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  1. Evaluation on levels and conversion profiles of DON, 3-ADON, and 15-ADON during bread making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Wang, Bujun

    2015-10-15

    The present study investigated the changes and conversion profiles of DON, its conjugations 3-ADON, and 15-ADON during bread making process, by spiking targeted mycotoxin standards to Fusarium mycotoxins-free wheat flour. No significant (p bread crust. Regarding ADONs, decreases of 20-40% for 3-ADON and 28-60% for 15-ADON were found during fermentation stage, and further losses of ADONs were observed after proofing process. Although ADONs levels gained an increase after baking. This study demonstrated that ADONs were converted to DON, while no ADONs were detectable in DON spiked samples during bread making process. The mechanism that ADONs could be converted into DON is unclear so far.

  2. Adone Zoli, il mondo cattolico e l’antifascismo fiorentino

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    Giambattista Sciré

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio analizza la figura di Adone Zoli, personalità di spicco del mondo cattolico e dirigente democristiano, nel suo rapporto con l’antifascismo fiorentino, dagli anni Trenta al periodo della Resistenza, della Liberazione e all’immediato secondo dopoguerra. I nuovi documenti qui presentati mettono in luce l’importanza della sua attività politica dentro la Dc fiorentina, il legame tra la Dc locale e la curia fiorentina, le sue relazioni con gli altri membri del Comitato Toscano di Liberazione Nazionale. Ne emerge una figura molto complessa divisa tra una forte fede cristiana e ideali antifascisti profondamente radicati.

  3. Birth of colliding beams in Europe, two photon studies at Adone

    CERN Document Server

    Bonolis, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    This article recalls the birth of the first electron-positron storage ring AdA, and the construction of the higher energy collider ADONE, where early photon-photon collisions were observed. The events which led the Austrian physicist Bruno Touschek to propose and construct AdA will be recalled, starting with early work on the Wideroe's betatron during World War II, up to the construction of ADONE, and the theoretical contribution to radiative corrections to electron-positron collisions.

  4. Fe-Ni Micrometorites from Upper Jurassic Cañadon Asfalto Fm., Patagonia, Argentina

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    Matteini, M.; Hauser, N.; Cabaleri, N.; Silva Nieto, D.; Cuadros, F. A.; Reyes, S.

    2014-09-01

    Microspherules from an upper Jurassic sediments from Patagonia, show mineralogical, geochemical and textural features very similar to those reported for I-type micrometeorites whereas some spherules are interpreted as typical G-type micrometeorites.

  5. First degree burn injury in healthy volunteers who 6-8 weeks prior have had done a Inguinal herniotomy . | EU Clinical Trials Register [EU Clinical Trials Register

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available adon, buprenorphine, codeine, tramadol, ketobemidone, oxycodone, hydromorphone, dextromethorphan...n, buprenorphin, codein, tramadol, ketobemidon, oxycodon, hydromorphon, dextromethorphan

  6. The Metabolic Fate of Deoxynivalenol and Its Acetylated Derivatives in a Wheat Suspension Culture: Identification and Detection of DON-15-O-Glucoside, 15-Acetyl-DON-3-O-Glucoside and 15-Acetyl-DON-3-Sulfate

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    Clemens Schmeitzl

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a protein synthesis inhibitor produced by the Fusarium species, which frequently contaminates grains used for human or animal consumption. We treated a wheat suspension culture with DON or one of its acetylated derivatives, 3-acetyl-DON (3-ADON, 15-acetyl-DON (15-ADON and 3,15-diacetyl-DON (3,15-diADON, and monitored the metabolization over a course of 96 h. Supernatant and cell extract samples were analyzed using a tailored LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of DON metabolites. We report the formation of tentatively identified DON-15-O-β-D-glucoside (D15G and of 15-acetyl-DON-3-sulfate (15-ADON3S as novel deoxynivalenol metabolites in wheat. Furthermore, we found that the recently identified 15-acetyl-DON-3-O-β-D-glucoside (15-ADON3G is the major metabolite produced after 15-ADON challenge. 3-ADON treatment led to a higher intracellular content of toxic metabolites after six hours compared to all other treatments. 3-ADON was exclusively metabolized into DON before phase II reactions occurred. In contrast, we found that 15-ADON was directly converted into 15-ADON3G and 15-ADON3S in addition to metabolization into deoxynivalenol-3-O-β-D-glucoside (D3G. This study highlights significant differences in the metabolization of DON and its acetylated derivatives.

  7. Transformation of deoxynivalenol and its acetylated derivatives in Chinese steamed bread making, as affected by pH, yeast, and steaming time.

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    Wu, Li; Wang, Bujun

    2016-07-01

    We hereby report the transformation of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives (3-ADON and 15-ADON) by spiking targeted mycotoxins to Fusarium mycotoxin-free flour in the process of making Chinese steamed bread (CSB). The impacts of pH, yeast level, and steaming time on the transformation of 3-ADON to DON were investigated. DON, 3-ADON, and 15-ADON were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Spiked DON was stable throughout the CSB making process. Spiked 3-ADON and 15-ADON were partially deacetylated and transformed to DON during kneading (54.1-60.0% and 59.3-77.5%, respectively), fermentation (64.0-76.9% and 78.2-91.6%, respectively), and steaming (47.2-52.7% and 52.4-61.9%, respectively). The ADONs level increased after steaming compared with their level in the previous step. The pH level and steaming duration significantly (Pprocess. Briefly, alkaline conditions and short steaming times favored the deacetylation of 3-ADON. The level of yeast did not remarkably (Ptransformation between ADONs and DON.

  8. A Comparison of Aggressiveness and Deoxynivalenol Production Between Canadian Fusarium graminearum Isolates with 3-Acetyl and 15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol Chemotypes in Field-Grown Spring Wheat

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    Twenty four isolates of Fusarium graminearum, half of which were 3- acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and half 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) chemotypes, were tested for their ability to produce deoxynivalenol and to cause Fusarium head blight (FHB), in spring wheat cultivars. The objectives of this...

  9. A Population Genetics Framework for Understanding Aggressiveness and Toxigenicity of Fusarium Head Blight Pathogens

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    A 14-fold increase in the frequency of 3ADON-producing F. graminearum occured between 1998 and 2004 in western Canada. Significant population structure associated with trichothecene chemotype differences was observed, and isolates from the 3ADON populations were found to accumulate significantly mo...

  10. A Comparison of the Aggressiveness and Deoxynivalenol Content of Canadian 3-acetyl and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol Producers of Fusarium graminearum in Fieldgrown Spring Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty four isolates of Fusarium graminearum of Canadian origin half of which were 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and half 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) producers, were tested for their ability to cause Fusarium head blight (FHB), as measured by FHB index and production of deoxynivalenol (DON) ...

  11. Hydrolytic Fate of 3/15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol in Humans: Specific Deacetylation by the Small Intestine and Liver Revealed Using in Vitro and ex Vivo Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajandouz, El Hassan; Berdah, Stéphane; Moutardier, Vincent; Bege, Thierry; Birnbaum, David Jérémie; Perrier, Josette; Di Pasquale, Eric; Maresca, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In addition to deoxynivalenol (DON), acetylated derivatives, i.e., 3-acetyl and 15-acetyldexynivalenol (or 3/15ADON), are present in cereals leading to exposure to these mycotoxins. Animal and human studies suggest that 3/15ADON are converted into DON after their ingestion through hydrolysis of the acetyl moiety, the site(s) of such deacetylation being still uncharacterized. We used in vitro and ex vivo approaches to study the deacetylation of 3/15ADON by enzymes and cells/tissues present on their way from the food matrix to the blood in humans. We found that luminal deacetylation by digestive enzymes and bacteria is limited. Using human cells, tissues and S9 fractions, we were able to demonstrate that small intestine and liver possess strong deacetylation capacity compared to colon and kidneys. Interestingly, in most cases, deacetylation was more efficient for 3ADON than 15ADON. Although we initially thought that carboxylesterases (CES) could be responsible for the deacetylation of 3/15ADON, the use of pure human CES1/2 and of CES inhibitor demonstrated that CES are not involved. Taken together, our original model system allowed us to identify the small intestine and the liver as the main site of deacetylation of ingested 3/15ADON in humans. PMID:27483321

  12. Identification of Pathogenic Fusarium spp. Causing Maize Ear Rot and Poten tial Mycotoxin Production in China

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    Canxing Duan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ear rot is a serious disease that affects maize yield and grain quality worldwide. The mycotoxins are often hazardous to humans and livestock. In samples collected in China between 2009 and 2014, Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum species complex were the dominant fungi causing ear rot. According to the TEF-1α gene sequence, F. graminearum species complex in China included three independent species: F. graminearum, F. meridionale, and F. boothii. The key gene FUM1 responsible for the biosynthesis of fumonisin was detected in all 82 F. verticillioides isolates. Among these, 57 isolates mainly produced fumonisin B1, ranging from 2.52 to 18,416.44 µg/g for each gram of dry hyphal weight, in vitro. Three different toxigenic chemotypes were detected among 78 F. graminearum species complex: 15-ADON, NIV and 15-ADON+NIV. Sixty and 16 isolates represented the 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes, respectively; two isolates carried both 15-ADON and NIV-producing segments. All the isolates carrying NIV-specific segment were F. meridionale. The in vitro production of 15-ADON, 3-ADON, DON, and ZEN varied from 5.43 to 81,539.49; 6.04 to 19,590.61; 13.35 to 19,795.33; and 1.77 to 430.24 µg/g of dry hyphal weight, respectively. Altogether, our present data demonstrate potential main mycotoxin production of dominant pathogenic Fusarium in China.

  13. Identification of Pathogenic Fusarium spp. Causing Maize Ear Rot and Potential Mycotoxin Production in China.

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    Duan, Canxing; Qin, Zihui; Yang, Zhihuan; Li, Weixi; Sun, Suli; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Xiaoming

    2016-06-21

    Ear rot is a serious disease that affects maize yield and grain quality worldwide. The mycotoxins are often hazardous to humans and livestock. In samples collected in China between 2009 and 2014, Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum species complex were the dominant fungi causing ear rot. According to the TEF-1α gene sequence, F. graminearum species complex in China included three independent species: F. graminearum, F. meridionale, and F. boothii. The key gene FUM1 responsible for the biosynthesis of fumonisin was detected in all 82 F. verticillioides isolates. Among these, 57 isolates mainly produced fumonisin B₁, ranging from 2.52 to 18,416.44 µg/g for each gram of dry hyphal weight, in vitro. Three different toxigenic chemotypes were detected among 78 F. graminearum species complex: 15-ADON, NIV and 15-ADON+NIV. Sixty and 16 isolates represented the 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes, respectively; two isolates carried both 15-ADON and NIV-producing segments. All the isolates carrying NIV-specific segment were F. meridionale. The in vitro production of 15-ADON, 3-ADON, DON, and ZEN varied from 5.43 to 81,539.49; 6.04 to 19,590.61; 13.35 to 19,795.33; and 1.77 to 430.24 µg/g of dry hyphal weight, respectively. Altogether, our present data demonstrate potential main mycotoxin production of dominant pathogenic Fusarium in China.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Deoxynivalenol Biosynthesis Related Gene Expression among Different Chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum in Spring Wheat

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    Amarasinghe, Chami C.; Fernando, W. G. Dilantha

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) act as virulence factors and are essential for symptom development after initial infection in wheat. To date, 16 genes have been identified in the DON biosynthesis pathway. However, a comparative gene expression analysis in different chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum in response to Fusarium head blight infection remains to be explored. Therefore, in this study, nine genes that involved in trichothecene biosynthesis were analyzed among 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) and nivalenol producing F. graminearum strains in a time course study. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that the expression of all examined TRI gene transcripts initiated at 2 days post-inoculation (dpi), peaked at three to four dpi and gradually decreased at seven dpi. The early induction of TRI genes indicates that presence of high levels of TRI gene transcripts at early stages is important to initiate the biosynthetic pathway of DON and NIV. Comparison of gene expression among the three chemotypes showed that relative expression of TRI genes was higher in 3-ADON producing strains compared with 15-ADON and NIV strains. Comparatively higher levels of gene expression may contribute to the higher levels of DON produced by 3-ADON strains in infected grains. PMID:27550207

  15. Thermal stability and kinetics of degradation of deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol conjugates and ochratoxin A during baking of wheat bakery products.

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    Vidal, Arnau; Sanchis, Vicente; Ramos, Antonio J; Marín, Sonia

    2015-07-01

    The stability of deoxynivalenol (DON), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-glucoside), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) during thermal processing has been studied. Baking temperature, time and initial mycotoxin concentration in the raw materials were assayed as factors. An improved UPLC-MS/MS method to detect DON, DON-3-glucoside, 3-ADON, 15-ADON and DOM-1 in wheat baked products was developed in the present assay. The results highlighted the importance of temperature and time in mycotoxin stability in heat treatments. OTA is more stable than DON in a baking treatment. Interestingly, the DON-3-glucoside concentrations increased (>300%) under mild baking conditions. On the other hand, it was rapidly reduced under harsh conditions. The 3-ADON decreased during the heat treatment; while DOM-1 increased after the heating process. Finally, the data followed first order kinetics for analysed mycotoxins and thermal constant rates (k) were calculated. This parameter can be a useful tool for prediction of mycotoxin levels.

  16. Acetylated Deoxynivalenol Generates Differences of Gene Expression that Discriminate Trichothecene Toxicity

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    Tadahiro Suzuki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, which is a toxic secondary metabolite generated by Fusarium species, is synthesized through two separate acetylation pathways. Both acetylation derivatives, 3-acetyl-DON (3ADON and 15-acetyl-DON (15ADON, also contaminate grain and corn widely. These derivatives are deacetylated via a variety of processes after ingestion, so it has been suggested that they have the same toxicity as DON. However, in the intestinal entry region such as the duodenum, the derivatives might come into contact with intestinal epithelium cells because metabolism by microflora or import into the body has not progressed. Therefore, the differences of toxicity between DON and these derivatives need to be investigated. Here, we observed gene expression changes in the yeast pdr5Δ mutant strain under concentration-dependent mycotoxin exposure conditions. 15ADON exposure induced significant gene expression changes and DON exposure generally had a similar but smaller effect. However, the glucose transporter genes HXT2 and HXT4 showed converse trends. 3ADON also induced a different expression trend in these genes than DON and 15ADON. These differences in gene expression suggest that DON and its derivatives have different effects on cells.

  17. Regional differences in species composition and toxigenic potential among Fusarium head blight isolates from Uruguay indicate a risk of nivalenol contamination in new wheat production areas.

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    Umpiérrez-Failache, M; Garmendia, G; Pereyra, S; Rodríguez-Haralambides, A; Ward, T J; Vero, S

    2013-08-16

    Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are the primary cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat, and frequently contaminate grain with trichothecene mycotoxins that pose a serious threat to food safety and animal health. The species identity and trichothecene toxin potential of 151 FGSC isolates collected from wheat in Uruguay were determined via multilocus genotyping. Although F. graminearum with the 15ADON trichothecene type accounted for 86% of the isolates examined, five different FGSC species and all three trichothecene types were identified in this collection. This is the first report of Fusarium asiaticum, Fusarium brasilicum, Fusarium cortaderiae, and Fusarium austroamericanum from Uruguay. In addition, we observed significant (Pcomposition of FGSC species and trichothecene types within Uruguay. Isolates of F. graminearum with the 15ADON type were the most prevalent in western provinces (95%), while F. asiaticum (43%) and the NIV type (61%) predominated in the new wheat production zone in Cerro Largo along Uruguay's eastern border with Brazil. F. graminearum isolates (15ADON type) were significantly (Pwheat than were isolates from the other species examined (NIV or 3ADON types). However, F. graminearum isolates (15ADON type) were significantly (P<0.05) more sensitive to tebuconazole than isolates from other species (NIV type). These results document substantial heterogeneity among the pathogens responsible for FHB in Uruguay. In addition, the regional predominance of the NIV trichothecene type is of significant concern to food safety and indicates that additional monitoring of nivalenol levels in grain may be required.

  18. Depicting the Discrepancy between Tri Genotype and Chemotype on the Basis of Strain CBS 139514 from a Field Population of F. graminearum Sensu Stricto from Argentina

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    Kulik, Tomasz; Buśko, Maciej; Bilska, Katarzyna; Ostrowska-Kołodziejczak, Anna; van Diepeningen, Anne D.; Perkowski, Juliusz; Stenglein, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies on a field population of F. graminearum sensu stricto from Argentina revealed an atypical panel of strains identified through PCR genotyping as 15ADON genotypes, but producing high levels of 3ADON. Based on representative strain CBS 139514, we asked if the discrepancy between the trichothecene genotype and chemotype might result from an inter-chemotype recombination of the chemotype-determining genes. To answer this, we sequenced the complete core Tri gene cluster (around 30,200 bp) from this strain and compared its sequence to sequence data of typical type B trichothecene genotypes/chemotypes. Sequence alignment showed that CBS 139514 has an identical sequence within the entire core Tri cluster to the 15ADON genotype. The revealed discrepancy underlines the need for using both molecular and chemical methods for reliable characterization of toxigenic strains of Fusarium. PMID:27845742

  19. Depicting the Discrepancy between Tri Genotype and Chemotype on the Basis of Strain CBS 139514 from a Field Population of F. graminearum Sensu Stricto from Argentina

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    Tomasz Kulik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on a field population of F. graminearum sensu stricto from Argentina revealed an atypical panel of strains identified through PCR genotyping as 15ADON genotypes, but producing high levels of 3ADON. Based on representative strain CBS 139514, we asked if the discrepancy between the trichothecene genotype and chemotype might result from an inter-chemotype recombination of the chemotype-determining genes. To answer this, we sequenced the complete core Tri gene cluster (around 30,200 bp from this strain and compared its sequence to sequence data of typical type B trichothecene genotypes/chemotypes. Sequence alignment showed that CBS 139514 has an identical sequence within the entire core Tri cluster to the 15ADON genotype. The revealed discrepancy underlines the need for using both molecular and chemical methods for reliable characterization of toxigenic strains of Fusarium.

  20. Diversity of Fusarium head blight populations and trichothecene toxin types reveals regional differences in pathogen composition and temporal dynamics.

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    Kelly, Amy C; Clear, Randall M; O'Donnell, Kerry; McCormick, Susan; Turkington, T Kelly; Tekauz, Andy; Gilbert, Jeannie; Kistler, H Corby; Busman, Mark; Ward, Todd J

    2015-09-01

    Analyses of genetic diversity, trichothecene genotype composition, and population structure were conducted using 4086 Fusarium graminearum isolates collected from wheat in eight Canadian provinces over a three year period between 2005 and 2007. The results revealed substantial regional differences in Fusarium head blight pathogen composition and temporal population dynamics. The 3ADON trichothecene type consistently predominated in Maritime provinces (91%) over the sampled years, and increased significantly (P<0.05) between 2005 and 2007 in western Canada, accounting for 66% of the isolates in Manitoba by the end of the sampling period. In contrast, 3ADON frequency was lower (22%, P<0.001) in the eastern Canadian provinces of Ontario and Québec and did not change significantly between 2005 and 2007, resulting in two distinct longitudinal clines in 3ADON frequency across Canada. Overall, genetic structure was correlated with toxin type, as the endemic population (NA1) was dominated by 15ADON isolates (86%), whereas a second population (NA2) consisted largely of 3ADON isolates (88%). However, the percentage of isolates with trichothecene genotypes that were not predictive of their genetic population assignment (recombinant genotypes) increased from 10% in 2005 to 17% in 2007, indicating that trichothecene type became an increasingly unreliable marker of population identity over time. In addition, there were substantial regional differences in the composition of recombinant genotypes. In western and maritime provinces, NA2 isolates with 15ADON genotypes were significantly more common than NA1 isolates with 3ADON genotypes (P<0.001), and the reverse was true in the eastern provinces of Québec and Ontario. Temporal trends in recombinant genotype composition also varied regionally, as the percentage of 15ADON isolates with NA2 genetic backgrounds increased approximately three fold in western and Maritime provinces, while the opposite trends were observed in Québec and

  1. Population analysis of the Fusarium graminearum species complex from wheat in China show a shift to more aggressive isolates.

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    Hao Zhang

    Full Text Available A large number of Fusarium isolates was collected from blighted wheat spikes originating from 175 sampling sites, covering 15 provinces in China. Species and trichothecene chemotype determination by multilocus genotyping (MLGT indicated that F. graminearum s. str. with the 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol (15ADON chemotype and F. asiaticum with either the nivalenol (NIV or the 3-acetyl deoxynivalenol (3ADON chemotype were the dominant causal agents. Bayesian model-based clustering with allele data obtained with 12 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR markers, detected three genetic clusters that also show distinct chemotypes. High levels of population genetic differentiation and low levels of effective number of migrants were observed between these three clusters. Additional genotypic analyses revealed that F. graminearum s. str. and F. asiaticum are sympatric. In addition, composition analysis of these clusters indicated a biased gene flow from 3ADON to NIV producers in F. asiaticum. In phenotypic analyses, F. asiaticum that produce 3ADON revealed significant advantages over F. asiaticum that produce NIV in pathogenicity, growth rate, fecundity, conidial length, trichothecene accumulation and resistance to benzimidazole. These results suggest that natural selection drives the spread of a more vigorous, more toxigenic pathogen population which also shows higher levels of fungicide resistance.

  2. Trichothecene chemotype composition of Fusarium graminearum and related species in Finland and Russia

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    Fusarium graminearum and type B trichothecene producers can be divided into three chemotypes. Analysis of 290 single-spore isolates of F. graminearum and related Fusarium species revealed that all F. graminearum isolates from Finland (15) and western Russian (26) possessed the 3ADON chemotype, whil...

  3. Development and validation of a high performance liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of 10 trichothecenes in ultra-high temperature processed cow milk.

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    Flores-Flores, Myra E; González-Peñas, Elena

    2015-11-06

    An LC-MS/MS (QqQ) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of the following trichothecenes in UHT cow milk: nivalenol (NIV), deoxynivalenol (DON), deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), neosolaniol (NEO), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), fusarenon X (FUS-X), T-2 and HT-2 toxins. Sample treatment is simple and based on the extraction with acetonitrile (ACN), acidified with 0.2% formic acid, followed by a purification process, adding sodium acetate to the ACN/water extract in order to separate aqueous phase and, consequently, polar components of the milk. Validation of the method for all the 10 mycotoxins was successful; validation parameters taken into account were as follows: limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), linearity, precision (within-day and between-day variability), recovery, matrix effect and stability. The LODs were 10.1, 2.5, 1.5, 1.9, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 0.08, 0.4 and 0.05ng/mL for NIV, DON, DOM-1, FUS-X, NEO, 3-ADON, 15-ADON, DAS, HT-2 and T-2, respectively. Mean recovery values (obtained in intermediate precision conditions) were between 63.5 and 75.8 (RSDR≤15%) for all the mycotoxins. All the mycotoxins suffered from matrix effects, especially DON.

  4. Comparative population genomics of fusarium graminearum reveals adaptive divergence among cereal head blight pathogens

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    During the last decade, a combination of molecular surveillance and population genetic analyses have significantly altered our understanding of Fusarium graminearum, the major FHB pathogen in North America. In addition to the native NA1 population (largely 15ADON toxin type) and the invasive NA2 pop...

  5. Cumulative health risk assessment of co-occurring mycotoxins of deoxynivalenol and its acetyl derivatives in wheat and maize: case study, Shanghai, China.

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    Han, Zheng; Nie, Dongxia; Ediage, Emmanuel Njumbe; Yang, Xianli; Wang, Jianhua; Chen, Bo; Li, Shuguang; On, Stephen L W; De Saeger, Sarah; Wu, Aibo

    2014-12-01

    Humans are naturally and frequently exposed to a multitude of mycotoxins, but health risk assessments are usually performed on individual mycotoxins, which may underestimate the total risks. In this study, we assessed for the first time the cumulative health risks of concomitant exposure via dietary intake (DI) to multiple mycotoxins, namely deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetyl derivatives of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), based on the concentration addition (CA) concept. A cross-sectional study was conducted in seven districts in Shanghai, China with 1269 participants and 330 wheat and maize samples analyzed. After probabilistic analysis using Monte Carlo simulation, the results showed no health risks to the population in Shanghai considering individual mycotoxins. However, if the cumulative health risks were calculated based on the combined consideration of DON with either 3-ADON or 15-ADON or both, the DI values in 95th percentile were up to 1087 ng/kg body weight/day, exceeding the Provisional Maximum Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTDI) of 1000 ng/kg body weight/day and hence representing potential health risks to the population in Shanghai. The integrated study proposed here could be a model strategy for cumulative health risk assessment on the co-occurring hazards in the fields of food safety combined with environmental contaminants.

  6. Multi-mycotoxin contamination of couscous semolina commercialized in Morocco.

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    Zinedine, Abdellah; Fernández-Franzón, Mónica; Mañes, Jordi; Manyes, Lara

    2017-01-01

    The multi-mycotoxin contamination of ninety-eight (98) couscous semolina samples collected from various areas in Morocco was investigated in this study. Samples were surveyed for the presence of 22 mycotoxins (four aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, diacetoxiscyrpenol (DAS), three fumonisins, beauvericin (BEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), sterigmatocystin (STG), zearalenone (ZEA), four enniatins, T-2 and HT-2 toxins). Results showed that 96 out of 98 total couscous samples (98%) were contaminated by at least one mycotoxin. Enniatin B (ENB), Enniatin B1 (ENB1), Enniatin A1 (ENA1) and zearalenone (ZEA) have shown the highest incidences in contaminated samples. The dietary exposure was estimated to be 1.02, 0.57, 0.06, 0.57 and 0.3μg/kgbw/day for the sum of (DON+3-ADON+15-ADON), fumonisins (FB1+FB2+FB3), the sum of (T2+HT-2), NIV and ZEA, respectively.

  7. Survey of Mycotoxins in Corn Distillers’ Dried Grains with Solubles from Seventy-Eight Ethanol Plants in Twelve States in the U.S. in 2011

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    Piyum A. Khatibi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fuel ethanol co-products known as distillers’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS are a significant source of energy, protein, and phosphorous in animal feed. Fuel ethanol production may concentrate mycotoxins present in corn into DDGS. One hundred and forty one corn DDGS lots collected in 2011 from 78 ethanol plants located in 12 states were screened for the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON, nivalenol (NIV, and zearalenone (ZON. DON ranged from <0.50 to 14.62 μg g−1, 15-ADON ranged from <0.10 to 7.55 μg g−1, and ZON ranged from <0.10 to 2.12 μg g−1. None of the DDGS lots contained 3-ADON or NIV. Plants in OH had the highest levels of DON overall (mean of 9.51 μg g−1, and plants in NY, MI, IN, NE, and WI had mean DON levels >1 and <4 μg g−1. Twenty six percent (36/141 of the DDGS lots contained 1.0 to 5.0 μg g−1 DON, 2% (3/141 contained >5.0 and <10.0 μg g−1 DON, and 3% (4/141 contained >10.0 μg g−1 DON. All DDGS lots contaminated with unacceptable levels of DON evaded detection prior to their commercial distribution and were likely sold as feed products.

  8. Greenhouse studies reveal increased aggressiveness of emergent Canadian Fusarium graminearum chemotypes in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of Fusarium graminearum trichothecene-chemotypes in disease outcomes was evaluated in a series of wheat lines with different levels of resistance to Fusarium Head Blight (FHB). Four inocula, each consisting of a composite of four strains with either 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (ADON) chemotypes...

  9. Survey of mycotoxins in corn distillers' dried grains with solubles from seventy-eight ethanol plants in twelve States in the U.S. In 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibi, Piyum A; McMaster, Nicole J; Musser, Robert; Schmale, David G

    2014-03-26

    Fuel ethanol co-products known as distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are a significant source of energy, protein, and phosphorous in animal feed. Fuel ethanol production may concentrate mycotoxins present in corn into DDGS. One hundred and forty one corn DDGS lots collected in 2011 from 78 ethanol plants located in 12 states were screened for the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), and zearalenone (ZON). DON ranged from 1 and 5.0 and 10.0 μg g-1 DON. All DDGS lots contaminated with unacceptable levels of DON evaded detection prior to their commercial distribution and were likely sold as feed products.

  10. TRI12 based quantitative real-time PCR assays reveal the distribution of trichothecene genotype of F. graminearum and F. culmorum isolates in Danish small grain cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L. K.; Jensen, J. D.; Rodríguez, A.;

    2012-01-01

    species complex, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium cerealis and Fusarium pseudograminearum. These assays were applied on a total of 378 field samples of cereal grain of wheat, barley, triticale, rye and oats collected from 2003 to 2007 to study the trichothecene genotype composition in Danish cereals. The three...... in wheat. The NIV genotype was found at low levels in most samples. Study of genotype composition within the Danish F. graminearum and F. culmorum population was based on principal component analysis (PCA). PCA revealed that the dominating genotype of F. graminearum in wheat is 15ADON. For barley, the PCA...... analysis indicated that the F. graminearum population consisted of all three genotypes, and in triticale, the F. graminearum population consisted mainly of 15ADON genotype. F. culmorum/F. cerealis showed correlation to the NIV genotype in wheat and triticale but not in barley. F. culmorum/F. cerealis also...

  11. Computational Studies of Energetic Organic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-27

    1986]. They are hypothetical chemical processes in which the number of bonds of each formal type remains the same on each side of the equation , but...Politzer, Abrahmsen, Sjoberg, and Laurence, 1983; Politzer, Bar- Adon and Miller, 1987; Politzer, Jayasuriya and Zilles , 1985; Politzer...Isothermal Differential Scanning Calorimetry Analysis." J. Org. Chem. 42, 4201. 38 Sharma, J., Hoffsomer, J. C., Glover, D. J., Coffey, C. S., Santiago, F

  12. TRANFSER OF FUSARIUM MYCOTOXINS AND ?MASKED? DEOXYNIVALENOL (DEOXYNIVALENOL-3-GLUCOSIDE) FROM FIELD BARLEY THROUGH MALT TO BEER

    OpenAIRE

    Lancova, Katerina; Hajslova, Jana; Poustka, Jan; Krplova, Alexandra; Zachariasova, Milena; Dostálek, Pavel; Sachambula, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The fate of 5 Fusarium toxins- deoxynivalenol (DON), sum of 15- and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (ADONs), HT-2 toxin (HT-2) representing main trichothecenes and zearalenone (ZON)- during the malting and brewing processes was investigated. In addition to these ?free? mycotoxins, also occurrence of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc) was, to our knowledge, for the first time, monitored in beer production chain (currently, only DON and ZON are regulated). Two batches of barley,...

  13. Role of cholecystokinin in anorexia induction following oral exposure to the 8-ketotrichothecenes deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, fusarenon X, and nivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenda; Zhou, Hui-Ren; He, Kaiyu; Pan, Xiao; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Maiko; Zhang, Haibin; Pestka, James J

    2014-04-01

    Cereal grain contamination by trichothecene mycotoxins is known to negatively impact human and animal health with adverse effects on food intake and growth being of particular concern. The head blight fungus Fusarium graminearum elaborates five closely related 8-ketotrichothecene congeners: (1) deoxynivalenol (DON), (2) 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), (3) 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), (4) fusarenon X (FX), and (5) nivalenol (NIV). While anorexia induction in mice exposed intraperitoneally to DON has been linked to plasma elevation of the satiety hormones cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY₃₋₃₆ (PYY₃₋₃₆), the effects of oral gavage of DON or of other 8-keotrichothecenes on release of these gut peptides have not been established. The purpose of this study was to (1) compare the anorectic responses to the aforementioned 8-ketotrichothecenes following oral gavage at a common dose (2.5 mg/kg bw) and (2) relate these effects to changes plasma CCK and PYY₃₋₃₆ concentrations. Elevation of plasma CCK markedly corresponded to anorexia induction by DON and all other 8-ketotrichothecenes tested. Furthermore, the CCK1 receptor antagonist SR 27897 and the CCK2 receptor antagonist L-365,260 dose-dependently attenuated both CCK- and DON-induced anorexia, which was consistent with this gut satiety hormone being an important mediator of 8-ketotrichothecene-induced food refusal. In contrast to CCK, PYY₃₋₃₆ was moderately elevated by oral gavage with DON and NIV but not by 3-ADON, 15-ADON, or FX. Taken together, the results suggest that CCK plays a major role in anorexia induction following oral exposure to 8-ketotrichothecenes, whereas PYY₃₋₃₆ might play a lesser, congener-dependent role in this response.

  14. Frequent Occupational Exposure to Fusarium Mycotoxins of Workers in the Swiss Grain Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculita-Hirzel, Hélène; Hantier, Gregoire; Storti, Ferdinand; Plateel, Gregory; Roger, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Type B trichotecens such as deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV) and zearalenone (ZEN) are mycotoxins contaminating wheat and wheat dust. Mycotoxins are toxic upon ingestion and considered potentially toxic when inhaled. Whereas dietary exposure to mycotoxins is controlled in food, data on occupational exposure by inhalation by grain workers are scarce. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of DON, 3-ADON, 15-ADON, NIV and ZEN in aerosols generated during grain harvesting and unloading and the risk of exposure of grain workers. Aerosols were collected during the threshing of 78 winter wheat fields and grain unloading of 59 grain lots in six grain terminals in the Vaud region (Switzerland). The samples represented the diversity of the winter wheat cultivar and of the farming system (88 treated with fungicides, 46 untreated). Using a HPLC MS/MS method developed to quantify mycotoxins in aerosols, we report that the mycotoxin content of aerosols was not affected by the wheat cultivars or farming system, but that the incidence of the mycotoxins differed between activities. While wheat harvesting generated on average 28, 20 and 1 ng·m−3 of DON, NIV and ZEN, respectively, grain unloading generated 53, 46 and 4 ng·m−3. Personal sampling revealed that working in a cab was an efficient protective measure. However, it was not sufficient to avoid chronic exposure to multiple mycotoxins. The most exposed activity was the cleaning, exposing workers to DON, NIV and ZEN at concentrations as high as 65, 59 and 3 ng·m−3. These data provide valuable information for future studies of mycotoxin toxicity at relevant concentrations on respiratory health. PMID:27973454

  15. Space and Airborne Communications for the Future Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Existing - Military Strategic and Tactical Relay (MILSTAR); Defense Satellite Communication System (DSCS); UHF Follow-On ( UFO )); Global Broadcast...System (GBS)) is an ad-on package to the UFO satellites. 7 Figure 2: SATCOM Current and Future Figure 3: Existing SATCOM 8 Future Future...decade. UFO and MUOS are for individuals or moving platforms. But they are low data rate and quickly saturate with number of users. All of

  16. New insights into mycotoxin mixtures: The toxicity of low doses of Type B trichothecenes on intestinal epithelial cells is synergistic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alassane-Kpembi, Imourana [INRA, UMR 1331 Toxalim, Research Center in Food Toxicology, F-31027 Toulouse (France); Université de Toulouse, ENVT, INP, UMR 1331 Toxalim, F-31076 Toulouse (France); Institut des Sciences Biomédicales Appliquées, Cotonou, Bénin (Benin); Kolf-Clauw, Martine; Gauthier, Thierry; Abrami, Roberta [INRA, UMR 1331 Toxalim, Research Center in Food Toxicology, F-31027 Toulouse (France); Université de Toulouse, ENVT, INP, UMR 1331 Toxalim, F-31076 Toulouse (France); Abiola, François A. [Institut des Sciences Biomédicales Appliquées, Cotonou, Bénin (Benin); Oswald, Isabelle P., E-mail: Isabelle.Oswald@toulouse.inra.fr [INRA, UMR 1331 Toxalim, Research Center in Food Toxicology, F-31027 Toulouse (France); Université de Toulouse, ENVT, INP, UMR 1331 Toxalim, F-31076 Toulouse (France); Puel, Olivier [INRA, UMR 1331 Toxalim, Research Center in Food Toxicology, F-31027 Toulouse (France); Université de Toulouse, ENVT, INP, UMR 1331 Toxalim, F-31076 Toulouse (France)

    2013-10-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent trichothecene mycotoxin in crops in Europe and North America. DON is often present with other type B trichothecenes such as 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV) and fusarenon-X (FX). Although the cytotoxicity of individual mycotoxins has been widely studied, data on the toxicity of mycotoxin mixtures are limited. The aim of this study was to assess interactions caused by co-exposure to Type B trichothecenes on intestinal epithelial cells. Proliferating Caco-2 cells were exposed to increasing doses of Type B trichothecenes, alone or in binary or ternary mixtures. The MTT test and neutral red uptake, respectively linked to mitochondrial and lysosomal functions, were used to measure intestinal epithelial cytotoxicity. The five tested mycotoxins had a dose-dependent effect on proliferating enterocytes and could be classified in increasing order of toxicity: 3-ADON < 15-ADON ≈ DON < NIV ≪ FX. Binary or ternary mixtures also showed a dose-dependent effect. At low concentrations (cytotoxic effect between 10 and 30–40%), mycotoxin combinations were synergistic; however DON–NIV–FX mixture showed antagonism. At higher concentrations (cytotoxic effect around 50%), the combinations had an additive or nearly additive effect. These results indicate that the simultaneous presence of low doses of mycotoxins in food commodities and diet may be more toxic than predicted from the mycotoxins alone. Considering the frequent co-occurrence of trichothecenes in the diet and the concentrations of toxins to which consumers are exposed, this synergy should be taken into account. - Highlights: • We assessed the individual and combined cytotoxicity of five trichothecenes. • The tested concentrations correspond to the French consumer exposure levels. • The type of interaction in combined cytotoxicity varied with the effect level. • Low doses of Type B trichothecenes induced synergistic

  17. Frequent Occupational Exposure to Fusarium Mycotoxins of Workers in the Swiss Grain Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Niculita-Hirzel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Type B trichotecens such as deoxynivalenol (DON, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON, nivalenol (NIV and zearalenone (ZEN are mycotoxins contaminating wheat and wheat dust. Mycotoxins are toxic upon ingestion and considered potentially toxic when inhaled. Whereas dietary exposure to mycotoxins is controlled in food, data on occupational exposure by inhalation by grain workers are scarce. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of DON, 3-ADON, 15-ADON, NIV and ZEN in aerosols generated during grain harvesting and unloading and the risk of exposure of grain workers. Aerosols were collected during the threshing of 78 winter wheat fields and grain unloading of 59 grain lots in six grain terminals in the Vaud region (Switzerland. The samples represented the diversity of the winter wheat cultivar and of the farming system (88 treated with fungicides, 46 untreated. Using a HPLC MS/MS method developed to quantify mycotoxins in aerosols, we report that the mycotoxin content of aerosols was not affected by the wheat cultivars or farming system, but that the incidence of the mycotoxins differed between activities. While wheat harvesting generated on average 28, 20 and 1 ng·m−3 of DON, NIV and ZEN, respectively, grain unloading generated 53, 46 and 4 ng·m−3. Personal sampling revealed that working in a cab was an efficient protective measure. However, it was not sufficient to avoid chronic exposure to multiple mycotoxins. The most exposed activity was the cleaning, exposing workers to DON, NIV and ZEN at concentrations as high as 65, 59 and 3 ng·m−3. These data provide valuable information for future studies of mycotoxin toxicity at relevant concentrations on respiratory health.

  18. Spiroethers of German chamomile inhibit production of aflatoxin G and trichothecene mycotoxin by inhibiting cytochrome P450 monooxygenases involved in their biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinari, Tomoya; Yaguchi, Atsushi; Takahashi-Ando, Naoko; Kimura, Makoto; Takahashi, Haruo; Nakajima, Takashi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2008-07-01

    The essential oil of German chamomile showed specific inhibition toward aflatoxin G(1) (AFG(1)) production, and (E)- and (Z)-spiroethers were isolated as the active compounds from the oil. The (E)- and (Z)-spiroethers inhibited AFG(1) production of Aspergillus parasiticus with inhibitory concentration 50% (IC(50)) values of 2.8 and 20.8 microM, respectively, without inhibiting fungal growth. Results of an O-methylsterigmatocystin (OMST) conversion study indicated that the spiroethers specifically inhibited the OMST to AFG(1) pathway. A cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, CYPA, is known as an essential enzyme for this pathway. Because CYPA has homology with TRI4, a key enzyme catalyzing early steps in the biosynthesis of trichothecenes, the inhibitory actions of the two spiroethers against TRI4 reactions and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) production were tested. (E)- and (Z)-spiroethers inhibited the enzymatic activity of TRI4 dose-dependently and interfered with 3-ADON production by Fusarium graminearum, with IC(50) values of 27.1 and 103 microM, respectively. Our results suggest that the spiroethers inhibited AFG(1) and 3-ADON production by inhibiting CYPA and TRI4, respectively.

  19. Effects of oral exposure to naturally-occurring and synthetic deoxynivalenol congeners on proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wenda [College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); He, Kaiyu [Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Dept. of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Zhou, Hui-Ren [Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Berthiller, Franz [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Mycotoxin Metabolism and Center for Analytical Chemistry, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Tulln (Austria); Adam, Gerhard [Dept. of Applied Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko [Food and Life Sciences, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa Pref., 252-5201 (Japan); Watanabe, Maiko [Division of Microbiology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Krantis, Anthony [Dept. of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa (Canada); Durst, Tony [Dept. of Chemistry, University of Ottawa (Canada); Zhang, Haibin [College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Pestka, James J., E-mail: pestka@msu.edu [Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Dept. of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    The foodborne mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces a ribotoxic stress response in mononuclear phagocytes that mediate aberrant multi-organ upregulation of TNF-α, interleukins and chemokines in experimental animals. While other DON congeners also exist as food contaminants or pharmacologically-active derivatives, it is not known how these compounds affect expression of these cytokine genes in vivo. To address this gap, we compared in mice the acute effects of oral DON exposure to that of seven relevant congeners on splenic expression of representative cytokine mRNAs after 2 and 6 h. Congeners included the 8-ketotrichothecenes 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), fusarenon X (FX), nivalenol (NIV), the plant metabolite DON-3-glucoside (D3G) and two synthetic DON derivatives with novel satiety-inducing properties (EN139528 and EN139544). DON markedly induced transient upregulation of TNF-α IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNA expressions. The two ADONs also evoked mRNA expression of these genes but to a relatively lesser extent. FX induced more persistent responses than the other DON congeners and, compared to DON, was: 1) more potent in inducing IL-1β mRNA, 2) approximately equipotent in the induction of TNF-α and CCL-2 mRNAs, and 3) less potent at upregulating IL-6, CXCL-2, and CCL-2 mRNAs. EN139528's effects were similar to NIV, the least potent 8-ketotrichothecene, while D3G and EN139544 were largely incapable of eliciting cytokine or chemokine mRNA responses. Taken together, the results presented herein provide important new insights into the potential of naturally-occurring and synthetic DON congeners to elicit aberrant mRNA upregulation of cytokines associated with acute and chronic trichothecene toxicity. - Highlights: • We compared effects of DON congeners on biomarker proinflammatory genes in mice. • Oral DON induced splenic IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α,CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNAs. • 8-Ketotrichothecene ranking

  20. Conversion of deoxynivalenol to 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol in barley-derived fuel ethanol co-products with yeast expressing trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Wynse S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON may be concentrated in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; a co-product of fuel ethanol fermentation when grain containing DON is used to produce fuel ethanol. Even low levels of DON (≤ 5 ppm in DDGS sold as feed pose a significant threat to the health of monogastric animals. New and improved strategies to reduce DON in DDGS need to be developed and implemented to address this problem. Enzymes known as trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases convert DON to 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON, and may reduce its toxicity in plants and animals. Results Two Fusarium trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases (FgTRI101 and FfTRI201 were cloned and expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae during a series of small-scale ethanol fermentations using barley (Hordeum vulgare. DON was concentrated 1.6 to 8.2 times in DDGS compared with the starting ground grain. During the fermentation process, FgTRI101 converted 9.2% to 55.3% of the DON to 3ADON, resulting in DDGS with reductions in DON and increases in 3ADON in the Virginia winter barley cultivars Eve, Thoroughbred and Price, and the experimental line VA06H-25. Analysis of barley mashes prepared from the barley line VA04B-125 showed that yeast expressing FfTRI201 were more effective at acetylating DON than those expressing FgTRI101; DON conversion for FfTRI201 ranged from 26.1% to 28.3%, whereas DON conversion for FgTRI101 ranged from 18.3% to 21.8% in VA04B-125 mashes. Ethanol yields were highest with the industrial yeast strain Ethanol Red®, which also consumed galactose when present in the mash. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential of using yeast expressing a trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase to modify DON during commercial fuel ethanol fermentation.

  1. A European database of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum trichothecene genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias ePasquali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium species, particularly Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, are the main cause of trichothecene type B contamination in cereals. Data on the distribution of Fusarium trichothecene genotypes in cereals in Europe are scattered in time and space. Furthermore, a common core set of related variables (sampling method, host cultivar, previous crop, etc. that would allow more effective analysis of factors influencing the spatial and temporal population distribution, is lacking. Consequently, based on the available data, it is difficult to identify factors influencing chemotype distribution and spread at the European level. Here we describe the results of a collaborative integrated work which aims 1 to characterize the trichothecene genotypes of strains from three Fusarium species, collected over the period 2000-2013, and 2 to enhance the standardization of epidemiological data collection.Information on host plant, country of origin, sampling location, year of sampling and previous crop of 1147 F. graminearum, 479 F. culmorum and 3 F. cortaderiae strains obtained from 17 European countries was compiled and a map of trichothecene type B genotype distribution was plotted for each species. All information on the strains was collected in a freely accessible and updatable database (www.catalogueeu.luxmcc.lu, which will serve as a starting point for epidemiological analysis of potential spatial and temporal trichothecene genotype shifts in Europe.The analysis of the currently available European dataset showed that in F. graminearum, the predominant genotype was 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON (82.9%, followed by 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON (13.6% and nivalenol (NIV (3.5%. In F. culmorum, the prevalent genotype was 3-ADON (59.9%, while the NIV genotype accounted for the remaining 40.1%. Both geographical and temporal patterns of trichothecene genotypes distribution were identified.

  2. The induction of mycotoxins by trichothecene producing Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Rohan; Jubault, Mélanie; Canning, Gail; Urban, Martin; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, many Fusarium species have emerged which now threaten the productivity and safety of small grain cereal crops worldwide. During floral infection and post-harvest on stored grains the Fusarium hyphae produce various types of harmful mycotoxins which subsequently contaminate food and feed products. This article focuses specifically on the induction and production of the type B sesquiterpenoid trichothecene mycotoxins. Methods are described which permit in liquid culture the small or large scale production and detection of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its various acetylated derivatives. A wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) ear inoculation assay is also explained which allows the direct comparison of mycotoxin production by species, chemotypes and strains with different growth rates and/or disease-causing abilities. Each of these methods is robust and can be used for either detailed time-course studies or end-point analyses. Various analytical methods are available to quantify the levels of DON, 3A-DON and 15A-DON. Some criteria to be considered when making selections between the different analytical methods available are briefly discussed.

  3. Analysis of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars inoculated with Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Chami C; Simsek, Senay; Brûlé-Babel, Anita; Fernando, W G Dilantha

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of wheat grains with Fusarium mycotoxins and their modified forms is an important issue in wheat industry. The objective of this study was to analyse the deoxynivalenol (DON) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides (D3G) content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars grown in two locations, inoculated with a mixture of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON)-producing Fusarium graminearum strains and a mixture of 15-acetlyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON)-producing F. graminearum strains. According to the analysis of variance, significant differences were observed among the cultivars for Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease index, Fusarium-damaged kernel percentage (%FDK), DON content and D3G content. When the effect of chemotype was considered, significant differences were observed for FHB disease index, FDK percentage and DON content. The D3G content and D3G/DON ratio were not significantly different between the chemotypes, except for D3G content at the Winnipeg location. The Pearson correlation coefficient between DON and D3G was 0.84 and 0.77 at Winnipeg and Carman respectively. The highest D3G/DON ratio was observed in cultivars Carberry (44%) in Carman and CDC Kernen (63.8%) in Winnipeg. The susceptible cultivars showed lower D3G/DON ratio compared with the cultivars rated as moderately resistant and intermediate. The current study indicated that Canadian spring cultivars produce D3G upon Fusarium infection.

  4. Population genetic analysis and trichothecene profiling of Fusarium graminearum from wheat in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, D; Mionetto, A; Calero, N; Reynoso, M M; Torres, A; Bettucci, L

    2016-03-11

    Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto (F. graminearum s.s.) is the major causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat worldwide, and contaminates grains with trichothecene mycotoxins that cause serious threats to food safety and animal health. An important aspect of managing this pathogen and reducing mycotoxin contamination of wheat is knowledge regarding its population genetics. Therefore, isolates of F. graminearum s.s. from the major wheat-growing region of Uruguay were analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism assays, PCR genotyping, and chemical analysis of trichothecene production. Of the 102 isolates identified as having the 15-ADON genotype via PCR genotyping, all were DON producers, but only 41 strains were also 15-ADON producers, as determined by chemical analysis. The populations were genotypically diverse but genetically similar, with significant genetic exchange occurring between them. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that most of the genetic variability resulted from differences between isolates within populations. Multilocus linkage disequilibrium analysis suggested that the isolates had a panmictic population genetic structure and that there is significant recombination occurs in F. graminearum s.s. In conclusion, tour findings provide the first detailed description of the genetic structure and trichothecene production of populations of F. graminearum s.s. from Uruguay, and expands our understanding of the agroecology of F. graminearum and of the correlation between genotypes and trichothecene chemotypes.

  5. New insights into mycotoxin mixtures: the toxicity of low doses of Type B trichothecenes on intestinal epithelial cells is synergistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alassane-Kpembi, Imourana; Kolf-Clauw, Martine; Gauthier, Thierry; Abrami, Roberta; Abiola, François A; Oswald, Isabelle P; Puel, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent trichothecene mycotoxin in crops in Europe and North America. DON is often present with other type B trichothecenes such as 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV) and fusarenon-X (FX). Although the cytotoxicity of individual mycotoxins has been widely studied, data on the toxicity of mycotoxin mixtures are limited. The aim of this study was to assess interactions caused by co-exposure to Type B trichothecenes on intestinal epithelial cells. Proliferating Caco-2 cells were exposed to increasing doses of Type B trichothecenes, alone or in binary or ternary mixtures. The MTT test and neutral red uptake, respectively linked to mitochondrial and lysosomal functions, were used to measure intestinal epithelial cytotoxicity. The five tested mycotoxins had a dose-dependent effect on proliferating enterocytes and could be classified in increasing order of toxicity: 3-ADONmycotoxin combinations were synergistic; however DON-NIV-FX mixture showed antagonism. At higher concentrations (cytotoxic effect around 50%), the combinations had an additive or nearly additive effect. These results indicate that the simultaneous presence of low doses of mycotoxins in food commodities and diet may be more toxic than predicted from the mycotoxins alone. Considering the frequent co-occurrence of trichothecenes in the diet and the concentrations of toxins to which consumers are exposed, this synergy should be taken into account.

  6. New tricks of an old enemy: isolates of Fusarium graminearum produce a type A trichothecene mycotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Elisabeth; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Hametner, Christian; Ward, Todd J; Dong, Yanhong; Schöfbeck, Denise; McCormick, Susan; Broz, Karen; Stückler, Romana; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Krska, Rudolf; Kistler, H Corby; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard

    2015-08-01

    The ubiquitous filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum causes the important disease Fusarium head blight on various species of cereals, leading to contamination of grains with mycotoxins. In a survey of F. graminearum (sensu stricto) on wheat in North America several novel strains were isolated, which produced none of the known trichothecene mycotoxins despite causing normal disease symptoms. In rice cultures, a new trichothecene mycotoxin (named NX-2) was characterized by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Nuclear magnetic resonance measurements identified NX-2 as 3α-acetoxy-7α,15-dihydroxy-12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene. Compared with the well-known 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON), it lacks the keto group at C-8 and hence is a type A trichothecene. Wheat ears inoculated with the isolated strains revealed a 10-fold higher contamination with its deacetylated form, named NX-3, (up to 540 mg kg(-1) ) compared with NX-2. The toxicities of the novel mycotoxins were evaluated utilizing two in vitro translation assays and the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. NX-3 inhibits protein biosynthesis to almost the same extent as the prominent mycotoxin deoxynivalenol, while NX-2 is far less toxic, similar to 3-ADON. Genetic analysis revealed a different TRI1 allele in the N-isolates, which was verified to be responsible for the difference in hydroxylation at C-8.

  7. A Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor for the Detection of Deoxynivalenol Using a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyang Sook Chun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to investigate the feasibility of applying the molecular imprinting polymer technique to the detection of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR transducer. A molecularly imprinted polypyrrole (MIPPy film was prepared via electropolymerization of pyrrole onto a bare Au chip in the presence of a template DON molecule. Atomic force microscope SPR analysis showed that the MIPPy film was deposited homogeneously on the Au surface, with a thickness of 5 nm. The MIPPy–SPR sensor exhibited a linear response for the detection of DON in the range of 0.1–100 ng/mL (R2 = 0.988. The selectivity efficiency of the MIPPy film for DON and its acetylated analogs 3-ADON and 15-ADON was 100, 19, and 44%, respectively. The limit of detection for DON with the MIPPy–SPR for a standard solution was estimated at >1 ng/mL. These results suggest that the combination of SPR sensing with a MIPPy film as a synthetic receptor can be used to detect DON.

  8. Survey of deoxynivalenol and its conjugates deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol in 374 beer samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Elisabeth; Malachova, Alexandra; Schwartz, Heidi; Krska, Rudolf; Berthiller, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Beer is one of the most popular beverages worldwide. Malted cereal grains are among the basic ingredients and hence mycotoxin contamination might occur. Previous studies reported the presence of the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3ADON), as well as of the masked mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (D3G) in beer. In the present survey, 374 beer samples from 38 countries with a focus on Austrian (156) and German (64) beers were analysed for the presence of D3G, DON and 3ADON. Beers were assigned to the following six categories: pale (217), wheat (46), dark (47), bock (20), nonalcoholic beers (19) and shandies (25). In total, 348 and 289 beers (93 and 77%, respectively) contained D3G and DON at the levels above the limit of detection, whereas 3ADON was not detected in any of the samples. Average concentrations of all beers were 6.9 µg L(-1) for D3G and 8.4 µg L(-1) in the case of DON. Nonalcoholic beers and shandies showed the lowest contaminations, 1.5 and 3.2 µg L(-1) for D3G and 2.7 and 4.4 µg L(-1) for DON, respectively. In bock beers characterised by a higher gravity, a significant trichothecene load of 14.8 µg L(-1) D3G and 12.4 µg L(-1) DON was found. The highest contamination (81 µg L(-1) D3G, 89 µg L(-1) DON) was detected in a pale beer from Austria, underlining the importance of this study for food safety. The molar D3G to DON ratio ranged between 0.11 and 1.25 and was 0.56 on average. Concluding, the average contamination of beer is not of toxicological concern for moderate beer drinkers. However, in the case of heavy beer drinkers, beer consumption may considerably contribute to the overall intake of DON, which might even lead to exceeding the maximum tolerable limits established for this Fusarium toxin.

  9. Regional and field-specific factors affect the composition of fusarium head blight pathogens in subtropical no-till wheat agroecosystem of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Ponte, Emerson M; Spolti, Piérri; Ward, Todd J; Gomes, Larissa B; Nicolli, Camila P; Kuhnem, Paulo R; Silva, Cleiltan N; Tessmann, Dauri J

    2015-02-01

    A multiyear survey of >200 wheat fields in Paraná (PR) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS) states was conducted to assess the extent and distribution of Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) diversity in the southern Brazilian wheat agroecosystem. Five species and three trichothecene genotypes were found among 671 FGSC isolates from Fusarium head blight (FHB)-infected wheat heads: F. graminearum (83%) of the 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) genotype, F. meridionale (12.8%) and F. asiaticum (0.4%) of the nivalenol (NIV) genotype, and F. cortaderiae (2.5%) and F. austroamericanum (0.9%) with either the NIV or the 3-ADON genotype. Regional differences in FGSC composition were observed, with F. meridionale and the NIV type being significantly (P28%) than in RS (≤9%). Within RS, F. graminearum was overrepresented in fields below 600 m in elevation and in fields with higher levels of FHB incidence (Pcomposition was not significantly influenced by previous crop or the stage of grain development at sampling. Habitat-specific differences in FGSC composition were evaluated in three fields by characterizing a total of 189 isolates collected from corn stubble, air above the wheat canopy, and symptomatic wheat kernels. Significant differences in FGSC composition were observed among these habitats (P96%) of isolates from corn stubble, whereas F. graminearum with the 15-ADON genotype was dominant (>84%) among isolates from diseased wheat kernels. Potential differences in pathogenic fitness on wheat were also suggested by a greenhouse competitiveness assay in which F. graminearum was recovered at much higher frequency (>90%) than F. meridionale from four wheat varieties inoculated with an equal mixture of F. graminearum and F. meridionale isolates. Taken together, the data presented here suggest that FGSC composition and, consequently, the trichothecene contamination in wheat grown in southern Brazil is influenced by host adaptation and pathogenic fitness. Evidence that F

  10. Synthesis Laboratory for the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases Selection Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-19

    bisdesethylchloroquine, we have attempted to synthesize this compound but have determined that it is unstable in its free base form or as an ammonium sulfate salt...Furthermore, the literature preparation for this compound contains a few key inconsistencies, particularly with the analytical data. Based on these...Ado-N’OCH Ado-N’O-CH l2-©-OCH3 CH, dAdo -N’O-CHj/Q 9Bn-Ad-N’OCH 9Bn-Ad-N’OCH2-CH3 N ■ 18.94 N’-Oxide BrCHjR DMAc 50 mL Nh^CIO, sg 25 mL

  11. Bruno Touschek, from Betatrons to Electron-positron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardini, Carlo; Pellegrini, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Bruno Touschek's life as a physicist spanned the period from World War II to the 1970s. He was a key figure in the developments of electron-positron colliders, storage rings, and gave important contributions to theoretical high energy physics. Storage rings, initially developed for high energy physics, are being widely used in many countries as synchrotron radiation sources and are a tool for research in physics, chemistry, biology environmental sciences and cultural heritage studies. We describe Touschek's life in Austria, where he was born, Germany, where he participated to the construction of a betatron during WWII, and Italy, where he proposed and led to completion the first electron-positron storage ring in 1960, in Frascati. We highlight how his central European culture influenced his life style and work, and his main contributions to physics, such as the discovery of the Touschek effect and beam instabilities in the larger storage ring ADONE.

  12. Photofission of {sup NAT} Pt by monochromatic and polarized photons in the quasi-deuteron region; Fotofissao da {sup NAT} Pt por fotons monocromaticos e polarizados na regiao do quase-deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Eduardo de

    1992-01-01

    The measurement of the Nat Pt photofission yield at 69 MeV of effective average energy of the incident photon is made using a polarized and monochromatic photon beam from the LADON system of the National Laboratory of Frascati, Italy, produced by inverse Compton scattering of laser light by high energy electrons of the ADONE Accelerator and using as fission track solid detector the Makrofol, being the developing made by usual procedure. The experimental value of the nuclear fissionability is compared to a theoretical value obtained following a model at two stages: in the first, the photon energy is absorbed by a neutron-proton pair inducing to the nucleus excitation, and in the second the nucleus de-excites due to the competition between nucleon evaporation and fission. The effect of fast nucleon emission during the first stage and the successive evaporation of neutrons in the second stage are considered. 40 refs, 12 figs, 9 tabs.

  13. Exciting pions in nuclei: DCX and Electroproduction in the resonance region

    CERN Document Server

    Buss, O; Larionov, A B; Mosel, U

    2007-01-01

    We describe the double charge exchange (DCX) reaction of pions with different nuclear targets at incident kinetic energies of 120-180 MeV within the GiBUU transport framework. The DCX process is highly sensitive to details of the interactions of pions with the nuclear medium and, therefore, represents a major benchmark for any model of pion scattering off nuclei at low and intermediate energies. We achieve a good quantitative agreement with the extensive data set obtained at LAMPF. Furthermore, we present first results on electron scattering off nuclei for beam energies of 700-1500 MeV and virtualities of Q^2<700 MeV^2. Including quasi-elastic and pion- production processes and employing in-medium kinematics and realistic form factors, we evaluate inclusive cross sections and compare to data obtained at the ADONE storage ring (Frascati).

  14. Molecular Quantification and Genetic Diversity of Toxigenic Fusarium Species in Northern Europe as Compared to Those in Southern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapani Yli-Mattila

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium species produce important mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON, nivalenol (NIV and T-2/HT-2-toxins in cereals. The highest DON and T-2/HT-2 toxin levels in northern Europe have been found in oats. About 12%–24% of Finnish oat samples in 2012 contained >1.75 mg·kg−1 of DON, which belongs to type B trichothecenes. Fusarium graminearum is the most important DON producer in northern Europe and Asia and it has been displacing the closely related F. culmorum in northern Europe. The 3ADON chemotype of F. graminearum is dominant in most northern areas, while the 15ADON chemotype of F. graminearum is predominating in Central and southern Europe. We suggest that the northern population of F. graminearum may be more specialized to oats than the southern population. Only low levels of F. culmorum DNA were found in a few oat samples and no correlation was found between F. culmorum DNA and DON levels. DNA levels of F. graminearum were in all cases in agreement with DON levels in 2011 and 2012, when DON was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. When the RIDA® QUICK SCAN kit results (DON were compared to DNA levels of F. graminearum, the variation was much higher. The homogenization of the oats flour by grinding oats with 1 mm sieve seems to be connected to this variation. There was a significant correlation between the combined T-2 and HT-2 and the combined DNA levels of F. langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides in Finland in 2010–2012.

  15. Transfer of Fusarium mycotoxins and 'masked' deoxynivalenol (deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside) from field barley through malt to beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancova, K; Hajslova, J; Poustka, J; Krplova, A; Zachariasova, M; Dostalek, P; Sachambula, L

    2008-06-01

    The fate of five Fusarium toxins--deoxynivalenol (DON), sum of 15- and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (ADONs), HT-2 toxin (HT-2) representing the main trichothecenes and zearalenone (ZON) during the malting and brewing processes--was investigated. In addition to these 'free' mycotoxins, the occurrence of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc) was monitored for the first time in a beer production chain (currently, only DON and ZON are regulated). Two batches of barley, naturally infected and artificially inoculated with Fusarium spp. during the time of flowering, were used as a raw material for processing experiments. A highly sensitive procedure employing high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was validated for the analysis of 'free' Fusarium mycotoxins and DON-conjugate in all types of matrices. The method was also able to detect nivalenol (NIV), fusarenon-X (FUS-X) and T-2 toxin (T-2); nevertheless, none of these toxins was found in any of the samples. While steeping of barley grains (the first step in the malting process) apparently reduced Fusarium mycotoxin levels to below their quantification limits (5-10 microg kg(-1)), their successive accumulation occurred during germination. In malt, the content of monitored mycotoxins was higher compared with the original barley. The most significant increase was found for DON-3-Glc. During the brewing process, significant further increases in levels occurred. Concentrations of this 'masked' DON in final beers exceeded 'free' DON, while in malt grists this trichothecene was the most abundant, with the DON/DON-3-Glc ratio being approximately 5:1 in both sample series. When calculating mass balance, no significant changes were observed during brewing for ADONs. The content of DON and ZON slightly decreased by a maximum of 30%. Only traces of HT-2 were detected in some processing intermediates (wort after trub removal and green beer).

  16. Relationship between Fusarium spp. diversity and mycotoxin contents of mature grains in southern Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellin, Pierre; Dedeurwaerder, Géraldine; Duvivier, Maxime; Scauflaire, Jonathan; Huybrechts, Bart; Callebaut, Alfons; Munaut, Françoise; Legrève, Anne

    2016-07-01

    Over a 4-year period (2010-13), a survey aiming at determining the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and their relations to mycotoxins in mature grains took place in southern Belgium. The most prevalent species were F. graminearum, F. avenaceum, F. poae and F. culmorum, with large variations between years and locations. An even proportion of mating type found for F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. cerealis and F. tricinctum is usually a sign of ongoing sexual recombination. In contrast, an unbalanced proportion of mating type was found for F. poae and no MAT1-2 allele was present in the F. langsethiae population. Genetic chemotyping indicates a majority of deoxynivalenol (DON)-producing strains in F. culmorum (78%, all 3-ADON producers) and F. graminearum (95%, mostly 15-ADON producers), while all F. cerealis strains belong to the nivalenol (NIV) chemotype. Between 2011 and 2013, DON, NIV, enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) were found in each field in various concentrations. By comparison, beauvericin (BEA) was scarcely detected and T-2 toxin, zearalenone and α- and β-zearalenols were never detected. Principal component analysis revealed correlations of DON with F. graminearum, ENNs and MON with F. avenaceum and NIV with F. culmorum, F. cerealis and F. poae. BEA was associated with the presence of F. tricinctum and, to a lesser extent, with the presence of F. poae. The use of genetic chemotype data revealed that DON concentrations were mostly influenced by DON-producing strains of F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whereas the concentrations of NIV were influenced by the number of NIV-producing strains of both species added to the number of F. cerealis and F. poae strains. This study emphasises the need to pay attention to less-studied Fusarium spp. for future Fusarium head blight management strategies, as they commonly co-occur in the field and are associated with a broad spectrum of mycotoxins.

  17. ToxGen: an improved reference database for the identification of type B-trichothecene genotypes in Fusarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Type B trichothecenes, which pose a serious hazard to consumer health, occur worldwide in grains. These mycotoxins are produced mainly by three different trichothecene genotypes/chemotypes: 3ADON (3-acetyldeoxynivalenol), 15ADON (15-acetyldeoxynivalenol) and NIV (nivalenol), named after these three major mycotoxin compounds. Correct identification of these genotypes is elementary for all studies relating to population surveys, fungal ecology and mycotoxicology. Trichothecene producers exhibit enormous strain-dependent chemical diversity, which may result in variation in levels of the genotype’s determining toxin and in the production of low to high amounts of atypical compounds. New high-throughput DNA-sequencing technologies promise to boost the diagnostics of mycotoxin genotypes. However, this requires a reference database containing a satisfactory taxonomic sampling of sequences showing high correlation to actually produced chemotypes. We believe that one of the most pressing current challenges of such a database is the linking of molecular identification with chemical diversity of the strains, as well as other metadata. In this study, we use the Tri12 gene involved in mycotoxin biosynthesis for identification of Tri genotypes through sequence comparison. Tri12 sequences from a range of geographically diverse fungal strains comprising 22 Fusarium species were stored in the ToxGen database, which covers descriptive and up-to-date annotations such as indication on Tri genotype and chemotype of the strains, chemical diversity, information on trichothecene-inducing host, substrate or media, geographical locality, and most recent taxonomic affiliations. The present initiative bridges the gap between the demands of comprehensive studies on trichothecene producers and the existing nucleotide sequence databases, which lack toxicological and other auxiliary data. We invite researchers working in the fields of fungal taxonomy, epidemiology and mycotoxicology to join the

  18. Development of species-specific SCAR markers identifying Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium asiaticum%禾谷镰刀菌与亚细亚镰刀菌种型特异性的SCAR标记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永进; 马鸿翔; 余桂红; 孙晓波; 张旭; 李杨瑞

    2012-01-01

    为发掘区分Fusarium asiaticum与Fusarium graminearum这两种赤霉病菌的特异性分子标记,从江淮麦区赤霉病穗上分离获得72个赤霉病菌株,进行种型与化学型鉴定,并利用SRAP引物对F.asiaticum-NIV、F.asiaticum-3ADON及F.graminearum-15 ADON 3种类型的致病菌进行种型及化学型特异性标记筛选.通过对特异性标记进行回收、转化与测序,根据序列设计出3个镰刀菌种型特异性SCAR引物,并用上述72个菌株进行验证.结果显示SCAR标记me1/em2-172仅在F.asiaticum中扩增出172 bp的特异性条带,标记me1/em6-311和me9/em4-639分别只在F.graminearum中扩增出311 bp和639 bp的特异性条带.表明,本研究获得的3个SCAR标记是F.asiaticum和F.graminearum种型特异性标记,可用于区分这两种镰刀菌,为深入研究其致病机理及防治赤霉病的发生及危害提供了研究基础.%To develop specific markers for identifying the species and chemotypes of Fusarium asiaticum and Fusarium graminearum, infected spikes were collected from several wheat-growing regions between Yangtze River and Huaihe River, and seventy-two isolates collected from the diseased spikes were identified the genotype by primer pair Fgl6F/Fgl6R and chemotype by primer pair TOXP1/P2 and multiplex PCR. Sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were screened on representative isolates of F. asiaticum-NIV, F. asiaticum- 3ADON and F. graminearum-15ADON to find species-specific and chemotype-specific products. Three species-specific SRAP markers were obtained by cloning and sequencing the specific products. Sequence-characterized amplified region ( SCAR ) primers specific for F. asiaticum and F. graminearum were designed based on the sequences of these species-specific products. The SCAR primers were tested with 72 isolates. The results showed that the primer pair mel/em2-172 could amplify a 172 bp PCR product only in F. asiaticum isolates, while the primer pairs of mel/em6-311 and

  19. The Telescope: Outline of a Poetic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocchi, M. P.

    2011-06-01

    Amongst the first editions of Galileo's books, only the Saggiatore has on its frontispiece the image of the telescope. Indeed, the telescope is not pictured on the very emphatic frontispieces of the other books in which Galileo was presenting and defending the results achieved by his celestial observations, such as the Sidereus Nuncius. Many contemporary scientists denied the reliability of the telescope, and some even refused to look into the eyepiece. In the 16th and 17th century, the lenses, mirrors, and optical devices of extraordinary complexity did not have the main task of leading to the objective truth but obtaining the deformation of the reality by means of amazing effects of illusion. The Baroque art and literature had the aim of surprising, and the artists gave an enthusiastic support to the telescope. The poems in praise of Galileo's telescopic findings were quite numerous, including Adone composed by Giovanni Battista Marino, one of the most renowned poets of the time. The Galilean discoveries were actually accepted by the poets as ideologically neutral contributions to the "wonder" in spite they were rejected or even condemned by the scientists, philosophers, and theologians.

  20. Responsibility with accountability: A FAIR governance framework for performance accountability of local governments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Shah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the role of local governments in bringing about fair, accountable, incoorruptible and responsive (FAIR governance. Local governments around the world have done important innovations to earn the trust of their residents and their comparative performance is of great interest yet a comprehensive framework to provide such benchmarking is not available. This paper attempts to fill this void, by developing a general framework for performance accountability of local governments and by relating real world practices to aspects of this framework. The proposed rating framework requires several types of assessments: (a their compliance with due process and law; (b monitoring of fiscal health for sustainability; (c monitoring of service delivery ; and (d citizens’ satisfaction with local services. The approach yields key indicators useful for benchmarking performance that can be used in selfevaluation and improvement of performance. t From an analysis of practices in local government performance monitoring and evaluation, the paper concludes that ad hoc ad-on self standing monitoring and evaluation systems are more costly and less useful than built-in tools and mechanisms for government transparency, self–evaluation and citizen based accountability such as local government output budgeting and output based fiscal transfers to finance local services.

  1. 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA) inhibits trichothecene production by Fusarium graminearum through suppression of Tri6 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzerodt, Thomas; Maeda, Kazuyuki; Nakajima, Yuichi; Laursen, Bente; Fomsgaard, Inge S; Kimura, Makoto

    2015-12-02

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) caused by a mycotoxigenic fungus Fusarium graminearum resulting in significantly decreased yields and accumulation of toxic trichothecenes in grains. We tested 7 major secondary metabolites from wheat for their effect on trichothecene production in liquid cultures of F. graminearum producing trichothecene 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON). 2,4-Dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA) benzoxazinoid completely abolished toxin production without any apparent effect on fungal growth. DIMBOA strongly affected the expression of Tri6, encoding a major transcriptional regulator of several genes of the trichothecene biosynthesis pathway. DIMBOA also repressed expression of Tri5, encoding trichodiene synthase, the first enzyme in the trichothecene biosynthesis pathway. Thus, DIMBOA could play an important role against the accumulation of trichothecenes in wheat grain. Breeding or engineering of wheat with increased levels of benzoxazinoids could provide varieties with increased resistance against trichothecene contamination of grain and lower susceptibility to FHB.

  2. Screening of toxin production influence factors of Fusarium graminearum with predictive microbiology method%禾谷镰刀菌产毒影响因子预测微生物学筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐得月; 王伟; 陈西平; 林肖惠; 李玉伟; 李凤琴

    2013-01-01

    Objective To screen key factors affecting toxin production of Fusarium graminearum ( F. graminea-rum) with predictive microbiology for prediction of toxin production under different natural conditions. Methods The L18-Hunter and Plackett-Burman(PB) models were developed based on wheat kernals,corn flakes,and rice inoculated with F. graminearum to screen the important factors(temperature,ventilatory capacity,water content,pH value,illumination , the amount and ingredients of the medium, and incubation time) which may affect the toxin production of F. graminearum. Results The results of L18-Hunter model showed that only 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol(3-A-DON) ,15-aetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-A-DON) and total toxins produced by strain 3. 4522 were statistically significant. The coefficients of the regression equations indicated that water content and incubation time were the key factors affecting the production of 3-A-DON,15-A-DON and total toxins by F. graminearum strain 3. 4522. While the results of Plackett-Burman model designed on the basis of L18-Hunter results showed that the absolute concentration of doxynivalenol (DON) and the total toxins,logarithm concentration of DON,zearalenone(ZEN) ,DON and its derivatives, type B trichothecenes,and the total toxins were statistically significant P = 0. 0345 ,0. 0148,0. 0022,0. 0029,0. 0068,0. 0067, and 0. 0006) , respectively. The R2 of the models were 0. 8124,0. 8616,0. 9287,0. 9216,0. 8945,0. 8951,and 0. 9543 ,respectively. The coefficients of the regression equations showed that incubation time, temperature, and initial pH value of the matrix were the key factors for toxin production of F. graminearum strain 3. 4522. Conclusion Incubation time,water content within a certain range(20 -50% ),temperature,and initial pH value of culture base are the key factors affecting toxins production of F. graminearum.%目的 对可能影响禾谷镰刀菌产毒的关键因子进行筛选,为不同自然条件下预测禾谷镰刀菌的产毒

  3. Mixed phenolic acids mediated proliferation of pathogens Talaromyces helicus and Kosakonia sacchari in continuously monocultured Radix pseudostellariae rhizosphere soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmiao eWu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Radix pseudostellariae L. is a common and popular Chinese medication. However, continuous monoculture has increased its susceptibility to severe diseases. We identified two pathogenic microorganisms, Talaromyces helicus M. (KU355274 and Kosakonia sacchari W. (KU324465, and their antagonistic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus Z. in rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured R. pseudostellariae. Nine types of phenolic acids were identified both in the rhizosphere soil and in culture medium under sterile conditions. A syringic acid and phenolic acid mixture significantly promoted the growth of T. helicus and K. sacchari. T. helicus could utilize eight types of phenolic acids, whereas K. sacchari could only use four phenolic acids. K. sacchari produced protocatechuic acid when consuming vanillin. Protocatechuic acid negatively affected the growth of B. pumilus. The 3A-DON toxin produced by T. helicus promoted the growth of K. sacchari and inhibited growth of B. pumilus at low concentrations. These data help explain why phenolic exudates mediate a microflora shift and structure disorder in the rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured R. pseudostellariae and lead to increased replanting disease incidence.

  4. A single-nucleotide-polymorphism-based genotyping assay for simultaneous detection of different carbendazim-resistant genotypes in the Fusarium graminearum species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Brankovics, Balázs; van der Lee, Theo A.J.; Waalwijk, Cees; van Diepeningen, Anne A.D.; Xu, Jin; Xu, Jingsheng

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence resistance to methyl benzimidazole carbamates (MBC)-fungicides in the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) is becoming a serious problem in the control of Fusarium head blight in China. The resistance is caused by point mutations in the β2-tubulingene. So far, five resistant genotypes (F167Y, E198Q, E198L, E198K and F200Y) have been reported in the field. To establish a high-throughput method for rapid detection of all the five mutations simultaneously, an efficient single-nucleotide-polymorphism-based genotyping method was developed based on the Luminex xMAP system. One pair of amplification primers and five allele specific primer extension probes were designed and optimized to specially distinguish the different genotypes within one single reaction. This method has good extensibility and can be combined with previous reported probes to form a highly integrated tool for species, trichothecene chemotype and MBC resistance detection. Using this method, carbendazim resistant FGSC isolates from Jiangsu, Anhui and Sichuan Province in China were identified. High and moderate frequencies of resistance were observed in Jiangsu and Anhui Province, respectively. Carbendazim resistance in F. asiaticum is only observed in the 3ADON genotype. Overall, our method proved to be useful for early detection of MBC resistance in the field and the result aids in the choice of fungicide type. PMID:27812414

  5. Time-like Baryon Form Factors near threshold: status and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' E. Fermi' , Rome (Italy); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Pacetti, Simone [University and INFN of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Zallo, Adriano [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Two striking features of the e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}pp{sup Macron} and e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}nn{sup Macron} cross sections near threshold are discussed: the e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}pp{sup Macron} data show a nearly flat cross section in the 200 MeV region above threshold. The e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}nn{sup Macron} results, published in 1998 by the FENICE collaboration at ADONE collider, show a neutron cross section larger or equal to the proton one. This surprising behavior has been confirmed recently by SND experiment at VEPP-2000. The FENICE and SND results have been obtained with energy scan measurements, while for the BABAR data the initial state radiation technique has been used. This technique has a high efficiency even at the production threshold and appears to be the best solution to a better understanding of these behaviors. To this purpose the zero degree photon detector, now in the installation stage with BESIII experiment at BEPCII collider, has been constructed. A preliminary analysis on the improvements achievable with this detector is presented.

  6. A prebiotic, Celmanax™, decreases Escherichia coli O157:H7 colonization of bovine cells and feed-associated cytotoxicity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juba Jean

    2011-04-01

    expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood clot blocking the jejunum. Mycotoxin analysis of the corn crop confirmed the presence of fumonisin, NIV, ZEAR, DON, 15-ADON, 3-ADON, NEO, DAS, HT-2 and T-2. Feed extracts were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% Celmanax™ removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. There was no effect of Dairyman's Choice™ paste on feed-extract activity in vitro. Fumonisin, T-2, ZEAR and DON were toxic to bovine cells and 0.1% Celmanax™ removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. Celmanax™ also directly decreased E. coli O157:H7 colonization of mucosal explants and a colonic cell line in a dose-dependent manner. There was no effect of Dairyman's Choice™ paste on E. coli O157:H7 colonization in vitro. The inclusion of the prebiotic and probiotic in the feed was associated with a decline in disease. Conclusion The current study confirmed an association between mycotoxigenic fungi in the feed and the development of JHS in cattle. This association was further expanded to include mycotoxins in the feed and mixtures of STECs colonizing the severely hemorrhaged tissues. Future studies should examine the extent of involvement of the different STEC in the infection process. The prebiotic, Celmanax™, acted as an anti-adhesive for STEC colonization and a mycotoxin binder in vitro. Future studies should determine the extent of involvement of the prebiotic in altering disease.

  7. Nutritional Aspects of Depression

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    Undine E. Lang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics, which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials.

  8. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellmann Jere

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormalities in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF production and turnover, seen in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH and in Alzheimer's disease (AD, may be an important cause of amyloid retention in the brain and may relate the two diseases. There is a high incidence of AD pathology in patients being shunted for NPH, the AD-NPH syndrome. We now report elevated CSF pressure (CSFP, consistent with very early hydrocephalus, in a subset of AD patients enrolled in a clinical trial of chronic low-flow CSF drainage. Our objective was to determine the frequency of elevated CSFP in subjects meeting National Institutes of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke – Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS-ADRDA criteria for AD, excluding those with signs of concomitant NPH. Methods AD subjects by NINCDS-ADRDA criteria (n = 222, were screened by history, neurological examination, and radiographic imaging to exclude those with clinical or radiographic signs of NPH. As part of this exclusion process, opening CSFP was measured supine under general anesthesia during device implantation surgery at a controlled pCO2 of 40 Torr (40 mmHg. Results Of the 222 AD subjects 181 had pressure measurements recorded. Seven subjects (3.9% enrolled in the study had CSFP of 220 mmH20 or greater, mean 249 ± 20 mmH20 which was significantly higher than 103 ± 47 mmH2O for the AD-only group. AD-NPH patients were significantly younger and significantly less demented on the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS. Conclusion Of the AD subjects who were carefully screened to exclude those with clinical NPH, 4% had elevated CSFP. These subjects were presumed to have the AD-NPH syndrome and were withdrawn from the remainder of the study.

  9. Humid Little Ice Age in arid central Asia documented by Bosten Lake,Xinjiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fahu; HUANG Xiaozhong; ZHANG Jiawu; J.A.Holmes; CHEN Jianhui

    2006-01-01

    Short sediment cores retrieved from Bosten Lake,the largest inland freshwater lake in China,were used to explore humidity and precipitation variations in arid central Asia during the past millennium.The chronology of the cores was established using 137Cs,210Pb and AMS 14C dating results.Multi-proxy high-resolution analysis,including pollen ratios of Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae (A/C),carbonate content and grain size,indicates that the climate during the past millennium can be divided into three stages: a dry climate between 1000-1500 AD,a humid climate during the Little Ice Age (LIA) (c.1500-1900 AD),and a warm dry period after 1900 AD.On centennial timescales,the climate change in northwestern China during the past 1000 years is characterized by oscillations between warm-dry and cold-humid climate conditions.All the proxies changed significantly and indicate increased precipitation during the LIA,including increased pollen A/C ratios and pollen concentrations,decreased carbonate content and increased grain size.The humid period during the LIA recorded by the Bosten Lake sediments is representative of arid central Asia and is supported by numerous records from other sites.During the LIA,the water runoff into the Keriya River and Tarim River in the Tarim Basin increased,while the ice accumulation in the Guliya ice core increased.Additionally,the lake levels of the Aral and Caspian Sea also rose,while tree-ring analysis indicates that precipitation increased.We hypothesize that both the lower temperature within China and the negative anomalies of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) during this period may have contributed to the humid climate within this area during LIA.

  10. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials.

  11. Deoxynivalenol and its conjugates in beer: a critical assessment of data obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariasova, Milena; Hajslova, Jana; Kostelanska, Marta; Poustka, Jan; Krplova, Alexandra; Cuhra, Petr; Hochel, Igor

    2008-09-05

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are often employed for the control of deoxynivalenol (DON) in barley and other intermediates involved in beer production chain. Because of the occurrence of high levels of DON-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc) in malt and beer that have been reported for the first time in our earlier study, research focused on the accuracy of DON determination by immunoassays in cereal-based matrices has been initiated. DON-3-Glc was strongly cross-reacting in all examined commercial ELISA test kits (Ridascreen) DON (R-Biopharm), Veratox 5/5 DON) (Neogen Corporation), Deoxynivalenol EIA (Euro-Diagnostica), and AgraQuant) DON Assay 0.25/5.0 Test Kit (Romer Labs). The highest overestimation in beer analysis, up to 1000%, when taking the DON content determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) as a reference method, was obtained by AgraQuant assay. Besides of DON-3-Glc and 3- and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (ADONs), also other, not known yet, matrix components contributed to false positive results. Similar phenomenon, although in a lesser extent due to lower content of these substances, was observed for using ELISA in the analysis of wheat. The relationship between a way of sample handling and DON overestimation was demonstrated; higher ELISA response was measured in an aqueous extract compared to that prepared by acetonitrile-water (84:16, v/v). Most of cross-reacting co-extracts were removed by MycoSep# 226 cartridge, what leads us to the hypothesis on the presence of currently unknown cross-reactive species.

  12. Advance Directives and Communication Skills of Prehospital Physicians Involved in the Care of Cardiovascular Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigon, Fabienne; Merlani, Paolo; Ricou, Bara

    2015-12-01

    Advance directives (AD) were developed to respect patient autonomy. However, very few patients have AD, even in cases when major cardiovascular surgery is to follow. To understand the reasons behind the low prevalence of AD and to help decision making when patients are incompetent, it is necessary to focus on the impact of prehospital practitioners, who may contribute to an increase in AD by discussing them with patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate self-rated communication skills and the attitudes of physicians potentially involved in the care of cardiovascular patients toward AD.Self-administered questionnaires were sent to general practitioners, cardiologists, internists, and intensivists, including the Quality of Communication Score, divided into a General Communication score (QOCgen 6 items) and an End-of-life Communication score (QOCeol 7 items), as well as questions regarding opinions and practices in terms of AD.One hundred sixty-four responses were received. QOCgen (mean (±SD)): 9.0/10 (1.0); QOCeol: 7.2/10 (1.7). General practitioners most frequently start discussions about AD (74/149 [47%]) and are more prone to designate their own specialty (30/49 [61%], P communication skills as good, whereas end-of-life communication was rated much lower. Only half of those surveyed speak about AD with cardiovascular patients. The majority would prefer that physicians of another specialty, most frequently general practitioners, initiate conversation about AD. In order to increase prehospital AD incidence, efforts must be centered on improving practitioners' communication skills regarding death, by providing trainings to allow physicians to feel more at ease when speaking about end-of-life issues.

  13. Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura eEl Khoury

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD include senile plaques of β-amyloid (Aβ peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF. NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD.Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99% is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease.Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM and type 2 diabetes (T2DM are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment.Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting on Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia.

  14. Al margen de las Obras de Francisco de la Torre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Abadín Barro, Soledad

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Francisco de la Torre's Works, published by Quevedo in 1631, enclose a second part, described in later years as an «appendix», with translations that did not belong in the original project prepared by the author some decades before. The summary of the 1588 license for printing describes the work's content as «lyric and adonic verse, and bucolic», without mentioning the translations. The new date throws into question the participation of Almeida and Brocense in the preparation and transmission of the manuscript that came to Quevedo. Therefore, the volume of 1631 cannot be considered as an example of salmantin group's collective poetical essay. Related chronological considerations also throw new light on the relationship between the author and Fernando de Herrera.Las Obras de Francisco de la Torre, publicadas por Quevedo en 1631, incluyen una segunda parte, que más tarde se llamaría «apéndice», con traducciones ajenas al proyecto inicial preparado por el propio autor décadas antes. El sumario de la licencia de impresión de 1588 describe el contenido de la obra aprobada como «los versos líricos y adónicos y la bucólica», sin mencionar las traducciones. La nueva fecha lleva a cuestionar el protagonismo de Almeida y el Brócense en la preparación y transmisión del manuscrito que más tarde llegaría a Quevedo. El volumen de 1631, por lo tanto, no puede considerarse como un exponente de un ejercicio poético colectivo del círculo salmantino. Los datos cronológicos también permiten replantear la relación del autor con Fernando de Herrera.

  15. Reconstruction of the western Pacific warm pool SST since 1644 AD and its relation to precipitation over East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZiYin; GONG DaoYi; HE XueZhao; GUO Dong; FENG ShengHui

    2009-01-01

    Based on coral proxies we reconstructed the western Pacific warm pool sea surface temperature (SST) since 1644 AD.High-frequency reconstructions are based on eight high-pass filtered coral series and raw reconstructions are derived from eight unfiltered coral series,respectively.Validation and comparison with other SST/temperature series show that the reconstructed warm pool SST is highly reliable.The leading periods of warm pool SST are ~2.1,~2.3,~2.9,~3.6,~3.8,and 80.7-year during the last ~360 years.The warm pool SST exhibits some obvious long-term trends:an upward trend of 0.04℃ per century for the period of 1644-1825,while a decreasing trend of 0.24℃ per century for the period of 1826-1885,and then a remarkable warming trend of 0.28℃ per century taking place between 1886 and 2006.Especially,the SST shows the strongest trend of 0.67℃ increase per century during the last 50 years,a warming unprecedented since 1644 AD.On interannual timescale,the connections between ENSO and the warm pool SST are robust during the reconstruction period.There are significant correlations between the warm pool SST and summer precipitation of the Yellow River basin and Huaihe River basin;the correlation coefficients are-0.44 in reconstruction period (1880-1949 AD) and -0.46 in instrumental period (1950-2005 AD) respectively.This relationship is also found between flooddrought index and the warm pool SST during the past 360 years,and their correlation coefficients are -0.20 in reconstruction period and -0.46 in instrumental period respectively,significant at the 0.01 level.On interdecadal timescale,this connection is more robust,and the correlation coefficient of the low-pass filtered components is -0.42 during the whole period (1644-2000 AD).When the warm pool is warmer than normal,the precipitation is usually below the normal in the Yellow River and Huaihe River basin.On the contrary,when the warm pool is colder than the normal,there may be more precipitation

  16. Antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients: a proposal to assess the economic value of the single-tablet regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo GL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Giorgio L Colombo,1,2 Sergio Di Matteo,2 Franco Maggiolo31University of Pavia, Department of Drug Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Pavia, Italy, 2Studi Analisi Valutazioni Economiche, Milan, Italy, 3Division of Infectious Diseases, Ospedali Riuniti, Bergamo, ItalyBackground: The aim of this study was to assess the economic value of a reduced number of pills in patients infected with the immunodeficiency virus (HIV and on highly active antiretroviral therapy by a cost-effectiveness model.Methods: An incremental cost-effectiveness analysis of efavirenz, tenofovir, and emtricitabine (TDF-FTC-EFV as a single-tablet regimen versus a multipill regimen, with reference to untreated HIV-infected patients, was carried out from the perspective of the Italian National Health Service. The comparisons were performed with the help of a Markov decision model over a 10-year time horizon. Based on the ADONE (ADherence to ONE pill study, it was then possible to identify the utility score increment in patients switching from a multipill regimen of TDF-FTC + EFV therapy to a single-tablet regimen.Results: The single-tablet regimen (0.755 quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]/year resulted in better patient quality of life, with a higher number of QALYs than for the TDF-FTC + EFV multipill regimen (0.716 QALYs/year. The single-tablet regimen was the most cost-effective treatment strategy, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €22,017.00 versus €26,558.00 for the multipill regimen. A 24% decrease in cost of the multipill regimen determined equivalence with the single-tablet regimen in terms of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Univariate sensitivity and probabilistic analysis carried out on the main variables did not highlight significant variations with respect to the base case scenario.Conclusion: The single-tablet regimen resulted in better adherence, and therefore better quality of life as perceived by patients, corresponding to a €4541.00 lower

  17. CARACTERIZACIÓN SOCIO-AMBIENTAL DE UN PAISAJE TRANSFORMADO: EL CASO DE LA LAGUNA NEGRA.TRELEW. CHUBUT. ARGENTINA

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    Gladys Alcarraz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La ciudad de Trelew se encuentra en la Provincia del Chubut, departamento Rawson, a los 43o 14' de Latitud Sur y 65o 19' de Longitud Oeste, su Ejido Municipal cubre una superficie total de 248 km2. Aproximadamente el 70% de los líquidos cloacales domiciliarios y pluviales de la ciudad de Trelew, son vertidos desde principios de la década del 70’ a un sistema lagunar. Originalmente estas lagunas eran cuencas naturales, algunas permanentes y otras temporarias, alimentadas por aguas subterráneas y por precipitaciones. Los bajos, hoy convertidos en lagunas permanentes, hidrológicamente representaban áreas de descarga -evaporación- alimentadas por los aportes de cañadones que drenan desde la terraza intermedia y el valle o bien por crecientes y desbordes del Río Chubut. Hoy el proceso se ha revertido, y las lagunas aportan agua en forma constante al sistema freático, habiéndose convertido entonces, en áreas de recarga -infiltración-, con consecuencias ambientales, paisajísticas y sociales. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la variación multitemporal de las lagunas de estabilización de la ciudad de Trelew, desde los años 1969 a 2005 para estimar las consecuencias producidas en el paisaje y caracterizar social y económicamente la población aledaña a las lagunas. Metodológicamente, para caracterizar el área de estudio y realizar una evolución de la misma desde las características originales hasta la actualidad se utilizó la teledetección y un relevamiento censal a campo con aplicación de encuestas y observación directa. La población aledaña a las lagunas presenta características particulares en cuanto a las actividades económicas que desarrollan, las condiciones en las que viven y llevan adelante esas actividades, conformando “asentamientos aislados”, precarios, que le dan cierto carácter de espacio rural marginal, como categoría en el continuo rural-urbano. Cuando se cambian artificialmente las

  18. Estratigrafía, análisis de facies y paleoambientes de la formación cañadón asfalto en el depocentro jurásico cerro Cóndor, provincia del Chubut

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    Nora Cabaleri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available El depocentro Cerro Cóndor representa la secuencia estratigráfica del Jurásico continental más completa de la cuenca de Cañadón Asfalto y de Sudamérica austral. Se sitúa en la Patagonia extraandina, en ambas márgenes del río Chubut medio. La sedimentación en esta cuenca pull apart, acompañada por efusiones de basalto olivínico, comenzó en el Jurásico Medio temprano. Predominan en la Formación Cañadón Asfalto los depósitos lacustres caracterizados por asociaciones de facies carbonáticas y siliciclásticas intercaladas con rocas lávicas en la base y depósitos piroclásticos hacia el techo de la unidad. Se describe el desarrollo de facies a lo largo de un corte norte-sur que abarca las secciones de estancia El Torito y de los cañadones Los Loros, Las Chacritas, Carrizal, Asfalto y Lahuincó. Las facies/microfacies carbonáticas están representadas por mudstones, wackestones,packstones, grainstones y calizas microbialíticas características de ambientes litorales, marginales y palustres. En la Formación Cañadón Asfalto se distinguen un miembro inferior (Las Chacritas, constituido por calizas, lutitas, areniscas y conglomerados, intercalados con basaltos olivínicos y por otro superior (Puesto Almada compuesto por tobas, tufitas, lutitas y areniscas. El primero es portador de una asociación palinológica de edad bajociano-bathoniana y el segundo de dinosaurios de edad tithoniana. Se describen detalladamente e ilustran las secciones estratigráficas de ambos miembros de la formación en sus localidades tipo, cañadón Las Chacritas y estancia el Torito y se reconstruyen los paleoambientes del depocentro desde el Aaleniano al Tithoniano. La edad del miembro Puesto Almada en su localidad tipo se obtuvo mediante una datación radimétrica (K/Ar de biotitas provenientes de una delgada capa de toba volcánica (147,1 ± 3,3 Ma, Tithoniano proveniente de la parte superior de la unidad.

  19. Estudio geocientífico aplicado a la evaluación de la aptitud para la urbanización en la cuenca carbonífera de Río Turbio, Santa Cruz Geoscientific study applied to the evaluation of urbanisation suitability at the carboniferous basin of Río Turbio, Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pereyra

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio geocientífico para la evaluación de la aptitud para la urbanización en la cuenca carbonífera de Río Turbio. Este estudio incluyó la caracterización de los recursos naturales: suelos, agua y paisaje y la evaluación de áreas de riesgo natural y antrópico, la pérdida de espacios verdes y tierras agrícolas. La zona implicada se encuentra localizada en el extremo SO de la provincia de Santa Cruz. Conforma la llamada cuenca carbonífera del Río Turbio. Las localidades de Río Turbio y 28 de Noviembre exhiben el mayor número poblacional. Estas poblaciones se desarrollaron a partir de la actividad minera y ganadera. En función de las características geológicas, geomorfológicas, bióticas, geotécnicas, hidrológicas y edafológicas, se han diferenciado 7 unidades de paisaje. A partir de la información generada previamente y como insumo básico para la producción del plan de desarrollo urbano, se ha realizado un mapa de aptitud para la urbanización del área. Las unidades de paisaje con mejores posibilidades para la expansión urbana son dos: Morenas con estepa herbácea y planicies glacifluviales con estepa mixta. La unidad paisaje erosivo glaciar con bosque y la unidad terrazas fluviales son aceptables para la urbanización, mientras que las unidades: Cañadones y pendientes aluvio-coluviales, serranías poligenéticas terciarias y mallines y bajos, son inapropiadas para la urbanización, por diferentes motivos.A geoscientific study was accomplished to evaluate suitability for urban developments the in carboniferous basin of the Turbio River. This research included the characterization of natural resources: soil, water and landscape; the evaluation of natural and anthropic hazardous areas and the loss of farming and green lands. The implied area is located in the SW end of the Province of Santa Cruz. It is part of the carboniferous basin of the River Turbio. The towns of Rio Turbio and 28 de Noviembre hold

  20. 碳纳米管存在下盐酸胺碘酮与 BSA 的相互作用%Interaction of amiodarone hydrochloride with BSA in the presence of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红燕; 辛建伟; 张越诚

    2013-01-01

    Under the pH 7.40 Tris-HCl buffer system , fluorescence spectroscopy was used to investigate the influences of carbon nanotubes(CNTs)on the fluorescence of amiodarone hydrochloride (AD)on bovine serum albumin(BSA)and the influences of AD on that of BSA without CNTs.The experimental results demonstrated that AD could quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA ,and the quenching mechanism was dynamic quenching.The fluorescence quenching action of AD on BSA was strengthened in the pres-ence of CNTs.The binding constants KA,binding sites n and the corresponding thermodynamic parameters ΔH,ΔG andΔS at differ-ent temperatures were calculated.Based on the thermodynamic parameters ,it was proved that the major roles of binding force of AD-BSA was the electrostatic.The distance r of AD-BSA was evaluated according to the theory of Föster energy transfer.Moreover,the effect of AD on the conformation of BSA was also analyzed by using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy .The results showed that AD changed the conformation of BSA during the reaction.But the CNTs could not change the conformation of BSA.The binding con-stants KA ,binding sites n of AD on BSA was increased in the presence of CNTs .The discussion offer a reference study on the action mechanism of CNTs and AD with albumin in vivo .%在pH 7.40的Tris-HCl缓冲体系下,用荧光光谱法研究了碳纳米管( MCNTs)对盐酸胺碘酮( AD)和牛血清白蛋白( BSA)荧光光谱特性的影响以及无碳纳米管共存时盐酸胺碘酮与BSA之间的相互作用。结果表明,AD对BSA的荧光有较强的猝灭作用,其猝灭机理为动态猝灭。碳纳米管的存在使AD对BSA的猝灭作用增强。计算了不同温度下AD与BSA之间的表观结合常数KA ,结合位点数n。相应的热力学参数ΔH、ΔG和ΔS表明,AD与BSA之间主要以静电作用力结合。根据Förster非辐射能量转移理论,确定了AD与BSA之间的结合距离r=3.99 nm。此外,利用同

  1. Estratigrafía, análisis de facies y paleoambientes de la formación cañadón asfalto en el depocentro jurásico cerro Cóndor, provincia del Chubut Stratigraphy, facies analysis and paleoenvironments of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation, Jurassic Cerro Cóndor depocenter, Chubut province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Cabaleri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available El depocentro Cerro Cóndor representa la secuencia estratigráfica del Jurásico continental más completa de la cuenca de Cañadón Asfalto y de Sudamérica austral. Se sitúa en la Patagonia extraandina, en ambas márgenes del río Chubut medio. La sedimentación en esta cuenca pull apart, acompañada por efusiones de basalto olivínico, comenzó en el Jurásico Medio temprano. Predominan en la Formación Cañadón Asfalto los depósitos lacustres caracterizados por asociaciones de facies carbonáticas y siliciclásticas intercaladas con rocas lávicas en la base y depósitos piroclásticos hacia el techo de la unidad. Se describe el desarrollo de facies a lo largo de un corte norte-sur que abarca las secciones de estancia El Torito y de los cañadones Los Loros, Las Chacritas, Carrizal, Asfalto y Lahuincó. Las facies/microfacies carbonáticas están representadas por mudstones, wackestones,packstones, grainstones y calizas microbialíticas características de ambientes litorales, marginales y palustres. En la Formación Cañadón Asfalto se distinguen un miembro inferior (Las Chacritas, constituido por calizas, lutitas, areniscas y conglomerados, intercalados con basaltos olivínicos y por otro superior (Puesto Almada compuesto por tobas, tufitas, lutitas y areniscas. El primero es portador de una asociación palinológica de edad bajociano-bathoniana y el segundo de dinosaurios de edad tithoniana. Se describen detalladamente e ilustran las secciones estratigráficas de ambos miembros de la formación en sus localidades tipo, cañadón Las Chacritas y estancia el Torito y se reconstruyen los paleoambientes del depocentro desde el Aaleniano al Tithoniano. La edad del miembro Puesto Almada en su localidad tipo se obtuvo mediante una datación radimétrica (K/Ar de biotitas provenientes de una delgada capa de toba volcánica (147,1 ± 3,3 Ma, Tithoniano proveniente de la parte superior de la unidad.The Cerro Cóndor depocenter represents the