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Sample records for adone

  1. Adieu ADONE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26 the ADONE ring at Italy's Frascati National Laboratory was shut down for the last time. Giorgio Salvini, first Director of the Laboratory and presently President of the Lincei Academy, ''killed'' the last circulating beam in the machine. It was the end of a long and brilliant history, with an unusual interplay of technical skill, imagination and fruitful physics. The first design of ADONE was presented at a Frascati workshop at the end of 1960, while the four-metre circumference ADA machine, the world's first electron-positron storage ring, was being assembled. ADONE boosted beam energies from the ADA level of 250 MeV to 1500 MeV, with luminosity foreseen as 1033 cm-2 h-1. Construction began in January 1963 and first beam-beam interactions were in the spring of 1969. In its characteristic operation mode, with three bunches per beam and 60+60 mA stored current, the maximum luminosity reached the design value in the collision energy range 2.0 - 2.4 GeV. The first significant and unexpected result came immediately: a copious production of hadronic states at energies far from the so-called rhotail. Hadrons were twice as copious than muon pairs, demonstrating dramatically the production of quark antiquark pairs and the role played by quark colour. Experiments continued in the search for higher recurrences of the already well-known vector mesons rho, omega and phi. However the first generation detectors, designed for a different scenario, did not have sufficient coverage nor magnetic field to analyse the final states. The next step came in 1973 with a second generation of experiments using more sophisticated detectors.. Also notable among the results of the first generation experiments were the study of the first photon-photon interactions and the production of proton-antiproton pairs

  2. Co-production of 3ADON and 15ADON by cultures of Fusarium graminearum 15ADON strains, but not 3ADON strains, is due to differences in acetyltransferase activity and substrate specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium graminearum strains can be assigned to chemotypes, e.g. 3ADON or 15ADON, on the basis of PCR analysis using polymorphisms in the trichothecene biosynthetic genes TRI3 and TRI12. Trichothecene production in liquid culture is consistent with the chemotype predicted with PCR analyses, i.e., ac...

  3. Biogeography of Trichothecene Chemotypes, and the Origins of North American 3ADON Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we documented a 14-fold increase in 3ADON-producing F. graminearum between 1998 and 2004 in western Canadian provinces. Significant population structure associated with trichothecene chemotype differences was observed, and isolates from the 3ADON populations were found to accumulate sig...

  4. Birth of colliding beams in Europe, two photon studies at Adone

    CERN Document Server

    Bonolis, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    This article recalls the birth of the first electron-positron storage ring AdA, and the construction of the higher energy collider ADONE, where early photon-photon collisions were observed. The events which led the Austrian physicist Bruno Touschek to propose and construct AdA will be recalled, starting with early work on the Wideroe's betatron during World War II, up to the construction of ADONE, and the theoretical contribution to radiative corrections to electron-positron collisions.

  5. MacDUST - a powder diffraction package developed for the ''ADONE'' high resolution diffraction station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A High Resolution Powder Diffraction Station (PO.DI.STA.) was installed at the beginning of 1991 on the ADONE-Wiggler magnet beam line. The station and the first powder diffraction spectra, collected with synchrotron radiation, were presented at the EPDIC-1 Conference. More details can also be found in. For this station, a very sophisticated software package ''MacDUST'' has been developed on an Apple Macintosh computer, using the Microsoft QuickBASIC compiler. It allows very easy and comfortable operations by means of a graphical user interface environment, typical of the Macintosh system. The package consists of five major programs. The main program, MacDIFF, performs all the graphic operations on the experimental data, including zooming, overlapping, cursor scanning and editing of patterns, control of output operations to printers and HPGL plotters. It also includes several analysis routines for data smoothing, a first derivative peak search algorithm, two background subtraction routines and two profile fitting programs: one based on the simplex method and the other on the Marquardt modification of a least-square algorithm. MacPDF and MacRIC are both dedicated to phase identification. The first program is an archive manager for searching, displaying and printing phase records; MacRIC is a graphic aided search-match program based on the Hanawalt algorithm. Mac3-DIM is a plot program, useful, e.g., for representing kinetics three dimensionally. MacRIET is a Macintosh version of the well known Rietveld refinement program. This version, besides conventional structure refinements, also allows the determination of micro structural parameters, i.e. micro strain and crystallite size. The program can also be used to simulate a pattern, once the structure of the compound is known. Taking advantage of the very intuitive Macintosh graphic user interface, through dialog and alert boxes, the program allows straightforward introduction and modification of the structure

  6. Superconducting wiggler for ADONE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A superconducting wiggler magnet has been successfully tested at ANSALDO COMPONENTI works. The design field of 6 Tesla has been reached after limited training. The field of 6.025 ± 0.003 Tesla has been measured by means of a flip coil connected to an integrating magnetometer. Field profile measurements were made at 5.0, 5.75 and 6.025 Tesla, during which time, the magnet showed high stability. The overall cryogenic losses have been measured and they are consistent with the computed ones

  7. Transformation of deoxynivalenol and its acetylated derivatives in Chinese steamed bread making, as affected by pH, yeast, and steaming time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Wang, Bujun

    2016-07-01

    We hereby report the transformation of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives (3-ADON and 15-ADON) by spiking targeted mycotoxins to Fusarium mycotoxin-free flour in the process of making Chinese steamed bread (CSB). The impacts of pH, yeast level, and steaming time on the transformation of 3-ADON to DON were investigated. DON, 3-ADON, and 15-ADON were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Spiked DON was stable throughout the CSB making process. Spiked 3-ADON and 15-ADON were partially deacetylated and transformed to DON during kneading (54.1-60.0% and 59.3-77.5%, respectively), fermentation (64.0-76.9% and 78.2-91.6%, respectively), and steaming (47.2-52.7% and 52.4-61.9%, respectively). The ADONs level increased after steaming compared with their level in the previous step. The pH level and steaming duration significantly (P<0.05) affected the conversion of 3-ADON during the CSB making process. Briefly, alkaline conditions and short steaming times favored the deacetylation of 3-ADON. The level of yeast did not remarkably (P<0.05) alter the transformation between ADONs and DON. PMID:26920279

  8. The Metabolic Fate of Deoxynivalenol and Its Acetylated Derivatives in a Wheat Suspension Culture: Identification and Detection of DON-15-O-Glucoside, 15-Acetyl-DON-3-O-Glucoside and 15-Acetyl-DON-3-Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Schmeitzl

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a protein synthesis inhibitor produced by the Fusarium species, which frequently contaminates grains used for human or animal consumption. We treated a wheat suspension culture with DON or one of its acetylated derivatives, 3-acetyl-DON (3-ADON, 15-acetyl-DON (15-ADON and 3,15-diacetyl-DON (3,15-diADON, and monitored the metabolization over a course of 96 h. Supernatant and cell extract samples were analyzed using a tailored LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of DON metabolites. We report the formation of tentatively identified DON-15-O-β-D-glucoside (D15G and of 15-acetyl-DON-3-sulfate (15-ADON3S as novel deoxynivalenol metabolites in wheat. Furthermore, we found that the recently identified 15-acetyl-DON-3-O-β-D-glucoside (15-ADON3G is the major metabolite produced after 15-ADON challenge. 3-ADON treatment led to a higher intracellular content of toxic metabolites after six hours compared to all other treatments. 3-ADON was exclusively metabolized into DON before phase II reactions occurred. In contrast, we found that 15-ADON was directly converted into 15-ADON3G and 15-ADON3S in addition to metabolization into deoxynivalenol-3-O-β-D-glucoside (D3G. This study highlights significant differences in the metabolization of DON and its acetylated derivatives.

  9. TRI12 based quantitative real-time PCR assays reveal the distribution of trichothecene genotype of F. graminearum and F. culmorum isolates in Danish small grain cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L. K.; Jensen, J. D.; Rodríguez, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR assays, based on polymorphisms in the TRI12 gene of the trichothecene pathway, were developed to identify and quantify the trichothecene genotypes producing 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3ADON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15ADON) or nivalenol (NIV) in the Fusarium graminearum...

  10. Vliv akustického prostředí na ontogenezi žadonění mláďat kukačky obecné, aneb jak se pípá v rákosí?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žabková, K.; Honza, Marcel; Petrusková, T.; Procházka, Petr

    Brno : Ústav biologie obratlovců AV ČR, 2015 - (Bryja, J.; Řehák, Z.; Zukal, J.). s. 271 ISBN 978-80-87189-18-4. [Zoologické dny. 12.02.2015-13.02.2015, Brno] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : common cuckoo Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  11. Hydrolytic Fate of 3/15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol in Humans: Specific Deacetylation by the Small Intestine and Liver Revealed Using in Vitro and ex Vivo Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajandouz, El Hassan; Berdah, Stéphane; Moutardier, Vincent; Bege, Thierry; Birnbaum, David Jérémie; Perrier, Josette; Di Pasquale, Eric; Maresca, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In addition to deoxynivalenol (DON), acetylated derivatives, i.e., 3-acetyl and 15-acetyldexynivalenol (or 3/15ADON), are present in cereals leading to exposure to these mycotoxins. Animal and human studies suggest that 3/15ADON are converted into DON after their ingestion through hydrolysis of the acetyl moiety, the site(s) of such deacetylation being still uncharacterized. We used in vitro and ex vivo approaches to study the deacetylation of 3/15ADON by enzymes and cells/tissues present on their way from the food matrix to the blood in humans. We found that luminal deacetylation by digestive enzymes and bacteria is limited. Using human cells, tissues and S9 fractions, we were able to demonstrate that small intestine and liver possess strong deacetylation capacity compared to colon and kidneys. Interestingly, in most cases, deacetylation was more efficient for 3ADON than 15ADON. Although we initially thought that carboxylesterases (CES) could be responsible for the deacetylation of 3/15ADON, the use of pure human CES1/2 and of CES inhibitor demonstrated that CES are not involved. Taken together, our original model system allowed us to identify the small intestine and the liver as the main site of deacetylation of ingested 3/15ADON in humans. PMID:27483321

  12. Development and Validation of an Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for Simultaneous Determination of Four Type B Trichothecenes and Masked Deoxynivalenol in Various Feed Products

    OpenAIRE

    Zhichen Fan; Bing Bai; Peng Jin; Kai Fan; Wenbo Guo; Zhihui Zhao; Zheng Han

    2016-01-01

    A reliable and sensitive analytical method was developed for simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol(DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), fusarenon X (FUS-X), and masked deoxynivalenol (deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, D3G) in formula feed, concentrated feed, and premixed feed products. The method was based on an improved sample pretreatment with the commercially available HLB cartridges used for sample purification and enrichment followed by analysis usin...

  13. Trichothecene Genotypes of the Fusarium graminearum Species Complex Isolated from Brazilian Wheat Grains by Conventional and Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tralamazza, Sabina M.; Braghini, Raquel; Corrêa, Benedito

    2016-01-01

    We compared two well-established methods, fungal isolation followed by conventional PCR and DNA analysis by quantitative PCR (qPCR), to define trichothecene genotypes in Brazilian wheat grains from different locations. For this purpose, after fungal isolation from 75 wheat samples, 100 isolates of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) were genotyped by PCR to establish their trichothecene profile. For profiling by qPCR, DNA was extracted from the wheat samples and analyzed. The methods provided similar and divergent results. The FGSC isolates were classified as NIV (55%), 15-ADON (43%), and 3-ADON (2%). Analysis by qPCR showed 100% contamination with 15-ADON strains in all wheat samples, 80% contamination with the NIV genotype, and only 33.3% contamination with 3-ADON strains. Further analysis revealed that 96% of all quantified DNA was attributed to the 15-ADON profile, while 3.4% was attributed to NIV and only 0.06% to 3-ADON. A positive correlation was observed between 15-ADON genotype DNA concentration and deoxynivalenol (DON) content in the wheat samples. The high frequency of fungi, DNA levels and positive correlation with DON strongly indicate that 15-ADON producers are the main trichothecene genotype in Brazilian wheat grains. Surprisingly, although many isolates (55%) carried the NIV genotype and this genotype was identified in 80% of the wheat samples, only 3.4% of fungal DNA was in fact from NIV producers. Although, our findings showed that each method provided a different perspective about the trichothecene profile, DNA analysis by qPCR gave us new insight about fungal contamination levels in Brazilian wheat grains. Nevertheless, both techniques should be used to obtain more robust results. PMID:26973624

  14. Identification of Pathogenic Fusarium spp. Causing Maize Ear Rot and Potential Mycotoxin Production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Canxing; Qin, Zihui; Yang, Zhihuan; Li, Weixi; Sun, Suli; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Ear rot is a serious disease that affects maize yield and grain quality worldwide. The mycotoxins are often hazardous to humans and livestock. In samples collected in China between 2009 and 2014, Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum species complex were the dominant fungi causing ear rot. According to the TEF-1α gene sequence, F. graminearum species complex in China included three independent species: F. graminearum, F. meridionale, and F. boothii. The key gene FUM1 responsible for the biosynthesis of fumonisin was detected in all 82 F. verticillioides isolates. Among these, 57 isolates mainly produced fumonisin B₁, ranging from 2.52 to 18,416.44 µg/g for each gram of dry hyphal weight, in vitro. Three different toxigenic chemotypes were detected among 78 F. graminearum species complex: 15-ADON, NIV and 15-ADON+NIV. Sixty and 16 isolates represented the 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes, respectively; two isolates carried both 15-ADON and NIV-producing segments. All the isolates carrying NIV-specific segment were F. meridionale. The in vitro production of 15-ADON, 3-ADON, DON, and ZEN varied from 5.43 to 81,539.49; 6.04 to 19,590.61; 13.35 to 19,795.33; and 1.77 to 430.24 µg/g of dry hyphal weight, respectively. Altogether, our present data demonstrate potential main mycotoxin production of dominant pathogenic Fusarium in China. PMID:27338476

  15. Identification of Pathogenic Fusarium spp. Causing Maize Ear Rot and Potential Mycotoxin Production in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Canxing; Qin, Zihui; Yang, Zhihuan; Li, Weixi; Sun, Suli; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Ear rot is a serious disease that affects maize yield and grain quality worldwide. The mycotoxins are often hazardous to humans and livestock. In samples collected in China between 2009 and 2014, Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum species complex were the dominant fungi causing ear rot. According to the TEF-1α gene sequence, F. graminearum species complex in China included three independent species: F. graminearum, F. meridionale, and F. boothii. The key gene FUM1 responsible for the biosynthesis of fumonisin was detected in all 82 F. verticillioides isolates. Among these, 57 isolates mainly produced fumonisin B1, ranging from 2.52 to 18,416.44 µg/g for each gram of dry hyphal weight, in vitro. Three different toxigenic chemotypes were detected among 78 F. graminearum species complex: 15-ADON, NIV and 15-ADON+NIV. Sixty and 16 isolates represented the 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes, respectively; two isolates carried both 15-ADON and NIV-producing segments. All the isolates carrying NIV-specific segment were F. meridionale. The in vitro production of 15-ADON, 3-ADON, DON, and ZEN varied from 5.43 to 81,539.49; 6.04 to 19,590.61; 13.35 to 19,795.33; and 1.77 to 430.24 µg/g of dry hyphal weight, respectively. Altogether, our present data demonstrate potential main mycotoxin production of dominant pathogenic Fusarium in China. PMID:27338476

  16. Identification of Pathogenic Fusarium spp. Causing Maize Ear Rot and Poten tial Mycotoxin Production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canxing Duan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ear rot is a serious disease that affects maize yield and grain quality worldwide. The mycotoxins are often hazardous to humans and livestock. In samples collected in China between 2009 and 2014, Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum species complex were the dominant fungi causing ear rot. According to the TEF-1α gene sequence, F. graminearum species complex in China included three independent species: F. graminearum, F. meridionale, and F. boothii. The key gene FUM1 responsible for the biosynthesis of fumonisin was detected in all 82 F. verticillioides isolates. Among these, 57 isolates mainly produced fumonisin B1, ranging from 2.52 to 18,416.44 µg/g for each gram of dry hyphal weight, in vitro. Three different toxigenic chemotypes were detected among 78 F. graminearum species complex: 15-ADON, NIV and 15-ADON+NIV. Sixty and 16 isolates represented the 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes, respectively; two isolates carried both 15-ADON and NIV-producing segments. All the isolates carrying NIV-specific segment were F. meridionale. The in vitro production of 15-ADON, 3-ADON, DON, and ZEN varied from 5.43 to 81,539.49; 6.04 to 19,590.61; 13.35 to 19,795.33; and 1.77 to 430.24 µg/g of dry hyphal weight, respectively. Altogether, our present data demonstrate potential main mycotoxin production of dominant pathogenic Fusarium in China.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Deoxynivalenol Biosynthesis Related Gene Expression among Different Chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum in Spring Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Chami C.; Fernando, W. G. Dilantha

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) act as virulence factors and are essential for symptom development after initial infection in wheat. To date, 16 genes have been identified in the DON biosynthesis pathway. However, a comparative gene expression analysis in different chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum in response to Fusarium head blight infection remains to be explored. Therefore, in this study, nine genes that involved in trichothecene biosynthesis were analyzed among 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) and nivalenol producing F. graminearum strains in a time course study. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that the expression of all examined TRI gene transcripts initiated at 2 days post-inoculation (dpi), peaked at three to four dpi and gradually decreased at seven dpi. The early induction of TRI genes indicates that presence of high levels of TRI gene transcripts at early stages is important to initiate the biosynthetic pathway of DON and NIV. Comparison of gene expression among the three chemotypes showed that relative expression of TRI genes was higher in 3-ADON producing strains compared with 15-ADON and NIV strains. Comparatively higher levels of gene expression may contribute to the higher levels of DON produced by 3-ADON strains in infected grains. PMID:27550207

  18. Comparative Analysis of Deoxynivalenol Biosynthesis Related Gene Expression among Different Chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum in Spring Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Chami C; Fernando, W G Dilantha

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) act as virulence factors and are essential for symptom development after initial infection in wheat. To date, 16 genes have been identified in the DON biosynthesis pathway. However, a comparative gene expression analysis in different chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum in response to Fusarium head blight infection remains to be explored. Therefore, in this study, nine genes that involved in trichothecene biosynthesis were analyzed among 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) and nivalenol producing F. graminearum strains in a time course study. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that the expression of all examined TRI gene transcripts initiated at 2 days post-inoculation (dpi), peaked at three to four dpi and gradually decreased at seven dpi. The early induction of TRI genes indicates that presence of high levels of TRI gene transcripts at early stages is important to initiate the biosynthetic pathway of DON and NIV. Comparison of gene expression among the three chemotypes showed that relative expression of TRI genes was higher in 3-ADON producing strains compared with 15-ADON and NIV strains. Comparatively higher levels of gene expression may contribute to the higher levels of DON produced by 3-ADON strains in infected grains. PMID:27550207

  19. Binary and tertiary combination of alternariol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol on HepG2 cells: Toxic effects and evaluation of degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-García, Ana; Juan, Cristina; Manyes, Lara; Ruiz, María-José

    2016-08-01

    Fungi producers of mycotoxins are able to synthesize more than one toxin. Alternariol (AOH) is one of the mycotoxins produced by several Alternaria species, the most common one being Alternaria alternata. The toxins 3-Acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and 15-Acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON) are acetylated forms of deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by Fusarium graminearum. In the present work it is determined and evaluated the toxic effects of binary and tertiary combination treatment of HepG2 cells with AOH, 3-ADON and 15-ADON, by using the MTT assay (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide), to subsequently apply the isobologram method and elucidate if the mixtures of these mycotoxins produced synergism, antagonism or additive effect; and lastly, to analyze mycotoxins conversion into metabolites produced and released by HepG2 cells after applying the treatment conditions by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) equipment and extracted from culture media. HepG2 cells were treated at different concentrations over 24, 48 and 72h. IC50 values detected at all times assayed, ranged from 0.8 to >25μM in binary combinations; while in tertiary it ranged from 7.5 to 12μM. Synergistic, antagonism or additive effect detected in the mixtures of these mycotoxins was different depending on low or high concentration. Among all four mycotoxins combinations assayed, 15-ADON+3-ADON presented the highest toxic potential. At all assayed times, recoveries values oscillated depending on the time and combination studied. PMID:27131905

  20. Effect of environmental factors on Fusarium population and associated trichothecenes in wheat grain grown in Jiangsu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fei; Qiu, Jianbo; Xu, Jianhong; Yu, Mingzheng; Wang, Shufang; Sun, Yue; Zhang, Gufeng; Shi, Jianrong

    2016-08-01

    The present study was performed to identify prevailing Fusarium species and the environmental factors affecting their frequencies and the contamination of grain with major mycotoxins in Jiangsu province. The precipitation levels were 184.2mm, 156.4mm, and 245.8mm in the years 2013-2015, respectively, and the temperature fluctuated by an average of 10.6±7.2°C in 2013, 10.9±7.2°C in 2014, and 10.6±6.3°C in 2015. Co-occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON), and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15ADON) were observed in wheat. The average concentrations of DON were 879.3±1127.8, 627.8±640.5, and 1628.6±2,168.0μg/kg in 2013-2015, respectively. The average concentrations of 3ADON were 43.5±59.0, 71.2±102.5, and 33.5±111.9μg/kg in 2013-2015, respectively. We found that the average concentration of DON in wheat was positively correlated with precipitation (r=0.998, p<0.01), and 3ADON was negatively correlated with precipitation (r=-0.887, p<0.05). However, there was no correlation between precipitation and 15ADON or nivalenol (NIV). The differences in temperature were not as significant as the differences in rainfall amount over a short time period. Therefore, there were no correlations between temperature and the concentrations of trichothecenes, excluding 3ADON (r=0.996, p<0.01). Our data indicated that Fusarium asiaticum is the primary pathogenic fungus prevalent in the Fusarium head blight disease nursery. The trichothecene chemotype composition differed between Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto (s. str.) and F. asiaticum isolates. The 3ADON chemotype was found only among strains of F. asiaticum. The NIV chemotype was not observed among strains of F. graminearum, while the 15ADON chemotype represented 100% of the F. graminearum strains collected. The results of this study indicated no correlations between environmental conditions and the species or genetic chemotype composition of pathogens in Jiangsu province in 2013-2015. PMID:27127840

  1. Multi-mycotoxin contamination of couscous semolina commercialized in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinedine, Abdellah; Fernández-Franzón, Mónica; Mañes, Jordi; Manyes, Lara

    2017-01-01

    The multi-mycotoxin contamination of ninety-eight (98) couscous semolina samples collected from various areas in Morocco was investigated in this study. Samples were surveyed for the presence of 22 mycotoxins (four aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, diacetoxiscyrpenol (DAS), three fumonisins, beauvericin (BEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), sterigmatocystin (STG), zearalenone (ZEA), four enniatins, T-2 and HT-2 toxins). Results showed that 96 out of 98 total couscous samples (98%) were contaminated by at least one mycotoxin. Enniatin B (ENB), Enniatin B1 (ENB1), Enniatin A1 (ENA1) and zearalenone (ZEA) have shown the highest incidences in contaminated samples. The dietary exposure was estimated to be 1.02, 0.57, 0.06, 0.57 and 0.3μg/kgbw/day for the sum of (DON+3-ADON+15-ADON), fumonisins (FB1+FB2+FB3), the sum of (T2+HT-2), NIV and ZEA, respectively. PMID:27507496

  2. Troubled Ascent Toward Perfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluge, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    The article demonstrates how the 4th canto of Giovan Battista Marino’s Adone (1623) reflects the perennial, but recently augmented antagonism between moral concerns and aesthetic interests. It is argued, that this quintessential Counter-Reformation issue is discernible in the “Novelletta” canto’s...

  3. New insights into mycotoxin mixtures: The toxicity of low doses of Type B trichothecenes on intestinal epithelial cells is synergistic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent trichothecene mycotoxin in crops in Europe and North America. DON is often present with other type B trichothecenes such as 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV) and fusarenon-X (FX). Although the cytotoxicity of individual mycotoxins has been widely studied, data on the toxicity of mycotoxin mixtures are limited. The aim of this study was to assess interactions caused by co-exposure to Type B trichothecenes on intestinal epithelial cells. Proliferating Caco-2 cells were exposed to increasing doses of Type B trichothecenes, alone or in binary or ternary mixtures. The MTT test and neutral red uptake, respectively linked to mitochondrial and lysosomal functions, were used to measure intestinal epithelial cytotoxicity. The five tested mycotoxins had a dose-dependent effect on proliferating enterocytes and could be classified in increasing order of toxicity: 3-ADON < 15-ADON ≈ DON < NIV ≪ FX. Binary or ternary mixtures also showed a dose-dependent effect. At low concentrations (cytotoxic effect between 10 and 30–40%), mycotoxin combinations were synergistic; however DON–NIV–FX mixture showed antagonism. At higher concentrations (cytotoxic effect around 50%), the combinations had an additive or nearly additive effect. These results indicate that the simultaneous presence of low doses of mycotoxins in food commodities and diet may be more toxic than predicted from the mycotoxins alone. Considering the frequent co-occurrence of trichothecenes in the diet and the concentrations of toxins to which consumers are exposed, this synergy should be taken into account. - Highlights: • We assessed the individual and combined cytotoxicity of five trichothecenes. • The tested concentrations correspond to the French consumer exposure levels. • The type of interaction in combined cytotoxicity varied with the effect level. • Low doses of Type B trichothecenes induced synergistic

  4. New insights into mycotoxin mixtures: The toxicity of low doses of Type B trichothecenes on intestinal epithelial cells is synergistic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alassane-Kpembi, Imourana [INRA, UMR 1331 Toxalim, Research Center in Food Toxicology, F-31027 Toulouse (France); Université de Toulouse, ENVT, INP, UMR 1331 Toxalim, F-31076 Toulouse (France); Institut des Sciences Biomédicales Appliquées, Cotonou, Bénin (Benin); Kolf-Clauw, Martine; Gauthier, Thierry; Abrami, Roberta [INRA, UMR 1331 Toxalim, Research Center in Food Toxicology, F-31027 Toulouse (France); Université de Toulouse, ENVT, INP, UMR 1331 Toxalim, F-31076 Toulouse (France); Abiola, François A. [Institut des Sciences Biomédicales Appliquées, Cotonou, Bénin (Benin); Oswald, Isabelle P., E-mail: Isabelle.Oswald@toulouse.inra.fr [INRA, UMR 1331 Toxalim, Research Center in Food Toxicology, F-31027 Toulouse (France); Université de Toulouse, ENVT, INP, UMR 1331 Toxalim, F-31076 Toulouse (France); Puel, Olivier [INRA, UMR 1331 Toxalim, Research Center in Food Toxicology, F-31027 Toulouse (France); Université de Toulouse, ENVT, INP, UMR 1331 Toxalim, F-31076 Toulouse (France)

    2013-10-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent trichothecene mycotoxin in crops in Europe and North America. DON is often present with other type B trichothecenes such as 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV) and fusarenon-X (FX). Although the cytotoxicity of individual mycotoxins has been widely studied, data on the toxicity of mycotoxin mixtures are limited. The aim of this study was to assess interactions caused by co-exposure to Type B trichothecenes on intestinal epithelial cells. Proliferating Caco-2 cells were exposed to increasing doses of Type B trichothecenes, alone or in binary or ternary mixtures. The MTT test and neutral red uptake, respectively linked to mitochondrial and lysosomal functions, were used to measure intestinal epithelial cytotoxicity. The five tested mycotoxins had a dose-dependent effect on proliferating enterocytes and could be classified in increasing order of toxicity: 3-ADON < 15-ADON ≈ DON < NIV ≪ FX. Binary or ternary mixtures also showed a dose-dependent effect. At low concentrations (cytotoxic effect between 10 and 30–40%), mycotoxin combinations were synergistic; however DON–NIV–FX mixture showed antagonism. At higher concentrations (cytotoxic effect around 50%), the combinations had an additive or nearly additive effect. These results indicate that the simultaneous presence of low doses of mycotoxins in food commodities and diet may be more toxic than predicted from the mycotoxins alone. Considering the frequent co-occurrence of trichothecenes in the diet and the concentrations of toxins to which consumers are exposed, this synergy should be taken into account. - Highlights: • We assessed the individual and combined cytotoxicity of five trichothecenes. • The tested concentrations correspond to the French consumer exposure levels. • The type of interaction in combined cytotoxicity varied with the effect level. • Low doses of Type B trichothecenes induced synergistic

  5. Effects of oral exposure to naturally-occurring and synthetic deoxynivalenol congeners on proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The foodborne mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces a ribotoxic stress response in mononuclear phagocytes that mediate aberrant multi-organ upregulation of TNF-α, interleukins and chemokines in experimental animals. While other DON congeners also exist as food contaminants or pharmacologically-active derivatives, it is not known how these compounds affect expression of these cytokine genes in vivo. To address this gap, we compared in mice the acute effects of oral DON exposure to that of seven relevant congeners on splenic expression of representative cytokine mRNAs after 2 and 6 h. Congeners included the 8-ketotrichothecenes 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), fusarenon X (FX), nivalenol (NIV), the plant metabolite DON-3-glucoside (D3G) and two synthetic DON derivatives with novel satiety-inducing properties (EN139528 and EN139544). DON markedly induced transient upregulation of TNF-α IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNA expressions. The two ADONs also evoked mRNA expression of these genes but to a relatively lesser extent. FX induced more persistent responses than the other DON congeners and, compared to DON, was: 1) more potent in inducing IL-1β mRNA, 2) approximately equipotent in the induction of TNF-α and CCL-2 mRNAs, and 3) less potent at upregulating IL-6, CXCL-2, and CCL-2 mRNAs. EN139528's effects were similar to NIV, the least potent 8-ketotrichothecene, while D3G and EN139544 were largely incapable of eliciting cytokine or chemokine mRNA responses. Taken together, the results presented herein provide important new insights into the potential of naturally-occurring and synthetic DON congeners to elicit aberrant mRNA upregulation of cytokines associated with acute and chronic trichothecene toxicity. - Highlights: • We compared effects of DON congeners on biomarker proinflammatory genes in mice. • Oral DON induced splenic IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α,CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNAs. • 8-Ketotrichothecene ranking

  6. Effects of oral exposure to naturally-occurring and synthetic deoxynivalenol congeners on proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wenda [College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); He, Kaiyu [Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Dept. of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Zhou, Hui-Ren [Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Berthiller, Franz [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Mycotoxin Metabolism and Center for Analytical Chemistry, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Tulln (Austria); Adam, Gerhard [Dept. of Applied Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko [Food and Life Sciences, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa Pref., 252-5201 (Japan); Watanabe, Maiko [Division of Microbiology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Krantis, Anthony [Dept. of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa (Canada); Durst, Tony [Dept. of Chemistry, University of Ottawa (Canada); Zhang, Haibin [College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Pestka, James J., E-mail: pestka@msu.edu [Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Dept. of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    The foodborne mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces a ribotoxic stress response in mononuclear phagocytes that mediate aberrant multi-organ upregulation of TNF-α, interleukins and chemokines in experimental animals. While other DON congeners also exist as food contaminants or pharmacologically-active derivatives, it is not known how these compounds affect expression of these cytokine genes in vivo. To address this gap, we compared in mice the acute effects of oral DON exposure to that of seven relevant congeners on splenic expression of representative cytokine mRNAs after 2 and 6 h. Congeners included the 8-ketotrichothecenes 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), fusarenon X (FX), nivalenol (NIV), the plant metabolite DON-3-glucoside (D3G) and two synthetic DON derivatives with novel satiety-inducing properties (EN139528 and EN139544). DON markedly induced transient upregulation of TNF-α IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNA expressions. The two ADONs also evoked mRNA expression of these genes but to a relatively lesser extent. FX induced more persistent responses than the other DON congeners and, compared to DON, was: 1) more potent in inducing IL-1β mRNA, 2) approximately equipotent in the induction of TNF-α and CCL-2 mRNAs, and 3) less potent at upregulating IL-6, CXCL-2, and CCL-2 mRNAs. EN139528's effects were similar to NIV, the least potent 8-ketotrichothecene, while D3G and EN139544 were largely incapable of eliciting cytokine or chemokine mRNA responses. Taken together, the results presented herein provide important new insights into the potential of naturally-occurring and synthetic DON congeners to elicit aberrant mRNA upregulation of cytokines associated with acute and chronic trichothecene toxicity. - Highlights: • We compared effects of DON congeners on biomarker proinflammatory genes in mice. • Oral DON induced splenic IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α,CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNAs. • 8-Ketotrichothecene ranking

  7. A European Database of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum Trichothecene Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, Matias; Beyer, Marco; Logrieco, Antonio; Audenaert, Kris; Balmas, Virgilio; Basler, Ryan; Boutigny, Anne-Laure; Chrpová, Jana; Czembor, Elżbieta; Gagkaeva, Tatiana; González-Jaén, María T; Hofgaard, Ingerd S; Köycü, Nagehan D; Hoffmann, Lucien; Lević, Jelena; Marin, Patricia; Miedaner, Thomas; Migheli, Quirico; Moretti, Antonio; Müller, Marina E H; Munaut, Françoise; Parikka, Päivi; Pallez-Barthel, Marine; Piec, Jonathan; Scauflaire, Jonathan; Scherm, Barbara; Stanković, Slavica; Thrane, Ulf; Uhlig, Silvio; Vanheule, Adriaan; Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Vogelgsang, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium species, particularly Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, are the main cause of trichothecene type B contamination in cereals. Data on the distribution of Fusarium trichothecene genotypes in cereals in Europe are scattered in time and space. Furthermore, a common core set of related variables (sampling method, host cultivar, previous crop, etc.) that would allow more effective analysis of factors influencing the spatial and temporal population distribution, is lacking. Consequently, based on the available data, it is difficult to identify factors influencing chemotype distribution and spread at the European level. Here we describe the results of a collaborative integrated work which aims (1) to characterize the trichothecene genotypes of strains from three Fusarium species, collected over the period 2000-2013 and (2) to enhance the standardization of epidemiological data collection. Information on host plant, country of origin, sampling location, year of sampling and previous crop of 1147 F. graminearum, 479 F. culmorum, and 3 F. cortaderiae strains obtained from 17 European countries was compiled and a map of trichothecene type B genotype distribution was plotted for each species. All information on the strains was collected in a freely accessible and updatable database (www.catalogueeu.luxmcc.lu), which will serve as a starting point for epidemiological analysis of potential spatial and temporal trichothecene genotype shifts in Europe. The analysis of the currently available European dataset showed that in F. graminearum, the predominant genotype was 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) (82.9%), followed by 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) (13.6%), and nivalenol (NIV) (3.5%). In F. culmorum, the prevalent genotype was 3-ADON (59.9%), while the NIV genotype accounted for the remaining 40.1%. Both, geographical and temporal patterns of trichothecene genotypes distribution were identified. PMID:27092107

  8. Conversion of deoxynivalenol to 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol in barley-derived fuel ethanol co-products with yeast expressing trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Wynse S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON may be concentrated in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; a co-product of fuel ethanol fermentation when grain containing DON is used to produce fuel ethanol. Even low levels of DON (≤ 5 ppm in DDGS sold as feed pose a significant threat to the health of monogastric animals. New and improved strategies to reduce DON in DDGS need to be developed and implemented to address this problem. Enzymes known as trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases convert DON to 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON, and may reduce its toxicity in plants and animals. Results Two Fusarium trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases (FgTRI101 and FfTRI201 were cloned and expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae during a series of small-scale ethanol fermentations using barley (Hordeum vulgare. DON was concentrated 1.6 to 8.2 times in DDGS compared with the starting ground grain. During the fermentation process, FgTRI101 converted 9.2% to 55.3% of the DON to 3ADON, resulting in DDGS with reductions in DON and increases in 3ADON in the Virginia winter barley cultivars Eve, Thoroughbred and Price, and the experimental line VA06H-25. Analysis of barley mashes prepared from the barley line VA04B-125 showed that yeast expressing FfTRI201 were more effective at acetylating DON than those expressing FgTRI101; DON conversion for FfTRI201 ranged from 26.1% to 28.3%, whereas DON conversion for FgTRI101 ranged from 18.3% to 21.8% in VA04B-125 mashes. Ethanol yields were highest with the industrial yeast strain Ethanol Red®, which also consumed galactose when present in the mash. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential of using yeast expressing a trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase to modify DON during commercial fuel ethanol fermentation.

  9. A European Database of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum Trichothecene Genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, Matias; Beyer, Marco; Logrieco, Antonio; Audenaert, Kris; Balmas, Virgilio; Basler, Ryan; Boutigny, Anne-Laure; Chrpová, Jana; Czembor, Elżbieta; Gagkaeva, Tatiana; González-Jaén, María T.; Hofgaard, Ingerd S.; Köycü, Nagehan D.; Hoffmann, Lucien; Lević, Jelena; Marin, Patricia; Miedaner, Thomas; Migheli, Quirico; Moretti, Antonio; Müller, Marina E. H.; Munaut, Françoise; Parikka, Päivi; Pallez-Barthel, Marine; Piec, Jonathan; Scauflaire, Jonathan; Scherm, Barbara; Stanković, Slavica; Thrane, Ulf; Uhlig, Silvio; Vanheule, Adriaan; Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Vogelgsang, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium species, particularly Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, are the main cause of trichothecene type B contamination in cereals. Data on the distribution of Fusarium trichothecene genotypes in cereals in Europe are scattered in time and space. Furthermore, a common core set of related variables (sampling method, host cultivar, previous crop, etc.) that would allow more effective analysis of factors influencing the spatial and temporal population distribution, is lacking. Consequently, based on the available data, it is difficult to identify factors influencing chemotype distribution and spread at the European level. Here we describe the results of a collaborative integrated work which aims (1) to characterize the trichothecene genotypes of strains from three Fusarium species, collected over the period 2000–2013 and (2) to enhance the standardization of epidemiological data collection. Information on host plant, country of origin, sampling location, year of sampling and previous crop of 1147 F. graminearum, 479 F. culmorum, and 3 F. cortaderiae strains obtained from 17 European countries was compiled and a map of trichothecene type B genotype distribution was plotted for each species. All information on the strains was collected in a freely accessible and updatable database (www.catalogueeu.luxmcc.lu), which will serve as a starting point for epidemiological analysis of potential spatial and temporal trichothecene genotype shifts in Europe. The analysis of the currently available European dataset showed that in F. graminearum, the predominant genotype was 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) (82.9%), followed by 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) (13.6%), and nivalenol (NIV) (3.5%). In F. culmorum, the prevalent genotype was 3-ADON (59.9%), while the NIV genotype accounted for the remaining 40.1%. Both, geographical and temporal patterns of trichothecene genotypes distribution were identified. PMID:27092107

  10. Disease: H00008 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Am J Clin Pathol 121:384-92 (2004) (drug) McPhee SJ, Papadakis MA, Tierney LM (ed). Current Medical Diagnosi...H00008 Burkitt lymphoma Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a highly aggressive mature B-cell non-Hodgki...lescents in Europe and North America are mostly EBV-negative. A third type of BL is associated with HIV-infection in ad...one (CHOP) [DR:D00473] Rituximab [DR:D02994] ICD-O: 9687/3, Tumor type: Burkitt l...e of genetic and epigenetic changes in Burkitt lymphoma. Semin Cancer Biol 12:381-7 (2002) PMID:15803153 (ge

  11. One-pill once-a-day HAART: a simplification strategy that improves adherence and quality of life of HIV-infected subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Airoldi, Monica; Zaccarelli, Mauro; Bisi, Luca; Bini, Teresa; Antinori, Andrea; Mussini, Cristina; Bai, Francesca; Orofino, Giancarlo; Sighinolfi, Laura; Gori, Andrea; Suter, Fredy; Maggiolo, Franco

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the ADONE (ADherence to ONE pill) study was to verify the effect of a reduced number of pills on adherence and quality of life (QoL) in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Design: Prospective, multicenter, study. Methods: Patients chronically treated with emtricitabine (FTC) + tenofovir (TDF) + efavirenz (EFV) or lamivudine (3TC) +TDF +EFV and with a HIV-RNA < 50 copies/mL were switched to the single-pill fixed-dose regimen (FDR) of FTC...

  12. Disclosing Pleiotropic Effects during Genetic Risk Assessment for Alzheimer’s Disease: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kurt D.; Roberts, J. Scott; Whitehouse, Peter J.; Royal, Charmaine D. M.; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Vernarelli, Jacqueline A.; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Linnenbringer, Erin; Butson, Melissa B.; Fasaye, Grace-Ann; Uhlmann, Wendy R.; Hiraki, Susan; Wang, Na; Cook-Deegan, Robert; Green, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing use of genetic testing raises questions about disclosing secondary findings, including pleiotropic information. Objective To determine the safety and behavioral impact of disclosing modest associations between APOE genotype and coronary artery disease (CAD) risk during APOE-based genetic risk assessments for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Design Randomized, multicenter equivalence clinical trial Setting Four teaching hospitals Participants 257 asymptomatic adults enrolled, 69% with one AD-affected first degree relative Intervention Disclosing AD and CAD genetic risk information (AD+CAD) versus disclosing only AD genetic risk (AD-only) Measurements Co-primary outcomes were Beck Anxiety Index (BAI) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) scores at 12 months. Secondary outcomes included test-related distress at 12 months, all measures at 6 weeks and 6 months, and health behavior changes at 12 months. Results 12 months after disclosure, mean BAI scores were 3.5 and 3.5 in AD-only and AD+CAD arms (Δ=0.0, 95%CI: −1.0 to 1.0), and mean CES-D scores were 6.4 and 7.1 in AD-only and AD+CAD arms (Δ=0.7, 95%CI: −1.0 to 2.4). Both confidence bounds fell within the equivalence margin of +/−5 points. Among ε4-positive participants, distress was lower in AD+CAD arms than AD-only arms (Δ=−4.8, 95%CI: −8.6 to −1.0) (p=0.031 for disclosure arm x APOE genotype). AD+CAD participants also reported more health behavior changes, regardless of APOE genotype. Limitations Outcomes were self-reported from volunteers without severe anxiety, severe depression, or cognitive problems. Analyses omitted 33 randomized participants. Conclusion Disclosing pleiotropic information did not increase anxiety or depression, and may have decreased distress among those at increased risk for two conditions. Providing risk modification information regarding CAD improved health behaviors. Findings highlight potential benefits of secondary genetic findings

  13. Analysis of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars inoculated with Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Chami C; Simsek, Senay; Brûlé-Babel, Anita; Fernando, W G Dilantha

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of wheat grains with Fusarium mycotoxins and their modified forms is an important issue in wheat industry. The objective of this study was to analyse the deoxynivalenol (DON) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides (D3G) content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars grown in two locations, inoculated with a mixture of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON)-producing Fusarium graminearum strains and a mixture of 15-acetlyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON)-producing F. graminearum strains. According to the analysis of variance, significant differences were observed among the cultivars for Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease index, Fusarium-damaged kernel percentage (%FDK), DON content and D3G content. When the effect of chemotype was considered, significant differences were observed for FHB disease index, FDK percentage and DON content. The D3G content and D3G/DON ratio were not significantly different between the chemotypes, except for D3G content at the Winnipeg location. The Pearson correlation coefficient between DON and D3G was 0.84 and 0.77 at Winnipeg and Carman respectively. The highest D3G/DON ratio was observed in cultivars Carberry (44%) in Carman and CDC Kernen (63.8%) in Winnipeg. The susceptible cultivars showed lower D3G/DON ratio compared with the cultivars rated as moderately resistant and intermediate. The current study indicated that Canadian spring cultivars produce D3G upon Fusarium infection. PMID:27264644

  14. Occurrence of deoxynivalenol in wheat, Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinping; Lu, Yang; Wang, Liying; Chang, Fengqi; Yang, Lixin

    2016-04-15

    Analysis of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its metabolites 3-acetyl and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON and 15-ADON) in wheat flour samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) during 2011-2013 was conducted. [(13)C15]-DON was used as the internal standard to accomplish as accurate as possible quantitation. Of all wheat samples (n=672), 91.5% were positive for DON, at levels ranging from 2.4 to 1130 μg/kg, with a median value of 154 μg/kg. The DON derivatives (3-Ac-DON, 15-Ac-DON) were far less frequently found and at lower levels than DON. The probable daily intakes (PDI) of DON (0.49 in 2011; 0.86 in 2012; 0.56 in 2013, expressed as μg/kg body weight/day) were all within the PDI of 1.0 μg/kg of bw/day for DON set by Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) in 2002. Still, persistent monitoring of DON is important. PMID:26675867

  15. Population genetic analysis and trichothecene profiling of Fusarium graminearum from wheat in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, D; Mionetto, A; Calero, N; Reynoso, M M; Torres, A; Bettucci, L

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto (F. graminearum s.s.) is the major causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat worldwide, and contaminates grains with trichothecene mycotoxins that cause serious threats to food safety and animal health. An important aspect of managing this pathogen and reducing mycotoxin contamination of wheat is knowledge regarding its population genetics. Therefore, isolates of F. graminearum s.s. from the major wheat-growing region of Uruguay were analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism assays, PCR genotyping, and chemical analysis of trichothecene production. Of the 102 isolates identified as having the 15-ADON genotype via PCR genotyping, all were DON producers, but only 41 strains were also 15-ADON producers, as determined by chemical analysis. The populations were genotypically diverse but genetically similar, with significant genetic exchange occurring between them. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that most of the genetic variability resulted from differences between isolates within populations. Multilocus linkage disequilibrium analysis suggested that the isolates had a panmictic population genetic structure and that there is significant recombination occurs in F. graminearum s.s. In conclusion, tour findings provide the first detailed description of the genetic structure and trichothecene production of populations of F. graminearum s.s. from Uruguay, and expands our understanding of the agroecology of F. graminearum and of the correlation between genotypes and trichothecene chemotypes. PMID:26985955

  16. 免疫亲和柱净化-高效液相色谱法同时检测小麦中脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇及其衍生物%Simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol and ramification in wheat by immune affinity column and high performance liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培; 徐广超; 尹丽梅; 黎睿; 谢刚

    2015-01-01

    建立脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇(DON)及其衍生物3-乙酰基—脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇(3-A-DON)和15-乙酰基—脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇(15-A-DON)的免疫亲和柱净化—高效液相色谱同时检测方法。小麦样品经超纯水提取、免疫亲和柱净化、吹干、定容后,用配有紫外检测器的高效液相色谱仪进行DON、3-A-DON和15-A-DON三种毒素的同时检测,并与液相色谱质谱法比对。结果表明:该方法检出限,DON、3-A-DON和15-A-DON均为100μg/kg,样品加标回收率范围86.6%~96.5%,变异系数小于10%,具有较好的准确性和精密度。该方法简单、快速、灵敏度高、选择性好,适用于小麦中DON、3-A-DON和15-A-DON的同时检测。%The method to determine deoxynivalenol (DON),3-acetyl- deoxynivalenol (3-A-DON) and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15 -A -DON )in wheat simultaneously by immune affinity column clean-up and high performance liquid chromatography was established. The wheat samples were extrac-ted by ultrapure water,cleared up with the immuno-affinity column (IAC). After drying and constant volume,three toxins,DON、3-A-DON and15-A-DON,were detected simultaneously by high per-formance liquid chromatograph with UV detector,and compared with that by Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The result showed that the detection limit of method was 100μg/kg for DON,3-A-DON and 15-A-DON respectively. Recovery rates in wheat spiked with DON,3-A-DON,and 15-A-DON,ranged from 86. 6% to 96. 5%. The variation coefficient was less than 10%. This method was suitable for determination of DON,3 -A-DON,and 15 -A-DON in wheat,with the advantages of simplicity,rapidness,sensitivity and good selectivity,veracity and precision.

  17. From the Gut to the Brain: Journey and Pathophysiological Effects of the Food-Associated Trichothecene Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Maresca

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites contaminating food and causing toxicity to animals and humans. Among the various mycotoxins found in crops used for food and feed production, the trichothecene toxin deoxynivalenol (DON or vomitoxin is one of the most prevalent and hazardous. In addition to native toxins, food also contains a large amount of plant and fungal derivatives of DON, including acetyl-DON (3 and 15ADON, glucoside-DON (D3G, and potentially animal derivatives such as glucuronide metabolites (D3 and D15GA present in animal tissues (e.g., blood, muscle and liver tissue. The present review summarizes previous and very recent experimental data collected in vivo and in vitro regarding the transport, detoxification/metabolism and physiological impact of DON and its derivatives on intestinal, immune, endocrine and neurologic functions during their journey from the gut to the brain.

  18. Bruno Touschek, from Betatrons to Electron-positron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardini, Carlo; Pellegrini, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Bruno Touschek's life as a physicist spanned the period from World War II to the 1970s. He was a key figure in the developments of electron-positron colliders, storage rings, and gave important contributions to theoretical high energy physics. Storage rings, initially developed for high energy physics, are being widely used in many countries as synchrotron radiation sources and are a tool for research in physics, chemistry, biology environmental sciences and cultural heritage studies. We describe Touschek's life in Austria, where he was born, Germany, where he participated to the construction of a betatron during WWII, and Italy, where he proposed and led to completion the first electron-positron storage ring in 1960, in Frascati. We highlight how his central European culture influenced his life style and work, and his main contributions to physics, such as the discovery of the Touschek effect and beam instabilities in the larger storage ring ADONE.

  19. D'une pratique à une autre : la médiation de la théorie

    OpenAIRE

    Ar Rouz, David

    2005-01-01

    International audience «En «D'une pratique à une autre : la médiation de la théorie», David ar Rouz ens invita a seguir l'evolució que el va emmenar d'una anàlisi de l'autotraducció a una reflexió sobre el paper del traductor i d'altres participants en l'acte de traduir. David ar Rouz comença per posar en qüestió el mite de l'original i la infal·libilitat de l'autotraductor: «S'adone que l'autotraductor és un traductor com els altres, o més ben dit: que el traductor hauria de ser un autor ...

  20. Development and Validation of an Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for Simultaneous Determination of Four Type B Trichothecenes and Masked Deoxynivalenol in Various Feed Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhichen; Bai, Bing; Jin, Peng; Fan, Kai; Guo, Wenbo; Zhao, Zhihui; Han, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    A reliable and sensitive analytical method was developed for simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol(DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), fusarenon X (FUS-X), and masked deoxynivalenol (deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, D3G) in formula feed, concentrated feed, and premixed feed products. The method was based on an improved sample pretreatment with the commercially available HLB cartridges used for sample purification and enrichment followed by analysis using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Several key parameters including the extraction solvents, the positions of sample loading solvents, washing and elution solvents for HLB cartridges were carefully optimized to achieve optimal extraction and purification efficiencies. The established method was extensively validated by determining the linearity (R² ≥ 0.99), sensitivity (limit of quantification in the range of 0.08-4.85 μg/kg), recovery (79.3%-108.1%), precision (Intra-day RSDs ≤ 13.5% and Inter-day RSDs ≤ 14.9%), and then was successfully applied to determine the four type B trichothecenes and D3G in a total of 31 feed samples. Among them, 26 were contaminated with various mycotoxins at the levels of 2.1-864.5 μg/kg, and D3G has also been detected in 17 samples with the concentrations in the range of 2.1-34.8 μg/kg, proving the established method to be a valuable tool for type B trichothecenes and masked DON monitoring in complex feed matrices. PMID:27338321

  1. Molecular Quantification and Genetic Diversity of Toxigenic Fusarium Species in Northern Europe as Compared to Those in Southern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapani Yli-Mattila

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium species produce important mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON, nivalenol (NIV and T-2/HT-2-toxins in cereals. The highest DON and T-2/HT-2 toxin levels in northern Europe have been found in oats. About 12%–24% of Finnish oat samples in 2012 contained >1.75 mg·kg−1 of DON, which belongs to type B trichothecenes. Fusarium graminearum is the most important DON producer in northern Europe and Asia and it has been displacing the closely related F. culmorum in northern Europe. The 3ADON chemotype of F. graminearum is dominant in most northern areas, while the 15ADON chemotype of F. graminearum is predominating in Central and southern Europe. We suggest that the northern population of F. graminearum may be more specialized to oats than the southern population. Only low levels of F. culmorum DNA were found in a few oat samples and no correlation was found between F. culmorum DNA and DON levels. DNA levels of F. graminearum were in all cases in agreement with DON levels in 2011 and 2012, when DON was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. When the RIDA® QUICK SCAN kit results (DON were compared to DNA levels of F. graminearum, the variation was much higher. The homogenization of the oats flour by grinding oats with 1 mm sieve seems to be connected to this variation. There was a significant correlation between the combined T-2 and HT-2 and the combined DNA levels of F. langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides in Finland in 2010–2012.

  2. Relationship between Fusarium spp. diversity and mycotoxin contents of mature grains in southern Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellin, Pierre; Dedeurwaerder, Géraldine; Duvivier, Maxime; Scauflaire, Jonathan; Huybrechts, Bart; Callebaut, Alfons; Munaut, Françoise; Legrève, Anne

    2016-07-01

    Over a 4-year period (2010-13), a survey aiming at determining the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and their relations to mycotoxins in mature grains took place in southern Belgium. The most prevalent species were F. graminearum, F. avenaceum, F. poae and F. culmorum, with large variations between years and locations. An even proportion of mating type found for F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. cerealis and F. tricinctum is usually a sign of ongoing sexual recombination. In contrast, an unbalanced proportion of mating type was found for F. poae and no MAT1-2 allele was present in the F. langsethiae population. Genetic chemotyping indicates a majority of deoxynivalenol (DON)-producing strains in F. culmorum (78%, all 3-ADON producers) and F. graminearum (95%, mostly 15-ADON producers), while all F. cerealis strains belong to the nivalenol (NIV) chemotype. Between 2011 and 2013, DON, NIV, enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) were found in each field in various concentrations. By comparison, beauvericin (BEA) was scarcely detected and T-2 toxin, zearalenone and α- and β-zearalenols were never detected. Principal component analysis revealed correlations of DON with F. graminearum, ENNs and MON with F. avenaceum and NIV with F. culmorum, F. cerealis and F. poae. BEA was associated with the presence of F. tricinctum and, to a lesser extent, with the presence of F. poae. The use of genetic chemotype data revealed that DON concentrations were mostly influenced by DON-producing strains of F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whereas the concentrations of NIV were influenced by the number of NIV-producing strains of both species added to the number of F. cerealis and F. poae strains. This study emphasises the need to pay attention to less-studied Fusarium spp. for future Fusarium head blight management strategies, as they commonly co-occur in the field and are associated with a broad spectrum of mycotoxins. PMID:27181458

  3. Expression of PIN Genes in Rice (Oryza sativa L.):Tissue Specificity and Regulation by Hormones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Rong Wang; Han Hu; Gao-Hang Wang; Jing Li; Jie-Yu Chen; Ping Wu

    2009-01-01

    Twelve genes of the PIN family in rice were analyzed for gene and protein structures and an evolutionary relationship with reported AtPINs in Arabidopsis.Four members of PIN1 (designated as OsPIN1a-d),one gene paired with AtPIN2 (OsPIN2),three members of PIN5 (OsPIN5a-c),one gene paired with AtPIN8 (OsPIN8),and three monocot-specific PiNs (OsPINg,OsPIN10a,and b) were identified from the phylogenetic analysis.Tissue-specific expression patterns of nine PIN genes among them were investigated using RT-PCR and GUS reporter.The wide variations in the expression domain in different tissues of the PIN genes were observed.In general,PIN genes are up-regulated by exogenous auxin,while different responses of different PIN genes to other hormones were found.

  4. Screening of toxin production influence factors of Fusarium graminearum with predictive microbiology method%禾谷镰刀菌产毒影响因子预测微生物学筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐得月; 王伟; 陈西平; 林肖惠; 李玉伟; 李凤琴

    2013-01-01

    Objective To screen key factors affecting toxin production of Fusarium graminearum ( F. graminea-rum) with predictive microbiology for prediction of toxin production under different natural conditions. Methods The L18-Hunter and Plackett-Burman(PB) models were developed based on wheat kernals,corn flakes,and rice inoculated with F. graminearum to screen the important factors(temperature,ventilatory capacity,water content,pH value,illumination , the amount and ingredients of the medium, and incubation time) which may affect the toxin production of F. graminearum. Results The results of L18-Hunter model showed that only 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol(3-A-DON) ,15-aetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-A-DON) and total toxins produced by strain 3. 4522 were statistically significant. The coefficients of the regression equations indicated that water content and incubation time were the key factors affecting the production of 3-A-DON,15-A-DON and total toxins by F. graminearum strain 3. 4522. While the results of Plackett-Burman model designed on the basis of L18-Hunter results showed that the absolute concentration of doxynivalenol (DON) and the total toxins,logarithm concentration of DON,zearalenone(ZEN) ,DON and its derivatives, type B trichothecenes,and the total toxins were statistically significant P = 0. 0345 ,0. 0148,0. 0022,0. 0029,0. 0068,0. 0067, and 0. 0006) , respectively. The R2 of the models were 0. 8124,0. 8616,0. 9287,0. 9216,0. 8945,0. 8951,and 0. 9543 ,respectively. The coefficients of the regression equations showed that incubation time, temperature, and initial pH value of the matrix were the key factors for toxin production of F. graminearum strain 3. 4522. Conclusion Incubation time,water content within a certain range(20 -50% ),temperature,and initial pH value of culture base are the key factors affecting toxins production of F. graminearum.%目的 对可能影响禾谷镰刀菌产毒的关键因子进行筛选,为不同自然条件下预测禾谷镰刀菌的产毒

  5. Terminal Design in Vector Network based on Windows Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqun Zhao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The research work of this study focuses on the design and implementation technology of terminal in Vector Network (VN based indows platform. The VN is a kind of new communication network with vector address as the switching adon Wdress. The premise of successful deployment of VN is its integration with the current IP networks, so it is necessary to study the implementation technology of VN terminal on the base of IP terminal. Firstly, a kind of software implementation method of VN terminal and a kind of integration method of VN and IP networks named “IP over VN” were proposed in this study. Secondly, the VN driver module was designed and implemented based on the NDIS driver interface and the key technique in the implementation was summarized. Finally, the experiment network was built to test the functions of VN terminal. The test results validated the rationality of the design and implementation scheme of VN terminal. The work of this study establishes the foundation for the deployment of VN and provides an example to the development of similar systems.

  6. Dynamic perception: Some theorems about the possibility of parallel pattern recognition with an application to high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of M. Minsky's and S. Papert's theorems on the impossibility of evaluating simple linear predicates by parallel architectures the authors want to show how these limitations can be avoided by introducing a generalized input-dependent preprocessing technique that does not suppose any a-priori knowledge of input like in classical input filtering procedures. This technique can be formalized in a very general way and can be also deduced by metamathematical arguments. A further development of the same technique can be applied at level of learning procedure to introduce in such a way the complete notion of open-quotes dynamic perceptronclose quotes. From the experimental standpoint, they show two applications of the open-quotes dynamic perceptronclose quotes in particle track recognition in high-energy accelerators. Firstly, they show the amazing improvement of performances that can be obtained in a perceptron architecture with classical learning by adding their open-quotes dynamicclose quotes pre-processing technique, already introduced last year in another paper presented at this Conference. Secondly, they show the results of this technique extended also at the level of learning procedure always applied to the problem of particle track recognition. This work is a part of open-quotes Feniceclose quotes international collaboration supported by INFN (National Institute for Nuclear Physics) devoted to the study of the time-like electromagnetic form factor of neutrons obtained by electron-positron high energy collisions in ADONE (Frascati, Rome) storage ring

  7. Mixed phenolic acids mediated proliferation of pathogens Talaromyces helicus and Kosakonia sacchari in continuously monocultured Radix pseudostellariae rhizosphere soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmiao eWu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Radix pseudostellariae L. is a common and popular Chinese medication. However, continuous monoculture has increased its susceptibility to severe diseases. We identified two pathogenic microorganisms, Talaromyces helicus M. (KU355274 and Kosakonia sacchari W. (KU324465, and their antagonistic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus Z. in rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured R. pseudostellariae. Nine types of phenolic acids were identified both in the rhizosphere soil and in culture medium under sterile conditions. A syringic acid and phenolic acid mixture significantly promoted the growth of T. helicus and K. sacchari. T. helicus could utilize eight types of phenolic acids, whereas K. sacchari could only use four phenolic acids. K. sacchari produced protocatechuic acid when consuming vanillin. Protocatechuic acid negatively affected the growth of B. pumilus. The 3A-DON toxin produced by T. helicus promoted the growth of K. sacchari and inhibited growth of B. pumilus at low concentrations. These data help explain why phenolic exudates mediate a microflora shift and structure disorder in the rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured R. pseudostellariae and lead to increased replanting disease incidence.

  8. Responsibility with accountability: A FAIR governance framework for performance accountability of local governments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Shah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the role of local governments in bringing about fair, accountable, incoorruptible and responsive (FAIR governance. Local governments around the world have done important innovations to earn the trust of their residents and their comparative performance is of great interest yet a comprehensive framework to provide such benchmarking is not available. This paper attempts to fill this void, by developing a general framework for performance accountability of local governments and by relating real world practices to aspects of this framework. The proposed rating framework requires several types of assessments: (a their compliance with due process and law; (b monitoring of fiscal health for sustainability; (c monitoring of service delivery ; and (d citizens’ satisfaction with local services. The approach yields key indicators useful for benchmarking performance that can be used in selfevaluation and improvement of performance. t From an analysis of practices in local government performance monitoring and evaluation, the paper concludes that ad hoc ad-on self standing monitoring and evaluation systems are more costly and less useful than built-in tools and mechanisms for government transparency, self–evaluation and citizen based accountability such as local government output budgeting and output based fiscal transfers to finance local services.

  9. Mixed Phenolic Acids Mediated Proliferation of Pathogens Talaromyces helicus and Kosakonia sacchari in Continuously Monocultured Radix pseudostellariae Rhizosphere Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongmiao; Wu, Linkun; Wang, Juanying; Zhu, Quan; Lin, Sheng; Xu, Jiahui; Zheng, Cailiang; Chen, Jun; Qin, Xianjin; Fang, Changxun; Zhang, Zhixing; Azeem, Saadia; Lin, Wenxiong

    2016-01-01

    Radix pseudostellariae L. is a common and popular Chinese medication. However, continuous monoculture has increased its susceptibility to severe diseases. We identified two pathogenic microorganisms, Talaromyces helicus M. (KU355274) and Kosakonia sacchari W. (KU324465), and their antagonistic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus Z. in rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured R. pseudostellariae. Nine types of phenolic acids were identified both in the rhizosphere soil and in culture medium under sterile conditions. A syringic acid and phenolic acid mixture significantly promoted the growth of T. helicus and K. sacchari. T. helicus could utilize eight types of phenolic acids, whereas K. sacchari could only use four phenolic acids. K. sacchari produced protocatechuic acid when consuming vanillin. Protocatechuic acid negatively affected the growth of B. pumilus. The 3A-DON toxin produced by T. helicus promoted the growth of K. sacchari and inhibited growth of B. pumilus at low concentrations. These data help explain why phenolic exudates mediate a microflora shift and structure disorder in the rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured R. pseudostellariae and lead to increased replanting disease incidence. PMID:27014250

  10. Time-like Baryon Form Factors near threshold: status and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' E. Fermi' , Rome (Italy); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Pacetti, Simone [University and INFN of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Zallo, Adriano [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Two striking features of the e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}pp{sup Macron} and e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}nn{sup Macron} cross sections near threshold are discussed: the e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}pp{sup Macron} data show a nearly flat cross section in the 200 MeV region above threshold. The e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}nn{sup Macron} results, published in 1998 by the FENICE collaboration at ADONE collider, show a neutron cross section larger or equal to the proton one. This surprising behavior has been confirmed recently by SND experiment at VEPP-2000. The FENICE and SND results have been obtained with energy scan measurements, while for the BABAR data the initial state radiation technique has been used. This technique has a high efficiency even at the production threshold and appears to be the best solution to a better understanding of these behaviors. To this purpose the zero degree photon detector, now in the installation stage with BESIII experiment at BEPCII collider, has been constructed. A preliminary analysis on the improvements achievable with this detector is presented.

  11. Indole-3-acetic acid in Fusarium graminearum: Identification of biosynthetic pathways and characterization of physiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kun; Rocheleau, Hélène; Qi, Peng-Fei; Zheng, You-Liang; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Ouellet, Thérèse

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a devastating pathogenic fungus causing fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat. This fungus can produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and a very large amount of IAA accumulates in wheat head tissues during the first few days of infection by F. graminearum. Using liquid culture conditions, we have determined that F. graminearum can use tryptamine (TAM) and indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN) as biosynthetic intermediates to produce IAA. It is the first time that F. graminearum is shown to use the l-tryptophan-dependent TAM and IAN pathways rather than the indole-3-acetamide or indole-3-pyruvic acid pathways to produce IAA. Our experiments also showed that exogenous IAA was metabolized by F. graminearum. Exogenous IAA, TAM, and IAN inhibited mycelial growth; IAA and IAN also affected the hyphae branching pattern and delayed macroconidium germination. IAA and TAM had a small positive effect on the production of the mycotoxin 15-ADON while IAN inhibited its production. Our results showed that IAA and biosynthetic intermediates had a significant effect on F. graminearum physiology and suggested a new area of exploration for fungicidal compounds. PMID:27567719

  12. A prebiotic, Celmanax™, decreases Escherichia coli O157:H7 colonization of bovine cells and feed-associated cytotoxicity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juba Jean

    2011-04-01

    expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood clot blocking the jejunum. Mycotoxin analysis of the corn crop confirmed the presence of fumonisin, NIV, ZEAR, DON, 15-ADON, 3-ADON, NEO, DAS, HT-2 and T-2. Feed extracts were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% Celmanax™ removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. There was no effect of Dairyman's Choice™ paste on feed-extract activity in vitro. Fumonisin, T-2, ZEAR and DON were toxic to bovine cells and 0.1% Celmanax™ removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. Celmanax™ also directly decreased E. coli O157:H7 colonization of mucosal explants and a colonic cell line in a dose-dependent manner. There was no effect of Dairyman's Choice™ paste on E. coli O157:H7 colonization in vitro. The inclusion of the prebiotic and probiotic in the feed was associated with a decline in disease. Conclusion The current study confirmed an association between mycotoxigenic fungi in the feed and the development of JHS in cattle. This association was further expanded to include mycotoxins in the feed and mixtures of STECs colonizing the severely hemorrhaged tissues. Future studies should examine the extent of involvement of the different STEC in the infection process. The prebiotic, Celmanax™, acted as an anti-adhesive for STEC colonization and a mycotoxin binder in vitro. Future studies should determine the extent of involvement of the prebiotic in altering disease.

  13. Humid Little Ice Age in arid central Asia documented by Bosten Lake,Xinjiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Fahu; HUANG; Xiaozhong; ZHANG; Jiawu; J.A.Holmes; CHEN; Jianhui

    2006-01-01

    Short sediment cores retrieved from Bosten Lake,the largest inland freshwater lake in China,were used to explore humidity and precipitation variations in arid central Asia during the past millennium.The chronology of the cores was established using 137Cs,210Pb and AMS 14C dating results.Multi-proxy high-resolution analysis,including pollen ratios of Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae (A/C),carbonate content and grain size,indicates that the climate during the past millennium can be divided into three stages: a dry climate between 1000-1500 AD,a humid climate during the Little Ice Age (LIA) (c.1500-1900 AD),and a warm dry period after 1900 AD.On centennial timescales,the climate change in northwestern China during the past 1000 years is characterized by oscillations between warm-dry and cold-humid climate conditions.All the proxies changed significantly and indicate increased precipitation during the LIA,including increased pollen A/C ratios and pollen concentrations,decreased carbonate content and increased grain size.The humid period during the LIA recorded by the Bosten Lake sediments is representative of arid central Asia and is supported by numerous records from other sites.During the LIA,the water runoff into the Keriya River and Tarim River in the Tarim Basin increased,while the ice accumulation in the Guliya ice core increased.Additionally,the lake levels of the Aral and Caspian Sea also rose,while tree-ring analysis indicates that precipitation increased.We hypothesize that both the lower temperature within China and the negative anomalies of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) during this period may have contributed to the humid climate within this area during LIA.

  14. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellmann Jere

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormalities in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF production and turnover, seen in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH and in Alzheimer's disease (AD, may be an important cause of amyloid retention in the brain and may relate the two diseases. There is a high incidence of AD pathology in patients being shunted for NPH, the AD-NPH syndrome. We now report elevated CSF pressure (CSFP, consistent with very early hydrocephalus, in a subset of AD patients enrolled in a clinical trial of chronic low-flow CSF drainage. Our objective was to determine the frequency of elevated CSFP in subjects meeting National Institutes of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke – Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS-ADRDA criteria for AD, excluding those with signs of concomitant NPH. Methods AD subjects by NINCDS-ADRDA criteria (n = 222, were screened by history, neurological examination, and radiographic imaging to exclude those with clinical or radiographic signs of NPH. As part of this exclusion process, opening CSFP was measured supine under general anesthesia during device implantation surgery at a controlled pCO2 of 40 Torr (40 mmHg. Results Of the 222 AD subjects 181 had pressure measurements recorded. Seven subjects (3.9% enrolled in the study had CSFP of 220 mmH20 or greater, mean 249 ± 20 mmH20 which was significantly higher than 103 ± 47 mmH2O for the AD-only group. AD-NPH patients were significantly younger and significantly less demented on the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS. Conclusion Of the AD subjects who were carefully screened to exclude those with clinical NPH, 4% had elevated CSFP. These subjects were presumed to have the AD-NPH syndrome and were withdrawn from the remainder of the study.

  15. Estudio geocientífico aplicado a la evaluación de la aptitud para la urbanización en la cuenca carbonífera de Río Turbio, Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pereyra

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio geocientífico para la evaluación de la aptitud para la urbanización en la cuenca carbonífera de Río Turbio. Este estudio incluyó la caracterización de los recursos naturales: suelos, agua y paisaje y la evaluación de áreas de riesgo natural y antrópico, la pérdida de espacios verdes y tierras agrícolas. La zona implicada se encuentra localizada en el extremo SO de la provincia de Santa Cruz. Conforma la llamada cuenca carbonífera del Río Turbio. Las localidades de Río Turbio y 28 de Noviembre exhiben el mayor número poblacional. Estas poblaciones se desarrollaron a partir de la actividad minera y ganadera. En función de las características geológicas, geomorfológicas, bióticas, geotécnicas, hidrológicas y edafológicas, se han diferenciado 7 unidades de paisaje. A partir de la información generada previamente y como insumo básico para la producción del plan de desarrollo urbano, se ha realizado un mapa de aptitud para la urbanización del área. Las unidades de paisaje con mejores posibilidades para la expansión urbana son dos: Morenas con estepa herbácea y planicies glacifluviales con estepa mixta. La unidad paisaje erosivo glaciar con bosque y la unidad terrazas fluviales son aceptables para la urbanización, mientras que las unidades: Cañadones y pendientes aluvio-coluviales, serranías poligenéticas terciarias y mallines y bajos, son inapropiadas para la urbanización, por diferentes motivos.

  16. Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Planel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD include senile plaques of β-amyloid (Aβ peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF. NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD.Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99% is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease.Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM and type 2 diabetes (T2DM are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment.Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting on Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia.

  17. Al margen de las Obras de Francisco de la Torre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Abadín Barro, Soledad

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Francisco de la Torre's Works, published by Quevedo in 1631, enclose a second part, described in later years as an «appendix», with translations that did not belong in the original project prepared by the author some decades before. The summary of the 1588 license for printing describes the work's content as «lyric and adonic verse, and bucolic», without mentioning the translations. The new date throws into question the participation of Almeida and Brocense in the preparation and transmission of the manuscript that came to Quevedo. Therefore, the volume of 1631 cannot be considered as an example of salmantin group's collective poetical essay. Related chronological considerations also throw new light on the relationship between the author and Fernando de Herrera.Las Obras de Francisco de la Torre, publicadas por Quevedo en 1631, incluyen una segunda parte, que más tarde se llamaría «apéndice», con traducciones ajenas al proyecto inicial preparado por el propio autor décadas antes. El sumario de la licencia de impresión de 1588 describe el contenido de la obra aprobada como «los versos líricos y adónicos y la bucólica», sin mencionar las traducciones. La nueva fecha lleva a cuestionar el protagonismo de Almeida y el Brócense en la preparación y transmisión del manuscrito que más tarde llegaría a Quevedo. El volumen de 1631, por lo tanto, no puede considerarse como un exponente de un ejercicio poético colectivo del círculo salmantino. Los datos cronológicos también permiten replantear la relación del autor con Fernando de Herrera.

  18. Nutritional Aspects of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undine E. Lang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics, which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials.

  19. Occurrence of 26 Mycotoxins in the Grain of Cereals Cultivated in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryła, Marcin; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Podolska, Grażyna; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Damaziak, Krzysztof; Sułek, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    The levels of 26 mycotoxins were determined in 147 samples of the grain of cereals cultivated in five regions of Poland during the 2014 growing season. The HPLC-HRMS (time-of-flight) analytical technique was used. An analytical procedure to simultaneously determine 26 mycotoxins in grain was developed, tested and verified. Samples from eastern and southern Poland were more contaminated with mycotoxins than the samples from northern and western Poland. Toxins produced by Fusarium fungi were the main contaminants found. Some deoxynivalenol (DON) was found in 100% of the tested samples of wheat (Osiny, Borusowa, Werbkowice), triticale, winter barley and oats, while the maximum permissible DON level (as defined in the EU Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006) was exceeded in 10 samples. Zearalenone (ZEN), DON metabolites and enniatins were also commonly found. The presence of mycotoxins in grain reflected the prevailing weather conditions during the plant flowering/earing stages, which were favorable for the development of blight. Among all investigated wheat genotypes, cv. Fidelius was the least contaminated, while Bamberka, Forkida and Kampana were the most contaminated. However, the single-factor ANOVA analysis of variance did not reveal (at a statistical significance level α = 0.05) any differences between levels of mycotoxins in individual genotypes. Triticale was the most contaminated grain among all of the tested varieties. ZEN, DON and the sum of 3-acetyldexynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3- and 15-ADON) were found in 100% of the tested triticale samples at concentrations within the 4–86, 196–1326 and 36–374 µg·kg−1 range, respectively. Of particular concern was the fact that some “emerging mycotoxins” (enniatins) (in addition to commonly-known and legally-regulated mycotoxins) were also found in the tested triticale samples (enniatin B (Enn-B), enniatin B1 (Enn-B1), enniatin A-1 (Enn-A1), 100% of samples, and enniatin A (Enn-A), 70% of

  20. Occurrence of 26 Mycotoxins in the Grain of Cereals Cultivated in Poland

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    Marcin Bryła

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The levels of 26 mycotoxins were determined in 147 samples of the grain of cereals cultivated in five regions of Poland during the 2014 growing season. The HPLC-HRMS (time-of-flight analytical technique was used. An analytical procedure to simultaneously determine 26 mycotoxins in grain was developed, tested and verified. Samples from eastern and southern Poland were more contaminated with mycotoxins than the samples from northern and western Poland. Toxins produced by Fusarium fungi were the main contaminants found. Some deoxynivalenol (DON was found in 100% of the tested samples of wheat (Osiny, Borusowa, Werbkowice, triticale, winter barley and oats, while the maximum permissible DON level (as defined in the EU Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006 was exceeded in 10 samples. Zearalenone (ZEN, DON metabolites and enniatins were also commonly found. The presence of mycotoxins in grain reflected the prevailing weather conditions during the plant flowering/earing stages, which were favorable for the development of blight. Among all investigated wheat genotypes, cv. Fidelius was the least contaminated, while Bamberka, Forkida and Kampana were the most contaminated. However, the single-factor ANOVA analysis of variance did not reveal (at a statistical significance level α = 0.05 any differences between levels of mycotoxins in individual genotypes. Triticale was the most contaminated grain among all of the tested varieties. ZEN, DON and the sum of 3-acetyldexynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3- and 15-ADON were found in 100% of the tested triticale samples at concentrations within the 4–86, 196–1326 and 36–374 µg·kg−1 range, respectively. Of particular concern was the fact that some “emerging mycotoxins” (enniatins (in addition to commonly-known and legally-regulated mycotoxins were also found in the tested triticale samples (enniatin B (Enn-B, enniatin B1 (Enn-B1, enniatin A-1 (Enn-A1, 100% of samples, and enniatin A (Enn-A, 70

  1. Occurrence of 26 Mycotoxins in the Grain of Cereals Cultivated in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryła, Marcin; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Podolska, Grażyna; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Damaziak, Krzysztof; Sułek, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    The levels of 26 mycotoxins were determined in 147 samples of the grain of cereals cultivated in five regions of Poland during the 2014 growing season. The HPLC-HRMS (time-of-flight) analytical technique was used. An analytical procedure to simultaneously determine 26 mycotoxins in grain was developed, tested and verified. Samples from eastern and southern Poland were more contaminated with mycotoxins than the samples from northern and western Poland. Toxins produced by Fusarium fungi were the main contaminants found. Some deoxynivalenol (DON) was found in 100% of the tested samples of wheat (Osiny, Borusowa, Werbkowice), triticale, winter barley and oats, while the maximum permissible DON level (as defined in the EU Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006) was exceeded in 10 samples. Zearalenone (ZEN), DON metabolites and enniatins were also commonly found. The presence of mycotoxins in grain reflected the prevailing weather conditions during the plant flowering/earing stages, which were favorable for the development of blight. Among all investigated wheat genotypes, cv. Fidelius was the least contaminated, while Bamberka, Forkida and Kampana were the most contaminated. However, the single-factor ANOVA analysis of variance did not reveal (at a statistical significance level α = 0.05) any differences between levels of mycotoxins in individual genotypes. Triticale was the most contaminated grain among all of the tested varieties. ZEN, DON and the sum of 3-acetyldexynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3- and 15-ADON) were found in 100% of the tested triticale samples at concentrations within the 4-86, 196-1326 and 36-374 µg·kg(-1) range, respectively. Of particular concern was the fact that some "emerging mycotoxins" (enniatins) (in addition to commonly-known and legally-regulated mycotoxins) were also found in the tested triticale samples (enniatin B (Enn-B), enniatin B1 (Enn-B1), enniatin A-1 (Enn-A1), 100% of samples, and enniatin A (Enn-A), 70% of samples

  2. Antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients: a proposal to assess the economic value of the single-tablet regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo GL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Giorgio L Colombo,1,2 Sergio Di Matteo,2 Franco Maggiolo31University of Pavia, Department of Drug Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Pavia, Italy, 2Studi Analisi Valutazioni Economiche, Milan, Italy, 3Division of Infectious Diseases, Ospedali Riuniti, Bergamo, ItalyBackground: The aim of this study was to assess the economic value of a reduced number of pills in patients infected with the immunodeficiency virus (HIV and on highly active antiretroviral therapy by a cost-effectiveness model.Methods: An incremental cost-effectiveness analysis of efavirenz, tenofovir, and emtricitabine (TDF-FTC-EFV as a single-tablet regimen versus a multipill regimen, with reference to untreated HIV-infected patients, was carried out from the perspective of the Italian National Health Service. The comparisons were performed with the help of a Markov decision model over a 10-year time horizon. Based on the ADONE (ADherence to ONE pill study, it was then possible to identify the utility score increment in patients switching from a multipill regimen of TDF-FTC + EFV therapy to a single-tablet regimen.Results: The single-tablet regimen (0.755 quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]/year resulted in better patient quality of life, with a higher number of QALYs than for the TDF-FTC + EFV multipill regimen (0.716 QALYs/year. The single-tablet regimen was the most cost-effective treatment strategy, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €22,017.00 versus €26,558.00 for the multipill regimen. A 24% decrease in cost of the multipill regimen determined equivalence with the single-tablet regimen in terms of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Univariate sensitivity and probabilistic analysis carried out on the main variables did not highlight significant variations with respect to the base case scenario.Conclusion: The single-tablet regimen resulted in better adherence, and therefore better quality of life as perceived by patients, corresponding to a €4541.00 lower

  3. Reconstruction of the western Pacific warm pool SST since 1644 AD and its relation to precipitation over East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZiYin; GONG DaoYi; HE XueZhao; GUO Dong; FENG ShengHui

    2009-01-01

    Based on coral proxies we reconstructed the western Pacific warm pool sea surface temperature (SST) since 1644 AD.High-frequency reconstructions are based on eight high-pass filtered coral series and raw reconstructions are derived from eight unfiltered coral series,respectively.Validation and comparison with other SST/temperature series show that the reconstructed warm pool SST is highly reliable.The leading periods of warm pool SST are ~2.1,~2.3,~2.9,~3.6,~3.8,and 80.7-year during the last ~360 years.The warm pool SST exhibits some obvious long-term trends:an upward trend of 0.04℃ per century for the period of 1644-1825,while a decreasing trend of 0.24℃ per century for the period of 1826-1885,and then a remarkable warming trend of 0.28℃ per century taking place between 1886 and 2006.Especially,the SST shows the strongest trend of 0.67℃ increase per century during the last 50 years,a warming unprecedented since 1644 AD.On interannual timescale,the connections between ENSO and the warm pool SST are robust during the reconstruction period.There are significant correlations between the warm pool SST and summer precipitation of the Yellow River basin and Huaihe River basin;the correlation coefficients are-0.44 in reconstruction period (1880-1949 AD) and -0.46 in instrumental period (1950-2005 AD) respectively.This relationship is also found between flooddrought index and the warm pool SST during the past 360 years,and their correlation coefficients are -0.20 in reconstruction period and -0.46 in instrumental period respectively,significant at the 0.01 level.On interdecadal timescale,this connection is more robust,and the correlation coefficient of the low-pass filtered components is -0.42 during the whole period (1644-2000 AD).When the warm pool is warmer than normal,the precipitation is usually below the normal in the Yellow River and Huaihe River basin.On the contrary,when the warm pool is colder than the normal,there may be more precipitation

  4. Estratigrafía, análisis de facies y paleoambientes de la formación cañadón asfalto en el depocentro jurásico cerro Cóndor, provincia del Chubut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Cabaleri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available El depocentro Cerro Cóndor representa la secuencia estratigráfica del Jurásico continental más completa de la cuenca de Cañadón Asfalto y de Sudamérica austral. Se sitúa en la Patagonia extraandina, en ambas márgenes del río Chubut medio. La sedimentación en esta cuenca pull apart, acompañada por efusiones de basalto olivínico, comenzó en el Jurásico Medio temprano. Predominan en la Formación Cañadón Asfalto los depósitos lacustres caracterizados por asociaciones de facies carbonáticas y siliciclásticas intercaladas con rocas lávicas en la base y depósitos piroclásticos hacia el techo de la unidad. Se describe el desarrollo de facies a lo largo de un corte norte-sur que abarca las secciones de estancia El Torito y de los cañadones Los Loros, Las Chacritas, Carrizal, Asfalto y Lahuincó. Las facies/microfacies carbonáticas están representadas por mudstones, wackestones,packstones, grainstones y calizas microbialíticas características de ambientes litorales, marginales y palustres. En la Formación Cañadón Asfalto se distinguen un miembro inferior (Las Chacritas, constituido por calizas, lutitas, areniscas y conglomerados, intercalados con basaltos olivínicos y por otro superior (Puesto Almada compuesto por tobas, tufitas, lutitas y areniscas. El primero es portador de una asociación palinológica de edad bajociano-bathoniana y el segundo de dinosaurios de edad tithoniana. Se describen detalladamente e ilustran las secciones estratigráficas de ambos miembros de la formación en sus localidades tipo, cañadón Las Chacritas y estancia el Torito y se reconstruyen los paleoambientes del depocentro desde el Aaleniano al Tithoniano. La edad del miembro Puesto Almada en su localidad tipo se obtuvo mediante una datación radimétrica (K/Ar de biotitas provenientes de una delgada capa de toba volcánica (147,1 ± 3,3 Ma, Tithoniano proveniente de la parte superior de la unidad.

  5. Estudio geocientífico aplicado a la evaluación de la aptitud para la urbanización en la cuenca carbonífera de Río Turbio, Santa Cruz Geoscientific study applied to the evaluation of urbanisation suitability at the carboniferous basin of Río Turbio, Santa Cruz

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    Fernando Pereyra

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio geocientífico para la evaluación de la aptitud para la urbanización en la cuenca carbonífera de Río Turbio. Este estudio incluyó la caracterización de los recursos naturales: suelos, agua y paisaje y la evaluación de áreas de riesgo natural y antrópico, la pérdida de espacios verdes y tierras agrícolas. La zona implicada se encuentra localizada en el extremo SO de la provincia de Santa Cruz. Conforma la llamada cuenca carbonífera del Río Turbio. Las localidades de Río Turbio y 28 de Noviembre exhiben el mayor número poblacional. Estas poblaciones se desarrollaron a partir de la actividad minera y ganadera. En función de las características geológicas, geomorfológicas, bióticas, geotécnicas, hidrológicas y edafológicas, se han diferenciado 7 unidades de paisaje. A partir de la información generada previamente y como insumo básico para la producción del plan de desarrollo urbano, se ha realizado un mapa de aptitud para la urbanización del área. Las unidades de paisaje con mejores posibilidades para la expansión urbana son dos: Morenas con estepa herbácea y planicies glacifluviales con estepa mixta. La unidad paisaje erosivo glaciar con bosque y la unidad terrazas fluviales son aceptables para la urbanización, mientras que las unidades: Cañadones y pendientes aluvio-coluviales, serranías poligenéticas terciarias y mallines y bajos, son inapropiadas para la urbanización, por diferentes motivos.A geoscientific study was accomplished to evaluate suitability for urban developments the in carboniferous basin of the Turbio River. This research included the characterization of natural resources: soil, water and landscape; the evaluation of natural and anthropic hazardous areas and the loss of farming and green lands. The implied area is located in the SW end of the Province of Santa Cruz. It is part of the carboniferous basin of the River Turbio. The towns of Rio Turbio and 28 de Noviembre hold

  6. Estratigrafía, análisis de facies y paleoambientes de la formación cañadón asfalto en el depocentro jurásico cerro Cóndor, provincia del Chubut Stratigraphy, facies analysis and paleoenvironments of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation, Jurassic Cerro Cóndor depocenter, Chubut province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Cabaleri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available El depocentro Cerro Cóndor representa la secuencia estratigráfica del Jurásico continental más completa de la cuenca de Cañadón Asfalto y de Sudamérica austral. Se sitúa en la Patagonia extraandina, en ambas márgenes del río Chubut medio. La sedimentación en esta cuenca pull apart, acompañada por efusiones de basalto olivínico, comenzó en el Jurásico Medio temprano. Predominan en la Formación Cañadón Asfalto los depósitos lacustres caracterizados por asociaciones de facies carbonáticas y siliciclásticas intercaladas con rocas lávicas en la base y depósitos piroclásticos hacia el techo de la unidad. Se describe el desarrollo de facies a lo largo de un corte norte-sur que abarca las secciones de estancia El Torito y de los cañadones Los Loros, Las Chacritas, Carrizal, Asfalto y Lahuincó. Las facies/microfacies carbonáticas están representadas por mudstones, wackestones,packstones, grainstones y calizas microbialíticas características de ambientes litorales, marginales y palustres. En la Formación Cañadón Asfalto se distinguen un miembro inferior (Las Chacritas, constituido por calizas, lutitas, areniscas y conglomerados, intercalados con basaltos olivínicos y por otro superior (Puesto Almada compuesto por tobas, tufitas, lutitas y areniscas. El primero es portador de una asociación palinológica de edad bajociano-bathoniana y el segundo de dinosaurios de edad tithoniana. Se describen detalladamente e ilustran las secciones estratigráficas de ambos miembros de la formación en sus localidades tipo, cañadón Las Chacritas y estancia el Torito y se reconstruyen los paleoambientes del depocentro desde el Aaleniano al Tithoniano. La edad del miembro Puesto Almada en su localidad tipo se obtuvo mediante una datación radimétrica (K/Ar de biotitas provenientes de una delgada capa de toba volcánica (147,1 ± 3,3 Ma, Tithoniano proveniente de la parte superior de la unidad.The Cerro Cóndor depocenter represents the