uncovered in Western Darién province in the Republic of Panama that was uncovered during a vector-borne disease surveillance program. I compared the passerine bird species composition at 16 sites using records from recent ornithological expeditions sponsored by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Central and Eastern Panama. Based on the results of a Mantel test, geographic distance did not correlate with pairwise distinctiveness of sites. Instead, based on an index of distinctiveness modified from the Chao-Jaccard index, most sites were more or less similarly distinctive, with one site, Aruza Abajo, significantly more distinctive than the rest. I found that the distinctiveness of this site was due not only to the presence of several rare and range-restricted taxa, but also to the absence of taxa that are common elsewhere. This finding provides more evidence of high species composition turnover (beta-diversity in the Panamanian biota, which appears to be driven by a combination of soil and climate differences over narrow distances. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (2: 711-717. Epub 2014 June 01.

  18. Mapping the fitness landscape of gene expression uncovers the cause of antagonism and sign epistasis between adaptive mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hung Chou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available How do adapting populations navigate the tensions between the costs of gene expression and the benefits of gene products to optimize the levels of many genes at once? Here we combined independently-arising beneficial mutations that altered enzyme levels in the central metabolism of Methylobacterium extorquens to uncover the fitness landscape defined by gene expression levels. We found strong antagonism and sign epistasis between these beneficial mutations. Mutations with the largest individual benefit interacted the most antagonistically with other mutations, a trend we also uncovered through analyses of datasets from other model systems. However, these beneficial mutations interacted multiplicatively (i.e., no epistasis at the level of enzyme expression. By generating a model that predicts fitness from enzyme levels we could explain the observed sign epistasis as a result of overshooting the optimum defined by a balance between enzyme catalysis benefits and fitness costs. Knowledge of the phenotypic landscape also illuminated that, although the fitness peak was phenotypically far from the ancestral state, it was not genetically distant. Single beneficial mutations jumped straight toward the global optimum rather than being constrained to change the expression phenotypes in the correlated fashion expected by the genetic architecture. Given that adaptation in nature often results from optimizing gene expression, these conclusions can be widely applicable to other organisms and selective conditions. Poor interactions between individually beneficial alleles affecting gene expression may thus compromise the benefit of sex during adaptation and promote genetic differentiation.

  19. Uncovering New Thermal and Elastic Properties of Nanostructured Materials Using Coherent EUV Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Charpak, Jorge Nicolas

    directly probe the dynamics of phonons in complex materials, which is critical to both technological applications and fundamental condensed matter physics. I developed a proof of concept model and used it to extract the first experimental differential conductivity phonon mean free path (MFP) spectra for silicon and sapphire, which compare well with first-principles calculations. However, a complete picture of the physics is still elusive. Thus, I developed a computational solver for the phonon Boltzmann transport equation in realistic experimental geometries. Using this approach, I successfully found confirmation of the influence of the period in thermal transport from periodic heat sources: a smaller periodicity can enhance the heat dissipation efficiency. This result is qualitatively consistent with the results of the "collectively-diffusive regime", but more work is needed for a full theoretical quantitative picture of the experimental results. In other work, I used coherent EUV nanometrology to simultaneously measure, in a non-contact and non-destructive way, Young's modulus and, for the first time, Poisson's ratio of ultra-thin films. I successfully extracted the full elastic tensor of the thinnest films to date (10.9nm). Moreover, by using our technique on a series of low-k dielectric sub-100 nm SiC:H films, I uncovered an unexpected transition from compressible to non-compressible behavior. This new behavior is observed for materials whose network connectivity had been modified through hydrogenation (that breaks bonds in order to decrease the dielectric constant of these materials). This finding demonstrates that coherent EUV nanometrology provides a valuable, quantitative new tool for measuring nanomaterial properties with dimensions an order of magnitude smaller than what was possible with traditional techniques. I also present here some of my written work on science and technology policy studies. I present my thoughts on the Kuhnian model of scientific

  20. Atmospheric pollution history at Linfen (China) uncovered by magnetic and chemical parameters of sediments from a water reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingming; Hu, Shouyun; Cao, Liwan; Appel, Erwin; Wang, Longsheng

    2015-09-01

    We studied magnetic and chemical parameters of sediments from sediments of a water reservoir at Linfen (China) in order to quantitatively reconstruct the atmospheric pollution history in this region. The results show that the main magnetic phases are magnetite and maghemite originating from the surrounding catchment and from anthropogenic activities, and there is a significant positive relationship between magnetic concentration parameters and heavy metals concentrations, indicating that magnetic proxies can be used to monitor the anthropogenic pollution. In order to uncover the atmospheric pollution history, we combined the known events of environmental improvement with variations of magnetic susceptibility (χ) and heavy metals along the cores to obtain a detailed chronological framework. In addition, air comprehensive pollution index (ACPI) was reconstructed from regression equation among magnetic and chemical parameters as well as atmospheric monitoring data. Based on these results, the atmospheric pollution history was successfully reconstructed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Uncovering the Transnational Networks, Organisational Techniques and State-Corporate Ties Behind Grand Corruption: Building an Investigative Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Lasslett

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available While grand corruption is a major global governance challenge, researchers notably lack a systematic methodology for conducting qualitative research into its complex forms. To address this lacuna, the following article sets out and applies the corruption investigative framework (CIF, a methodology designed to generate a systematic, transferable approach for grand corruption research. Its utility will be demonstrated employing a case study that centres on an Australian-led megaproject being built in Papua New Guinea’s capital city, Port Moresby. Unlike conventional analyses of corruption in Papua New Guinea, which emphasise its local characteristics and patrimonial qualities, application of CIF uncovered new empirical layers that centre on transnational state-corporate power, the ambiguity of civil society, and the structural inequalities that marginalise resistance movements. The important theoretical consequences of the findings and underpinning methodology are explored.

  2. Deepwater Horizon: Experience the Events That Led to This Accident, Follow the Investigation as They Uncover the Human Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannerman, T.

    2016-01-01

    With the Key themes of leadership, culture, reputation and risk, process safety and the human and organizational factors inside partnership and joint ventures, this session run by AKT immerses you into the situation on board the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico on the day of the disaster 20 April 2010. The sequence of events are acted out and then we follow the investigation as they uncover negligence, poor regulation, inadequate maintenance, and catastrophic decision making and what the US authorities called “a reckless disregard for safety”. This session will show how this type of workshop event has been used in different organizations, and the actors run the session to show how the facts of the disaster can be used to enhance knowledge of managers and senior leaders of factors that can trigger a major event. (author)

  3. Partially covered versus uncovered self-expandable nitinol stents with anti-migration properties for the palliation of malignant distal biliary obstruction: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min Jae; Kim, Jin Hong; Yoo, Byung Moo; Hwang, Jae Chul; Yoo, Jun Hwan; Lee, Ki Seong; Kang, Joon Koo; Kim, Soon Sun; Lim, Sun Gyo; Shin, Sung Jae; Cheong, Jae Youn; Lee, Kee Myung; Lee, Kwang Jae; Cho, Sung Won

    2015-01-01

    Covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) are increasingly used as alternatives to uncovered SEMSs for the palliation of inoperable malignant distal biliary obstruction to counteract tumor ingrowth. We aimed to compare the outcomes of partially covered and uncovered SEMSs with identical mesh structures and anti-migration properties, such as low axial force and flared ends. One hundred and three patients who were diagnosed with inoperable malignant distal biliary obstruction between January 2006 and August 2013 were randomly assigned to either the partially covered (n = 51) or uncovered (n = 52) SEMS group. There were no significant differences in the cumulative stent patency, overall patient survival, stent dysfunction-free survival and overall adverse events, including pancreatitis and cholecystitis, between the two groups. Compared to the uncovered group, stent migration (5.9% vs. 0%, p = 0.118) and tumor overgrowth (7.8% vs. 1.9%, p = 0.205) were non-significantly more frequent in the partially covered group, whereas tumor ingrowth showed a significantly higher incidence in the uncovered group (5.9% vs. 19.2%, p = 0.041). Stent migration in the partially covered group occurred only in patients with short stenosis of the utmost distal bile duct (two in ampullary cancer, one in bile duct cancer), and did not occur in any patients with pancreatic cancer. For the palliation of malignant distal biliary obstruction, endoscopic placement of partially covered SEMSs with anti-migration designs and identical mesh structures to uncovered SEMSs failed to prolong cumulative stent patency or reduce stent migration.

  4. Clustering high-dimensional mixed data to uncover sub-phenotypes: joint analysis of phenotypic and genotypic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParland, D; Phillips, C M; Brennan, L; Roche, H M; Gormley, I C

    2017-12-10

    The LIPGENE-SU.VI.MAX study, like many others, recorded high-dimensional continuous phenotypic data and categorical genotypic data. LIPGENE-SU.VI.MAX focuses on the need to account for both phenotypic and genetic factors when studying the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a complex disorder that can lead to higher risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Interest lies in clustering the LIPGENE-SU.VI.MAX participants into homogeneous groups or sub-phenotypes, by jointly considering their phenotypic and genotypic data, and in determining which variables are discriminatory. A novel latent variable model that elegantly accommodates high dimensional, mixed data is developed to cluster LIPGENE-SU.VI.MAX participants using a Bayesian finite mixture model. A computationally efficient variable selection algorithm is incorporated, estimation is via a Gibbs sampling algorithm and an approximate BIC-MCMC criterion is developed to select the optimal model. Two clusters or sub-phenotypes ('healthy' and 'at risk') are uncovered. A small subset of variables is deemed discriminatory, which notably includes phenotypic and genotypic variables, highlighting the need to jointly consider both factors. Further, 7 years after the LIPGENE-SU.VI.MAX data were collected, participants underwent further analysis to diagnose presence or absence of the MetS. The two uncovered sub-phenotypes strongly correspond to the 7-year follow-up disease classification, highlighting the role of phenotypic and genotypic factors in the MetS and emphasising the potential utility of the clustering approach in early screening. Additionally, the ability of the proposed approach to define the uncertainty in sub-phenotype membership at the participant level is synonymous with the concepts of precision medicine and nutrition. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. What Studying Problems Are Faced by the Adolescent Grade Repeaters in Macao: Uncovering Underlying Mechanisms Based on Evidences from the PISA 2012 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Pou-seong; Cheung, Kwok-cheung; Cheong, Wai-cheong; Mak, Soi-kei; Soh, Kay-cheng; Ieong, Man-kai

    2015-01-01

    Most schools in Macao are private schools, and there is a variety of grade repetition policy practiced in the 45 secondary schools. The policies are translated into school-based accountability of some kind of minimum competency standards. The objective of this study is to uncover the mediation mechanisms accounting for the influences of grade…

  6. Opportunities and Challenges of Implementing Instructional Games in Mathematics Classrooms: Examining the Quality of Teacher-Student Interactions during the Cover-Up and Un-Cover Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmati, Saeideh; Kersting, Nicole; Sutton, Taliesin

    2018-01-01

    This study explored the design and implementation of the Cover-up and Un-cover games, two manipulative-based fraction games, in 14 fifth-grade classrooms. We examined how the fraction concepts were integrated into the game design and explored the nature of teacher-student interactions during games using lesson videos. Our examination showed that…

  7. Atmospheric pollution history at Linfen (China) uncovered by magnetic and chemical parameters of sediments from a water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Mingming; Hu, Shouyun; Cao, Liwan; Appel, Erwin; Wang, Longsheng

    2015-01-01

    We studied magnetic and chemical parameters of sediments from sediments of a water reservoir at Linfen (China) in order to quantitatively reconstruct the atmospheric pollution history in this region. The results show that the main magnetic phases are magnetite and maghemite originating from the surrounding catchment and from anthropogenic activities, and there is a significant positive relationship between magnetic concentration parameters and heavy metals concentrations, indicating that magnetic proxies can be used to monitor the anthropogenic pollution. In order to uncover the atmospheric pollution history, we combined the known events of environmental improvement with variations of magnetic susceptibility (χ) and heavy metals along the cores to obtain a detailed chronological framework. In addition, air comprehensive pollution index (ACPI) was reconstructed from regression equation among magnetic and chemical parameters as well as atmospheric monitoring data. Based on these results, the atmospheric pollution history was successfully reconstructed. - Highlights: • Magnetic proxies can be used to monitor the heavy mental pollution in sediments. • Accurate age model was obtained using known events of environmental improvement. • Regression equation was obtained among sediment records and monitoring data. • Atmospheric pollution history was quantitatively reconstructed. - Atmospheric pollution history was quantitatively reconstructed using magnetic and chemical records of reservoir sediments combined with atmospheric monitoring data

  8. Uncovering Potential Applications of Cyanobacteria and Algal Metabolites in Biology, Agriculture and Medicine: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rachana; Parihar, Parul; Singh, Madhulika; Bajguz, Andrzej; Kumar, Jitendra; Singh, Samiksha; Singh, Vijay P.; Prasad, Sheo M.

    2017-01-01

    Cyanobacteria and algae having complex photosynthetic systems can channelize absorbed solar energy into other forms of energy for production of food and metabolites. In addition, they are promising biocatalysts and can be used in the field of “white biotechnology” for enhancing the sustainable production of food, metabolites, and green energy sources such as biodiesel. In this review, an endeavor has been made to uncover the significance of various metabolites like phenolics, phytoene/terpenoids, phytols, sterols, free fatty acids, photoprotective compounds (MAAs, scytonemin, carotenoids, polysaccharides, halogenated compounds, etc.), phytohormones, cyanotoxins, biocides (algaecides, herbicides, and insecticides) etc. Apart from this, the importance of these metabolites as antibiotics, immunosuppressant, anticancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory agent has also been discussed. Metabolites obtained from cyanobacteria and algae have several biotechnological, industrial, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic uses which have also been discussed in this review along with the emerging technology of their harvesting for enhancing the production of compounds like bioethanol, biofuel etc. at commercial level. In later sections, we have discussed genetically modified organisms and metabolite production from them. We have also briefly discussed the concept of bioprocessing highlighting the functioning of companies engaged in metabolites production as well as their cost effectiveness and challenges that are being addressed by these companies. PMID:28487674

  9. A POPULATION OF VERY HOT SUPER-EARTHS IN MULTIPLE-PLANET SYSTEMS SHOULD BE UNCOVERED BY KEPLER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlaufman, Kevin C.; Lin, D. N. C.; Ida, S.

    2010-01-01

    We simulate a Kepler-like observation of a theoretical exoplanet population and show that the observed orbital period distribution of the Kepler giant planet candidates is best matched by an average stellar specific dissipation function Q' * in the interval 10 6 ∼ * ∼ 7 . In that situation, the few super-Earths that are driven to orbital periods of P < 1 day by dynamical interactions in multiple-planet systems will survive tidal disruption for a significant fraction of the main-sequence lifetimes of their stellar hosts. Consequently, though these very hot super-Earths are not characteristic of the overall super-Earth population, their substantial transit probability implies that they should be significant contributors to the full super-Earth population uncovered by Kepler. As a result, the CoRoT-7 system may be the first representative of a population of very hot super-Earths that we suggest should be found in multiple-planet systems preferentially orbiting the least-dissipative stellar hosts in the Kepler sample.

  10. Uncovering packaging features of co-regulated modules based on human protein interaction and transcriptional regulatory networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Weiming

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Network co-regulated modules are believed to have the functionality of packaging multiple biological entities, and can thus be assumed to coordinate many biological functions in their network neighbouring regions. Results Here, we weighted edges of a human protein interaction network and a transcriptional regulatory network to construct an integrated network, and introduce a probabilistic model and a bipartite graph framework to exploit human co-regulated modules and uncover their specific features in packaging different biological entities (genes, protein complexes or metabolic pathways. Finally, we identified 96 human co-regulated modules based on this method, and evaluate its effectiveness by comparing it with four other methods. Conclusions Dysfunctions in co-regulated interactions often occur in the development of cancer. Therefore, we focussed on an example co-regulated module and found that it could integrate a number of cancer-related genes. This was extended to causal dysfunctions of some complexes maintained by several physically interacting proteins, thus coordinating several metabolic pathways that directly underlie cancer.

  11. COMBINED UNCOVERED SHEET-AND-TUBE PVT-COLLECTOR SYSTEM WITH BUILT-IN STORAGE WATER HEATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the design and investigation of a simple combined uncovered sheet-and-tube photo-voltaic-thermal (PVT collector system. The PVT-collector system consists of a support, standard PV module (1.22x0.305m, area=0.37m2, fill factor=0.75, sheet-and-tube water collector and storage tank-heater. The collector was fixed under PV module. Inclination angle of the PVT-collector to the horizontal plane was 45 degree. The storage tank-heater played double role i.e. for storage of hot water and for water heating. The PVT-collector system could work in the fixed and tracking modes of operation. During investigations of PVT-collector in natural conditions, solar irradiance, voltage and current of PV module, ambient temperature and water temperature in storage tank were measured. Average thermal and electrical powers of the PVT-collector system at the tracking mode of operation observed were 39W and 21W, with efficiencies of 15% and 8% respectively at the input power of 260W. The maximum temperature of the water obtained was 42oC. The system was observed efficient for low-temperature applications. The PVT-collector system may be used as a prototype for design of PVT-collector system for domestic application, teaching aid and for demonstration purposes.

  12. Uncovering the role of the East Asian jet stream and heterogeneities in atmospheric rivers affecting the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Villarini, Gabriele

    2018-01-30

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) exert major socioeconomic repercussions along the US West Coast by inducing heavy rainfall, flooding, strong winds, and storm surge. Despite the significant societal and economic repercussions of these storms, our understanding of the physical drivers responsible for their interannual variability is limited, with different climate modes identified as possible mechanisms. Here we show that the Pacific-Japan (PJ) teleconnections/patterns and the East Asian subtropical jet (EASJ) exhibit a strong linkage with the total frequency of ARs making landfall over the western United States, much stronger than the other potential climate modes previously considered. While our findings indicate that the PJ pattern and EASJ are the most relevant climate modes driving the overall AR activity, we also uncover heterogeneities in AR tracks. Specifically, we show that not all ARs making landfall along the West Coast come from a single population, but rather that it is possible to stratify these storms into three clusters. While the PJ pattern and EASJ are major drivers of AR activity for two clusters, the cluster that primarily affects the US Southwest is largely driven by other climate modes [El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Atlantic meridional mode (AMM), the Pacific-North America (PNA) teleconnection pattern, and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO)]. Therefore, important regional differences exist and this information can substantially enhance our ability to predict and prepare for these storms and their impacts.

  13. Meta-analysis of cancer transcriptomes: A new approach to uncover molecular pathological events in different cancer tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundus Iqbal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To explore secrets of metastatic cancers, individual expression of true sets of respective genes must spread across the tissue. In this study, meta-analysis for transcriptional profiles of oncogenes was carried out to hunt critical genes or networks helping in metastasizing cancers. For this, transcriptomic analysis of different cancerous tissues causing leukemia, lung, liver, spleen, colorectal, colon, breast, bladder, and kidney cancers was performed by extracting microarray expression data from online resource; Gene Expression Omnibus. A newly developed bioinformatics technique; Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA was applied for enrichment analysis of transcriptional profiles using Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID. Furthermore, oPOSSUM (v. 2.0 and Cytoscape (v. 2.8.2 were used for in-depth analysis of transcription factors and regulatory gene networks respectively. DAVID analysis uncovered the most significantly enriched pathways in molecular functions that were 'Ubiquitin thiolesterase activity' up regulated in blood, breast, bladder, colorectal, lung, spleen, prostrate cancer. 'Transforming growth factor beta receptor activity' was inhibited in all cancers except leukemia, colon and liver cancer. oPOSSUM further revealed highly over-represented Transcription Factors (TFs; Broad-complex_3, Broad-complex_4, and Foxd3 except for leukemia and bladder cancer. From these findings, it is possible to target genes and networks, play a crucial role in the development of cancer. In the future, these transcription factors can serve as potential candidates for the therapeutic drug targets which can impede the deadly spread.

  14. Uncovering Potential Applications of Cyanobacteria and Algal Metabolites in Biology, Agriculture and Medicine: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay P. Singh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria and algae having complex photosynthetic systems can channelize absorbed solar energy into other forms of energy for production of food and metabolites. In addition, they are promising biocatalysts and can be used in the field of “white biotechnology” for enhancing the sustainable production of food, metabolites, and green energy sources such as biodiesel. In this review, an endeavor has been made to uncover the significance of various metabolites like phenolics, phytoene/terpenoids, phytols, sterols, free fatty acids, photoprotective compounds (MAAs, scytonemin, carotenoids, polysaccharides, halogenated compounds, etc., phytohormones, cyanotoxins, biocides (algaecides, herbicides, and insecticides etc. Apart from this, the importance of these metabolites as antibiotics, immunosuppressant, anticancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory agent has also been discussed. Metabolites obtained from cyanobacteria and algae have several biotechnological, industrial, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic uses which have also been discussed in this review along with the emerging technology of their harvesting for enhancing the production of compounds like bioethanol, biofuel etc. at commercial level. In later sections, we have discussed genetically modified organisms and metabolite production from them. We have also briefly discussed the concept of bioprocessing highlighting the functioning of companies engaged in metabolites production as well as their cost effectiveness and challenges that are being addressed by these companies.

  15. Dramatic expansion of the black widow toxin arsenal uncovered by multi-tissue transcriptomics and venom proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Robert A; Ayoub, Nadia A; Clarke, Thomas H; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Garb, Jessica E

    2014-06-11

    Animal venoms attract enormous interest given their potential for pharmacological discovery and understanding the evolution of natural chemistries. Next-generation transcriptomics and proteomics provide unparalleled, but underexploited, capabilities for venom characterization. We combined multi-tissue RNA-Seq with mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses to determine venom gland specific transcripts and venom proteins from the Western black widow spider (Latrodectus hesperus) and investigated their evolution. We estimated expression of 97,217 L. hesperus transcripts in venom glands relative to silk and cephalothorax tissues. We identified 695 venom gland specific transcripts (VSTs), many of which BLAST and GO term analyses indicate may function as toxins or their delivery agents. ~38% of VSTs had BLAST hits, including latrotoxins, inhibitor cystine knot toxins, CRISPs, hyaluronidases, chitinase, and proteases, and 59% of VSTs had predicted protein domains. Latrotoxins are venom toxins that cause massive neurotransmitter release from vertebrate or invertebrate neurons. We discovered ≥ 20 divergent latrotoxin paralogs expressed in L. hesperus venom glands, significantly increasing this biomedically important family. Mass spectrometry of L. hesperus venom identified 49 proteins from VSTs, 24 of which BLAST to toxins. Phylogenetic analyses showed venom gland specific gene family expansions and shifts in tissue expression. Quantitative expression analyses comparing multiple tissues are necessary to identify venom gland specific transcripts. We present a black widow venom specific exome that uncovers a trove of diverse toxins and associated proteins, suggesting a dynamic evolutionary history. This justifies a reevaluation of the functional activities of black widow venom in light of its emerging complexity.

  16. Endoscopic management of unresectable malignant gastroduodenal obstruction with a nitinol uncovered metal stent: A prospective Japanese multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Reina; Sakai, Yuji; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Nishikawa, Takao; Fujimoto, Tatsuya; Mikami, Shigeru; Sugiyama, Harutoshi; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the safety and efficacy of endoscopic duodenal stent placement in patients with malignant gastric outlet obstruction. METHODS: This prospective, observational, multicenter study included 39 consecutive patients with malignant gastric outlet obstruction. All patients underwent endoscopic placement of a nitinol, uncovered, self-expandable metal stent. The primary outcome was clinical success at 2 wk after stent placement that was defined as improvement in the Gastric Outlet Obstruction Scoring System score relative to the baseline. RESULTS: Technical success was achieved in all duodenal stent procedures. Procedure-related complications occurred in 4 patients (10.3%) in the form of mild pneumonitis. No other morbidities or mortalities were observed. The clinical success rate was 92.3%. The mean survival period after stent placement was 103 d. The mean period of stent patency was 149 d and the patency remained acceptable for the survival period. Stent dysfunction occurred in 3 patients (7.7%) on account of tumor growth. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic management using duodenal stents for patients with incurable malignant gastric outlet obstruction is safe and improved patients’ quality of life. PMID:27076769

  17. Uncovering Lost Danish Castles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Bo Nissen

    Facing turbulence, strife and civil war in 14th century Denmark, local elites erected a large number of castles and fortifications. But many of these were destroyed in the – often very violent – process of reestablishing central authority towards the end of the century, and in 1396 Queen Margrethe...... to a pilot study. Cooperation between disciplines is crucial in extracting knowledge from what little is left for each, and archaeologists, historians, name scholars and geophysicists even had help from moles unearthing brick material! Results and new challenges will be the subject of this presentation......, with emphasis on the toponomastic studies. The analyzed place-name material falls into two categories: 1) Names of the fortifications – or the ruins – themselves and 2) Names in the surroundings indicating their presence. Most often the names, especially in the latter category, have been recorded 3-500 years...

  18. The discovery uncovered

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Almost exactly one hundred years after the publication of Einstein’s paper on General Relativity, the LIGO and Virgo collaborations have published a paper in which they show a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. The signal has been observed with 5-sigma accuracy and is the first direct observation of gravitational waves.   On Thursday, 11 February, Barry Clark Barish, one of the fathers of the LIGO experiment, presented the latest results in a packed Auditorium. Ripples in space-time, the fabric of the Universe: this is how we can picture gravitational waves. In his visionary paper published in June 1916, Einstein predicted that masses deform space-time and, therefore, any change in their position causes a distortion that propagates at the speed of light, resulting in gravitational waves.   It wasn’t until 1975, almost 60 years later, that Russell Hulse and Joseph Taylor, who were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1993, inferred t...

  19. Uncovering obfuscated web tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Espuña Buxó, Álvaro

    2016-01-01

    En este proyecto creamos una plataforma para detectar automáticamente y de forma dinámica si en una cierta página web se esta usando "canvas fingerprinting" y si el uso de éste está siendo ofuscado. Además analizamos las páginas más visitadas según Alexa y exponemos los resultado obtenidos. In this project we develop a framework that tries to detect automatically and dynamically if a website is using canvas fingerprinting and if its usage is being obfuscated. We also analyze the top ranked...

  20. Uncovering the Hidden Routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsirogiannis, Constantinos; Tsirogiannis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we model and analyse the global network of the illegal trade in antiquities. Our goal is to use this network to estimate for any given artefact the potential sequence of people in the network among whom this artefact was traded. For this reason, we have implemented and evaluat...

  1. Uncovering Prepositional Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tine

    of these data stem from a small pre-defined set of relations, and the ontological type information stems from the SIMPLE ontology. The resulting data set was used as input to a machine-learning algorithm, and the result was a set of rules that predict the semantic relation of a preposition based...... language wordnet, DanNet, as a source of ontological type information, while the relations stem from a larger set of relations which were the result of an analysis of dictionary entries and corpus evidences containing prepositions. Again, machine learning was applied, and the result was a set of rules...... called the skeleton ontology, and a set of production rules (cf. generative grammars) that allows for production of compound concepts. We represent such compound concepts in the ontology language ONTOLOG. In this language, compound concepts are represented as conceptual feature structures of the form c...

  2. Uncovering the Cornfield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2015-01-01

    occasioning most friction – ‘Cabin Essence’ – argues that it was neither disorganized nor unintelligible. An encapsulation of Smile’s concerns informed by the new left and counter-cultural contexts of its creation, it offered critical snapshots of the nation’s historical experience and identity, and a complex......Observers agree that a pivotal factor in the abandonment of the Beach Boys’ Smile album in 1967 was the hostility shown by group members to some of Brian Wilson co-writer Van Dyke Parks’s lyrics. The latter still tend, however, to be cited more than they are analyzed. This reading of the song...

  3. Ancient Wood Uncovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Richard Guyette; Michael Stanbaugh

    2003-01-01

    Toppled by an eroding stream bank, a large sycamore, leaves still green, slumps low over the water, nearly blocking the channel. Farther downstream, another fallen tree helps create a pool that shelters a catfish. But this tree has fallen 12,000 years ago!

  4. Uncovering Discovery Layer Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Sean P.

    2014-01-01

    Today's electronic information landscape is growing exponentially with no signs of slowing. This poses a significant challenge for academic libraries. Librarians must continually learn and adapt to harness this explosion of resources. To fulfill their claim as the leaders in the information field they must be effective in providing access and…

  5. PathEdEx – Uncovering high-explanatory visual diagnostics heuristics using digital pathology and multiscale gaze data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Shin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visual heuristics of pathology diagnosis is a largely unexplored area where reported studies only provided a qualitative insight into the subject. Uncovering and quantifying pathology visual and nonvisual diagnostic patterns have great potential to improve clinical outcomes and avoid diagnostic pitfalls. Methods: Here, we present PathEdEx, an informatics computational framework that incorporates whole-slide digital pathology imaging with multiscale gaze-tracking technology to create web-based interactive pathology educational atlases and to datamine visual and nonvisual diagnostic heuristics. Results: We demonstrate the capabilities of PathEdEx for mining visual and nonvisual diagnostic heuristics using the first PathEdEx volume of a hematopathology atlas. We conducted a quantitative study on the time dynamics of zooming and panning operations utilized by experts and novices to come to the correct diagnosis. We then performed association rule mining to determine sets of diagnostic factors that consistently result in a correct diagnosis, and studied differences in diagnostic strategies across different levels of pathology expertise using Markov chain (MC modeling and MC Monte Carlo simulations. To perform these studies, we translated raw gaze points to high-explanatory semantic labels that represent pathology diagnostic clues. Therefore, the outcome of these studies is readily transformed into narrative descriptors for direct use in pathology education and practice. Conclusion: PathEdEx framework can be used to capture best practices of pathology visual and nonvisual diagnostic heuristics that can be passed over to the next generation of pathologists and have potential to streamline implementation of precision diagnostics in precision medicine settings.

  6. Site-dependent effects of tDCS uncover dissociations in the communication network underlying the processing of visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Keira; Lane, Alison R; Smith, Daniel T; Ellison, Amanda

    2013-11-01

    The right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC) and the right frontal eye field (rFEF) form part of a network of brain areas involved in orienting spatial attention. Previous studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have demonstrated that both areas are critically involved in the processing of conjunction visual search tasks, since stimulation of these sites disrupts performance. This study investigated the effects of long term neuronal modulation to rPPC and rFEF using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with the aim of uncovering sharing of these resources in the processing of conjunction visual search tasks. Participants completed four blocks of conjunction search trials over the course of 45 min. Following the first block they received 15 min of either cathodal or anodal stimulation to rPPC or rFEF, or sham stimulation. A significant interaction between block and stimulation condition was found, indicating that tDCS caused different effects according to the site (rPPC or rFEF) and type of stimulation (cathodal, anodal, or sham). Practice resulted in a significant reduction in reaction time across the four blocks in all conditions except when cathodal tDCS was applied to rPPC. The effects of cathodal tDCS over rPPC are subtler than those seen with TMS, and no effect of tDCS was evident at rFEF. This suggests that rFEF has a more transient role than rPPC in the processing of conjunction visual search and is robust to longer-term methods of neuro-disruption. Our results may be explained within the framework of functional connectivity between these, and other, areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. High genetic diversity and fine-scale spatial structure in the marine flagellate Oxyrrhis marina (Dinophyceae uncovered by microsatellite loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris D Lowe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Free-living marine protists are often assumed to be broadly distributed and genetically homogeneous on large spatial scales. However, an increasing application of highly polymorphic genetic markers (e.g., microsatellites has provided evidence for high genetic diversity and population structuring on small spatial scales in many free-living protists. Here we characterise a panel of new microsatellite markers for the common marine flagellate Oxyrrhis marina. Nine microsatellite loci were used to assess genotypic diversity at two spatial scales by genotyping 200 isolates of O. marina from 6 broad geographic regions around Great Britain and Ireland; in one region, a single 2 km shore line was sampled intensively to assess fine-scale genetic diversity. Microsatellite loci resolved between 1-6 and 7-23 distinct alleles per region in the least and most variable loci respectively, with corresponding variation in expected heterozygosities (H(e of 0.00-0.30 and 0.81-0.93. Across the dataset, genotypic diversity was high with 183 genotypes detected from 200 isolates. Bayesian analysis of population structure supported two model populations. One population was distributed across all sampled regions; the other was confined to the intensively sampled shore, and thus two distinct populations co-occurred at this site. Whilst model-based analysis inferred a single UK-wide population, pairwise regional F(ST values indicated weak to moderate population sub-division (0.01-0.12, but no clear correlation between spatial and genetic distance was evident. Data presented in this study highlight extensive genetic diversity for O. marina; however, it remains a substantial challenge to uncover the mechanisms that drive genetic diversity in free-living microorganisms.

  8. PPARalpha siRNA-treated expression profiles uncover the causal sufficiency network for compound-induced liver hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Dai

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Uncovering pathways underlying drug-induced toxicity is a fundamental objective in the field of toxicogenomics. Developing mechanism-based toxicity biomarkers requires the identification of such novel pathways and the order of their sufficiency in causing a phenotypic response. Genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi phenotypic screening has emerged as an effective tool in unveiling the genes essential for specific cellular functions and biological activities. However, eliciting the relative contribution of and sufficiency relationships among the genes identified remains challenging. In the rodent, the most widely used animal model in preclinical studies, it is unrealistic to exhaustively examine all potential interactions by RNAi screening. Application of existing computational approaches to infer regulatory networks with biological outcomes in the rodent is limited by the requirements for a large number of targeted permutations. Therefore, we developed a two-step relay method that requires only one targeted perturbation for genome-wide de novo pathway discovery. Using expression profiles in response to small interfering RNAs (siRNAs against the gene for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (Ppara, our method unveiled the potential causal sufficiency order network for liver hypertrophy in the rodent. The validity of the inferred 16 causal transcripts or 15 known genes for PPARalpha-induced liver hypertrophy is supported by their ability to predict non-PPARalpha-induced liver hypertrophy with 84% sensitivity and 76% specificity. Simulation shows that the probability of achieving such predictive accuracy without the inferred causal relationship is exceedingly small (p < 0.005. Five of the most sufficient causal genes have been previously disrupted in mouse models; the resulting phenotypic changes in the liver support the inferred causal roles in liver hypertrophy. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of defining pathways mediating drug

  9. Using a system of differential equations that models cattle growth to uncover the genetic basis of complex traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freua, Mateus Castelani; Santana, Miguel Henrique de Almeida; Ventura, Ricardo Vieira; Tedeschi, Luis Orlindo; Ferraz, José Bento Sterman

    2017-08-01

    The interplay between dynamic models of biological systems and genomics is based on the assumption that genetic variation of the complex trait (i.e., outcome of model behavior) arises from component traits (i.e., model parameters) in lower hierarchical levels. In order to provide a proof of concept of this statement for a cattle growth model, we ask whether model parameters map genomic regions that harbor quantitative trait loci (QTLs) already described for the complex trait. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with a Bayesian hierarchical LASSO method in two parameters of the Davis Growth Model, a system of three ordinary differential equations describing DNA accretion, protein synthesis and degradation, and fat synthesis. Phenotypic and genotypic data were available for 893 Nellore (Bos indicus) cattle. Computed values for parameter k 1 (DNA accretion rate) ranged from 0.005 ± 0.003 and for α (constant for energy for maintenance requirement) 0.134 ± 0.024. The expected biological interpretation of the parameters is confirmed by QTLs mapped for k 1 and α. QTLs within genomic regions mapped for k 1 are expected to be correlated with the DNA pool: body size and weight. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which were significant for α mapped QTLs that had already been associated with residual feed intake, feed conversion ratio, average daily gain (ADG), body weight, and also dry matter intake. SNPs identified for k 1 were able to additionally explain 2.2% of the phenotypic variability of the complex ADG, even when SNPs for k 1 did not match the genomic regions associated with ADG. Although improvements are needed, our findings suggest that genomic analysis on component traits may help to uncover the genetic basis of more complex traits, particularly when lower biological hierarchies are mechanistically described by mathematical simulation models.

  10. Uncovering the Green, Blue, and Grey Water Footprint and Virtual Water of Biofuel Production in Brazil: A Nexus Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Munoz Castillo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Brazil plays a major role in the global biofuel economy as the world’s second largest producer and consumer and the largest exporter of ethanol. Its demand is expected to significantly increase in coming years, largely driven by national and international carbon mitigation targets. However, biofuel crops require significant amounts of water and land resources that could otherwise be used for the production of food, urban water supply, or energy generation. Given Brazil’s uneven spatial distribution of water resources among regions, a potential expansion of ethanol production will need to take into account regional or local water availability, as an increased water demand for irrigation would put further pressure on already water-scarce regions and compete with other users. By applying an environmentally extended multiregional input-output (MRIO approach, we uncover the scarce water footprint and the interregional virtual water flows associated with sugarcane-derived biofuel production driven by domestic final consumption and international exports in 27 states in Brazil. Our results show that bio-ethanol is responsible for about one third of the total sugarcane water footprint besides sugar and other processed food production. We found that richer states such as São Paulo benefit by accruing a higher share of economic value added from exporting ethanol as part of global value chains while increasing water stress in poorer states through interregional trade. We also found that, in comparison with other crops, sugarcane has a comparative advantage when rainfed while showing a comparative disadvantage as an irrigated crop; a tradeoff to be considered when planning irrigation infrastructure and bioethanol production expansion.

  11. Percutaneous Palliation of Pancreatic Head Cancer: Randomized Comparison of ePTFE/FEP–Covered Versus Uncovered Nitinol Biliary Stents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krokidis, Miltiadis; Fanelli, Fabrizio; Orgera, Gianluigi; Tsetis, Dimitrios; Mouzas, Ioannis; Bezzi, Mario; Kouroumalis, Elias; Pasariello, Roberto; Hatzidakis, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical effectiveness of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene/fluorinated-ethylene-propylene (ePTFE/FEP)–covered stents with that of uncovered nitinol stents for the palliation of malignant jaundice caused by inoperable pancreatic head cancer. Eighty patients were enrolled in a prospective randomized study. Bare nitinol stents were used in half of the patients, and ePTFE/FEP–covered stents were used in the remaining patients. Patency, survival, complications, and mean cost were calculated in both groups. Mean patency was 166.0 ± 13.11 days for the bare-stent group and 234.0 ± 20.87 days for the covered-stent group (p = 0.007). Primary patency rates at 3, 6, and 12 months were 77.5, 69.8, and 69.8% for the bare-stent group and 97.5, 92.2, and 87.6% for the covered-stent group, respectively. Mean secondary patency was 123.7 ± 22.5 days for the bare-stent group and 130.3 ± 21.4 days for the covered-stent group. Tumour ingrowth occurred exclusively in the bare-stent group in 27.5% of cases (p = 0.002). Median survival was 203.2 ± 11.8 days for the bare-stent group and 247.0 ± 20 days for the covered-stent group (p = 0.06). Complications and mean cost were similar in both groups. Regarding primary patency and ingrowth rate, ePTFE/FEP–covered stents have shown to be significantly superior to bare nitinol stents for the palliation of malignant jaundice caused by inoperable pancreatic head cancer and pose comparable cost and complications. Use of a covered stent does not significantly influence overall survival rate; nevertheless, the covered endoprosthesis seems to offer result in fewer reinterventions and better quality of patient life.

  12. A genome-wide immunodetection screen in S. cerevisiae uncovers novel genes involved in lysosomal vacuole function and morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florante Ricarte

    Full Text Available Vacuoles of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are functionally analogous to mammalian lysosomes. Both are cellular organelles responsible for macromolecular degradation, ion/pH homeostasis, and stress survival. We hypothesized that undefined gene functions remain at post-endosomal stage of vacuolar events and performed a genome-wide screen directed at such functions at the late endosome and vacuole interface - ENV genes. The immunodetection screen was designed to identify mutants that internally accumulate precursor form of the vacuolar hydrolase carboxypeptidase Y (CPY. Here, we report the uncovering and initial characterizations of twelve ENV genes. The small size of the collection and the lack of genes previously identified with vacuolar events are suggestive of the intended exclusive functional interface of the screen. Most notably, the collection includes four novel genes ENV7, ENV9, ENV10, and ENV11, and three genes previously linked to mitochondrial processes - MAM3, PCP1, PPE1. In all env mutants, vesicular trafficking stages were undisturbed in live cells as assessed by invertase and active α-factor secretion, as well as by localization of the endocytic fluorescent marker FM4-64 to the vacuole. Several mutants exhibit defects in stress survival functions associated with vacuoles. Confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed the collection to be significantly enriched in vacuolar morphologies suggestive of fusion and fission defects. These include the unique phenotype of lumenal vesicles within vacuoles in the novel env9Δ mutant and severely fragmented vacuoles upon deletion of GET4, a gene recently implicated in tail anchored membrane protein insertion. Thus, our results establish new gene functions in vacuolar function and morphology, and suggest a link between vacuolar and mitochondrial events.

  13. Uncovering the intrinsic relationship of electrocatalysis and molecular electrochemistry for dissociative electron transfer to polychloroethanes at silver cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Binbin; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Li, Jing; Zeng, Guangming; Lei, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamics of dissociative electron transfer to C–Cl bonds at Ag are studied. • The catalyzed dissociative electron transfer theory was proposed for the first time. • The adsorption of organic chlorides onto Ag plays a key role for dechlorination. • The catalytic property of Ag is ascribed to the lower of intrinsic barrier energy. • The relationship of electrocatalysis and molecular electrochemistry is indicated. - Abstract: The relationship between electrocatalysis and molecular electrochemistry for the reductive dechlorination of organic chlorides has been a central topic for decades. Herein, we try to reveal the catalytic property of silver electrode by investigating the thermodynamics of dissociative electron transfer (DET) to C–Cl bonds of polychloroethanes (PCAs) on both inert (GC) and catalytic (Ag) electrodes. By extending the “sticky” DET model reported by Savéant, we show that the catalyzed DET model can well describe the activation-driving force relationships for the electrocatalytic dechlorination on Ag, where in addition to the possible ion-dipole interations, the adsorption of chlorinated species onto Ag surface, which is found to play a fundamental role in the electrocatalysis process in this study, is introduced in the new developed DET model. In this work, we firstly report that the catalytic property of Ag electrode characterizing with drastically postive shift of reduction potential is ascribed to the lower of intrinsic barrier free energy, rather than the activation free energy, for the reductive dechlorination. Moreover, the intrinsic relationship of electrocatalysis and molecular electrochemistry is clearly indicated and quantitatively developed. These results may provide new insights in uncovering both the nature of catalytic property of Ag and the relationship of electrocatalysis and molecular electrochemistry for PCAs and other halocarbons.

  14. Pierre Bourdieu's Theory of Practice offers nurses a framework to uncover embodied knowledge of patients living with disabilities or illnesses: A discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerther, Sarah; Oerther, Daniel B

    2018-04-01

    To discuss how Bourdieu's theory of practice can be used by nurse researchers to better uncover the embodied knowledge of patients living with disability and illness. Bourdieu's theory of practice has been used in social and healthcare researches. This theory emphasizes that an individual's everyday practices are not always explicit and mediated by language, but instead an individual's everyday practices are often are tacit and embodied. Discussion paper. Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS were searched for concepts from Bourdieu's theory that was used to understand embodied knowledge of patients living with disability and illness. The literature search included articles from 2003 - 2017. Nurse researchers should use Bourdieu's theory of practice to uncover the embodied knowledge of patients living with disability and illness, and nurse researchers should translate these discoveries into policy recommendations and improved evidence-based best practice. The practice of nursing should incorporate an understanding of embodied knowledge to support disabled and ill patients as these patients modify "everyday practices" in the light of their disabilities and illnesses. Bourdieu's theory enriches nursing because the theory allows for consideration of both the objective and the subjective through the conceptualization of capital, habitus and field. Uncovering individuals embodied knowledge is critical to implement best practices that assist patients as they adapt to bodily changes during disability and illness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Characterization of the serine acetyltransferase gene family of Vitis vinifera uncovers differences in regulation of OAS synthesis in woody plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Sílvia; Wirtz, Markus; Beier, Marcel P.; Bogs, Jochen; Hell, Rüdiger; Amâncio, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In higher plants cysteine biosynthesis is catalyzed by O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL) and represents the last step of the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. It is mainly regulated by provision of O-acetylserine (OAS), the nitrogen/carbon containing backbone for fixation of reduced sulfur. OAS is synthesized by Serine acetyltransferase (SERAT), which reversibly interacts with OASTL in the cysteine synthase complex (CSC). In this study we identify and characterize the SERAT gene family of the crop plant Vitis vinifera. The identified four members of the VvSERAT protein family are assigned to three distinct groups upon their sequence similarities to Arabidopsis SERATs. Expression of fluorescently labeled VvSERAT proteins uncover that the sub-cellular localization of VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT3;1 is the cytosol and that VvSERAT2;1 and VvSERAT2;2 localize in addition in plastids and mitochondria, respectively. The purified VvSERATs of group 1 and 2 have higher enzymatic activity than VvSERAT3;1, which display a characteristic C-terminal extension also present in AtSERAT3;1. VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT2;2 are evidenced to form the CSC. CSC formation activates VvSERAT2;2, by releasing CSC-associated VvSERAT2;2 from cysteine inhibition. Thus, subcellular distribution of SERAT isoforms and CSC formation in cytosol and mitochondria is conserved between Arabidopsis and grapevine. Surprisingly, VvSERAT2;1 lack the canonical C-terminal tail of plant SERATs, does not form the CSC and is almost insensitive to cysteine inhibition (IC50 = 1.9 mM cysteine). Upon sulfate depletion VvSERAT2;1 is strongly induced at the transcriptional level, while transcription of other VvSERATs is almost unaffected in sulfate deprived grapevine cell suspension cultures. Application of abiotic stresses to soil grown grapevine plants revealed isoform-specific induction of VvSERAT2;1 in leaves upon drought, whereas high light- or temperature- stress hardly trigger VvSERAT2;1 transcription. PMID:25741355

  16. Characterization of Smoc-1 uncovers two transcript variants showing differential tissue and age specific expression in Bubalus bubalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Jyoti; Premi, Sanjay; Kumar, Sudhir; Parwez, Iqbal; Ali, Sher

    2007-01-01

    Background Secreted modular calcium binding protein-1 (Smoc-1) belongs to the BM-40 family which has been implicated with tissue remodeling, angiogenesis and bone mineralization. Besides its anticipated role in embryogenesis, Smoc-1 has been characterized only in a few mammalian species. We made use of the consensus sequence (5' CACCTCTCCACCTGCC 3') of 33.15 repeat loci to explore the buffalo transcriptome and uncovered the Smoc-1 transcript tagged with this repeat. The main objective of this study was to gain an insight into its structural and functional organization, and expressional status of Smoc-1 in water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. Results We cloned and characterized the buffalo Smoc-1, including its copy number status, in-vitro protein expression, tissue & age specific transcription/translation, chromosomal mapping and localization to the basement membrane zone. Buffalo Smoc-1 was found to encode a secreted matricellular glycoprotein containing two EF-hand calcium binding motifs homologous to that of BM-40/SPARC family. In buffalo, this single copy gene consisted of 12 exons and was mapped onto the acrocentric chromosome 11. Though this gene was found to be evolutionarily conserved, the buffalo Smoc-1 showed conspicuous nucleotide/amino acid changes altering its secondary structure compared to that in other mammals. In silico analysis of the Smoc-1 proposed its glycoprotein nature with a calcium dependent conformation. Further, we unveiled two transcript variants of this gene, varying in their 3'UTR lengths but both coding for identical protein(s). Smoc-1 evinced highest expression of both the variants in liver and modest to negligible in other tissues. The relative expression of variant-02 was markedly higher compared to that of variant-01 in all the tissues examined. Moreover, expression of Smoc-1, though modest during the early ages, was conspicuously enhanced after 1 year and remained consistently higher during the entire life span of buffalo with gradual

  17. Comparative analysis of the Photorhabdus luminescens and the Yersinia enterocolitica genomes: uncovering candidate genes involved in insect pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchs Thilo M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photorhabdus luminescens and Yersinia enterocolitica are both enteric bacteria which are associated with insects. P. luminescens lives in symbiosis with soil nematodes and is highly pathogenic towards insects but not to humans. In contrast, Y. enterocolitica is widely found in the environment and mainly known to cause gastroenteritis in men, but has only recently been shown to be also toxic for insects. It is expected that both pathogens share an overlap of genetic determinants that play a role within the insect host. Results A selective genome comparison was applied. Proteins belonging to the class of two-component regulatory systems, quorum sensing, universal stress proteins, and c-di-GMP signalling have been analysed. The interorganismic synopsis of selected regulatory systems uncovered common and distinct signalling mechanisms of both pathogens used for perception of signals within the insect host. Particularly, a new class of LuxR-like regulators was identified, which might be involved in detecting insect-specific molecules. In addition, the genetic overlap unravelled a two-component system that is unique for the genera Photorhabdus and Yersinia and is therefore suggested to play a major role in the pathogen-insect relationship. Our analysis also highlights factors of both pathogens that are expressed at low temperatures as encountered in insects in contrast to higher (body temperature, providing evidence that temperature is a yet under-investigated environmental signal for bacterial adaptation to various hosts. Common degradative metabolic pathways are described that might be used to explore nutrients within the insect gut or hemolymph, thus enabling the proliferation of P. luminescens and Y. enterocolitica in their invertebrate hosts. A strikingly higher number of genes encoding insecticidal toxins and other virulence factors in P. luminescens compared to Y. enterocolitica correlates with the higher virulence of P

  18. Covered versus Uncovered Self-Expandable Metal Stents for Managing Malignant Distal Biliary Obstruction: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinjin; Li, Tong; Sun, Ping; Yu, Qihong; Wang, Kun; Chang, Weilong; Song, Zifang; Zheng, Qichang

    2016-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of using covered self-expandable metal stents (CSEMSs) and uncovered self-expandable metal stents (UCSEMSs) to treat objective jaundice caused by an unresectable malignant tumor. We performed a comprehensive electronic search from 1980 to May 2015. All randomized controlled trials comparing the use of CSEMSs and UCSEMSs to treat malignant distal biliary obstruction were included. The analysis included 1417 patients enrolled in 14 trials. We did not detect significant differences between the UCSEMS group and the CSEMS group in terms of cumulative stent patency (hazard ratio (HR) 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19-4.53; p = 0.93, I2 = 0%), patient survival (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.05-10.87; p = 0.85, I2 = 0%), overall stent dysfunction (relative ratio (RR) 0.85, M-H, random, 95% CI 0.57-1.25; p = 0.83, I2 = 63%), the overall complication rate (RR 1.26, M-H, fixed, 95% CI 0.94-1.68; p = 0.12, I2 = 0%) or the change in serum bilirubin (weighted mean difference (WMD) -0.13, IV fixed, 95% CI 0.56-0.3; p = 0.55, I2 = 0%). However, we did detect a significant difference in the main causes of stent dysfunction between the two groups. In particular, the CSEMS group exhibited a lower rate of tumor ingrowth (RR 0.25, M-H, random, 95% CI 0.12-0.52; p = 0.002, I2 = 40%) but a higher rate of tumor overgrowth (RR 1.76, M-H, fixed, 95% CI 1.03-3.02; p = 0.04, I2 = 0%). Patients with CSEMSs also exhibited a higher migration rate (RR 9.33, M-H, fixed, 95% CI 2.54-34.24; p = 0.008, I2 = 0%) and a higher rate of sludge formation (RR 2.47, M-H, fixed, 95% CI 1.36-4.50; p = 0.003, I2 = 0%). Our meta-analysis indicates that there is no significant difference in primary stent patency and stent dysfunction between CSEMSs and UCSEMSs during the period from primary stent insertion to primary stent dysfunction or patient death. However, when taking further management for occluded stents into consideration, CSEMSs is a better choice for patients with malignant biliary

  19. Transcript profiles uncover temporal and stress-induced changes of metabolic pathways in germinating sugar beet seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windhövel Andrea

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a cultivation area of 1.75 Mio ha and sugar yield of 16.7 Mio tons in 2006, sugar beet is a crop of great economic importance in Europe. The productivity of sugar beet is determined significantly by seed vigour and field emergence potential; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these traits. Both traits exhibit large variations within sugar beet germplasm that have been difficult to ascribe to either environmental or genetic causes. Among potential targets for trait improvement, an enhancement of stress tolerance is considered because of the high negative influence of environmental stresses on trait parameters. Extending our knowledge of genetic and molecular determinants of sugar beet germination, stress response and adaptation mechanisms would facilitate the detection of new targets for breeding crop with an enhanced field emergence potential. Results To gain insight into the sugar beet germination we initiated an analysis of gene expression in a well emerging sugar beet hybrid showing high germination potential under various environmental conditions. A total of 2,784 ESTs representing 2,251 'unigenes' was generated from dry mature and germinating seeds. Analysis of the temporal expression of these genes during germination under non-stress conditions uncovered drastic transcriptional changes accompanying a shift from quiescent to metabolically active stages of the plant life cycle. Assay of germination under stressful conditions revealed 157 genes showing significantly different expression patterns in response to stress. As deduced from transcriptome data, stress adaptation mechanisms included an alteration in reserve mobilization pathways, an accumulation of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine, late embryogenesis abundant proteins and detoxification enzymes. The observed transcriptional changes are supposed to be regulated by ABA-dependent signal transduction pathway. Conclusion This study

  20. Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Stenting with Uncovered Self-Expandable Metallic Stents in Patients with Malignant Biliary Obstruction – Efficacy and Survival Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranculis, Andrius; Kievišienė, Lina; Vaičius, Artūras; Vanagas, Tomas; Kaupas, Rytis Stasys; Dambrauskas, Žilvinas

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess short- and long-term outcomes of malignant biliary obstruction (MBO) treatment by percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting (PTBS) with uncovered selfexpandable metallic stents (SEMS), and to identify predictors of survival. Material/Methods A nine-year, single-centre study from a prospectively collected database included 222 patients with inoperable MBO treated by PTBS with uncovered nitinol SEMS. Results Technical and clinical success rates were 95.9% and 82.4%, respectively. The total rate of postprocedural complications was 14.4%. The mean durations of the primary and secondary stent patency were 114.7±15.1 and 146.4±21.2 days, respectively. The 30-day mortality rate was 15.3% with no procedure-related deaths. The mean estimated length of survival was 143.3±20.6 days. Independent predictors increasing the risk of death included higher than 115 μmol/L serum bilirubin 2–5 days after biliary stenting (HR 3.274, P=0.019), distal (non-hilar) obstruction of the bile ducts (HR 3.711, P=0.008), Bismuth-Corlette type IV stricture (HR 2.082, P=0.008), obstruction due to gallbladder cancer (HR 31.029, P=0.012) and only partial drainage of liver parenchyma (HR 4.158, P=0.040). Conclusions PTBS with uncovered SEMS is an effective and safe method for palliative treatment of MBO. Serum bilirubin higher than 115 μmol/L 2–5 days after the procedure has a significant negative impact on patients’ survival. Lower survival is also determined by distal bile duct obstruction, Bismuth– Corlette type IV stricture, biliary obstruction caused by gallbladder cancer and when only partial liver drainage is applied. PMID:29662569

  1. Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Stenting with Uncovered Self-Expandable Metallic Stents in Patients with Malignant Biliary Obstruction - Efficacy and Survival Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranculis, Andrius; Kievišas, Mantas; Kievišienė, Lina; Vaičius, Artūras; Vanagas, Tomas; Kaupas, Rytis Stasys; Dambrauskas, Žilvinas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess short- and long-term outcomes of malignant biliary obstruction (MBO) treatment by percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting (PTBS) with uncovered selfexpandable metallic stents (SEMS), and to identify predictors of survival. A nine-year, single-centre study from a prospectively collected database included 222 patients with inoperable MBO treated by PTBS with uncovered nitinol SEMS. Technical and clinical success rates were 95.9% and 82.4%, respectively. The total rate of postprocedural complications was 14.4%. The mean durations of the primary and secondary stent patency were 114.7±15.1 and 146.4±21.2 days, respectively. The 30-day mortality rate was 15.3% with no procedure-related deaths. The mean estimated length of survival was 143.3±20.6 days. Independent predictors increasing the risk of death included higher than 115 μmol/L serum bilirubin 2-5 days after biliary stenting (HR 3.274, P =0.019), distal (non-hilar) obstruction of the bile ducts (HR 3.711, P =0.008), Bismuth-Corlette type IV stricture (HR 2.082, P =0.008), obstruction due to gallbladder cancer (HR 31.029, P =0.012) and only partial drainage of liver parenchyma (HR 4.158, P =0.040). PTBS with uncovered SEMS is an effective and safe method for palliative treatment of MBO. Serum bilirubin higher than 115 μmol/L 2-5 days after the procedure has a significant negative impact on patients' survival. Lower survival is also determined by distal bile duct obstruction, Bismuth- Corlette type IV stricture, biliary obstruction caused by gallbladder cancer and when only partial liver drainage is applied.

  2. Uncovering Voter Preference Structures Using a Best-Worst Scaling Procedure: Method and Empirical Example in the British General Election of 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Savigny, Heather

    Best-Worst scaling (BWS) is a method that can provide insights into the preference structures of voters. By asking voters to select the ‘best’ and ‘worst’ option (‘most important’ and ‘least important’ media in our investigation) from a short list of alternatives it is possible to uncover the rel...... the least information. We furthermore investigate group differences using an ANOVA procedure to demonstrate how contextual variables can enrich our empirical investigations using the BWS method....

  3. Epistaxis revealing the rupture of a carotid aneurysm of the cavernous sinus extending into the sphenoid: treatment using an uncovered stent and coils. Review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Pierre; Saliou, Guillaume; Page, Cyril; Balut, Antonia; Le Gars, Daniel; Vallée, Jean Noel

    2009-05-01

    True carotid aneurysms with sphenoid extension and revealed by epistaxis are rare. A review of the literature shows the mortality risk of this pathology and the different therapeutic options. A 41-year-old female presented with a cavernous carotid aneurysm with sphenoid extension revealed by massive epistaxis. We propose a combined treatment of the affected vessel using coils and an uncovered stent. The first stage to stop the hemorrhages and occlude the aneurysm using the coil and the second stage several days later after anticoagulation using the stent to prevent revascularization. This treatment has been shown to be effective in producing immediate hemostasis and stable long-term occlusion.

  4. Uncovering Barriers to Teaching Assistants (TAs Implementing Inquiry Teaching: Inconsistent Facilitation Techniques, Student Resistance, and Reluctance to Share Control over Learning with Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Gormally

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Inquiry-based teaching approaches are increasingly being adopted in biology laboratories. Yet teaching assistants (TAs, often novice teachers, teach the majority of laboratory courses in US research universities. This study analyzed the perspectives of TAs and their students and used classroom observations to uncover challenges faced by TAs during their first year of inquiry-based teaching. Our study revealed three insights about barriers to effective inquiry teaching practices: 1 TAs lack sufficient facilitation skills; 2 TAs struggle to share control over learning with students as they reconcile long-standing teaching beliefs with newly learned approaches, consequently undermining their fledgling ability to use inquiry approaches; and 3 student evaluations reinforce teacher-centered behaviors as TAs receive positive feedback conflicting with inquiry approaches. We make recommendations, including changing instructional feedback to focus on learner-centered teaching practices. We urge TA mentors to engage TAs in discussions to uncover teaching beliefs underlying teaching choices and support TAs through targeted feedback and practice.

  5. Uncovering Barriers to Teaching Assistants (TAs) Implementing Inquiry Teaching: Inconsistent Facilitation Techniques, Student Resistance, and Reluctance to Share Control over Learning with Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormally, Cara; Sullivan, Carol Subiño; Szeinbaum, Nadia

    2016-05-01

    Inquiry-based teaching approaches are increasingly being adopted in biology laboratories. Yet teaching assistants (TAs), often novice teachers, teach the majority of laboratory courses in US research universities. This study analyzed the perspectives of TAs and their students and used classroom observations to uncover challenges faced by TAs during their first year of inquiry-based teaching. Our study revealed three insights about barriers to effective inquiry teaching practices: 1) TAs lack sufficient facilitation skills; 2) TAs struggle to share control over learning with students as they reconcile long-standing teaching beliefs with newly learned approaches, consequently undermining their fledgling ability to use inquiry approaches; and 3) student evaluations reinforce teacher-centered behaviors as TAs receive positive feedback conflicting with inquiry approaches. We make recommendations, including changing instructional feedback to focus on learner-centered teaching practices. We urge TA mentors to engage TAs in discussions to uncover teaching beliefs underlying teaching choices and support TAs through targeted feedback and practice.

  6. Uncovering Barriers to Teaching Assistants (TAs) Implementing Inquiry Teaching: Inconsistent Facilitation Techniques, Student Resistance, and Reluctance to Share Control over Learning with Students †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormally, Cara; Sullivan, Carol Subiño; Szeinbaum, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Inquiry-based teaching approaches are increasingly being adopted in biology laboratories. Yet teaching assistants (TAs), often novice teachers, teach the majority of laboratory courses in US research universities. This study analyzed the perspectives of TAs and their students and used classroom observations to uncover challenges faced by TAs during their first year of inquiry-based teaching. Our study revealed three insights about barriers to effective inquiry teaching practices: 1) TAs lack sufficient facilitation skills; 2) TAs struggle to share control over learning with students as they reconcile long-standing teaching beliefs with newly learned approaches, consequently undermining their fledgling ability to use inquiry approaches; and 3) student evaluations reinforce teacher-centered behaviors as TAs receive positive feedback conflicting with inquiry approaches. We make recommendations, including changing instructional feedback to focus on learner-centered teaching practices. We urge TA mentors to engage TAs in discussions to uncover teaching beliefs underlying teaching choices and support TAs through targeted feedback and practice. PMID:27158302

  7. Transcriptomic Analysis of Long Non-Coding RNAs and Coding Genes Uncovers a Complex Regulatory Network That Is Involved in Maize Seed Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs have been reported to be involved in the development of maize plant. However, few focused on seed development of maize. Here, we identified 753 lncRNA candidates in maize genome from six seed samples. Similar to the mRNAs, lncRNAs showed tissue developmental stage specific and differential expression, indicating their putative role in seed development. Increasing evidence shows that crosstalk among RNAs mediated by shared microRNAs (miRNAs represents a novel layer of gene regulation, which plays important roles in plant development. Functional roles and regulatory mechanisms of lncRNAs as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNA in plants, particularly in maize seed development, are unclear. We combined analyses of consistently altered 17 lncRNAs, 840 mRNAs and known miRNA to genome-wide investigate potential lncRNA-mediated ceRNA based on “ceRNA hypothesis”. The results uncovered seven novel lncRNAs as potential functional ceRNAs. Functional analyses based on their competitive coding-gene partners by Gene Ontology (GO and KEGG biological pathway demonstrated that combined effects of multiple ceRNAs can have major impacts on general developmental and metabolic processes in maize seed. These findings provided a useful platform for uncovering novel mechanisms of maize seed development and may provide opportunities for the functional characterization of individual lncRNA in future studies.

  8. Influence of crop load on the expression patterns of starch metabolism genes in alternate-bearing citrus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebauer, Sergio G; Renau-Morata, Begoña; Lluch, Yolanda; Baroja-Fernández, Edurne; Pozueta-Romero, Javier; Molina, Rosa-Victoria

    2014-07-01

    The fruit is the main sink organ in Citrus and captures almost all available photoassimilates during its development. Consequently, carbohydrate partitioning and starch content depend on the crop load of Citrus trees. Nevertheless, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the starch metabolism at the tree level in relation to presence of fruit. The aim of this study was to find the relation between the seasonal variation of expression and activity of the genes involved in carbon metabolism and the partition and allocation of carbohydrates in 'Salustiana' sweet orange trees with different crop loads. Metabolisable carbohydrates, and the expression and activity of the enzymes involved in sucrose and starch metabolism, including sucrose transport, were determined during the year in the roots and leaves of 40-year-old trees bearing heavy crop loads ('on' trees) and trees with almost no fruits ('off' trees). Fruit altered photoassimilate partitioning in trees. Sucrose content tended to be constant in roots and leaves, and surplus fixed carbon is channeled to starch production. Differences between 'on' and 'off' trees in starch content can be explained by differences in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPP) expression/activity and α-amylase activity which varies depending on crop load. The observed relation of AGPP and UGPP (UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase) is noteworthy and indicates a direct link between sucrose and starch synthesis. Furthermore, different roles for sucrose transporter SUT1 and SUT2 have been proposed. Variation in soluble sugars content cannot explain the differences in gene expression between the 'on' and 'off' trees. A still unknown signal from fruit should be responsible for this control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Enzymes in biogenesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides. Enzyme characterization using tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    Enzymes and metabolic pathways, by which starch and cell wall polysaccharides are formed, were investigated in order to learn how these processes are regulated and to identify the enzymatic regulatory mechanisms involved. Germinating lily pollen was used for studies of cell wall formation, and pollen and maize endosperm for studies of starch biosynthesis. Hexokinase being the first step in conversion of hexoses to starch, wall polysaccharides and respiratory substrates, maize endosperm enzyme was assayed by its conversion of 14 C-hexose to 14 C-hexose-6-P, and rapid separation of the two labelled compounds on anion-exchange paper. This enzyme did not appear to be under tight regulation by feed-back inhibition or activation, nor to be severely inhibited by glucose-6-P or activated by citrate. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and other pyrophosphorylases were assayed radiochemically with 14 C-glucose-1-P (forward direction) or 32-PPsub(i) (reverse direction). They showed that the maize endosperm enzyme was activated by the glycolytic intermediates fructose-6-P and 3-phosphoglycerate, and that low levels of the enzyme were present in the high sucrose-low starch mutant named shrunken-2. Under optimal in-vitro assay conditions, the pollen enzyme reacted four times faster than the observed in-vivo rate of starch accumulation. Biogenesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides requires the conversion of hexose phosphates to various sugar nucleotides and utilization of the latter by the appropriate polysaccharide synthetases. Lily pollen possesses a β-1,3-glucan synthetase which is activated up to six-fold by β-linked oligosaccharides. Hence, the in-vivo activity of this enzyme may be modulated by such effector molecules

  10. SALT-RESPONSIVE ERF1 is a negative regulator of grain filling and gibberellin-mediated seedling establishment in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Romy; Schippers, Jos H M; Mieulet, Delphine; Watanabe, Mutsumi; Hoefgen, Rainer; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2014-02-01

    Grain quality is an important agricultural trait that is mainly determined by grain size and composition. Here, we characterize the role of the rice transcription factor (TF) SALT-RESPONSIVE ERF1 (SERF1) during grain development. Through genome-wide expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we found that SERF1 directly regulates RICE PROLAMIN-BOX BINDING FACTOR (RPBF), a TF that functions as a positive regulator of grain filling. Loss of SERF1 enhances RPBF expression resulting in larger grains with increased starch content, while SERF1 overexpression represses RPBF resulting in smaller grains. Consistently, during grain filling, starch biosynthesis genes such as GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASEI (GBSSI), STARCH SYNTHASEI (SSI), SSIIIa, and ADP-GLUCOSE PYROPHOSPHORYLASE LARGE SUBUNIT2 (AGPL2) are up-regulated in SERF1 knockout grains. Moreover, SERF1 is a direct upstream regulator of GBSSI. In addition, SERF1 negatively regulates germination by controlling RPBF expression, which mediates the gibberellic acid (GA)-induced expression of RICE AMYLASE1A (RAmy1A). Loss of SERF1 results in more rapid seedling establishment, while SERF1 overexpression has the opposite effect. Our study reveals that SERF1 represents a negative regulator of grain filling and seedling establishment by timing the expression of RPBF.

  11. Proteomic analysis of the impacts of powdery mildew on wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Liu, Xinhao; Yang, Xiwen; Li, Yongchun; Wang, Chenyang; He, Dexian

    2018-09-30

    Powdery mildew of wheat is one of the major foliar diseases, causing significant yield loss and flour quality change. In this study, grain protein and starch response to powdery mildew infection were investigated. Total protein, glutenin and gliadin exhibited a greater increase in grains from infected wheat, while the content of total starch and amylopectin was decreased. Comparative proteomic analysis demonstrated that the overabundant protein synthesis-related proteins might facilitate the accumulation of storage proteins in grains from infected plants. The significant increase in triticin, serpin and HMW-GS in grains from infected wheat might relate to the superior gluten quality. In addition, overabundant carbohydrate metabolism-related proteins in grains from infected wheat were conducive to the depletion of starch, whereas the decreased abundance of ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase might be related to the deficiency of starch synthesis. These results provide a deeper understanding on the change of wheat quality under powdery mildew infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of high temperature on grain filling period, yield, amylose content and activity of starch biosynthesis enzymes in endosperm of basmati rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nisar; Tetlow, Ian J; Nawaz, Sehar; Iqbal, Ahsan; Mubin, Muhammad; Nawaz ul Rehman, Muhammad Shah; Butt, Aisha; Lightfoot, David A; Maekawa, Masahiko

    2015-08-30

    High temperature during grain filling affects yield, starch amylose content and activity of starch biosynthesis enzymes in basmati rice. To investigate the physiological mechanisms underpinning the effects of high temperature on rice grain, basmati rice was grown under two temperature conditions - 32 and 22 °C - during grain filling. High temperature decreased the grain filling period from 32 to 26 days, reducing yield by 6%, and caused a reduction in total starch (3.1%) and amylose content (22%). Measurable activities of key enzymes involved in sucrose to starch conversion, sucrose synthase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, starch phosphorylase and soluble starch synthase in endosperms developed at 32 °C were lower than those at 22 °C compared with similar ripening stage on an endosperm basis. In particular, granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) activity was significantly lower than corresponding activity in endosperms developing at 22 °C during all developmental stages analyzed. Results suggest changes in amylose/amylopectin ratio observed in plants grown at 32 °C was attributable to a reduction in activity of GBSS, the sole enzyme responsible for amylose biosynthesis. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Response of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) to 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infection: microscopy and microarray analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Soon; Sagaram, Uma Shankar; Burns, Jacqueline K; Li, Jian-Liang; Wang, Nian

    2009-01-01

    Citrus greening or huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating disease of citrus. HLB is associated with the phloem-limited fastidious prokaryotic alpha-proteobacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter spp.' In this report, we used sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) leaf tissue infected with 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' and compared this with healthy controls. Investigation of the host response was examined with citrus microarray hybridization based on 33,879 expressed sequence tag sequences from several citrus species and hybrids. The microarray analysis indicated that HLB infection significantly affected expression of 624 genes whose encoded proteins were categorized according to function. The categories included genes associated with sugar metabolism, plant defense, phytohormone, and cell wall metabolism, as well as 14 other gene categories. The anatomical analyses indicated that HLB bacterium infection caused phloem disruption, sucrose accumulation, and plugged sieve pores. The up-regulation of three key starch biosynthetic genes including ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase, granule-bound starch synthase and starch debranching enzyme likely contributed to accumulation of starch in HLB-affected leaves. The HLB-associated phloem blockage resulted from the plugged sieve pores rather than the HLB bacterial aggregates since 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' does not form aggregate in citrus. The up-regulation of pp2 gene is related to callose deposition to plug the sieve pores in HLB-affected plants.

  14. A Quantitative Acetylomic Analysis of Early Seed Development in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Hou, Yuxuan; Qiu, Jiehua; Li, Zhiyong; Zhao, Juan; Tong, Xiaohong; Zhang, Jian

    2017-06-27

    PKA (protein lysine acetylation) is a critical post-translational modification that regulates various developmental processes, including seed development. However, the acetylation events and dynamics on a proteomic scale in this process remain largely unknown, especially in rice early seed development. We report the first quantitative acetylproteomic study focused on rice early seed development by employing a mass spectral-based (MS-based), label-free approach. A total of 1817 acetylsites on 1688 acetylpeptides from 972 acetylproteins were identified in pistils and seeds at three and seven days after pollination, including 268 acetyproteins differentially acetylated among the three stages. Motif-X analysis revealed that six significantly enriched motifs, such as (DxkK), (kH) and (kY) around the acetylsites of the identified rice seed acetylproteins. Differentially acetylated proteins among the three stages, including adenosine diphosphate (ADP) -glucose pyrophosphorylases (AGPs), PDIL1-1 (protein disulfide isomerase like 1-1), hexokinases, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) and numerous other regulators that are extensively involved in the starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and photosynthesis pathways during early seed development. This study greatly expanded the rice acetylome dataset, and shed novel insight into the regulatory roles of PKA in rice early seed development.

  15. Two negative cis-regulatory regions involved in fruit-specific promoter activity from watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris S.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tao; Wu, Hanying; Zhang, Shanglong; Lu, Hongyu; Zhang, Lingxiao; Xu, Yong; Chen, Daming; Liu, Jingmei

    2009-01-01

    A 1.8 kb 5'-flanking region of the large subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, isolated from watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris S.), has fruit-specific promoter activity in transgenic tomato plants. Two negative regulatory regions, from -986 to -959 and from -472 to -424, were identified in this promoter region by fine deletion analyses. Removal of both regions led to constitutive expression in epidermal cells. Gain-of-function experiments showed that these two regions were sufficient to inhibit RFP (red fluorescent protein) expression in transformed epidermal cells when fused to the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S minimal promoter. Gel mobility shift experiments demonstrated the presence of leaf nuclear factors that interact with these two elements. A TCCAAAA motif was identified in these two regions, as well as one in the reverse orientation, which was confirmed to be a novel specific cis-element. A quantitative beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity assay of stable transgenic tomato plants showed that the activities of chimeric promoters harbouring only one of the two cis-elements, or both, were approximately 10-fold higher in fruits than in leaves. These data confirm that the TCCAAAA motif functions as a fruit-specific element by inhibiting gene expression in leaves.

  16. Influence of tryptophan and indole-3-acetic acid on starch accumulation in the synthetic mutualistic Chlorella sorokiniana-Azospirillum brasilense system under heterotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Oskar A; Choix, Francisco J; Bashan, Yoav; de-Bashan, Luz E

    2016-06-01

    This study measured the relations between tryptophan production, the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the metabolism and accumulation of starch during synthetic mutualism between the microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana and the microalgae growth-promoting bacteria Azospirillum brasilense, created by co-immobilization in alginate beads. Experiments used two wild-type A. brasilense strains (Cd and Sp6) and an IAA-attenuated mutant (SpM7918) grown under nitrogen-replete and nitrogen-starved conditions tested under dark, heterotrophic and aerobic growth conditions. Under all incubating conditions, C. sorokiniana, but not A. brasilense, produced tryptophan. A significant correlation between IAA-production by A. brasilense and starch accumulation in C. sorokiniana was found, since the IAA-attenuated mutant was not producing increased starch levels. The highest ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) activity, starch content and glucose uptake were found during the interaction of A. brasilense wild type strains with the microalgae. When the microalgae were grown alone, they produced only small amounts of starch. Supplementation with synthetic IAA to C. sorokiniana grown alone enhanced the above parameters, but only transiently. Activity of α-amylase decreased under nitrogen-replete conditions, but increased under nitrogen-starved conditions. In summary, this study demonstrated that, during synthetic mutualism, the exchange of tryptophan and IAA between the partners is a mechanism that governs several changes in starch metabolism of C. sorokiniana, yielding an increase in starch content. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Capsular glucan and intracellular glycogen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: biosynthesis and impact on the persistence in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambou, Tounkang; Dinadayala, Premkumar; Stadthagen, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogenic mycobacterial species produce large amounts of a glycogen-like alpha-glucan that represents the major polysaccharide of their outermost capsular layer. To determine the role of the surface-exposed glucan in the physiology and virulence of these bact......Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogenic mycobacterial species produce large amounts of a glycogen-like alpha-glucan that represents the major polysaccharide of their outermost capsular layer. To determine the role of the surface-exposed glucan in the physiology and virulence...... of these bacteria, orthologues of the glg genes involved in the biosynthesis of glycogen in Escherichia coli were identified in M. tuberculosis H37Rv and inactivated by allelic replacement. Biochemical analyses of the mutants and complemented strains indicated that the synthesis of glucan and glycogen involves...... the alpha-1,4-glucosyltransferases Rv3032 and GlgA (Rv1212c), the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase GlgC (Rv1213) and the branching enzyme GlgB (Rv1326c). Disruption of glgC reduced by half the glucan and glycogen contents of M. tuberculosis, whereas the inactivation of glgA and Rv3032 affected the production...

  18. Structure, function and regulation of the enzymes in the starch biosynthetic pathway.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, Jim

    2013-11-30

    structure of ADP- Glucose pyrophosphorylase from potato in its inhibited conformation, and bound to both ATP and ADP-glucose. In addition, we have determined the first structure of glycogen synthase in its "closed", catalytically active conformation bound to ADP-glucose. We also determined the structure of glycogen synthase bound to malto-oligosaccharides, showing for the first time that an enzyme in the starch biosynthetic pathway recognizes glucans not just in its active site but on binding sites on the surface of the enzyme ten’s of Angstroms from the active site. In addition our structure of a glycogen branching enzyme bound to malto-oligosaccharides identified seven distinct binding sites distributed about the surface of the enzyme. We will now determine the function of these sites to get a molecular-level picture of exactly how these enzymes interact with their polymeric substrates and confer specificity leading to the complex structure of the starch granule. We will extend our studies to other isoforms of the enzymes, to understand how their structures give rise to their distinct function. Our goal is to understand what accounts for the various functional differences between SS and SBE isoforms at a molecular level.

  19. Reflections on the Use of Grounded Theory to Uncover Patterns of Exclusion in an Online Discussion Forum at an Institution of Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Postma PhD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on an example of grounded theory methodology used in a case study to describe power inequalities among participants in an online forum at a higher education institution in South Africa. Critical poststructuralist theory informs the study as it investigates how hegemony influences the strategic interaction of participants. An interpretive analysis through coding procedures uncovered elements of intensified exclusion, inequality, and oppression. This took place within a virtual space which is theoretically idealized as an equalizer and promoter of freedom of speech. The process involved in the eliciting of voices and in the analysing and interpreting of subjective accounts is described to give an account of disillusioned experiences with a potentially liberating form of technology. The article contributes to qualitative methodology in applying the generic paradigmatic conditions within grounded theory and illustrates both the interrelatedness and the cyclic nature of the conditions within the specific paradigms of participants.

  20. Multipulse spectroscopy on the wild-type and YM210W Bacterial Reaction Centre uncovers a new intermediate state in the special pair excited state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Stuart, T. A.; van Grondelle, R.

    2009-06-01

    The Bacterial Reaction Centre (BRC) has a complex electronic excited state, P ∗, that evolves into subsequent charge separated product states P +H - and P +B -. Pump-dump-probe spectroscopy on the wild-type BRC and on YM210W, a mutant with a stabilized, long-lived P ∗ excited state, has uncovered a new charge-separated state in both BRC's. When P ∗ is dumped, a fraction of its population is transferred to this state that has a strong Stark shift in the accessory bacteriochlorophyll (B M) region which serves as a signature for P + and a lifetime highly comparable to the slow phase of P ∗ decay. This lead us propose this intermediate to be P +/P -.

  1. Percutaneous treatment of adult isthmic aortic coarctation: acute and long-term clinical and imaging outcome with a self-expandable uncovered nitinol stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kische, Stephan; D'Ancona, Giuseppe; Stoeckicht, Yannik; Ortak, Jasmin; Elsässer, Albrecht; Ince, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    To present perioperative and long-term results of percutaneous treatment of adult isthmic coarctation of the aorta by means of a self-expandable closed-web uncovered nitinol stent (Sinus-XL, Optimed, Esslingen, Germany). Preoperative, perioperative, and long-term clinical and computed tomographic angiography data were collected and analyzed prospectively. A total of 52 consecutive patients were treated with the Sinus-XL stent. Mean age was 36.6 (21-67) years, peak invasive trans-coarctation of the aorta gradient was 54.7 ± 9.9 mm Hg, and upper body hypertension unresponsive to medical treatment was present in all patients. Mean stent diameter and length were 24.2 mm (22-28 mm) and 70.4 mm (40-80 mm), respectively. Eight patients (15.4%) required coarctation of the aorta predilatation. All patients underwent poststent dilatation with a noncompliant balloon. Postoperative peak gradient (3.3 ± 2.5 mm Hg) was reduced significantly (P stent collapse and secondary migration and documented stability in aortic diameter (18.3 ± 2.7 mm). Thirty patients (57.7%) were completely weaned-off antihypertensive medications and their use dropped from 2.6 to 0.9 drugs/patient (P self-expandable uncovered stent is safe and durable. The peculiar stent design maintains adequate localized radial strength over time with minimal trauma on the adjacent aortic wall and negligible device-related complications. Blood pressure control optimization is immediate and persistent even at long-term follow-up. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Functional and gene network analyses of transcriptional signatures characterizing pre-weaned bovine mammary parenchyma or fat pad uncovered novel inter-tissue signaling networks during development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewin Harris A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neonatal bovine mammary fat pad (MFP surrounding the mammary parenchyma (PAR is thought to exert proliferative effects on the PAR through secretion of local modulators of growth induced by systemic hormones. We used bioinformatics to characterize transcriptomics differences between PAR and MFP from ~65 d old Holstein heifers. Data were mined to uncover potential crosstalk through the analyses of signaling molecules preferentially expressed in one tissue relative to the other. Results Over 9,000 differentially expressed genes (DEG; False discovery rate ≤ 0.05 were found of which 1,478 had a ≥1.5-fold difference between PAR and MFP. Within the DEG highly-expressed in PAR vs. MFP (n = 736 we noted significant enrichment of functions related to cell cycle, structural organization, signaling, and DNA/RNA metabolism. Only actin cytoskeletal signaling was significant among canonical pathways. DEG more highly-expressed in MFP vs. PAR (n = 742 belong to lipid metabolism, signaling, cell movement, and immune-related functions. Canonical pathways associated with metabolism and signaling, particularly immune- and metabolism-related were significantly-enriched. Network analysis uncovered a central role of MYC, TP53, and CTNNB1 in controlling expression of DEG highly-expressed in PAR vs. MFP. Similar analysis suggested a central role for PPARG, KLF2, EGR2, and EPAS1 in regulating expression of more highly-expressed DEG in MFP vs. PAR. Gene network analyses revealed putative inter-tissue crosstalk between cytokines and growth factors preferentially expressed in one tissue (e.g., ANGPTL1, SPP1, IL1B in PAR vs. MFP; ADIPOQ, IL13, FGF2, LEP in MFP vs. PAR with DEG preferentially expressed in the other tissue, particularly transcription factors or pathways (e.g., MYC, TP53, and actin cytoskeletal signaling in PAR vs. MFP; PPARG and LXR/RXR Signaling in MFP vs. PAR. Conclusions Functional analyses underscored a reciprocal influence in

  3. Climate change adaptation: Uncovering constraints to the use of adaptation strategies among food crop farmers in South-west, Nigeria using principal component analysis (PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradeyo Adebanjo Otitoju

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the constraints to the use of climate variability/change adaptation strategies in South-west Nigeria. Multistage random technique was employed to select the location and the respondents. Descriptive statistics and principal component analysis (PCA were the analytical tools engaged in this study. The constraints to climate variability and change examined before did not use PCA but generalized factor analysis. Hence, there is need to examine these constraints extensively using PCA. Uncovering the constraints to the use of climate variability/change adaptation strategies among crop framers is important to give a realistic direction in the development of farmer-inclusive climate policies in Nigeria. The PCA result showed that the principal constraints that the farmers faced in climate change adaptation were public, institutional and labour constraint; land, neighbourhood norms and religious beliefs constraint; high cost of inputs, technological and information constraint; farm distance, access to climate information, off-farm job and credit constraint; and poor agricultural programmes and service delivery constraint. These findings pointed out the need for both the government and non-government organizations to intensify efforts on institutional, technological and farmers’ friendly land tenure and information systems as effective measures to guide inclusive climate change adaptation policies and development in South-west Nigeria.

  4. Why do most Gitano/Romani students not complete compulsory secondary education in Spain? Uncovering the view of the educational community using concept mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of research that used Concept Mapping to study the causes of the high rates of school failure among the students of the Gitano or Spanish Romani minority. A sample of 52 members of a school community—pupils, families and teachers—participated in the research. Data were collected in focus groups. Generated ideas were sorted and rated by participants. A multidimensional scaling of sorted data resulted in a map of points. A cluster analysis with the points’ coordinates was run. The results uncovered a model of six clusters: ethnic differences, families, adolescent risk behaviours, students’ attitudes and values, curriculum gap, and finally effects of compensatory education and attention to diversity programmes. The relationships among the clusters point to three sources of concern: cultural and gender issues within the family setting that encourage girls to drop out of school; lack of motivation and educational orientation of the students; and structural problems of the educational system that contribute to maintain the educational gap between minority and majority students.

  5. Where we stand, where we are moving: Surveying computational techniques for identifying miRNA genes and uncovering their regulatory role

    KAUST Repository

    Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.; Korfiati, Aigli; Theofilatos, Konstantinos A.; Likothanassis, Spiridon D.; Tsakalidis, Athanasios K.; Mavroudi, Seferina P.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional biology was forced to restate some of its principles when the microRNA (miRNA) genes and their regulatory role were firstly discovered. Typically, miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules which have the ability to bind to the 3'untraslated region (UTR) of their mRNA target genes for cleavage or translational repression. Existing experimental techniques for their identification and the prediction of the target genes share some important limitations such as low coverage, time consuming experiments and high cost reagents. Hence, many computational methods have been proposed for these tasks to overcome these limitations. Recently, many researchers emphasized on the development of computational approaches to predict the participation of miRNA genes in regulatory networks and to analyze their transcription mechanisms. All these approaches have certain advantages and disadvantages which are going to be described in the present survey. Our work is differentiated from existing review papers by updating the methodologies list and emphasizing on the computational issues that arise from the miRNA data analysis. Furthermore, in the present survey, the various miRNA data analysis steps are treated as an integrated procedure whose aims and scope is to uncover the regulatory role and mechanisms of the miRNA genes. This integrated view of the miRNA data analysis steps may be extremely useful for all researchers even if they work on just a single step. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  6. Where we stand, where we are moving: Surveying computational techniques for identifying miRNA genes and uncovering their regulatory role

    KAUST Repository

    Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.

    2013-06-01

    Traditional biology was forced to restate some of its principles when the microRNA (miRNA) genes and their regulatory role were firstly discovered. Typically, miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules which have the ability to bind to the 3\\'untraslated region (UTR) of their mRNA target genes for cleavage or translational repression. Existing experimental techniques for their identification and the prediction of the target genes share some important limitations such as low coverage, time consuming experiments and high cost reagents. Hence, many computational methods have been proposed for these tasks to overcome these limitations. Recently, many researchers emphasized on the development of computational approaches to predict the participation of miRNA genes in regulatory networks and to analyze their transcription mechanisms. All these approaches have certain advantages and disadvantages which are going to be described in the present survey. Our work is differentiated from existing review papers by updating the methodologies list and emphasizing on the computational issues that arise from the miRNA data analysis. Furthermore, in the present survey, the various miRNA data analysis steps are treated as an integrated procedure whose aims and scope is to uncover the regulatory role and mechanisms of the miRNA genes. This integrated view of the miRNA data analysis steps may be extremely useful for all researchers even if they work on just a single step. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  7. Uncovering the unknown: A grounded theory study exploring the impact of self-awareness on the culture of feedback in residency education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Subha; Könings, Karen; Mann, Karen V; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2017-10-01

    Self-assessment and reflection are essential for meaningful feedback. We aimed to explore whether the well-known Johari window model of self-awareness could guide feedback conversations between faculty and residents and enhance the institutional feedback culture. We had previously explored perceptions of residents and faculty regarding sociocultural factors impacting feedback. We re-analyzed data targeting themes related to self-assessment, reflection, feedback seeking and acceptance, aiming to generate individual and institutional feedback strategies applicable to each quadrant of the window. We identified the following themes for each quadrant: (1) Behaviors known to self and others - Validating the known; (2) Behaviors unknown to self but known to others - Accepting the blind; (3) Behaviors known to self and unknown to others - Disclosure of hidden; and (4) Behaviors unknown to self and others - Uncovering the unknown. Normalizing self-disclosure of limitations, encouraging feedback seeking, training in nonjudgmental feedback and providing opportunities for longitudinal relationships could promote self-awareness, ultimately expanding the "open" quadrant of the Johari window. The Johari window, a model of self-awareness in interpersonal communications, could provide a robust framework for individuals to improve their feedback conversations and institutions to design feedback initiatives that enhance its quality and impact.

  8. 14C uncovers the past

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Radio-carbon dating, a method of dating prehistoric remains that has been developed since the Second World War, is based on the fact that all organic matter contains a radioactive isotope of carbon - 14 C- which, because it decays at a fixed rate, gives a good indication of the age of the substance. The CSIR's National Physical Research Laboratory entered the field of radio-carbon dating in 1967, when the Nature Isotopes Division was established. The division has become a world centre of excellence and much has been done to clear up the chronology of southern African prehistory. It has been found, for instance, that anatomically modern man appeared in southern Africa some 40000 years earlier than in Europe, and that the Zimbabwe ruins were built mainly around the year 1350 AD. The radio-carbon method can also be used to determine the age and flow rate of underground water and the rate at which tracer gases dissolve in the oceans, i.e. the efficiency with which the oceans cleanse the atmosphere from pollutants

  9. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 light-years away. The hot spot is the size of a football field and is caused by the same mechanism producing Geminga’s X-ray tails. This discovery identifies the missing link between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from Geminga. hi-res Size hi-res: 1284 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot This figure shows the effects of charged particles accelerated in the magnetosphere of Geminga. Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (in red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degrees hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. An animated version of the entire sequence can be found at: Click here for animated GIF [low resolution, animated GIF, 5536 KB] Click here for AVI [high resolution, AVI with DIVX compression, 19128 KB] hi-res Size hi-res: 371 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (a) Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. hi-res Size hi-res: 377 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (b) Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. hi-res Size hi-res: 435 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (c) Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). hi-res Size hi-res: 121 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (d) Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degree hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. Neutron stars are the smallest kind of stars known. They are the super-dense remnants of massive stars that died in cataclysmic explosions called supernovae. They have been thrown through space like cannonballs and set spinning at a furious rate, with magnetic fields hundreds of billions of times stronger than Earth’s. In the case of Geminga, this cannonball contains one and a half times the mass of the Sun, squeezed into a sphere just 20 kilometres across and spinning four times every second. A cloud bustling with electrically charged particles surrounds Geminga. These particles are shepherded by its magnetic and electric fields. ESA’s XMM-Newton observatory had already discovered that some of these particles are ejected into space, forming tails that stream behind the neutron star as it hurtles along. Scientists did not know whether Geminga’s tails are formed by electrons or by their twin particles with an opposite electrical charge, called positrons. Nevertheless, they expected that, if for instance electrons are kicked into space, then the positrons should be funnelled down towards the neutron star itself, like in an ‘own goal’. Where these particles strike the surface of the star, they ought to create a hot spot, a region considerably hotter than the surroundings. An international team of astronomers, lead by Patrizia Caraveo, IASF-CNR, Italy, has now reported the detection of such a hot spot on Geminga using ESA’s XMM-Newton observatory. With a temperature of about two million degrees, this hot spot is considerably hotter than the one half million degrees of the surrounding surface. According to this new work, Geminga’s hot spot is just 60 metres in radius. "This hot spot is the size of a football field," said Caraveo, "and is the smallest object ever detected outside of our Solar System." Details of this size can presently be measured only on the Moon and Mars and, even then, only from a spacecraft in orbit around them. The presence of a hot spot was suspected in the late 1990s but only now can we see it ‘live’, emitting X-rays as Geminga rotates, thanks to the superior sensitivity of ESA’s X-ray observatory, XMM-Newton. The team used the European Photon Imaging Cameras (EPIC) to conduct a study of Geminga, lasting about 28 consecutive hours and recording the arrival time and energy of every X-ray photon that Geminga emitted within XMM-Newton’s grasp. "In total, this amounted to 76 850 X-ray counts - twice as many as have been collected by all previous observations of Geminga, since the time of the Roman Empire," said Caraveo. Knowing the rotation rate of Geminga and the time of each photon’s arrival meant that astronomers could identify which photons were coming from each region of the neutron star as it rotates. When they compared photons coming from different regions of the star, they found that the ‘colour’ of the X-rays, which corresponds to their energy, changed as Geminga rotated. In particular, they could clearly see a distinct colour change when the hot spot came into view and then disappeared behind the star. This research closes the gap between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from neutron stars. XMM-Newton has shown that they both can originate through the same physical mechanism, namely the acceleration of charged particles in the magnetosphere of these degenerate stars. "XMM-Newton’s Geminga observation has been particularly fruitful," said Norbert Schartel, ESA’s Project Scientist for XMM-Newton. "Last year, it yielded the discovery of the source tails and now it has found its rotating hot spot." Caraveo is already applying this new technique to other pulsating neutron stars observed by XMM-Newton looking for hot spots. This research represents an important new tool for understanding the physics of neutron stars. Notes for editors The original paper appeared on 16 July 2004, in Science magazine, under the title 'Phase-resolved spectroscopy of Geminga shows rotating hotspot(s)'. Besides P. Caraveo, the author list includes A. De Luca, S. Mereghetti, A. Pellizzoni and G. Bignami. During the search to track down this elusive celestial object, a co-author on the paper, Giovanni Bignami, named it Geminga almost 30 years ago. He was Principal Investigator of XMM-Newton's EPIC camera from 1987 to 1997 and is now Director of the Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements (CESR, Toulouse). Geminga was first glimpsed as a mysterious source of gamma rays, coming from somewhere in the constellation Gemini by NASA's SAS-2 spacecraft in 1973. While searching to pin down its exact location and nature, Bignami named it Geminga because it was a ‘Gemini gamma-ray source’. As an astronomer in Milan, Italy, he was also aware that in his native dialect ‘gh'èminga’ means ‘it is not there’, which he found amusing. It was also remarkably apt, for it was not until 1993 that he succeeded in finally ‘seeing’ and therefore pinpointing Geminga, using optical wavelengths. While it lacked radio emissions, the pulsating X-ray and gamma-ray emissions meant Geminga could only belong to a new class of objects, the radio-quiet neutron stars. The original announcement of the discovery of Geminga’s tails, issued on 25 July 2003, can be found at: http://www.esa.int/esaSC/Pr_11_2003_s_en.html More about XMM-Newton XMM-Newton can detect more X-ray sources than any previous observatory and is helping to solve many cosmic mysteries of the violent Universe, from black holes to the formation of galaxies. It was launched on 10 December 1999, using an Ariane-5 rocket from French Guiana. It is expected to return data for a decade. XMM-Newton’s high-tech design uses over 170 wafer-thin cylindrical mirrors spread over three telescopes. Its orbit takes it almost a third of the way to the Moon, so that astronomers can enjoy long, uninterrupted views of celestial objects. More information on XMM-Newton can be found at: http://www.esa.int/esaSC/SEMM8IGHZTD_1_spk.html

  10. Disordered Collarettes and Uncovered Tables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Nina

    2007-01-01

    functions of negative constructions in context. After this theoretical overview, the various approaches are applied to an analysis of Joyce's story, in the course of which it is demonstrated that although negatives are not a salient feature of the text they are nevertheless a significant meaning...

  11. Uncovering Myself to Understand You

    OpenAIRE

    Sayra Milena Lozano Carvajal; Santiago Velásquez Tangarife

    2017-01-01

    Classroom incidents in which teachers have to exhibit their expertise at managing a class is a commonplace in teachers´ daily routines; though sometimes some of those classroom incidents turn into critical moments. However, ordinary disruptive classroom situations are not as catastrophic as when teachers themselves provoke them. On top of this, when some teachers have to face any sort of classroom disruption, most of them are unable to come up with any immediate and effective solution. In thi...

  12. Uncovering Myself to Understand You

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayra Milena Lozano Carvajal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Classroom incidents in which teachers have to exhibit their expertise at managing a class is a commonplace in teachers´ daily routines; though sometimes some of those classroom incidents turn into critical moments. However, ordinary disruptive classroom situations are not as catastrophic as when teachers themselves provoke them. On top of this, when some teachers have to face any sort of classroom disruption, most of them are unable to come up with any immediate and effective solution. In this paper, we will describe how we combined both, the critical incident technique and the cooperative development theory, so as to reflect upon a critical moment of each of us, and be able to improve our viewpoints regarding the potential solutions that can emerge to cope with those critical moments in our own classrooms. The findings show that we strengthened our professional ties, we invigorated our teaching skills and developed from our own insights into new perspectives in relation to how to better tackle classroom management difficulties. Finally, in the conclusions we share how profound were the changes which, by the way, were not only in the pedagogical sense.

  13. Uncover the recruiter in you!

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    2013 saw the launch of the one-day training course "Selecting the best person for CERN". So far, 10 courses have taken place and over 100 participants have taken part in this interactive, hands on experience.   The course has been met with much enthusiasm and positive feedback, with participants not only feeling better prepared and organised for the recruitment boards, but also equipped with concrete tools on how to prepare and conduct an effective selection interview. Following on from this success, further sessions are planned in 2014: we look forward to welcoming recruiting supervisors and board members who are likely to take part in a recruitment process, whether for LD or LD2IC, and who are interested in finding out more about how to get the most out of this important process! To enrol to this course, please follow this link: "Selecting the best person for CERN".

  14. The “Anthropocene” uncovered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rull

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The “Anthropocene”, defined as a new geological epoch characterized by the global human footprint on Earth System, has become a term frequently used in a varied range of fields. However, some fundamental misconceptions remain on the origin and the scientific validity of this term. A common misconception is that the “Anthropocene” term and concept originated at the beginning of this century but the truth is that the concept was fully developed more than 140 years ago. Another frequent fallacy is that the “Anthropocene” is already a formal geological term. However, the process of its formalization as a new unit of the Geological Time Scale has not even begun. Another poorly addressed aspect is the significance of future human developments, from both cultural and evolutionary points of view, in the eventual definition of a new geological epoch as the “Anthropocene”. This essay discusses these aspects for a non-specialized audience. The potential consequences of the uncontrolled human pressure on Earth System and the need for redressing our relationship with the planet are not under discussion. This essay is concerned only with the initiative of using this argument to propose that we have entered a new epoch of the Geological Time Scale.

  15. Uncovering the evolutionary history of neo-XY sex chromosomes in the grasshopper Ronderosia bergii (Orthoptera, Melanoplinae) through satellite DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Gimenez, Octavio M; Milani, Diogo; Lemos, Bernardo; Castillo, Elio R; Martí, Dardo A; Ramos, Erica; Martins, Cesar; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo C

    2018-01-08

    Neo-sex chromosome systems arose independently multiple times in evolution, presenting the remarkable characteristic of repetitive DNAs accumulation. Among grasshoppers, occurrence of neo-XY was repeatedly noticed in Melanoplinae. Here we analyzed the most abundant tandem repeats of R. bergii (2n = 22, neo-XY♂) using deep Illumina sequencing and graph-based clustering in order to address the neo-sex chromosomes evolution. The analyses revealed ten families of satDNAs comprising about ~1% of the male genome, which occupied mainly C-positive regions of autosomes. Regarding the sex chromosomes, satDNAs were recorded within centromeric or interstitial regions of the neo-X chromosome and four satDNAs occurred in the neo-Y, two of them being exclusive (Rber248 and Rber299). Using a combination of probes we uncovered five well-defined cytological variants for neo-Y, originated by multiple paracentric inversions and satDNA amplification, besides fragmented neo-Y. These neo-Y variants were distinct in frequency between embryos and adult males. The genomic data together with cytogenetic mapping enabled us to better understand the neo-sex chromosome dynamics in grasshoppers, reinforcing differentiation of neo-X and neo-Y and revealing the occurrence of multiple additional rearrangements involved in the neo-Y evolution of R. bergii. We discussed the possible causes that led to differences in frequency for the neo-Y variants between embryos and adults. Finally we hypothesize about the role of DNA satellites in R. bergii as well as putative historical events involved in the evolution of the R. bergii neo-XY.

  16. Cryptic diversity in Ptyodactylus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae from the northern Hajar Mountains of Oman and the United Arab Emirates uncovered by an integrative taxonomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Simó-Riudalbas

    Full Text Available The Hajar Mountains of south-eastern Arabia form an isolated massif surrounded by the sea to the east and by a large desert to the west. As a result of their old geological origin, geographical isolation, complex topography and local climate, these mountains provide an important refuge for endemic and relict species of plants and animals. With 19 species restricted to the Hajar Mountains, reptiles are the vertebrate group with the highest level of endemicity, becoming an excellent model for understanding the patterns and processes that generate and shape diversity in this arid mountain range. The geckos of the Ptyodactylus hasselquistii species complex are the largest geckos in Arabia and are found widely distributed across the Arabian Mountains, constituting a very important component of the reptile mountain fauna. Preliminary analyses suggested that their diversity in the Hajar Mountains may be higher than expected and that their systematics should be revised. In order to tackle these questions, we inferred a nearly complete calibrated phylogeny of the genus Ptyodactylus to identify the origin of the Hajar Mountains lineages using information from two mitochondrial and four nuclear genes. Genetic variability within the Hajar Mountains was further investigated using 68 specimens of Ptyodactylus from 46 localities distributed across the entire mountain range and sequenced for the same genes as above. The molecular phylogenies and morphological analyses as well as niche comparisons indicate the presence of two very old sister cryptic species living in allopatry: one restricted to the extreme northern Hajar Mountains and described as a new species herein; the other distributed across the rest of the Hajar Mountains that can be confidently assigned to the species P. orlovi. Similar to recent findings in the geckos of the genus Asaccus, the results of the present study uncover more hidden diversity in the northern Hajar Mountains and stress once

  17. Uncovering the Design Principle of Amino Acid-Derived Photoluminescent Biodots with Tailor-Made Structure-Properties and Applications for Cellular Bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hesheng Victor; Zheng, Xin Ting; Zhao, Yanli; Tan, Yen Nee

    2018-06-01

    Natural amino acids possess side chains with different functional groups (R groups), which make them excellent precursors for programmable synthesis of biomolecule-derived nanodots (biodots) with desired properties. Herein, we report the first systematic study to uncover the material design rules of biodot synthesis from 20 natural α-amino acids via a green hydrothermal approach. The as-synthesized amino acid biodots (AA dots) are comprehensively characterized to establish a structure-property relationship between the amino acid precursors and the corresponding photoluminescent properties of AA dots. It was found that the amino acids with reactive R groups, including amine, hydroxyl, and carboxyl functional groups form unique C-O-C/C-OH and N-H bonds in the AA dots which stabilize the surface defects, giving rise to brightly luminescent AA dots. Furthermore, the AA dots were found to be amorphous and the length of the R group was observed to affect the final morphology (e.g., disclike nanostructure, nanowire, or nanomesh) of the AA dots, which in turn influence their photoluminescent properties. It is noteworthy to highlight that the hydroxyl-containing amino acids, that is, Ser and Thr, form the brightest AA dots with a quantum yield of 30.44% and 23.07%, respectively, and possess high photostability with negligible photobleaching upon continuous UV exposure for 3 h. Intriguingly, by selective mixing of Ser or Thr with another amino acid precursor, the resulting mixed AA dots could inherit unique properties such as improved photostability and significant red shift in their emission wavelength, producing enhanced green and red fluorescent intensity. Moreover, our cellular studies demonstrate that the as-synthesized AA dots display outstanding biocompatibility and excellent intracellular uptake, which are highly desirable for imaging applications. We envision that the material design rules discovered in this study will be broadly applicable for the rational

  18. Predictors of stent dysfunction after self-expandable metal stent placement for malignant gastric outlet obstruction: tumor ingrowth in uncovered stents and migration of covered stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yasuki; Naitoh, Itaru; Hayashi, Kazuki; Ban, Tesshin; Natsume, Makoto; Okumura, Fumihiro; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Takada, Hiroki; Hirano, Atsuyuki; Jinno, Naruomi; Togawa, Shozo; Ando, Tomoaki; Kataoka, Hiromi; Joh, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    Endoscopic metallic stenting is widely accepted as a palliation therapy for malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO). However, the predictors of stent dysfunction have not been clarified. We aimed to evaluate the predictors, especially tumor ingrowth in uncovered self-expandable metallic stents (U-SEMS) and migration of covered self-expandable metallic stents (C-SEMS), which are the main causes related to the stent characteristics. In this multicenter retrospective study, we compared patients with U-SEMS and C-SEMS in terms of clinical outcomes, and predictors of stent dysfunction. In total, 252 patients (126 with U-SEMS and 126 with C-SEMS) were enrolled. There were no significant differences in technical success, clinical success, GOO score, or time to stent dysfunction. Tumor ingrowth was significantly more frequent in U-SEMS (U-SEMS, 11.90% vs. C-SEMS, 0.79%; p = 0.002), and stent migration was significantly more frequent for C-SEMS (C-SEMS, 8.73% vs. U-SEMS, 0.79%; p = 0.005). Karnofsky performance status (p = 0.04), no presence of ascites (p = 0.02), and insufficient (stent expansion (p = 0.003) were significantly associated with tumor ingrowth in U-SEMS. Meanwhile, a shorter stent length (p = 0.05) and chemotherapy (p = 0.03) were predictors of C-SEMS migration. Both U-SEMS and C-SEMS are effective with comparable patencies. Tumor ingrowth and stent migration are the main causes of stent dysfunction for U-SEMS and C-SEMS, respectively. With regard to stent dysfunction, U-SEMS might be a good option for patients receiving chemotherapy, while C-SEMS with longer stents for patients in good condition. (Clinical trial registration number: UMIN000024059).

  19. Predictors of outcomes in patients undergoing covered and uncovered self-expandable metal stent placement for malignant gastric outlet obstruction: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yasuki; Naitoh, Itaru; Hayashi, Kazuki; Ban, Tesshin; Natsume, Makoto; Okumura, Fumihiro; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Takada, Hiroki; Hirano, Atsuyuki; Jinno, Naruomi; Togawa, Shozo; Ando, Tomoaki; Kataoka, Hiromi; Joh, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    Uncovered self-expandable metal stents (U-SEMSs) and covered self-expandable metal stents (C-SEMSs) are available for palliative therapy for malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO). However, clinical differences and indications between the 2 types of SEMSs have not been elucidated. We retrospectively compared 126 patients with U-SEMS and 126 patients with C-SEMSs with regard to clinical outcome and factors predictive of clinical improvement after SEMSs placement. No significant difference was observed between the U-SEMS and C-SEMS groups with respect to technical success, clinical success, GOO score, or time to stent dysfunction. Stent migration was significantly more frequent in patients with C-SEMSs (U-SEMSs, .79%; C-SEMSs, 8.73%; P = .005). Karnofsky performance status, chemotherapy, peritoneal dissemination, and stent expansion ≤ 30% were associated significantly with poor GOO score improvement in multivariable analyses, but stent type was not (P = .213). In subgroup analyses, insufficient (≤30%) stent expansion was an independent factor in patients with U-SEMSs (P = .041) but not C-SEMSs. In the insufficient stent expansion subgroup, C-SEMSs was associated significantly with superior clinical improvement compared with U-SEMSs (P = .01). Insufficient stent expansion was observed more frequently in patients with GI obstruction because of anastomotic sites or metastatic cancer (44.8% [13/29], P = .001). No clinical difference, apart from stent migration, was observed between patients with U-SEMSs and C-SEMSs. GI obstruction because of an anastomotic site or metastatic cancer may be an indication for C-SEMS use to improve oral intake after SEMSs placement. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An integrated approach to uncover quality marker underlying the effects of Alisma orientale on lipid metabolism, using chemical analysis and network pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Maoliang; Shang, Haihua; Li, Yazhuo; Li, Tian; Wang, Miao; Zheng, Yanan; Hou, Wenbin; Liu, Changxiao

    2018-06-01

    Quality control of traditional Chinese medicines is currently a great concern, due to the correlation between the quality control indicators and clinic effect is often questionable. According to the "multi-components and multi-targets" property of TCMs, a new special quality and bioactivity evaluation system is urgently needed. Present study adopted an integrated approach to provide new insights relating to uncover quality marker underlying the effects of Alisma orientale (AO) on lipid metabolism. In this paper, guided by the concept of the quality marker (Q-marker), an integrated strategies "effect-compound-target-fingerprint" was established to discovery and screen the potential quality marker of AO based on network pharmacology and chemical analysis. Firstly, a bioactivity evaluation was performed to screen the main active fractions. Then the chemical compositions were rapidly identified by chemical analysis. Next, networks were constructed to illuminate the interactions between these component and their targets for lipid metabolism, and the potential Q-marker of AO was initially screened. Finally, the activity of the Q-markers was validated in vitro. 50% ethanol extract fraction was found to have the strongest lipid-lowering activity. Then, the network pharmacology was used to clarify the unique relationship between the Q-markers and their integral pharmacological action. Combined with the results obtained, five active ingredients in the 50% ethanol extract fraction were given special considerations to be representative Q-markers: Alisol A, Alisol B, Alisol A 23-acetate, Alisol B 23-acetate and Alisol A 24-acetate, respectively. The chromatographic fingerprints based Q-marker was establishment. The integrated Q-marker screen may offer an alternative quality assessment of herbal medicines. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. Early motor deficits in mouse disease models are reliably uncovered using an automated home-cage wheel-running system: a cross-laboratory validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandillo, Silvia; Heise, Ines; Garbugino, Luciana; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P.; Giuliani, Alessandro; Wells, Sara; Nolan, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in motor function are debilitating features in disorders affecting neurological, neuromuscular and musculoskeletal systems. Although these disorders can vary greatly with respect to age of onset, symptomatic presentation, rate of progression and severity, the study of these disease models in mice is confined to the use of a small number of tests, most commonly the rotarod test. To expand the repertoire of meaningful motor function tests in mice, we tested, optimised and validated an automated home-cage-based running-wheel system, incorporating a conventional wheel with evenly spaced rungs and a complex wheel with particular rungs absent. The system enables automated assessment of motor function without handler interference, which is desirable in longitudinal studies involving continuous monitoring of motor performance. In baseline studies at two test centres, consistently significant differences in performance on both wheels were detectable among four commonly used inbred strains. As further validation, we studied performance in mutant models of progressive neurodegenerative diseases – Huntington’s disease [TgN(HD82Gln)81Dbo; referred to as HD mice] and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [Tg(SOD1G93A)dl1/GurJ; referred to as SOD1 mice] – and in a mutant strain with subtle gait abnormalities, C-Snap25Bdr/H (Blind-drunk, Bdr). In both models of progressive disease, as with the third mutant, we could reliably and consistently detect specific motor function deficits at ages far earlier than any previously recorded symptoms in vivo: 7–8 weeks for the HD mice and 12 weeks for the SOD1 mice. We also conducted longitudinal analysis of rotarod and grip strength performance, for which deficits were still not detectable at 12 weeks and 23 weeks, respectively. Several new parameters of motor behaviour were uncovered using principal component analysis, indicating that the wheel-running assay could record features of motor function that are independent of rotarod

  2. Calculation of strained BaTiO3 with different exchange correlation functionals examined with criterion by Ginzburg-Landau theory, uncovering expressions by crystallographic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yukio

    2018-05-01

    In the calculations of tetragonal BaTiO3, some exchange-correlation (XC) energy functionals such as local density approximation (LDA) have shown good agreement with experiments at room temperature (RT), e.g., spontaneous polarization (PS), and superiority compared with other XC functionals. This is due to the error compensation of the RT effect and, hence, will be ineffective in the heavily strained case such as domain boundaries. Here, ferroelectrics under large strain at RT are approximated as those at 0 K because the strain effect surpasses the RT effects. To find effective XC energy functionals for strained BaTiO3, we propose a new comparison, i.e., a criterion. This criterion is the properties at 0 K given by the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory because GL theory is a thermodynamic description of experiments working under the same symmetry-constraints as ab initio calculations. With this criterion, we examine LDA, generalized gradient approximations (GGA), meta-GGA, meta-GGA + local correlation potential (U), and hybrid functionals, which reveals the high accuracy of some XC functionals superior to XC functionals that have been regarded as accurate. This result is examined directly by the calculations of homogenously strained tetragonal BaTiO3, confirming the validity of the new criterion. In addition, the data points of theoretical PS vs. certain crystallographic parameters calculated with different XC functionals are found to lie on a single curve, despite their wide variations. Regarding these theoretical data points as corresponding to the experimental results, analytical expressions of the local PS using crystallographic parameters are uncovered. These expressions show the primary origin of BaTiO3 ferroelectricity as oxygen displacements. Elastic compliance and electrostrictive coefficients are estimated. For the comparison of strained results, we show that the effective critical temperature TC under strain 1000 K from an approximate method combining ab initio

  3. Early motor deficits in mouse disease models are reliably uncovered using an automated home-cage wheel-running system: a cross-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandillo, Silvia; Heise, Ines; Garbugino, Luciana; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P; Giuliani, Alessandro; Wells, Sara; Nolan, Patrick M

    2014-03-01

    Deficits in motor function are debilitating features in disorders affecting neurological, neuromuscular and musculoskeletal systems. Although these disorders can vary greatly with respect to age of onset, symptomatic presentation, rate of progression and severity, the study of these disease models in mice is confined to the use of a small number of tests, most commonly the rotarod test. To expand the repertoire of meaningful motor function tests in mice, we tested, optimised and validated an automated home-cage-based running-wheel system, incorporating a conventional wheel with evenly spaced rungs and a complex wheel with particular rungs absent. The system enables automated assessment of motor function without handler interference, which is desirable in longitudinal studies involving continuous monitoring of motor performance. In baseline studies at two test centres, consistently significant differences in performance on both wheels were detectable among four commonly used inbred strains. As further validation, we studied performance in mutant models of progressive neurodegenerative diseases--Huntington's disease [TgN(HD82Gln)81Dbo; referred to as HD mice] and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [Tg(SOD1G93A)(dl)1/GurJ; referred to as SOD1 mice]--and in a mutant strain with subtle gait abnormalities, C-Snap25(Bdr)/H (Blind-drunk, Bdr). In both models of progressive disease, as with the third mutant, we could reliably and consistently detect specific motor function deficits at ages far earlier than any previously recorded symptoms in vivo: 7-8 weeks for the HD mice and 12 weeks for the SOD1 mice. We also conducted longitudinal analysis of rotarod and grip strength performance, for which deficits were still not detectable at 12 weeks and 23 weeks, respectively. Several new parameters of motor behaviour were uncovered using principal component analysis, indicating that the wheel-running assay could record features of motor function that are independent of rotarod

  4. Covered Metallic Stents With an Anti-Migration Design vs. Uncovered Stents for the Palliation of Malignant Gastric Outlet Obstruction: A Multicenter, Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk; Min, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Shin, Cheol Min; Kim, Younjoo; Chung, Hyunsoo; Lee, Sang Hyub

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Previous studies reported comparable stent patency between covered self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) and uncovered SEMS (UCS) for palliation of malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the newly developed WAVE-covered SEMS (WCS), which has an anti-migration design, compared with UCS in gastric cancer patients with symptomatic GOO. METHODS: A total of 102 inoperable gastric cancer patients with symptomatic GOO were prospectively enrolled from five referral centers and randomized to undergo UCS or WCS placement. Stent patency and recurrence of obstructive symptoms were assessed at 8 weeks and 16 weeks after stent placement. RESULTS: At the 8-week follow-up, both stent patency rates (72.5% vs. 62.7%) and re-intervention rates (19.6% vs. 19.6%) were comparable between the WCS and the UCS groups. Both stent stenosis (2.4% vs. 8.1%) and migration rates (9.5% vs. 5.4%) were comparable between WCS and UCS groups. At the 16-week follow-up, however, the WCS group had a significantly higher stent patency rate than the UCS group (68.6% vs. 41.2%). Re-intervention rates in the WCS and UCS groups were 23.5% and 39.2%, respectively. Compared with the UCS group, the WCS group had a significantly lower stent restenosis rate (7.1% vs. 37.8%) and a comparable migration rate (9.5% vs. 5.4%). Overall stent patency was significantly longer in the WCS group than in the UCS group. No stent-associated significant adverse events occurred in either the WCS or UCS groups. In the multivariate analysis, WCS placement and chemotherapy were identified as independent predictors of 16-week stent patency. CONCLUSIONS: WCS group showed comparable migration rate and significantly more durable long-term stent patency compared with UCS group for the palliation of GOO in patients with inoperable gastric cancer. PMID:26372507

  5. CoCoRaHS (The Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network): Analysis of Participant Survey Data to Uncover Learning through Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, M. A.; Zimmerman, T.; Doesken, N. J.; Reges, H. W.; Newman, N.; Turner, J.; Schwalbe, Z.

    2010-12-01

    CoCoRaHS (The Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow network) is based out of Fort Collins Colorado and is an extremely successful citizen science project with over 15,000 volunteers collecting valuable precipitation data. Forecasters and scientists use data from this dense network to illuminate and illustrate the high small-scale variability of precipitation across the nation. This presentation will discuss the results of a survey of CoCoRaHS participants as related to 1) citizen scientists’ motivation and learning; 2) the challenges of identifying how people learn science in citizen science projects; and 3) a potential research-based framework for how people learn through engaging in the data collection within in a citizen science project. A comprehensive survey of 14,500 CoCoRaHS observers was recently conducted to uncover participant perceptions of numerous aspects of the CoCoRaHS program, including its goal of increasing climate literacy. The survey yielded a response rate of over 50%, and included measures of motivation, engagement and learning. In relationship to motivation and learning, the survey revealed that most (57.1%) observers would make precipitation observations regardless of being a CoCoRaHS volunteer, therefore their motivation is related to their inherent level of interest in weather. Others are motivated by their desire to learn more about weather and climate, they want to contribute to a scientific project, they think its fun, and/or it provides a sense of community. Because so many respondents already had knowledge and interest in weather and climate, identifying how and what people learn through participating was a challenge. However, the narrow project focus of collecting and reporting of local precipitation assisted in identifying aspects of learning. For instance, most (46.4%) observers said they increased their knowledge about the local variability in precipitation even though they had been collecting precipitation data for many

  6. Impact Of The Ban On Uncovered SCDS Trade On the Interdependencies Between The CDS Market And Other Sectors Of Financial Markets. The Case Of Safe And Developed Versus Risky And Developing European Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Kliber, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to verify the impact of the ban on uncovered sCDS trade in Europe on the interdependencies between the sCDS market and other sectors of financial markets. We analyse two European markets: the safe and developed Swedish market, and the risky and developing Hungarian one. The study covers the period from October 2008 to October 2013. We analyse changes in the interdependencies between the sCDS market and the bond market, as well as between the sCDS market and the stock...

  7. Cloning and characterization of Escherichia coli DUF299: a bifunctional ADP-dependent kinase - Pi-dependent pyrophosphorylase from bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnell Jim N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphoenolpyruvate synthetase (PEPS; EC 2.7.9.2 catalyzes the synthesis of phosphoenolpyruvate from pyruvate in Escherichia coli when cells are grown on a three carbon source. It also catalyses the anabolic conversion of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in gluconeogenesis. A bioinformatics search conducted following the successful cloning and expression of maize leaf pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase regulatory protein (PDRP revealed the presence of PDRP homologs in more than 300 bacterial species; the PDRP homolog was identified as DUF299. Results This paper describes the cloning and expression of both PEPS and DUF299 from E. coli and establishes that E. coli DUF299 catalyzes both the ADP-dependent inactivation and the Pi-dependent activation of PEPS. Conclusion This paper represents the first report of a bifunctional regulatory enzyme catalysing an ADP-dependent phosphorylation and a Pi-dependent pyrophosphorylation reaction in bacteria.

  8. Impact Of The Ban On Uncovered SCDS Trade On the Interdependencies Between The CDS Market And Other Sectors Of Financial Markets. The Case Of Safe And Developed Versus Risky And Developing European Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kliber Agata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to verify the impact of the ban on uncovered sCDS trade in Europe on the interdependencies between the sCDS market and other sectors of financial markets. We analyse two European markets: the safe and developed Swedish market, and the risky and developing Hungarian one. The study covers the period from October 2008 to October 2013. We analyse changes in the interdependencies between the sCDS market and the bond market, as well as between the sCDS market and the stock exchange. We found out that in the case of the safe Swedish market, the strength of relationships of each sector of financial markets with the sCDS one was much weaker than in the case of Hungary, which may suggest that the Swedish market is less prone to crisis transmission arising from herd behaviour or speculative attacks. In the end we show that in the two economies, the influence of the sCDS market on the other sectors of financial market indeed diminished following introduction of the ban on uncovered sCDS trade.

  9. Quantitative Multilevel Analysis of Central Metabolism in Developing Oilseeds of Oilseed Rape During In Vitro Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwender, Jorg [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hebbelmann, Inga [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Heinzel, Nicholas [Leibniz Inst. of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben (Germany); Hildebrandt, Tatjana [Univ. of Hannover (Germany); Rogers, Alistair [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Naik, Dhiraj [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Indian Inst. of Advanced Research Koba, Gujarat (India); Klapperstuck, Matthias [Monash Univ., Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Braun, Hans -Peter [Univ. of Hannover (Germany); Schreiber, Falk [Monash Univ., Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Univ. Halle-Wittenberg, Melbourne (Australia); Denolf, Peter [Bayer CropScience (Belgium); Borisjuk, Ljudmilla [Leibniz Inst. of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben (Germany); Rolletschek, Hardy [Leibniz Inst. of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Seeds provide the basis for many food, feed, and fuel products. Continued increases in seed yield, composition, and quality require an improved understanding of how the developing seed converts carbon and nitrogen supplies into storage. Current knowledge of this process is often based on the premise that transcriptional regulation directly translates via enzyme concentration into flux. In an attempt to highlight metabolic control, we explore genotypic differences in carbon partitioning for in vitro cultured developing embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We determined biomass composition as well as 79 net fluxes, the levels of 77 metabolites, and 26 enzyme activities with specific focus on central metabolism in nine selected germplasm accessions. We observed a tradeoff between the biomass component fractions of lipid and starch. With increasing lipid content over the spectrum of genotypes, plastidic fatty acid synthesis and glycolytic flux increased concomitantly, while glycolytic intermediates decreased. The lipid/starch tradeoff was not reflected at the proteome level, pointing to the significance of (posttranslational) metabolic control. Enzyme activity/flux and metabolite/flux correlations suggest that plastidic pyruvate kinase exerts flux control and that the lipid/starch tradeoff is most likely mediated by allosteric feedback regulation of phosphofructokinase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Also, quantitative data were used to calculate in vivo mass action ratios, reaction equilibria, and metabolite turnover times. Compounds like cyclic 3',5'-AMP and sucrose-6-phosphate were identified to potentially be involved in so far unknown mechanisms of metabolic control. This study provides a rich source of quantitative data for those studying central metabolism..

  10. Plastid-to-Nucleus Retrograde Signals Are Essential for the Expression of Nuclear Starch Biosynthesis Genes during Amyloplast Differentiation in Tobacco BY-2 Cultured Cells1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enami, Kazuhiko; Ozawa, Tomoki; Motohashi, Noriko; Nakamura, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kan; Hanaoka, Mitsumasa

    2011-01-01

    Amyloplasts, a subtype of plastid, are found in nonphotosynthetic tissues responsible for starch synthesis and storage. When tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 cells are cultured in the presence of cytokinin instead of auxin, their plastids differentiate from proplastids to amyloplasts. In this program, it is well known that the expression of nucleus-encoded starch biosynthesis genes, such as ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase (AgpS) and Granule-Bound Starch Synthase (GBSS), is specifically induced. In this study, we investigated the roles of plastid gene expression in amyloplast differentiation. Microarray analysis of plastid genes revealed that no specific transcripts were induced in amyloplasts. Nevertheless, amyloplast development accompanied with starch biosynthesis was drastically inhibited in the presence of plastid transcription/translation inhibitors. Surprisingly, the expression of nuclear AgpS and GBSS was significantly repressed by the addition of these inhibitors, suggesting that a plastid-derived signal(s) that reflects normal plastid gene expression was essential for nuclear gene expression. A series of experiments was performed to examine the effects of intermediates and inhibitors of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, since some of the intermediates have been characterized as candidates for plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signals. Addition of levulinic acid, an inhibitor of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, resulted in the up-regulation of nuclear AgpS and GBSS gene expression as well as starch accumulation, while the addition of heme showed opposite effects. Thus, these results indicate that plastid transcription and/or translation are required for normal amyloplast differentiation, regulating the expression of specific nuclear genes by unknown signaling mechanisms that can be partly mediated by tetrapyrrole intermediates. PMID:21771917

  11. Regulation of maize kernel weight and carbohydrate metabolism by abscisic acid applied at the early and middle post-pollination stages in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Li, Xu-Hui; Gao, Zhen; Shen, Si; Liang, Xiao-Gui; Zhao, Xue; Lin, Shan; Zhou, Shun-Li

    2017-09-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates in plants under drought stress, but views on the role of ABA in kernel formation and abortion are not unified. The response of the developing maize kernel to exogenous ABA was investigated by excising kernels from cob sections at four days after pollination and culturing in vitro with different concentrations of ABA (0, 5, 10, 100μM). When ABA was applied at the early post-pollination stage (EPPS), significant weight loss was observed at high ABA concentration (100μM), which could be attributed to jointly affected sink capacity and activity. Endosperm cells and starch granules were decreased significantly with high concentration, and ABA inhibited the activities of soluble acid invertase and acid cell wall invertase, together with earlier attainment of peak values. When ABA was applied at the middle post-pollination stage (MPPS), kernel weight was observably reduced with high concentration and mildly increased with low concentration, which was regulated due to sink activity. The inhibitory effect of high concentration and the mild stimulatory effect of low concentration on sucrose synthase and starch synthase activities were noted, but a peak level of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) was stimulated in all ABA treatments. Interestingly, AGPase peak values were advanced by low concentration and postponed by high concentration. In addition, compared with the control, the weight of low ABA concentration treatments were not statistically significant at the two stages, whereas weight loss from high concentration applied at EPPS was considerably obvious compared with that of the MPPS, but neither led to kernel abortion. The temporal- and dose-dependent impacts of ABA reveal a complex process of maize kernel growth and development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Impeded Carbohydrate Metabolism in Rice Plants under Submergence Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malay Kumar ADAK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental effects of submergence on physiological performances of some rice varieties with special references to carbohydrate metabolisms and their allied enzymes during post-flowering stages have been documented and clarified in the present investigation. It was found that photosynthetic rate and concomitant translocation of sugars into the panicles were both related to the yield. The detrimental effects of the complete submergence were recorded in generation of sucrose, starch, sucrose phosphate synthase and phosphorylase activity in the developing panicles of the plants as compared to those under normal or control (i.e. non-submerged condition. The accumulation of starch was significantly lower in plants under submergence and that was correlated with ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity. Photosynthetic rate was most affected under submergence in varying days of post-flowering and was also related to the down regulation of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity. However, under normal or control condition, there recorded a steady maintenance of photosynthetic rate at the post-flowering stages and significantly higher values of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity. Still, photosynthetic rate of the plants under both control and submerged conditions had hardly any significant correlation with sugar accumulation and other enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism like invertase with grain yield. Finally, plants under submergence suffered significant loss of yield by poor grain filling which was related to impeded carbohydrate metabolism in the tissues. It is evident that loss of yield under submergence is attributed both by lower sink size or sink capacity (number of panicles, in this case as well as subdued carbohydrate metabolism in plants and its subsequent partitioning into the grains.

  13. Feedback Inhibition of Starch Degradation in Arabidopsis Leaves Mediated by Trehalose 6-Phosphate1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marina Camara Mattos; Hejazi, Mahdi; Fettke, Joerg; Steup, Martin; Feil, Regina; Krause, Ursula; Arrivault, Stéphanie; Vosloh, Daniel; Figueroa, Carlos María; Ivakov, Alexander; Yadav, Umesh Prasad; Piques, Maria; Metzner, Daniela; Stitt, Mark; Lunn, John Edward

    2013-01-01

    Many plants accumulate substantial starch reserves in their leaves during the day and remobilize them at night to provide carbon and energy for maintenance and growth. In this paper, we explore the role of a sugar-signaling metabolite, trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P), in regulating the accumulation and turnover of transitory starch in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves. Ethanol-induced overexpression of trehalose-phosphate synthase during the day increased Tre6P levels up to 11-fold. There was a transient increase in the rate of starch accumulation in the middle of the day, but this was not linked to reductive activation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. A 2- to 3-fold increase in Tre6P during the night led to significant inhibition of starch degradation. Maltose and maltotriose did not accumulate, suggesting that Tre6P affects an early step in the pathway of starch degradation in the chloroplasts. Starch granules isolated from induced plants had a higher orthophosphate content than granules from noninduced control plants, consistent either with disruption of the phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle that is essential for efficient starch breakdown or with inhibition of starch hydrolysis by β-amylase. Nonaqueous fractionation of leaves showed that Tre6P is predominantly located in the cytosol, with estimated in vivo Tre6P concentrations of 4 to 7 µm in the cytosol, 0.2 to 0.5 µm in the chloroplasts, and 0.05 µm in the vacuole. It is proposed that Tre6P is a component in a signaling pathway that mediates the feedback regulation of starch breakdown by sucrose, potentially linking starch turnover to demand for sucrose by growing sink organs at night. PMID:24043444

  14. Low-temperature effect on enzyme activities involved in sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mariana; Hilal, Mirna; González, Juan A; Prado, Fernando E

    2009-04-01

    The effect of low temperature on growth, sucrose-starch partitioning and related enzymes in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) was studied. The growth of cotyledons and growing axes in seedlings grown at 25/20 degrees C (light/dark) and shifted to 5/5 degrees C was lower than in those only growing at 25/20 degrees C (unstressed). However, there were no significant differences between low-temperature control and salt-treated seedlings. The higher activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, EC 2.4.1.14) and soluble acid invertase (acid INV, EC 3.2.1.25) were observed in salt-stressed cotyledons; however, the highest acid INV activity was observed in unstressed cotyledons. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADP-GPPase, EC 2.7.7.27) was higher in unstressed cotyledons than in stressed ones. However, between 0 and 4days the highest value was observed in salt-stressed cotyledons. The lowest value of ADP-GPPase was observed in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Low temperature also affected sucrose synthase (SuSy, EC 2.4.1.13) activity in salt-treated cotyledons. Sucrose and glucose were higher in salt-stressed cotyledons, but fructose was essentially higher in low-temperature control. Starch was higher in low-temperature control; however, the highest content was observed at 0day in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Results demonstrated that low temperature induces different responses on sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons. Data also suggest that in salt-treated cotyledons source-sink relations (SSR) are changed in order to supply soluble sugars and proline for the osmotic adjustment. Relationships between starch formation and SuSy activity are also discussed.

  15. Metabolic and enzymatic changes associated with carbon mobilization, utilization and replenishment triggered in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus in response to partial defoliation by mechanical injury or insect herbivory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castrillón-Arbeláez Paula

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus are crop plants grown for grain production in subtropical countries. Recently, the generation of large-scale transcriptomic data opened the possibility to study representative genes of primary metabolism to gain a better understanding of the biochemical mechanisms underlying tolerance to defoliation in these species. A multi-level approach was followed involving gene expression analysis, enzyme activity and metabolite measurements. Results Defoliation by insect herbivory (HD or mechanical damage (MD led to a rapid and transient reduction of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC in all tissues examined. This correlated with a short-term induction of foliar sucrolytic activity, differential gene expression of a vacuolar invertase and its inhibitor, and induction of a sucrose transporter gene. Leaf starch in defoliated plants correlated negatively with amylolytic activity and expression of a β-amylase-1 gene and positively with a soluble starch synthase gene. Fatty-acid accumulation in roots coincided with a high expression of a phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate transporter gene. In all tissues there was a long-term replenishment of most metabolite pools, which allowed damaged plants to maintain unaltered growth and grain yield. Promoter analysis of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and vacuolar invertase genes indicated the presence of cis-regulatory elements that supported their responsiveness to defoliation. HD and MD had differential effects on transcripts, enzyme activities and metabolites. However, the correlation between transcript abundance and enzymatic activities was very limited. A better correlation was found between enzymes, metabolite levels and growth and reproductive parameters. Conclusions It is concluded that a rapid reduction of NSC reserves in leaves, stems and roots followed by their long-term recovery underlies tolerance to defoliation in grain amaranth. This requires the

  16. Photosynthesis Activates Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase via Sugar Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Masaki; Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Kuwata, Keiko; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2016-05-01

    Plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase acts as a primary transporter via proton pumping and regulates diverse physiological responses by controlling secondary solute transport, pH homeostasis, and membrane potential. Phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine and the subsequent binding of 14-3-3 proteins in the carboxyl terminus of the enzyme are required for H(+)-ATPase activation. We showed previously that photosynthesis induces phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine in the nonvascular bryophyte Marchantia polymorpha However, (1) whether this response is conserved in vascular plants and (2) the process by which photosynthesis regulates H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation at the plasma membrane remain unresolved issues. Here, we report that photosynthesis induced the phosphorylation and activation of H(+)-ATPase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves via sugar accumulation. Light reversibly phosphorylated leaf H(+)-ATPase, and this process was inhibited by pharmacological and genetic suppression of photosynthesis. Immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses indicated that light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase occurred autonomously in mesophyll cells. We also show that the phosphorylation status of H(+)-ATPase and photosynthetic sugar accumulation in leaves were positively correlated and that sugar treatment promoted phosphorylation. Furthermore, light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase was strongly suppressed in a double mutant defective in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (adg1-1 tpt-2); these mutations strongly inhibited endogenous sugar accumulation. Overall, we show that photosynthesis activated H(+)-ATPase via sugar production in the mesophyll cells of vascular plants. Our work provides new insight into signaling from chloroplasts to the plasma membrane ion transport mechanism. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Photosynthesis down-regulation precedes carbohydrate accumulation under sink limitation in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebauer, Sergio G; Renau-Morata, Begoña; Guardiola, José Luis; Molina, Rosa-Victoria

    2011-02-01

    Photosynthesis down-regulation due to an imbalance between sources and sinks in Citrus leaves could be mediated by excessive accumulation of carbohydrates. However, there is limited understanding of the physiological role of soluble and insoluble carbohydrates in photosynthesis regulation and the elements triggering the down-regulation process. In this work, the role of non-structural carbohydrates in the regulation of photosynthesis under a broad spectrum of source-sink relationships has been investigated in the Salustiana sweet orange. Soluble sugar and starch accumulation in leaves, induced by girdling experiments, did not induce down-regulation of the photosynthetic rate in the presence of sinks (fruits). The leaf-to-fruit ratio did not modulate photosynthesis but allocation of photoassimilates to the fruits. The lack of strong sink activity led to a decrease in the photosynthetic rate and starch accumulation in leaves. However, photosynthesis down-regulation due to an excess of total soluble sugars or starch was discarded because photosynthesis and stomatal conductance reduction occurred prior to any significant accumulation of these carbohydrates. Gas exchange and fluorescence parameters suggested biochemical limitations to photosynthesis. In addition, the expression of carbon metabolism-related genes was altered within 24 h when strong sinks were removed. Sucrose synthesis and export genes were inhibited, whereas the expression of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was increased to cope with the excess of assimilates. In conclusion, changes in starch and soluble sugar turnover, but not sugar content per se, could provide the signal for photosynthesis regulation. In these conditions, non-stomatal limitations strongly inhibited the photosynthetic rate prior to any significant increase in carbohydrate levels.

  18. Comparison on the Efficacy between Partially Covered Self-Expandable Metal Stent with Funnel-Shaped Enlarged Head versus Uncovered Self-Expandable Metal Stent for Palliation of Gastric Outlet Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Wan Choe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Shape modification has been one of the methods adopted to improve stent patency but has not always translated into positive outcome. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of shape-modified partially covered self-expandable metal stent (SEMS that has enlarged head versus uncovered SEMS for palliation of gastric outlet obstruction (GOO. Methods. A total of 48 patients underwent insertion of either enlarged-head SEMS (n=24 or uncovered SEMS (uSEMS (n=24 for palliation of GOO from July 2009 to July 2016. Patients with inoperable or advanced malignancy were included. Technical feasibility and clinical outcomes were compared. Results. Technical success rate was 100% (24/24 and 95.8% (23/24 for enlarged-head SEMS group and uSEMS group, respectively. Clinical success rate was 87.5% (21/24 and 87.0% (20/23 for enlarged-head SEMS group and uSEMS group, respectively. The gastric outlet obstruction scoring system score significantly improved in both groups (p<0.001 for both. Mean survival was similar between the groups: enlarged-head SEMS group, 99.3 days (range, 19–358 days versus uSEMS group, 82.1 days (range, 11–231 days (p=0.418. The mean stent patency also showed no difference between the groups: enlarged-head SEMS group, 87.1 days (range, 8–358 days versus uSEMS group, 60.4 days (range, 2–231 days (p=0.204. With enlarged-head SEMS, distal migration did not occur, but proximal migration was observed in four cases. Conclusions. Distal migration was prevented by shaping the SEMS to have an enlarged head, but improvement in stent patency could not be observed.

  19. Effect of diode lasers with wavelength of 445 and 980 nm on a temperature rise when uncovering implants for second stage surgery: An ex-vivo study in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matys, Jacek; Flieger, Rafał; Dominiak, Marzena

    2017-07-01

    Many surgical procedures in soft tissue are performed using diode lasers. Recently, a novel diode laser operating at 445 nm wavelength was introduced in dentistry. The aim of our study was to evaluate the time of surgery and an increase in temperature of titanium implants during its uncovering using 445 and 980 nm wavelengths. The research included 45 pig mandibles (n = 45). The specimens were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 15) according to the laser irradiation mode and wavelength; G1 - 445 nm laser, power: 3 W, continuous wave (CW), distance: 2 mm, power density: 7460 W/cm2, fiber: 320 μm, noncontact mode; G2 - 445 nm laser (power: 2 W, CW, power density: 4970 W/cm2, fiber: 320 μm, contact mode; G3 (control) - 980 nm laser, power: 2.5 W, CW, power density: 15920 W/cm2, fiber: 200 μm, contact mode. The temperature was measured with a 2 K-type thermocouples (a P1 at collar and a P2 at mid height of the implant). The mean temperature rises measured by the P1 thermocouple were 16.9°C, 36.1°C and 21.6°C in the G1, G2 and G3 group, respectively. Significant differences in temperature rise were found between the G1 and G2 group (p = 0.0007) and the G2 and G3 group (p = 0.01). The mean temperature rises measured by the P2 thermocouple were 1.8°C, 1.4°C and 5.6°C in the G1, G2 and G3 group, respectively. Significant differences in temperature rise were found between the G1 and the G2 or G3 group (p = 0.0001). The significant differences among the study groups in average time necessary for uncovering the implants amounted to 69.7, 54.4 and 83.6 s, respectively (p diode laser in non-contact mode reduced the temperature rise of the implants. The additional pulse intervals during laser irradiation with wavelength of 445 nm when operating in contact mode are needed.

  20. Uncovering the formation and selection of benzylmalonyl-CoA from the biosynthesis of splenocin and enterocin reveals a versatile way to introduce amino acids into polyketide carbon scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chenchen; Huang, Rong; Yan, Yan; Ma, Hongmin; Dai, Zheng; Zhang, Benying; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Wen; Qu, Xudong

    2015-04-01

    Selective modification of carbon scaffolds via biosynthetic engineering is important for polyketide structural diversification. Yet, this scope is currently restricted to simple aliphatic groups due to (1) limited variety of CoA-linked extender units, which lack aromatic structures and chemical reactivity, and (2) narrow acyltransferase (AT) specificity, which is limited to aliphatic CoA-linked extender units. In this report, we uncovered and characterized the first aromatic CoA-linked extender unit benzylmalonyl-CoA from the biosynthetic pathways of splenocin and enterocin in Streptomyces sp. CNQ431. Its synthesis employs a deamination/reductive carboxylation strategy to convert phenylalanine into benzylmalonyl-CoA, providing a link between amino acid and CoA-linked extender unit synthesis. By characterization of its selection, we further validated that AT domains of splenocin, and antimycin polyketide synthases are able to select this extender unit to introduce the phenyl group into their dilactone scaffolds. The biosynthetic machinery involved in the formation of this extender unit is highly versatile and can be potentially tailored for tyrosine, histidine and aspartic acid. The disclosed aromatic extender unit, amino acid-oriented synthetic pathway, and aromatic-selective AT domains provides a systematic breakthrough toward current knowledge of polyketide extender unit formation and selection, and also opens a route for further engineering of polyketide carbon scaffolds using amino acids.

  1. Uncovering ecosystem service bundles through social preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Martín-López

    Full Text Available Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem's capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem's capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs.

  2. Uncovering the nutritional landscape of food.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghyeon Kim

    Full Text Available Recent progresses in data-driven analysis methods, including network-based approaches, are revolutionizing many classical disciplines. These techniques can also be applied to food and nutrition, which must be studied to design healthy diets. Using nutritional information from over 1,000 raw foods, we systematically evaluated the nutrient composition of each food in regards to satisfying daily nutritional requirements. The nutrient balance of a food was quantified and termed nutritional fitness; this measure was based on the food's frequency of occurrence in nutritionally adequate food combinations. Nutritional fitness offers a way to prioritize recommendable foods within a global network of foods, in which foods are connected based on the similarities of their nutrient compositions. We identified a number of key nutrients, such as choline and α-linolenic acid, whose levels in foods can critically affect the nutritional fitness of the foods. Analogously, pairs of nutrients can have the same effect. In fact, two nutrients can synergistically affect the nutritional fitness, although the individual nutrients alone may not have an impact. This result, involving the tendency among nutrients to exhibit correlations in their abundances across foods, implies a hidden layer of complexity when exploring for foods whose balance of nutrients within pairs holistically helps meet nutritional requirements. Interestingly, foods with high nutritional fitness successfully maintain this nutrient balance. This effect expands our scope to a diverse repertoire of nutrient-nutrient correlations, which are integrated under a common network framework that yields unexpected yet coherent associations between nutrients. Our nutrient-profiling approach combined with a network-based analysis provides a more unbiased, global view of the relationships between foods and nutrients, and can be extended towards nutritional policies, food marketing, and personalized nutrition.

  3. Uncovering the Dynamic in Static Assessment Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskett, Tom; Body, Richard; Perkins, Mick

    2012-01-01

    Traditional approaches to standardized assessment are underpinned by the assumption that between-assessor variation in delivery can effectively be eliminated. However, fine-grained analyses of the administration of such assessments (e.g. Maynard and Marlaire, 1992) have established that significant subtle interactional variations occur even in…

  4. Uncovering the Genetic Architectures of Quantitative Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of a genome-wide association study (GWAS is to identify loci in the human genome affecting a phenotype of interest. This review summarizes some recent work on conceptual and methodological aspects of GWAS. The average effect of gene substitution at a given causal site in the genome is the key estimand in GWAS, and we argue for its fundamental importance. Implicit in the definition of average effect is a linear model relating genotype to phenotype. The fraction of the phenotypic variance ascribable to polymorphic sites with nonzero average effects in this linear model is called the heritability, and we describe methods for estimating this quantity from GWAS data. Finally, we show that the theory of compressed sensing can be used to provide a sharp estimate of the sample size required to identify essentially all sites contributing to the heritability of a given phenotype.

  5. Uncovering History for Future History Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    The art of history teaching is at a crossroads. Recent scholarship focuses on the need to change the teaching of history so students can better learn history, and insists that history teachers must move beyond traditional structures and methods of teaching in order to improve their students' abilities to think with history. This article presents…

  6. Uncovering the Secrets: Homophobia in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvazo, Shiri; Sutherland, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Studies examining the discourse on issues related to sexual orientation in physical education reveal that the physical education setting is an environment where heterosexism, heteronormativity, and homophobia subsist fervently. The purpose of this article is to review the growing research that has been conducted on homophobia in physical education…

  7. Uncovering archaeological landscapes at Angkor using lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Damian H; Fletcher, Roland J; Pottier, Christophe; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Soutif, Dominique; Tan, Boun Suy; Im, Sokrithy; Ea, Darith; Tin, Tina; Kim, Samnang; Cromarty, Christopher; De Greef, Stéphane; Hanus, Kasper; Bâty, Pierre; Kuszinger, Robert; Shimoda, Ichita; Boornazian, Glenn

    2013-07-30

    Previous archaeological mapping work on the successive medieval capitals of the Khmer Empire located at Angkor, in northwest Cambodia (∼9th to 15th centuries in the Common Era, C.E.), has identified it as the largest settlement complex of the preindustrial world, and yet crucial areas have remained unmapped, in particular the ceremonial centers and their surroundings, where dense forest obscures the traces of the civilization that typically remain in evidence in surface topography. Here we describe the use of airborne laser scanning (lidar) technology to create high-precision digital elevation models of the ground surface beneath the vegetation cover. We identify an entire, previously undocumented, formally planned urban landscape into which the major temples such as Angkor Wat were integrated. Beyond these newly identified urban landscapes, the lidar data reveal anthropogenic changes to the landscape on a vast scale and lend further weight to an emerging consensus that infrastructural complexity, unsustainable modes of subsistence, and climate variation were crucial factors in the decline of the classical Khmer civilization.

  8. Uncovering the Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates estimation errors due to hidden costs—the costs of implementation that are neglected in strategic decision-making processes—in the context of services offshoring. Based on data from the Offshoring Research Network, we find that decision makers are more likely to make cost......-estimation errors given increasing configuration and task complexity in captive offshoring and offshore outsourcing, respectively. Moreover, we show that experience and a strong orientation toward organizational design in the offshoring strategy reduce the cost-estimation errors that follow from complexity. Our...

  9. uncovering the everyday moral knowledge of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Peter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo exploramos el uso de la perspectiva metafísica de Margaret Urban Walter, particularmente el uso de narrativas, para informar sobre el desarrollo de un abordaje de investigación que revela el conocimiento moral cotidiano de las enfermeras. Un método basado en el trabajo de Walter permite analizar las dimensiones de poder inherentes en la experiencia moral de las enfermeras, así como fundamentar con una moral epistemológica robusta, el abordaje narrativo ético de la enfermería, y distinguir los diferentes tipos de narrativas. Un número de cuestiones analíticas basadas en el trabajo de Walker son aquí presentadas y empleadas para analizar la práctica narrativa e ilustrar cómo las narrativas pueden ser usadas para delinear el conocimiento moral de las enfermeras dentro del contexto de su trabajo real.

  10. SPIRITS: Uncovering Unusual Infrared Transients with Spitzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Jencson, Jacob E.; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Cao, Yi; Cook, David; Bally, John; Masci, Frank; Armus, Lee; Cody, Ann Marie; Bond, Howard E.; Contreras, Carlos; Dykhoff, Devin A.; Amodeo, Samuel; Carlon, Robert L.; Cass, Alexander C.; Corgan, David T.; Faella, Joseph; Boyer, Martha; Cantiello, Matteo; Fox, Ori D.

    2017-01-01

    We present an ongoing, five-year systematic search for extragalactic infrared transients, dubbed SPIRITS—SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey. In the first year, using Spitzer /IRAC, we searched 190 nearby galaxies with cadence baselines of one month and six months. We discovered over 1958 variables and 43 transients. Here, we describe the survey design and highlight 14 unusual infrared transients with no optical counterparts to deep limits, which we refer to as SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). SPRITEs are in the infrared luminosity gap between novae and supernovae, with [4.5] absolute magnitudes between −11 and −14 (Vega-mag) and [3.6]–[4.5] colors between 0.3 mag and 1.6 mag. The photometric evolution of SPRITEs is diverse, ranging from <0.1 mag yr −1 to >7 mag yr −1 . SPRITEs occur in star-forming galaxies. We present an in-depth study of one of them, SPIRITS 14ajc in Messier 83, which shows shock-excited molecular hydrogen emission. This shock may have been triggered by the dynamic decay of a non-hierarchical system of massive stars that led to either the formation of a binary or a protostellar merger.

  11. η Carinae Baby Homunculus uncovered by ALMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, Zulema; Beaklini, Pedro P. B.; Falceta-Gonçalves, Diego

    2014-01-01

    We report observations of η Carinae obtained with ALMA in the continuum of 100, 230, 280, and 660 GHz in 2012 November, with a resolution that varied from 2.''88 to 0.''45 for the lower and higher frequencies, respectively. The source is not resolved, even at the highest frequency; its spectrum is characteristic of thermal bremsstrahlung of a compact source, but different from the spectrum of optically thin wind. The recombination lines H42α, He42α, H40α, He40α, H50β, H28α, He28α, H21α, and He21α were also detected, and their intensities reveal non-local thermodynamic equilibrium effects. We found that the line profiles could only be fit by an expanding shell of dense and ionized gas, which produces a slow shock in the surroundings of η Carinae. Combined with fittings to the continuum, we were able to constrain the shell size, radius, density, temperature, and velocity. The detection of the He recombination lines is compatible with the high-temperature gas and requires a high-energy ionizing photon flux, which must be provided by the companion star. The mass-loss rate and wind velocity, necessary to explain the formation of the shell, are compatible with an luminous blue variable eruption. The position, velocity, and physical parameters of the shell coincide with those of the Weigelt blobs. The dynamics found for the expanding shell correspond to matter ejected by η Carinae in 1941 in an event similar to that which formed the Little Homunculus; for that reason, we called the new ejecta the 'Baby Homunculus'.

  12. η Carinae Baby Homunculus uncovered by ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Zulema; Beaklini, Pedro P. B. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, R. do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Falceta-Gonçalves, Diego, E-mail: zulema.abraham@iag.usp.br [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, R. Arlindo Bettio 1000, 03828-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-20

    We report observations of η Carinae obtained with ALMA in the continuum of 100, 230, 280, and 660 GHz in 2012 November, with a resolution that varied from 2.''88 to 0.''45 for the lower and higher frequencies, respectively. The source is not resolved, even at the highest frequency; its spectrum is characteristic of thermal bremsstrahlung of a compact source, but different from the spectrum of optically thin wind. The recombination lines H42α, He42α, H40α, He40α, H50β, H28α, He28α, H21α, and He21α were also detected, and their intensities reveal non-local thermodynamic equilibrium effects. We found that the line profiles could only be fit by an expanding shell of dense and ionized gas, which produces a slow shock in the surroundings of η Carinae. Combined with fittings to the continuum, we were able to constrain the shell size, radius, density, temperature, and velocity. The detection of the He recombination lines is compatible with the high-temperature gas and requires a high-energy ionizing photon flux, which must be provided by the companion star. The mass-loss rate and wind velocity, necessary to explain the formation of the shell, are compatible with an luminous blue variable eruption. The position, velocity, and physical parameters of the shell coincide with those of the Weigelt blobs. The dynamics found for the expanding shell correspond to matter ejected by η Carinae in 1941 in an event similar to that which formed the Little Homunculus; for that reason, we called the new ejecta the 'Baby Homunculus'.

  13. Uncovering the roots of paranoid suicidal plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lolle, Signe

    is that forms of plant autoimmunity are due to inappropriate NLR activation. We show here that NLR triggered immunity in pat1 can be prevented by the expression of a dominant negative (DN) allele of the NLR SUMM2. We further find that this DN approach is faster than crossing in knock-outs, and has the advantage...

  14. Using traits to uncover tropical forest function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Nate G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Xu, Chonggang [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 USA

    2017-04-11

    Plant traits reflect their evolutionary history and influence physiological processes (Reich, 2014). For example, the embolism risk taken by plants, called the embolism safety margin, is a good predictor of stomatal conductance, and hence photosynthesis (Skelton et al., 2015). Trait-science has grown dramatically in the last decade as we have found niversal patterns governing the carbon and nutrient economies of plants (Bloom et al., 1985). Perhaps the greatest value of studying plant functional traits is that they yield understanding of plant functional processes.

  15. Uncovering the skewness news impact curve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anatolyev, Stanislav; Petukhov, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2016), s. 746-771 ISSN 1479-8409 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : conditional skewness * news impact curve * stock returns Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.800, year: 2016

  16. Uncovering the molecular networks in periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Fábio; Oppenheim, Frank G.; Helmerhorst, Eva J.; Amado, Francisco; Gomes, Pedro S.; Vitorino, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is a complex immune-inflammatory disease that results from a preestablished infection in gingiva, mainly due to Gram-negative bacteria that colonize deeper in gingival sulcus and latter periodontal pocket. Host inflammatory and immune responses have both protective and destructive roles. Although cytokines, prostaglandins, and proteases struggle against microbial burden, these molecules promote connective tissue loss and alveolar bone resorption, leading to several histopathological changes, namely destruction of periodontal ligament, deepening of periodontal pocket, and bone loss, which can converge to attain tooth loss. Despite the efforts of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics/peptidomics, and metabolomics, there is no available biomarker for periodontitis diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment evaluation, which could assist on the established clinical evaluation. Nevertheless, some genes, transcripts, proteins and metabolites have already shown a different expression in healthy subjects and in patients. Though, so far, ‘omics approaches only disclosed the host inflammatory response as a consequence of microbial invasion in periodontitis and the diagnosis in periodontitis still relies on clinical parameters, thus a molecular tool for assessing periodontitis lacks in current dental medicine paradigm. Saliva and gingival crevicular fluid have been attracting researchers due to their diagnostic potential, ease, and noninvasive nature of collection. Each one of these fluids has some advantages and disadvantages that are discussed in this review. PMID:24828325

  17. Uncovering the popularity mechanisms for Facebook applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng-Nan; Guo, Qiang; Yang, Kai; Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the popularity dynamics of online application(App) is significant for the online social systems. In this paper, by dividing the Facebook Apps into different groups in terms of their popularities, we empirically investigate the popularity dynamics for different kinds of Facebook Apps. Then, taking into account the influence of cumulative and recent popularities on the user choice, we present a model to regenerate the growth of popularity for different App groups. The experimental results of 917 Facebook Apps show that as the popularities of Facebook Apps increase, the recent popularity plays more important role. Specifically, the recent popularity plays more important role in regenerating the popularity dynamics for more popular Apps, and the cumulative popularity plays more important role for unpopular Apps. We also conduct temporal analysis on the growth characteristic of individual App by comparing the increment at each time with the average of historical records. The results show that the growth of more popular App tends to fluctuate more greatly. Our work may shed some lights for deeply understanding the popularity mechanism for online applications.

  18. Uncovering randomness and success in society.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Jalan

    Full Text Available An understanding of how individuals shape and impact the evolution of society is vastly limited due to the unavailability of large-scale reliable datasets that can simultaneously capture information regarding individual movements and social interactions. We believe that the popular Indian film industry, "Bollywood", can provide a social network apt for such a study. Bollywood provides massive amounts of real, unbiased data that spans more than 100 years, and hence this network has been used as a model for the present paper. The nodes which maintain a moderate degree or widely cooperate with the other nodes of the network tend to be more fit (measured as the success of the node in the industry in comparison to the other nodes. The analysis carried forth in the current work, using a conjoined framework of complex network theory and random matrix theory, aims to quantify the elements that determine the fitness of an individual node and the factors that contribute to the robustness of a network. The authors of this paper believe that the method of study used in the current paper can be extended to study various other industries and organizations.

  19. Uncovering randomness and success in society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalan, Sarika; Sarkar, Camellia; Madhusudanan, Anagha; Dwivedi, Sanjiv Kumar

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how individuals shape and impact the evolution of society is vastly limited due to the unavailability of large-scale reliable datasets that can simultaneously capture information regarding individual movements and social interactions. We believe that the popular Indian film industry, "Bollywood", can provide a social network apt for such a study. Bollywood provides massive amounts of real, unbiased data that spans more than 100 years, and hence this network has been used as a model for the present paper. The nodes which maintain a moderate degree or widely cooperate with the other nodes of the network tend to be more fit (measured as the success of the node in the industry) in comparison to the other nodes. The analysis carried forth in the current work, using a conjoined framework of complex network theory and random matrix theory, aims to quantify the elements that determine the fitness of an individual node and the factors that contribute to the robustness of a network. The authors of this paper believe that the method of study used in the current paper can be extended to study various other industries and organizations.

  20. Uncovering the information core in recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Zeng, An; Liu, Hao; Shang, Ming-Sheng; Zhou, Tao

    2014-08-01

    With the rapid growth of the Internet and overwhelming amount of information that people are confronted with, recommender systems have been developed to effectively support users' decision-making process in online systems. So far, much attention has been paid to designing new recommendation algorithms and improving existent ones. However, few works considered the different contributions from different users to the performance of a recommender system. Such studies can help us improve the recommendation efficiency by excluding irrelevant users. In this paper, we argue that in each online system there exists a group of core users who carry most of the information for recommendation. With them, the recommender systems can already generate satisfactory recommendation. Our core user extraction method enables the recommender systems to achieve 90% of the accuracy of the top-L recommendation by taking only 20% of the users into account. A detailed investigation reveals that these core users are not necessarily the large-degree users. Moreover, they tend to select high quality objects and their selections are well diversified.

  1. Cobalamins uncovered by modern electronic structure calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta; Ryde, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    electronic-structure calculations, in particular density functional methods, the understanding of the molecular mechanism of cobalamins has changed dramatically, going from a dominating view of trans-steric strain effects to a much more complex view involving an arsenal of catalytic strategies. Among...... these are cis-steric distortions, electrostatic stabilization of radical products, the realization that nucleotide units can serve as polar handles, and the careful design of the active sites, with polar residues in the radical enzymes and non-polar residues in the transferases. Together, these strategies...

  2. Uncovering the skewness news impact curve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anatolyev, Stanislav; Petukhov, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2016), s. 746-771 ISSN 1479-8409 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : conditional skewness * news impact curve * stock returns Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.800, year: 2016

  3. UnCover: the article access solution.

    OpenAIRE

    Whittaker, M; Malamud, J

    1994-01-01

    The current climate for academic libraries is such that traditional collection development philosophies are being examined anew. The rising cost of journals, coupled with steady or declining budgets, has necessitated a review of the means for providing access to information at the local level. Where once the local collection was all-important, the focus now has shifted in other directions. As Leach describes it, libraries will begin to shift collection development funds to document delivery s...

  4. Comet mission hopes to uncover Earth's origins

    CERN Multimedia

    Henderson, M

    2004-01-01

    "A European spacecraft that will hunt down a comet in search of clues to the origin of life on Earth will blast off tomorrow from the Kourou spaceport in French Guiana. The Rosetta probe will take 12 years to catch up with Churyumov-Gerasimenko before becoming the first spacecraft to make a soft, controlled landing on a comet's nucleus" (1 page).

  5. Uncovering the cultural knowledge of sanctuary apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thibaud

    2013-05-01

    Behavioral differences observed between wild communities of the same species have been called "cultures" by some researchers who aimed to underline the similarities with human cultures. However, whether these differences truly result from social learning processes is debated. Despite promising recent research, data acquired in the wild still fail to exclude genetic and ecological factors from being potential explanations for the observed behavioral differences. A potential way to address this problem is through field experiments where communities of the same subspecies are exposed to identical apparatuses. This way, genetic and ecological factors can be controlled for, although their influence cannot be fully excluded. Working with wild-born Sumatran orangutans originating from two genetically distinct populations, we recently combined field experiments with captive work to show that genetic differences could not account for differences in their knowledge of stick use. Additionally, we found evidence that our subjects arrived at the sanctuary with a knowledge that they acquired but could not express in their community of origin. These findings suggest that animal cultures must also be analyzed at the cognitive level. Only in this way can we understand the true extent of animal cultures and how they relate to human cultures.

  6. /sup 14/C uncovers the past

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating, a method of dating prehistoric remains that has been developed since the Second World War, is based on the fact that all organic matter contains a radioactive isotope of carbon -/sup 14/C- which, because it decays at a fixed rate, gives a good indication of the age of the substance. The CSIR's National Physical Research Laboratory entered the field of radio-carbon dating in 1967, when the Nature Isotopes Division was established. The division has become a world center of excellence and much has been done to clear up the chronology of southern African prehistory. It has been found, for instance, that anatomically modern man appeared in southern Africa some 40000 years earlier than in Europe, and that the Zimbabwe ruins were built mainly around the year 1350 AD. The radio-carbon method can also be used to determine the age and flow rate of underground water and the rate at which tracer gases dissolve in the oceans, i.e. the efficiency with which the oceans cleanse the atmosphere from pollutants.

  7. Uncovering the 2010 Haiti earthquake death toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.

    2013-05-01

    Casualties are estimated for the 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti using various reports calibrated by observed building damage states from satellite imagery and reconnaissance reports on the ground. By investigating various damage reports, casualty estimates and burial figures, for a one year period from 12 January 2010 until 12 January 2011, there is also strong evidence that the official government figures of 316 000 total dead and missing, reported to have been caused by the earthquake, are significantly overestimated. The authors have examined damage and casualties report to arrive at their estimation that the median death toll is less than half of this value (±137 000). The authors show through a study of historical earthquake death tolls, that overestimates of earthquake death tolls occur in many cases, and is not unique to Haiti. As death toll is one of the key elements for determining the amount of aid and reconstruction funds that will be mobilized, scientific means to estimate death tolls should be applied. Studies of international aid in recent natural disasters reveal that large distributions of aid which do not match the respective needs may cause oversupply of help, aggravate corruption and social disruption rather than reduce them, and lead to distrust within the donor community.

  8. Uncovering effective strategies for hearing loss prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morata, Thais C.; Meinke, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health agencies, researchers and policy makers have recognized the need for evidence on the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce or prevent workplace injuries and illnesses. While many workplaces comply with legal or obligatory requirements and implement recommended interventions, few publications exist documenting the effectiveness of these actions. Additionally, some workplaces have discovered through their own processes, novel ways to reduce the risk of injury. Peer-reviewed information on the effectiveness of the many strategies and approaches currently in use could help correct weaknesses, or further encourage their adoption and expansion. The evaluation of intervention effectiveness would certainly contribute to improved worker health and safety. This need is particularly relevant regarding noise exposure in the workplace and hearing loss prevention interventions. In a 2006 review of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Hearing Loss Research Program, the independent National Academies of Sciences recommended that NIOSH place greater emphasis on identifying the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention measures on the basis of outcomes that are as closely related as possible to reducing noise exposure and work related hearing loss (http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11721). NIOSH used two different approaches to address that recommendation: the first one was to conduct research, including broad systematic reviews on the effectiveness of interventions to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss. The second was to create an award program, the Safe-In-Sound Excellence in Hearing Loss Prevention Award™, to identify and honor excellent real-world examples of noise control and other hearing loss prevention practices and innovations. PMID:27397968

  9. Uncovering the Dark Energy of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melov, Simon

    2016-10-26

    A medically relevant understanding of aging requires an appreciation for how time degrades specific, healthy features of individual organisms over the course of their lives. Zach Pincus and colleagues make a key step in this direction, using C. elegans as a model system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. SPIRITS: Uncovering Unusual Infrared Transients with Spitzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Jencson, Jacob E.; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Cao, Yi; Cook, David [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bally, John [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Masci, Frank; Armus, Lee [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Contreras, Carlos [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Dykhoff, Devin A.; Amodeo, Samuel; Carlon, Robert L.; Cass, Alexander C.; Corgan, David T.; Faella, Joseph [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S. E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Boyer, Martha [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MC 665, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cantiello, Matteo [Center for Computational Astrophysics, Flatiron Institute, 162 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010 (United States); Fox, Ori D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2017-04-20

    We present an ongoing, five-year systematic search for extragalactic infrared transients, dubbed SPIRITS—SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey. In the first year, using Spitzer /IRAC, we searched 190 nearby galaxies with cadence baselines of one month and six months. We discovered over 1958 variables and 43 transients. Here, we describe the survey design and highlight 14 unusual infrared transients with no optical counterparts to deep limits, which we refer to as SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). SPRITEs are in the infrared luminosity gap between novae and supernovae, with [4.5] absolute magnitudes between −11 and −14 (Vega-mag) and [3.6]–[4.5] colors between 0.3 mag and 1.6 mag. The photometric evolution of SPRITEs is diverse, ranging from <0.1 mag yr{sup −1} to >7 mag yr{sup −1}. SPRITEs occur in star-forming galaxies. We present an in-depth study of one of them, SPIRITS 14ajc in Messier 83, which shows shock-excited molecular hydrogen emission. This shock may have been triggered by the dynamic decay of a non-hierarchical system of massive stars that led to either the formation of a binary or a protostellar merger.

  11. Uncovering the Nutritional Landscape of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seunghyeon; Sung, Jaeyun; Foo, Mathias; Jin, Yong-Su; Kim, Pan-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Recent progresses in data-driven analysis methods, including network-based approaches, are revolutionizing many classical disciplines. These techniques can also be applied to food and nutrition, which must be studied to design healthy diets. Using nutritional information from over 1,000 raw foods, we systematically evaluated the nutrient composition of each food in regards to satisfying daily nutritional requirements. The nutrient balance of a food was quantified and termed nutritional fitness; this measure was based on the food’s frequency of occurrence in nutritionally adequate food combinations. Nutritional fitness offers a way to prioritize recommendable foods within a global network of foods, in which foods are connected based on the similarities of their nutrient compositions. We identified a number of key nutrients, such as choline and α-linolenic acid, whose levels in foods can critically affect the nutritional fitness of the foods. Analogously, pairs of nutrients can have the same effect. In fact, two nutrients can synergistically affect the nutritional fitness, although the individual nutrients alone may not have an impact. This result, involving the tendency among nutrients to exhibit correlations in their abundances across foods, implies a hidden layer of complexity when exploring for foods whose balance of nutrients within pairs holistically helps meet nutritional requirements. Interestingly, foods with high nutritional fitness successfully maintain this nutrient balance. This effect expands our scope to a diverse repertoire of nutrient-nutrient correlations, which are integrated under a common network framework that yields unexpected yet coherent associations between nutrients. Our nutrient-profiling approach combined with a network-based analysis provides a more unbiased, global view of the relationships between foods and nutrients, and can be extended towards nutritional policies, food marketing, and personalized nutrition. PMID:25768022

  12. Uncovering Heroes: A Conversation with Jennifer Armstrong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerper, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Offers an interview with Jennifer Armstrong, writer of historical novels and nonfiction for children. Discusses her beginnings as a reader and a writer, her creative process, her purposes in writing nonfiction, her concerns about accuracy, and the origins of her second nonfiction book, "Shipwreck at the Bottom of the World: The Extraordinary…

  13. Uncovering Ecosystem Service Bundles through Social Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-López, Berta; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; García-Llorente, Marina; Palomo, Ignacio; Casado-Arzuaga, Izaskun; Amo, David García Del; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Palacios-Agundez, Igone; Willaarts, Bárbara; González, José A.; Santos-Martín, Fernando; Onaindia, Miren; López-Santiago, Cesar; Montes, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem’s capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem’s capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area) have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis). We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting) versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs. PMID:22720006

  14. Mutational analysis of the extracellular disulphide bridges of the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR3/CXCR7 uncovers multiple binding and activation modes for its chemokine and endogenous non-chemokine agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpakowska, Martyna; Meyrath, Max; Reynders, Nathan; Counson, Manuel; Hanson, Julien; Steyaert, Jan; Chevigné, Andy

    2018-07-01

    The atypical chemokine receptor ACKR3/CXCR7 plays crucial roles in numerous physiological processes but also in viral infection and cancer. ACKR3 shows strong propensity for activation and, unlike classical chemokine receptors, can respond to chemokines from both the CXC and CC families as well as to the endogenous peptides BAM22 and adrenomedullin. Moreover, despite belonging to the G protein coupled receptor family, its function appears to be mainly dependent on β-arrestin. ACKR3 has also been shown to continuously cycle between the plasma membrane and the endosomal compartments, suggesting a possible role as a scavenging receptor. So far, the molecular basis accounting for these atypical binding and signalling properties remains elusive. Noteworthy, ACKR3 extracellular domains bear three disulphide bridges. Two of them lie on top of the two main binding subpockets and are conserved among chemokine receptors, and one, specific to ACKR3, forms an intra-N terminus four-residue-loop of so far unknown function. Here, by mutational and functional studies, we examined the impact of the different disulphide bridges for ACKR3 folding, ligand binding and activation. We showed that, in contrast to most classical chemokine receptors, none of the extracellular disulphide bridges was essential for ACKR3 function. However, the disruption of the unique ACKR3 N-terminal loop drastically reduced the binding of CC chemokines whereas it only had a mild impact on CXC chemokine binding. Mutagenesis also uncovered that chemokine and endogenous non-chemokine ligands interact and activate ACKR3 according to distinct binding modes characterized by different transmembrane domain subpocket occupancy and N-terminal loop contribution, with BAM22 mimicking the binding mode of CC chemokine N terminus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Uncovering a Nuisance Influence of a Phenological Trait of Plants Using a Nonlinear Structural Equation: Application to Days to Heading and Culm Length in Asian Cultivated Rice (Oryza Sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onogi, Akio; Ideta, Osamu; Yoshioka, Takuma; Ebana, Kaworu; Yamasaki, Masanori; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Phenological traits of plants, such as flowering time, are linked to growth phase transition. Thus, phenological traits often influence other traits through the modification of the duration of growth period. This influence is a nuisance in plant breeding because it hampers genetic evaluation of the influenced traits. Genetic effects on the influenced traits have two components, one that directly affects the traits and one that indirectly affects the traits via the phenological trait. These cannot be distinguished by phenotypic evaluation and ordinary linear regression models. Consequently, if a phenological trait is modified by introgression or editing of the responsible genes, the phenotypes of the influenced traits can change unexpectedly. To uncover the influence of the phenological trait and evaluate the direct genetic effects on the influenced traits, we developed a nonlinear structural equation (NSE) incorporating a nonlinear influence of the phenological trait. We applied the NSE to real data for cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.): days to heading (DH) as a phenological trait and culm length (CL) as the influenced trait. This showed that CL of the cultivars that showed extremely early heading was shortened by the strong influence of DH. In a simulation study, it was shown that the NSE was able to infer the nonlinear influence and direct genetic effects with reasonable accuracy. However, the NSE failed to infer the linear influence in this study. When no influence was simulated, an ordinary bi-trait linear model (OLM) tended to infer the genetic effects more accurately. In such cases, however, by comparing the NSE and OLM using an information criterion, we could assess whether the nonlinear assumption of the NSE was appropriate for the data analyzed. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the NSE in revealing the phenotypic influence of phenological traits.

  16. Revelando sentidos na prática docente: a abordagem de corpus na análise do discurso Uncovering meanings in pedagogical practice: the corpus approach in discourse analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Viana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a viabilidade da utilização de ferramentas da Linguística de Corpus na análise do discurso pedagógico. Para tanto, são apresentados dois estudos de caso. O primeiro focaliza o discurso de professores de língua inglesa de um renomado curso de idiomas do Rio de Janeiro acerca da implementação de recursos tecnológicos na sala de aula. O segundo estudo, por sua vez, busca perceber qual é o posicionamento de professores universitários de literaturas em língua inglesa sobre literatura e seu ensino. Os resultados apontam para a riqueza dos dados contextuais que podem ser depreendidos a partir de uma análise linguística de base empírica. Em última análise, o artigo revela a importância e a flexibilidade da abordagem de corpus na análise do discurso, que pode ser aplicada a inúmeros contextos.This paper discusses the feasibility of using Corpus Linguistics tools in the analysis of pedagogic discourse. For doing this, two case studies are presented. The first one focuses on the discourse of English language teachers of a well-known languages course in Rio de Janeiro about the implementation of technological resources in the classroom. The second study, in its turn, seeks to realize the position held by university professors of literatures in English language with regard to literature and its teaching. The results point out to the richness of contextual data which can be inferred from a linguistic analysis with an empirical basis. All in all, the paper uncovers the importance and flexibility of the corpus approach in discourse analysis, which may be applied to several contexts.

  17. Tensor GSVD of Patient- and Platform-Matched Tumor and Normal DNA Copy-Number Profiles Uncovers Chromosome Arm-Wide Patterns of Tumor-Exclusive Platform-Consistent Alterations Encoding for Cell Transformation and Predicting Ovarian Cancer Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Preethi; Schomay, Theodore E.; Aiello, Katherine A.; Alter, Orly

    2015-01-01

    The number of large-scale high-dimensional datasets recording different aspects of a single disease is growing, accompanied by a need for frameworks that can create one coherent model from multiple tensors of matched columns, e.g., patients and platforms, but independent rows, e.g., probes. We define and prove the mathematical properties of a novel tensor generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD), which can simultaneously find the similarities and dissimilarities, i.e., patterns of varying relative significance, between any two such tensors. We demonstrate the tensor GSVD in comparative modeling of patient- and platform-matched but probe-independent ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV) tumor, mostly high-grade, and normal DNA copy-number profiles, across each chromosome arm, and combination of two arms, separately. The modeling uncovers previously unrecognized patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent co-occurring copy-number alterations (CNAs). We find, first, and validate that each of the patterns across only 7p and Xq, and the combination of 6p+12p, is correlated with a patient’s prognosis, is independent of the tumor’s stage, the best predictor of OV survival to date, and together with stage makes a better predictor than stage alone. Second, these patterns include most known OV-associated CNAs that map to these chromosome arms, as well as several previously unreported, yet frequent focal CNAs. Third, differential mRNA, microRNA, and protein expression consistently map to the DNA CNAs. A coherent picture emerges for each pattern, suggesting roles for the CNAs in OV pathogenesis and personalized therapy. In 6p+12p, deletion of the p21-encoding CDKN1A and p38-encoding MAPK14 and amplification of RAD51AP1 and KRAS encode for human cell transformation, and are correlated with a cell’s immortality, and a patient’s shorter survival time. In 7p, RPA3 deletion and POLD2 amplification are correlated with DNA stability, and a longer survival. In Xq

  18. RELAP5 / MOD3.2 analysis of INSC standard problem INSCSP - V4 : investigation of heat transfer for partly uncovered VVER-1000 core at the test facility KS (RRC K1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tentner, A.; Ahrens, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    The RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer program has been used to analyze a series of tests investigating heat-transfer from a partly uncovered VVER-1000 core in the KS test facility at the Russian Research Center ''Kurchatov Institute'' (RRC-KI). The analysis documented represents VVER Standard Problem 4 in Joint Project 6, which is the investigation of Computer Code Validation for Transient Analysis of RBMK and VVER Reactors, between the United States and Russian International Nuclear Safety Centers. The experiment facility and data, RELAP5 nodalization, and results are shown for one of the six tests defined in Standard Problem 4. Only part of the data was analyzed due to our conclusion that the available experimental data is not sufficient to allow the modeling of the actual experiment sequence. The experiment initial conditions were reached through a series of transient processes, about which no quantitative information was available. This has required the modeling of an arbitrary computational transient, with the goal of reaching initial conditions similar to those observed during the experiment. The use of an arbitrary transient introduces many degrees of freedom in the analysis, i.e. initial computational values that influence the entire sequence of events, including the loop behavior during the experiment time window. Reasonable agreement between RELAP5 and the experiment data can be obtained by manipulating a number of initial computational values, including the liquid level in the fuel assembly model, the liquid level in the annular region, the quality of the saturated vapor in the voided loop regions, etc. Our study has focused on exploring the sensitivity of results to changes in these initial values which are not based on experimental information, but are selected with the goal of matching the experimentally observed behavior during the experiment time window. We have shown that changes in several initial arbitrary values can lead to similar changes in the

  19. Tensor GSVD of patient- and platform-matched tumor and normal DNA copy-number profiles uncovers chromosome arm-wide patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent alterations encoding for cell transformation and predicting ovarian cancer survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Sankaranarayanan

    Full Text Available The number of large-scale high-dimensional datasets recording different aspects of a single disease is growing, accompanied by a need for frameworks that can create one coherent model from multiple tensors of matched columns, e.g., patients and platforms, but independent rows, e.g., probes. We define and prove the mathematical properties of a novel tensor generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD, which can simultaneously find the similarities and dissimilarities, i.e., patterns of varying relative significance, between any two such tensors. We demonstrate the tensor GSVD in comparative modeling of patient- and platform-matched but probe-independent ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV tumor, mostly high-grade, and normal DNA copy-number profiles, across each chromosome arm, and combination of two arms, separately. The modeling uncovers previously unrecognized patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent co-occurring copy-number alterations (CNAs. We find, first, and validate that each of the patterns across only 7p and Xq, and the combination of 6p+12p, is correlated with a patient's prognosis, is independent of the tumor's stage, the best predictor of OV survival to date, and together with stage makes a better predictor than stage alone. Second, these patterns include most known OV-associated CNAs that map to these chromosome arms, as well as several previously unreported, yet frequent focal CNAs. Third, differential mRNA, microRNA, and protein expression consistently map to the DNA CNAs. A coherent picture emerges for each pattern, suggesting roles for the CNAs in OV pathogenesis and personalized therapy. In 6p+12p, deletion of the p21-encoding CDKN1A and p38-encoding MAPK14 and amplification of RAD51AP1 and KRAS encode for human cell transformation, and are correlated with a cell's immortality, and a patient's shorter survival time. In 7p, RPA3 deletion and POLD2 amplification are correlated with DNA stability, and a longer survival

  20. Proteomic analysis of Magnolia sieboldii K. Koch seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiu-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Lin; Mei, Mei; Liu, Guang-Lin; Ma, Bei-Bei

    2016-02-05

    Magnolia sieboldii is a deciduous tree native to China. This species has a deep dormancy characteristic. To better understand seed germination, we used protein analysis of changes in seed protein at 0, 65, 110 and 150 d of stratification. Comparative 2DE analysis of M. sieboldii seed protein profiles at 0, 65, 110 and 150 d of stratification revealed 80 differentially abundance protein species. Comparative analysis showed that ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase small subunit was degraded during germination. In particular, it was degraded almost completely at 110 d of germination. Starch granules in the microstructure decreased after 65 d of stratification. Starch granules provided a sufficient amount of substrates and ATPs for subsequent germination. Four storage protein species were identified, of which all were down accumulated. Spots 44 and 46 had different MW and pI values, spots 36 and 46 had nearly the same MW with pI shift in the 2-DE gels, suggesting that they might be present as different isoforms of the same protein family and the post translational modification. Our results suggested that degradation of starch granules and storage protein species prepared the seed embryo for growth, as well as regulated seed germination. The present proteomics analysis provides novel insights into the mobilisation of nutrient reserves during the germination of M. sieboldii seeds. To better understand seed germination, a complex developmental process, we developed a proteome analysis of M. sieboldii seed. We performed the first comprehensive proteomic and microstructure analysis during different seed stratification stages of M. sieboldii. Among the 80 protein species, 26 were identified, 7 and 14 protein species were up or down accumulated significantly. Many of the identified key proteins were involved in embryo development, starch biosynthesis and energy metabolism, Microstructure of stratification seed analysis revealed degradation of starch was used for preparing the seed

  1. Validation of candidate gene markers for marker-assisted selection of potato cultivars with improved tuber quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Tacke, Eckhard; Hofferbert, Hans-Reinhardt; Lübeck, Jens; Strahwald, Josef; Draffehn, Astrid M; Walkemeier, Birgit; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2013-04-01

    Tuber yield, starch content, starch yield and chip color are complex traits that are important for industrial uses and food processing of potato. Chip color depends on the quantity of reducing sugars glucose and fructose in the tubers, which are generated by starch degradation. Reducing sugars accumulate when tubers are stored at low temperatures. Early and efficient selection of cultivars with superior yield, starch yield and chip color is hampered by the fact that reliable phenotypic selection requires multiple year and location trials. Application of DNA-based markers early in the breeding cycle, which are diagnostic for superior alleles of genes that control natural variation of tuber quality, will reduce the number of clones to be evaluated in field trials. Association mapping using genes functional in carbohydrate metabolism as markers has discovered alleles of invertases and starch phosphorylases that are associated with tuber quality traits. Here, we report on new DNA variants at loci encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and the invertase Pain-1, which are associated with positive or negative effect with chip color, tuber starch content and starch yield. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) and marker validation were performed in tetraploid breeding populations, using various combinations of 11 allele-specific markers associated with tuber quality traits. To facilitate MAS, user-friendly PCR assays were developed for specific candidate gene alleles. In a multi-parental population of advanced breeding clones, genotypes were selected for having different combinations of five positive and the corresponding negative marker alleles. Genotypes combining five positive marker alleles performed on average better than genotypes with four negative alleles and one positive allele. When tested individually, seven of eight markers showed an effect on at least one quality trait. The direction of effect was as expected. Combinations of two to three marker alleles were

  2. Two MYB-related transcription factors play opposite roles in sugar signaling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Shih; Chao, Yi-Chi; Tseng, Tzu-Wei; Huang, Chun-Kai; Lo, Pei-Ching; Lu, Chung-An

    2017-02-01

    Sugar regulation of gene expression has profound effects at all stages of the plant life cycle. Although regulation at the transcriptional level is one of the most prominent mechanisms by which gene expression is regulated, only a few transcription factors have been identified and demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of sugar-regulated gene expression. OsMYBS1, an R1/2-type MYB transcription factor, has been demonstrated to be involved in sugar- and hormone-regulated α-amylase gene expression in rice. Arabidopsis contains two OsMYBS1 homologs. In the present study, we investigate MYBS1 and MYBS2 in sugar signaling in Arabidopsis. Our results indicate that MYBS1 and MYBS2 play opposite roles in regulating glucose and ABA signaling in Arabidopsis during seed germination and early seedling development. MYB proteins have been classified into four subfamilies: R2R3-MYB, R1/2-MYB, 3R-MYB, and 4R-MYB. An R1/2-type MYB transcription factor, OsMYBS1, has been demonstrated to be involved in sugar- and hormone-regulated α-amylase genes expression in rice. In this study, two genes homologous to OsMYBS1, MYBS1 and MYBS2, were investigated in Arabidopsis. Subcellular localization analysis showed that MYBS1 and MYBS2 were localized in the nucleus. Rice embryo transient expression assays indicated that both MYBS1 and MYBS2 could recognize the sugar response element, TA-box, in the promoter and induced promoter activity. mybs1 mutant exhibited hypersensitivity to glucose, whereas mybs2 seedlings were hyposensitive to it. MYBS1 and MYBS2 are involved in the control of glucose-responsive gene expression, as the mybs1 mutant displayed increased expression of a hexokinase gene (HXK1), chlorophyll a/b-binding protein gene (CAB1), ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene (APL3), and chalcone synthase gene (CHS), whereas the mybs2 mutant exhibited decreased expression of these genes. mybs1 also showed an enhanced response to abscisic acid (ABA) in the seed germination and seedling

  3. Deficiencies in both starch synthase IIIa and branching enzyme IIb lead to a significant increase in amylose in SSIIa-inactive japonica rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Hiroki; Abe, Natsuko; Matsushima, Ryo; Crofts, Naoko; Oitome, Naoko F; Nakamura, Yasunori; Fujita, Naoko

    2014-10-01

    Starch synthase (SS) IIIa has the second highest activity of the total soluble SS activity in developing rice endosperm. Branching enzyme (BE) IIb is the major BE isozyme, and is strongly expressed in developing rice endosperm. A mutant (ss3a/be2b) was generated from wild-type japonica rice which lacks SSIIa activity. The seed weight of ss3a/be2b was 74-94% of that of the wild type, whereas the be2b seed weight was 59-73% of that of the wild type. There were significantly fewer amylopectin short chains [degree of polymerization (DP) ≤13] in ss3a/be2b compared with the wild type. In contrast, the amount of long chains (DP ≥25) connecting clusters of amylopectin in ss3a/be2b was higher than in the wild type and lower than in be2b. The apparent amylose content of ss3a/be2b was 45%, which was >1.5 times greater than that of either ss3a or be2b. Both SSIIIa and BEIIb deficiencies led to higher activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI), which partly explains the high amylose content in the ss3a/be2b endosperm. The percentage apparent amylose content of ss3a and ss3a/be2b at 10 days after flowering (DAF) was higher than that of the wild type and be2b. At 20 DAF, amylopectin biosynthesis in be2b and ss3a/be2b was not observed, whereas amylose biosynthesis in these lines was accelerated at 30 DAF. These data suggest that the high amylose content in the ss3a/be2b mutant results from higher amylose biosynthesis at two stages, up to 20 DAF and from 30 DAF to maturity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. Uncovering the structure-function relationship in spider silk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarger, Jeffery L.; Cherry, Brian R.; van der Vaart, Arjan

    2018-03-01

    All spiders produce protein-based biopolymer fibres that we call silk. The most studied of these silks is spider dragline silk, which is very tough and relatively abundant compared with other types of spider silks. Considerable research has been devoted to understanding the relationship between the molecular structure and mechanical properties of spider dragline silks. In this Review, we overview experimental and computational studies that have provided a wealth of detail at the molecular level on the highly conserved repetitive core and terminal regions of spider dragline silk. We also discuss the role of the nanocrystalline β-sheets and amorphous regions in determining the properties of spider silk fibres, endowing them with strength and elasticity. Additionally, we outline imaging techniques and modelling studies that elucidate the importance of the hierarchical structure of silk fibres at the molecular level. These insights into structure-function relationships can guide the reverse engineering of spider silk to enable the production of superior synthetic fibres.

  5. Uncovering plant-pathogen crosstalk through apoplastic proteomic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaunois, Bertrand; Jeandet, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dorey, Stéphan; Cordelier, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Plant pathogens have evolved by developing different strategies to infect their host, which in turn have elaborated immune responses to counter the pathogen invasion. The apoplast, including the cell wall and extracellular space outside the plasma membrane, is one of the first compartments where pathogen-host interaction occurs. The plant cell wall is composed of a complex network of polysaccharides polymers and glycoproteins and serves as a natural physical barrier against pathogen invasion. The apoplastic fluid, circulating through the cell wall and intercellular spaces, provides a means for delivering molecules and facilitating intercellular communications. Some plant-pathogen interactions lead to plant cell wall degradation allowing pathogens to penetrate into the cells. In turn, the plant immune system recognizes microbial- or damage-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs or DAMPs) and initiates a set of basal immune responses, including the strengthening of the plant cell wall. The establishment of defense requires the regulation of a wide variety of proteins that are involved at different levels, from receptor perception of the pathogen via signaling mechanisms to the strengthening of the cell wall or degradation of the pathogen itself. A fine regulation of apoplastic proteins is therefore essential for rapid and effective pathogen perception and for maintaining cell wall integrity. This review aims to provide insight into analyses using proteomic approaches of the apoplast to highlight the modulation of the apoplastic protein patterns during pathogen infection and to unravel the key players involved in plant-pathogen interaction.

  6. Uncovering attribute-based determinants of loyalty in cigarette brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of tobacco differentiation attributes (i.e. nicotine and tar content, length, flavor and thickness) in market performance and loyalty levels of brands. Design/methodology/approach – The study adopts a stochastic approach to measure...... brand loyalty at the attribute level using the Dirichlet model as a benchmark tool. Data based on the Juster Probability Scale were collected from a sample of n ¼ 155 young smokers in Iceland. Findings – Product differentiation strategies operate differently. Light nicotine and tar content encourages...... smokers to switch across brands and within family brands, resulting on improved market performance and loyalty levels. Length and thickness-related differentiation are slightly better than nondifferentiation in inducing loyalty, but worse in improving performance. Practical implications – Two types...

  7. Towards Uncovering the Mysterious World of Math Homework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mingyu

    2014-01-01

    Homework has been a mysterious world to educators due to the fact that it is hard to collect data with regard to homework behaviors. Little is known about when a student works on homework, how long it takes him to complete the homework, how much time he spends on a problem and whether and where he has struggled, etc. Such information not only have…

  8. Uncovering product development competence by applying the laddering technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne; Harmsen, Hanne

    This paper addresses companies' lack of implementation of success factors in new product development. Drawing on theories in the competence perspective and an exploratory empirical study, the paper points to two major areas that have not been covered by previous studies on new product development...... success factors. The two areas are individual employees' knowledge, skills, and values and norms. It is suggested that increased understanding of these two areas hold potential in making identified success factors more accessible to companies.......This paper addresses companies' lack of implementation of success factors in new product development. Drawing on theories in the competence perspective and an exploratory empirical study, the paper points to two major areas that have not been covered by previous studies on new product development...

  9. Cultural psychopathology: uncovering the social world of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, S R; Guarnaccia, P J

    2000-01-01

    We review cultural psychopathology research since Kleinman's (1988) important review with the goals of updating past reviews, evaluating current conceptualizations and methods, and identifying emerging substantive trends. Conceptual advances are noted, particularly developments in the definition of culture and the examination of both culture-specific and cultural-general processes. The contributions of the Culture and Diagnosis Task Force for DSM-IV and the World Mental Health Report are reviewed and contrasted. Selected research on anxiety, schizophrenia, and childhood disorders is examined, with particular attention given to the study of ataque de nervios, social factors affecting the course of schizophrenia, and cross-national differences in internalizing and externalizing problems in children. Within the last ten years, cultural psychopathology research has become a significant force. Its focus on the social world holds promise to make significant inroads in reducing suffering and improving people's everyday lives.

  10. Uncovering Biological Network Function via Graphlet Degree Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Pržulj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation: Proteins are essential macromolecules of life and thus understanding their function is of great importance. The number of functionally unclassified proteins is large even for simple and well studied organisms such as baker’s yeast. Methods for determining protein function have shifted their focus from targeting specific proteins based solely on sequence homology to analyses of the entire proteome based on protein-protein interaction (PPI networks. Since proteins interact to perform a certain function, analyzing structural properties of PPI networks may provide useful clues about the biological function of individual proteins, protein complexes they participate in, and even larger subcellular machines.Results: We design a sensitive graph theoretic method for comparing local structures of node neighborhoods that demonstrates that in PPI networks, biological function of a node and its local network structure are closely related. The method summarizes a protein’s local topology in a PPI network into the vector of graphlet degrees called the signature of the protein and computes the signature similarities between all protein pairs. We group topologically similar proteins under this measure in a PPI network and show that these protein groups belong to the same protein complexes, perform the same biological functions, are localized in the same subcellular compartments, and have the same tissue expressions. Moreover, we apply our technique on a proteome-scale network data and infer biological function of yet unclassified proteins demonstrating that our method can provide valuable guidelines for future experimental research such as disease protein prediction.Availability: Data is available upon request.

  11. [Calcium supplementation uncovering lactose intolerance - a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifina, Eva; Geissler, Dietmar; Zwettler, Elisabeth; Klaushofer, Klaus; Mikosch, Peter

    2012-03-01

    A 44 yr-old female with osteoporosis had no relevant gastrointestinal symptoms and did not avoid any specific food. However, after prescription of a lactose-rich calcium supplementation, clinical symptoms suspicious for lactose intolerance occurred, which were thereafter confirmed by a lactose tolerance test. Lactose intolerance may present with only slight or subtle symptoms. Drugs containing lactose may induce or increase gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with lactose intolerance. In case of gastrointestinal symptoms occurring after the initiation of drugs containing lactose, the possibility of lactose intolerance should be considered and tested by lactose tolerance test or genetic testing for the LCT (-13910) polymorphism. Due to the prevalence of about 15-25% lactose intolerance in the Austrian population, lactose free drugs should be prescribed as widely as possible.

  12. Uncovering Urban Temporal Patterns from Geo-Tagged Photography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Paldino

    Full Text Available We live in a world where digital trails of different forms of human activities compose big urban data, allowing us to detect many aspects of how people experience the city in which they live or come to visit. In this study we propose to enhance urban planning by taking into a consideration individual preferences using information from an unconventional big data source: dataset of geo-tagged photographs that people take in cities which we then use as a measure of urban attractiveness. We discover and compare a temporal behavior of residents and visitors in ten most photographed cities in the world. Looking at the periodicity in urban attractiveness, the results show that the strongest periodic patterns for visitors are usually weekly or monthly. Moreover, by dividing cities into two groups based on which continent they belong to (i.e., North America or Europe, it can be concluded that unlike European cities, behavior of visitors in the US cities in general is similar to the behavior of their residents. Finally, we apply two indices, called "dilatation attractiveness index" and "dilatation index", to our dataset which tell us the spatial and temporal attractiveness pulsations in the city. The proposed methodology is not only important for urban planning, but also does support various business and public stakeholder decision processes, concentrated for example around the question how to attract more visitors to the city or estimate the impact of special events organized there.

  13. Uncovering English-medium instruction glocal issues in higher education

    CERN Document Server

    Drljaca Margic, Branka

    2016-01-01

    This book draws on a range of theoretical and empirical insights to explore the implications of English-medium instruction in higher education and how to capitalize on its strengths and respond to its challenges. It opens up new avenues for research relevant to all educational institutions undergoing change in this field.

  14. Stars Just Got Bigger - A 300 Solar Mass Star Uncovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Using a combination of instruments on ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have discovered the most massive stars to date, one weighing at birth more than 300 times the mass of the Sun, or twice as much as the currently accepted limit of 150 solar masses. The existence of these monsters - millions of times more luminous than the Sun, losing weight through very powerful winds - may provide an answer to the question "how massive can stars be?" A team of astronomers led by Paul Crowther, Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Sheffield, has used ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), as well as archival data from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, to study two young clusters of stars, NGC 3603 and RMC 136a in detail. NGC 3603 is a cosmic factory where stars form frantically from the nebula's extended clouds of gas and dust, located 22 000 light-years away from the Sun (eso1005). RMC 136a (more often known as R136) is another cluster of young, massive and hot stars, which is located inside the Tarantula Nebula, in one of our neighbouring galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud, 165 000 light-years away (eso0613). The team found several stars with surface temperatures over 40 000 degrees, more than seven times hotter than our Sun, and a few tens of times larger and several million times brighter. Comparisons with models imply that several of these stars were born with masses in excess of 150 solar masses. The star R136a1, found in the R136 cluster, is the most massive star ever found, with a current mass of about 265 solar masses and with a birthweight of as much as 320 times that of the Sun. In NGC 3603, the astronomers could also directly measure the masses of two stars that belong to a double star system [1], as a validation of the models used. The stars A1, B and C in this cluster have estimated masses at birth above or close to 150 solar masses. Very massive stars produce very powerful outflows. "Unlike humans, these stars are born heavy and lose weight as they age," says Paul Crowther. "Being a little over a million years old, the most extreme star R136a1 is already 'middle-aged' and has undergone an intense weight loss programme, shedding a fifth of its initial mass over that time, or more than fifty solar masses." If R136a1 replaced the Sun in our Solar System, it would outshine the Sun by as much as the Sun currently outshines the full Moon. "Its high mass would reduce the length of the Earth's year to three weeks, and it would bathe the Earth in incredibly intense ultraviolet radiation, rendering life on our planet impossible," says Raphael Hirschi from Keele University, who belongs to the team. These super heavyweight stars are extremely rare, forming solely within the densest star clusters. Distinguishing the individual stars - which has now been achieved for the first time - requires the exquisite resolving power of the VLT's infrared instruments [2]. The team also estimated the maximum possible mass for the stars within these clusters and the relative number of the most massive ones. "The smallest stars are limited to more than about eighty times more than Jupiter, below which they are 'failed stars' or brown dwarfs," says team member Olivier Schnurr from the Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam. "Our new finding supports the previous view that there is also an upper limit to how big stars can get, although it raises the limit by a factor of two, to about 300 solar masses." Within R136, only four stars weighed more than 150 solar masses at birth, yet they account for nearly half of the wind and radiation power of the entire cluster, comprising approximately 100 000 stars in total. R136a1 alone energises its surroundings by more than a factor of fifty compared to the Orion Nebula cluster, the closest region of massive star formation to Earth. Understanding how high mass stars form is puzzling enough, due to their very short lives and powerful winds, so that the identification of such extreme cases as R136a1 raises the challenge to theorists still further. "Either they were born so big or smaller stars merged together to produce them," explains Crowther. Stars between about 8 and 150 solar masses explode at the end of their short lives as supernovae, leaving behind exotic remnants, either neutron stars or black holes. Having now established the existence of stars weighing between 150 and 300 solar masses, the astronomers' findings raise the prospect of the existence of exceptionally bright, "pair instability supernovae" that completely blow themselves apart, failing to leave behind any remnant and dispersing up to ten solar masses of iron into their surroundings. A few candidates for such explosions have already been proposed in recent years. Not only is R136a1 the most massive star ever found, but it also has the highest luminosity too, close to 10 million times greater than the Sun. "Owing to the rarity of these monsters, I think it is unlikely that this new record will be broken any time soon," concludes Crowther. Notes [1] The star A1 in NGC 3603 is a double star, with an orbital period of 3.77 days. The two stars in the system have, respectively, 120 and 92 times the mass of the Sun, which means that they have formed as stars weighing, respectively, 148 and 106 solar masses. [2] The team used the SINFONI, ISAAC and MAD instruments, all attached to ESO's Very Large Telescope at Paranal, Chile. [3] (note added on 26 July 2010) The "bigger" in the title does not imply that these stars are the biggest observed. Such stars, called red supergiants, can have radii up to about a thousand solar radii, while R136a1, which is blue, is about 35 times as large as the Sun. However, R136a1 is the star with the greatest mass known to date. More information This work is presented in an article published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society ("The R136 star cluster hosts several stars whose individual masses greatly exceed the accepted 150 Msun stellar mass limit", by P. Crowther et al.). The team is composed of Paul A. Crowther, Richard J. Parker, and Simon P. Goodwin (University of Sheffield, UK), Olivier Schnurr (University of Sheffield and Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, Germany), Raphael Hirschi (Keele University, UK), and Norhasliza Yusof and Hasan Abu Kassim (University of Malaya, Malaysia). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  15. Proteomic analysis uncovers a metabolic phenotype in C. elegans after

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pohludka, M.; Šimečková, K.; Vohanka, J.; Yilma, P.; Novák, Petr; Krause, M. W.; Kostrouchová, M.; Kostrouch, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 374, č. 1 (2008), s. 49-54 ISSN 0006-291X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : nuclear hormone receptors * caenorhabditis elegans * nhr-40 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.648, year: 2008

  16. Uncovering the multiple objectives behind national energy efficiency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydt, Gustavo; Leal, Vítor; Dias, Luís

    2013-01-01

    This work seeks to identify the fundamental objectives behind the development of energy efficiency (EE) plans for countries. It also presents a method to quantify the degree of achievement of each objective, through the identification and operationalization of attributes. This was achieved by applying Keeney's value-focused thinking approach. For that purpose, three key decision makers in EE planning were interviewed along with a bibliographic review on the subject. From this process six fundamental objectives were identified formalizing the problem as a multi-objective one: (i) to minimize the influence of energy use on climate change; (ii) to minimize the financial risk from the investment; (iii) to maximize the security of energy supply; (iv) to minimize investment costs; (v) to minimize the impacts of building new power plants and transmission infrastructures and (vi) to maximize the local air quality. The respective attributes were: (i) CO 2 emissions savings; (ii) payback; (iii) imported energy savings; (iv) investment cost; (v) electricity savings; and (vi) total suspended particles savings. To show the usefulness of the work, the objectives and attributes identified were used to show the possible outcomes from five hypothetical EE plans for Portugal

  17. Female Urethral Anomalies in Pediatric Age Group: Uncovered

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urogenital sinus in females (ectopia of the external urethral opening in the urogenital sinus). All the variants of female hypospadias must be surgically corrected as transposition of the external opening of the urethra from the vagina on the perineum under the clitoris in chronic urethritis. The second case mentioned above.

  18. Uncovering Clinical Features of De Novo Philadelphia Positive Myelodysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Aristides; Chen, Chen; Mims, Martha; Rivero, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is cytogenetically heterogeneous and retains variable risk for acute myeloid leukemia transformation. Though not yet fully understood, there is an association between genetic abnormalities and defects in gene expression. The functional role for infrequent cytogenetic alteration remains unclear. An uncommon chromosomic abnormality is the presence of the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. Here, we report a patient with Ph+ MDS treated with low dose Dasatinib who achieved hematologic response for 7 months. In addition, we also examined the English literature on all de novo Ph + MDS cases between 1996 and 2015 to gain insight into clinical features and outcome.

  19. Transcriptome atlas of eight liver cell types uncovers effects of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... types, and bioinformatic and systems biology approaches were employed to analyse the relationship between above genes and rat liver regeneration. The results showed that the urocanic acid (UA) was degraded from histidine in Kupffer cells, acts on Kupffer cells itself and dendritic cells to generate immune suppression ...

  20. Process improvement methodologies uncover unexpected gaps in stroke care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuner, Anthony D; Schemmel, Andrew J; Pooler, B Dustin; Yu, John-Paul J

    2018-01-01

    Background The diagnosis and treatment of acute stroke requires timed and coordinated effort across multiple clinical teams. Purpose To analyze the frequency and temporal distribution of emergent stroke evaluations (ESEs) to identify potential contributory workflow factors that may delay the initiation and subsequent evaluation of emergency department stroke patients. Material and Methods A total of 719 sentinel ESEs with concurrent neuroimaging were identified over a 22-month retrospective time period. Frequency data were tabulated and odds ratios calculated. Results Of all ESEs, 5% occur between 01:00 and 07:00. ESEs were most frequent during the late morning and early afternoon hours (10:00-14:00). Unexpectedly, there was a statistically significant decline in the frequency of ESEs that occur at the 14:00 time point. Conclusion Temporal analysis of ESEs in the emergency department allowed us to identify an unexpected decrease in ESEs and through process improvement methodologies (Lean and Six Sigma) and identify potential workflow elements contributing to this observation.

  1. Uncovering the single top: observation of electroweak top quark production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Jorge Armando [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The top quark is generally produced in quark and anti-quark pairs. However, the Standard Model also predicts the production of only one top quark which is mediated by the electroweak interaction, known as 'Single Top'. Single Top quark production is important because it provides a unique and direct way to measure the CKM matrix element Vtb, and can be used to explore physics possibilities beyond the Standard Model predictions. This dissertation presents the results of the observation of Single Top using 2.3 fb-1 of Data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The analysis includes the Single Top muon+jets and electron+jets final states and employs Boosted Decision Tress as a method to separate the signal from the background. The resulting Single Top cross section measurement is: (1) σ(p$\\bar{p}$→ tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.74-0.74+0.95 pb, where the errors include both statistical and systematic uncertainties. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is p = 1.9 x 10-6. This corresponds to a standard deviation Gaussian equivalence of 4.6. When combining this result with two other analysis methods, the resulting cross section measurement is: (2) σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.94 ± 0.88 pb, and the corresponding measurement significance is 5.0 standard deviations.

  2. Uncovering the hidden demographic history of the USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, A

    1991-01-01

    After the results of the 1937 census were calculated and the figures were lower than expected, Stalin arrested the census takers, altered the figures, and cancelled it. But, he did not destroy the records; they have remained in the archives of the Central National Archives for 50 years. They are now finally open to inspection thanks to glasnost. The records that are being examined are confirming what some in the West had suspected all along. Stalin wanted the 1937 census to show 170 million people, but because of famine, the actual number was more like 162 million. Stalin wanted the census to show the world that socialism was better than capitalism in terms of growth. However the forced collectivization of farms and the forced relocations of people resulted in a famine in 1933 which wiped out about 2.5 times more people over and above normal death rates. In some regions this figure is 4.5 times what is normally was. The number of people lost during WWII is also being revised in light of these new records. It appears that 26 million people died as the result of hostilities between 1941-45. This is in addition to the number normally expected to die during the same time.

  3. Uncovering the Hidden Molecular Signatures of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    et al. (2010) Structure, evolutionary conservation, and conformational dynamics of Homo sapiens fascin-1, an F-actin crosslinking protein. J Mol Biol...Adenocarcinoma Adenocarcinoma C K8 /1 8 C K1 4 C K5 /6 Vi m en tin E- ca dh er in Sp in dl oi d tu m or c el ls At yp ic al d uc ts At yp ic al d

  4. Uncovering effects of climate variables on global vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to understand the causal relationships of how ecosystem dynamics, mostly characterized by vegetation changes, in different...

  5. Functional hypergraph uncovers novel covariant structures over neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shi; Yang, Muzhi; Medaglia, John D; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Bassett, Danielle S

    2017-08-01

    Brain development during adolescence is marked by substantial changes in brain structure and function, leading to a stable network topology in adulthood. However, most prior work has examined the data through the lens of brain areas connected to one another in large-scale functional networks. Here, we apply a recently developed hypergraph approach that treats network connections (edges) rather than brain regions as the unit of interest, allowing us to describe functional network topology from a fundamentally different perspective. Capitalizing on a sample of 780 youth imaged as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, this hypergraph representation of resting-state functional MRI data reveals three distinct classes of subnetworks (hyperedges): clusters, bridges, and stars, which respectively represent homogeneously connected, bipartite, and focal architectures. Cluster hyperedges show a strong resemblance to previously-described functional modules of the brain including somatomotor, visual, default mode, and salience systems. In contrast, star hyperedges represent highly localized subnetworks centered on a small set of regions, and are distributed across the entire cortex. Finally, bridge hyperedges link clusters and stars in a core-periphery organization. Notably, developmental changes within hyperedges are ordered in a similar core-periphery fashion, with the greatest developmental effects occurring in networked hyperedges within the functional core. Taken together, these results reveal a novel decomposition of the network organization of human brain, and further provide a new perspective on the role of local structures that emerge across neurodevelopment. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3823-3835, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Unique small RNA signatures uncovered in the tammar wallaby genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay James

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small RNAs have proven to be essential regulatory molecules encoded within eukaryotic genomes. These short RNAs participate in a diverse array of cellular processes including gene regulation, chromatin dynamics and genome defense. The tammar wallaby, a marsupial mammal, is a powerful comparative model for studying the evolution of regulatory networks. As part of the genome sequencing initiative for the tammar, we have explored the evolution of each of the major classes of mammalian small RNAs in an Australian marsupial for the first time, including the first genome-scale analysis of the newest class of small RNAs, centromere repeat associated short interacting RNAs (crasiRNAs. Results Using next generation sequencing, we have characterized the major classes of small RNAs, micro (mi RNAs, piwi interacting (pi RNAs, and the centromere repeat associated short interacting (crasi RNAs in the tammar. We examined each of these small RNA classes with respect to the newly assembled tammar wallaby genome for gene and repeat features, salient features that define their canonical sequences, and the constitution of both highly conserved and species-specific members. Using a combination of miRNA hairpin predictions and co-mapping with miRBase entries, we identified a highly conserved cluster of miRNA genes on the X chromosome in the tammar and a total of 94 other predicted miRNA producing genes. Mapping all miRNAs to the tammar genome and comparing target genes among tammar, mouse and human, we identified 163 conserved target genes. An additional nine genes were identified in tammar that do not have an orthologous miRNA target in human and likely represent novel miRNA-regulated genes in the tammar. A survey of the tammar gonadal piRNAs shows that these small RNAs are enriched in retroelements and carry members from both marsupial and tammar-specific repeat classes. Lastly, this study includes the first in-depth analyses of the newly discovered crasiRNAs. These small RNAs are derived largely from centromere-enriched retroelements, including a novel SINE. Conclusions This study encompasses the first analyses of the major classes of small RNAs for the newly completed tammar genome, validates preliminary annotations using deep sequencing and computational approaches, and provides a foundation for future work on tammar-specific as well as conserved, but previously unknown small RNA progenitors and targets identified herein. The characterization of new miRNA target genes and a unique profile for crasiRNAs has allowed for insight into multiple RNA mediated processes in the tammar, including gene regulation, species incompatibilities, centromere and chromosome function.

  7. Decay uncovered in nonverbal short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Tom; McKeown, Denis

    2014-02-01

    Decay theory posits that memory traces gradually fade away over the passage of time unless they are actively rehearsed. Much recent work exploring verbal short-term memory has challenged this theory, but there does appear to be evidence for trace decay in nonverbal auditory short-term memory. Numerous discrimination studies have reported a performance decline as the interval separating two tones is increased, consistent with a decay process. However, most of this tone comparison research can be explained in other ways, without reference to decay, and these alternative accounts were tested in the present study. In Experiment 1, signals were employed toward the end of extended retention intervals to ensure that listeners were alert to the presence and frequency content of the memoranda. In Experiment 2, a mask stimulus was employed in an attempt to distinguish between a highly detailed sensory trace and a longer-lasting short-term memory, and the distinctiveness of the stimuli was varied. Despite these precautions, slow-acting trace decay was observed. It therefore appears that the mere passage of time can lead to forgetting in some forms of short-term memory.

  8. Book Review, Waste: Uncovering the Global Food Scandal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Could curbing food waste significantly reduce world hunger and environmental pressures? Tristram Stuart argues cogently that it could in his book Waste, which details the global food-waste scandal and delves into questions such as how much food is available globally? How much is needed and used, a...

  9. Uncovering activity cliff generators using distribution of SALI values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Medina-Franco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Los acantilados de actividad se definen como compuestos con alta similitud estructural, pero también con altadiferencia en potencia. Estos compuestos tienen un impacto significativo en la optimización de líderes en químicamedicinal y en aplicaciones computacionales, como el desarrollo de modelos predictivos y en la selección demoléculas de referencia en búsquedas basadas en similitud molecular. Por lo tanto, es de gran relevancia laidentificación de compuestos altamente asociados con los acantilados como por ejemplo los “generadores deacantilados de actividad”. En este trabajo se reportan la identificación de acantilados de actividad y las relacionesestructura-actividad de un grupo de 289 compuestos obtenidos por síntesis química que han sido evaluados a travésde una proteína quinasa reguladora de receptores acoplados a proteínas-G. Para considerar la información demúltiples representaciones estructurales, se empleó el promedio del índice SALI (Structure-Activity Landscape Indexy se discuten también fragmentos estructurales responsables de la actividad biológica.

  10. An improvement of the fast uncovering community algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Li; Wang Jiang; Shen Hua-Wei; Cheng Xue-Qi

    2013-01-01

    Community detection methods have been used in computer, sociology, physics, biology, and brain information science areas. Many methods are based on the optimization of modularity. The algorithm proposed by Blondel et al. (Blondel V D, Guillaume J L, Lambiotte R and Lefebvre E 2008 J. Stat. Mech. 10 10008) is one of the most widely used methods because of its good performance, especially in the big data era. In this paper we make some improvements to this algorithm in correctness and performance. By tests we see that different node orders bring different performances and different community structures. We find some node swings in different communities that influence the performance. So we design some strategies on the sweeping order of node to reduce the computing cost made by repetition swing. We introduce a new concept of overlapping degree (OV) that shows the strength of connection between nodes. Three improvement strategies are proposed that are based on constant OV, adaptive OV, and adaptive weighted OV, respectively. Experiments on synthetic datasets and real datasets are made, showing that our improved strategies can improve the performance and correctness. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  11. The Rosenberg Trial: Uncovering the Layers of History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragsdale, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    The trial of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg on charges of conspiring to spy for the Soviet Union remains one of the defining moments of the Cold War era. The dramatic allegations of stolen atomic secrets and networks of Communist spies riveted the public's attention. The determination of government prosecutors reflected a widely shared belief that the…

  12. Radiological survey of the covered and uncovered drilling mud depository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónás, Jácint; Somlai, János; Csordás, Anita; Tóth-Bodrogi, Edit; Kovács, Tibor

    2018-08-01

    In petroleum engineering, the produced drilling mud sometimes contains elevated amounts of natural radioactivity. In this study, a remediated Hungarian drilling mud depository was investigated from a radiological perspective. The depository was monitored before and after a clay layer was applied as covering. In this study, the ambient dose equivalent rate H*(10) of the depository has been measured by a Scintillator Probe (6150AD-b Dose Rate Meter). Outdoor radon concentration, radon concentration in soil gas, and in situ field radon exhalation measurements were carried out using a pulse-type ionization chamber (AlphaGUARD radon monitor). Soil gas permeability (k) measurements were carried out using the permeameter (RADON-JOK) in situ device. Geogenic radon potentials were calculated. The radionuclide content of the drilling mud and cover layer sample has been determined with an HPGe gamma-spectrometer. The gamma dose rate was estimated from the measured radionuclide concentrations and the results were compared with the measured ambient dose equivalent rate. Based on the measured results before and after covering, the ambient dose equivalent rates were 76 (67-85) nSv/h before and 86 (83-89) nSv/h after covering, radon exhalation was 9 (6-12) mBq/m 2 s before and 14 (5-28) mBq/m 2 s after covering, the outdoor radon concentrations were 11 (9-16) before and 13 (10-22) Bq/m 3 after covering and the soil gas radon concentrations were 6 (3-8) before and 24 (14-40) kBq/m 3 after covering. Soil gas permeability measurements were 1E-11 (7E-12-1E-11) and 1E-12 (5E-13-1E-12) m 2 and the calculated geogenic radon potential values were 6 (3-8) and 12 (6-21) before and after the covering. The main radionuclide concentrations of the drilling mud were C U-238 12 (10-15) Bq/kg, C Ra-226 31 (18-40) Bq/kg, C Th-232 35 (33-39) Bq/kg and C K-40 502 (356-673) Bq/kg. The same radionuclide concentrations in the clay were C U-238 31 (29-34) Bq/kg, C Ra-226 45 (40-51) Bq/kg, C Th-232 58 (55-60) Bq/kg and C K-40 651 (620-671) Bq/kg. According to our results, the drilling mud depository exhibits no radiological risk from any radiological aspects (radon, radon exhalation, gamma dose, etc.); therefore, long term monitoring activity is not necessary from the radiological point of view. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Uncovering the History of Operating Room Attire through Photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Lu Wang; Aschenbrenner, Carol A; Houle, Timothy T; Roy, Raymond C

    2016-01-01

    Although early proponents for each of the four basic articles of operating room clothing--gowns, caps, masks, and gloves--can be identified, it is unclear from historical commentaries when each article achieved general acceptance and was consistently worn by surgeons and by anesthesia providers. Historical photographs were identified from the Web sites of the National Library of Medicine, Google, and the archives of the Wood Library-Museum of Anesthesiology for the 11 decades 1860 to 1970. The presence or absence of each article of clothing was then determined for the surgical and anesthesia providers depicted. Over 1,000 photographs were identified and examined. Photographs were then eliminated for repetition, lack of available dating, questionable dating, and poor quality. In 338 remaining photographs that met inclusion criteria, 640 surgical providers and 219 anesthesia providers were depicted and used in the analysis. Statistical definitions for historical terms general acceptance and routine use were proposed. The probability that a surgeon was wearing nonstreet clothes (gown) was 0.66 (95% CI, 0.22 to 0.93) in 1863. The years (95% lower bound to 95% upper bound) associated with a 0.5 probability for wearing cap, gloves, and mask were 1900 (1896 to 1904), 1907 (1903 to 1910), and 1916 (1913 to 1919), respectively. The years associated with a 0.5 probability that an anesthesia provider would be wearing nonstreet clothes (gown), cap, and mask were 1883 (1863 to 1889), 1905 (1900 to 1911), and 1932 (1929 to 1937), respectively. Timelines for the adoption of each basic article of surgical attire by surgeons and anesthesia providers were determined by analysis of historical operating room photographs from 1863 to 1969.

  14. Obesity and psychotic disorders: uncovering common mechanisms through metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Orešič

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary obesity and psychotic disorders are similar with respect to the associated changes in energy balance and co-morbidities, including metabolic syndrome. Such similarities do not necessarily demonstrate causal links, but instead suggest that specific causes of and metabolic disturbances associated with obesity play a pathogenic role in the development of co-morbid disorders, potentially even before obesity develops. Metabolomics – the systematic study of metabolites, which are small molecules generated by the process of metabolism – has been important in elucidating the pathways underlying obesity-associated co-morbidities. This review covers how recent metabolomic studies have advanced biomarker discovery and the elucidation of mechanisms underlying obesity and its co-morbidities, with a specific focus on metabolic syndrome and psychotic disorders. The importance of identifying metabolic markers of disease-associated intermediate phenotypes – traits modulated but not encoded by the DNA sequence – is emphasized. Such markers would be applicable as diagnostic tools in a personalized healthcare setting and might also open up novel therapeutic avenues.

  15. Uncovering a Role for SK2 in Angelman Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia B. Lizarraga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Angelman syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in UBE3A. Sun et al. (2015 report SK2 as a UBE3A substrate and provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that might underlie impaired neuronal function in individuals affected by Angelman syndrome.

  16. Uncovering a New Current: The Southwest MAdagascar Coastal Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanantsoa, Juliano D.; Penven, P.; Krug, M.; Gula, J.; Rouault, M.

    2018-02-01

    Cruise data sets, satellite remote sensing observations, and model data analyses are combined to highlight the existence of a coastal surface poleward flow in the southwest of Madagascar: the Southwest MAdagascar Coastal Current (SMACC). The SMACC is a relatively shallow (water surface signature of the SMACC extends from 22°S (upstream) to 26.4°S (downstream). The SMACC exhibits a seasonal variability: more intense in summer and reduced in winter. The average volume transport of its core is about 1.3 Sv with a mean summer maximum of 2.1 Sv. It is forced by a strong cyclonic wind stress curl associated with the bending of the trade winds along the southern tip of Madagascar. The SMACC directly influences the coastal upwelling regions south of Madagascar. Its existence is likely to influence local fisheries and larval transport patterns, as well as the connectivity with the Agulhas Current, affecting the returning branch of the global overturning circulation.

  17. Uncovering the Spiritual Dimension of the Basotho Objection to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experience shows that Africans are often, if not always, opposed to landrelated projects which include resettlement as one of their concomitant effects. One project that has recently met this kind of opposition from some of the local people in Lesotho is the Lesotho Highlands Water Project. This is the project aimed at ...

  18. Uncovering Hidden Mathematics of the Multiplication Table Using Spreadsheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Abramovich

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals a number of learning activities emerging from a spreadsheetgenerated multiplication table. These activities are made possible by using such features of the software as conditional formatting, circular referencing, calculation through iteration, scroll bars, and graphing. The paper is a reflection on a mathematics content course designed for prospective elementary teachers using the hidden mathematics curriculum framework. It is written in support of standards for teaching and recommendations for teachers in North America.

  19. Social networks uncovered: 10 tips every plastic surgeon should know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauwe, Phillip; Heller, Justin B; Unger, Jacob G; Graham, Darrell; Rohrich, Rod J

    2012-11-01

    Understanding online social networks is of critical importance to the plastic surgeon. With knowledge, it becomes apparent that the numerous networks available are similar in their structure, usage, and function. The key is communication between Internet media such that one maximizes exposure to patients. This article focuses on 2 social networking platforms that we feel provide the most utility to plastic surgeons. Ten tips are provided for incorporation of Facebook and Twitter into your practice.

  20. Uncovered secret of a Vasseur-Tramond wax model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, J F; Gutiérrez, B; Montes, J M; Ballestriero, R

    2016-01-01

    The technique of anatomical wax modelling reached its heyday in Italy during the 18th century, through a fruitful collaboration between sculptors and anatomists. It soon spread to other countries, and prestigious schools were created in England, France, Spain and Austria. Paris subsequently replaced Italy as the major centre of manufacture, and anatomical waxes were created there from the mid-19th century in workshops such as that of Vasseur-Tramond. This workshop began to sell waxes to European Faculties of Medicine and Schools of Surgery around 1880. Little is known of the technique employed in the creation of such artefacts as this was deemed a professional secret. To gain some insight into the methods of construction, we have studied a Vasseur-Tramond wax model in the Valladolid University Anatomy Museum, Spain, by means of multi-slice computerised tomography and X-ray analysis by means of environmental scanning electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the hair. These results have revealed some of the methods used to make these anatomical models and the materials employed. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  1. Phytophthora Genome Sequences Uncover Evolutionary Origins and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamour, Kurt H [ORNL; McDonald, W Hayes [ORNL; Savidor, Alon [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Genome sequences of the soybean pathogen, Phytophthora sojae, and the sudden oak death pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, suggest a photosynthetic past and reveal recent massive expansion and diversification of potential pathogenicity gene families. Abstract: Draft genome sequences of the soybean pathogen, Phytophthora sojae, and the sudden oak death pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, have been determined. O mycetes such as these Phytophthora species share the kingdom Stramenopila with photosynthetic algae such as diatoms and the presence of many Phytophthora genes of probable phototroph origin support a photosynthetic ancestry for the stramenopiles. Comparison of the two species' genomes reveals a rapid expansion and diversification of many protein families associated with plant infection such as hydrolases, ABC transporters, protein toxins, proteinase inhibitors and, in particular, a superfamily of 700 proteins with similarity to known o mycete avirulence genes.

  2. Uncovering the Biology of Cancers in Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidence suggests that some adolescent and young adult cancers may have unique genetic and biological features. Researchers are trying to better understand the biology of these cancers in order to identify potential therapeutic targets.

  3. Hidden Stories: Uncovering the Visual Metaphor for Education and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hube, Amy M.; Tremblay, Kenneth R., Jr.; Leigh, Katharine E.

    2015-01-01

    Design solutions have become increasingly complex and based on a rapidly growing body of knowledge. In order to articulate a design solution to a client, the graphic use of the design narrative can effectively communicate complex ideas. Two case study interventions were conducted in an interior design program in which students were introduced to…

  4. Uncovering the neural mechanisms underlying learning from tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan L Liu

    Full Text Available People learn better when re-study opportunities are replaced with tests. While researchers have begun to speculate on why testing is superior to study, few studies have directly examined the neural underpinnings of this effect. In this fMRI study, participants engaged in a study phase to learn arbitrary word pairs, followed by a cued recall test (recall second half of pair when cued with first word of pair, re-study of each pair, and finally another cycle of cued recall tests. Brain activation patterns during the first test (recall of the studied pairs predicts performance on the second test. Importantly, while subsequent memory analyses of encoding trials also predict later accuracy, the brain regions involved in predicting later memory success are more extensive for activity during retrieval (testing than during encoding (study. Those additional regions that predict subsequent memory based on their activation at test but not at encoding may be key to understanding the basis of the testing effect.

  5. Uncovering the triple omeron vertex from Wilson line formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirilli, G. A.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2011-01-01

    We compute the triple omeron vertex from the Wilson line formalism, including both planar and nonplanar contributions, and get perfect agreement with the result obtained in the Extended Generalized Logarithmic Approximation based on Reggeon calculus.

  6. Organisational change: a methodology to uncover the business idea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J; Anderson, P

    2001-01-01

    A study was undertaken to identify the "Business Idea", as defined by van der Heijden (1996), in The Family Planning Association of WA Inc (FPWA) which is a Non-Government Organisation (NGO) in Perth, Western Australia. This organisation was chosen as, along with many other NGOs, it was undergoing major changes in its funding, role and required outcomes. A qualitative interpretivist single case study methodology employing grounded theory research principles and methods was used to study the Business Idea framework in this setting. Thirty-four members of FPWA's staff were interviewed and data was managed using NUD*IST4 and Decision Explorer data storage, data retrieval and graphical reproduction facilities. Results indicated that images of the Business Idea model within FPWA were largely consistent across all staff levels excepting members of the Board of Management. Changes within the organisation were impacting heavily on staff, who needed to be assisted over the transitional phase. Strong leadership and corporate direction were identified as essential if the FPWA was to balance the strongly held sense of social justice amongst its staff with a need for greater productivity efficiency and accountability across the organisation.

  7. Uncovering Recovery: The Resistible Rise of Recovery and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harper

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Discourses of recovery and resilience have risen to positions of dominance in the mental health field. Models of recovery and resilience enjoy purchase, in both policy and practice, across a range of settings from self-described psychiatric survivors through to mental health charities through to statutory mental health service providers. Despite this ubiquity, there is confusion about what recovery means. In this article we problematize notions of recovery and resilience, and consider what, if anything, should be recovered from these concepts. We focus on three key issues, i individualization, ii the persistence of a deficit model, and iii collective approaches to recovery. Through documentary analysis we consider these issues across third sector organizations, and public and mental health policy. Firstly, definitional debates about recovery reflect wider ideological debates about the nature of mental health. The vagueness of these concepts and implicit assumptions inherent in dominant recovery and resilience discourses render them problematic because they individualize what are social problems. Secondly, these discourses, despite being seen as inherently liberatory are conceptually dependent on a notion of deficit in that talk of “positives” and “strengths” requires the existence of “negatives” and “weaknesses” for these concepts to make sense.  We argue that this does little to substantially transform dominant understandings of psychological distress. Thirdly, these issues combine to impact upon the progressive potential of recovery. It comes to be seen as an individualistic experiential narrative accompaniment to medical understandings where the structural causes of distress are obscured. This in turn impacts upon the potential for recovery to be used to explore more collective, political aspects of emotional distress. Drawing on the work of Fraser, we use this critique to characterize “recovery” as a “struggle for recognition,” founded on a model of identity politics which displaces and marginalizes the need for social, political and economic redistribution to address many of the underlying causes of emotional distress. We conclude by stating that it is only when the collective, structural experiences of inequality and injustice are explicitly linked to processes of emotional distress that recovery will be possible. 

  8. Uncovering the essential links in online commercial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Fang, Meiling; Shao, Junming; Shang, Mingsheng

    2016-09-01

    Recommender systems are designed to effectively support individuals' decision-making process on various web sites. It can be naturally represented by a user-object bipartite network, where a link indicates that a user has collected an object. Recently, research on the information backbone has attracted researchers' interests, which is a sub-network with fewer nodes and links but carrying most of the relevant information. With the backbone, a system can generate satisfactory recommenda- tions while saving much computing resource. In this paper, we propose an enhanced topology-aware method to extract the information backbone in the bipartite network mainly based on the information of neighboring users and objects. Our backbone extraction method enables the recommender systems achieve more than 90% of the accuracy of the top-L recommendation, however, consuming only 20% links. The experimental results show that our method outperforms the alternative backbone extraction methods. Moreover, the structure of the information backbone is studied in detail. Finally, we highlight that the information backbone is one of the most important properties of the bipartite network, with which one can significantly improve the efficiency of the recommender system.

  9. Vaporous Marketing: Uncovering Pervasive Electronic Cigarette Advertisements on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Eric M; Jones, Chris A; Williams, Jake Ryland; Kurti, Allison N; Norotsky, Mitchell Craig; Danforth, Christopher M; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter has become the "wild-west" of marketing and promotional strategies for advertisement agencies. Electronic cigarettes have been heavily marketed across Twitter feeds, offering discounts, "kid-friendly" flavors, algorithmically generated false testimonials, and free samples. All electronic cigarette keyword related tweets from a 10% sample of Twitter spanning January 2012 through December 2014 (approximately 850,000 total tweets) were identified and categorized as Automated or Organic by combining a keyword classification and a machine trained Human Detection algorithm. A sentiment analysis using Hedonometrics was performed on Organic tweets to quantify the change in consumer sentiments over time. Commercialized tweets were topically categorized with key phrasal pattern matching. The overwhelming majority (80%) of tweets were classified as automated or promotional in nature. The majority of these tweets were coded as commercialized (83.65% in 2013), up to 33% of which offered discounts or free samples and appeared on over a billion twitter feeds as impressions. The positivity of Organic (human) classified tweets has decreased over time (5.84 in 2013 to 5.77 in 2014) due to a relative increase in the negative words 'ban', 'tobacco', 'doesn't', 'drug', 'against', 'poison', 'tax' and a relative decrease in the positive words like 'haha', 'good', 'cool'. Automated tweets are more positive than organic (6.17 versus 5.84) due to a relative increase in the marketing words like 'best', 'win', 'buy', 'sale', 'health', 'discount' and a relative decrease in negative words like 'bad', 'hate', 'stupid', 'don't'. Due to the youth presence on Twitter and the clinical uncertainty of the long term health complications of electronic cigarette consumption, the protection of public health warrants scrutiny and potential regulation of social media marketing.

  10. Covered Interest Parity, Uncovered Interest Parity, and Exchange Rate Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Eaton, Jonathan; Turnovsky, Stephen J.

    1981-01-01

    A number of macroeconomic models of open economies under flexible exchange rate assume a strong version of perfect capital mobility which implies that currency speculation commands no risk premium. If this assumption is dropped a number of important results no longer obtain. First, the exchange rate and interest rate cannot be in steady state unless both the government deficit and current account equal zero, not simply their sum, as would otherwise be the case. Second, even in steady state th...

  11. Uncovering Urban Temporal Patterns from Geo-Tagged Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paldino, Silvia; Kondor, Dániel; Bojic, Iva; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; González, Marta C; Ratti, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    We live in a world where digital trails of different forms of human activities compose big urban data, allowing us to detect many aspects of how people experience the city in which they live or come to visit. In this study we propose to enhance urban planning by taking into a consideration individual preferences using information from an unconventional big data source: dataset of geo-tagged photographs that people take in cities which we then use as a measure of urban attractiveness. We discover and compare a temporal behavior of residents and visitors in ten most photographed cities in the world. Looking at the periodicity in urban attractiveness, the results show that the strongest periodic patterns for visitors are usually weekly or monthly. Moreover, by dividing cities into two groups based on which continent they belong to (i.e., North America or Europe), it can be concluded that unlike European cities, behavior of visitors in the US cities in general is similar to the behavior of their residents. Finally, we apply two indices, called "dilatation attractiveness index" and "dilatation index", to our dataset which tell us the spatial and temporal attractiveness pulsations in the city. The proposed methodology is not only important for urban planning, but also does support various business and public stakeholder decision processes, concentrated for example around the question how to attract more visitors to the city or estimate the impact of special events organized there.

  12. Towards uncovering the structure of power fluctuations of wind farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiwen; Jin, Yaqing; Tobin, Nicolas; Chamorro, Leonardo P

    2017-12-01

    The structure of the turbulence-driven power fluctuations in a wind farm is fundamentally described from basic concepts. A derived tuning-free model, supported with experiments, reveals the underlying spectral content of the power fluctuations of a wind farm. It contains two power-law trends and oscillations in the relatively low- and high-frequency ranges. The former is mostly due to the turbulent interaction between the flow and the turbine properties, whereas the latter is due to the advection between turbine pairs. The spectral wind-farm scale power fluctuations Φ_{P} exhibit a power-law decay proportional to f^{-5/3-2} in the region corresponding to the turbulence inertial subrange and at relatively large scales, Φ_{P}∼f^{-2}. Due to the advection and turbulent diffusion of large-scale structures, a spectral oscillation exists with the product of a sinusoidal behavior and an exponential decay in the frequency domain.

  13. Research uncovers what citizens' think about the security sector in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-07-27

    Jul 27, 2015 ... Here, direct experience with security services leads to more negative opinions, and perceptions of personal and family safety play a critical role in citizens' ... sector and the justice system as perceived by the general public.

  14. Uncovering the Power of Personality to Shape Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denissen, Jaap J A; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Hennecke, Marie; Luhmann, Maike; Orth, Ulrich; Specht, Jule; Zimmermann, Julia

    2018-01-01

    The notion of person-environment fit implies that personal and contextual factors interact in influencing important life outcomes. Using data from 8,458 employed individuals, we examined the combined effects of individuals' actual personality traits and jobs' expert-rated personality demands on earnings. Results from a response surface analysis indicated that the fit between individuals' actual personality and the personality demands of their jobs is a predictor of income. Conclusions of this combined analysis were partly opposite to conclusions reached in previous studies using conventional regression methods. Individuals can earn additional income of more than their monthly salary per year if they hold a job that fits their personality. Thus, at least for some traits, economic success depends not only on having a "successful personality" but also, in part, on finding the best niche for one's personality. We discuss the findings with regard to labor-market policies and individuals' job-selection strategies.

  15. Uncovering Portuguese teachers’ difficulties in implementing sciences curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Vasconcelos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many countries recognize the positive and effective results of improving science education through the introduction of reforms in the sciences curriculum. However, some important issues are generally neglected like, for example, the involvement of the teachers in the reform process. Taking the sciences curriculum reform under analysis and benefitting from 10 years of teachers’ experiences in teaching sciences based on this curriculum, 19 semi-structure interviews were applied so as to identify the major difficulties felt by science teachers when implementing the Portuguese sciences curriculum in the third cycle of middle school (pupils’ age range of 12–15. Some of the difficulties depicted by the data analysis include: length of the curriculum, lack of time, unsuitable laboratory facilities, insufficient means and materials for experimental work, pupils’ indiscipline and little interest in learning sciences. Although less frequently mentioned, the lack of professional development was also referred to as a constraint that seems to play an essential role in this process. Some recommendations for improving the success of sciences curriculum reforms’ implementation are given: defining and conceptualizing curricular policies by relating the reality of both the schools and the science classrooms; reorganizing and restructuring pre-service teachers’ courses; organizing professional development courses for in-service teachers.

  16. Towards uncovering the roles of switchgrass peroxidases in plant processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron eSaathoff

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous perennial plants selected as potential biofuel feedstocks had been understudied at the genomic and functional genomic levels. Recent investments, primarily by the U.S. Department of Energy, have led to the development of a number of molecular resources for bioenergy grasses, such as the partially annotated genome for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L., and some related diploid species. In its current version, the switchgrass genome contains 65,878 gene models arising from the A and B genomes of this tetraploid grass. The availability of these gene sequences provides a framework to exploit transcriptomic data obtained from next generation sequencing platforms to address questions of biological importance. One such question pertains to discovery of genes and proteins important for biotic and abiotic stress responses, and how these components might affect biomass quality and stress response in plants engineered for a specific end purpose. It can be expected that production of switchgrass on marginal lands will expose plants to diverse stresses, including herbivory by insects. Class III plant peroxidases have been implicated in many developmental responses such as lignification and in the adaptive responses of plants to insect feeding. Here, we have analyzed the class III peroxidases encoded by the switchgrass genome, and have mined available transcriptomic datasets to develop a first understanding of the expression profiles of the class III peroxidases in different plant tissues. Lastly, we have identified switchgrass peroxidases that appear to be orthologs of enzymes shown to play key roles in lignification and plant defense responses to hemipterans.

  17. Uncovering the genetic landscape for multiple sleep-wake traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Winrow

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research in defining sleep-wake properties in mammals, little is known about the nature or identity of genes that regulate sleep, a fundamental behaviour that in humans occupies about one-third of the entire lifespan. While genome-wide association studies in humans and quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses in mice have identified candidate genes for an increasing number of complex traits and genetic diseases, the resources and time-consuming process necessary for obtaining detailed quantitative data have made sleep seemingly intractable to similar large-scale genomic approaches. Here we describe analysis of 20 sleep-wake traits from 269 mice from a genetically segregating population that reveals 52 significant QTL representing a minimum of 20 genomic loci. While many (28 QTL affected a particular sleep-wake trait (e.g., amount of wake across the full 24-hr day, other loci only affected a trait in the light or dark period while some loci had opposite effects on the trait during the light vs. dark. Analysis of a dataset for multiple sleep-wake traits led to previously undetected interactions (including the differential genetic control of number and duration of REM bouts, as well as possible shared genetic regulatory mechanisms for seemingly different unrelated sleep-wake traits (e.g., number of arousals and REM latency. Construction of a Bayesian network for sleep-wake traits and loci led to the identification of sub-networks of linkage not detectable in smaller data sets or limited single-trait analyses. For example, the network analyses revealed a novel chain of causal relationships between the chromosome 17@29cM QTL, total amount of wake, and duration of wake bouts in both light and dark periods that implies a mechanism whereby overall sleep need, mediated by this locus, in turn determines the length of each wake bout. Taken together, the present results reveal a complex genetic landscape underlying multiple sleep-wake traits and emphasize the need for a systems biology approach for elucidating the full extent of the genetic regulatory mechanisms of this complex and universal behavior.

  18. Uncovering and Validating Toughening Mechanisms in High Performance Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    tan dY Z X dX φ" #= $ % & ’ (1) The local coordinate systems of continuous twisted crack (x’, y’, z’) are to be defined based on the...Suksangpanya (The entire project) -! Nicolas Guarin (funded from other sources) -! David Restrepo (minimum involvement, funded from other sources

  19. UNCOVERING FACTORS INFLUENCING PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Ferdaus; Onyango, Benjamin M.; Adelaja, Adesoji O.; Schilling, Brian J.; Hallman, William K.

    2002-01-01

    Significant divergence exists in public opinions about biotechnology. Although there is broad support for plant biotechnology for health benefits, opinions differ on the issue of animal genetics for pure economic benefits. While some are opposed to it, many are undecided about genetically modified foods. Considerable skepticism exists about scientists, corporations and government which have negative influence on public acceptance of food biotechnology. Consumers' personal attributes have sign...

  20. Uncovering sensory axonal dysfunction in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Ying Sung

    Full Text Available This study investigated sensory and motor nerve excitability properties to elucidate the development of diabetic neuropathy. A total of 109 type 2 diabetes patients were recruited, and 106 were analyzed. According to neuropathy severity, patients were categorized into G0, G1, and G2+3 groups using the total neuropathy score-reduced (TNSr. Patients in the G0 group were asymptomatic and had a TNSr score of 0. Sensory and motor nerve excitability data from diabetic patients were compared with data from 33 healthy controls. Clinical assessment, nerve conduction studies, and sensory and motor nerve excitability testing data were analyzed to determine axonal dysfunction in diabetic neuropathy. In the G0 group, sensory excitability testing revealed increased stimulus for the 50% sensory nerve action potential (P<0.05, shortened strength-duration time constant (P<0.01, increased superexcitability (P<0.01, decreased subexcitability (P<0.05, decreased accommodation to depolarizing current (P<0.01, and a trend of decreased accommodation to hyperpolarizing current in threshold electrotonus. All the changes progressed into G1 (TNSr 1-8 and G2+3 (TNSr 9-24 groups. In contrast, motor excitability only had significantly increased stimulus for the 50% compound motor nerve action potential (P<0.01 in the G0 group. This study revealed that the development of axonal dysfunction in sensory axons occurred prior to and in a different fashion from motor axons. Additionally, sensory nerve excitability tests can detect axonal dysfunction even in asymptomatic patients. These insights further our understanding of diabetic neuropathy and enable the early detection of sensory axonal abnormalities, which may provide a basis for neuroprotective therapeutic approaches.

  1. Uncovering middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birken Sarah A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Middle managers have received little attention in extant health services research, yet they may have a key role in healthcare innovation implementation. The gap between evidence of effective care and practice may be attributed in part to poor healthcare innovation implementation. Investigating middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation may reveal an opportunity for improvement. In this paper, we present a theory of middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation to fill the gap in the literature and to stimulate research that empirically examines middle managers' influence on innovation implementation in healthcare organizations. Discussion Extant healthcare innovation implementation research has primarily focused on the roles of physicians and top managers. Largely overlooked is the role of middle managers. We suggest that middle managers influence healthcare innovation implementation by diffusing information, synthesizing information, mediating between strategy and day-to-day activities, and selling innovation implementation. Summary Teamwork designs have become popular in healthcare organizations. Because middle managers oversee these team initiatives, their potential to influence innovation implementation has grown. Future research should investigate middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation. Findings may aid top managers in leveraging middle managers' influence to improve the effectiveness of healthcare innovation implementation.

  2. Uncovering the Terahertz Spectrum of Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Michael T; Korter, Timothy M

    2016-01-21

    Terahertz vibrational spectroscopy has evolved into a powerful tool for the detection and characterization of transition metal sulfate compounds, specifically for its ability to differentiate between various hydrated forms with high specificity. Copper(II) sulfate is one such system where multiple crystalline hydrates have had their terahertz spectra fully assigned, and the unique spectral fingerprints of the forms allows for characterization of multicomponent systems with relative ease. Yet the most commonly occurring form, copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4·5H2O), has proven elusive due to the presence of a broad absorption across much of the terahertz region, making the unambiguous identification of its spectral signature difficult. Here, it is shown that the sub-100 cm(-1) spectrum of CuSO4·5H2O is obscured by absorption from adsorbed water and that controlled drying reveals sharp underlying features. The crystalline composition of the samples was monitored in parallel by X-ray diffraction as a function of drying time, supporting the spectroscopic results. Finally, the terahertz spectrum of CuSO4·5H2O was fully assigned using solid-state density functional theory simulations, helping attribute the additional absorptions that appear after excessive drying to formation of CuSO4·3H2O.

  3. Uncovering Web search strategies in South African higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surika Civilcharran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In spite of the enormous amount of information available on the Web and the fact that search engines are continuously evolving to enhance the search experience, students are nevertheless faced with the difficulty of effectively retrieving information. It is, therefore, imperative for the interaction between students and search tools to be understood and search strategies to be identified, in order to promote successful information retrieval. Objectives: This study identifies the Web search strategies used by postgraduate students and forms part of a wider study into information retrieval strategies used by postgraduate students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN, Pietermaritzburg campus, South Africa. Method: Largely underpinned by Thatcher’s cognitive search strategies, the mixed-methods approach was utilised for this study, in which questionnaires were employed in Phase 1 and structured interviews in Phase 2. This article reports and reflects on the findings of Phase 2, which focus on identifying the Web search strategies employed by postgraduate students. The Phase 1 results were reported in Civilcharran, Hughes and Maharaj (2015. Results: Findings reveal the Web search strategies used for academic information retrieval. In spite of easy access to the invisible Web and the advent of meta-search engines, the use of Web search engines still remains the preferred search tool. The UKZN online library databases and especially the UKZN online library, Online Public Access Catalogue system, are being underutilised. Conclusion: Being ranked in the top three percent of the world’s universities, UKZN is investing in search tools that are not being used to their full potential. This evidence suggests an urgent need for students to be trained in Web searching and to have a greater exposure to a variety of search tools. This article is intended to further contribute to the design of undergraduate training programmes in order to deal with the information retrieval frustrations of novice users.

  4. Uncovering Contrast Categories in Categorization with a Probabilistic Threshold Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheyen, Steven; De Deyne, Simon; Dry, Matthew J.; Storms, Gert

    2011-01-01

    A contrast category effect on categorization occurs when the decision to apply a category term to an entity not only involves a comparison between the entity and the target category but is also influenced by a comparison of the entity with 1 or more alternative categories from the same domain as the target. Establishing a contrast category effect…

  5. Uncovering Dynamic Capabilities for Service Innovation: Conceptualization and Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.; Alexiev, A.S.; Castaldi, C.; Den Hertog, P.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic capabilities view (DCV) is in need of a solid empirical grounding. Existing attempts to identify the organizational behaviour (or microfoundations) on which dynamic capabilities rely are largely biased towards manufacturing. Thereby, these conceptualizations overlook some of the aspects

  6. Transition Initiatives as Light Intentional Communities: Uncovering Liminality and Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth van de Grift

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Transition Network is a global grassroots network that supports community-led resilience in the face of global change. This paper reports on an ethnographic study of one of its longest-running projects, Transition Town Lewes (TTL in the United Kingdom. The aim of the study is to analyse TTL as a community. More specifically, we ask two questions: (1 what type of community is TTL? and (2 what are the challenges TTL faces as a community? With this, we contribute to the existing literature on local sustainability initiatives and in particular on Transition initiatives, by providing an in-depth understanding of the challenges and social dynamics at play in a day-to-day setting. We conducted three months of intensive ethnographic fieldwork using participant observation, interviews, and a focus group. Our analysis shows that TTL is a community that, on the one hand, is motivated by explicit intentions and goals, but that, on the other hand, leaves openness and flexibility regarding the level and specifics of participants’ engagement. We introduce the novel concept of ‘light intentional community’ to describe this type of community. We first investigate intentionality in TTL, finding that differences exist between individual participant motivations and stated TTL objectives. We go on to describe the ‘light’ aspect of TTL—the differences in levels of engagement between community participants. Our analysis shows that TTL and its participants face two main challenges. First, TTL participants experience ‘multi-dimensional liminality’: they operate in a liminal space between mainstream society and TTL practices, and additionally experience a continuous sense of transitioning toward a moving goal. Second, TTL as a community faces internal and external frictions. These challenges are interrelated and stem from the structure and dynamics of TTL as a light intentional community. We conclude by reflecting on our analysis of the nature and challenges of ‘light intentional communities’, identifying what opportunities this concept brings for overcoming the challenges of grassroots globalization initiatives amidst mainstream society.

  7. Uncovering the Genetic History of the Present Day Greenlandic Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltke, Ida; Fumagalli, Matteo; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S

    2015-01-01

    Because of past limitations in samples and genotyping technologies, important questions about the history of the present-day Greenlandic population remain unanswered. In an effort to answer these questions and in general investigate the genetic history of the Greenlandic population, we analyzed...

  8. Uncovering the footprints of malicious traffic in cellular data networks

    OpenAIRE

    Raghuramu, A; Zang, H; Chuah, CN

    2015-01-01

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. In this paper, we present a comprehensive characterization of malicious traffic generated by mobile devices using Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) records and security event logs from a large US based cellular provider network. Our analysis reveals that 0.17% of mobile devices in the cellular network are affected by security threats. This proportion, while small, is orders of magnitude higher than the last reported (in 2013) infection rate of ...

  9. Uncovering Mental Representations with Markov Chain Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Adam N.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    A key challenge for cognitive psychology is the investigation of mental representations, such as object categories, subjective probabilities, choice utilities, and memory traces. In many cases, these representations can be expressed as a non-negative function defined over a set of objects. We present a behavioral method for estimating these…

  10. Mathematicians in Schools: Uncovering Maths' Beautiful Secrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Bronwyn

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics professionals are working with teachers revealing the reality and beauty that happens in the world of math and to show that this is essentially a "human endeavour," embedded in much of what people do and the ways in which they think. In this article, the author shares vignettes of primary classes working with mathematicians…

  11. Uncovering middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birken, Sarah A; Lee, Shoou-Yih Daniel; Weiner, Bryan J

    2012-04-03

    Middle managers have received little attention in extant health services research, yet they may have a key role in healthcare innovation implementation. The gap between evidence of effective care and practice may be attributed in part to poor healthcare innovation implementation. Investigating middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation may reveal an opportunity for improvement. In this paper, we present a theory of middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation to fill the gap in the literature and to stimulate research that empirically examines middle managers' influence on innovation implementation in healthcare organizations. Extant healthcare innovation implementation research has primarily focused on the roles of physicians and top managers. Largely overlooked is the role of middle managers. We suggest that middle managers influence healthcare innovation implementation by diffusing information, synthesizing information, mediating between strategy and day-to-day activities, and selling innovation implementation. Teamwork designs have become popular in healthcare organizations. Because middle managers oversee these team initiatives, their potential to influence innovation implementation has grown. Future research should investigate middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation. Findings may aid top managers in leveraging middle managers' influence to improve the effectiveness of healthcare innovation implementation.

  12. Uncovering Our Feminist Pedagogy: A Co/Autoethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coia, Lesley; Taylor, Monica

    2013-01-01

    What does it mean to be a feminist educator? How would we know if we were? We call ourselves feminist teachers and yet we have not focused on this identification and its influence on our teaching in some time. In this self-study, we set out to look at our practice-using co/autoethnography. As our study progressed, we began to realize that our…

  13. Uncovering middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Middle managers have received little attention in extant health services research, yet they may have a key role in healthcare innovation implementation. The gap between evidence of effective care and practice may be attributed in part to poor healthcare innovation implementation. Investigating middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation may reveal an opportunity for improvement. In this paper, we present a theory of middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation to fill the gap in the literature and to stimulate research that empirically examines middle managers' influence on innovation implementation in healthcare organizations. Discussion Extant healthcare innovation implementation research has primarily focused on the roles of physicians and top managers. Largely overlooked is the role of middle managers. We suggest that middle managers influence healthcare innovation implementation by diffusing information, synthesizing information, mediating between strategy and day-to-day activities, and selling innovation implementation. Summary Teamwork designs have become popular in healthcare organizations. Because middle managers oversee these team initiatives, their potential to influence innovation implementation has grown. Future research should investigate middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation. Findings may aid top managers in leveraging middle managers' influence to improve the effectiveness of healthcare innovation implementation. PMID:22472001

  14. Uncovering the relationship between transformational leaders and followers' task performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breevaart, K.; Bakker, A. B.; Demerouti, E.; Sleebos, D. M.; Maduro, V.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to unravel the mechanisms underlying the relationship between transformational leadership, follower work engagement, and follower job performance and to investigate a possible boundary condition of transformational leadership. We used structural equation modeling

  15. Scratching below the surface to uncover HRM practices in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2010-01-01

    Is HRM in Denmark behind the times and only now beginning to be prioritized by Danish firms? Or is it possible that managers are successfully capitalizing on characteristics of the Danish society and the Danish workforce? We propose quite adamantly that HRM practices indeed are alive in Danish...

  16. Chlorophyll Fluorescence Imaging Uncovers Photosynthetic Fingerprint of Citrus Huanglongbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Cen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus, which has posed a serious threat to the global citrus production. This research was aimed to explore the use of chlorophyll fluorescence imaging combined with feature selection to characterize and detect the HLB disease. Chlorophyll fluorescence images of citrus leaf samples were measured by an in-house chlorophyll fluorescence imaging system. The commonly used chlorophyll fluorescence parameters provided the first screening of HLB disease. To further explore the photosynthetic fingerprint of HLB infected leaves, three feature selection methods combined with the supervised classifiers were employed to identify the unique fluorescence signature of HLB and perform the three-class classification (i.e., healthy, HLB infected, and nutrient deficient leaves. Unlike the commonly used fluorescence parameters, this novel data-driven approach by using the combination of the mean fluorescence parameters and image features gave the best classification performance with the accuracy of 97%, and presented a better interpretation for the spatial heterogeneity of photochemical and non-photochemical components in HLB infected citrus leaves. These results imply the potential of the proposed approach for the citrus HLB disease diagnosis, and also provide a valuable insight for the photosynthetic response to the HLB disease.

  17. Transcriptome atlas of eight liver cell types uncovers effects of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... by autocrine or paracrine systems can reduce antigen present- ing capacity of immune cells, ... polypeptide (GNAQ), glycosylphosphatidylinositol specific phosphorlipase C ...... profiling of prostate cancer. BMC Mol. Biol. 8, 25.

  18. Uncovering gender discrimination cues in a realistic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis-Roy, Nicolas; Fortin, Isabelle; Fiset, Daniel; Gosselin, Frédéric

    2009-02-10

    Which face cues do we use for gender discrimination? Few studies have tried to answer this question and the few that have tried typically used only a small set of grayscale stimuli, often distorted and presented a large number of times. Here, we reassessed the importance of facial cues for gender discrimination in a more realistic setting. We applied Bubbles-a technique that minimizes bias toward specific facial features and does not necessitate the distortion of stimuli-to a set of 300 color photographs of Caucasian faces, each presented only once to 30 participants. Results show that the region of the eyes and the eyebrows-probably in the light-dark channel-is the most important facial cue for accurate gender discrimination; and that the mouth region is driving fast correct responses (but not fast incorrect responses)-the gender discrimination information in the mouth region is concentrated in the red-green color channel. Together, these results suggest that, when color is informative in the mouth region, humans use it and respond rapidly; and, when it's not informative, they have to rely on the more robust but more sluggish luminance information in the eye-eyebrow region.

  19. Phytophthora Genome Sequences Uncover Evolutionary Origins and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, Brett M.; Tripathy, Sucheta; Zhang, Xuemin; Dehal, Paramvir; Jiang, Rays H. Y.; Aerts, Andrea; Arredondo, Felipe D.; Baxter, Laura; Bensasson, Douda; Beynon, JIm L.; Chapman, Jarrod; Damasceno, Cynthia M. B.; Dorrance, Anne E.; Dou, Daolong; Dickerman, Allan W.; Dubchak, Inna L.; Garbelotto, Matteo; Gijzen, Mark; Gordon, Stuart G.; Govers, Francine; Grunwald, NIklaus J.; Huang, Wayne; Ivors, Kelly L.; Jones, Richard W.; Kamoun, Sophien; Krampis, Konstantinos; Lamour, Kurt H.; Lee, Mi-Kyung; McDonald, W. Hayes; Medina, Monica; Meijer, Harold J. G.; Nordberg, Erik K.; Maclean, Donald J.; Ospina-Giraldo, Manuel D.; Morris, Paul F.; Phuntumart, Vipaporn; Putnam, Nicholas J.; Rash, Sam; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.; Sakihama, Yasuko; Salamov, Asaf A.; Savidor, Alon; Scheuring, Chantel F.; Smith, Brian M.; Sobral, Bruno W. S.; Terry, Astrid; Torto-Alalibo, Trudy A.; Win, Joe; Xu, Zhanyou; Zhang, Hongbin; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2006-04-17

    Draft genome sequences have been determined for the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae and the sudden oak death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum. Oömycetes such as these Phytophthora species share the kingdom Stramenopila with photosynthetic algae such as diatoms, and the presence of many Phytophthora genes of probable phototroph origin supports a photosynthetic ancestry for the stramenopiles. Comparison of the two species' genomes reveals a rapid expansion and diversification of many protein families associated with plant infection such as hydrolases, ABC transporters, protein toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and, in particular, a superfamily of 700 proteins with similarity to known oömycete avirulence genes.

  20. Uncovering the Hidden Transaction Costs of Market Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai J.; Klein, Peter G.

    2018-01-01

    A central construct in competitive strategy research is market power, the ability to raise price above marginal cost. Positioning research focuses on attempts to build, protect, and exercise market power. However, this approach contains hidden assumptions about transaction costs. Parties made worse...... off by the exercise of market power can negotiate, bargain, form coalitions, and otherwise contract around the focal firm's attempts to appropriate monopoly profits—depending on transaction costs. We build on property rights economics to explain how transaction costs affect positioning and offer...

  1. Uncovering of melanin fluorescence in human skin tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Matthias; Stankovic, Goran; Seewald, Gunter; Leupold, Dieter

    2007-07-01

    Due to its extremely low fluorescence quantum yield, in the conventionally (one-photon) excited autofluorescence of skin tissue, melanin fluorescence is masked by several other endogenous and possibly also exogenous fluorophores (e.g. NADH, FAD, Porphyrins). A first step to enhance the melanin contribution had been realized by two-photon fs-pulse excitation in the red/near IR, based on the fact that melanin can be excited by stepwise two-photon absorption, whereas all other fluorophores in this spectral region allow only simultaneous two-photon excitation. Now, the next and decisive step has been realized: Using an extremely sensitive detection system, for the first time twophoton fluorescence of skin tissue excited with pulses in the ns-range could be measured. The motivation for this step was based on the fact that the population density of the fluorescent level resulting from a stepwise excitation has a different dependence of the pulse duration than that from a simultaneous excitation (Δt2 vs. Δt). Due to this strong discrimination between the fluorophores, practically pure melanin fluorescence can be obtained. Examples for in-vivo, ex-vivo as well as paraffin embedded skin tissue will be shown. The content of information with respect to early diagnosis of skin deseases will be discussed.

  2. Uncovering the mutation-fixation correlation in short lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallender Eric J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently reported a highly unexpected positive correlation between the fixation probability of nonsynonymous mutations (estimated by ω and neutral mutation rate (estimated by Ks in mammalian lineages. However, this positive correlation was observed for lineages with relatively long divergence time such as the human-mouse lineage, and was not found for very short lineages such as the human-chimpanzee lineage. It was previously unclear how to interpret this discrepancy. It may indicate that the positive correlation between ω and Ks in long lineages is a false finding. Alternatively, it may reflect a biologically meaningful difference between various lineages. Finally, the lack of positive correlation in short lineages may be the result of methodological artifacts. Results Here we show that a strong positive correlation can indeed be seen in short lineages when a method was introduced to correct for the inherently high levels of stochastic noise in the use of Ks as an estimator of neutral mutation rate. Thus, the previously noted lack of positive correlation between ω and Ks in short lineages is due to stochastic noise in Ks that makes it a far less reliable estimator of neutral mutation rate in short lineages as compared to long lineages. Conclusion A positive correlation between ω and Ks can be observed in all mammalian lineages for which large amounts of sequence data are available, including very short lineages. It confirms the authenticity of this highly unexpected correlation, and argues that the correction likely applies broadly across all mammals and perhaps even non-mammalian species.

  3. Computer vision uncovers predictors of physical urban change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Nikhil; Kominers, Scott Duke; Raskar, Ramesh; Glaeser, Edward L; Hidalgo, César A

    2017-07-18

    Which neighborhoods experience physical improvements? In this paper, we introduce a computer vision method to measure changes in the physical appearances of neighborhoods from time-series street-level imagery. We connect changes in the physical appearance of five US cities with economic and demographic data and find three factors that predict neighborhood improvement. First, neighborhoods that are densely populated by college-educated adults are more likely to experience physical improvements-an observation that is compatible with the economic literature linking human capital and local success. Second, neighborhoods with better initial appearances experience, on average, larger positive improvements-an observation that is consistent with "tipping" theories of urban change. Third, neighborhood improvement correlates positively with physical proximity to the central business district and to other physically attractive neighborhoods-an observation that is consistent with the "invasion" theories of urban sociology. Together, our results provide support for three classical theories of urban change and illustrate the value of using computer vision methods and street-level imagery to understand the physical dynamics of cities.

  4. Uncovering the dynamics of interaction in development cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, Adam Moe; Lundsgaarde, Erik; Cold-Ravnkilde, Signe

    The rising prominence of new state and non-state actors in international politics has stimulated extensive discussion in the social sciences over the last decade and development cooperation has been a central arena for conceptualising the encounter between old and new powers. This working paper...... critically reflects on the substantial body of scholarship that seeks to document the characteristics of new actors in international development and chart the consequences of their engagement for global development governance. This review underlines the importance of questioning the homogeneity of actor...... constellations, relationships and ideas. Specifically, it addresses the extent to which the commonly-used binary concepts of development cooperation provider groups adequately capture relevant distinctions among the actors and add analytical value to research on development cooperation. The paper advocates...

  5. Uncovering the end uses of the rare earth elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Xiaoyue, E-mail: xiaoyue.du@empa.ch [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA), Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Yale University, 195 Prospect Street, New Haven CT 06511 (United States); Graedel, T.E. [Yale University, 195 Prospect Street, New Haven CT 06511 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging and conventional established technologies. However, quantitative knowledge of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in future availability of the resources. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supply vulnerable to short term disruption. We have drawn upon the published literature and unpublished materials in different languages to derive the first quantitative annual domestic production by end use of individual rare earth elements from 1995 to 2007. The information is illustrated in Sankey diagrams for the years 1995 and 2007. Other years are available in the supporting information. Comparing 1995 and 2007, the production of the rare earth elements in China, Japan, and the US changed dramatically in quantities and structure. The information can provide a solid foundation for industries, academic institutions and governments to make decisions and develop strategies. - Highlights: • We have derived the first quantitative end use information of the rare earths (REE). • The results are for individual REE from 1995 to 2007. • The end uses of REE in China, Japan, and the US changed dramatically in quantities and structure. • This information can provide solid foundation for decision and strategy making.

  6. Uncovering Urban Temporal Patterns from Geo-Tagged Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paldino, Silvia; Kondor, Dániel; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; González, Marta C.; Ratti, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    We live in a world where digital trails of different forms of human activities compose big urban data, allowing us to detect many aspects of how people experience the city in which they live or come to visit. In this study we propose to enhance urban planning by taking into a consideration individual preferences using information from an unconventional big data source: dataset of geo-tagged photographs that people take in cities which we then use as a measure of urban attractiveness. We discover and compare a temporal behavior of residents and visitors in ten most photographed cities in the world. Looking at the periodicity in urban attractiveness, the results show that the strongest periodic patterns for visitors are usually weekly or monthly. Moreover, by dividing cities into two groups based on which continent they belong to (i.e., North America or Europe), it can be concluded that unlike European cities, behavior of visitors in the US cities in general is similar to the behavior of their residents. Finally, we apply two indices, called “dilatation attractiveness index” and “dilatation index”, to our dataset which tell us the spatial and temporal attractiveness pulsations in the city. The proposed methodology is not only important for urban planning, but also does support various business and public stakeholder decision processes, concentrated for example around the question how to attract more visitors to the city or estimate the impact of special events organized there. PMID:27935979

  7. Systems Biology of Metabolic Networks: Uncovering Regulatory and stoichiometric Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Kiran Raosaheb

    2007-01-01

    central rolle i funktionen af alle levende celler, er der også stor interesse for metoder til analyse af metabolske netværk i naturvidenskabelige studier samt i forbindelse med kortlægning af mekanismerne bag stofskifte relaterede sygdomme. I dette studium er der udviklet forskellige nye bioinformatiske...

  8. Uncovering collective listening habits and music genres in bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambiotte, R.; Ausloos, M.

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, we analyze web-downloaded data on people sharing their music library, that we use as their individual musical signatures. The system is represented by a bipartite network, nodes being the music groups and the listeners. Music groups’ audience size behaves like a power law, but the individual music library size is an exponential with deviations at small values. In order to extract structures from the network, we focus on correlation matrices, that we filter by removing the least correlated links. This percolation idea-based method reveals the emergence of social communities and music genres, that are visualized by a branching representation. Evidence of collective listening habits that do not fit the neat usual genres defined by the music industry indicates an alternative way of classifying listeners and music groups. The structure of the network is also studied by a more refined method, based upon a random walk exploration of its properties. Finally, a personal identification-community imitation model for growing bipartite networks is outlined, following Potts ingredients. Simulation results do reproduce quite well the empirical data.

  9. Uncovering mentor teachers’ interactive cognitions during mentoring dialogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennissen, P.P.M.; Crasborn, F.J.A.J.; Brouwer, C.N.; Korthagen, F.A.J.; Bergen, T.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the context of developing mentor teachers' use of supervisory skills, two consecutive studies were conducted, using stimulated recall. Firstly, with eight participants, an instrument was developed to categorize contents of interactive cognitions. Secondly, with 30 participants, the instrument was

  10. Uncovering layers of human RNA polymerase II transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Heick

    In recent years DNA microarray and high-throughput sequencing technologies have challenged the “gene-centric” view that pre-mRNA is the only RNA species transcribed off protein-coding genes. Instead unorthodox transcription from within genic- and intergenic regions has been demonstrated to occur...

  11. Uncovering Translingual Practices in Teaching Parents Classical ASL Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoddon, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    The view of sign languages as bounded systems is often important for deaf community empowerment and for pedagogical practice in terms of supporting deaf children's language acquisition and second language learners' communicative competence. Conversely, the notion of translanguaging in the American Sign Language (ASL) community highlights a number…

  12. Uncovering Discursive Framings of the Bangladesh Shipbreaking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Mizanur Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Shipbreaking in the Chittagong region of Bangladesh supplies metal to meet the needs of the nation’s construction sector. The shipbreaking industry has received international attention for environmental contamination and workers’ insecurity. However, these issues have been framed without considering the actors that produce them and their associated motives. This paper illuminates the conflicting discourses regarding the industry between two divergent groups of actors. On the one hand, national and international NGOs collaborate to enforce a discourse focused on negative localized impacts. On the other hand, yard owners, yard workers, and local community members forge a counter discourse, focused on positive localized impacts and raising doubts about the origin of the environmental pollutants and occupational standards setting. National and international actors have so far missed the conflicting perspective of workers, yard owners, locals and NGOs. We contend that these divergent discourses involve scalar politics, with one discursive frame focused on localized impacts in order to leverage global resources, while the other situates local communities in the global world system; this confounding of scale leads to ineffective policy formulation. This shipbreaking case study provides a valuable lesson on the importance of listening to and including stakeholders at multiple scales when seeking policies to address localized impacts of a globalized industry.

  13. Uncovering intrinsic modular organization of spontaneous brain activity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    Full Text Available The characterization of topological architecture of complex brain networks is one of the most challenging issues in neuroscience. Slow (<0.1 Hz, spontaneous fluctuations of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal in functional magnetic resonance imaging are thought to be potentially important for the reflection of spontaneous neuronal activity. Many studies have shown that these fluctuations are highly coherent within anatomically or functionally linked areas of the brain. However, the underlying topological mechanisms responsible for these coherent intrinsic or spontaneous fluctuations are still poorly understood. Here, we apply modern network analysis techniques to investigate how spontaneous neuronal activities in the human brain derived from the resting-state BOLD signals are topologically organized at both the temporal and spatial scales. We first show that the spontaneous brain functional networks have an intrinsically cohesive modular structure in which the connections between regions are much denser within modules than between them. These identified modules are found to be closely associated with several well known functionally interconnected subsystems such as the somatosensory/motor, auditory, attention, visual, subcortical, and the "default" system. Specifically, we demonstrate that the module-specific topological features can not be captured by means of computing the corresponding global network parameters, suggesting a unique organization within each module. Finally, we identify several pivotal network connectors and paths (predominantly associated with the association and limbic/paralimbic cortex regions that are vital for the global coordination of information flow over the whole network, and we find that their lesions (deletions critically affect the stability and robustness of the brain functional system. Together, our results demonstrate the highly organized modular architecture and associated topological properties in the temporal and spatial brain functional networks of the human brain that underlie spontaneous neuronal dynamics, which provides important implications for our understanding of how intrinsically coherent spontaneous brain activity has evolved into an optimal neuronal architecture to support global computation and information integration in the absence of specific stimuli or behaviors.

  14. Uncovering the Recycling Potential of "New" WEEE in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianlai; Gong, Ruying; Chen, Wei-Qiang; Li, Jinhui

    2016-02-02

    Newly defined categories of WEEE have increased the types of China's regulated WEEE from 5 to 14. Identification of the amounts and valuable-resource components of the "new" WEEE generated is critical to solving the e-waste problem, for both governmental policy decisions and recycling enterprise expansions. This study first estimates and predicts China's new WEEE generation for the period of 2010-2030 using material flow analysis and the lifespan model of the Weibull distribution, then determines the amounts of valuable resources (e.g., base materials, precious metals, and rare-earth minerals) encased annually in WEEE, and their dynamic transfer from in-use stock to waste. Main findings include the following: (i) China will generate 15.5 and 28.4 million tons WEEE in 2020 and 2030, respectively, and has already overtaken the U.S. to become the world's leading producer of e-waste; (ii) among all the types of WEEE, air conditioners, desktop personal computers, refrigerators, and washing machines contribute over 70% of total WEEE by weight. The two categories of EEE-electronic devices and electrical appliances-each contribute about half of total WEEE by weight; (iii) more and more valuable resources have been transferred from in-use products to WEEE, significantly enhancing the recycling potential of WEEE from an economic perspective; and (iv) WEEE recycling potential has been evolving from ∼16 (10-22) billion US$ in 2010, to an anticipated ∼42 (26-58) billion US$ in 2020 and ∼73.4 (44.5-103.4) billion US$ by 2030. All the obtained results can improve the knowledge base for closing the loop of WEEE recycling, and contribute to governmental policy making and the recycling industry's business development.

  15. Uncovering deep mysteries: the underwater life of an amphibious louse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Maria Soledad; Aznar, F Javier; Crespo, Enrique A; Lazzari, Claudio R

    2014-12-01

    Despite the incredible success of insects in colonizing almost every habitat, they remain virtually absent in one major environment--the open sea. A variety of hypotheses have been raised to explain why just a few insect species are present in the ocean, but none of them appears to be fully explanatory. Lice belonging to the family Echinophthiriidae are ectoparasites on different species of pinnipeds and river otters, i.e. they have amphibious hosts, who regularly perform long excursions into the open sea reaching depths of hundreds of meters (thousands of feets). Consequently, lice must be able to support not only changes in their surrounding media, but also extreme variations in hydrostatic pressure as well as breathing in a low oxygen atmosphere. In order to shed some light on the way lice can survive during the diving excursions of their hosts, we have performed a series of experiments to test the survival capability of different instars of Antarctophthirus microchir (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) from South American sea lions Otaria flavescens, when submerged into seawater. These experiments were aimed at analyzing: (a) immersion tolerance along the louse life; (b) lice's ability to obtain oxygen from seawater; (c) physiological responses and mechanisms involved in survival underwater. Our experiments showed that the forms present in non-diving pups--i.e. eggs and first-instar nymphs--were unable to tolerate immersion in water, while following instars and adults, all usually found in diving hosts, supported it very well. Furthermore, as long as the level of oxygen dissolved in water was higher, the lice survival capability underwater increased, and the recovery period after returning to air declined. These results are discussed in relation to host ecology, host exploitation and lice functional morphology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Connectionist neuropsychology: uncovering ultimate causes of acquired dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollams, Anna M

    2014-01-01

    Acquired dyslexia offers a unique window on to the nature of the cognitive and neural architecture supporting skilled reading. This paper provides an integrative overview of recent empirical and computational work on acquired dyslexia within the context of the primary systems framework as implemented in connectionist neuropsychological models. This view proposes that damage to general visual, phonological or semantic processing abilities are the root causes of different forms of acquired dyslexia. Recent case-series behavioural evidence concerning pure alexia, phonological dyslexia and surface dyslexia that supports this perspective is presented. Lesion simulations of these findings within connectionist models of reading demonstrate the viability of this approach. The commitment of such models to learnt representations allows them to capture key aspects of performance in each type of acquired dyslexia, particularly the associated non-reading deficits, the role of relearning and the influence of individual differences in the premorbid state of the reading system. Identification of these factors not only advances our understanding of acquired dyslexia and the mechanisms of normal reading but they are also relevant to the complex interactions underpinning developmental reading disorders.

  17. Uncovering the glacial history of the Irish continental shelf (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, P.; Benetti, S.; OCofaigh, C.

    2013-12-01

    In 1999 the Irish Government initiated a €32 million survey of its territorial waters known as the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS). The INSS is amongst the largest marine mapping programmes ever undertaken anywhere in the world and provides high-resolution multibeam, backscatter and seismic data of the seabed around Ireland. These data have been used to provide the first clear evidence for extensive glaciation of the continental shelf west and northwest of Ireland. Streamlined drumlins on the mid to outer shelf record former offshore-directed ice flow towards the shelf edge and show that the ice sheet was grounded in a zone of confluence where ice flowing onto the shelf from northwest Ireland merged with ice flowing across the Malin Shelf from southwest Scotland. The major glacial features on the shelf are well developed nested arcuate moraine systems that mark the position of the ice sheet margin and confirm that the former British Irish Ice Sheet was grounded as far as the shelf edge around 100 km offshore of west Donegal at the last glacial maximum. Distal to the moraines, on the outermost shelf, prominent zones of iceberg plough marks give way to the Barra/Donegal fan and a well developed system of gullies and canyons which incise the continental slope. Since 2008 several scientific cruises have retrieved cores from the shelf and slope to help build a more detailed understanding of glacial events in this region. This presentation will provide an overview of the glacial history of the Irish shelf and will discuss ongoing research programmes that are building on the initial research findings to produce a better understanding of the nature and timing of ice sheet events in this region.

  18. Uncovering "Threshold Concepts" in Web Development: An Instructor Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Peter; Walsh, David; Westhead, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The field of Web development has evolved and diversified significantly in recent years, and narrowing the gap between the requirements of academia and the demands of industry remains a challenge. Moreover, many faculty members often struggle with knowing "how much" of a particular subject they should teach to their students and at what…

  19. Genetic mapping uncovers cis-regulatory landscape of RNA editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Gokul; Deng, Patricia; Zhang, Rui; Anna Carbone, Mary; Mackay, Trudy F C; Li, Jin Billy

    2015-09-16

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, catalysed by ADAR enzymes conserved in metazoans, plays an important role in neurological functions. Although the fine-tuning mechanism provided by A-to-I RNA editing is important, the underlying rules governing ADAR substrate recognition are not well understood. We apply a quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping approach to identify genetic variants associated with variability in RNA editing. With very accurate measurement of RNA editing levels at 789 sites in 131 Drosophila melanogaster strains, here we identify 545 editing QTLs (edQTLs) associated with differences in RNA editing. We demonstrate that many edQTLs can act through changes in the local secondary structure for edited dsRNAs. Furthermore, we find that edQTLs located outside of the edited dsRNA duplex are enriched in secondary structure, suggesting that distal dsRNA structure beyond the editing site duplex affects RNA editing efficiency. Our work will facilitate the understanding of the cis-regulatory code of RNA editing.

  20. Bird embryos uncover homology and evolution of the dinosaur ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa-Fuentes, Luis; Mpodozis, Jorge; Vargas, Alexander O

    2015-11-13

    The anklebone (astragalus) of dinosaurs presents a characteristic upward projection, the 'ascending process' (ASC). The ASC is present in modern birds, but develops a separate ossification centre, and projects from the calcaneum in most species. These differences have been argued to make it non-comparable to dinosaurs. We studied ASC development in six different orders of birds using traditional techniques and spin-disc microscopy for whole-mount immunofluorescence. Unexpectedly, we found the ASC derives from the embryonic intermedium, an ancient element of the tetrapod ankle. In some birds it comes in contact with the astragalus, and, in others, with the calcaneum. The fact that the intermedium fails to fuse early with the tibiale and develops an ossification centre is unlike any other amniotes, yet resembles basal, amphibian-grade tetrapods. The ASC originated in early dinosaurs along changes to upright posture and locomotion, revealing an intriguing combination of functional innovation and reversion in its evolution.

  1. Uncovering the Secret: Medieval Women, Magic and the Other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwikowska Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For medieval audiences women occupied a specific, designated cultural area which, while they could freely form it according to their will and nature, was in fact imaginary and immaterial. Women in social, legal, and religious contexts were mostly counted among the receptive, inactive, and non-ruling groups. On both levels, there was a group of features universally defining all women: the strong, virtuous and independent model Aquinas lamented was replaced in real life by the sinful, carnal and weak stereotype, and the erotic, emotional, mysterious, and often wild type present predominantly in literature. Indeed, women were a source of scientific, theological, and cultural fascination because of their uncanny and complex nature, producing both fear and desire of the source and nature of the unattainable and inaccessible femininity. In social contexts, however, the enchantress seems to lose that veil of allure and, instead, is forced to re-define her identity by suppressing, denying, or losing her supernatural features. With the example of Saint Agnes from the South English Legendary Life of Saint Agnes, and Melior from Partonope of Blois (ca. 1450, the article will explore how medieval texts dealt with the complex and unruly female supernatural, and how its neutralization and subduing fitted into the moral, scientific, and cultural norms of medieval society.

  2. Drug abuse: Uncovering the burden in rural Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuwan Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drug abuse is a global phenomenon, affecting almost every country, but its extent and characteristics differ from region to region. India too is caught in this vicious circle of drug abuse, and the numbers of drug addicts are increasing day by day. The bane of drug abuse in Punjab has acquired the proportions of a pestilence that has shaken the entire society in the state. It is observed that in Punjab “drug abuse” is a raging epidemic, especially among the young. Methodology: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 adolescents and young adults (11–35 years from 15 villages of Jalandhar District. Systematic sampling (probability proportionate to size was used for the selection of study subjects. A preformed, semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on type and frequency of drugs abused and other sociodemographic variables. The statistical evaluation of the data was performed using SPSS software, version 21.0. Results: The prevalence of substance abuse among study group was 65.5% and most common substance abused was alcohol (41.8%, followed by tobacco (21.3%. A high prevalence of heroin abusers was noted among study subjects (20.8%. The prevalence of nonalcohol and nontobacco substance abuse was 34.8%. A significant association of drug abuse was observed with male gender, illiteracy, and age above 30 years. Conclusions: The problem of drug abuse in youth of Punjab is a matter of serious concern as every third person is hooked to drugs other than alcohol and tobacco. The other striking observations were the high prevalence of heroin and intravenous drug abuse.

  3. Vaporous Marketing: Uncovering Pervasive Electronic Cigarette Advertisements on Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Clark

    Full Text Available Twitter has become the "wild-west" of marketing and promotional strategies for advertisement agencies. Electronic cigarettes have been heavily marketed across Twitter feeds, offering discounts, "kid-friendly" flavors, algorithmically generated false testimonials, and free samples.All electronic cigarette keyword related tweets from a 10% sample of Twitter spanning January 2012 through December 2014 (approximately 850,000 total tweets were identified and categorized as Automated or Organic by combining a keyword classification and a machine trained Human Detection algorithm. A sentiment analysis using Hedonometrics was performed on Organic tweets to quantify the change in consumer sentiments over time. Commercialized tweets were topically categorized with key phrasal pattern matching.The overwhelming majority (80% of tweets were classified as automated or promotional in nature. The majority of these tweets were coded as commercialized (83.65% in 2013, up to 33% of which offered discounts or free samples and appeared on over a billion twitter feeds as impressions. The positivity of Organic (human classified tweets has decreased over time (5.84 in 2013 to 5.77 in 2014 due to a relative increase in the negative words 'ban', 'tobacco', 'doesn't', 'drug', 'against', 'poison', 'tax' and a relative decrease in the positive words like 'haha', 'good', 'cool'. Automated tweets are more positive than organic (6.17 versus 5.84 due to a relative increase in the marketing words like 'best', 'win', 'buy', 'sale', 'health', 'discount' and a relative decrease in negative words like 'bad', 'hate', 'stupid', 'don't'.Due to the youth presence on Twitter and the clinical uncertainty of the long term health complications of electronic cigarette consumption, the protection of public health warrants scrutiny and potential regulation of social media marketing.

  4. HSPG-deficient zebrafish uncovers dental aspect of multiple osteochondromas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata I Wiweger

    Full Text Available Multiple Osteochondromas (MO; previously known as multiple hereditary exostosis is an autosomal dominant genetic condition that is characterized by the formation of cartilaginous bone tumours (osteochondromas at multiple sites in the skeleton, secondary bursa formation and impingement of nerves, tendons and vessels, bone curving, and short stature. MO is also known to be associated with arthritis, general pain, scarring and occasional malignant transformation of osteochondroma into secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma. MO patients present additional complains but the relevance of those in relation to the syndromal background needs validation. Mutations in two enzymes that are required during heparan sulphate synthesis (EXT1 or EXT2 are known to cause MO. Previously, we have used zebrafish which harbour mutations in ext2 as a model for MO and shown that ext2⁻/⁻ fish have skeletal defects that resemble those seen in osteochondromas. Here we analyse dental defects present in ext2⁻/⁻ fish. Histological analysis reveals that ext2⁻/⁻ fish have very severe defects associated with the formation and the morphology of teeth. At 5 days post fertilization 100% of ext2⁻/⁻ fish have a single tooth at the end of the 5(th pharyngeal arch, whereas wild-type fish develop three teeth, located in the middle of the pharyngeal arch. ext2⁻/⁻ teeth have abnormal morphology (they were shorter and thicker than in the WT and patchy ossification at the tooth base. Deformities such as split crowns and enamel lesions were found in 20% of ext2⁺/⁻ adults. The tooth morphology in ext2⁻/⁻ was partially rescued by FGF8 administered locally (bead implants. Our findings from zebrafish model were validated in a dental survey that was conducted with assistance of the MHE Research Foundation. The presence of the malformed and/or displaced teeth with abnormal enamel was declared by half of the respondents indicating that MO might indeed be also associated with dental problems.

  5. Uncovering Transdisciplinary Team Project Outcomes through Ripple Effect Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Catherine H.; Chalker-Scott, Linda; Martini, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The Garden Team at Washington State University is a transdisciplinary, geographically dispersed group of faculty and staff. As with many such teams, member retention requires effort, as busy individuals may not see the overall benefits of active team membership. Ripple effect mapping is a strategy that can illustrate the tangible and often…

  6. Uncovering urban human mobility from large scale taxi GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinjun; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yinhai; Wang, Hua

    2015-11-01

    Taxi GPS trajectories data contain massive spatial and temporal information of urban human activity and mobility. Taking taxi as mobile sensors, the information derived from taxi trips benefits the city and transportation planning. The original data used in study are collected from more than 1100 taxi drivers in Harbin city. We firstly divide the city area into 400 different transportation districts and analyze the origin and destination distribution in urban area on weekday and weekend. The Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) algorithm is used to cluster pick-up and drop-off locations. Furthermore, four spatial interaction models are calibrated and compared based on trajectories in shopping center of Harbin city to study the pick-up location searching behavior. By extracting taxi trips from GPS data, travel distance, time and average speed in occupied and non-occupied status are then used to investigate human mobility. Finally, we use observed OD matrix of center area in Harbin city to model the traffic distribution patterns based on entropy-maximizing method, and the estimation performance verify its effectiveness in case study.

  7. Uncovering the etiology of conversion disorder: insights from functional neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejareh dar, Maryam; Kanaan, Richard AA

    2016-01-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is a syndrome of neurological symptoms arising without organic cause, arguably in response to emotional stress, but the exact neural substrates of these symptoms and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood with the hunt for a biological basis afoot for centuries. In the past 15 years, novel insights have been gained with the advent of functional neuroimaging studies in patients suffering from CDs in both motor and nonmotor domains. This review summarizes recent functional neuroimaging studies including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET) to see whether they bring us closer to understanding the etiology of CD. Convergent functional neuroimaging findings suggest alterations in brain circuits that could point to different mechanisms for manifesting functional neurological symptoms, in contrast with feigning or healthy controls. Abnormalities in emotion processing and in emotion-motor processing suggest a diathesis, while differential reactions to certain stressors implicate a specific response to trauma. No comprehensive theory emerges from these clues, and all results remain preliminary, but functional neuroimaging has at least given grounds for hope that a model for CD may soon be found. PMID:26834476

  8. Vaporous Marketing: Uncovering Pervasive Electronic Cigarette Advertisements on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Chris A.; Williams, Jake Ryland; Kurti, Allison N.; Norotsky, Mitchell Craig; Danforth, Christopher M.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2016-01-01

    Background Twitter has become the “wild-west” of marketing and promotional strategies for advertisement agencies. Electronic cigarettes have been heavily marketed across Twitter feeds, offering discounts, “kid-friendly” flavors, algorithmically generated false testimonials, and free samples. Methods All electronic cigarette keyword related tweets from a 10% sample of Twitter spanning January 2012 through December 2014 (approximately 850,000 total tweets) were identified and categorized as Automated or Organic by combining a keyword classification and a machine trained Human Detection algorithm. A sentiment analysis using Hedonometrics was performed on Organic tweets to quantify the change in consumer sentiments over time. Commercialized tweets were topically categorized with key phrasal pattern matching. Results The overwhelming majority (80%) of tweets were classified as automated or promotional in nature. The majority of these tweets were coded as commercialized (83.65% in 2013), up to 33% of which offered discounts or free samples and appeared on over a billion twitter feeds as impressions. The positivity of Organic (human) classified tweets has decreased over time (5.84 in 2013 to 5.77 in 2014) due to a relative increase in the negative words ‘ban’, ‘tobacco’, ‘doesn’t’, ‘drug’, ‘against’, ‘poison’, ‘tax’ and a relative decrease in the positive words like ‘haha’, ‘good’, ‘cool’. Automated tweets are more positive than organic (6.17 versus 5.84) due to a relative increase in the marketing words like ‘best’, ‘win’, ‘buy’, ‘sale’, ‘health’, ‘discount’ and a relative decrease in negative words like ‘bad’, ‘hate’, ‘stupid’, ‘don’t’. Conclusions Due to the youth presence on Twitter and the clinical uncertainty of the long term health complications of electronic cigarette consumption, the protection of public health warrants scrutiny and potential regulation of social media marketing. PMID:27410031

  9. UNCOVERING RESISTANCE TO ICT USE IN LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Kamilah

    2016-04-01

    Penelitian ini memaparkan hasil studi kasus terhadap seorang guru bahasa Inggris SMA di Situbondo yang resistan untuk menggunakan TIK di kelas. Berawal dari keprihatinan terhadap guru yang memilih untuk abai terhadap penggunaan TIK, terlepas dari penting dan berpotensinya TIK tersebut dalam meningkatkan keterampilan berbahasa siswa. Ditemukan bahwa variabel usia yang lanjut menjadi penyebab munculnya variabel lain seperti kurangnya motivasi belajar TIK dan rendahnya kemampuan menggunakannya yang berujung pada pilihannya untuk tidak menggunakan TIK di kelas sehingga tetap menggunakan metode mengajar konvensional. Variabel usia tersebut ternyata bukanlah pemicu utama sikap resistan tersebut, melainkan lemahnya kemampuan guru dalam memahami dan memenuhi tuntutan profesinya sebagai guru bahasa Inggris. Oleh karenanya, saran penelitian ditujukan pada guru agar lebih siap terhadap tuntutan dan tantangan lain dalam profesinya sehingga menjadi guru profesional.

  10. Efeitos a curto prazo de "stents" não recobertos e recobertos com politetrafluoroetileno em aorta de suínos: um modelo experimental Short-term effects of polytetrafluoroethylene covered and uncovered metallic "stents" in pig aorta: an experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Grüdtner

    2004-04-01

    -expandable uncovered metallic stent. On group III animals (n=10 an auto-expandable stent covered with PTFE was inserted. After four weeks the animals were killed, the specimens were harvested and the intimal thickening was quantified by morphometric analysis. RESULTS: In the comparison among groups I, II and III referring to intimal, medial area and intimal index, it was not observed statistically significant variation. Differences were identified among groups referring to luminal proximal (p=0,036 and distal areas (p=0,044. Through multiple comparison tests for Kruskal-Wallis it was identified a difference between groups I and II. However, when these variables were controlled by weigh factor (luminal area/weigh relation, this difference was not observed anymore. CONCLUSION: In this short term study, the PTFE covering is not associated to further intimal thickening besides that promoted by the metallic mesh in large arteries and in high flow conditions.

  11. ORF Alignment: NC_000918 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... pyrophosphorylase) ... Length = 154 ... Query: 4 ... RVVYPGTFDPPHYGHLDIVKRSARIFDEVVVAVAKKPRKFLLFDA...EERVKMFEKMVEDIP 63 ... RVVYPGTFDPPHYGHLDIVKRSARIFDEVVVAVAKKPRKFLLFDAEERVKM...FEKMVEDIP Sbjct: 1 ... RVVYPGTFDPPHYGHLDIVKRSARIFDEVVVAVAKKPRKFLLFDAEERVKMFEKMVEDIP 60 ... Query: 124 IHISSTIVRDV

  12. Comparison of ixekizumab with etanercept or placebo in moderate-to-severe psoriasis (UNCOVER-2 and UNCOVER-3): results from two phase 3 randomised trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, C.E.; Reich, K.; Lebwohl, M.; Kerkhof, P. van de; Paul, C.; Menter, A.; Cameron, G.S.; Erickson, J.; Zhang, L.; Secrest, R.J.; Ball, S.; Braun, D.K.; Osuntokun, O.O.; Heffernan, M.P.; Nickoloff, B.J.; Papp, K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ixekizumab is a humanised monoclonal antibody against the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 17A. We report two studies of ixekizumab compared with placebo or etanercept to assess the safety and efficacy of specifically targeting interleukin 17A in patients with widespread

  13. Uncovering potential 'herbal probiotics' in Juzen-taiho-to through the study of associated bacterial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Diego; Kalpana, Kriti; Chrissian, Christine; Sharma, Ashutosh; Takaoka, Anna; Iacovidou, Maria; Soll, Clifford E; Aminova, Olga; Heguy, Adriana; Cohen, Lisa; Shen, Steven; Kawamura, Akira

    2015-02-01

    Juzen-taiho-to (JTT) is an immune-boosting formulation of ten medicinal herbs. It is used clinically in East Asia to boost the human immune functions. The active factors in JTT have not been clarified. But, existing evidence suggests that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-like factors contribute to the activity. To examine this possibility, JTT was subjected to a series of analyses, including high resolution mass spectrometry, which suggested the presence of structural variants of LPS. This finding opened a possibility that JTT contains immune-boosting bacteria. As the first step to characterize the bacteria in JTT, 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing was carried out for Angelica sinensis (dried root), one of the most potent immunostimulatory herbs in JTT. The sequencing revealed a total of 519 bacteria genera in A. sinensis. The most abundant genus was Rahnella, which is widely distributed in water and plants. The abundance of Rahnella appeared to correlate with the immunostimulatory activity of A. sinensis. In conclusion, the current study provided new pieces of evidence supporting the emerging theory of bacterial contribution in immune-boosting herbs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An antioxidant nanozyme that uncovers the cytoprotective potential of vanadia nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernekar, Amit A.; Sinha, Devanjan; Srivastava, Shubhi; Paramasivam, Prasath U.; D'Silva, Patrick; Mugesh, Govindasamy

    2014-11-01

    Nanomaterials with enzyme-like properties has attracted significant interest, although limited information is available on their biological activities in cells. Here we show that V2O5 nanowires (Vn) functionally mimic the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase by using cellular glutathione. Although bulk V2O5 is known to be toxic to the cells, the property is altered when converted into a nanomaterial form. The Vn nanozymes readily internalize into mammalian cells of multiple origin (kidney, neuronal, prostate, cervical) and exhibit robust enzyme-like activity by scavenging the reactive oxygen species when challenged against intrinsic and extrinsic oxidative stress. The Vn nanozymes fully restore the redox balance without perturbing the cellular antioxidant defense, thus providing an important cytoprotection for biomolecules against harmful oxidative damage. Based on our findings, we envision that biocompatible Vn nanowires can provide future therapeutic potential to prevent ageing, cardiac disorders and several neurological conditions, including Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease.

  15. Population based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa: uncovering a silent epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Fikru; Byass, Peter; Wall, Stig

    2009-08-23

    The prevention and control of high blood pressure or other cardiovascular diseases has not received due attention in many developing countries. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, so as to inform policy and lay the ground for surveillance interventions. Addis Ababa is the largest urban centre and national capital of Ethiopia, hosting about 25% of the urban population in the country. A probabilistic sample of adult males and females, 25-64 years of age residing in Addis Ababa city participated in structured interviews and physical measurements. We employed a population based, cross sectional survey, using the World Health Organization instrument for stepwise surveillance (STEPS) of chronic disease risk factors. Data on selected socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviours, including physical activity, as well as physical measurements such as weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were collected through standardized procedures. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the coefficient of variability of blood pressure due to selected socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, and physical measurements. A total of 3713 adults participated in the study. About 20% of males and 38% of females were overweight (body-mass-index > or = 25 kg/m2), with 10.8 (9.49, 12.11)% of the females being obese (body-mass-index > or = 30 kg/m2). Similarly, 17% of the males and 31% of the females were classified as having low level of total physical activity. The age-adjusted prevalence (95% confidence interval) of high blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) > or = 140 mmHg (millimetres of mercury) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > or = 90 mmHg or reported use of anti-hypertensive medication, was 31.5% (29.0, 33.9) among males and 28.9% (26.8, 30.9) among females. High blood pressure is widely prevalent in Addis Ababa and may represent a silent epidemic in this population. Overweight, obesity and physical inactivity are important determinants of high blood pressure. There is an urgent need for strategies and programmes to prevent and control high blood pressure, and promote healthy lifestyle behaviours primarily among the urban populations of Ethiopia.

  16. Proteomic analysis uncovers a metabolic phenotype in C. elegans after nhr-40 reduction of function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohludka, Michal; Simeckova, Katerina; Vohanka, Jaroslav; Yilma, Petr; Novak, Petr; Krause, Michael W.; Kostrouchova, Marta; Kostrouch, Zdenek

    2008-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans has an unexpectedly large number (284) of genes encoding nuclear hormone receptors, most of which are nematode-specific and are of unknown function. We have exploited comparative two-dimensional chromatography of synchronized cultures of wild type C. elegans larvae and a mutant in nhr-40 to determine if proteomic approaches will provide additional insight into gene function. Chromatofocusing, followed by reversed-phase chromatography and mass spectrometry, identified altered chromatographic patterns for a set of proteins, many of which function in muscle and metabolism. Prompted by the proteomic analysis, we find that the penetrance of the developmental phenotypes in the mutant is enhanced at low temperatures and by food restriction. The combination of our phenotypic and proteomic analysis strongly suggests that NHR-40 provides a link between metabolism and muscle development. Our results highlight the utility of comparative two-dimensional chromatography to provide a relatively rapid method to gain insight into gene function

  17. When Ants Move Mountains: Uncovering a Media Theory of Human Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia W. Elliott

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Just as Smythe argued communication was the “blindspot of western Marxism,” western communication and media theorizing itself suffers a blind spot, when it places media power in the hands of dictators and captains of industry as if no others might put pen to paper and change history. Meanwhile, theoretical explorations of how media praxis might be understood and employed for emancipation – not subjugation – emerged through the experiences of people in the Global South and Indigenous communities. This article examines and contrasts the theoretical silos, seeking moments of cross-over and synergy between static, top-down conceptualizations of Western mass media theory, and the more people-powered media praxis of colonized people seeking liberation. Building on the literature of differing experiences, the author draws a framework to encompass the full spectrum of media power. Here scholars, policy planners, and media practitioners alike may find common ground from which to recognize and support grassroots media producers as agents of meaningful social change.

  18. Age/sex/location: uncovering the social cues in the development of online relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, M; Gavin, J

    2001-10-01

    Past research on online relationships has predominantly been concerned with how the quality of online relationships compares with offline relationships. This research has been more concerned with the medium itself than with the meanings that users construct around their interpersonal interactions within this medium. The current paper seeks to redress this imbalance by exploring the ways that available social cues are used to shape the meanings of online relationships. Sixty Internet users, ranging in age from 19-51 years, were interviewed about their online relationships. It was found that ideals that are important in traditional relationships, such as trust, honesty, and commitment are just as important in online relationships; however, the cues that signify these ideals vary.

  19. Standing of nucleic acid testing strategies in veterinary diagnosis laboratories to uncover Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pedro; Botelho, Ana; Couto, Isabel; Viveiros, Miguel; Inácio, João

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) designate any molecular approach used for the detection, identification, and characterization of pathogenic microorganisms, enabling the rapid, specific, and sensitive diagnostic of infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis. These assays have been widely used since the 90s of the last century in human clinical laboratories and, subsequently, also in veterinary diagnostics. Most NAT strategies are based in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its several enhancements and variations. From the conventional PCR, real-time PCR and its combinations, isothermal DNA amplification, to the nanotechnologies, here we review how the NAT assays have been applied to decipher if and which member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is present in a clinical sample. Recent advances in DNA sequencing also brought new challenges and have made possible to generate rapidly and at a low cost, large amounts of sequence data. This revolution with the high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies makes whole genome sequencing (WGS) and metagenomics the trendiest NAT strategies, today. The ranking of NAT techniques in the field of clinical diagnostics is rising, and we provide a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis with our view of the use of molecular diagnostics for detecting tuberculosis in veterinary laboratories, notwithstanding the gold standard being still the classical culture of the agent. The complementary use of both classical and molecular diagnostics approaches is recommended to speed the diagnostic, enabling a fast decision by competent authorities and rapid tackling of the disease. PMID:25988157

  20. Uncovering the benefits of participatory research: implications of a realist review for health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagosh, Justin; Macaulay, Ann C; Pluye, Pierre; Salsberg, Jon; Bush, Paula L; Henderson, Jim; Sirett, Erin; Wong, Geoff; Cargo, Margaret; Herbert, Carol P; Seifer, Sarena D; Green, Lawrence W; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2012-06-01

    Participatory research (PR) is the co-construction of research through partnerships between researchers and people affected by and/or responsible for action on the issues under study. Evaluating the benefits of PR is challenging for a number of reasons: the research topics, methods, and study designs are heterogeneous; the extent of collaborative involvement may vary over the duration of a project and from one project to the next; and partnership activities may generate a complex array of both short- and long-term outcomes. Our review team consisted of a collaboration among researchers and decision makers in public health, research funding, ethics review, and community-engaged scholarship. We identified, selected, and appraised a large-variety sample of primary studies describing PR partnerships, and in each stage, two team members independently reviewed and coded the literature. We used key realist review concepts (middle-range theory, demi-regularity, and context-mechanism-outcome configurations [CMO]) to analyze and synthesize the data, using the PR partnership as the main unit of analysis. From 7,167 abstracts and 591 full-text papers, we distilled for synthesis a final sample of twenty-three PR partnerships described in 276 publications. The link between process and outcome in these partnerships was best explained using the middle-range theory of partnership synergy, which demonstrates how PR can (1) ensure culturally and logistically appropriate research, (2) enhance recruitment capacity, (3) generate professional capacity and competence in stakeholder groups, (4) result in productive conflicts followed by useful negotiation, (5) increase the quality of outputs and outcomes over time, (6) increase the sustainability of project goals beyond funded time frames and during gaps in external funding, and (7) create system changes and new unanticipated projects and activities. Negative examples illustrated why these outcomes were not a guaranteed product of PR partnerships but were contingent on key aspects of context. We used a realist approach to embrace the heterogeneity and complexity of the PR literature. This theory-driven synthesis identified mechanisms by which PR may add value to the research process. Using the middle-range theory of partnership synergy, our review confirmed findings from previous PR reviews, documented and explained some negative outcomes, and generated new insights into the benefits of PR regarding conflicts and negotiation between stakeholders, program sustainability and advancement, unanticipated project activity, and the generation of systemic change. © 2012 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  1. Uncovering Direct Targets of MiR-19a Involved in Lung Cancer Progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumiko Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Micro RNAs (miRNAs regulate the expression of target genes posttranscriptionally by pairing incompletely with mRNA in a sequence-specific manner. About 30% of human genes are regulated by miRNAs, and a single miRNA is capable of reducing the production of hundreds of proteins by means of incomplete pairing upon miRNA-mRNA binding. Lately, evidence implicating miRNAs in the development of lung cancers has been emerging. In particular, miR-19a, which is highly expressed in malignant lung cancer cells, is considered the key miRNA for tumorigenesis. However, its direct targets remain underreported. In the present study, we focused on six potential miR-19a target genes selected by miRNA target prediction software. To evaluate these genes as direct miR-19a target genes, we performed luciferase, pull-down, and western blot assays. The luciferase activity of plasmids with each miR-19a-binding site was observed to decrease, while increased luciferase activity was observed in the presence of anti-miR-19a locked nucleic acid (LNA. The pull-down assay showed biotinylated miR-19a to bind to AGO2 protein and to four of six potential target mRNAs. Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of the four genes changed depending on treatment with miR-19a mimic or anti-miR-19a-LNA. Finally, FOXP1, TP53INP1, TNFAIP3, and TUSC2 were identified as miR-19a targets. To examine the function of these four target genes in lung cancer cells, LK79 (which has high miR-19a expression and A549 (which has low miR-19a expression were used. The expression of the four target proteins was higher in A549 than in LK79 cells. The four miR-19a target cDNA expression vectors suppressed cell viability, colony formation, migration, and invasion of A549 and LK79 cells, but LK79 cells transfected with FOXP1 and TP53INP1 cDNAs showed no difference compared to the control cells in the invasion assay.

  2. Multidimensional integrative analysis uncovers driver candidates and biomarkers in penile carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchi, Fabio Albuquerque; Martins, David Correa; Barros-Filho, Mateus Camargo

    2017-01-01

    Molecular data generation and their combination in penile carcinomas (PeCa), a significant public health problem in poor and underdeveloped countries, remain virtually unexplored. An integrativemethodology combin ing genome-wide copy number alteration, DNA methylation, miRNA and mRNA expression...

  3. A reduced-dimensionality approach to uncovering dyadic modes of body motion in conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziv, Guy; Noy, Lior; Liron, Yuvalal; Alon, Uri

    2017-01-01

    Face-to-face conversations are central to human communication and a fascinating example of joint action. Beyond verbal content, one of the primary ways in which information is conveyed in conversations is body language. Body motion in natural conversations has been difficult to study precisely due to the large number of coordinates at play. There is need for fresh approaches to analyze and understand the data, in order to ask whether dyads show basic building blocks of coupled motion. Here we present a method for analyzing body motion during joint action using depth-sensing cameras, and use it to analyze a sample of scientific conversations. Our method consists of three steps: defining modes of body motion of individual participants, defining dyadic modes made of combinations of these individual modes, and lastly defining motion motifs as dyadic modes that occur significantly more often than expected given the single-person motion statistics. As a proof-of-concept, we analyze the motion of 12 dyads of scientists measured using two Microsoft Kinect cameras. In our sample, we find that out of many possible modes, only two were motion motifs: synchronized parallel torso motion in which the participants swayed from side to side in sync, and still segments where neither person moved. We find evidence of dyad individuality in the use of motion modes. For a randomly selected subset of 5 dyads, this individuality was maintained for at least 6 months. The present approach to simplify complex motion data and to define motion motifs may be used to understand other joint tasks and interactions. The analysis tools developed here and the motion dataset are publicly available.

  4. Interspecies systems biology uncovers metabolites affecting C. elegans gene expression and life history traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Emma; MacNeil, Lesley T; Ritter, Ashlyn D; Yilmaz, L Safak; Rosebrock, Adam P; Caudy, Amy A; Walhout, Albertha J M

    2014-02-13

    Diet greatly influences gene expression and physiology. In mammals, elucidating the effects and mechanisms of individual nutrients is challenging due to the complexity of both the animal and its diet. Here, we used an interspecies systems biology approach with Caenorhabditis elegans and two of its bacterial diets, Escherichia coli and Comamonas aquatica, to identify metabolites that affect the animal's gene expression and physiology. We identify vitamin B12 as the major dilutable metabolite provided by Comamonas aq. that regulates gene expression, accelerates development, and reduces fertility but does not affect lifespan. We find that vitamin B12 has a dual role in the animal: it affects development and fertility via the methionine/S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) cycle and breaks down the short-chain fatty acid propionic acid, preventing its toxic buildup. Our interspecies systems biology approach provides a paradigm for understanding complex interactions between diet and physiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Metastatic breast carcinoma uncovered in an otherwise unremarkable “random colon biopsy”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Black

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most devastating cancers afflicting women, being a main cause of cancer related death. Approximately 50% of these patients have developed regional or distant metastases at the time of diagnosis; hence, an early diagnosis and surgery with indicated neoadjuvant therapy are crucial in eradicating this disease and improving patient survival. A significant percentage of patients, even after initial satisfactory tumor removal, still face the threat of metastatic diseases which could plague a wide spectrum of body sites such as bones, lungs, central nervous system, liver and gastrointestinal tract (mostly upper gastrointestinal locations. Colonic and anorectal involvement by metastatic breast cancer has been less frequently reported in disseminated diseases. Typically, metastatic disease presents as a mass, enteric stenosis, or obstruction. Rare cases, however, may not form an endoscopically or radiologically recognizable lesion, and thus could be overlooked. Here we report a unique case of random colon biopsies in a patient presenting with epigastric pain, whose stomach biopsy showed Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic active gastritis. No colonoscopic lesion was present; however, microscopic examination of the “random biopsy” revealed scattered single and small clusters of tumor cells involving the lamina propria of the colonic mucosa, morphologically and immunophenotypically consistent with metastatic disease from breast carcinoma. The clinical presentation and histopathology of the case were reviewed and compared with limited cases reported in the literature. We conclude that high levels of suspicion and alertness are essential to identify occult microscopic gastrointestinal metastatic breast cancer in the absence of a grossly appreciable lesion.

  6. Uncovering biologically significant lipid isomers with liquid chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, Jennifer E.; Zhang, Xing; Weitz, Karl K.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Moore, Ronald J.; Cha, Jeeyeon; Sun, Xiaofei; Lovelace, Erica S.; Wagoner, Jessica; Polyak, Steve; Metz, Thomas O.; Dey, Sudhansu K.; Smith, Richard D.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin Shammel

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how biological molecules are generated, metabolized and eliminated in living systems is important for interpreting processes such as immune response and disease pathology. While genomic and proteomic studies have provided vast amounts of information over the last several decades, interest in lipidomics has also grown due to improved analytical technologies revealing altered lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes, cancer, and lipid storage disease. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurements are currently the dominant approach for characterizing the lipidome by providing detailed information on the spatial and temporal composition of lipids. However, interpreting lipids’ biological roles is challenging due to the existence of numerous structural and stereoisomers (i.e. distinct acyl chain and double-bond positions), which are unresolvable using present LC-MS approaches. Here we show that combining structurally-based ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) with LC-MS measurements distinguishes lipid isomers and allows insight into biological and disease processes.

  7. Uncovering Multivariate Structure in Classroom Observations in the Presence of Rater Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Yuan, Kun; Savitsky, Terrance D.; Lockwood, J. R.; Edelen, Maria O.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the factor structure of scores from the CLASS-S protocol obtained from observations of middle school classroom teaching. Factor analysis has been used to support both interpretations of scores from classroom observation protocols, like CLASS-S, and the theories about teaching that underlie them. However, classroom observations contain…

  8. A review of active learning approaches to experimental design for uncovering biological networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Various types of biological knowledge describe networks of interactions among elementary entities. For example, transcriptional regulatory networks consist of interactions among proteins and genes. Current knowledge about the exact structure of such networks is highly incomplete, and laboratory experiments that manipulate the entities involved are conducted to test hypotheses about these networks. In recent years, various automated approaches to experiment selection have been proposed. Many of these approaches can be characterized as active machine learning algorithms. Active learning is an iterative process in which a model is learned from data, hypotheses are generated from the model to propose informative experiments, and the experiments yield new data that is used to update the model. This review describes the various models, experiment selection strategies, validation techniques, and successful applications described in the literature; highlights common themes and notable distinctions among methods; and identifies likely directions of future research and open problems in the area. PMID:28570593

  9. Secretagogue stimulation of neurosecretory cells elicits filopodial extensions uncovering new functional release sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopulos, Andreas; Martin, Sally; Tomatis, Vanesa M; Gormal, Rachel S; Meunier, Frederic A

    2013-12-04

    Regulated exocytosis in neurosecretory cells relies on the timely fusion of secretory granules (SGs) with the plasma membrane. Secretagogue stimulation leads to an enlargement of the cell footprint (surface area in contact with the coverslip), an effect previously attributed to exocytic fusion of SGs with the plasma membrane. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we reveal the formation of filopodia-like structures in bovine chromaffin and PC12 cells driving the footprint expansion, suggesting the involvement of cortical actin network remodeling in this process. Using exocytosis-incompetent PC12 cells, we demonstrate that footprint enlargement is largely independent of SG fusion, suggesting that vesicular exocytic fusion plays a relatively minor role in filopodial expansion. The footprint periphery, including filopodia, undergoes extensive F-actin remodeling, an effect abolished by the actomyosin inhibitors cytochalasin D and blebbistatin. Imaging of both Lifeact-GFP and the SG marker protein neuropeptide Y-mCherry reveals that SGs actively translocate along newly forming actin tracks before undergoing fusion. Together, these data demonstrate that neurosecretory cells regulate the number of SGs undergoing exocytosis during sustained stimulation by controlling vesicular mobilization and translocation to the plasma membrane through actin remodeling. Such remodeling facilitates the de novo formation of fusion sites.

  10. Uncovering Productivity Gains of Digital and Green Servitization: Implications from the Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Opazo-Basáez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing industrial concern about sustainability challenges has driven vehicle and auto parts manufacturers to adopt service capabilities as a way to maintain competitiveness in compliance with environmental regulations. As a result, automakers have progressively integrated digital and green service initiatives to support operations and address environmental issues effectively. The present study examined the effect of digital and green servitization on the firm’s productivity. To test their effect quantitatively, this study used the ORBIS database to construct a multi-country sample containing 228 companies in the automotive industry. Our findings indicate that implementation of digital and green servitization is positively associated with higher productivity outcomes once the two forms of servitization coexist and operate jointly. Moreover, the results of the study underscore the importance of establishing a successional pathway of implementation priorities. Our evidence suggests that firms willing to offer green services should consider offering digital services first, as this is the only way to obtain productivity gains from green servitization.

  11. Identity economics and the brain: uncovering the mechanisms of social conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettel, Scott A.; Kranton, Rachel E.

    2012-01-01

    Social contexts can have dramatic effects on decisions. When individuals recognize each other as coming from the same social group, they can coordinate their actions towards a common goal. Conversely, information about group differences can lead to conflicts both economic and physical. Understanding how social information shapes decision processes is now a core goal both of behavioural economics and neuroeconomics. Here, we describe the foundations for research that combines the theoretical framework from identity economics with the experimental methods of neuroscience. Research at this intersection would fill important gaps in the literature not addressed by current approaches in either of these disciplines, nor within social neuroscience, psychology or other fields. We set forth a simple taxonomy of social contexts based on the information content they provide. And, we highlight the key questions that would be addressed by a new ‘identity neuroeconomics’. Such research could serve as an important and novel link between the social and natural sciences. PMID:22271784

  12. Uncovering Local Impacts – The Influence of Transnational Municipal Climate Networks on Urban Climate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Henner; Bendlin, Lena; Fenton, Paul; Forschungszentrum für Umweltpolitik

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, many cities have joined transnational municipal climate networks (TMCNs), which were set up in response to climate change. Despite the fact that some of these TMCNs have been active for more than two decades, there has been no systematic investigation of the networks’ impact on local climate governance. In this article we attempt to answer if and how local climate governance has been influenced by municipalities’ memberships in TMCNs. Our assessment is based on an online surv...

  13. Uncovering the cognitive processes underlying mental rotation: an eye-movement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiguo; Li, Chunyong; Quan, Cheng; Lu, Yiming; Yue, Jingwei; Zhang, Chenggang

    2017-08-30

    Mental rotation is an important paradigm for spatial ability. Mental-rotation tasks are assumed to involve five or three sequential cognitive-processing states, though this has not been demonstrated experimentally. Here, we investigated how processing states alternate during mental-rotation tasks. Inference was carried out using an advanced statistical modelling and data-driven approach - a discriminative hidden Markov model (dHMM) trained using eye-movement data obtained from an experiment consisting of two different strategies: (I) mentally rotate the right-side figure to be aligned with the left-side figure and (II) mentally rotate the left-side figure to be aligned with the right-side figure. Eye movements were found to contain the necessary information for determining the processing strategy, and the dHMM that best fit our data segmented the mental-rotation process into three hidden states, which we termed encoding and searching, comparison, and searching on one-side pair. Additionally, we applied three classification methods, logistic regression, support vector model and dHMM, of which dHMM predicted the strategies with the highest accuracy (76.8%). Our study did confirm that there are differences in processing states between these two of mental-rotation strategies, and were consistent with the previous suggestion that mental rotation is discrete process that is accomplished in a piecemeal fashion.

  14. Analysis of the synaptotagmin family during reconstituted membrane fusion. Uncovering a class of inhibitory isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Akhil; Chicka, Michael C; Chapman, Edwin R

    2008-08-01

    Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis in neurons and neuroendocrine cells is regulated by the Ca(2+)-binding protein synaptotagmin (syt) I. Sixteen additional isoforms of syt have been identified, but little is known concerning their biochemical or functional properties. Here, we assessed the abilities of fourteen syt isoforms to directly regulate SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein receptor)-catalyzed membrane fusion. One group of isoforms stimulated neuronal SNARE-mediated fusion in response to Ca(2+), while another set inhibited SNARE catalyzed fusion in both the absence and presence of Ca(2+). Biochemical analysis revealed a strong correlation between the ability of syt isoforms to bind 1,2-dioleoyl phosphatidylserine (PS) and t-SNAREs in a Ca(2+)-promoted manner with their abilities to enhance fusion, further establishing PS and SNAREs as critical effectors for syt action. The ability of syt I to efficiently stimulate fusion was specific for certain SNARE pairs, suggesting that syts might contribute to the specificity of intracellular membrane fusion reactions. Finally, a subset of inhibitory syts down-regulated the ability of syt I to activate fusion, demonstrating that syt isoforms can modulate the function of each other.

  15. Uncovering the Structure of and Gender and Developmental Differences in Cyber Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griezel, Lucy; Finger, Linda R.; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian H.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2012-01-01

    Although literature on traditional bullying is abundant, a limited body of sound empirical research exists regarding its newest form: cyber bullying. The sample comprised Australian secondary students (N = 803) and aimed to identify the underlying structure of cyber bullying, and differences in traditional and cyber bullying behaviors across…

  16. Uncovering Document Fraud in Maritime Freight Transport Based on Probabilistic Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Triepels , Ron; Feelders , Ad; Daniels , Hennie

    2015-01-01

    Part 4: Data Analysis and Information Retrieval; International audience; Deficient visibility in global supply chains causes significant risks for the customs brokerage practices of freight forwarders. One of the risks that freight forwarders face is that shipping documentation might contain document fraud and is used to declare a shipment. Traditional risk controls are ineffective in this regard since the creation of shipping documentation is uncontrollable by freight forwarders. In this pap...

  17. Yeast as a Heterologous Model System to Uncover Type III Effector Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crina Popa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Type III effectors (T3E are key virulence proteins that are injected by bacterial pathogens inside the cells of their host to subvert cellular processes and contribute to disease. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents an important heterologous system for the functional characterisation of T3E proteins in a eukaryotic environment. Importantly, yeast contains eukaryotic processes with low redundancy and are devoid of immunity mechanisms that counteract T3Es and mask their function. Expression in yeast of effectors from both plant and animal pathogens that perturb conserved cellular processes often resulted in robust phenotypes that were exploited to elucidate effector functions, biochemical properties, and host targets. The genetic tractability of yeast and its amenability for high-throughput functional studies contributed to the success of this system that, in recent years, has been used to study over 100 effectors. Here, we provide a critical view on this body of work and describe advantages and limitations inherent to the use of yeast in T3E research. "Favourite" targets of T3Es in yeast are cytoskeleton components and small GTPases of the Rho family. We describe how mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signalling, vesicle trafficking, membrane structures, and programmed cell death are also often altered by T3Es in yeast and how this reflects their function in the natural host. We describe how effector structure-function studies and analysis of candidate targeted processes or pathways can be carried out in yeast. We critically analyse technologies that have been used in yeast to assign biochemical functions to T3Es, including transcriptomics and proteomics, as well as suppressor, gain-of-function, or synthetic lethality screens. We also describe how yeast can be used to select for molecules that block T3E function in search of new antibacterial drugs with medical applications. Finally, we provide our opinion on the limitations of S. cerevisiae as a model system and its most promising future applications.

  18. Shadowing: Who Benefits and How? Uncovering a Booming EFL Teaching Technique for Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yo

    2016-01-01

    This study examines common claims associated with shadowing. Studies in Japan conclude that shadowing is effective for improving learners' listening skills. Two common claims are that shadowing is effective for lower-proficiency learners and that it enhances learners' phoneme perception, thus improving listening comprehension skills. The former…

  19. Use of direct gradient analysis to uncover biological hypotheses in 16s survey data and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb-Downward, John R; Sadighi Akha, Amir A; Wang, Juan; Shen, Ning; He, Bei; Martinez, Fernando J; Gyetko, Margaret R; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Huffnagle, Gary B

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the use of direct gradient analysis of bacterial 16S pyrosequencing surveys to identify relevant bacterial community signals in the midst of a "noisy" background, and to facilitate hypothesis-testing both within and beyond the realm of ecological surveys. The results, utilizing 3 different real world data sets, demonstrate the utility of adding direct gradient analysis to any analysis that draws conclusions from indirect methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA). Direct gradient analysis produces testable models, and can identify significant patterns in the midst of noisy data. Additionally, we demonstrate that direct gradient analysis can be used with other kinds of multivariate data sets, such as flow cytometric data, to identify differentially expressed populations. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of direct gradient analysis in microbial ecology and in other areas of research where large multivariate data sets are involved.

  20. Uncovering surface area and micropores in almond shell biochars by rainwater wash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochars have been considered for adsorption of contaminants in soil and water, as well as conditioning and improving soil quality. One important property of the biochar is surface area in the pores of the biochar. Biochars were created from almond shells from two almond varieties with different ash...

  1. Lentivirus-mediated Knockdown of HDAC1 Uncovers Its Role in Esophageal Cancer Metastasis and Chemosensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Min; He, Gang; Wang, Yan; Pang, Xueli; Zhang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylationase 1 (HDAC1) is ubiquitously expressed in various cell lines and tissues and play an important role of regulation gene expression. Overexpression of HDAC1 has been observed in various types of cancers, which indicated that it might be a target for cancer therapy. To test HDAC1 inhibition for cancer treatment, the gene expression of HDAC1 was knockdown mediated by a lentivirus system. Our data showed the gene expression of HDAC1 could be efficiently knockdown by RNAi medi...

  2. Metabolite profiling uncovers plasmid-induced cobalt limitation under methylotrophic growth conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Kiefer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The introduction and maintenance of plasmids in cells is often associated with a reduction of growth rate. The reason for this growth reduction is unclear in many cases.We observed a surprisingly large reduction in growth rate of about 50% of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 during methylotrophic growth in the presence of a plasmid, pCM80 expressing the tetA gene, relative to the wild-type. A less pronounced growth delay during growth under non-methylotrophic growth conditions was observed; this suggested an inhibition of one-carbon metabolism rather than a general growth inhibition or metabolic burden. Metabolome analyses revealed an increase in pool sizes of ethylmalonyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA of more than 6- and 35-fold, respectively, relative to wild type, suggesting a strongly reduced conversion of these central intermediates, which are essential for glyoxylate regeneration in this model methylotroph. Similar results were found for M. extorquens AM1 pCM160 which confers kanamycin resistance. These intermediates of the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway have in common their conversion by coenzyme B(12-dependent mutases, which have cobalt as a central ligand. The one-carbon metabolism-related growth delay was restored by providing higher cobalt concentrations, by heterologous expression of isocitrate lyase as an alternative path for glyoxylate regeneration, or by identification and overproduction of proteins involved in cobalt import.This study demonstrates that the introduction of the plasmids leads to an apparent inhibition of the cobalt-dependent enzymes of the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway. Possible explanations are presented and point to a limited cobalt concentration in the cell as a consequence of the antibiotic stress.

  3. Uncovering the true nature of deformation microstructures using 3D analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, M.; Quadir, M. Z.; Afrin, N.; Xu, W.; Loeb, A.; Soe, B.; McMahon, C.; George, C.; Bassman, L.

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction (3D EBSD) has emerged as a powerful technique for generating 3D crystallographic information in reasonably large volumes of a microstructure. The technique uses a focused ion beam (FIB) as a high precision serial sectioning device for generating consecutive ion milled surfaces of a material, with each milled surface subsequently mapped by EBSD. The successive EBSD maps are combined using a suitable post-processing method to generate a crystallographic volume of the microstructure. The first part of this paper shows the usefulness of 3D EBSD for understanding the origin of various structural features associated with the plastic deformation of metals. The second part describes a new method for automatically identifying the various types of low and high angle boundaries found in deformed and annealed metals, particularly those associated with grains exhibiting subtle and gradual variations in orientation. We have adapted a 2D image segmentation technique, fast multiscale clustering, to 3D EBSD data using a novel variance function to accommodate quaternion data. This adaptation is capable of segmenting based on subtle and gradual variation as well as on sharp boundaries within the data. We demonstrate the excellent capabilities of this technique with application to 3D EBSD data sets generated from a range of cold rolled and annealed metals described in the paper.

  4. UNCOVERING THE FORMATION OF ULTRACOMPACT DWARF GALAXIES BY MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; Sharina, Margarita; Davoust, Emmanuel; De, Tuli; Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar

    2012-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the properties of a large sample of dynamically hot old stellar systems, from globular clusters (GCs) to giant ellipticals, which was performed in order to investigate the origin of ultracompact dwarf galaxies (UCDs). The data were mostly drawn from Forbes et al. We recalculated some of the effective radii, computed mean surface brightnesses and mass-to-light ratios, and estimated ages and metallicities. We completed the sample with GCs of M31. We used a multivariate statistical technique (K-Means clustering), together with a new algorithm (Gap Statistics) for finding the optimum number of homogeneous sub-groups in the sample, using a total of six parameters (absolute magnitude, effective radius, virial mass-to-light ratio, stellar mass-to-light ratio, and metallicity). We found six groups. FK1 and FK5 are composed of high- and low-mass elliptical galaxies, respectively. FK3 and FK6 are composed of high-metallicity and low-metallicity objects, respectively, and both include GCs and UCDs. Two very small groups, FK2 and FK4, are composed of Local Group dwarf spheroidals. Our groups differ in their mean masses and virial mass-to-light ratios. The relations between these two parameters are also different for the various groups. The probability density distributions of metallicity for the four groups of galaxies are similar to those of the GCs and UCDs. The brightest low-metallicity GCs and UCDs tend to follow the mass-metallicity relation like elliptical galaxies. The objects of FK3 are more metal-rich per unit effective luminosity density than high-mass ellipticals.

  5. Levey-Jennings Analysis Uncovers Unsuspected Causes of Immunohistochemistry Stain Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vani, Kodela; Sompuram, Seshi R; Naber, Stephen P; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Fulton, Regan; Bogen, Steven A

    Almost all clinical laboratory tests use objective, quantitative measures of quality control (QC), incorporating Levey-Jennings analysis and Westgard rules. Clinical immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing, in contrast, relies on subjective, qualitative QC review. The consequences of using Levey-Jennings analysis for QC assessment in clinical IHC testing are not known. To investigate this question, we conducted a 1- to 2-month pilot test wherein the QC for either human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) or progesterone receptor (PR) in 3 clinical IHC laboratories was quantified and analyzed with Levey-Jennings graphs. Moreover, conventional tissue controls were supplemented with a new QC comprised of HER-2 or PR peptide antigens coupled onto 8 μm glass beads. At institution 1, this more stringent analysis identified a decrease in the HER-2 tissue control that had escaped notice by subjective evaluation. The decrement was due to heterogeneity in the tissue control itself. At institution 2, we identified a 1-day sudden drop in the PR tissue control, also undetected by subjective evaluation, due to counterstain variability. At institution 3, a QC shift was identified, but only with 1 of 2 controls mounted on each slide. The QC shift was due to use of the instrument's selective reagent drop zones dispense feature. None of these events affected patient diagnoses. These case examples illustrate that subjective QC evaluation of tissue controls can detect gross assay failure but not subtle changes. The fact that QC issues arose from each site, and in only a pilot study, suggests that immunohistochemical stain variability may be an underappreciated problem.

  6. Nostalgia fosters self-continuity : Uncovering the mechanism (social connectedness) and consequence (eudaimonic well-being)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim; Cheung, Wing-Yee; Routledge, Clay; Hepper, Erica G; Arndt, Jamie; Vail, Kenneth; Zhou, Xinyue; Brackstone, Kenny; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing for one's past, is an emotion that arises from self-relevant and social memories. Nostalgia functions, in part, to foster self-continuity, that is, a sense of connection between one's past and one's present. This article examined, in 6 experiments, how nostalgia

  7. Nostalgia fosters self-continuity: Uncovering the mechanism (social connectedness) and consequence (eudaimonic well-being).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim; Cheung, Wing-Yee; Routledge, Clay; Hepper, Erica G; Arndt, Jamie; Vail, Kenneth; Zhou, Xinyue; Brackstone, Kenny; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2016-06-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing for one's past, is an emotion that arises from self-relevant and social memories. Nostalgia functions, in part, to foster self-continuity, that is, a sense of connection between one's past and one's present. This article examined, in 6 experiments, how nostalgia fosters self-continuity and the implications of that process for well-being. Nostalgia fosters self-continuity by augmenting social connectedness, that is, a sense of belongingness and acceptance (Experiments 1-4). Nostalgia-induced self-continuity, in turn, confers eudaimonic well-being, operationalized as subjective vitality (i.e., a feeling of aliveness and energy; Experiments 5-6). The findings clarify and expand the benefits of nostalgia for both the self-system and psychological adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Consumers’ social media brand behaviors: uncovering underlying motivators and deriving meaningful consumer segments

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriu, Radu; Guesalaga Trautmann, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    The current research identifies the range of social media brand behaviors (i.e., brand touch points) that consumers can exhibit on social media, and subsequently queries a representative sample of consumers with regard to such behaviors. The analysis reveals four underlying motivators for consumers’ social media behaviors, including brand tacit engagement, brand exhibiting, brand patronizing and brand deal seeking. These motivators are used to derive meaningful consumer segments identified as...

  9. Uncovering the spatially distant feedback loops of global trade: A network and input-output approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prell, Christina; Sun, Laixiang; Feng, Kuishuang; He, Jiaying; Hubacek, Klaus

    2017-05-15

    Land-use change is increasingly driven by global trade. The term "telecoupling" has been gaining ground as a means to describe how human actions in one part of the world can have spatially distant impacts on land and land-use in another. These interactions can, over time, create both direct and spatially distant feedback loops, in which human activity and land use mutually impact one another over great expanses. In this paper, we develop an analytical framework to clarify spatially distant feedbacks in the case of land use and global trade. We use an innovative mix of multi-regional input-output (MRIO) analysis and stochastic actor-oriented models (SAOMs) for analyzing the co-evolution of changes in trade network patterns with those of land use, as embodied in trade. Our results indicate that the formation of trade ties and changes in embodied land use mutually impact one another, and further, that these changes are linked to disparities in countries' wealth. Through identifying this feedback loop, our results support ongoing discussions about the unequal trade patterns between rich and poor countries that result in uneven distributions of negative environmental impacts. Finally, evidence for this feedback loop is present even when controlling for a number of underlying mechanisms, such as countries' land endowments, their geographical distance from one another, and a number of endogenous network tendencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative phylogenomics uncovers the impact of symbiotic associations on host genome evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Marc Delaux

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mutualistic symbioses between eukaryotes and beneficial microorganisms of their microbiome play an essential role in nutrition, protection against disease, and development of the host. However, the impact of beneficial symbionts on the evolution of host genomes remains poorly characterized. Here we used the independent loss of the most widespread plant-microbe symbiosis, arbuscular mycorrhization (AM, as a model to address this question. Using a large phenotypic approach and phylogenetic analyses, we present evidence that loss of AM symbiosis correlates with the loss of many symbiotic genes in the Arabidopsis lineage (Brassicales. Then, by analyzing the genome and/or transcriptomes of nine other phylogenetically divergent non-host plants, we show that this correlation occurred in a convergent manner in four additional plant lineages, demonstrating the existence of an evolutionary pattern specific to symbiotic genes. Finally, we use a global comparative phylogenomic approach to track this evolutionary pattern among land plants. Based on this approach, we identify a set of 174 highly conserved genes and demonstrate enrichment in symbiosis-related genes. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that beneficial symbionts maintain purifying selection on host gene networks during the evolution of entire lineages.

  11. Pyrazinamide: the importance of uncovering the mechanisms of action in mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehr, Matthias; Elamin, Ayssar A; Singh, Mahavir

    2015-05-01

    Pyrazinamide (PZA) is still one of the key drugs used in current therapeutic regimens for tuberculosis (TB). Despite its importance for TB therapy, the mode of action of PZA remains unknown. PZA has to be converted to its active form pyrazinoic acid (POA) by the nicotinamidase PncA and is then excreted by an unknown efflux pump. At acidic conditions, POA is protonated to HPOA and is reabsorbed into the cell where it causes cellular damage. For a long time, it has been thought that PZA/POA has no defined target of action, but recent studies have shown that both PZA and POA have several different targets interfering with diverse biochemical pathways, especially in the NAD(+) and energy metabolism. PZA resistance seems to depend not only on a defective pyrazinamidase but is also rather a result of the interplay of many different enzyme targets and transport mechanisms.

  12. A dense microseismic monitoring network in Korea for uncovering relationship between seismic activity and neotectonic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, T.; Lee, J. M.; Kim, W.; Jo, B. G.; Chung, T.; Choi, S.

    2012-12-01

    A few tens of surface traces indicating movements in Quaternary were found in the southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula. Following both the geological and engineering definitions, those features are classified into "active", in geology, or "capable", in engineering, faults. On the other hand, the present-day seismicity of the region over a couple of thousand years is indistinguishable on the whole with the rest of the Korean Peninsula. It is therefore of great interest whether the present seismic activity is related to the neotectonic features or not. Either of conclusions is not intuitive in terms of the present state of seismic monitoring network in the region. Thus much interest in monitoring seismicity to provide an improved observation resolution and to lower the event-detection threshold has increased with many observations of the Quaternary faults. We installed a remote, wireless seismograph network which is composed of 20 stations with an average spacing of 10 km. Each station is equipped with a three-component Trillium Compact seismometer and Taurus digitizer. Instrumentation and analysis advancements are now offering better tools for this monitoring. This network is scheduled to be in operation over about one and a half year. In spite of the relatively short observation period, we expect that the high density of the network enables us to monitor seismic events with much lower magnitude threshold compared to the preexisting seismic network in the region. Following the Gutenberg-Richter relationship, the number of events with low magnitude is logarithmically larger than that with high magnitude. Following this rule, we can expect that many of microseismic events may reveal behavior of their causative faults, if any. We report the results of observation which has been performed over a year up to now.

  13. Uncovering China’s greenhouse gas emission from regional and sectoral perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhu; Geng, Yong; Lindner, Soeren; Guan, Dabo

    2012-01-01

    Understanding China’s GHG (greenhouse gas) emission status is critical for achieving the national mitigation plan. While much attention has addressed China’s national level GHG emission, less is known about its regional and sectoral emission features. In this paper China’s regional and sectoral GHG emission patterns and their driving forces were explored by using upgraded energy consumption data. We constructed a detailed GHG inventory for each province in the year 2009 which covering 28 sectors and further expanded time-serious inventories during 1997–2009. We then conducted variation and index decomposition analysis to explore its sectoral/regional disparity and features. Results showed significant differences of sectoral emission intensity among different provinces, implying a huge disparity of technology level. Since less developed provinces still apply energy intensive technologies, they had contributed to most of national emission increment during 1997–2009 and made the whole country towards carbon intensive direction. Our research outcomes indicate that the inequity of technology level among regions has already become a main barrier for China’s CO 2 mitigation. Such a reality deserves more attention from both researchers and policy makers so that appropriate carbon reduction policies can be raised. -- Highlights: ► We present spacial and sectoral disparity and drivers on green house gas (GHG) emission in 30 Chinese provinces. ► We indicated a huge difference of technology level among regions. ► Different industrial structure and development stage further result in GHG intensive in China's poor regions. ► Inequity of technology level among regions has already become a main barrier for China's GHG mitigation.

  14. A Next-Generation Sequencing Approach Uncovers Viral Transcripts Incorporated in Poxvirus Virions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Grossegesse

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Transcripts are known to be incorporated in particles of DNA viruses belonging to the families of Herpesviridae and Mimiviridae, but the presence of transcripts in other DNA viruses, such as poxviruses, has not been analyzed yet. Therefore, we first established a next-generation-sequencing (NGS-based protocol, enabling the unbiased identification of transcripts in virus particles. Subsequently, we applied our protocol to analyze RNA in an emerging zoonotic member of the Poxviridae family, namely Cowpox virus. Our results revealed the incorporation of 19 viral transcripts, while host identifications were restricted to ribosomal and mitochondrial RNA. Most viral transcripts had an unknown and immunomodulatory function, suggesting that transcript incorporation may be beneficial for poxvirus immune evasion. Notably, the most abundant transcript originated from the D5L/I1R gene that encodes a viral inhibitor of the host cytoplasmic DNA sensing machinery.

  15. GAMUT: GPU accelerated microRNA analysis to uncover target genes through CUDA-miRanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-coding sequences such as microRNAs have important roles in disease processes. Computational microRNA target identification (CMTI) is becoming increasingly important since traditional experimental methods for target identification pose many difficulties. These methods are time-consuming, costly, and often need guidance from computational methods to narrow down candidate genes anyway. However, most CMTI methods are computationally demanding, since they need to handle not only several million query microRNA and reference RNA pairs, but also several million nucleotide comparisons within each given pair. Thus, the need to perform microRNA identification at such large scale has increased the demand for parallel computing. Methods Although most CMTI programs (e.g., the miRanda algorithm) are based on a modified Smith-Waterman (SW) algorithm, the existing parallel SW implementations (e.g., CUDASW++ 2.0/3.0, SWIPE) are unable to meet this demand in CMTI tasks. We present CUDA-miRanda, a fast microRNA target identification algorithm that takes advantage of massively parallel computing on Graphics Processing Units (GPU) using NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). CUDA-miRanda specifically focuses on the local alignment of short (i.e., ≤ 32 nucleotides) sequences against longer reference sequences (e.g., 20K nucleotides). Moreover, the proposed algorithm is able to report multiple alignments (up to 191 top scores) and the corresponding traceback sequences for any given (query sequence, reference sequence) pair. Results Speeds over 5.36 Giga Cell Updates Per Second (GCUPs) are achieved on a server with 4 NVIDIA Tesla M2090 GPUs. Compared to the original miRanda algorithm, which is evaluated on an Intel Xeon E5620@2.4 GHz CPU, the experimental results show up to 166 times performance gains in terms of execution time. In addition, we have verified that the exact same targets were predicted in both CUDA-miRanda and the original miRanda implementations through multiple test datasets. Conclusions We offer a GPU-based alternative to high performance compute (HPC) that can be developed locally at a relatively small cost. The community of GPU developers in the biomedical research community, particularly for genome analysis, is still growing. With increasing shared resources, this community will be able to advance CMTI in a very significant manner. Our source code is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/cudamiranda/. PMID:25077821

  16. Uncovering Paths to Teaching: Teacher Identity and the Cultural Arts of Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio-Ruane, Susan; Williams, Linda G.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the authors' collaborative research on teacher identity as revealed by examining paths to teaching. When individuals enter the teaching profession, they appear to be making a personal career choice. Beginning educators look ahead, envisioning the teachers they hope to become. At this time it is rare to look backward, to…

  17. Social Network Analysis of International Student Mobility: Uncovering the Rise of Regional Hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondakci, Yasar; Bedenlier, Svenja; Zawacki-Richter, Olaf

    2018-01-01

    Research on the patterns of international student mobility and the dynamics shaping these patterns has been dominated by studies reflecting a Western orientation, discourse, and understanding. Considering political, economic, cultural, historical, and ecological factors, this study argues that international student mobility is not only an issue of…

  18. Openness, Growth and R&D Spillovers : Uncovering the Missing Link?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lejour, (Arjan Marcel); Nahuis, Richard

    2000-01-01

    We examine the trade-related diffusion of R&D in three steps. First, using OECD and UNESCO data we provide an overview of global R&D expenditures. Second, we estimate the relation between sectoral R&D expenditures and growth. Finally, these R&D linkages are incorporated in WorldScan: a dynamic

  19. Uncovering young children's emerging identities related to their literacy experiences: Suggestions to strengthen language education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moen, Melanie Carmen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study explored how young children’s identities emerged from their drawings and accounts of their favourite stories as we argue the importance of understanding children in the context of school and language education. Sixty-six (n=66 children of two urban schools in Pretoria, South Africa were asked to write about and draw their favourite story. The participants were between the ages of six and seven years. Vygotsky’s socio-cultural theory and Chen’s theory of the construction of identity in a social context were used as conceptual framework. This conceptual framework could be linked to the findings which suggested that the children related their drawings and versions of their favourite stories to their interpretations of their life worlds. The prominent themes from the data could be associated with the self, the family, familiar objects and known animals. Their literacy experiences and the socio-cultural influences on the children’s construction of their identities were apparent in their work. We argue that teachers need to better understand how children understand themselves in relation to the world around them when making decisions about effective language education.

  20. Knowledge Enrichment Analysis for Human Tissue- Specific Genes Uncover New Biological Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Xiu-Jun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The expression and regulation of genes in different tissues are fundamental questions to be answered in biology. Knowledge enrichment analysis for tissue specific (TS and housekeeping (HK genes may help identify their roles in biological process or diseases and gain new biological insights.In this paper, we performed the knowledge enrichment analysis for 17,343 genes in 84 human tissues using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA and Hypergeometric Analysis (HA against three biological ontologies: Gene Ontology (GO, KEGG pathways and Disease Ontology (DO respectively.The analyses results demonstrated that the functions of most gene groups are consistent with their tissue origins. Meanwhile three interesting new associations for HK genes and the skeletal muscle tissuegenes are found. Firstly, Hypergeometric analysis against KEGG database for HK genes disclosed that three disease terms (Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease are intensively enriched.Secondly, Hypergeometric analysis against the KEGG database for Skeletal Muscle tissue genes shows that two cardiac diseases of “Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM” and “Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC” are heavily enriched, which are also considered as no relationship with skeletal functions.Thirdly, “Prostate cancer” is intensively enriched in Hypergeometric analysis against the disease ontology (DO for the Skeletal Muscle tissue genes, which is a much unexpected phenomenon.

  1. Uncovering three-dimensional gradients in fibrillar orientation in an impact-resistant biological armour

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Zhang; O. Paris; N. J. Terrill; H. S. Gupta

    2016-01-01

    The complex hierarchical structure in biological and synthetic fibrous nanocomposites entails considerable difficulties in the interpretation of the crystallographic texture from diffraction data. Here, we present a novel reconstruction method to obtain the 3D distribution of fibres in such systems. An analytical expression is derived for the diffraction intensity from fibres, explaining the azimuthal intensity distribution in terms of the angles of the three dimensional fibre orientation dis...

  2. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth’s radiation belts uncovers a missing energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A.V.; Agapitov, O.V.; Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V.V.; Mozer, F.S.

    2015-01-01

    Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth’s magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth’s magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave–particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/over-valued in past studies considering only conventional quasi-parallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth’s radiation belts, controlled by solar activity. PMID:25975615

  3. Uncovering Astronomy Students’ Understandings of the Age of the Universe: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstrom, Erika; Slater, T.; Stassun, K.

    2008-05-01

    Most education reform documents describing what students should understand about astronomy include concepts surrounding the immense size scale and ancient age of our Universe. If an appreciation for "deep time” is needed to develop mastery of astronomical concepts, then astronomy educators need to become aware of how students, and the general public, think about concepts of immense timescales. As a first step toward addressing this issue, we conducted a survey of the educational research literature on students’ conceptions of long timescales. Most recent research efforts have focused on two strategies. One is to show figures illustrating geologic strata to students who are asked to determine the sequence of events based on the concepts of original horizontality and superposition with younger sediments overlying older sediments. The other research design is to employ a card-sorting technique where people are asked to arrange events in order in relative sequence and sometimes asked to space them on a timeline. The key finding is that students can often place historical events in the correct relative order but are unable to place them with correct relative spacing or accurate absolute dates. Other findings are that current research does not reveal gender or racial biases in student thinking and it does not show that students always distinguish between the Big Bang and the formation of the Sun or Earth. It is clear that researchers in earth science education have not focused on cosmological time frames, only geologic time frames, thus leaving an important deficit in the literature. Prior to turning our attention to curriculum materials development focused on improving student understanding of long timescales in astronomy, we plan to expand these studies to include cosmological events.

  4. Network Analysis as a Communication Audit Instrument: Uncovering Communicative Strengths and Weaknesses Within Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, K.H.; de Jong, Menno D.T.

    2015-01-01

    Network analysis is one of the instruments in the communication audit toolbox to diagnose communication problems within organizations. To explore its contribution to a communication audit, the authors conducted a network analysis within three secondary schools, comparing its results with those of

  5. The uncovering and characterization of a CCKoma syndrome in enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F; Federspiel, Birgitte; Agersnap, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Neuroendocrine tumors in the pancreas and the gastrointestinal tract may secrete hormones which cause specific syndromes. Well-known examples are gastrinomas, glucagonomas, and insulinomas. Cholecystokinin-producing tumors (CCKomas) have been induced experimentally in rats, but a CCKoma...... disease and diarrhea with permanently low gastrin in plasma suggest that CCKomas may mimic gastrinoma-like symptoms, because CCK peptides are full agonists of the gastrin/CCK-B receptor....

  6. 16 CFR 1610.34 - Only uncovered or exposed parts of wearing apparel to be tested.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1611. (c) Plastic film or plastic-coated fabric used, or intended for use as the outer layer of... procedures set forth in § 1610.6. (b) If the outer layer of plastic film or plastic-coated fabric of a...—Standard for the Flammability of Vinyl Plastic Film. If the outer layer adheres to all or a portion of one...

  7. Macroeconomics and FinTech: Uncovering Latent Macroeconomic Effects on Peer-to-Peer Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Foo, Jessica; Lim, Lek-Heng; Wong, Ken Sze-Wai

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) lending is a fast growing financial technology (FinTech) trend that is displacing traditional retail banking. Studies on P2P lending have focused on predicting individual interest rates or default probabilities. However, the relationship between aggregated P2P interest rates and the general economy will be of interest to investors and borrowers as the P2P credit market matures. We show that the variation in P2P interest rates across grade types are determined by three macro...

  8. Targeted next generation sequencing of parotid gland cancer uncovers genetic heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Inga; Vollbrecht, Claudia; Meinrath, Jeannine; Meyer, Moritz F; Heukamp, Lukas C; Drebber, Uta; Quaas, Alexander; Beutner, Dirk; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd; Wardelmann, Eva; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Büttner, Reinhard; Odenthal, Margarete; Stenner, Markus

    2015-07-20

    Salivary gland cancer represents a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors. Due to their low incidence and the existence of multiple morphologically defined subtypes, these tumors are still poorly understood with regard to their molecular pathogenesis and therapeutically relevant genetic alterations.Performing a systematic and comprehensive study covering 13 subtypes of salivary gland cancer, next generation sequencing was done on 84 tissue samples of parotid gland cancer using multiplex PCR for enrichment of cancer related gene loci covering hotspots of 46 cancer genes.Mutations were identified in 22 different genes. The most frequent alterations affected TP53, followed by RAS genes, PIK3CA, SMAD4 and members of the ERB family. HRAS mutations accounted for more than 90% of RAS mutations, occurring especially in epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas and salivary duct carcinomas. Additional mutations in PIK3CA also affected particularly epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas and salivary duct carcinomas, occurring simultaneously with HRAS mutations in almost all cases, pointing to an unknown and therapeutically relevant molecular constellation. Interestingly, 14% of tumors revealed mutations in surface growth factor receptor genes including ALK, HER2, ERBB4, FGFR, cMET and RET, which might prove to be targetable by new therapeutic agents. 6% of tumors revealed mutations in SMAD4.In summary, our data provide novel insight into the fundamental molecular heterogeneity of salivary gland cancer, relevant in terms of tumor classification and the establishment of targeted therapeutic concepts.

  9. Eliminating degradation and uncovering ion-trapping dynamics in electrochromic WO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Rui-Tao; Granqvist, Claes G.; Niklasson, Gunnar A.

    2015-01-01

    Amorphous WO3 thin films are of keen interest as cathodic electrodes in transmittance-modulating electrochromic devices. However, these films suffer from ion-trapping-induced degradation of optical modulation and reversibility upon extended Li+-ion exchange. Here, we demonstrate that ion-trapping-induced degradation, which is commonly believed to be irreversible, can be successfully eliminated by constant-current-driven de-trapping, i.e., WO3 films can be rejuvenated and regain their initial highly reversible electrochromic performance. Pronounced ion-trapping occurs when x exceeds ~0.65 in LixWO3 during ion insertion. We find two main kinds of Li+-ion trapping sites (intermediate and deep) in WO3, where the intermediate ones are most prevalent. Li+-ions can be completely removed from intermediate traps but are irreversibly bound in deep traps. Our results provide a general framework for developing and designing superior electrochromic materials and devices. PMID:26259104

  10. Expanded HIV Testing Strategy Leveraging the Electronic Medical Record Uncovers Undiagnosed Infection Among Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsen, Uriel R; Cunningham, Chinazo O; Heo, Moonseong; Futterman, Donna C; Weiss, Jeffrey M; Zingman, Barry S

    2017-05-01

    Routine HIV testing of hospitalized patients is recommended, but few strategies to expand testing in the hospital setting have been described. We assessed the impact of an electronic medical record (EMR) prompt on HIV testing for hospitalized patients. We performed a pre-post study at 3 hospitals in the Bronx, NY. We compared the proportion of admissions of patients 21-64 years old with an HIV test performed, characteristics of patients tested, and rate of new HIV diagnoses made by screening while an EMR prompt recommending HIV testing was inactive vs. active. The prompt appeared for patients with no previous HIV test or a high-risk diagnosis after their last HIV test. Among 36,610 admissions while the prompt was inactive, 9.5% had an HIV test performed. Among 18,943 admissions while the prompt was active, 21.8% had an HIV test performed. Admission while the prompt was active was associated with increased HIV testing among total admissions [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.62 to 2.96], those without a previous HIV test (aOR 4.03, 95% CI: 3.70 to 4.40), and those with a previous negative test (aOR 1.52, 95% CI: 1.37 to 1.68) (P diversification of patients tested, and an increase in diagnoses made by screening.

  11. Global constitutionalism, applied to global health governance: uncovering legitimacy deficits and suggesting remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Gorik; Hammonds, Rachel

    2016-12-03

    Global constitutionalism is a way of looking at the world, at global rules and how they are made, as if there was a global constitution, empowering global institutions to act as a global government, setting rules which bind all states and people. This essay employs global constitutionalism to examine how and why global health governance, as currently structured, has struggled to advance the right to health, a fundamental human rights obligation enshrined in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. It first examines the core structure of the global health governance architecture, and its evolution since the Second World War. Second, it identifies the main constitutionalist principles that are relevant for a global constitutionalism assessment of the core structure of the global health governance architecture. Finally, it applies these constitutionalist principles to assess the core structure of the global health governance architecture. Leading global health institutions are structurally skewed to preserve high incomes countries' disproportionate influence on transnational rule-making authority, and tend to prioritise infectious disease control over the comprehensive realisation of the right to health. A Framework Convention on Global Health could create a classic division of powers in global health governance, with WHO as the law-making power in global health governance, a global fund for health as the executive power, and the International Court of Justice as the judiciary power.

  12. Uncovering robust patterns of microRNA co-expression across cancers using Bayesian Relevance Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameswaran Ramachandran

    Full Text Available Co-expression networks have long been used as a tool for investigating the molecular circuitry governing biological systems. However, most algorithms for constructing co-expression networks were developed in the microarray era, before high-throughput sequencing-with its unique statistical properties-became the norm for expression measurement. Here we develop Bayesian Relevance Networks, an algorithm that uses Bayesian reasoning about expression levels to account for the differing levels of uncertainty in expression measurements between highly- and lowly-expressed entities, and between samples with different sequencing depths. It combines data from groups of samples (e.g., replicates to estimate group expression levels and confidence ranges. It then computes uncertainty-moderated estimates of cross-group correlations between entities, and uses permutation testing to assess their statistical significance. Using large scale miRNA data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we show that our Bayesian update of the classical Relevance Networks algorithm provides improved reproducibility in co-expression estimates and lower false discovery rates in the resulting co-expression networks. Software is available at www.perkinslab.ca.

  13. Sordaria, a model system to uncover links between meiotic pairing and recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickler, Denise; Espagne, Eric

    2016-06-01

    The mycelial fungus Sordaria macrospora was first used as experimental system for meiotic recombination. This review shows that it provides also a powerful cytological system for dissecting chromosome dynamics in wild-type and mutant meioses. Fundamental cytogenetic findings include: (1) the identification of presynaptic alignment as a key step in pairing of homologous chromosomes. (2) The discovery that biochemical complexes that mediate recombination at the DNA level concomitantly mediate pairing of homologs. (3) This pairing process involves not only resolution but also avoidance of chromosomal entanglements and the resolution system includes dissolution of constraining DNA recombination interactions, achieved by a unique role of Mlh1. (4) Discovery that the central components of the synaptonemal complex directly mediate the re-localization of the recombination proteins from on-axis to in-between homologue axis positions. (5) Identification of putative STUbL protein Hei10 as a structure-based signal transduction molecule that coordinates progression and differentiation of recombinational interactions at multiple stages. (6) Discovery that a single interference process mediates both nucleation of the SC and designation of crossover sites, thereby ensuring even spacing of both features. (7) Discovery of local modulation of sister-chromatid cohesion at sites of crossover recombination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Uncovering cancer cell behavioral phenotype in 3-D in vitro metastatic landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liyu; Sun, Bo; Duclos, Guillaume; Kam, Yoonseok; Gatenby, Robert; Stone, Howard; Austin, Robert

    2012-02-01

    One well-known fact is that cancer cell genetics determines cell metastatic potentials. However, from a physics point of view, genetics as cell properties cannot directly act on metastasis. An agent is needed to unscramble the genetics first before generating dynamics for metastasis. Exactly this agent is cell behavioral phenotype, which is rarely studied due to the difficulties of real-time cell tracking in in vivo tissue. Here we have successfully constructed a micro in vitro environment with collagen based Extracellular Matrix (ECM) structures for cell 3-D metastasis. With stable nutrition (glucose) gradient inside, breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231 is able to invade inside the collagen from the nutrition poor site towards the nutrition rich site. Continuous confocal microscopy captures images of the cells every 12 hours and tracks their positions in 3-D space. The micro fluorescent beads pre-mixed inside the ECM demonstrate that invasive cells have altered the structures through mechanics. With the observation and the analysis of cell collective behaviors, we argue that game theory may exist between the pioneering cells and their followers in the metastatic cell group. The cell collaboration may explain the high efficiency of metastasis.

  15. Uncovering Document Fraud in Maritime Freight Transport Based on Probabilistic Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triepels, Ron; Feelders, A.J.; Daniels, Hennie

    2015-01-01

    Deficient visibility in global supply chains causes significant risks for the customs brokerage practices of freight forwarders. One of the risks that freight forwarders face is that shipping documentation might contain document fraud and is used to declare a shipment. Traditional risk controls are

  16. Properties of the Only Thorium Fullerene, Th@C-84, Uncovered

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaminský, Jakub; Vícha, J.; Bouř, Petr; Straka, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 16 (2017), s. 3128-3135 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05935S; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-07091S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : thorium fullerene * electronic structure * UV-vis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 2.847, year: 2016

  17. Uncovering the liver’s role in immunity through RNA co-expression networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harrall, K. K.; Kechris, K. J.; Tabakoff, B.; Hoffman, P.L.; Hines, L. M.; Tsukamoto, H.; Pravenec, Michal; Printz, M.; Saba, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 27, 9-10 (2016), s. 469-484 ISSN 0938-8990 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/12/0696 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : RNA coexpression networks * liver * immunity * rat * recombinant inbred strains Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.509, year: 2016

  18. Using Think-Aloud Protocols to Uncover Misconceptions and Improve Developmental Math Instruction: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Secolsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in education continue to escalate around the world. The focus on outcomes assessment has narrowed instructional research and curriculum evaluation to standardized testing in certain subject areas. A prototype for a quantitative literacy assessment instrument was developed with the goal of diagnosing student misconceptions of basic mathematics content and changing instructional practices to undo the misconceptions by applying cognitive psychological theory. Two hundred thirty-eight basic math high school students and 209 remedial community college students in New Jersey and New York were administered the instrument, which had been based on coded data from think-aloud protocols. The instrument asked students to answer 20 basic mathematics items and, in addition, to evaluate four possible solution strategies. For each item, frequencies of selected solution strategies and the association between strategy selection and performance on the 20-question math test are presented as a means for improving instruction. Follow-up research is proposed for determining whether undoing the student misconceptions first before teaching material on a new unit of instruction may yield more positive student outcomes.

  19. Uncovering Dangerous Cheats: How Do Avian Hosts Recognize Adult Brood Parasites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnka, Alfréd; Prokop, Pavol; Grim, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Background Co-evolutionary struggles between dangerous enemies (e.g., brood parasites) and their victims (hosts) lead to the emergence of sophisticated adaptations and counter-adaptations. Salient host tricks to reduce parasitism costs include, as front line defence, adult enemy discrimination. In contrast to the well studied egg stage, investigations addressing the specific cues for adult enemy recognition are rare. Previous studies have suggested barred underparts and yellow eyes may provide cues for the recognition of cuckoos Cuculus canorus by their hosts; however, no study to date has examined the role of the two cues simultaneously under a consistent experimental paradigm. Methodology/Principal Findings We modify and extend previous work using a novel experimental approach – custom-made dummies with various combinations of hypothesized recognition cues. The salient recognition cue turned out to be the yellow eye. Barred underparts, the only trait examined previously, had a statistically significant but small effect on host aggression highlighting the importance of effect size vs. statistical significance. Conclusion Relative importance of eye vs. underpart phenotypes may reflect ecological context of host-parasite interaction: yellow eyes are conspicuous from the typical direction of host arrival (from above), whereas barred underparts are poorly visible (being visually blocked by the upper part of the cuckoo's body). This visual constraint may reduce usefulness of barred underparts as a reliable recognition cue under a typical situation near host nests. We propose a novel hypothesis that recognition cues for enemy detection can vary in a context-dependent manner (e.g., depending on whether the enemy is approached from below or from above). Further we suggest a particular cue can trigger fear reactions (escape) in some hosts/populations whereas the same cue can trigger aggression (attack) in other hosts/populations depending on presence/absence of dangerous enemies that are phenotypically similar to brood parasites and costs and benefits associated with particular host responses. PMID:22624031

  20. Contract Faculty in Canada: Using Access to Information Requests to Uncover Hidden Academics in Canadian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    In Canada, universities are undergoing a process of corporatization where business interests, values and practices are assuming a more prominent place in higher education. A key feature of this process has been the changing composition of academic labor. While it is generally accepted that universities are relying more heavily on contract faculty,…

  1. Uncovering Viral Protein-Protein Interactions and their Role in Arenavirus Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora López

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Arenaviridae family includes widely distributed pathogens that cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. Replication and packaging of their single-stranded RNA genome involve RNA recognition by viral proteins and a number of key protein-protein interactions. Viral RNA synthesis is directed by the virus-encoded RNA dependent-RNA polymerase (L protein and requires viral RNA encapsidation by the Nucleoprotein. In addition to the role that the interaction between L and the Nucleoprotein may have in the replication process, polymerase activity appears to be modulated by the association between L and the small multifunctional Z protein. Z is also a structural component of the virions that plays an essential role in viral morphogenesis. Indeed, interaction of the Z protein with the Nucleoprotein is critical for genome packaging. Furthermore, current evidence suggests that binding between Z and the viral envelope glycoprotein complex is required for virion infectivity, and that Z homo-oligomerization is an essential step for particle assembly and budding. Efforts to understand the molecular basis of arenavirus life cycle have revealed important details on these viral protein-protein interactions that will be reviewed in this article.

  2. The Figured Worlds of High School Science Teachers: Uncovering Three-Dimensional Assessment Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Megan

    As a result of recent mandates of the Next Generation Science Standards, assessments are a "system of meaning" amidst a paradigm shift toward three-dimensional assessments. This study is motivated by two research questions: 1) how do high school science teachers describe their processes of decision-making in the development and use of three-dimensional assessments and 2) how do high school science teachers negotiate their identities as assessors in designing three-dimensional assessments. An important factor in teachers' assessment decision making is how they identify themselves as assessors. Therefore, this study investigated the teachers' roles as assessors through the Sociocultural Identity Theory. The most important contribution from this study is the emergent teacher assessment sub-identities: the modifier-recycler , the feeler-finder, and the creator. Using a qualitative phenomenological research design, focus groups, three-series interviews, think-alouds, and document analysis were utilized in this study. These qualitative methods were chosen to elicit rich conversations among teachers, make meaning of the teachers' experiences through in-depth interviews, amplify the thought processes of individual teachers while making assessment decisions, and analyze assessment documents in relation to teachers' perspectives. The findings from this study suggest that--of the 19 participants--only two teachers could consistently be identified as creators and aligned their assessment practices with NGSS. However, assessment sub-identities are not static and teachers may negotiate their identities from one moment to the next within socially constructed realms of interpretation known as figured worlds. Because teachers are positioned in less powerful figured worlds within the dominant discourse of standardization, this study raises awareness as to how the external pressures from more powerful figured worlds socially construct teachers' identities as assessors. For teachers to re-author their scripts as assessors and create three-dimensional assessments, they first need to be aware of their assessment identity. Furthermore, the findings provide support for teachers to advocate for the development and use of assessments that measure students' three-dimensional learning rather than relying on assessments that are easily "counted."

  3. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Models of Progranulin-Deficient Frontotemporal Dementia Uncover Specific Reversible Neuronal Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Almeida

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenic mechanisms of frontotemporal dementia (FTD remain poorly understood. Here we generated multiple induced pluripotent stem cell lines from a control subject, a patient with sporadic FTD, and an FTD patient with a novel heterozygous GRN mutation (progranulin [PGRN] S116X. In neurons and microglia differentiated from PGRN S116X induced pluripotent stem cells, the levels of intracellular and secreted PGRN were reduced, establishing patient-specific cellular models of PGRN haploinsufficiency. Through a systematic screen of inducers of cellular stress, we found that PGRN S116X neurons, but not sporadic FTD neurons, exhibited increased sensitivity to staurosporine and other kinase inhibitors. Moreover, the serine/threonine kinase S6K2, a component of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, was specifically downregulated in PGRN S116X neurons. Both increased sensitivity to kinase inhibitors and reduced S6K2 were rescued by PGRN expression. Our findings identify cell-autonomous, reversible defects in patient neurons with PGRN deficiency, and provide a compelling model for studying PGRN-dependent pathogenic mechanisms and testing potential therapies.

  4. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Models of Progranulin-Deficient Frontotemporal Dementia Uncover Specific Reversible Neuronal Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Sandra; Zhang, Zhijun; Coppola, Giovanni; Mao, Wenjie; Futai, Kensuke; Karydas, Anna; Geschwind, Michael D.; Tartaglia, M. Carmela; Gao, Fuying; Gianni, Davide; Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Miller, Bruce L.; Farese, Robert V.; Gao, Fen-Biao

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The pathogenic mechanisms of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) remain poorly understood. Here we generated multiple induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from a control subject, a patient with sporadic FTD, and an FTD patient with a novel GRN mutation (PGRN S116X). In neurons and microglia differentiated from PGRN S116X iPSCs, the levels of intracellular and secreted progranulin were reduced, establishing patient-specific cellular models of progranulin haploinsufficiency. Through a systematic screen of inducers of cellular stress, we found that PGRN S116X neurons, but not sporadic FTD neurons, exhibited increased sensitivity to staurosporine and other kinase inhibitors. Moreover, the serine/threonine kinase S6K2, a component of the PI3K and MAPK pathways, was specifically downregulated in PGRN S116X neurons. Both increased sensitivity to kinase inhibitors and reduced S6K2 were rescued by progranulin expression. Our findings identify cell-autonomous, reversible defects in patient neurons with progranulin deficiency and provide a new model for studying progranulin-dependent pathogenic mechanisms and testing potential therapies. PMID:23063362

  5. Psoriasis Uncovered – Comorbid Conditions with Special Reference to Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belliappa Pemmanda Raju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psoriasis is a chronic immune-inflammatory-mediated disease affecting approximately 1-3% of the population worldwide. All around the world, there is growing evidence of the association between psoriasis and comorbidities, especially metabolic syndrome which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Co-morbidities are likely linked to underlying chronic inflammatory nature of psoriasis. Aim: The objectives of our study were to determine the prevalence of diabetes, lipid abnormalities, and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with plaque psoriasis, and also to investigate metabolic syndrome associated with plaque psoriasis. Material and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients with psoriasis vulgaris diagnosed clinically and histopathologically were recruited. A detailed history and examination was recorded for all study subjects, including the age and gender of the patients, extent of psoriasis, duration, and age at onset. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in the presence of three or more criteria of abdominal obesity, blood pressure >130/85 mmHg, fasting blood glucose ≥100 mg/dl, hypertriglyceridemia >150 mg/dl, and low HDL cholesterol (<40 mg/dl for males, <50mg/dl for females. Results: Prevalence of various comorbidities was: central obesity (58.3%, hypertension (46.79%, dyslipidaemia (43.3%, diabetes mellitus (26.7%, metabolic syndrome (25%, ischaemic heart disease (5% and stroke (2.4%. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was more in patients who had longer mean disease duration of psoriasis. Conclusions: The perception of psoriasis being merely ‘skin deep’ has to change among clinicians. Active screening for these cardiovascular comorbidities in all psoriasis patients is highly recommended..

  6. Uncovering the etiology of conversion disorder: insights from functional neuroimaging [Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejareh dar M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ejareh dar M, Kanaan RAA. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2016;12:143–153.The authors advise that there were errors in their paper in relation to the information from Arthuis et al.51On page 150, Table 3, the second column information for Arthuis et al51 should not contain “(and epilepsy”.On page 151, the paragraph before the Discussion contained an error. The paragraph should read:In a novel study of PET imaging in PNES, Arthuis et al studied 16 patients with intractable seizures who underwent 18FDG-PET, and were later found to have PNES, and compared these with 16 healthy controls.51 A voxel by voxel intergroup analysis was performed to look for significant differences in interictal (resting state cerebral metabolism as well as metabolic connectivity using voxel-wise interregional correlation analysis. Patients with PNES exhibited significant hypometabolism within the right inferior parietal and central region and within the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, and a significant increase in metabolic correlation, in comparison to healthy participants, between the right inferior parietal/central region and the bilateral cerebellum, and between the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex and the left parahippocampal gyrus. The hypometabolism of the anterior cingulate region stands in apparent contrast to the hyperactivation reported in other studies, however those hyperactivations were in response to tasks, whereas Arthuis et al’s patients were at rest.34 This hypoactivation has been found in other psychiatric conditions such as PTSD and anxiety, as the authors acknowledge, representing both a possible explanation for the finding and a striking analogue.Read the original article

  7. Transcriptomic analysis to uncover genes affecting cold resistance in the Chinese honey bee (Apis cerana cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kai; Niu, Qingsheng; Zhao, Huiting; Du, Yali; Jiang, Yusuo

    2017-01-01

    The biological activity and geographical distribution of honey bees is strongly temperature-dependent, due to their ectothermic physiology. In China, the endemic Apis cerana cerana exhibits stronger cold hardiness than Western honey bees, making the former species important pollinators of winter-flowering plants. Although studies have examined behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying cold resistance in bees, data are scarce regarding the exact molecular mechanisms. Here, we investigated gene expression in A. c. cerana under two temperature treatments, using transcriptomic analysis to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and relevant biological processes, respectively. Across the temperature treatments, 501 DEGs were identified. A gene ontology analysis showed that DEGs were enriched in pathways related to sugar and amino acid biosynthesis and metabolism, as well as calcium ion channel activity. Additionally, heat shock proteins, zinc finger proteins, and serine/threonine-protein kinases were differentially expressed between the two treatments. The results of this study provide a general digital expression profile of thermoregulation genes responding to cold hardiness in A. c. cerana. Our data should prove valuable for future research on cold tolerance mechanisms in insects, and may be beneficial in breeding efforts to improve bee hardiness.

  8. Transcriptomic analysis to uncover genes affecting cold resistance in the Chinese honey bee (Apis cerana cerana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xu

    Full Text Available The biological activity and geographical distribution of honey bees is strongly temperature-dependent, due to their ectothermic physiology. In China, the endemic Apis cerana cerana exhibits stronger cold hardiness than Western honey bees, making the former species important pollinators of winter-flowering plants. Although studies have examined behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying cold resistance in bees, data are scarce regarding the exact molecular mechanisms. Here, we investigated gene expression in A. c. cerana under two temperature treatments, using transcriptomic analysis to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs and relevant biological processes, respectively. Across the temperature treatments, 501 DEGs were identified. A gene ontology analysis showed that DEGs were enriched in pathways related to sugar and amino acid biosynthesis and metabolism, as well as calcium ion channel activity. Additionally, heat shock proteins, zinc finger proteins, and serine/threonine-protein kinases were differentially expressed between the two treatments. The results of this study provide a general digital expression profile of thermoregulation genes responding to cold hardiness in A. c. cerana. Our data should prove valuable for future research on cold tolerance mechanisms in insects, and may be beneficial in breeding efforts to improve bee hardiness.

  9. Salespersons as internal knowledge brokers and new product selling : uncovering a link to genetic makeup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den W.; Verbeke, W.; Bagozzi, R.; Worm, L.; Jong, de A.; Nijssen, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Managers increasingly realize the importance of involving the sales force in new product development. However, despite recent progress, research on the specific role of the sales force in product innovation-related activities remains scarce. In particular, the importance of a salespersons' internal

  10. Disciplining Dalmar: A Demand to Uncover Racism and Racialization in Pursuit of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ann Mogush

    2016-01-01

    The need for multifaceted analyses of the relationships between how the United States acknowledges racism and how schooling can be structured to mitigate its negative impacts has never been greater, especially given rising attention to the racial "achievement gap." In suburban, elite Pioneer City, a series of initiatives I will refer to…

  11. Assembling a game development scene? Uncovering Finland’s largest demo party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Tyni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study takes look at Assembly, a large-scale LAN and demo party founded in 1992 and organized annually in Helsinki, Finland. Assembly is used as a case study to explore the relationship between computer hobbyism – including gaming, demoscene and other related activities – and professional game development. Drawing from expert interviews, a visitor query and news coverage we ask what kind of functions Assembly has played for the scene in general, and on the formation and fostering of the Finnish game industry in particular. The conceptual contribution of the paper is constructed around the interrelated concepts of scene, technicity and gaming capital.

  12. Uncovering Bugs in Distributed Storage Systems during Testing (not in Production!)

    OpenAIRE

    Deligiannis, P; McCutchen, M; Thomson, P; Chen, S; Donaldson, AF; Erickson, J; Huang, C; Lal, A; Mudduluru, R; Qadeer, S; Schulte, W

    2016-01-01

    Testing distributed systems is challenging due to multiple sources of nondeterminism. Conventional testing techniques, such as unit, integration and stress testing, are ineffective in preventing serious but subtle bugs from reaching production. Formal techniques, such as TLA+, can only verify high-level specifications of systems at the level of logic-based models, and fall short of checking the actual executable code. In this paper, we present a new methodology for testing distributed systems...

  13. 'Electric City': Uncovering Social Dimensions and Values of Sharing Renewable Energy through Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, A.; Van Dijk, H.W.; Romero Herrera, N.A.; Keyson, D.V.; Wartena, B.O.

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of Smart Energy Systems and Energy Cooperatives in the Netherlands and elsewhere, sharing of renewable energy within neighbourhoods is likely to gain wide prominence in the near future. Today the concept of 'Energy Sharing' is often limited to householders 'selling' their surplus of locally generated energy to the energy grid. Rather than shared locally, transporting energy back to the grid results in a loss of energy through the power lines. The research aims to understand pr...

  14. Uncovering the Italian Muscle Jew: from Zionist Gymnastics to Fascist Boxing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Levis Sullam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine the presence and influence among Italian Jews of Max Nordau’s image of the “muscle Jew” and more broadly of a virile imaginary, intertwined with Zionist and Italian nationalist ideas. I first document the relevance of an early phase of Italian muscular Judaism at the beginning of the twentieth century, at the time of the rise of Zionism in Italy. I then study the development, in the 1920s and 1930s, of a virile imagery among the two trends of Italian revisionist Zionism and of what we may call Italian Jewish Fascism. I end by asking whether there were not inherent contradictions, or at least relevant tensions, in the ideal of the muscle Jew, between radical nationalism and Jewish forms of virility, as developed after the First world war and in connection with the rise and stabilization of Fascism.

  15. Identification of human remains from the Second World War mass graves uncovered in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanović, Damir; Hadžić Metjahić, Negra; Čakar, Jasmina; Džehverović, Mirela; Dogan, Serkan; Ferić, Elma; Džijan, Snježana; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Madžar, Tomislav; Rod, Eduard; Primorac, Dragan

    2015-06-01

    To present the results obtained in the identification of human remains from World War II found in two mass graves in Ljubuški, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Samples from 10 skeletal remains were collected. Teeth and femoral fragments were collected from 9 skeletons and only a femoral fragment from 1 skeleton. DNA was isolated from bone and teeth samples using an optimized phenol/chloroform DNA extraction procedure. All samples required a pre-extraction decalcification with EDTA and additional post-extraction DNA purification using filter columns. Additionally, DNA from 12 reference samples (buccal swabs from potential living relatives) was extracted using the Qiagen DNA extraction method. QuantifilerTM Human DNA Quantification Kit was used for DNA quantification. PowerPlex ESI kit was used to simultaneously amplify 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci, and PowerPlex Y23 was used to amplify 23 Y chromosomal STR loci. Matching probabilities were estimated using a standard statistical approach. A total of 10 samples were processed, 9 teeth and 1 femoral fragment. Nine of 10 samples were profiled using autosomal STR loci, which resulted in useful DNA profiles for 9 skeletal remains. A comparison of established victims' profiles against a reference sample database yielded 6 positive identifications. DNA analysis may efficiently contribute to the identification of remains even seven decades after the end of the World War II. The significant percentage of positively identified remains (60%), even when the number of the examined possible living relatives was relatively small (only 12), proved the importance of cooperation with the members of the local community, who helped to identify the closest missing persons' relatives and collect referent samples from them.

  16. Uncovering the Hidden Histories: Black and Asian People in the Two World Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaze, Rupert

    2005-01-01

    The stories we tell in history are often stories about ourselves. This can lead to tremendous distortion. Rupert Gaze was shocked when a young black student told him that there was no point in his studying the Second World War because it had nothing to do with him or his family. While Gaze has worked for the Imperial War Museum (IWM) North, it has…

  17. Metabonomics uncovers a reversible proatherogenic lipid profile during infliximab therapy of inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Steenholdt, Casper; Ainsworth, Mark; Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Reed, Michelle A.C.; Atkins, Karen; Günther, Ulrich Leonhard; Hao, Fuhua; Wang, Yulan

    2017-01-01

    Background One-third of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients show no response to infliximab (IFX) induction therapy, and approximately half of patients responding become unresponsive over time. Thus, identification of potential treatment response biomarkers are of great clinical significance. This study employs spectroscopy-based metabolic profiling of serum from patients with IBD treated with IFX and healthy subjects (1) to substantiate the use of spectroscopy as a semi-invasive diagnos...

  18. Uncovering High-Level Corruption: Cross-National Objective Corruption Risk Indicators Using Public Procurement Data

    OpenAIRE

    Fazekas, Mihaly; Kocsis, G

    2017-01-01

    Measuring high-level corruption is subject to extensive scholarly and policy interest, which has achieved moderate progress in the last decade. This article develops two objective proxy measures of high-level corruption in public procurement: single bidding in competitive markets and a composite score of tendering ‘red flags’. Using official government data on 2.8 million contracts in twenty-eight European countries in 2009–14, we directly operationalize a common definition of corruption: unj...

  19. Space for human connection in antenatal education: Uncovering women's hopes using Participatory Action Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Vivienne; Lalor, Joan

    2017-12-01

    the aim of this research was to initiate active consultation with women and antenatal educators in the development and delivery of antenatal education that was mutually relevant. a Participatory Action Research approach influenced by feminist concerns was used to guide the research. Data were analysed by the researcher and participants using a Voice Centred Relational Method of Analysis. an Antenatal Education service in a consultant-led tertiary referral unit in Ireland. research findings revealed women's desires to build relationships through ANE to cope with anticipated loneliness and isolation after birth; however, environmental, structural, and organisational factors prohibited opportunity to build space for human connection. Participating women valued external and authoritative knowledge as truth, but concomitantly sought opportunity and space through classes to learn from the real life experiences of other mothers. Women lacked confidence in embodied knowing and their power to birth and demonstrated unquestioning acceptance of the predetermined nature of hospital birth and biomedical model of maternity care. in this research, we envisioned that hospital-based ANE, relevant and grounded in the needs and life experiences of women, could be developed, with a view to supporting women's decision-making processes, and understanding of pregnancy, birth and early motherhood. Participatory Action Research using a Voice Centred Relational Method of Analysis offered an opportunity to foster ethical and dialogic activity between learner and facilitator, underpinned by acknowledgement of the value of women's experiences; however, space for expression of new and useful knowledge in preparation for motherhood was limited by institutional context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multi-scale analysis to uncover habitat use of red-crowned cranes: Implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyue LIU, Hongxing JIANG, Shuqing ZHANG, Chunrong LI,Yunqiu HOU, Fawen QIAN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A multi-scale approach is essential to assess the factors that limit avian habitat use. Numerous studies have examined habitat use by the red-crowned crane, but integrated multi-scale habitat use information is lacking. We evaluated the effects of several habitat variables quantified across many spatial scales on crane use and abundance in two periods (2000 and 2009 at Yancheng National Nature Reserve, China. The natural wetlands decreased in area by 30,601 ha (-6.9% from 2000 to 2009, predominantly as a result of conversion to aquaculture ponds and farmland, and the remaining was under degradation due to expansion of the exotic smooth cordgrass. The cranes are focusing in on either larger patches or those that are in close proximity to each other in both years, but occupied patches had smaller size, less proximity and more regular boundaries in 2009. At landscape scales, the area percentage of common seepweed, reed ponds and paddy fields had a greater positive impact on crane presence than the area percentage of aquaculture ponds. The cranes were more abundant in patches that had a greater percent area of common seepweed and reed ponds, while the percent area of paddy fields was inversely related to crane abundance in 2009 due to changing agricultural practices. In 2009, cranes tended to use less fragmented plots in natural wetlands and more fragmented plots in anthropogenic paddy fields, which were largely associated with the huge loss and degradation of natural habitats between the two years. Management should focus on restoration of large patches of natural wetlands, and formation of a relatively stable area of large paddy field and reed pond to mitigate the loss of natural wetlands [Current Zoology 59 (5: 604–617, 2013].

  1. Friends, not foes: Magnetoencephalography as a tool to uncover brain dynamics during transcranial alternating current stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuling, Toralf; Ruhnau, Philipp; Fuscà, Marco; Demarchi, Gianpaolo; Herrmann, Christoph S; Weisz, Nathan

    2015-09-01

    Brain oscillations are supposedly crucial for normal cognitive functioning and alterations are associated with cognitive dysfunctions. To demonstrate their causal role on behavior, entrainment approaches in particular aim at driving endogenous oscillations via rhythmic stimulation. Within this context, transcranial electrical stimulation, especially transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), has received renewed attention. This is likely due to the possibility of defining oscillatory stimulation properties precisely. Also, measurements comparing pre-tACS with post-tACS electroencephalography (EEG) have shown impressive modulations. However, the period during tACS has remained a blackbox until now, due to the enormous stimulation artifact. By means of application of beamforming to magnetoencephalography (MEG) data, we successfully recovered modulations of the amplitude of brain oscillations during weak and strong tACS. Additionally, we demonstrate that also evoked responses to visual and auditory stimuli can be recovered during tACS. The main contribution of the present study is to provide critical evidence that during ongoing tACS, subtle modulations of oscillatory brain activity can be reconstructed even at the stimulation frequency. Future tACS experiments will be able to deliver direct physiological insights in order to further the understanding of the contribution of brain oscillations to cognition and behavior. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The thrill of the chase: uncovering illegal sport hunting in Brazil through YouTube™ posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani R. El Bizri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of unregulated sport hunting can severely affect populations of target game species. Because hunting in Brazil is limited by law, obtaining data on illegal sport hunting in this country is challenging. We used an unusual online resource, YouTube™, to detect the occurrence of sport hunting in Brazil, measure the impacts of the activity on the main Brazilian game species and biomes, evaluate the opinions of hunters and internet users on sport hunting, and discuss the need for policy interventions in wildlife conservation in this country. We found 383 videos related to Brazilian sport hunting on YouTube™, accounting for more than 15 million views. Most videos were produced in the Cerrado (Brazilian savannah and approximately 70% of them depicted events of pursuit and killing of wild animals, especially lowland pacas (Cuniculus paca and armadillos (Family Dasypodidae. Videos were posted primarily in July and December, coinciding with the two main Brazilian vacation periods. Furthermore, the shotguns identified on videos show that sport hunters expend large sums of money to undertake their hunts. These results indicate that Brazilian sport hunters are possibly wealthier urban residents who travel to rural areas to hunt, contrasting with previous hunting studies in the country. Most viewers declared themselves in favor of sport hunting in comments (n = 2893 and ratings (n = 36,570 of the videos. Discussions generated by comments suggest that Brazilian sport hunters employ several informal management strategies to maintain game species stocks for future hunting and intensely question the restrictions of Brazilian environmental policies. Our results demonstrate that solutions are needed for the regulation of sport hunting in Brazil. Government actions, whether to increase surveillance or legalize hunting programs, should take into account the opinions of sport hunters and their perceptions on hunting dynamics to support effective policy decisions on wildlife conservation in Brazil.

  3. Historic and ancient tsunamis uncovered on the Jalisco-Colima Pacific coast, the Mexican subduction zone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ramírez-Herrera, M.-T.; Bógalo, M.-F.; Černý, Jan; Goguitchaichvili, A.; Corona, N.; Machain, M. L.; Edwards, A. C.; Sosa, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 259, April 15 (2016), s. 90-104 ISSN 0169-555X Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Earthquake * magnetic properties * Mexican subduction * tsunami deposit Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.958, year: 2016

  4. Uncovering molecular structural mechanisms of signaling mediated by the prion protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Sebastian A.; Linden, Rafael; Silva, Jerson L.; Foguel, Debora

    2009-01-01

    The glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) - anchored prion protein (PrP c ), usually associated with neurodegenerative diseases, modulates various cellular responses and may scaffold multiprotein cell surface signaling complexes. Engagement of PrP c with the secretable cochaperone hop/STI 1 induces neurotrophic transmembrane signals through unknown molecular mechanisms. We addressed whether interaction of Pr P c and hop STI 1 entails structural rearrangements relevant for signaling. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy showed that PrP c :hop/STI 1 interaction triggers loss of PrP helical structures, involving at least a perturbation of the Pr P c 143-153 beta-helix. Novel SAXS models revealed a significant C-terminal compaction of hop/STI 1 when bound to PrP c . Differing from a recent dimeric model of human hop/STI 1, both size exclusion chromatography and SAXS data support a monomeric form of free murine hop/STI 1. Changes in the Pr P c 143-153 beta-helix may engage the transmembrane signaling protein laminin receptor precursor and neural cell adhesion molecule, both of which bind that domain of Pr P c , and further ligands may be engaged by the tertiary structural changes of hop/STI 1. These reciprocal structural modifications indicate a versatile mechanism for signaling mediated by Pr P c :hop/STI 1 interaction, consistent with the hypothesis that Pr P c scaffolds multiprotein signaling complexes at the cell surface. (author)

  5. Uncovering molecular structural mechanisms of signaling mediated by the prion protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Sebastian A.; Linden, Rafael [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IBCCF/UFRl), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho; Cordeiro, Yraima; Rocha e Lima, Luis M.T. da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (FF/UFRl), RJ (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia; Lopes, Marilene H. [Instituto Ludwig de Pesquisa de Cancer, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Jerson L.; Foguel, Debora [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IBqM/UFRl), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Bioquimica Medica

    2009-07-01

    The glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) - anchored prion protein (PrP{sup c}), usually associated with neurodegenerative diseases, modulates various cellular responses and may scaffold multiprotein cell surface signaling complexes. Engagement of PrP{sup c} with the secretable cochaperone hop/STI 1 induces neurotrophic transmembrane signals through unknown molecular mechanisms. We addressed whether interaction of Pr P{sup c} and hop STI 1 entails structural rearrangements relevant for signaling. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy showed that PrP{sup c}:hop/STI 1 interaction triggers loss of PrP helical structures, involving at least a perturbation of the Pr P{sup c}{sub 143-153} beta-helix. Novel SAXS models revealed a significant C-terminal compaction of hop/STI 1 when bound to PrP{sup c}. Differing from a recent dimeric model of human hop/STI 1, both size exclusion chromatography and SAXS data support a monomeric form of free murine hop/STI 1. Changes in the Pr P{sup c}{sub 143-153} beta-helix may engage the transmembrane signaling protein laminin receptor precursor and neural cell adhesion molecule, both of which bind that domain of Pr P{sup c}, and further ligands may be engaged by the tertiary structural changes of hop/STI 1. These reciprocal structural modifications indicate a versatile mechanism for signaling mediated by Pr P{sup c}:hop/STI 1 interaction, consistent with the hypothesis that Pr P{sup c} scaffolds multiprotein signaling complexes at the cell surface. (author)

  6. Uncovering Undergraduate English-as-a-Foreign-Language Learners' Perceptions of Reticence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare-ee, Abbas; Shirvanizadeh, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    The study of factors influencing undergraduate learners' participation and/or reticence in second/foreign language classrooms, a relatively recent line of research, can contribute to the betterment of language teaching and learning practices. In this work, we attempt to investigate the causes of a population of undergraduate English as a foreign…

  7. The Invisible Web: Uncovering Information Sources Search Engines Can't See.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Chris; Price, Gary

    This book takes a detailed look at the nature and extent of the Invisible Web, and offers pathfinders for accessing the valuable information it contains. It is designed to fit the needs of both novice and advanced Web searchers. Chapter One traces the development of the Internet and many of the early tools used to locate and share information via…

  8. Uncovering Barriers to Financial Capability: Underrepresented Students' Access to Financial Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, Brenda; Mattioli, Heather; Foxhoven, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Financial aid is designed to increase access to postsecondary education at all socioeconomic levels; however, college students are not always knowledgeable about personal finances or capable of making sound decisions regarding complex college and program choices, debt options, and long-term spending. This article reviews previous research on the…

  9. Keeping a Journal: A Path to Uncovering Identity (and Keeping Your Sanity)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Joanne E.

    2013-01-01

    A journal can help keep a person more organized, clarify their identity, and help them grapple with them own sense of belonging in the often bewildering world of academe. In this article, the author discusses: (1) the benefits and uses of keeping a journal; (2) Techniques for writing in a journal; and (3) Drawbacks of journal writing.

  10. Uncovering transcription factor and microRNA risk regulatory pathways associated with osteoarthritis by network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhenhua; Zhang, Chi; He, Lingxiao; Sui, Yanfang; Lin, Xiafei; Pan, Jingjing

    2018-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of joint disease. The development of inflammation have been considered to play a key role during the progression of OA. Regulatory pathways are known to play crucial roles in many pathogenic processes. Thus, deciphering these risk regulatory pathways is critical for elucidating the mechanisms underlying OA. We constructed an OA-specific regulatory network by integrating comprehensive curated transcription and post-transcriptional resource involving transcription factor (TF) and microRNA (miRNA). To deepen our understanding of underlying molecular mechanisms of OA, we developed an integrated systems approach to identify OA-specific risk regulatory pathways. In this study, we identified 89 significantly differentially expressed genes between normal and inflamed areas of OA patients. We found the OA-specific regulatory network was a standard scale-free network with small-world properties. It significant enriched many immune response-related functions including leukocyte differentiation, myeloid differentiation and T cell activation. Finally, 141 risk regulatory pathways were identified based on OA-specific regulatory network, which contains some known regulator of OA. The risk regulatory pathways may provide clues for the etiology of OA and be a potential resource for the discovery of novel OA-associated disease genes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mapping posttranscriptional regulation of the human glycome uncovers microRNA defining the glycocode

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Praveen; Kurcon, Tomasz; Pilobello, Kanoelani T.; Rakus, John F.; Koppolu, Sujeethraj; Liu, Zhongyin; Batista, Bianca S.; Eng, William S.; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Liang, Yaxuan; Mahal, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates (glycans) are complex cell surface molecules that control multiple aspects of cell biology, including cell–cell communication, cancer metastasis, and inflammation. Glycan biosynthesis requires the coordination of many enzymes, but how this is regulated is not well understood. Herein we show that microRNA (miRNA), small noncoding RNA, are a major regulator of cell surface glycosylation. We map miRNA expression onto carbohydrate signatures obtained by using lectin microarrays, a g...

  12. Uncovering noisy social signals : Using optimization methods from experimental physics to study social phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, Maurits; Van Emden, Robin; Iannuzzi, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Due to the ubiquitous presence of treatment heterogeneity, measurement error, and contextual confounders, numerous social phenomena are hard to study. Precise control of treatment variables and possible confounders is often key to the success of studies in the social sciences, yet often proves out

  13. Uncovering noisy social signals: Using optimization methods from experimental physics to study social phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Emden, R. van; Iannuzzi, D.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the ubiquitous presence of treatment heterogeneity, measurement error, and contextual confounders, numerous social phenomena are hard to study. Precise control of treatment variables and possible confounders is often key to the success of studies in the social sciences, yet often proves out

  14. Observing the observers - uncovering the role of values in research assessments of organic food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsøe, Martin Hermansen; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the overall effects of organic food systems is important, but also a challenge because organic food systems cannot be fully assessed from one single research perspective. The aim of our research was to determine the role of values in assessments of organic food systems as a basis...... for discussing the implications of combining multiple perspectives in overall sustainability assessments of the food system. We explored how values were embedded in five research perspectives: (1) food science, (2) discourse analysis, (3) phenomenology, (4) neoclassical welfare economics, and (5) actor......-network theory. Value has various meanings according to different scientific perspectives. A strategy for including and balancing different forms of knowledge in overall assessments of the effects of food systems is needed. Based on the analysis, we recommend four courses of action: (1) elucidate values...

  15. Morphological evidence uncovers a new species of Goniurosaurus (Squamata: Eublepharidae) from the Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Run-Bang; Wang, Ning; Chen, Bei; Liang, Bin

    2018-01-03

    A new species of the genus Goniurosaurus, G. zhoui sp. nov., is described based on specimens collected from karst areas in Hainan Island, China. Quantitative comparison of morphological traits and egg size with two known endemic species in Hainan Island and other known congeners confirmed the distinctiveness of G. zhoui sp. nov., which has a moderate size with a snout-vent length of 93.4-97.4 mm; light purple-brown dorsal ground color in adults; a posteriorly protracted nuchal loop on nape; four faint, purple-gray body bands bearing dark purple spots between and on them; eight nasal scales surrounding nares; single internasal; 49-62 eyelid fringe scales; 130-140 scales around midbody; 11 granular scales surrounding the dorsal tubercles; 36-38 precloacal pores in males (absent in females); claws sheathed by four scales, two lateral scales long and curved. We provide the first data on the natural history of the new species and an expanded key to Goniurosaurus species on Hainan Island and the adjacent mainland. The discovery of the new species facilitates our understanding of the speciation process on continental islands.

  16. An Engineered Survival-Selection Assay for Extracellular Protein Expression Uncovers Hypersecretory Phenotypes in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Aravind; Haitjema, Charles H; Lee, Robert; Boock, Jason T; DeLisa, Matthew P

    2017-05-19

    The extracellular expression of recombinant proteins using laboratory strains of Escherichia coli is now routinely achieved using naturally secreted substrates, such as YebF or the osmotically inducible protein Y (OsmY), as carrier molecules. However, secretion efficiency through these pathways needs to be improved for most synthetic biology and metabolic engineering applications. To address this challenge, we developed a generalizable survival-based selection strategy that effectively couples extracellular protein secretion to antibiotic resistance and enables facile isolation of rare mutants from very large populations (i.e., 10 10-12 clones) based simply on cell growth. Using this strategy in the context of the YebF pathway, a comprehensive library of E. coli single-gene knockout mutants was screened and several gain-of-function mutations were isolated that increased the efficiency of extracellular expression without compromising the integrity of the outer membrane. We anticipate that this user-friendly strategy could be leveraged to better understand the YebF pathway and other secretory mechanisms-enabling the exploration of protein secretion in pathogenesis as well as the creation of designer E. coli strains with greatly expanded secretomes-all without the need for expensive exogenous reagents, assay instruments, or robotic automation.

  17. The Ethics of Uncovering Something Else in Histoire(s du cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiewon Baek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In lieu of an abstract, here is the essay's opening paragraph:Marguerite Duras prefaces the second edition of Le navire night, from which an excerpt is cited above, by explaining that after writing the story of a man named J.M., everything came too late, including the realization of the film version of Le navire night. Once the event has been written and the common night of history been closed up, did she have the right to flash a light into the darkness to go back and see? The only seeing through cinema that was possible, she continues, was to film the failure, the disaster of the film. But how does one film the failure of realizing a film adaptation of a written text, which itself was transcribed from an oral re-telling of a story, which itself was adapted from memory? The event already took place – writing, “this history here” –, leaving cinema to film what never took place, namely, the film itself. As Jean-Luc Godard confirms in a chapter titled Seul le cinéma in Histoire(s du cinéma, not only in the form of his project as a whole but also more explicitly in one shot that positions two close-up photographs of his face with the sound of Paul Hindemith’s “Funeral Music” and this text: “Faire une description précise de ce qui n’a jamais eu lieu est le travail de l’historien.” Describing the rise of the film Le navire night from its disastrous death, Duras writes: “On a mis la caméra à l’envers et on a filmé ce qui entrait dedans, de la nuit, de l’air, des projecteurs, des routes, des visages aussi.” The camera turned upside-down, or in the other sense, inside-out, Duras films the entrance of the exterior, a sort of a Levinasian visage. The question no longer is one of having the right but of the duty to re-write history, as is insinuated by the reference to “The Critic as Artist” written across one of the photographs mentioned above, which is again a gesture of Godard’s positioning himself as the critic whose role Oscar Wilde defined: “The one duty we owe to history is to rewrite it.”

  18. Single cell analysis of Vibrio harveyi uncovers functional heterogeneity in response to quorum sensing signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetzberger Claudia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio harveyi and closely related species are important pathogens in aquaculture. A complex quorum sensing cascade involving three autoinducers controls bioluminescence and several genes encoding virulence factors. Single cell analysis of a V. harveyi population has already indicated intercellular heterogeneity in the production of bioluminescence. This study was undertaken to analyze the expression of various autoinducer-dependent genes in individual cells. Results Here we used reporter strains bearing promoter::gfp fusions to monitor the induction/repression of three autoinducer-regulated genes in wild type conjugates at the single cell level. Two genes involved in pathogenesis - vhp and vscP, which code for an exoprotease and a component of the type III secretion system, respectively, and luxC (the first gene in the lux operon were chosen for analysis. The lux operon and the exoprotease gene are induced, while vscP is repressed at high cell density. As controls luxS and recA, whose expression is not dependent on autoinducers, were examined. The responses of the promoter::gfp fusions in individual cells from the same culture ranged from no to high induction. Importantly, simultaneous analysis of two autoinducer induced phenotypes, bioluminescence (light detection and exoproteolytic activity (fluorescence of a promoter::gfp fusion, in single cells provided evidence for functional heterogeneity within a V. harveyi population. Conclusions Autoinducers are not only an indicator for cell density, but play a pivotal role in the coordination of physiological activities within the population.

  19. TEMPO: an ESA-funded project for uncovering significant features of the South Atlantic Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavón-Carrasco, F. Javier; De Santis, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    In this work we provide the last results of the ESA (European Space Agency) funded project TEMPO ("Is The Earth's Magnetic field POtentially reversing? New insights from Swarm mission"). The mail goal of this project is to analyse the time and spatial evolution of one of the most important features of the present geomagnetic field, i.e. the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The region covered by this anomaly is characterized by values of geomagnetic field intensity around 30% lower than expected for those latitudes and extends over a large area in the South Atlantic Ocean, South America, South Africa and the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This large depression of the geomagnetic field strength has its origin in a prominent patch of reversed polarity flux in the Earth's outer core. The study of the SAA is an important challenge nowadays not only for the geomagnetic and paleomagnetic community, but also for other areas focused on the Earth Observation due to the protective role of this potential field against the charged particles forming the solar wind. A further increase of the SAA surface extent could have dramatic consequences for human health and technologies because a larger number of solar charged particles could reach the Earth's surface.

  20. Sleep onset uncovers thalamic abnormalities in patients with idiopathic generalised epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Bagshaw

    Full Text Available The thalamus is crucial for sleep regulation and the pathophysiology of idiopathic generalised epilepsy (IGE, and may serve as the underlying basis for the links between the two. We investigated this using EEG-fMRI and a specific emphasis on the role and functional connectivity (FC of the thalamus. We defined three types of thalamic FC: thalamocortical, inter-hemispheric thalamic, and intra-hemispheric thalamic. Patients and controls differed in all three measures, and during wakefulness and sleep, indicating disorder-dependent and state-dependent modification of thalamic FC. Inter-hemispheric thalamic FC differed between patients and controls in somatosensory regions during wakefulness, and occipital regions during sleep. Intra-hemispheric thalamic FC was significantly higher in patients than controls following sleep onset, and disorder-dependent alterations to FC were seen in several thalamic regions always involving somatomotor and occipital regions. As interactions between thalamic sub-regions are indirect and mediated by the inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN, the results suggest abnormal TRN function in patients with IGE, with a regional distribution which could suggest a link with the thalamocortical networks involved in the generation of alpha rhythms. Intra-thalamic FC could be a more widely applicable marker beyond patients with IGE. Keywords: Functional connectivity, Generalised epilepsy, Sleep, Thalamic reticular nucleus thalamus