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Sample records for adolf kussmaul distinguished

  1. In sensu non in situ: the prodromic cognitivism of Kussmaul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarema, G

    1993-11-01

    Kussmaul's model of language functions is presented, together with antecedent models that have influenced his conception of linguistic processes. The particular interest in this model lies in the fact that it anticipates the modern approach to diagram-making. In contrast to most of his contemporaries, Kussmaul understood that a functional model can, indeed ought to, be developed without being constrained by considerations of localization, as long as the neurological foundations of language remain underspecified. He thus deserves recognition as a pioneer of cognitive neuropsychology.

  2. Adolf Hitler's medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, D

    2005-02-01

    For the last nine years of his life Adolf Hitler, a lifelong hypochondriac had as his physician Dr Theodor Morell. Hitler's mood swings, Parkinson's disease, gastro-intestinal symptoms, skin problems and steady decline until his suicide in 1945 are documented by reliable observers and historians, and in Morell's diaries. The bizarre and unorthodox medications given to Hitler, often for undisclosed reasons, include topical cocaine, injected amphetamines, glucose, testosterone, estradiol, and corticosteroids. In addition, he was given a preparation made from a gun cleaner, a compound of strychnine and atropine, an extract of seminal vesicles, and numerous vitamins and 'tonics'. It seems possible that some of Hitler's behaviour, illnesses and suffering can be attributed to his medical care. Whether he blindly accepted such unorthodox medications or demanded them is unclear.

  3. Did Adolf Hitler have syphilis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retief, F P; Wessels, A

    2005-10-01

    The evidence that Adolf Hitler might have suffered from incapacitating syphilis is reviewed. Rumors that he acquired syphilis from a prostitute at the age of 20 years, with possible re-infection during World War I, can no longer be verified. Evidence is that he was sexually rather inactive throughout his life. Suggestions that Hitler's cardiac lesion and complaints such as transitory blindness, tremor of his left arm and leg, recurring abdominal pain and a skin lesion of the leg were of syphilitic aetiology cannot be supported. Hitler's progressive mental and physical deterioration after 1942, his growing paranoia, fits of rage, grandiosity and symptoms of possible dementia would fit in neurosyphilis. There are, however, also other explanations for his terminal syndrome, and evidence that repeated clinical examinations did not show the characteristic signs of dementia paralytica or tabes dorsalis, swings the balance of probability away from tertiary syphilis.

  4. Adolf Hitler and His Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B

    2015-01-01

    Research works have suggested almost incontrovertibly, that Adolf Hitler suffered from Parkinsonism. However, the precise nature of his illness had always been controversial and post-encephalitic and idiopathic varieties were the ones which were most commonly thought as the possible etiology. He displayed features like oculogyric crisis, palilalia, and autonomic symptoms which strongly implicate post-encephalitic etiology in the genesis of his illness. Others on the contrary, observed premorbid personality traits like non-flinching mental rigidity, extreme inflexibility, and awesome pedantry; which are often observed in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Moreover, nonmotor symptoms like disturbed sleep, proneness to temper tantrums, phases of depression, suspiciousness, and lack of trust on colleagues have also been described by various authors. Additionally, he was prescribed methamphetamine by his personal doctor and that might have led to the development of some of the later traits in his personality.

  5. Adolf Hitler and His Parkinsonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan B Bhattacharyya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research works have suggested almost incontrovertibly, that Adolf Hitler suffered from Parkinsonism. However, the precise nature of his illness had always been controversial and post-encephalitic and idiopathic varieties were the ones which were most commonly thought as the possible etiology. He displayed features like oculogyric crisis, palilalia, and autonomic symptoms which strongly implicate post-encephalitic etiology in the genesis of his illness. Others on the contrary, observed premorbid personality traits like non-flinching mental rigidity, extreme inflexibility, and awesome pedantry; which are often observed in idiopathic Parkinson′s disease. Moreover, nonmotor symptoms like disturbed sleep, proneness to temper tantrums, phases of depression, suspiciousness, and lack of trust on colleagues have also been described by various authors. Additionally, he was prescribed methamphetamine by his personal doctor and that might have led to the development of some of the later traits in his personality.

  6. Adolf Loos y el despertar

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    Fernando Espuelas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Walter Benjamin utiliza en el Libro de los Pasajes la metáfora de la acción de des­pertar para explicar la entrada en la modernidad de la sociedad burguesa del siglo XIX. Y pone la obra de Marcel Proust como ejemplo privilegiado de este cambio. Adolf Loos en arquitectura juega un papel similar al de Proust en literatura: despoja los interiores de las casas burguesas de oscuridad y simbolismo. La arquitectura de Loos incorpora dos rasgos del espíritu moderno: el dinamismo y la simultaneidad. Loos organiza los espacios de sus viviendas con una fuerte teatral­idad. La casa se hace con una suma de escenarios simultáneos puestos en relación por juegos de escaleras múltiples y aperturas visuales. La acción de subir o bajar una escalera introduce el dinamismo del que prescindía la casa burguesa del siglo XIX. Las piezas, situadas como pequeños escenarios, convierten a sus habitantes en instantáneos actores de lo cotidiano.

  7. [Ophthalmologists in the proximity of Adolf Hitler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, J M

    2012-10-01

    Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state.

  8. Adolf Hitler had post-encephalitic Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, A

    1996-04-01

    Adolf Hitler had Parkinson symptoms in 1934, at age 45 years. He may have had transient symptoms in 1923, at age 34 years. Young-onset parkinsonism, during the 1920s, favored a diagnosis of post-encephalitic rather than idiopathic parkinsonism. Hitler had oculogyric crises, phenomena only associated with post-encephalitic parkinsonism. In addition, he had dystonic facial spasms, palilalia and a sleep disorder, phenomena more likely to be associated with post-encephalitic than idiopathic parkinsonism. In November 1918, at age 29 years, Hitler may have had von Economo's encephalitis, while he was a patient in a hospital, recovering from poison gas. This paper looks at the possible relationship of von Economo's encephalitis to Hitler's asocial behavior; his obsessions and compulsions, his cruelty and rages. The influence of Hitler's parkinsonism on his conduct during World War II is discussed.

  9. Adolf Eichmann: ¿"subjetividad" posmoderna?

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    ALBERTO SLADOGNA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La subjetividad es sólo social y se la estudia a partir de un caso: las actividades de Adolf Eichmann, burócrata del exterminio nazi, quien efectuaba el traslado ferroviario de las víctimas hacia las cámaras de gas de Auschwitz. Él pone a consideración de la clínica y del psicoanálisis una interrogación de la culpa descubierta por Freud e interrogada por Lacan: ya no estamos ante un sujeto culpable de haber nacido -su deuda-, sino que la culpa, a partir de Eichmann, es del otro/Otro. La posmodernidad surge de Auschwitz; el psicoanálisis está concernido por ese acontecimiento -Lacan, 9/10/1967-.

  10. Mida Adolf Hitler tummfilmis ütles? / Priit Pruul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pruul, Priit

    2006-01-01

    Frank Huberi poolt välja töötatud arvuti tarkvara ALR võimaldab Adolf Hitlerist tema mägimajas tehtud tummfilmidest välja lugeda füüreri suuliigutustega edasiantud teksti. (The Daily Telegraphi põhjal)

  11. The other immigration to Argentina: the case of Adolf Eichmann

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    Christian Cwik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolf Eichmann llegó a la Argentina como otros 500 Nazis forajidos a través de una red de traficantes ilegales de migrantes entre 1945 y 1955. Esta red fue el resuldado del interés de la República de Argentina, la Cruz Roja, la Caritas y el Vaticano por un lado y por el otro los delincuentes. Eichmann la cara de la ‘banalidad del mal’, como Hannah Arendt escribió en su libro “Eichmann en Jerusalén: un estudio sobre la banalidad del mal”(2ª. edición, traducción de Carlos Ribalta, Barcelona, Lumen, 1999 tuvo bastantes problemas para integrarse en la sociedad argentina y por ende, fracasó. Adolf Eichmann nacido en 1906 en Solingen/Alemania personificó un caractér típico de la sociedad en la posguerra austriaca-alemana, lo que hizo que fracasara en su vida laboral varias veces durante los veintes y los inicios de los treinta del siglo XX.Palabras Clave: Adolf Eichmann;  Holocausto; Tráfico Ilegal de Migrantes; Inmigración en Argentina; Peronismo; Tribunales Internacionales. La otra inmigración a Argentina: El caso de Adolf EichmannAbstractAdolf Eichmann arrived to Argentina along with other 500 runaway Nazis thorugh a smuggling network between 1945 and 1955. This network was the result of the interest shown by the The Republic of Argentina, the Red Cross, Caritas and the Vatican in one hand; in the other, the criminals of war. Eichmann, the face of Hanna Arendt’s t “Banality of Evil” had numerous troubles to integrate to argentinian society, failing as a result.Adolf Eichmann, born in 1906 in Solingen, Germany, personified a typical Austrian-german postwar character, a fact that conduced to his laboral failure in the twentys and early thirties of the twentieth century.Keywords:Adolf Eichmann; Holocaust; Nazi Criminals; Trafficking of migrants; Post War Period; Immigration to Argentina; Peronism; Mossad; International Tribunal. 

  12. The other immigration to Argentina: the case of Adolf Eichmann

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Cwik

    2014-01-01

    Adolf Eichmann llegó a la Argentina como otros 500 Nazis forajidos a través de una red de traficantes ilegales de migrantes entre 1945 y 1955. Esta red fue el resuldado del interés de la República de Argentina, la Cruz Roja, la Caritas y el Vaticano por un lado y por el otro los delincuentes. Eichmann la cara de la ‘banalidad del mal’, como Hannah Arendt escribió en su libro “Eichmann en Jerusalén: un estudio sobre la banalidad del mal”(2ª. edición, traducción de Carlos Ribalta, Barcelona, Lu...

  13. The death of Adolf Hitler--forensic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Daniela; Boschi, Ilaria; Polacco, Matteo; Rainio, Juha

    2005-09-01

    The death of Adolf Hitler is one of the unsolved mysteries of the twentieth century. Numerous historians and journalists have attempted to piece together the details, but despite the interest in the forensic literature regarding the identification of the body, there has not been much scientific debate about the alleged cause of death--cyanide poisoning, gunshot injury, or both. The available literature concerning Hitler's cause of death is incomplete because the toxicological analysis has not been performed and because the skull bone fragment with a gunshot wound possibly from Hitler's corpse has not been properly examined. This has given basis for various theories, which are reviewed. We believe that mtDNA analysis of the skull fragments and of Hitler's jaw, now filed in Moscow, and samples from maternal relatives of Hitler are crucial linking the skull fragment with the gunshot wound to Hitler.

  14. The unmourned wound: Reflections on the psychology of Adolf Hitler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, D R

    1995-09-01

    Fifty years after his death by suicide, Adolf Hitler continues to arouse profound feelings of revulsion and attraction. This paper is an exploration of Hitler's psyche from the perspective of a depth psychology. After examining analyses of Hilter's personality by Richard Rubenstein and Alice Miller, the argument is made that we need C.G. Jung's concept of psychic inflation to understand more fully Hitler's impact upon the world. Hitler is seen as inflated by the compensating energies of the Self in response to his deeply wounded ego, a wound he could not mourn. Consequently, he became identified with the dark and destructive energies of the Self which inflated and then usurped his ego. Hitler's demonic and destructive career resulted from that inflation, which he was not able to neutralize. The paper concludes with reflections on the role of mourning in protecting us from the experience of psychic inflation, especially by the Self in its dark and destructive aspects.

  15. Adolf Wallenberg: giant in neurology and refugee from Nazi Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; Mohan, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Adolf Wallenberg became the "anatomical conscience" to at least one famed neurologist, and was known worldwide by top neurologists. His comprehensive clinical-pathological descriptions of what became known as Wallenberg Syndrome had a large impact on neurology and launched his career. He did not let a skull base injury from an accident, or his service in the German army in World War I, impede his progress. Despite his accomplishments, because he was Jewish he was stripped of his research laboratory and forced to stop working when the Nazis took over his native Danzig. He barely escaped just before World War II began and immigrated to England, then to the United States. Because of his impact on neurology and his unusual strife, his story is one that neuroscientists should not forget.

  16. "Allakäigu" Adolf Hitler paistab päris inimese moodi / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2004-01-01

    Mängufilm, kus peategelaseks on Adolf Hitler - "Allakäik" ("Der Untergang") : stsenarist ja produtsent Bernd Eichinger : režissöör Oliver Hirschbiegel : Saksamaa 2004. Lisa "Pimedad Ööd tahavad Hitlerit"

  17. Moskva teatrid tulevad Eestisse / Adolf Käis ; interv. Reet Kudu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käis, Adolf, 1946-2013

    2000-01-01

    Lavastaja, näitleja ja produtsent Adolf Käis, kes produtsendina toob Moskva kuulsaid teatritruppe Eestisse. 6. ja 7. aprillil on teatri Ermitaazh külalisetendus Vene Draamateatris, Lev Tolstoi "Elav laip"

  18. [Adolf Meyer and relations between German and American psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, U H

    1990-09-01

    German psychiatrists do not have an easy access to Adolf Meyer. The reasons include: his influence on American psychiatry was mainly exercised by his personal influence; he did not have the gift of writing his important and influential ideas in a clear language; these ideas, furthermore, were scattered over great number of papers in a variety of periodicals; there is only one unsatisfactory (from the point of view of edition) collection of Meyers papers; no textbook of Meyerian psychiatry exists. There seems to be no German translation of any of Meyers papers. Meyer, who was always in close contact with German psychiatry and psychiatrists, transmitted their ideas to the American scientific public, although in a critical vein. His own psycho-biological or genetico-psychodynamic theory pointed to the importance of the biological and personality structure and its reactions, of how the patient reacts to which live events and which illness in his or her body contrasts to Kraepelins concept of self-sufficiency of the endogenous psychoses. Whereas DSM I und II had been moulded in Meyers spirit, DSM III led far away from it.

  19. Kuidas Adolf Hitler vahetult enne valimisi Püssirohukeldrisse jõuab / Agni Lass

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lass, Agni

    2005-01-01

    10. sept. esietendub Tartu Püssirohukeldris P. Uttoni "Adolf", mille M. Unt pidi lavastama. Kuid proovideni ta ei jõudnud. See etendub E. Õunapuu käe all, kes tegi M. Undi lavavariandi ümber. Heli- ja lavakujundus ning kostüümid on samuti E. Õunapuult

  20. Adolf Rühka tuleb OmaDraama-le / Brigitta Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Brigitta

    2006-01-01

    4.-9. septembrini toimuval OmaDraama festivalil etendatakse lavastusi : Mart Kivastiku "Kits viiuli ja õngega" ja "Põrgu Wärk", Andres Kivirähki "Adolf Rühka lühikene elu", Oleg Titovi tantsulavastus "Libahunt" ja Andres Noormetsa "Kauka jumal" August Kitzbergi loomingu põhjal

  1. Seltskond : Tallinna Linnateatri 42. hooaja avasündmus ja kohtumine teatrilegendi Adolf Šapiroga / Annika Haas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haas, Annika

    2006-01-01

    5. sept. toimus Tallinna Linnateatri 42. hooaja avamine, sai ülevaate teatri plaanidest ja toimus kohtumine Adolf Šapiroga. Uue hooaja plaanidesse kuulub ka töölepingu sõlmimine Tallinna Ülikooliga

  2. Adolf naef (1883-1949): on foundational concepts and principles of systematic morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieppel, Olivier; Williams, David M; Ebach, Malte C

    2013-01-01

    During the early twentieth century, the Swiss Zoologist Adolf Naef (1883-1949) established himself as a leader in German comparative anatomy and higher level systematics. He is generally labeled an 'idealistic morphologist', although he himself called his research program 'systematic morphology'. The idealistic morphology that flourished in German biology during the first half of the twentieth century was a rather heterogeneous movement, within which Adolf Naef worked out a special theoretical system of his own. Following a biographical sketch, we present an English translation of a previously unpublished typescript from Naef's estate, which Naef intended as the introduction to a textbook on Comparative Anatomy for which he was unable to find a publisher before his sudden death in 1949. The typescript contains Naef's mature thoughts with unprecedented conciseness, focus, and clarity. The density of Naef's text warrants a historical and contextual explication of its content.

  3. The Khuner Haus by Adolf Loos - a critical study of beauty and desire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Møller, Hans Ramsgaard

    is to decipherer the architect Adolf Loos’ work, the Khuner Haus, and we put forth the question; do we in Loos’ architecture and thinking find a “Beauty in spite of Nature” as opposed to a “Beauty within Nature”? And if this is the dispute, how has the existence of beauty been challenged? The point of departure...... for our exploration of critical issues about Beauty is the theories of Adolf Loos and Immanuel Kant. To classify Loos’ two views on beauty, both driven by the desire to create more beautiful, we focus on Kant’s work “The critique of judgment” in order to define beauty or the beautifulness. Can the Khuner...

  4. Understanding the Influence of Parkinson Disease on Adolf Hitler's Decision-Making during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Raghav; Kim, Christopher; Agarwal, Nitin; Lieber, Bryan; Monaco, Edward A

    2015-11-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies and a reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia. Common symptoms of PD include a reduction in control of voluntary movements, rigidity, and tremors. Such symptoms are marked by a severe deterioration in motor function. The causes of PD in many cases are unknown. PD has been found to be prominent in several notable people, including Adolf Hitler, the Chancellor of Germany and Führer of Nazi Germany during World War II. It is believed that Adolf Hitler suffered from idiopathic PD throughout his life. However, the effect of PD on Adolf Hitler's decision making during World War II is largely unknown. Here we examine the potential role of PD in shaping Hitler's personality and influencing his decision-making. We purport that Germany's defeat in World War II was influenced by Hitler's questionable and risky decision-making and his inhumane and callous personality, both of which were likely affected by his condition. Likewise his paranoid disorder marked by intense anti-Semitic beliefs influenced his treatment of Jews and other non-Germanic peoples. We also suggest that the condition played an important role in his eventual political decline.

  5. In searching for the rots of minimalism in architecture: Formal silence of Adolf Loos

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    Vasilski Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Architectural examples of minimalism, combined with strict forms of modern movements, and the possibilities offered by new materials and technologies, contributing to the triumph of aesthetics that has become a symbol of our times. Minimalism in architecture, as the most original contribution to the idea of simplicity in architecture today has its roots in different areas as well as creation of prominent individuals - copyright strong individualities that do not tolerate any kind of categorization. One such author is certainly Adolf Loos. His theoretical ideas regarding decorations were sensational, because while the modernists had a dilemma about where and how to place ornaments, Los was adamant: his drastic solution predicted the complete elimination of ornament. In our time, minimalist architecture brings the ease of Adolf Loosa, whose design is rejected historicism and its parasites, decoration, to the pronounced rationalism. It is possible to follow the guiding principle of his 'formal silence' by Carl Andre to Herzog i de Meuron, as well as over the Mediterranean vernacular architecture to Alberto Campo Baeza and Alvaro Siza.

  6. Moskvas hoitav Adolf Hitleri kolbatükk ei kuulu füürerile / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2009-01-01

    USA arheoloogi Nick Bellantoni avastus, et Moskvas hoitav Adolf Hitleri kuuliauguga koljutükk ei kuulugi füürerile, annab tõenäoliselt uut hoogu vandenõuteoreetikutele, kes usuvad, et Hitler ei teinud 1945. aastal enesetappu, vaid põgenes välismaale

  7. [Parkinson's disease of Adolf Hitler and its influence in the development of World War Second].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, A L

    2003-03-01

    Adolf Hitler very probably suffered from Parkinson's disease. The first symptoms of it began to appear in 1937/1938. It is likely that its appearance, and the fear that it caused regarding his survival, lead Hitler to advance his initial projects of military expansion of the great Germany beginning in 1943. Thus, the Second World War broke out in 1939, perhaps quite before the time in which Germany would be prepared. Chronic treatment carried out with opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and strychnine may very well be related with a very abnormal judgement of the problems and absence of trust in the advice of his team. With this, he would make military decisions that would end up being ill-fated for his interests and which, after 1942, would lead to a change in the course of the war.

  8. Sandor Rado and Adolf Meyer: a nodal point in American psychiatry and psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, C

    1996-10-01

    Previously uncited archival material, principally letters between Adolf Meyer and Sandor Rado, is used to document the importance of a relationship between two influential figures in american psychiatry and psychoanalysis at a fateful moment in the evolution of both. Although Meyer and Rado have each fallen into relative neglect, their interaction not only was a crucial part of the schisms in American analysis in the 1930s and 1940s, but represented an important juncture in the history of the relationship between medicine, academic psychiatry and psychoanalysis in North America. Meyer's powerful influence was thus an essential component of Rado's attempts to rewrite psychoanalytic theory and terminology wholesale. Moreover, Rado specifically integrated the results of a radically integrationist agenda he had consolidated in his contact with Meyer into the organisation and educational programme of the psychoanalytic institute he founded at Columbia University in the early 1940s.

  9. Adolf Hitler's Parkinson's disease and an attempt to analyse his personality structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstenbrand, F; Karamat, E

    1999-03-01

    It has been proved that Adolf Hitler suffered from idiopathic Parkinson's disease. No indication for postencephalitic parkinsonism was found in the clinical symptoms or the case history. Professor Max de Crinis established his diagnosis of Parkinson's disease in Hitler early in 1945 and informed the SS leadership, who decided to initiate treatment with a specially prepared 'antiparkinsonian mixture' to be administered by a physician. However, Hitler never received the mixture, this implies that the SS intended to remove the severely diseased 'Leader'. Two different character traits can be analysed in Hitler's personality: on the one hand the typical premorbid personality of parkinsonian patients with uncorrectable mental rigidity, extreme inflexibility and insupportable pedantry. On the other an antisocial personality disorder with lack of ethical and social values, a deeply rooted tendency to betray others and to deceive himself and uncontrollable emotional reactions. This special combination in Hitler's personality resulted in the uncritical conviction of his mission and an enormous driving for recognition. The neuropsychiatric analysis of Hitler's personality could lead to a better explanation of the pathological traits of one of the most conspicuous historical personalities.

  10. Some aspects of Adolf von Harnack’s criticism on Orthodox tradition

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    Daniel Buda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the critique that Adolf von Harnack (1851–1930 formulated on the Orthodox tradition in his famous book Das Wesen des Christentums, as well as to comment on its affirmations in the context of his time and way of thinking and to try and find explanations for his criticism. The article concludes that although Harnack’s critique on the Orthodox tradition may have presented negative perception of Orthodoxy, particularly amongst Protestants and many Orthodox theologians who were furious after reading his paper, yet, his critical affirmations also have constructive aspects. However, some of the conclusions of Harnack’s criticism are genuinely rejected by the Orthodox theologians and are no longer sustainable. As a theologian, Harnack cannot be considered an opponent of the modern ecumenical movement, but rather as one of its pioneers. Harnack could be included in the category of frank ecumenists who prefer to express in a critical, but constructive way that which he believes about his own Christian tradition, as well as other Christian traditions.

  11. Io sono Adolf ma anche Superman. Il potere patologico dell’Io

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Russo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the pathological power of the ego, understood as an existential illness which has at its confused and blurred centre the lack of distinctions between opposites. In a certain sense there is no element without its opposite. However, the principle of separation allows the freedom of choice entrusted to each of us. Adolf and Superman represent two heroes; the first embodies evil, the second good. But both pose the same objective: the fight against others for the victory of what they consider good or bad. Both are the image of the ego and, therefore, power. Both are therefore victims of paranoia. This paranoia is also typical of contemporary society, in which the confused center of paranoia takes the side of the ego in many ways. In fact, the paranoiac ignores the center, that is, its essence, because it loses its ties with the origin and the simplicity to replace it with superstructures of ideas and projects that are driving it away from itself, often increasing its confusion and, therefore, its bondage.

  12. Die Behandlung Adolf Hitlers im Lazarett Pasewalk 1918: Historische Mythenbildung durch einseitige bzw. spekulative Pathographie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armbruster J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Das Interesse an der Person Adolf Hitlers (1889–1945 scheint auch über 60 Jahre nach seinem Tod ungebrochen. Im Zuge dessen finden sich unter pathographischen Betrachtungen auch Tendenzen, Fragmente aus dem Kontext der Gesamtbiographie herauszulösen, in ihrer Bedeutung zu überhöhen und unter Vernachlässigung der Komplexität historischer Strukturen und Prozesse zu deuten. Dies lässt sich beispielhaft an einer Reihe von Arbeiten zeigen, die sich u. a. der Behandlung einer Kriegsverletzung Hitlers 1918 im Reservelazarett Pasewalk widmen und mit spekulativen Thesen einen Status historischer Authentizität beanspruchen. Während in Bezug auf Hitlers Gesundheitszustand ein Teil überlieferter somatischer Befunde gewisse Rückschlüsse zulässt, fehlen solche Dokumente im Hinblick auf seinen psychischen Zustand. In den vergangenen Jahren rückte der Psychiater Edmund Robert Forster (1878–1933 zunehmend in den Fokus des Interesses. Auf Grundlage eines Berichtes des US-Marine-Geheimdienstes aus dem Jahre 1943 wurde die These entwickelt, dass Forster Hitler behandelt habe und sich vornehmlich aufgrund dessen 1933 suizidierte. Einige Arbeiten bauen unter Ausblendung alternativer Möglichkeiten diese Theorie auf Grundlage der Romanvorlage „Der Augenzeuge“ von Ernst Weiß (1882–1940 bis zu einer vermeintlich gesicherten Hypnosetherapie Hitlers durch Forster aus. Die Stilisierung Forsters zum „Schöpfer“ Hitlers kann angesichts des Aufgreifens durch die Medien als Beispiel für die Entwicklung eines Mythos herangezogen werden. Der Tragik des Schicksals Forsters wird auf diese Weise wenig Rechnung getragen. Gleichzeitig birgt dies die Gefahr, dass Hitler zu einem Teil von seiner Verantwortung entbunden wird. Insofern sollte eine Diagnostik ex post überhaupt nur mit größter Zurückhaltung erfolgen.

  13. Social Skills: Adolf Meyer's Revision of Clinical Skill for the New Psychiatry of the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Susan

    2015-07-01

    Adolf Meyer (1866-1950) exercised considerable influence over the development of Anglo-American psychiatry during the first half of the twentieth century. The concepts and techniques he implemented at his prominent Phipps Psychiatric Clinic at Johns Hopkins remain important to psychiatric practice and neuro-scientific research today. In the 1890s, Meyer revised scientific medicine's traditional notion of clinical skill to serve what he called the 'New Psychiatry', a clinical discipline that embodied social and scientific ideals shared with other 'new' progressive reform movements in the United States. This revision conformed to his concept of psychobiology - his biological theory of mind and mental disorders - and accorded with his definition of scientific medicine as a unity of clinical-pathological methods and therapeutics. Combining insights from evolutionary biology, neuron theory and American pragmatist philosophy, Meyer concluded that subjective experience and social behaviour were functions of human biology. In addition to the time-honoured techniques devised to exploit the material data of the diseased body - observing and recording in the clinic, dissecting in the morgue and conducting histological experiments in the laboratory - he insisted that psychiatrists must also be skilled at wielding social interaction and interpersonal relationships as investigative and therapeutic tools in order to conceptualise, collect, analyse and apply the ephemeral data of 'social adaptation'. An examination of his clinical practices and teaching at Johns Hopkins between 1913 and 1917 shows how particular historical and intellectual contexts shaped Meyer's conceptualisation of social behaviour as a biological function and, subsequently, his new vision of clinical skill for twentieth-century psychiatry.

  14. An investigation of sea ice motion and fluxes within the Prince Gustaf Adolf Sea, Queen Elizabeth Islands, Canada, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlleben, T.; Howell, S.; Agnew, T.; Komarov, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, the sea ice flux events that occurred through the Prince Gustaf Adolf Sea flux gate into the Queen Elizabeth Islands (QEI) over the 2010 season are investigated in detail. In the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, multi-year ice (MYI) exports and in situ summer melt are primarily balanced by MYI influx events into QEI during the brief period each year when ice exchanges freely between the Arctic Ocean and the QEI reservoir. Here, data from two Canadian Ice Service satellite tracking beacons that drifted through the Gustaf flux gate in 2010, along with atmospheric sea level pressure and wind data, are compared to ice drift velocities derived from RADARSAT imagery using a new sea ice tracking system. It is demonstrated in this study that the annual average ice drifts implied by the fluxes reported in previous works underestimate the basic current-driven flow of sea ice across the Prince Gustaf Adolf Sea gate (as determined from Radarsat imagery during periods of no wind). It is further established that ice drifts (and hence ice fluxes) through the Gustaf flux gate vary spatially, with velocities on the eastern side in 2010 being consistently greater than those on the western side by a factor of ~2. These results reveal the potential of using Radarsat-derived ice motion to expand upon and improve the limited data on ocean currents within the Queen Elizabeth Islands, as well as to refine estimates of ice flux magnitudes and spatial patterns in this area.

  15. The Old Man and the Glass Booth: Adolf Eichmann and the Migration of an Under- and Overdetermined Iconography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Steinle

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the image of Adolf Eichmann, which has haunted the screen ever since his spectacular kidnapping in Argentina. Characterized by a lack of archive images from the Nazi era and an abundance of images from the trial in Jerusalem in 1962, the man in the glass booth is an interesting example of the role of archive images in cultural memory and the mediality of history. Eichmann as a “media phenomenon” is analysed in his different dimensions: first a semiologic study of the two iconic images which became “super signs” of the Holocaust, generating contradictory narratives; then an exhaustive overview of the films produced about Adolf Eichmann with their thematic and narrative approaches; the analysis of three films made after the Fall of the Berlin Wall and their link to German national memory; and finally a discussion of the central motive of the glass booth and its migration toward other filmic contexts, giving Eichmann a wider presence in popular culture.

  16. A cegueira histérica de Adolf Hitler: histórico de um boletim médico The hysterical blindness of Adolf Hitler: record of a medical chart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Köpf

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Em 1918, no hospital militar de Pasewalk, o psiquiatra professor Edmund Forster trata, por meio da hipnose, o cabo Adolf Hitler de uma "neurose de guerra" (cegueira histérica. Em 1933, Hitler assume o poder sobre a Alemanha nazista. Pouco tempo depois, Forster entra em contato com um grupo de escritores que viviam em exílio em Paris e passa sigilosamente a eles os seus conhecimentos sobre o caso. O escritor Ernst Weiss, também médico, usa essas informações de Forster para escrever o seu romance A Testemunha Ocular (Der Augenzeuge, que é publicado somente em 1963. O professor Forster comete suicídio em 1933, depois de sofrer uma campanha de denúncias difamantes. Weiss também se suicida em 1940, quando as tropas alemãs invadem Paris. Várias outras pessoas relacionadas ao boletim médico sobre Hitler são assassinadas pela Gestapo.In 1918, in a military reserve hospital located in the small Pomeranian town of Pasewalk, the neuropsychiatrist Prof. Edmund Forster treated Adolf Hitler, an Austrian caporal suffering from a war neurosis (hysterical blindness, using suggestive techniques. Soon after the Hitler’s ascension to the power in the Nazi Germany, in 1933, Dr. Forster met with a group of exiled writers living in Paris and secretly gave them the information about the case. The writer Ernst Weiss, that was also a physician, latter used this information in order to produce his roman "The Eye Witness", which would be published only in 1963. In 1933, Prof. Forster committed suicide in strange circunstances after successive defamatory statements against him. Also Weiss committed suicide in 1940, when German troops invaded Paris. The Gestapo also murdered several other persons involved in the Hitler’s medical chart.

  17. Trinta dias na casa de tiros: o estranho caso do Dr. Edmund Forster e Adolf Hitler Thirty days at the shooting house: the strange case of Dr. Edmund Forster and Adolf Hitler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lewis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Em 1918, em um hospital militar da reserva situado na pequena cidade pomerânia de Pasewalk, o neuropsiquiatra Prof. Edmund Forster tratou de um cabo austríaco chamado Adolf Hitler, que apresentava uma neurose de guerra (cegueira histérica, utilizando-se de técnicas terapêuticas sugestivas. Logo após a ascensão de Hitler ao poder na Alemanha nazista, em 1933, o Prof. Forster reuniu-se com um grupo de escritores alemães exilados em Paris e secretamente passou a eles informações sobre o caso. O escritor Ernst Weiss, também médico, mais tarde utilizou tais informações para escrever seu romance A Testemunha Ocular, que, porém, só seria publicado em 1963. Em circunstâncias estranhas, o Prof. Forster cometeu suicídio após uma campanha difamatória sistemática articulada pelos nazistas em 1933. Weiss também cometeu suicídio em 1940, quando as tropas alemãs invadiram Paris. A Gestapo também assassinou diversas outras pessoas envolvidas no prontuário médico de Hitler.In 1918, in a military reserve hospital located in the small pomeranian town of Pasewalk, the neuropsychiatrist Prof. Edmund Forster treated an Austrian caporal called Adolf Hitler, suffering from a war neurosis (hysterical blindness, by means of suggestive techniques. Soon after the Hitler's ascension to the power in the Nazi Germany, in 1933, Dr. Forster met with a group of exiled writers living in Paris and secretly gave them information about the case. The writer Ernst Weiss, also he a physician, latter used this information in order to produce his novel "The Eye Witness", which would be published only in 1963. In strange circumstances, Prof. Forster committed suicide after successive defamatory statements in 1933. Weiss also committed suicide in 1940, when German troops invaded Paris. The Gestapo murdered several other persons involved in the Hitler's medical chart.

  18. How bees distinguish colors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horridge A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrian Horridge Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia Abstract: Behind each facet of the compound eye, bees have photoreceptors for ultraviolet, green, and blue wavelengths that are excited by sunlight reflected from the surrounding panorama. In experiments that excluded ultraviolet, bees learned to distinguish between black, gray, white, and various colors. To distinguish two targets of differing color, bees detected, learned, and later recognized the strongest preferred inputs, irrespective of which target displayed them. First preference was the position and measure of blue reflected from white or colored areas. They also learned the positions and a measure of the green receptor modulation at vertical edges that displayed the strongest green contrast. Modulation is the receptor response to contrast and was summed over the length of a contrasting vertical edge. This also gave them a measure of angular width between outer vertical edges. Third preference was position and a measure of blue modulation. When they returned for more reward, bees recognized the familiar coincidence of these inputs at that place. They cared nothing for colors, layout of patterns, or direction of contrast, even at black/white edges. The mechanism is a new kind of color vision in which a large-field tonic blue input must coincide in time with small-field phasic modulations caused by scanning vertical edges displaying green or blue contrast. This is the kind of system to expect in medium-lowly vision, as found in insects; the next steps are fresh looks at old observations and quantitative models. Keywords: vision, honey bee, visual processing, optimum system, picture sorting

  19. La expresión de lo humano en el arte: Adolf Loos y la Viena de fin-de siècle.

    OpenAIRE

    Calabuig Cañestro, Noemí

    2007-01-01

    La intención de este trabajo es mostrar cómo determinada concepción de lo humano se expresa a través del lenguaje artístico de uno de los autores aparentemente más modernos de la Viena finisecular, el arquitecto Adolf Loos. Una de las cuestiones a las que prestaremos especial atención es al modo en que se entretejen y finalmente convergen en la obra de Loos discursos procedentes de disciplinas aparentemente tan dispares, como el arte, la filosofía, la biología, la economía e, incluso, la crim...

  20. O CAPITALISMO INTEGRADO EM ADOLF AUGUSTUS BERLE JUNIOR E WALTHER RATHENAU: UM ESTUDO SOBRE HISTÓRIA DAS IDEIAS E A TECNOCRACIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Paula Meirelles

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como intenção estabelecer uma conceituação a respeito da tecnocracia dentro da História Contemporânea do Capitalismo utilizando-se das reflexões feitas pelo marxista João Bernardo e a posteriori estabelecer um estudo comparado e introdutório sobre a política tecnocrática e corporativista nas obras de Adolf Augustus Berle Junior e Walther Rathenau.

  1. Dictator Of Architecture Kingdom:Adolf Loos-- An Exploration Of Adolf Loos’s Design Against The Backgrounds Of World War I%建筑王国的“独裁者”:阿道夫·路斯--一战背景下路斯设计思想浅探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亦然

    2016-01-01

    Modernity took its time in Europe after the First World War. Adolf Loos, as an architect in the time of war, wil be comprehended in both perspectives of personal character and history backgrounds.%第一次世界大战后,一股现代建筑思潮席卷欧洲。本文将从阿道夫·路斯①的个性与所处时代为背景,以莫勒住宅为例,探讨路斯的建筑理论和思想。

  2. 路斯住宅空间的公共性与私密性%The Openness and Intimacy of Interiors of Adolf Loos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊庠楠

    2014-01-01

    In the 1990s, Beatriz Colomina, in her noted article "Intimacy and Spectacle:the Interiors of Adolf Loos," discussed the sight line control and its resulting psychological implications in the interiors designed by Adolf Loos. Along with a critical review of this article, this essay offers a new analysis of Loos’s sight line design and how it resembles theater space. By examining a series of the residential space designed by Loos, I will argue that Loos developed a diverse strategy in responding to the different needs for intimacy in a home:the spatial accessibility and openness diminishes with the increasing needs for privacy. A close reading of the relevant essays by Loos included in this essay will also help illustrate his architectural position.%20世纪90年代,彼瑞兹·克罗米娜发表《秘境与奇观:阿道夫·路斯的室内》一文,探讨了路斯住宅建筑中的视线控制和随之产生的心理暗示。笔者对该文进行了批判性回顾,并在此基础上重新分析路斯住宅空间中的视线设计,探讨了它与剧院空间的相似之处。通过比较分析一系列路斯设计的住宅空间,揭示出他基于空间私密性的不同要求而逐层设计住宅室内的策略:空间的开放程度随着私密性需求的增加而减弱。与此同时,通过对路斯相关建筑文本的解读,进一步分析了其住宅设计的立场。

  3. Distinguishing ichthyoses by protein profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H Rice

    Full Text Available To explore the usefulness of protein profiling for characterization of ichthyoses, we here determined the profile of human epidermal stratum corneum by shotgun proteomics. Samples were analyzed after collection on tape circles from six anatomic sites (forearm, palm, lower leg, forehead, abdomen, upper back, demonstrating site-specific differences in profiles. Additional samples were collected from the forearms of subjects with ichthyosis vulgaris (filaggrin (FLG deficiency, recessive X-linked ichthyosis (steroid sulfatase (STS deficiency and autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis type lamellar ichthyosis (transglutaminase 1 (TGM1 deficiency. The ichthyosis protein expression patterns were readily distinguishable from each other and from phenotypically normal epidermis. In general, the degree of departure from normal was lower from ichthyosis vulgaris than from lamellar ichthyosis, parallel to the severity of the phenotype. Analysis of samples from families with ichthyosis vulgaris and concomitant modifying gene mutations (STS deficiency, GJB2 deficiency permitted correlation of alterations in protein profile with more complex genetic constellations.

  4. Distinguishing ichthyoses by protein profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Robert H; Bradshaw, Katie M; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P; Rocke, David M; Eigenheer, Richard A; Phinney, Brett S; Schmuth, Matthias; Gruber, Robert

    2013-01-01

    To explore the usefulness of protein profiling for characterization of ichthyoses, we here determined the profile of human epidermal stratum corneum by shotgun proteomics. Samples were analyzed after collection on tape circles from six anatomic sites (forearm, palm, lower leg, forehead, abdomen, upper back), demonstrating site-specific differences in profiles. Additional samples were collected from the forearms of subjects with ichthyosis vulgaris (filaggrin (FLG) deficiency), recessive X-linked ichthyosis (steroid sulfatase (STS) deficiency) and autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis type lamellar ichthyosis (transglutaminase 1 (TGM1) deficiency). The ichthyosis protein expression patterns were readily distinguishable from each other and from phenotypically normal epidermis. In general, the degree of departure from normal was lower from ichthyosis vulgaris than from lamellar ichthyosis, parallel to the severity of the phenotype. Analysis of samples from families with ichthyosis vulgaris and concomitant modifying gene mutations (STS deficiency, GJB2 deficiency) permitted correlation of alterations in protein profile with more complex genetic constellations.

  5. The Vienna and German heritage of orthopaedics from the first half of the twentieth century: Adolf Lorenz, Lorenz Böhler, Friedrich Pauwels, Gerhard Küntscher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    In the last part of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century surgeons at the University of Vienna helped transform the practice of surgery. They developed new more effective procedures, analyzed the results of their operations, promoted the emergence and growth of surgical specialties and sought understanding of tissue structure, physiology and pathophysiology. Their efforts made Vienna one of the world's most respected centres for operative treatment, basic and clinical research and surgical education. Two individuals, Adolf Lorenz (1854-1946) and Lorenz Böhler (1885-1973) focused their research and clinical practice on orthopaedics. During the same period in Germany Friedrich Pauwels (1885-1980) founded an orthopaedic institute and an engineering workshop in Aachen in 1913 and rapidly developed a lifelong interest in biomechanical influences: Using these theories, he achieved in 1927 healing of a non-union of the femoral neck by a re-orientation osteotomy, a condition considered to be incurable until this osteotomy and created his famous classification of fracture angles at the hip into Pauwels types I, II and III. The German orthopaedist Gerhard Küntscher (1900-1972) remained the most popular surgeon after the second war with his famous nail.

  6. Distinguishability of complete and unextendible product bases

    CERN Document Server

    De Rinaldis, S

    2003-01-01

    It is not always possible to distinguish multipartite orthogonal states if only local operation and classical communication (LOCC) are allowed. We prove that we cannot distinguish the states of an unextendible product bases (UPB) by LOCC even when infinite resources (infinite-dimensional ancillas, infinite number of operations). Moreover we give a method to check the LOCC distinguishability of a complete product bases.

  7. Distinguishing Cartesian Products of Countable Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estaji Ehsan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The distinguishing number D(G of a graph G is the minimum number of colors needed to color the vertices of G such that the coloring is preserved only by the trivial automorphism. In this paper we improve results about the distinguishing number of Cartesian products of finite and infinite graphs by removing restrictions to prime or relatively prime factors.

  8. Objasnenije v ljubvi / Adolf Shapiro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Шапиро, Адольф Яковлевич, 1939-

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna Linnaeatrist tema 40. sünnipäeva puhul, samuti oma koostööst Linnateatriga, A. Tshehhovi "Kirsiaia" lavastusest, B. Brechti "Kolmekrossiooperist" Elmo Nüganeniga peaosas ja I. Turgenevi "Isadest ja poegadest"

  9. Children distinguish between positive pride and hubris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nicole L; Russell, James A

    2015-11-01

    Adults distinguish expressions of hubris from those of positive pride. To determine whether children (N = 183; 78-198 months old) make a similar distinction, we asked them to attribute emotion labels and a variety of social characteristics to dynamic expressions intended to convey hubris and positive pride. Like adults, children attributed different emotion labels to the expressions, and this tendency increased with age. Girls were more likely to distinguish between the expressions than boys were. Children also associated more positive social characteristics with the expression of positive pride and more negative characteristics with the expression of hubris.

  10. Entropy of Mixing of Distinguishable Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozliak, Evguenii I.

    2014-01-01

    The molar entropy of mixing yields values that depend only on the number of mixing components rather than on their chemical nature. To explain this phenomenon using the logic of chemistry, this article considers mixing of distinguishable particles, thus complementing the well-known approach developed for nondistinguishable particles, for example,…

  11. Distinguishing division algebras by finite splitting fields

    CERN Document Server

    Krashen, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of determining the number of division algebras which share the same collection of finite splitting fields. As a corollary we are able to determine when two central division algebras may be distinguished by their finite splitting fields over certain fields.

  12. Can Values Be Distinguished from Prejudices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhoyte, Robert L.; Sikula, John P.

    1977-01-01

    Using case studies, the authors demonstrate the difficulty of distinguishing an act influenced by a person's prejudice from an act influenced by a person's values. Social studies teachers are urged to deal with controversial topics to help students clarify their feelings about issues such as abortion, drug use, religion, and politics. (AV)

  13. Colored HOMFLY polynomials can distinguish mutant knots

    CERN Document Server

    Nawata, Satoshi; Singh, Vivek Kumar

    2015-01-01

    We illustrate from the viewpoint of braiding operations on WZNW conformal blocks how colored HOMFLY polynomials with multiplicity structure can detect mutations. As an example, we explicitly evaluate the (2,1)-colored HOMFLY polynomials that distinguish a famous mutant pair, Kinoshita-Terasaka and Conway knot.

  14. Integral and Multidimensional Linear Distinguishers with Correlation Zero

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Leander, Gregor; Nyberg, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    Zero-correlation cryptanalysis uses linear approximations holding with probability exactly 1/2. In this paper, we reveal fundamental links of zero-correlation distinguishers to integral distinguishers and multidimensional linear distinguishers. We show that an integral implies zero-correlation li......Zero-correlation cryptanalysis uses linear approximations holding with probability exactly 1/2. In this paper, we reveal fundamental links of zero-correlation distinguishers to integral distinguishers and multidimensional linear distinguishers. We show that an integral implies zero...

  15. Distinguishing quantum channels via magic squares game

    CERN Document Server

    Ramzan, M

    2010-01-01

    We study the effect of quantum memory in magic squares game when played in quantum domain. We consider different noisy quantum channels and analyze their influence on the magic squares quantum pseudo-telepathy game. We show that the probability of success can be used to distinguish the quantum channels. It is seen that the mean success probability decreases with increase of quantum noise. Where as the mean success probability increases with increase of quantum memory. It is also seen that the behaviour of amplitude damping and phase damping channels is similar. On the other hand, the behaviour of depolarizing channel is similar to the flipping channels. Therefore, the probability of success of the game can be used to distinguish the quantum channels.

  16. Virginia Tech Distinguished Lecture Series: Eric Lyon

    OpenAIRE

    Lyon, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Associate Professor - Music Technology, Composition Eric Lyon is a composer and computer music researcher. Major areas of focus include computer chamber music, spatial orchestration, and articulated noise composition. Recent compositions include "Spirits", a 43-channel electroacoustic piano composition for the ZKM Kubus,"Noise Variations" for ensemble mise-en, and “The Book of Strange Positions” for the violin duo String Noise. Subject: Distinguished Lecture Series

  17. Distinguishing the communicative functions of gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Kristiina; Navarretta, Costanza; Paggio, Patrizia

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the results of a machine learning experiment conducted on annotated gesture data from two case studies (Danish and Estonian). The data concern mainly facial displays, that are annotated with attributes relating to shape and dynamics, as well as communicative function....... The results of the experiments show that the granularity of the attributes used seems appropriate for the task of distinguishing the desired communicative functions. This is a promising result in view of a future automation of the annotation task....

  18. Familial identification: population structure and relationship distinguishability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rori V Rohlfs

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States.

  19. Familial identification: population structure and relationship distinguishability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfs, Rori V; Fullerton, Stephanie Malia; Weir, Bruce S

    2012-02-01

    With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States.

  20. Distinguished figures in mechanism and machine science

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book is composed of chapters that focus specifically on technological developments by distinguished figures in the history of MMS (Mechanism and Machine Science).  Biographies of well-known scientists are also included to describe their efforts and experiences, and surveys of their work and achievements, and a modern interpretation of their legacy are presented. After the first two volumes, the papers in this third volume again cover a wide range within the field of the History of Mechanical Engineering with specific focus on MMS and will be of interest and motivation to the work (historical or not) of many.

  1. Characteristics that distinguish types of epithermal deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayba, D.O.; Foley, N.K.; Heald-Wetlaufer, P.

    1984-01-01

    Three distinctive groupings of epithermal deposits were recognized from a literature study of fifteen well-described precious- and base-metal epithermal districts, supplemented by L. J. Buchanan's 1981 compilation of data from 47 less completely documented deposits. The three groups are distinguished primarily by the type of alteration and the sulfur fugacity indicated by the vein mineral assemblage. Additional discriminating criteria include composition of the host rock, timing of ore deposition relative to emplacement of the host, and relative abundances of gold, silver, and base metals.

  2. Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spehner, Dominique

    2014-07-01

    A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature.

  3. Eosinophilic esophagitis-endoscopic distinguishing findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Célia Caetano; Raquel Gon(c)alves; Carla Rolanda

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is the most frequent condition found in a group of gastrointestinal disorders called eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases.The hypothetical pathophysiological mechanism is related to a hypersensitivity reaction.Gastroesophageal reflux disease-like complaints not ameliorated by acid blockade or occasional symptoms of dysphagia or food impaction are likely presentations of EE.Due to its unclear pathogenesis and unspecific symptoms,it is difficult to diagnose EE without a strong suspicion.Although histological criteria are necessary to diagnosis EE,there are some characteristic endoscopic features.We present the case of a healthy 55-year-old woman with dysphagia and several episodes of esophageal food impaction over the last six months.This case report stresses the most distinguishing endoscopic findings-mucosa rings,white exudative plaques and linear furrows-that can help in the prompt recognition of this condition.

  4. Internal displacement in Colombia: Fifteen distinguishing features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Espinel, Zelde; Oliveros, Sofia Rios; Fonseca, Maria Fernanda; Florez, Luis Jorge Hernandez

    2014-01-01

    This commentary aims to delineate the distinguishing features of conflict-induced internal displacement in the nation of Colombia, South America. Even as Colombia is currently implementing a spectrum of legal, social, economic, and health programs for "victims of armed conflict," with particular focus on internally displaced persons (IDPs), the dynamics of forced migration on a mass scale within this country are little known beyond national borders.   The authors of this commentary are embarking on a global mental health research program in Bogota, Colombia to define best practices for reaching the displaced population and implementing sustainable, evidence-based screening and intervention for common mental disorders. Presenting the defining characteristics of internal displacement in Colombia provides the context for our work and, more importantly, conveys the compelling and complex nature of this humanitarian crisis. We attempt to demonstrate Colombia's unique position within the global patterning of internal displacement.

  5. Distinguishability and accessible information in quantum theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, C

    1996-01-01

    This document focuses on translating various information-theoretic measures of distinguishability for probability distributions into measures of distin- guishability for quantum states. These measures should have important appli- cations in quantum cryptography and quantum computation theory. The results reported include the following. An exact expression for the quantum fidelity between two mixed states is derived. The optimal measurement that gives rise to it is studied in detail. Several upper and lower bounds on the quantum mutual information are derived via similar techniques and compared to each other. Of note is a simple derivation of the important upper bound first proved by Holevo and an explicit expression for another (tighter) upper bound that appears implicitly in the same derivation. Several upper and lower bounds to the quan- tum Kullback relative information are derived. The measures developed are also applied to ferreting out the extent to which quantum systems must be disturbed by information...

  6. Distinguishing short and long Fermi GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    Tarnopolski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Two classes of GRBs, short and long, have been determined without any doubts, and are usually ascribed to different progenitors, yet these classes overlap for a variety of descriptive parameters. A subsample of 46 long and 22 short $Fermi$ GRBs with estimated Hurst Exponents (HEs), complemented by minimum variability time-scales (MVTS) and durations ($T_{90}$) is used to perform a supervised Machine Learning (ML) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm. It is found that while $T_{90}$ itself performs very well in distinguishing short and long GRBs, the overall success ratio is higher when the training set is complemented by MVTS and HE. These results may allow to introduce a new (non-linear) parameter that might provide less ambiguous classification of GRBs.

  7. How bees distinguish black from white

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horridge A

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Adrian Horridge Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Bee eyes have photoreceptors for ultraviolet, green, and blue wavelengths that are excited by reflected white but not by black. With ultraviolet reflections excluded by the apparatus, bees can learn to distinguish between black, gray, and white, but theories of color vision are clearly of no help in explaining how they succeed. Human vision sidesteps the issue by constructing black and white in the brain. Bees have quite different and accessible mechanisms. As revealed by extensive tests of trained bees, bees learned two strong signals displayed on either target. The first input was the position and a measure of the green receptor modulation at the vertical edges of a black area, which included a measure of the angular width between the edges of black. They also learned the average position and total amount of blue reflected from white areas. These two inputs were sufficient to help decide which of two targets held the reward of sugar solution, but the bees cared nothing for the black or white as colors, or the direction of contrast at black/white edges. These findings provide a small step toward understanding, modeling, and implementing in silicon the anti-intuitive visual system of the honeybee, in feeding behavior. Keywords: vision, detectors, black/white, color, visual processing

  8. Distinguishing B and $\\overline{B}$ hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Dunietz, Isard

    1994-01-01

    Distinguishing the flavor of B and \\overline B hadrons is critical in studies of CP-violation, B^0 -\\overline{B^0} mixing, and the underlying b-decay mechanisms. Methods of b ``flavor tagging" are broadly divided into ``opposite b" tagging and self-tagging of the signal b hadron. The former, while understood, has the perceived drawback of low efficiency. The latter, while having the potential for an order of magnitude higher efficiency, has yet to be demonstrated for neutral B hadrons. In this article we review opposite b tagging in light of methods whose efficacy has only recently been demonstrated or suggested. In addition, we recommend a number of tagging methods for the opposite b including: K^{*0} and K^{*\\pm} with large inclusive yields of 15\\% and 18\\%; \\overline \\Lambda and \\overline {\\Lambda}p ; partially reconstructed charmed hadrons; sophisticated jet charge techniques, etc. We also recommend the use of self-tagging for the opposite b hadron. Such an inversion of self-tagging could conceivably incr...

  9. LDRD 149045 final report distinguishing documents.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Scott A.

    2010-09-01

    This LDRD 149045 final report describes work that Sandians Scott A. Mitchell, Randall Laviolette, Shawn Martin, Warren Davis, Cindy Philips and Danny Dunlavy performed in 2010. Prof. Afra Zomorodian provided insight. This was a small late-start LDRD. Several other ongoing efforts were leveraged, including the Networks Grand Challenge LDRD, and the Computational Topology CSRF project, and the some of the leveraged work is described here. We proposed a sentence mining technique that exploited both the distribution and the order of parts-of-speech (POS) in sentences in English language documents. The ultimate goal was to be able to discover 'call-to-action' framing documents hidden within a corpus of mostly expository documents, even if the documents were all on the same topic and used the same vocabulary. Using POS was novel. We also took a novel approach to analyzing POS. We used the hypothesis that English follows a dynamical system and the POS are trajectories from one state to another. We analyzed the sequences of POS using support vector machines and the cycles of POS using computational homology. We discovered that the POS were a very weak signal and did not support our hypothesis well. Our original goal appeared to be unobtainable with our original approach. We turned our attention to study an aspect of a more traditional approach to distinguishing documents. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) turns documents into bags-of-words then into mixture-model points. A distance function is used to cluster groups of points to discover relatedness between documents. We performed a geometric and algebraic analysis of the most popular distance functions and made some significant and surprising discoveries, described in a separate technical report.

  10. Distinguishability of Biological Material Using Ultraviolet Multi-Spectral Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P.C.; Heinen, R.J.; Rigdon, L.D.; Rosenthal, S.E.; Shokair, I.R.; Siragusa, G.R.; Tisone, G.C.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-10-14

    Recent interest in the detection and analysis of biological samples by spectroscopic methods has led to questions concerning the degree of distinguishability and biological variability of the ultraviolet (W) fluorescent spectra from such complex samples. We show that the degree of distinguishability of such spectra is readily determined numerically.

  11. Charles L. Brewer award for distinguished teaching of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2010 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is Bernard C. Beins. This article recognizes his life achievement in the area of psychology.

  12. Press Release: NPS Professor Awarded NASA Distinguished Service Medal

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.)

    2003-01-01

    Press release taken from the wayback machine internet archive. Dr. Rudolph Panholzer, Professor, Naval Postgraduate School, and Chairman, Space Systems Group, has been awarded the NASA Distinguished Service Medal for many years of distinguished service to NASA and the Nation's space program. The medal is the highest honor that NASA confers on a non-governmental individual.

  13. Distinguishing attack on five-round Feistel networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Raddum, H

    2003-01-01

    Recently it was shown (by J. Patarin) how to distinguish a general five-round Feistel network from a random permutation using O(2/sup 3n/2/) chosen plaintexts or O(2/sup 7n/4/) known plaintexts. The present authors report improvement of these results and a distinguisher is presented which uses...

  14. 5 CFR 838.612 - Distinguishing between annuities and contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders Affecting Employee Annuities or Refunds of Employee Contributions Identification of Benefits § 838.612 Distinguishing between annuities and contributions. (a) A court order using “annuities,” “pensions... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distinguishing between annuities...

  15. Astronaut Alan Shepard receives MASA Distinguished Service award

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Astronaut Alan B. Shepard recieves the NASA Distinguished Service Award from President John F. Kennedy in May 1961, days after his history making MR-3 flight (31387); Alan Shepard and his wife wave to the crowd after Shepard received the NASA Distinguished Service Award from President John F. Kennedy (31388).

  16. The Gibbs paradox and the distinguishability of identical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteegh, Marijn A. M.; Dieks, Dennis

    2011-07-01

    Identical classical particles are distinguishable. This distinguishability affects the number of ways W a macrostate can be realized on the microlevel, and from the relation S =k ln W leads to a nonextensive expression for the entropy. This result is usually considered incorrect because of its inconsistency with thermodynamics. It is sometimes concluded from this inconsistency that identical particles are fundamentally indistinguishable and that quantum mechanics is indispensable for making sense of this inconsistency. In contrast, we argue that the classical statistics of distinguishable particles and the resulting nonextensive entropy function are perfectly acceptable from both a theoretical and an experimental perspective. The inconsistency with thermodynamics can be removed by taking into account that the entropy concept in statistical mechanics is not completely identical to the thermodynamical one. We observe that even identical quantum particles are in some cases distinguishable, and conclude that quantum mechanics is irrelevant to the Gibbs paradox.

  17. Blood Test Might Someday Distinguish Early Depression, Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Blood Test Might Someday Distinguish Early Depression, Schizophrenia A screen is still in development stages but ... doctors to tell the difference between depression and schizophrenia, especially early on. Now, researchers say they're ...

  18. Organic Milk Quality in the Netherlands : Distinguishable from conventional milk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers-Brands, A.J.T.M.; Burgt, van der G.J.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated possible positive interactions between organic animal production and, particularly, and various vitamins. As possible distinguishing quality parameters for organic milk, the differences between organic and conventional milk in Netherlands for fatty acid composition and

  19. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article announces the 2007 recipient of the Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Baron Perlman. A brief biography, highlighting areas of special focus in Perlman's work, is provided.

  20. Could We Distinguish Child Users from Adults Using Keystroke Dynamics?

    OpenAIRE

    UZUN, Yasin; Bicakci, Kemal; Uzunay, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Significant portion of contemporary computer users are children, who are vulnerable to threats coming from the Internet. To protect children from such threats, in this study, we investigate how successfully typing data can be used to distinguish children from adults. For this purpose, we collect a dataset comprising keystroke data of 100 users and show that distinguishing child Internet users from adults is possible using Keystroke Dynamics with equal error rates less than 10 percent. However...

  1. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0168 TITLE: Imaging prostatic lipids to distinguish aggressive prostate cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jackilen...Imaging prostatic lipids to distinguish aggressive prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0168 5b. GRANT NUMBER PC110361 5c. PROGRAM...Mechanisms linking fatty acid synthase overexpression, lipid accumulation, lipid oxidation, and tumor aggressiveness will be explored using

  2. Edna B. Foa: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Scientific Contributions are presented to persons who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, have made distinguished theoretical or empirical contributions to basic research in psychology. One of the 2015 award winners is Edna B. Foa, who received this award for "her outstanding and innovative research on the nature, measurement, and treatment of anxiety." Foa's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  3. Spiritual Pathology: The Case of Adolf Hitler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. George Scarlett

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hitler had a noble purpose (to save the world and a strong faith in the laws of Nature as he understood Nature. He was, then, a spiritual person, though his spirituality was pathological and destructive. Here, the example of Hitler, his faith, and his spiritual pathology is given to both understand spiritual pathology in general and, through contrast, to understand positive spiritual development.

  4. WERNER MASER: Adolf Hitler, legende, mythe, werkelijkheid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ploeger

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1945 het die skrywer van hierdie studie, op grond van 'n proefskrif oor die doelbewuste aankweek van die Hitlerlegende tot 1924, Die Organisierung der Fuhrerlegende. Studien zur Fruhgeschichte der NSDAP bis 1924 [Erlangen, 1954] sy doktorsgraad verwerf. Daarna het hy Hitler se werk Mein Kampf ontleed [Hitler's Main Kampf. An analysis London, 1970] en vervolgens sy aandag op bogenoemde tema toegespits.

  5. Toru-loru tolgupood : [luuletused] / Adolf Rammo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rammo, Adolf

    2000-01-01

    Sisu: Toru-loru tolgupood ; Viltused värsid ; Suhkrust poiss ; Vikerkaared ; Musta notsu mäng ; Naeruvigur ; Kõik sööb ise ; Kohe ; Sõber ; Vikerkaar ; Hüljatud nukk ; Päikesetäpp ; Karu-mürakaru ; Indiaanlasemäng ; Karu näärikink

  6. Entanglement as a resource to distinguish orthogonal product states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Fei; Cao, Tian-Qing; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-07-26

    It is known that there are many sets of orthogonal product states which cannot be distinguished perfectly by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). However, these discussions have left the following open question: What entanglement resources are necessary and/or sufficient for this task to be possible with LOCC? In m ⊗ n, certain classes of unextendible product bases (UPB) which can be distinguished perfectly using entanglement as a resource, had been presented in 2008. In this paper, we present protocols which use entanglement more efficiently than teleportation to distinguish some classes of orthogonal product states in m ⊗ n, which are not UPB. For the open question, our results offer rather general insight into why entanglement is useful for such tasks, and present a better understanding of the relationship between entanglement and nonlocality.

  7. The distinguishable cluster approach from a screened Coulomb formalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kats, Daniel

    2016-01-28

    The distinguishable cluster doubles equations have been derived starting from an effective screened Coulomb formalism and a particle-hole symmetric formulation of the Fock matrix. A perturbative triples correction to the distinguishable cluster with singles and doubles (DCSD) has been introduced employing the screened integrals. It is shown that the resulting DCSD(T) method is more accurate than DCSD for reaction energies and is less sensitive to the static correlation than coupled cluster with singles and doubles with a perturbative triples correction.

  8. Sialodochitis fibrinosa (kussmaul disease) report of 3 cases and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Bryan Josue Flores; Álvarez, Beatriz Brea; Sanchinel, Abel Alejandro Sanabria; Andrus, Robert Francis; Malpartida, María Espinosa; Giráldez, Consuelo Ramos; Verdejo, Ana Lerma; Argumanez, Carolina Merino; Pimiento, Jose Antonio Pérez; Menéndez, Camen Bellas; Alcázar, Luis Fernando Villa; Sánchez, José Luis Andréu; Palop, Mercedes Jiménez; Tundidor, Hildegarda Godoy; Esteban, José Campos; Sanz, Jesús Sanz; Mateos, Carmen Barbadillo; Zaragoza, Carlos María Isasi; Mendoza, Juan Bartolomé Mulero

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Sialodochitis fibrinosa is a rare disease which is characterized by recurring episodes of pain and swelling of the salivary glands due to the formation of mucofibrinous plugs. Analytic studies ascertain elevated levels of eosinophils and immunoglobulin E (IgE). Imaging studies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and sialography reveal dilation of the main salivary duct (duct ectasia). Treatment is initially supportive, consisting of compressive massages, and use of antihistamines and/or corticosteroids. Material and methods: In the following, 3 cases of sialodochitis fibrinosa are presented which were diagnosed in a third level hospital during the period of 2008 and 2016, as well as a literature review of all cases reported to our knowledge. Results: Of the 41 cases found, including the 3 of this article, 66% were women with an average age of 45 years old. However, 75% of reported cases were of Japanese heritage. Involvement of the parotid glands was more frequent than the submandibular glands. In more than half of all cases treatment with compressive massages, antihistamines and/or corticosteroids was effective. Conclusion: Clinicians should consider sialodochitis fibrinosa as a diagnostic possibility when presented with cases of recurring parotid and submandibular gland tumescence. PMID:27759642

  9. What distinguishes passive recipients from active decliners of sales flyers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2014-01-01

    While sales flyer ad spending in Denmark has increased over the last decade ,the proportion of consumers declining to receive such flyers has been ever-increasing. To address this paradox, attitudinal and behavioural factors distinguishing passive recipients from active decliners of sales flyers...

  10. A Tribute to My Ag Teacher: 2011 AAAE Distinguished Lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, R. Kirby

    2012-01-01

    The author is a product of school-based agricultural education. In a way, this distinguished lecture could also be called a tribute to his high school ag teacher, John Stimpert. Mr. Stimpert was a true professional and an excellent teacher. He changed and he changed the program with the changing school and community. The more the author became…

  11. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Susan E. Carey

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Susan E. Carey, winner of the 2009 Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for groundbreaking studies of the nature of concepts and conceptual change. Her research deepens understanding of the development of concepts, and of the belief systems in which they are embedded, over human childhood, over the history of science, and…

  12. Edward F. Diener: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Edward F. Diener as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Edward F. Diener has been a leader in every aspect of well-being research. He provided an influential conception of well-being as consisting of cognitive and emotional elements. A citation, biography,…

  13. Distinguishing between Realistic and Fantastical Figures in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Telli; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Children in the United States come to distinguish historical from fictional story figures between the ages of 3 and 5 years, guided by the plausibility of the story events surrounding the figure (Corriveau, Kim, Schwalen, & Harris, 2009; Woolley & Cox, 2007). However, U.S. children vary in their reactions to stories that include…

  14. Michael J. Meaney: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Michael J. Meaney as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Michael J. Meaney has taken the phenomenon of "handling" of newborn rats and opened a new area of investigation that has given new meaning to epigenetics via his work demonstrating transgenerational…

  15. Development of Children's Ability to Distinguish Sarcasm and Verbal Irony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenwright, Melanie; Pexman, Penny M.

    2010-01-01

    Adults distinguish between ironic remarks directed at targets (sarcasm) and ironic remarks not directed at specific targets. We investigated the development of children's appreciation for this distinction by presenting these speech acts to 71 five- to six-year-olds and 71 nine- to ten-year-olds. Five- to six-year-olds were beginning to understand…

  16. Daniel L. Schacter: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Daniel L. Schacter as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Daniel L. Schacter's major theoretical and empirical contributions include groundbreaking research on the psychological and neural foundations of implicit and explicit memory, memory distortions and…

  17. Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology: Nancy E. Adler

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Nancy E. Adler, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology, is cited for her research on reproductive health examining adolescent decision making with regard to contraception, conscious and preconscious motivations for pregnancy, and perception of risk for sexually transmitted diseases, and for her groundbreaking…

  18. Kelly D. Brownell: Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of Kelly D. Brownwell, winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology (2012). He won the award for outstanding contributions to our understanding of the etiology and management of obesity and the crisis it poses for the modern world. A seminal thinker in…

  19. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Steven F. Maier

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Steven F. Maier, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for his work in the fields of learned helplessness; cytokines, depressed mood, and cognitive interference; and the brain structures that produce and counteract learned helplessness. In addition to the citation, a biography and selected bibliography of Maier's…

  20. The Identification of Conductor-Distinguished Functions of Conducting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumm, Alan J.; Battersby, Sharyn L.; Simon, Kathryn L.; Shankles, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify whether conductors distinguish functions of conducting similarly to functions implied in previous research. A sample of 84 conductors with a full range of experience levels (M = 9.8) and of a full range of large ensemble types and ensemble age levels rated how much they pay attention to 82…

  1. Quality, Quantity, and Age: The Careers of Ten Distinguished Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    1985-01-01

    The longitudinal relationship between quality and quantity of productive output is examined over the careers of 10 recipients of the Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award using four alternative models (expertise-acquisition, youthful-enthusiasm, peak-age, and constant-probability-of-success). The results endorsed the…

  2. WANG Feiyue honored as distinguished scientist by ACM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Prof. WANG Feiyue, a renowned scholar in intelligent control from the CAS Institute of Automation, has been selected by the New York-based Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) as a distinguished scientist for his contributions to both the practical and theoretical aspects of computing and information technology. Altogether, 13 scientists received the honor across the world in 2007.

  3. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Alice H. Eagly

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Alice H. Eagly, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for her work in the field of social psychology, the psychology of gender, and the use of meta-analytic techniques. She envisions a psychology that extends from individual cognitions to societal structures. In addition to the citation, a biography and selected…

  4. Distinguishing between Poor/Dysfunctional Parenting and Child Emotional Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, David A.; McIsaac, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This paper was intended to distinguish between poor parenting and child emotional maltreatment (CEM), to inform child welfare and public health policymakers of the need for differentiated responses. Methods: Scientific literature was integrated with current practice and assumptions relating to poor/dysfunctional parenting and child…

  5. How many functions can be distinguished with k quantum queries?

    CERN Document Server

    Farhi, E; Gutmann, S; Sipser, M

    1999-01-01

    Suppose an oracle is known to hold one of a given set of D two-valued functions. To successfully identify which function the oracle holds with k classical queries, it must be the case that D is at most 2^k. In this paper we derive a bound for how many functions can be distinguished with k quantum queries.

  6. Distinguishing fungal and bacterial keratitis on clinical signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Leck

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In many settings, laboratory support for the diagnosis of the type of microbial keratitis is not available. Experienced ophthalmologists have long maintained that it is sometimes possible to distinguish fungal from bacterial microbial keratitis on the basis of clinical signs. Formal data to support this view are limited, and it is important to establish the validity of such claims to understand whether signs can reliably guide clinical decisions. In addition, antifungal treatment is often in limited supply and prohibitively expensive. Therefore, it is not feasible or desirable to prescribe empirical antifungal therapy to every patient who presents with microbial keratitis in tropical regions, where fungal infections are more frequent. Here we review research to determine whether it is possible to reliably distinguish bacterial and fungal infection clinical features alone.

  7. Remarks on entanglement measures and non-local state distinguishability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisert, J [QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Audenaert, K [QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Plenio, M B [QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)

    2003-05-23

    We investigate the properties of three entanglement measures that quantify the statistical distinguishability of a given state with the closest disentangled state that has the same reductions as the primary state. In particular, we concentrate on the relative entropy of entanglement with reversed entries. We show that this quantity is an entanglement monotone which is strongly additive, thereby demonstrating that monotonicity under local quantum operations and strong additivity are compatible in principle. In accordance with the presented statistical interpretation which is provided, this entanglement monotone, however, has the property that it diverges on pure states, with the consequence that it cannot distinguish the degree of entanglement of different pure states. We also prove that the relative entropy of entanglement with respect to the set of disentangled states that have identical reductions to the primary state is an entanglement monotone. We finally investigate the trace-norm measure and demonstrate that it is also a proper entanglement monotone.

  8. Analysis of photon-mediated entanglement between distinguishable matter qubits

    CERN Document Server

    Dyckovsky, A M

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically evaluate establishing remote entanglement between distinguishable matter qubits through interference and detection of two emitted photons. The fidelity of the entanglement operation is analyzed as a function of the temporal and frequency mode-matching between the photons emitted from each quantum memory. With a general analysis, we define limits on the absolute magnitudes of temporal and frequency mode-mismatches in order to maintain entanglement fidelities greater than 99% with two-photon detection efficiencies greater than 90%. We apply our analysis to several selected systems of quantum memories. Results indicate that high fidelities may be achieved in each system using current experimental techniques, while maintaining acceptable rates of entanglement. Thus, it might be possible to use two-photon-mediated entanglement operations between distinguishable quantum memories to establish a network for quantum communication and distributed quantum computation.

  9. Trevor W. Robbins: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Presents Trevor W. Robbins, the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions."For distinguished theoretical and empirical contributions to basic research in experimental psychology and neuroscience. Trevor W. Robbins has made innovative and landmark contributions to understanding monoaminergic and glutamatergic regulation of cortico-striatal-limbic function and its involvement in psychological processes and pathological states such as addiction, depression, schizophrenia, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. His pioneering accomplishments have included the development of methodologies for parallel sophisticated behavioral assessments in humans, rodents, and monkeys combined with psychopharmacological and imaging studies across species. His vigor and dedication to research, exemplary leadership, scholarship, and stellar productivity have advanced our knowledge of brain function and inspired several generations of cognitive neuroscientists." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. k-Boson Quantum Walks Do Not Distinguish Arbitrary Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we define k-equivalence, a relation on graphs that relies on their associated cellular algebras. We show that a k-Boson quantum walk cannot distinguish pairs of graphs that are k- equivalent. The existence of pairs of k-equivalent graphs has been shown by Ponomarenko et al. [2, 6]. This gives a negative answer to a question posed by Gamble et al. [7].

  11. Distinguishing between Chronic and Transient Poverty in Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Groover, Kimberly Darnton

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the study is to identify household characteristics which can 1) distinguish between the chronic poor and transient poor and 2) be feasibly implemented as targeting criterion in poverty interventions. Data for this study was drawn from Mozambiqueâ s 2008/09 Household Budget Survey and consisted of 10,832 observations. This study fills a gap in the literature by structurally determining the impact of common shocks (drought, floods and cyclones, agricultural pests, illness...

  12. Bringing to Market Technological Innovation: What Distinguishes Success from Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Frattini; Alfredo De Massis; Vittorio Chiesa; Lucio Cassia; Giovanna Campopiano

    2012-01-01

    Commercialization is a critical step in technological innovation. Nevertheless, many scholars believe that it is often the least well-managed activity of the whole innovation process. The launch stage seems to be particularly critical in high-technology markets because of the volatility, interconnectedness and the proliferation of new technologies they experience. However, academic and practitioners' literature has not, so far, developed a clear understanding of the factors that distinguish a...

  13. New approach for distinguishing the similarity of links

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianyun XIANG; Maozhong GE; Zhiping WANG

    2008-01-01

    Based on the problem of distinguishing the similarity of links in the regenerative innovation design of a kinematic chain, a new approach using the standard power matrix of the adjacent matrix is presented in this paper. The implementation of the approach is illustrated with an example. This method solves the technically baffling problem in mechanism type synthesis and reduced redundant design scheme, and raises the reliability and the efficiency of the regenerative innova-tion design of the kinematic chain.

  14. Distinguishing services at physical layer level in autonomic optical Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a mathematical model for distinguishing services at bit-level. By using correlation analysis, the features of bit flows are extracted. The feature analyses of time division multiplex (TDM) service and Gigabit Ethernet (GE) service are described in detail, and then the performance of the proposed method is evaluated. Both of the undetected probability and the misjudgment probability for GE service are as low as 2% at the average Ethernet frame length of 300 B.

  15. Dobutamine stress echocardiographyin distinguishing ischemic from nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloradović Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography for detection of coronary artery disease in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Detection of regional wall motion abnormalities at rest does not reliably distinguish ischemic from nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Material and methods To distinguish between ischemic and nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, we studied 50 patients with left ventricular dysfunction (20 ischemic and 30 nonischemic, detected by coronary angiography using dobutamine stress echocardiography. Echocardiographic images were obtained at baseline, low and paek dose of dobutamine. Rest and stress left ventricular wall motion scores were derived from analysis of regional wall motion. Results Dobutamine infusion was terminated after achievement of the target heart rate or maximal protocol dose in 16 (80% patients with ischemic heart disease and in 23 (73.3% patients with nonischemic heart disease. At rest, there were more normal segments (p<0.001 and a trend toward more akinetic segments (p, not significant per ischemic than per nonischemic DCM patients. However, either at rest or with low-dose dobutamine, individual data largely overlapped. At peak dose, in ischemic DCM, regional contraction worsened in many normal or dyssinergic regions at rest (in some cases after inprovement with low-dose dobutamine; in contrast, in nonischemic DCM, further mild impovement was observed in a variable number of left ventricular areas. Thus, with peak-dose dobutamine, more akinetic and less normal segments were present per ishemic than per nonischemic DCM patient (both, p<0.001. A value of six or more akinetic segments was 90% sensitive and 98% specific for ischemic DCM. Conclusions Our data show that analysis of regional contraction by dobutamine stress echocardiography can distinguish between.

  16. Semantics of Distinguishing Criteria: from Subjective to Intersubjective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Takac, Jan Sefranek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we are aiming to build cognitive semantics over a first person perspective. Our goal is to specify meanings connected to cognitive agents, rooted in their experience and separable from language, covering a wide spectrum of cognitions ranging from living organisms (animals, pre-verbal children and adult humans to artificial agents and that the cognitive semantics covers a broad, continuous, spectrum of meanings.As regards the used method, the first person perspective enables a kind of grounding of meanings in cognitions. An ability of cognitive agents to distinguish is a starting point of our approach, distinguishing criteria and schemata are the basic semantic constructs.The resulting construction is based on a projection of the environment into a cluster of current percepts and a similarity function on percepts. Situation schemata, more sophisticated similarity functions, event schemata and distinguishing criteria are built over that basis. Inference rules and action rules are components of our semantics.An interesting property of the proposed semantics is that it makes possible coexistence of subjective and intersubjective meanings. Subjective (first person perspective meanings are primary, and we have shown the way from them to collectively accepted (third person perspective meanings via observable behaviour and feedback about success/failure of actions. An abductive reasoning is an important tool on that way. A construct of an instrument, which represents a measure for using intersubjective meanings, is introduced. The instrument serves as a tool for an inclusion of sophisticated meanings, e.g. of scientific constructs, into our framework.

  17. How bees distinguish patterns by green and blue modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horridge A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Adrian Horridge Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia Abstract: In the 1920s, Mathilde Hertz found that trained bees discriminated between shapes or patterns of similar size by something related to total length of contrasting contours. This input is now interpreted as modulation in green and blue receptor channels as flying bees scan in the horizontal plane. Modulation is defined as total contrast irrespective of sign multiplied by length of edge displaying that contrast, projected to vertical, therefore, combining structure and contrast in a single input. Contrast is outside the eye; modulation is a phasic response in receptor pathways inside. In recent experiments, bees trained to distinguish color detected, located, and measured three independent inputs and the angles between them. They are the tonic response of the blue receptor pathway and modulation of small-field green or (less preferred blue receptor pathways. Green and blue channels interacted intimately at a peripheral level. This study explores in more detail how various patterns are discriminated by these cues. The direction of contrast at a boundary was not detected. Instead, bees located and measured total modulation generated by horizontal scanning of contrasts, irrespective of pattern. They also located the positions of isolated vertical edges relative to other landmarks and distinguished the angular widths between vertical edges by green or blue modulation alone. The preferred inputs were the strongest green modulation signal and angular width between outside edges, irrespective of color. In the absence of green modulation, the remaining cue was a measure and location of blue modulation at edges. In the presence of green modulation, blue modulation was inhibited. Black/white patterns were distinguished by the same inputs in blue and green receptor channels. Left–right polarity and mirror images could be discriminated by retinotopic green

  18. Thomas Grisso: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research is given to a psychologist whose research has led to important discoveries or developments in the field of applied psychology. To be eligible, this research should have led to innovative applications in an area of psychological practice, including but not limited to assessment, consultation, instruction, or intervention (either direct or indirect). The 2014 recipient is Thomas Grisso. Grisso "has made seminal contributions to the field of forensic psychology and psychiatry through his internationally renowned program of research, which has directly impacted juvenile justice reform worldwide." Grisso's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  19. Can We Distinguish between Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J Bennett

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory and neuropathic pain were once considered to be distinct entities. However, research over the past decade or so has brought to light many shared mechanisms, and the distinction between the two is no longer clear. Consideration of mechanisms, symptoms and the effects of analgesic drugs does not reveal any definitive or universally applicable differentiating factors. Given the present level of understanding, it may not be possible to distinguish between inflammatory and neuropathic pain in a large number of patients, and a satisfying definition of neuropathic pain may not be possible.

  20. Distinguishing and diagnosing contemporary and conventional features of dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiouny, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    The vast number and variety of erosion lesions encountered today require reconsideration of the traditional definition. Dental erosion associated with modern dietary habits can exhibit unique features that symbolize a departure from the decades-old conventional image known as tooth surface loss. The extent and diversity of contemporary erosion lesions often cause conflicting diagnoses. Specific examples of these features are presented in this article. The etiologies, genesis, course of development, and characteristics of these erosion lesions are discussed. Contemporary and conventional erosion lesions are distinguished from similar defects, such as mechanically induced wear, carious lesions, and dental fluorosis, which affect the human dentition.

  1. Adolf Shapiro : "U nas soznanije kentavra" / Adolf Shapiro ; interv. Polina Bogdanova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Шапиро, Адольф Яковлевич, 1939-

    2006-01-01

    Teatrist Venemaal, Baltimaades ja Eestis. Psühholoogilisest teatrist, teatrikunsti arengutest. Oma töödest ja tegemistest. Mainitud ka Elmo Nüganeni teatris Tallinnas (Tallinna Linnateatris) lavastamisele tulevat Luigi Pirandello näidendit "Nii see on, kui teile nii näib". Ajakirja Juuli-September number

  2. Distinguishing Selection Bias and Confounding Bias in Comparative Effectiveness Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneuse, Sebastien

    2016-04-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) aims to provide patients and physicians with evidence-based guidance on treatment decisions. As researchers conduct CER they face myriad challenges. Although inadequate control of confounding is the most-often cited source of potential bias, selection bias that arises when patients are differentially excluded from analyses is a distinct phenomenon with distinct consequences: confounding bias compromises internal validity, whereas selection bias compromises external validity. Despite this distinction, however, the label "treatment-selection bias" is being used in the CER literature to denote the phenomenon of confounding bias. Motivated by an ongoing study of treatment choice for depression on weight change over time, this paper formally distinguishes selection and confounding bias in CER. By formally distinguishing selection and confounding bias, this paper clarifies important scientific, design, and analysis issues relevant to ensuring validity. First is that the 2 types of biases may arise simultaneously in any given study; even if confounding bias is completely controlled, a study may nevertheless suffer from selection bias so that the results are not generalizable to the patient population of interest. Second is that the statistical methods used to mitigate the 2 biases are themselves distinct; methods developed to control one type of bias should not be expected to address the other. Finally, the control of selection and confounding bias will often require distinct covariate information. Consequently, as researchers plan future studies of comparative effectiveness, care must be taken to ensure that all data elements relevant to both confounding and selection bias are collected.

  3. Method of Distinguishing Hydrologic Drought for Water Supply System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    It is very common to design water supply system to adjust runoff. Thus it will not meet the practical needs if only the hydrologic drought in natural basin is studied. In practice the natural water balance and water deficits must be researched, i. e., the adjusting effects of the water supply system such as a reservoir should be considered, and the drought event be distinguished according to the special system. The problem of drought identification under adjusted runoff was investigated in this study. By considering water transfer during different periods, a method to distinguish hydrologic drought for the water supply system was developed, and a standard drought severity index SWDSI was proposed. The method has been applied in Pan Jiakou water supply system in China. From 1953 to 1997, a total of 14 hydrologic droughts were identified in the water supply system, among which there were 3 severe droughts, 6 moderate droughts and 5 light droughts. The results are in good agreement with the historic drought records.

  4. Distinguishing Di-jet Resonances at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chivukula, R Sekhar; Vignaroli, Natascia

    2014-01-01

    Anticipating that a di-jet resonance could be discovered at the 14 TeV LHC, we present two different strategies to reveal the nature of such a particle; in particular to discern whether it is a quark-antiquark (qqbar), quark-gluon (qg), or gluon-gluon (gg) resonance. The first method relies on the color discriminant variable, which can be calculated at the LHC from the measurements of the di-jet signal cross section, the resonance mass and the resonance width. Including estimated statistical uncertainties and experimental resolution, we show that a qg excited quark resonance can be efficiently distinguished from either a qqbar coloron or a gg color-octet scalar using the color discriminant variable at LHC-14. The second strategy is based on the study of the energy profiles of the two leading jets in the di-jet channel. Including statistical uncertainties in the signal and the QCD backgrounds, we show that one can distinguish between gg, qg, and qqbar resonances; an evaluation of systematic uncertainties in th...

  5. Distinguishing interactions in 3-form dark energy models

    CERN Document Server

    Morais, João; Kumar, K Sravan; Marto, João; Tavakoli, Yaser

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we consider 3-form dark energy (DE) models with interactions in the dark sector. We aim to distinguish the phenomenological interactions that are defined through the dark matter (DM) and the DE energy densities. We do our analysis mainly in two stages. In the first stage, we identify the non-interacting 3-form DE model which generically leads to an abrupt late-time cosmological event which is known as the little sibling of the Big Rip (LSBR). We classify the interactions which can possibly avoid this late-time abrupt event. We also study the parameter space of the model that is consistent with the interaction between DM and DE energy densities at present as indicated by recent studies based on BAO and SDSS data. In the later stage, we observationally distinguish those interactions using the statefinder hierarchy parameters $\\{ S_{3}^{(1)}\\,,\\, S_{4}^{(1)}\\} \\,,\\,\\{ S_{3}^{(1)}\\,,\\, S_{5}^{(1)}\\} .$ We also compute the growth factor parameter $\\epsilon(z)$ for the various interactions we consider...

  6. Elastography in Distinguishing Benign from Malignant Thyroid Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Colakoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to test the diagnostic success of strain elastography in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Materials and Methods: The size, echogenicity, and halo integrity of 293 thyroid nodules and the presence of microcalcification in these nodules were evaluated on gray-scale examination. Doppler characteristics and elastography patterns were also evaluated and recorded. Nodules were classified in four categories (patterns 1-4 based on elastographic examination. Results: According to the cytopathological findings, 222 nodules were benign, and 71 nodules were malignant. The risk of a nodule to be malignant was 3.8 times increased by hypoechogenicity, 7.7 times increased by the presence of microcalcification, and 11.5 times increased by the absence of halo. On Doppler patterns, the presence of central vascularity increased the malignancy risk of a nodule by 5.8 times. According to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, patterns 3 and 4 were malignant, and patterns 1 and 2 were benign. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of elastography were 100%, 80.2%, 61.7%, 100%, and 85%, respectively. Conclusion: Strain elastography can be used as a noninvasive method in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules and in identifying the patients who would undergo surgery.

  7. Elastography in Distinguishing Benign from Malignant Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colakoglu, Bulent; Yildirim, Duzgun; Alis, Deniz; Ucar, Gokhan; Samanci, Cesur; Ustabasioglu, Fethi Emre; Bakir, Alev; Ulusoy, Onur Levent

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to test the diagnostic success of strain elastography in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Materials and Methods: The size, echogenicity, and halo integrity of 293 thyroid nodules and the presence of microcalcification in these nodules were evaluated on gray-scale examination. Doppler characteristics and elastography patterns were also evaluated and recorded. Nodules were classified in four categories (patterns 1–4) based on elastographic examination. Results: According to the cytopathological findings, 222 nodules were benign, and 71 nodules were malignant. The risk of a nodule to be malignant was 3.8 times increased by hypoechogenicity, 7.7 times increased by the presence of microcalcification, and 11.5 times increased by the absence of halo. On Doppler patterns, the presence of central vascularity increased the malignancy risk of a nodule by 5.8 times. According to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, patterns 3 and 4 were malignant, and patterns 1 and 2 were benign. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of elastography were 100%, 80.2%, 61.7%, 100%, and 85%, respectively. Conclusion: Strain elastography can be used as a noninvasive method in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules and in identifying the patients who would undergo surgery. PMID:28123841

  8. Transient inability to distinguish between faces: electrophysiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundel, Trevor; Milton, John G; Dimitrov, Alexander; Wilson, Hugh W; Pelizzari, Charles; Uftring, Stephen; Torres, Ivan; Erickson, Robert K; Spire, Jean-Paul; Towle, Vernon L

    2003-04-01

    It is not known with certainty at which level of face processing by the cortex the distinction between a familiar and an unfamiliar face is made. Subdural electrodes were implanted under the fusiform gyrus of the right temporal lobe in a patient who developed an unusual inability to distinguish differences between faces as part of the epileptic aura ("all faces looked the same"). A cortical region located posterior to the epileptic focus was identified that exhibited a maximum evoked response to the presentation of facial images (N165), but not to objects, scenes, or character strings. Evoked potentials elicited by a variety of visual images indicated that any perturbation away from novel whole-face stimuli produced submaximal responses from this region of the right temporal lobe. Electrical stimulation of this region resulted in an impairment of face discrimination. It was found that presentation of familiar faces (grandmother, treating physician) produced a different response from that observed for novel faces. These observations demonstrate that within 165 msec of face presentation, and before the conscious precept of face familiarity has formed, this cortical region has already begun to distinguish between a familiar and an unfamiliar face.

  9. Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This award is given by the Board of Educational Affairs in recognition of the efforts of psychologists who have made distinguished contributions to education and training, who have produced imaginative innovations, or who have been involved in the developmental phases of programs in education and training in psychology. These contributions might include important research on education and training; the development of effective materials for instruction; the establishment of workshops, conferences, or networks of communication for education and training; achievement and leadership in administration that facilitates education and training; or activity in professional organizations that promote excellence. The Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in psychology recognizes a specific contribution to education and training. The Career designation is added to the award at the discretion of the Education and Training Awards Committee to recognize continuous significant contributions made over a lifelong career in psychology. This year the Education and Training Awards Committee selected a psychologist for the Career designation. The 2016 recipients of the APA Education and Training Contributions Awards were selected by the 2015 Education and Training Awards Committee appointed by the Board of Educational Affairs (BEA). Members of the 2015 Education and Training Awards Committee were Sharon L. Berry, PhD (Chair); Arthur C. Graesser, PhD; and Thomas R. Kratochwill, PhD; Erica Wise, PhD (Chair-Elect); Ron Rozensky, PhD; and Jane Halonen, PhD. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Security against jamming in imaging with partially-distinguishable photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roga, Wojciech; Jeffers, John

    2016-10-01

    We describe a protocol in which we detect intercept-resend jamming of imaging and can reverse its effects. The security is based on control of the polarization states of photons that are sent to interrogate an object and form an image at a camera. The scheme presented here is a particular implementation of a general anti-jamming protocol established by Roga and Jeffers in Ref. 5. It is applied here to imaging by photons with partially distinguishable polarisation states. The protocol in this version is easily applicable as only single photon states are involved, however the efficiency is traded off against the intrusion detectability because of a leak of information to the intruder.

  11. A distinguishing gravitational property for gravitational equation in higher dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadhich, Naresh [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Pune (India)

    2016-03-15

    It is well known that Einstein gravity is kinematic (meaning that there is no non-trivial vacuum solution; i.e. the Riemann tensor vanishes whenever the Ricci tensor does so) in 3 dimension because the Riemann tensor is entirely given in terms of the Ricci tensor. Could this property be universalized for all odd dimensions in a generalized theory? The answer is yes, and this property uniquely singles out pure Lovelock (it has only one Nth order term in the action) gravity for which the Nth order Lovelock-Riemann tensor is indeed given in terms of the corresponding Ricci tensor for all odd, d = 2N + 1, dimensions. This feature of gravity is realized only in higher dimensions and it uniquely picks out pure Lovelock gravity from all other generalizations of Einstein gravity. It serves as a good distinguishing and guiding criterion for the gravitational equation in higher dimensions. (orig.)

  12. Chamber catalogues of optical and fluorescent signatures distinguish bioaerosol classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Mark; Perring, Anne E.; McCabe, Kevin; Kok, Greg; Granger, Gary; Baumgardner, Darrel

    2016-07-01

    Rapid bioaerosol characterization has immediate applications in the military, environmental and public health sectors. Recent technological advances have facilitated single-particle detection of fluorescent aerosol in near real time; this leverages controlled ultraviolet exposures with single or multiple wavelengths, followed by the characterization of associated fluorescence. This type of ultraviolet induced fluorescence has been used to detect airborne microorganisms and their fragments in laboratory studies, and it has been extended to field studies that implicate bioaerosol to compose a substantial fraction of supermicron atmospheric particles. To enhance the information yield that new-generation fluorescence instruments can provide, we report the compilation of a referential aerobiological catalogue including more than 50 pure cultures of common airborne bacteria, fungi and pollens, recovered at water activity equilibrium in a mesoscale chamber (1 m3). This catalogue juxtaposes intrinsic optical properties and select bandwidths of fluorescence emissions, which manifest to clearly distinguish between major classes of airborne microbes and pollens.

  13. Distinguishing and grading human gliomas by IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Gerald; Shaw, Anthony; Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Abuid, Mario H; Schackert, Gabriele; Sobottka, Stephan; Steller, Wolfram; Salzer, Reiner; Mantsch, Henry H

    2003-01-01

    As a molecular probe of tissue composition, IR spectroscopy can potentially serve as an adjunct to histopathology in detecting and diagnosing disease. This study demonstrates that cancerous brain tissue (astrocytoma, glioblastoma) is distinguishable from control tissue on the basis of the IR spectra of thin tissue sections. It is further shown that the IR spectra of astrocytoma and glioblastoma affected tissue can be discriminated from one another, thus providing insight into the malignancy grade of the tissue. Both the spectra and the methods employed for their classification reveal characteristic differences in tissue composition. In particular, the nature and relative amounts of brain lipids, including both the gangliosides and phospholipids, appear to be altered in cancerous compared to control tissue. Using a genetic classification approach, classification success rates of up to 89% accuracy were obtained, depending on the number of regions included in the model. The diagnostic potential and practical applications of IR spectroscopy in brain tumor diagnosis are discussed.

  14. Distinguishing cirrus cloud presence in autonomous lidar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Campbell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Level 2 Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP satellite-based cloud datasets from 2012 are investigated for metrics that help distinguish the cirrus cloud presence of in autonomous lidar measurements, using temperatures, heights, optical depth and phase. A thermal threshold, proposed by Sassen and Campbell (2001; SC2001 for cloud top temperature Ttop ≤ −37 °C, is evaluated vs. CALIOP algorithms that identify ice-phase cloud layers alone using depolarized backscatter. Global mean cloud top heights (11.15 vs. 10.07 km a.m.s.l., base heights (8.76 vs. 7.95 km a.m.s.l., temperatures (−58.48 °C vs. −52.18 °C and −42.40 °C vs. −38.13 °C, respectively for tops and bases and optical depths (1.18 vs. 1.23 reflect the sensitivity to these competing constraints. Over 99% of all Ttop ≤ −37 °C clouds are classified as ice by CALIOP Level 2 algorithms. Over 81% of all ice clouds correspond with Ttop ≤ −37 °C. For instruments lacking polarized measurements, and thus practical phase estimates, Ttop ≤ −37 °C proves stable for distinguishing cirrus, as opposed to the risks of glaciated liquid water cloud contamination occurring in a given sample from clouds identified at warmer temperatures. Uncertainties in temperature profiles use to collocate with lidar data (i.e., model reanalyses/sondes may justifiably relax the Ttop ≤ −37 °C threshold to include warmer cases. The ambiguity of "warm" (Ttop > −37 °C ice cloud genus cannot be reconciled completely with available measurements, however, conspicuously including phase. Cloud top heights and optical depths are evaluated as potential constraints, as functions of CALIOP-retrieved phase. However, these data provide, at best, additional constraint in regional samples, compared with temperature alone, and may exacerbate classification uncertainties overall globally.

  15. 2015 Distinguished career award: Reflections on a career in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Edward M

    2016-08-01

    I was very pleased to receive the 2015 Distinguished Career Award from SSIB. This brief manuscript contains reminisces that might stir up pleasant memories in the older members of SSIB and also some general thoughts that I hope will be of value to the younger investigators who are closer to the beginning of their scientific careers. Although the organization has chosen to honor me with this special award, my own career was shaped by a great many people who have influenced my scientific career and I want to acknowledge them. They include Neal Miller, my doctoral mentor at Yale; Joe Holmes and Alan Epstein, my postdoctoral mentors; George Wolf and Reed Hainsworth, graduate student colleagues; John Brobeck, Paul Rozin, and Phil Teitelbaum, Michael Zigmond, Joe Verbalis, Jim Smith, and Alan Sved, faculty colleagues; Derek Denton, Paul McHugh, and James Fitzsimons, scientific role models; John Bruno, Steve Fluharty, and Linda Rinaman, post-doctoral trainees at Pitt; and Lori Flanagan, Kath Curtis, Michael Bushey, Mike Bykowski, Reza Manesh, Carrie Smith, Jennifer Vaughan, and Myriam Stricker, student trainees at Pitt. I thank them all and also my colleagues in SSIB not only for the honor of this award but for providing an abundant supply of insights and discoveries that have stimulated me throughout my adult life, in addition to being an attentive community in supporting my own work.

  16. Bringing to Market Technological Innovation: What Distinguishes Success from Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Frattini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Commercialization is a critical step in technological innovation. Nevertheless, many scholars believe that it is often the least well-managed activity of the whole innovation process. The launch stage seems to be particularly critical in high-technology markets because of the volatility, interconnectedness and the proliferation of new technologies they experience. However, academic and practitioners’ literature has not, so far, developed a clear understanding of the factors that distinguish an effective commercialization from an unsuccessful one, especially in high-technology environments. This paper discusses the results of a research project that aimed to understand the ingredients for success in the commercialization of a technological innovation. The first stage of the research consisted of a comparative historical analysis of 18 innovations, which were commercialized in consumer high-tech markets in the last 30 years. The analysis advocates that an effective commercialization comprises three sub-strategies: Early adoption strategy, Adoption network configuration strategy and Mainstream adoption strategy, with each one characterized by a coherent set of commercialization dimensions. The relative importance of each sub-strategy in determining the innovation commercial success depends on the type of innovation that is commercialized, be it radical or incremental and discontinuous or continuous.

  17. Establishing trauma: the difficulty distinguishing between memories and fantasies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, E S; Klar, H

    1994-01-01

    This paper is intended as a contribution to understanding why, up until recently, there have been so few case reports of actual abuse and its sequelae in the psychoanalytic literature. We suggest that psychoanalytic insights into the nature of psychic reality, while indispensable to the evolution of psychoanalytic thinking, have nonetheless had the adverse effect of collapsing any distinction between unconscious fantasies and repressed memories. Moreover, the idea that knowledge of external reality is itself mentally constructed also has diminished interest in uncovering trauma and "real" history. We present a report of an adult analysis that illustrates the recovery of a dissociated memory of sexual abuse that occurred during adolescence, as a springboard to discuss problems analysts have had in dealing with trauma theoretically. We hypothesize that repressed memories and conscious fantasies can often be distinguished insofar as they may be "stored" or encoded differently, and that consequently the sequelae of trauma and fantasy often, but not always, can be disentangled. We describe some different modes of encoding trauma and some different ways of remembering, reexperiencing, and reenacting it. And, finally, we suggest why traumatic memories are increasingly accessible to patients today.

  18. Can we distinguish early dark energy from a cosmological constant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Difu; Baugh, Carlton M.

    2016-07-01

    Early dark energy (EDE) models are a class of quintessence dark energy with a dynamically evolving scalar field which display a small but non-negligible amount of dark energy at the epoch of matter-radiation equality. Compared with a cosmological constant, the presence of dark energy at early times changes the cosmic expansion history and consequently the shape of the linear theory power spectrum and potentially other observables. We constrain the cosmological parameters in the EDE cosmology using recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background and baryon acoustic oscillations. The best-fitting models favour no EDE; here we consider extreme examples which are in mild tension with current observations in order to explore the observational consequences of a maximally allowed amount of EDE. We study the non-linear evolution of cosmic structure in EDE cosmologies using large-volume N-body simulations. Many large-scale structure statistics are found to be very similar between the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) and EDE models. We find that EDE cosmologies predict fewer massive haloes in comparison to ΛCDM, particularly at high redshifts. The most promising way to distinguish EDE from ΛCDM is to measure the power spectrum on large scales, where differences of up to 15 per cent are expected.

  19. Distinguishing Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior From Stereotypy: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chok, James T; Koesler, Bryan

    2014-05-01

    The current project was an initial attempt to develop assessment procedures for distinguishing between obsessive-compulsive (OC) and stereotypic behavior and evaluate the impact of different treatments for these behaviors. Two individuals with autism, one with repetitive behavior characteristic of OC behavior and one with repetitive behavior not characteristic of OC behavior, participated in the study. In Experiment 1, given that individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) report experiencing unpleasant urges that are relieved when they perform compulsive actions, an attempt was made to identify these experiences by measuring heart rate and affect when access to repetitive behavior was restricted and allowed. In Experiment 2, a multiple schedules treatment was conducted with each participant, and in Experiment 3, the participant with autism and OC behavior completed exposure and response prevention (ERP) treatment. The overall results across studies suggest that one potential way to discriminate between OC behavior and stereotypy in nonvocal children with autism is to consider the topography of repetitive behavior along with changes in physiology and affect. In addition, it may be worth considering the use of ERP, a traditional treatment for OCD, to treat repetitive behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement if treatments that provide access to repetitive behavior are not effective.

  20. Prospects for distinguishing dark matter models using annual modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Samuel J.; Gluscevic, Vera; McDermott, Samuel D.

    2017-02-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that, in the event of a putative signal in dark matter direct detection experiments, properly identifying the underlying dark matter-nuclei interaction promises to be a challenging task. Given the most optimistic expectations for the number counts of recoil events in the forthcoming Generation 2 experiments, differentiating between interactions that produce distinct features in the recoil energy spectra will only be possible if a strong signal is observed simultaneously on a variety of complementary targets. However, there is a wide range of viable theories that give rise to virtually identical energy spectra, and may only differ by the dependence of the recoil rate on the dark matter velocity. In this work, we investigate how degeneracy between such competing models may be broken by analyzing the time dependence of nuclear recoils, i.e. the annual modulation of the rate. For this purpose, we simulate dark matter events for a variety of interactions and experiments, and perform a Bayesian model-selection analysis on all simulated data sets, evaluating the chance of correctly identifying the input model for a given experimental setup. We find that including information on the annual modulation of the rate may significantly enhance the ability of a single target to distinguish dark matter models with nearly degenerate recoil spectra, but only with exposures beyond the expectations of Generation 2 experiments.

  1. The explosive-concussion jet: a new type fire distinguisher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the fluid transient theory and explosive dynamics, a new type explosive driven jet is put forward. The generator of the proposed jet system comprises an explosive power source, a dynamic cavity, a spacing block, a water storage chamber, and a rubber membrane. The dynamic explosive source of power for the jet is composed of a cartridge and a bullet.The pressure in the dynamic cavity goes up to a range from 300 MPa to 350 MPa very quickly when the bullet is emitted.Driven by such a high pressure, the speed of the jet reaches 120 m/s. The effective distance to distinguish a fire is within 40 m.The jet has the following advantages over a conventional high-pressure water jet system: 1)strong power and strong transient force produced by dynamic source; 2) the energy of the dynamical source concentrated in a small scope with very little loss; 3)extensive applicability; and 4) safe usage without sparkling and smoke.

  2. Words matter: distinguishing "personalized medicine" and "biologically personalized therapeutics".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherny, Nathan I; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Emanuel, Linda; Fallowfield, Lesley; Francis, Prudence A; Gabizon, Alberto; Piccart, Martine J; Sidransky, David; Soussan-Gutman, Lior; Tziraki, Chariklia

    2014-12-01

    "Personalized medicine" has become a generic term referring to techniques that evaluate either the host or the disease to enhance the likelihood of beneficial patient outcomes from treatment interventions. There is, however, much more to personalization of care than just identifying the biotherapeutic strategy with the highest likelihood of benefit. In its new meaning, "personalized medicine" could overshadow the individually tailored, whole-person care that is at the bedrock of what people need and want when they are ill. Since names and definitional terms set the scope of the discourse, they have the power to define what personalized medicine includes or does not include, thus influencing the scope of the professional purview regarding the delivery of personalized care. Taxonomic accuracy is important in understanding the differences between therapeutic interventions that are distinguishable in their aims, indications, scope, benefits, and risks. In order to restore the due emphasis to the patient and his or her needs, we assert that it is necessary, albeit belated, to deconflate the contemporary term "personalized medicine" by taxonomizing this therapeutic strategy more accurately as "biologically personalized therapeutics" (BPT). The scope of truly personalized medicine and its relationship to biologically personalized therapeutics is described, emphasizing that the best of care must give due recognition and emphasis to both BPT and truly personalized medicine.

  3. Distinguishing Bovine Fecal Matter on Spinach Leaves Using Field Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colm D. Everard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Detection of fecal contaminants on leafy greens in the field will allow for decreasing cross-contamination of produce during and post-harvest. Fecal contamination of leafy greens has been associated with Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 outbreaks and foodborne illnesses. In this study, passive field spectroscopy measuring reflectance and fluorescence created by the sun’s light, coupled with numerical normalization techniques, are used to distinguish fecal contaminants on spinach leaves from soil on spinach leaves and uncontaminated spinach leaf portions. A Savitzky-Golay first derivative transformation and a waveband ratio of 710:688 nm as normalizing techniques were assessed. A soft independent modelling of class analogies (SIMCA procedure with a 216 sample training set successfully predicted all 54 test set sample types using the spectral region of 600–800 nm. The ratio of 710:688 nm along with set thresholds separated all 270 samples by type. Application of these techniques in-field to avoid harvesting of fecal contaminated leafy greens may lead to a reduction in foodborne illnesses as well as reduced produce waste.

  4. Distinguishing Nonpareil marketing group almond cultivars through multivariate analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Craig A; Sisterson, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    More than 80% of the world's almonds are grown in California with several dozen almond cultivars available commercially. To facilitate promotion and sale, almond cultivars are categorized into marketing groups based on kernel shape and appearance. Several marketing groups are recognized, with the Nonpareil Marketing Group (NMG) demanding the highest prices. Placement of cultivars into the NMG is historical and no objective standards exist for deciding whether newly developed cultivars belong in the NMG. Principal component analyses (PCA) were used to identify nut and kernel characteristics best separating the 4 NMG cultivars (Nonpareil, Jeffries, Kapareil, and Milow) from a representative of the California Marketing Group (cultivar Carmel) and the Mission Marketing Group (cultivar Padre). In addition, discriminant analyses were used to determine cultivar misclassification rates between and within the marketing groups. All 19 evaluated carpological characters differed significantly among the 6 cultivars and during 2 harvest seasons. A clear distinction of NMG cultivars from representatives of the California and Mission Marketing Groups was evident from a PCA involving the 6 cultivars. Further, NMG kernels were successfully discriminated from kernels representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups with overall kernel misclassification of only 2% using 16 of the 19 evaluated characters. Pellicle luminosity was the most discriminating character, regardless of the character set used in analyses. Results provide an objective classification of NMG almond kernels, clearly distinguishing them from kernels of cultivars representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups.

  5. A Statistical Method to Distinguish Functional Brain Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, André; Vidal, Maciel C.; Takahashi, Daniel Y.

    2017-01-01

    One major problem in neuroscience is the comparison of functional brain networks of different populations, e.g., distinguishing the networks of controls and patients. Traditional algorithms are based on search for isomorphism between networks, assuming that they are deterministic. However, biological networks present randomness that cannot be well modeled by those algorithms. For instance, functional brain networks of distinct subjects of the same population can be different due to individual characteristics. Moreover, networks of subjects from different populations can be generated through the same stochastic process. Thus, a better hypothesis is that networks are generated by random processes. In this case, subjects from the same group are samples from the same random process, whereas subjects from different groups are generated by distinct processes. Using this idea, we developed a statistical test called ANOGVA to test whether two or more populations of graphs are generated by the same random graph model. Our simulations' results demonstrate that we can precisely control the rate of false positives and that the test is powerful to discriminate random graphs generated by different models and parameters. The method also showed to be robust for unbalanced data. As an example, we applied ANOGVA to an fMRI dataset composed of controls and patients diagnosed with autism or Asperger. ANOGVA identified the cerebellar functional sub-network as statistically different between controls and autism (p < 0.001). PMID:28261045

  6. Distinguishing materials in inspected objects by digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhikov, V.; Lysetska, O.; Opolonin, A.; Danilenko, V.; Galkin, S.; Voronkin, E.; Kostyukevich, S. A.

    2005-08-01

    We used detector arrays of types "scintillator-photodiode" (S-PD) and scintillator-photoreceiving device (PRD). In non-destructive testing systems using S-PD arrays it is possible to use scintillators of different atomic number and density, which allows functioning in the energy range from 20 keV to 10 MeV, i.e., steel equivalent thickness I from 100μm to 300mm. For different objects and different purposes, different types of detector arrays and methods of control can be recommended. Results of experimental studies of detector arrays S-PD and S-PRD used for X-ray digital radiography have shown that there exist further possibilities to increase spatial resolution of this system for up to 2-3 line pairs per mm. It was investigated experimental results with used two array detectors for low-energy and high - energy detections (HED and LED). It is show in principle to distinguish not only organic from inorganic materials, but so as safety organic from explosive. Our aim was to show (theoretically and experimentally) that is could be possible to substantially increase the accuracy of separation of substances in the inspected object by their atomic number, as well as to increase the sensitivity of the method as a whole by using a multi-energy approach and detectors that have substantially different sensibility in the low-and high-energy range of the X-ray emitter spectrum. It was show the possibility to distinct materials with effective atomic number difference about 10-15%. It can be used in inspection systems, including anti-terrorist activities, in technical diagnostics, medicine.

  7. Crowding is unlike ordinary masking: distinguishing feature integration from detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelli, Denis G; Palomares, Melanie; Majaj, Najib J

    2004-12-30

    A letter in the peripheral visual field is much harder to identify in the presence of nearby letters. This is "crowding." Both crowding and ordinary masking are special cases of "masking," which, in general, refers to any effect of a "mask" pattern on the discriminability of a signal. Here we characterize crowding, and propose a diagnostic test to distinguish it from ordinary masking. In ordinary masking, the signal disappears. In crowding, it remains visible, but is ambiguous, jumbled with its neighbors. Masks are usually effective only if they overlap the signal, but the crowding effect extends over a large region. The width of that region is proportional to signal eccentricity from the fovea and independent of signal size, mask size, mask contrast, signal and mask font, and number of masks. At 4 deg eccentricity, the threshold contrast for identification of a 0.32 deg signal letter is elevated (up to six-fold) by mask letters anywhere in a 2.3 deg region, 7 times wider than the signal. In ordinary masking, threshold contrast rises as a power function of mask contrast, with a shallow log-log slope of 0.5 to 1, whereas, in crowding, threshold is a sigmoidal function of mask contrast, with a steep log-log slope of 2 at close spacing. Most remarkably, although the threshold elevation decreases exponentially with spacing, the threshold and saturation contrasts of crowding are independent of spacing. Finally, ordinary masking is similar for detection and identification, but crowding occurs only for identification, not detection. More precisely, crowding occurs only in tasks that cannot be done based on a single detection by coarsely coded feature detectors. These results (and observers' introspections) suggest that ordinary masking blocks feature detection, so the signal disappears, while crowding (like "illusory conjunction") is excessive feature integration - detected features are integrated over an inappropriately large area because there are no smaller integration

  8. Distinguishing iron-reducing from sulfate-reducing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.; Thomas, M.A.; McMahon, P.B.

    2009-01-01

    Ground water systems dominated by iron- or sulfate-reducing conditions may be distinguished by observing concentrations of dissolved iron (Fe2+) and sulfide (sum of H2S, HS-, and S= species and denoted here as "H2S"). This approach is based on the observation that concentrations of Fe2+ and H2S in ground water systems tend to be inversely related according to a hyperbolic function. That is, when Fe2+ concentrations are high, H2S concentrations tend to be low and vice versa. This relation partly reflects the rapid reaction kinetics of Fe2+ with H2S to produce relatively insoluble ferrous sulfides (FeS). This relation also reflects competition for organic substrates between the iron- and the sulfate-reducing microorganisms that catalyze the production of Fe2+ and H 2S. These solubility and microbial constraints operate in tandem, resulting in the observed hyperbolic relation between Fe2+ and H 2S concentrations. Concentrations of redox indicators, including dissolved hydrogen (H2) measured in a shallow aquifer in Hanahan, South Carolina, suggest that if the Fe2+/H2S mass ratio (units of mg/L) exceeded 10, the screened interval being tapped was consistently iron reducing (H2 ???0.2 to 0.8 nM). Conversely, if the Fe 2+/H2S ratio was less than 0.30, consistent sulfate-reducing (H2 ???1 to 5 nM) conditions were observed over time. Concomitantly high Fe2+ and H2S concentrations were associated with H2 concentrations that varied between 0.2 and 5.0 nM over time, suggesting mixing of water from adjacent iron- and sulfate-reducing zones or concomitant iron and sulfate reduction under nonelectron donor-limited conditions. These observations suggest that Fe2+/H2S mass ratios may provide useful information concerning the occurrence and distribution of iron and sulfate reduction in ground water systems. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  9. Mapping groundwater quality distinguishing geogenic and anthropogenic contribution using NBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, Elisabetta; Ducci, Daniela; Condesso de Melo, Maria Teresa; Parrone, Daniele; Sellerino, Mariangela; Ghergo, Stefano; Oliveira, Joana; Ribeiro, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Groundwaters are threatened by anthropic activities and pollution is interesting a large number of aquifers worldwide. Qualitative and quantitative monitoring is required to assess the status and track its evolution in time and space especially where anthropic pressures are stronger. Up to now, groundwater quality mapping has been performed separately from the assessment of its natural status, i.e. the definition of the natural background level of a particular element in a particular area or groundwater body. The natural background level (NBL) of a substance or element allows to distinguish anthropogenic pollution from contamination of natural origin in a population of groundwater samples. NBLs are the result of different atmospheric, geological, chemical and biological interaction processes during groundwater infiltration and circulation. There is an increasing need for the water managers to have sound indications on good quality groundwater exploitation. Indeed the extension of a groundwater body is often very large, in the order of tens or hundreds of square km. How to select a proper location for good quality groundwater abstraction is often limited to a question of facility for drilling (access, roads, authorizations, etc.) or at the most related to quantitative aspects driven by geophysical exploration (the most promising from a transmissibility point of view). So how to give indications to the administrators and water managers about the exploitation of good quality drinking water? In the case of anthropic contamination, how to define which area is to be restored and to which threshold (e.g. background level) should the concentration be lowered through the restoration measures? In the framework of a common project between research institutions in Italy (funded by CNR) and Portugal (funded by FCT), our objective is to establish a methodology aiming at merging together 1) the evaluation of NBL and 2) the need to take into account the drinking water standards

  10. Monsters and Clowns Incorporated: the Representations of Adolf Hitler in British and American WWII Propaganda Posters Monstres, clowns et compagnie : les représentations d’Hitler dans les affiches de propagande britanniques et américaines pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Vallée

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dans les affiches de propagande britanniques et américaines de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, les représentations d’Adolf Hitler font de lui soit un monstre effrayant, sanguinaire et diabolique, soit un clown grotesque, un pantin ridicule et risible, une cible qu’il faut frapper, écraser, ou détruire d’une façon ou d’une autre. S’adressant au sens de l’humour du spectateur, à ses peurs ou à son aversion, les artistes de propagande des deux côtés de l’Atlantique utilisent des leviers émotionnels et des tons très variés pour faire du dictateur nazi un des ressorts principaux de la participation à l’effort de guerre. Ces caricatures d’Hitler, dont l’objectif final était d’encourager la production et les économies ou de lutter contre les bavardages intempestifs, révèlent une condamnation morale ou politique et font partie de la propagande de soutien au moral, qui vise à galvaniser les Troupes de l’Intérieur en présentant la victoire comme quelque chose de vital ou d’inéluctable. Qu’il soit monstre ou clown, on fait tomber le dictateur déshumanisé de son piédestal, un piédestal si soigneusement construit pour lui par la propagande nazie.

  11. Distinguishing "new" from "old" carbon in post mining soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindušková, Olga; Frouz, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Introduction Soils developing on heaped overburden after open pit coal mining near Sokolov, Czech Republic, provide an exceptional opportunity to study sites of different ages (0-70 years) developing on similar substrate under relatively well-known conditions. Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an useful indicator of soil quality and represents an important global carbon pool. Post-mining soils would be a perfect model for long-term study of carbon dynamics. Unfortunately, quantifying SOC in Sokolov post-mining soils is quite complicated, since conventional quantification methods cannot distinguish between SOC derived from plant residues and fossil organic carbon derived from coal and kerogen present in the overburden. Moreover, also inorganic carbon may sometimes bias SOC quantification. Up to now, the only way to directly estimate recently derived SOC in these soils is radiocarbon dating (Rumpel et al. 1999; Karu et al. 2009). However, this method is costly and thus cannot be used routinely. The aim of our study is to find an accessible method to quantify recently derived SOC. We would highly appreciate ideas of other soil scientists, organic geochemists and sedimentologists on how to solve this challenge. Methods and hypotheses A set of 14 soil samples were analysed by radiocarbon (14C-AMS) analysis, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy, Rock-Eval and XRD. For calibration of NIRS, also 125 artificial mixtures were produced by mixing different amounts of claystone, coal and partially decomposed litter. NIRS (1000-2500 nm) as well as younger mid-infrared spectroscopy has been widely applied to soils (Janik et al. 2007; Vasques et al. 2009; Michel et al. 2009). When combined with multivariate chemometric techniques, it can be used to predict concentration of different compounds. No study has yet focused on NIRS application to soils where fossil carbon is found in two chemically different forms - whereas coal is rather aromatic, kerogen in our

  12. Daniel Landis: Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the co-recipients of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology. One of the 2012 winners is Daniel Landis for his unparalleled contribution to the field of intercultural research in a distinguished academic career spanning almost…

  13. Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: Beverly Greene

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Beverly Greene, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest, has a long history of distinguished contributions in the public interest through her research, scholarship, teaching, practice, and consultation. Her work raises the visibility of many populations that have been overlooked and…

  14. A DIRECT ALGORITHM FOR DISTINGUISHING NONSINGULAR M-MATRIX AND H-MATRIX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yaotang; Zhu Yan

    2005-01-01

    A direct algorithm is proposed by which one can distinguish whether a matrix is an M-matrix (or H-matrix) or not quickly and effectively. Numerical examples show that it is effective and convincible to distinguish M-matrix (or H-matrix) by using the algorithm.

  15. Adjacent Vertex Distinguishing Incidence Coloring of the Cartesian Product of Some Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian WANG; Shuang Liang TIAN

    2011-01-01

    An adjacent vertex distinguishing incidence coloring of graph G is an incidence coloring of G such that no pair of adjacent vertices meets the same set of colors. We obtain the adjacent vertex distinguishing incidence chromatic number of the Cartesian product of a path and a path, a path and a wheel, a path and a fan, and a path and a star.

  16. LD Score regression distinguishes confounding from polygenicity in genome-wide association studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan K.; Loh, Po-Ru; Finucane, Hilary K.

    2015-01-01

    Both polygenicity (many small genetic effects) and confounding biases, such as cryptic relatedness and population stratification, can yield an inflated distribution of test statistics in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, current methods cannot distinguish between inflation from...

  17. Gene expression accurately distinguishes liver metastases of small bowel and pancreas neuroendocrine tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, Scott K.; Maxwell, Jessica E.; Carr, Jennifer C.; Wang, Donghong; Bellizzi, Andrew M.; O’Dorisio, M. Sue; O’Dorisio, Thomas M.; Howe, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Small bowel (SBNETs) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) often present with liver metastases. Although liver biopsy establishes a neuroendocrine diagnosis, the primary tumor site is frequently unknown without exploratory surgery. Gene expression differences in metastases may distinguish primary SBNETs and PNETs. This study sought to determine expression differences of four genes in neuroendocrine metastases and to create a gene expression algorithm to distinguish the primary site. No...

  18. Use of aflatoxin-producing ability medium to distinguish aflatoxin-producing strains of Aspergillus flavus.

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    Aflatoxin-producing ability medium was tested for its ability to distinguish aflatoxin-positive from aflatoxin-negative strains of Aspergillus flavus in naturally occurring populations from corn at harvest. All of the aflatoxin-positive strains and some of the aflatoxin-negative strains produced aflatoxins when cultured on cracked corn. Although the data indicate that aflatoxin-producing ability medium is not entirely reliable in distinguishing potential aflatoxin-producing strains of A. flav...

  19. A Model to Partly but Reliably Distinguish DDOS Flood Traffic from Aggregated One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable distinguishing DDOS flood traffic from aggregated traffic is desperately desired by reliable prevention of DDOS attacks. By reliable distinguishing, we mean that flood traffic can be distinguished from aggregated one for a predetermined probability. The basis to reliably distinguish flood traffic from aggregated one is reliable detection of signs of DDOS flood attacks. As is known, reliably distinguishing DDOS flood traffic from aggregated traffic becomes a tough task mainly due to the effects of flash-crowd traffic. For this reason, this paper studies reliable detection in the underlying DiffServ network to use static-priority schedulers. In this network environment, we present a method for reliable detection of signs of DDOS flood attacks for a given class with a given priority. There are two assumptions introduced in this study. One is that flash-crowd traffic does not have all priorities but some. The other is that attack traffic has all priorities in all classes, otherwise an attacker cannot completely achieve its DDOS goal. Further, we suppose that the protected site is equipped with a sensor that has a signature library of the legitimate traffic with the priorities flash-crowd traffic does not have. Based on those, we are able to reliably distinguish attack traffic from aggregated traffic with the priorities that flash-crowd traffic does not have according to a given detection probability.

  20. Armand Imbert, Adolf Fick, and their tonometry law

    OpenAIRE

    Mark, H H

    2011-01-01

    ‘The basis of tonometry by applanation, even of tonometry as a whole, is Fick's law, or Imbert-Fick's law, which actually is a much more accurate name'. It is affirmatively cited solely in the ophthalmic and optometric literature, and in patent applications for new tonometers, but as a law of physics underlying clinical practice, it has been challenged both on theoretical grounds and on empirical, evidence-based, data. As the diagnosis and treatment success of glaucoma are primarily determine...

  1. (Eds.). Lviv in the era of Adolf and Henryk Beck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zayachkivska, O.; Walentowska, W.M.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Each generation of students and professors of the Medical Faculty of Lviv University, now known as Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, makes a considerable contribution to the development of world science through dedicated service to the ideals of truth, education, reputable and respon

  2. "... to ne ja, to notsh nezhna ..." / Adolf Käis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käis, Adolf, 1946-2013

    1999-01-01

    Moskva "Teatr Lunõ" külalisetendused Tallinnas 15. ja 16. juunil Vene Draamateatris. Mängitakse Francis Scott Fitzgeraldi romaani "Sume on öö" instseneeringut. Instseneerija ja lavastaja Sergei Prohhanov, kunstnik Leonid Podossenov

  3. So zvjozdami na Lune / Adolf Käis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käis, Adolf, 1946-2013

    1999-01-01

    Moskva "Teatr Lunõ" külalisetendused Tallinnas 15. ja 16. juunil Vene Draamateatris. Mängitakse Francis Scott Fitzgeraldi romaani "Sume on öö" instseneeringut. Instseneerija ja lavastaja Sergei Prohhanov, kunstnik Leonid Podossenov

  4. Distinguishing Features and Similarities Between Descriptive Phenomenological and Qualitative Description Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Danny G; Sullivan-Bolyai, Susan; Knafl, Kathleen; Cohen, Marlene Z

    2016-09-01

    Scholars who research phenomena of concern to the discipline of nursing are challenged with making wise choices about different qualitative research approaches. Ultimately, they want to choose an approach that is best suited to answer their research questions. Such choices are predicated on having made distinctions between qualitative methodology, methods, and analytic frames. In this article, we distinguish two qualitative research approaches widely used for descriptive studies: descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description. Providing a clear basis that highlights the distinguishing features and similarities between descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description research will help students and researchers make more informed choices in deciding upon the most appropriate methodology in qualitative research. We orient the reader to distinguishing features and similarities associated with each approach and the kinds of research questions descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description research address.

  5. Distinguished exchangeable coalescents and generalized Fleming-Viot processes with immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Foucart, Clément

    2010-01-01

    Coalescents with multiple collisions (also called Lambda-coalescents or simple exchangeable coalescents) are used as models of genealogies. We study a new class of Markovian coalescent processes connected to a population model with immigration. Imagine an infinite population with immigration labelled at each generation by N:={1,2,...}. Some ancestral lineages cannot be followed backwards after some time because their ancestor is outside the population. The individuals with an immigrant ancestor constitute a distinguished family and we define exchangeable distinguished coalescent processes as a model for genealogy with immigration, focussing on simple distinguished coalescents, i.e such that when a coagulation occurs all the blocks involved merge as a single block. These processes are characterized by two finite measures on [0,1] denoted by M=(\\Lambda_{0},\\Lambda_{1}). We call them M-coalescents. We show by martingale arguments that the condition of coming down from infinity for the M-coalescent coincides with...

  6. Holographic mutual information and distinguishability of Wilson loop and defect operators

    CERN Document Server

    Hartnoll, Sean A

    2014-01-01

    The mutual information of disconnected regions in large $N$ gauge theories with holographic gravity duals can undergo phase transitions. These occur when connected and disconnected bulk Ryu-Takayanagi surfaces exchange dominance. That is, the bulk `soap bubble' snaps as the boundary regions are drawn apart. We give a gauge-theoretic characterization of this transition: States with and without a certain defect operator insertion -- the defect separates the entangled spatial regions -- are shown to be perfectly distinguishable if and only if the Ryu-Takayanagi surface is connected. Meanwhile, states with and without a certain Wilson loop insertion -- the Wilson loop nontrivially threads the spatial regions -- are perfectly distinguishable if and only if the Ryu-Takayanagi surface is disconnected. The quantum relative entropy of two perfectly distinguishable states is infinite. The results are obtained by relating the soap bubble transition to Hawking-Page (deconfinement) transitions in the Renyi entropies, wher...

  7. Linear Distinguishers in the Key-less Setting: Application to PRESENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Martin Mehl; Rechberger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The application of the concept of linear cryptanalysis to the domain of key-less primitives is largely an open problem. In this paper we, for the first time, propose a model in which its application is meaningful for distinguishing block ciphers. Combining our model with ideas from message...... modification and rebound-like approaches, we initiate a study of cryptographic primitives with respect to this new attack vector and choose the lightweight block cipher PRESENT as an example target. This leads to known-key distinguishers over up to 27 rounds, whereas the best previous result is up to 18 rounds...

  8. Candice L. Odgers: Awards for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2015 co-recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Candice L. Odgers. Odgers's work addressing the developmental course of externalizing and conduct disorders and substance use yielded key insights into genetic and environmental variations in risk, leading to policy recommendations regarding how best to target interventions." Odgers's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  9. Gary B. Melton: Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2014 recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Gary B. Melton. Melton was selected for his "influential scholarship on critical topics in psychology in the public interest, especially child and family law and policy, forensic mental health services, child advocacy, rural psychology, research ethics, and child abuse and neglect." Melton's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  10. Michael E. Lamb: Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2015 co-recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Michael E. Lamb. Lamb was selected because his "work profoundly shaped the fields of developmental psychology, social welfare, child and family policy, and law." Lamb's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  11. A new method of distinguishing models of the high-Q{sup 2} events at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Z. [University of Oregon, Eugene (United States). Institute of Theoretical Science; He, X.G.; McKellar, B. [University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-07-01

    A new method is proposed to distinguish models for the high Q{sup 2} e{sup +}p {yields} e{sup +}X anomaly at HERA by looking at a new observable which is insensitive to parton distribution function (PDF), but sensitive to new physics. Three models have been considered: modification of PDF`s, new physics due to s-channel production of new particle and new physics due to contact interactions. Using this new method it is possible to distinguish different models with increased luminosity 11 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Decreasing the uncertainty of atomic clocks via real-time noise distinguish

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Richang; Wei, Rong; Wang, Wenli; Zou, Fan; Du, Yuanbo; Chen, Tingting; Wang, Yuzhu

    2016-01-01

    The environmental perturbation on atoms is the key factor restricting the performance of atomic frequency standards, especially in long term scale. In this letter, we demonstrate a real-time noise distinguish operation of atomic clocks. The operation improves the statistical uncertainty by about an order of magnitude of our fountain clock which is deteriorated previously by extra noises. The frequency offset bring by the extra noise is also corrected. The experiment proves the real-time noise distinguish operation can reduce the contribution of ambient noises and improve the uncertainty limit of atomic clocks.

  13. Lonnie R. Snowden Jr.: Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy is given to a psychologist who has made a distinguished empirical and/or theoretical contribution to research in public policy, either through a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of work. The 2014 recipient of this award is Lonnie R. Snowden Jr. "Over the past several decades, Lonnie R. Snowden Jr. has systematically built a research agenda on the financing and organization of mental health services that has driven much of our current health policy reform efforts." Snowden Jr.'s award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  14. Phasor analysis of multiphoton spectral images distinguishes autofluorescence components of in vivo human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereidouni, Farzad; Bader, Arjen N; Colonna, Anne; Gerritsen, Hans C

    2014-08-01

    Skin contains many autofluorescent components that can be studied using spectral imaging. We employed a spectral phasor method to analyse two photon excited autofluorescence and second harmonic generation images of in vivo human skin. This method allows segmentation of images based on spectral features. Various structures in the skin could be distinguished, including Stratum Corneum, epidermal cells and dermis. The spectral phasor analysis allowed investigation of their fluorescence composition and identification of signals from NADH, keratin, FAD, melanin, collagen and elastin. Interestingly, two populations of epidermal cells could be distinguished with different melanin content.

  15. Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: Anneliese A. Singh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2016 corecipient of the Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Anneliese A. Singh. Dr. Singh's scholarship "has promoted major advancements in LBGT studies and intersectionality of multiple identities." Singh's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. A Method for Distinguishing Attosecond Single Pulse from Attosecond Pulse Train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Yi-Ping; ZENG Zhi-Nan; LI Ru-Xin; XU Zhi-Zhan

    2004-01-01

    @@ The driving laser field assisted attosecond soft-extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) photo-ionization was used successfully to measure the duration of the attosecond pulse based on the cross-correlation method. However, this method in principle cannot distinguish a single attosecond pulse from the attosecond pulse train. We propose a technique for directly distinguishing attosecond single pulse from attosecond pulse train based on the photo-ionization of atoms by attosecond XUV pulse in the presence of a two-colour strong laser pulse.

  17. J. David Creswell: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    APA's Awards for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology recognize excellent young psychologists who have not held a doctoral degree for more than nine years. One of the 2014 award winners is J. David Creswell, for "outstanding and innovative research on mechanisms linking stress management strategies to disease." Creswell's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  18. Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: Keith Humphreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Keith Humphreys, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest, is cited for creatively combining a scientist's commitment to rigor, a clinician's emphasis on high-quality mental health care, and a policy analyst's understanding of how to address and resolve social problems. His work as a…

  19. Marguerita Lightfoot: Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest. The 2012 winner is Marguerita Lightfoot for her leadership, innovation, and commitment to applying psychological principles to develop behavioral health interventions for…

  20. Sleeping in fits and starts: a practical guide to distinguishing nocturnal epilepsy from sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Christopher P

    2014-12-01

    Accurately diagnosing sleep-related events, and particularly distinguishing nocturnal frontal lobe seizures from other sleep disorders such as parasomnias, can be challenging. This article reviews the differential diagnosis of paroxysmal events from sleep, epileptic and non-epileptic, considers important diagnostic points in the history, and evaluates the role of investigations in this setting.

  1. Distinguishing among models of strong WL WL scattering at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilgore, W.B.

    1997-01-01

    Using a multi-channel analysis of strong W{sub L} W{sub L} scattering signals, I study the LHC`s ability to distinguish among various models of strongly interacting electroweak symmetry breaking sectors. 9 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. Amanda Seed: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    APA's Awards for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology recognize excellent young psychologists who have not held a doctoral degree for more than nine years. One of the 2014 award winners is Amanda Seed, for "incisive and innovative contributions to comparative cognition." Seed's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  3. Leslie S. Greenberg: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the 2012 winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research. Leslie S. Greenberg is an exemplary scientist-practitioner whose pioneering work has significantly altered the landscape of the field of psychotherapy research and practice. His seminal…

  4. Dan Olweus: Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy. The 2012 winner is Dan Olweus for his rigorous scientific research on bullying among children and youth and his early and tireless attention to its public policy implications. Dan Olweus's…

  5. And then there were 12--distinguishing Van Leeuwenhoek microscopes from old or new copies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lesley A

    2015-07-01

    In the wake of announcements of the authentications of two previously unknown Van Leeuwenhoek microscopes in one month, this paper reviews the possibilities and potential pitfalls that might be involved in distinguishing 17th/18th century single-lensed microscopes from historical and modern copies. It is clear that a combination of characteristics must be considered, no single parameter will do.

  6. 76 FR 71048 - Sixth Annual Philip S. Chen, Jr. Distinguished Lecture on Innovation and Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Innovation and Technology Transfer AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, HHS. ACTION....D. Distinguished Lecture on Innovation and Technology Transfer. DATES: Friday, December 9, 2011, at... Recombinant Immunotoxins: From Technology Transfer to the Patient.'' Dr. Pastan is an NIH...

  7. For Distinguished Public Service: Medical Library Association Honors FNLM and NIH MedlinePlus Magazine | NIH ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. For Distinguished Public Service: Medical Library Association Honors FNLM and NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Past Issues / Summer 2011 Table of Contents MLA President Ruth Holst presented FNLM ... Service Award at the MLA’s recent national conference. ...

  8. Distinguished Educators on Reading: Contributions That Have Shaped Effective Literacy Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padak, Nancy D., Ed.; Rasinski, Timothy V., Ed.; Peck, Jacqueline K., Ed.; Church, Brenda Weible, Ed.; Fawcett, Gay, Ed.; Hendershot, Judith M., Ed.; Henry, Justina M., Ed.; Moss, Barbara G., Ed.; Pryor, Elizabeth, Ed.; Roskos, Kathleen A., Ed.; Baumann, James F., Ed.; Dillon, Deborah R., Ed.; Hopkins, Carol J., Ed.; Humphrey, Jack W., Ed.; O'Brien, David G., Ed.

    Drawing from the popular "Distinguished Educator" series of articles in the journal "The Reading Teacher," this book presents 33 essays by respected scholars in nearly every field of reading research and instruction. In addition to the original articles, almost all featured educators have included a professional biography written especially for…

  9. Affect of Distinguishing of Neutron and Gamma for Liquid Scintillation Detector by Methods of Baseline Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Wei; LIU; Yi-na; LI; Chun-juan; WANG; Zhi-qiang; CHEN; Jun; LUO; Hai-long; ZHANG; Wei-hua; XU; Kun

    2015-01-01

    Most scintillation detectors are sensitive both for neutron and photon.Usually,there are photon in neutron fields which is coming from neutron source or reacting by neutron and materials around,so you must concern about the affect by photon which is below 10MeV.There will be a big effect for distinguishing

  10. Equivariant singularity theory with distinguished parameters : Two case studies of resonant Hamiltonian systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.W.; Lunter, G.A.; Vegter, G.

    1998-01-01

    We consider Hamiltonian systems near equilibrium that can be (formally) reduced to one degree of freedom. Spatiotemporal symmetries play a key role. The planar reduction is studied by equivariant singularity theory with distinguished parameters. The method is illustrated on the conservative spring-p

  11. Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Daniel J. Bauer

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Daniel J. Bauer, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for the creative integration of sophisticated quantitative methods with empirical research in the psychological sciences. Bauer draws on his joint training as a developmental and quantitative psychologist to pursue the design,…

  12. Comparison of laboratory-based and phylogenetic methods to distinguish between Haemophilus influenzae and H. haemolyticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstedt, Sara A.; Zhang, Lixin; Patel, Mayurika; McCrea, Kirk W.; Qin, Zhaohui; Marrs, Carl F.; Gilsdorf, Janet R.

    2008-01-01

    Summary New methods to distinguish between nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and nonhemolytic Haemophilus haemolyticus were compared. The results of iga variable region hybridization to dotblots and library-on-a-slide microarrays were more similar to a “gold standard” multigene phylogenetic tree than iga conserved region hybridization or P6 7F3 epitope immunoblots. PMID:18652852

  13. Angela J. Grippo: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Angela J. Grippo for her creative contributions in investigating the association between depression and cardiovascular disease in preclinical animal models.…

  14. Distinguished-Level Learning Online: Support Materials from LangNet and RussNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Betty Lou; Ehrman, Madeline; Lekic, Maria

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces the reader to two online sources of materials for working on improving listening and reading skills. The materials are intended for learners already at Interagency Language Roundtable (ILR) Level 3 (Superior) proficiency in Arabic, Chinese, Hindi, Korean, Russian, and Spanish, who desire to reach Level 4 (Distinguished, or…

  15. Distinguishing Science from Pseudoscience in School Psychology: Science and Scientific Thinking as Safeguards against Human Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Ammirati, Rachel; David, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Like many domains of professional psychology, school psychology continues to struggle with the problem of distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific and otherwise questionable clinical practices. We review evidence for the scientist-practitioner gap in school psychology and provide a user-friendly primer on science and scientific thinking for…

  16. Distinguishing between Positive and Negative Reinforcement: Responses to Nakajima (2006) and Staats (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Alan; Galizio, Mark

    2006-01-01

    In a previous issue of "The Behavior Analyst," the authors discussed the ambiguities that surround the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement. Seven distinguished behavior analysts commented on their article. The authors believe that this dialogue represented a constructive step toward clarification of an important concept within…

  17. Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Adam K. Anderson

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Adam K. Anderson, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for his outstanding contribution to understanding the representation of emotion and its influence on cognition. By combining psychological and neuroscience techniques with rigorous and creative experimental designs, Anderson has…

  18. A methodology for distinguishing between extinction and punishment effects associated with response blocking.

    OpenAIRE

    Lerman, D C; Iwata, B A

    1996-01-01

    We present one method for distinguishing between extinction and punishment effects. The proportion of responses that produced a consequence (blocking) was varied while hand mouthing was treated in a man diagnosed with profound mental retardation. Response patterns across the schedule changes suggested that the blocking procedure functioned as a punishing event.

  19. Bob McMurray: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Bob McMurray for pioneering research on speech and language processing in infants and adults. McMurray has conducted influential work on the graded nature of…

  20. Thomas L. Griffiths: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology (2012). Thomas L. Griffiths won the award for bringing mathematical precision to the deepest questions in human learning, reasoning, and concept formation. In his pioneering work,…

  1. Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Christian N. L. Olivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Christian N. L. Olivers, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for outstanding research on visual attention and working memory. Olivers uses classic experimental designs in an innovative and sophisticated way to determine underlying mechanisms. He has formulated important theoretical…

  2. Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology: Nadya A. Fouad

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Nadya A. Fouad, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology, is cited for her role in the development and implementation of the Multicultural Guidelines, her commitment to social justice and equality, and her pioneering work in establishing benchmarks for trainee competency. Her contributions to…

  3. Can Young Children Distinguish Abstract Expressionist Art from Superficially Similar Works by Preschoolers and Animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissel, Jenny; Hawley-Dolan, Angelina; Winner, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    While it is sometimes claimed that abstract art requires little skill and is indistinguishable from the scribbles of young children, recent research has shown that even adults with no training in art can distinguish works by abstract expressionists from superficially similar works by children and even elephants, monkeys, and apes (Hawley-Dolan…

  4. Bernice Lott: Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest. The 2012 winner is Bernice Lott. Lott's commitment to the public interest has always guided her career, as her groundbreaking research on gender, ethnicity, and race…

  5. A Methodology for Distinguishing between Extinction and Punishment Effects Associated with Response Blocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C.; Iwata, Brian A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a method for distinguishing between extinction and punishment effects. In extinction and punishment, different schedules of reinforcement or punishment are in effect when a given proportion of responses is blocked. Response patterns in treatment of hand mouthing in an adult with profound mental retardation suggest that a…

  6. Laurie R. Santos: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Laurie R. Santos for creative and insightful investigations of cognition across a broad range of species and psychological domains, illuminating cognitive…

  7. Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy: Charlotte J. Patterson

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Charlotte J. Patterson, winner of the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy, is cited as the world's expert on psychological research on children and youths raised by lesbian and gay parents. Her early analytic syntheses of the literature on the subject greatly influenced other researchers in child and family…

  8. Distinguishing Bark Beetle-infested Vegetation by Tree Species Types and Stress Levels using Landsat Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanpillai, R.; Ewers, B. E.; Speckman, H. N.; Miller, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    In the Western United States, more than 3 million hectares of lodgepole pine forests have been impacted by the Mountain pine beetle outbreak, while another 166,000 hectares of spruce-fir forests have been attacked by Spruce beetle. Following the beetle attack, the trees lose their hydraulic conductivity thus altering their carbon and water fluxes. These trees go through various stages of stress until mortality, described by color changes in their needles prior to losing them. Modeling the impact of these vegetation types require thematically precise land cover data that distinguishes lodgepole pine and spruce-fir forests along with the stage of impact since the ecosystem fluxes are different for these two systems. However, the national and regional-scale land cover datasets derived from remotely sensed data do not have this required thematic precision. We evaluated the feasibility of multispectral data collected by Landsat 8 to distinguish lodgepole pine and spruce fir, and subsequently model the different stages of attack using field data collected in Medicine Bow National Forest (Wyoming, USA). Operational Land Imager, onboard Landsat 8 has more spectral bands and higher radiometric resolution (12 bit) in comparison to sensors onboard earlier Landsat missions which could improve the ability to distinguish these vegetation types and their stress conditions. In addition to these characteristics, its repeat coverage, rigorous radiometric calibration, wide swath width, and no-cost data provide unique advantages to Landsat data for mapping large geographic areas. Initial results from this study highlight the importance of SWIR bands for distinguishing different levels of stress, and the need for ancillary data for distinguishing species types. Insights gained from this study could lead to the generation of land cover maps with higher thematic precision, and improve the ability to model various ecosystem processes as a result of these infestations.

  9. Distinguishing a SM-like MSSM Higgs boson from SM Higgs boson at muon collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jai Kumar Singhal; Sardar Singh; Ashok K Nagawat

    2007-06-01

    We explore the possibility of distinguishing the SM-like MSSM Higgs boson from the SM Higgs boson via Higgs boson pair production at future muon collider. We study the behavior of the production cross-section in SM and MSSM with Higgs boson mass for various MSSM parameters tan and A. We observe that at fixed CM energy, in the SM, the total cross-section increases with the increase in Higgs boson mass whereas this trend is reversed for the MSSM. The changes that occur for the MSSM in comparison to the SM predictions are quantified in terms of the relative percentage deviation in cross-section. The observed deviations in cross-section for different choices of Higgs boson masses suggest that the measurements of the cross-section could possibly distinguish the SM-like MSSM Higgs boson from the SM Higgs boson.

  10. Distinguishing electronic and vibronic coherence in 2D spectra by their temperature dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Perlík, Václav; Šanda, František; Hauer, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Long-lived oscillations in 2D spectra of chlorophylls are at the heart of an ongoing debate. Their physical origin is either a multi-pigment effect, such as excitonic coherence, or primarily stems from localized vibrations. In the present work, we analyze distinguishing characteristics of relative phase difference measured between diagonal- and cross-peak oscillations. While direct discrimination between the two scenarios is obscured when peaks overlap, their sensitivity to temperature provides a stronger argument. We show that vibrational (vibronic) oscillations change relative phase with temperature, while electronic oscillations are only weakly dependent. This highlights that studies of relative phase difference as a function of temperature provide a clear and easily accessible method to distinguish between vibrational and electronic coherences.

  11. Rhythmic brushstrokes distinguish van Gogh from his contemporaries: findings via automated brushstroke extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Yao, Lei; Hendriks, Ella; Wang, James Z

    2012-06-01

    Art historians have long observed the highly characteristic brushstroke styles of Vincent van Gogh and have relied on discerning these styles for authenticating and dating his works. In our work, we compared van Gogh with his contemporaries by statistically analyzing a massive set of automatically extracted brushstrokes. A novel extraction method is developed by exploiting an integration of edge detection and clustering-based segmentation. Evidence substantiates that van Gogh's brushstrokes are strongly rhythmic. That is, regularly shaped brushstrokes are tightly arranged, creating a repetitive and patterned impression. We also found that the traits that distinguish van Gogh's paintings in different time periods of his development are all different from those distinguishing van Gogh from his peers. This study confirms that the combined brushwork features identified as special to van Gogh are consistently held throughout his French periods of production (1886-1890).

  12. Fluctuation Analysis of Redox Potential to Distinguish Microbial Fe(II) Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, A. M. L.; Ferris, F. G.

    2016-11-01

    We developed a novel method for distinguishing abiotic and biological iron oxidation in liquid media using oxidation-reduction (redox) potential time series data. The instrument and processing algorithm were tested by immersing the tip of a Pt electrode with an Ag-AgCl reference electrode into an active iron-oxidizing biofilm in a groundwater discharge zone, as well as in two abiotic systems: a killed sample and a chemical control from the same site. We used detrended fluctuation analysis to characterize average root mean square fluctuation behavior, which was distinct in the live system. The calculated α value scaling exponents determined by detrended fluctuation analysis were significantly different at p < 0.001. This indicates that time series of electrode response data may be used to distinguish live and abiotic chemical reaction pathways. Due to the simplicity, portability, and small size, it may be suitable for characterization of extraterrestrial environments where water has been observed, such as Mars and Europa.

  13. Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology: Roger P. Greenberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology is given in recognition of the efforts of psychologists who have made distinguished contributions to education and training, who have produced imaginative innovations, or who have been involved in the developmental phases of programs in education and training in psychology. The Career designation is added to the award at the discretion of the Education and Training Awards Committee to recognize continuous significant contributions made over a lifelong career in psychology. The 2016 recipient of this award is Roger P. Greenberg, whose "scholarship has generated important evidence on psychotherapy process and outcome, personality theories, psychosomatic conditions, and the comparative effectiveness of psychological and biological treatments for mental disorders." Greenberg's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Main-Group Halide Semiconductors Derived from Perovskite: Distinguishing Chemical, Structural, and Electronic Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabini, Douglas H; Labram, John G; Lehner, Anna J; Bechtel, Jonathon S; Evans, Hayden A; Van der Ven, Anton; Wudl, Fred; Chabinyc, Michael L; Seshadri, Ram

    2017-01-03

    Main-group halide perovskites have generated much excitement of late because of their remarkable optoelectronic properties, ease of preparation, and abundant constituent elements, but these curious and promising materials differ in important respects from traditional semiconductors. The distinguishing chemical, structural, and electronic features of these materials present the key to understanding the origins of the optoelectronic performance of the well-studied hybrid organic-inorganic lead halides and provide a starting point for the design and preparation of new functional materials. Here we review and discuss these distinguishing features, among them a defect-tolerant electronic structure, proximal lattice instabilities, labile defect migration, and, in the case of hybrid perovskites, disordered molecular cations. Additionally, we discuss the preparation and characterization of some alternatives to the lead halide perovskites, including lead-free bismuth halides and hybrid materials with optically and electronically active organic constituents.

  15. Distinguishing Structure Change of Cells Based on Analysis of Light Scattering Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yong-Long; YANG Fang; WANG Meng; ZHANG Yu; GU Ning

    2008-01-01

    We develop a new method to distinguish structural change of cells based on light scattering and Fourier spectra analysis. The light scattering detection system is composed of a laser source, an optical microscope, a CCD with high resolution and low distortion. After the scattering patterns of cells are recorded by the CCD, the Fourier spectra are obtained by the intensity distribution of scattered light. In the experiment, the change of cell structure is designed by sonication treatment. It is found that different typical peaks can be shown in the Fourier spectra of MCF7 cells with and without sonication treatment, which indicates that this method can be used to distinguish the structural change of cells.

  16. The Aharonov-Bohm effect and fractional statistics of distinguishable particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashkevich, Stefan, E-mail: mash@mashke.or [Schroedinger, 120 W 45th St., New York, NY 10036 (United States); Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev 03143 (Ukraine)

    2010-09-03

    In two-dimensional space, the topological coupling arising between charged particles with attached magnetic fluxes, via the Aharonov-Bohm effect, causes distinguishable particles to effectively acquire quantum statistics: a nontrivial quantum phase is generated when a particle of one species encircles one of a different species. We discuss a number of exact and numerical results concerning distinguishable particles with fractional statistics. Just like for anyons, the spectrum of such particles confined to the lowest Landau level of a strong magnetic field can be found exactly. Then a system of particles in the presence of static magnetic fluxes (equivalent to particles with infinite mass) is considered, and the low-lying states of one particle in the presence of two fluxes and two particles in the presence of one flux are analyzed.

  17. Distinguishing Standard Model Extensions using MonoTop Chirality at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ryan; Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dutta, Bhaskar; Flórez, Andrés; Gao, Yu; Kamon, Teruki; Kolev, Nikolay; Segura, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Spectral analysis of the top quark final states is a promising method to distinguish physics beyond the standard model (BSM) from the SM. Many BSM physics with top quark final states feature top quarks with right or left handed polarized helicity. The energy spectrum of the top quark decay products can be used to distinguish the top quark helicity. A Delphes simulation of a minimal standard model extension featuring a color scalar triplet that decays into a left handed top and a dark matter (DM) candidate is compared with a right handed model to demonstrate how such an energy spectrum varies and differentiates models. Both the hadronic and leptonic decay channels of the top quark are considered in the analysis. In the hadronic channel the right and left handed models are separated at 95% CL with a production cross section of 20 fb and 100 fb-1 integrated luminosity of 13 TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHC.

  18. Distinguishing Aspartic and Isoaspartic Acids in Peptides by Several Mass Spectrometric Fragmentation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGraan-Weber, Nick; Zhang, Jun; Reilly, James P.

    2016-12-01

    Six ion fragmentation techniques that can distinguish aspartic acid from its isomer, isoaspartic acid, were compared. MALDI post-source decay (PSD), MALDI 157 nm photodissociation, tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)phosphonium bromide (TMPP) charge tagging in PSD and photodissociation, ESI collision-induced dissociation (CID), electron transfer dissociation (ETD), and free-radical initiated peptide sequencing (FRIPS) with CID were applied to peptides containing either aspartic or isoaspartic acid. Diagnostic ions, such as the y-46 and b+H2O, are present in PSD, photodissociation, and charge tagging. c•+57 and z-57 ions are observed in ETD and FRIPS experiments. For some molecules, aspartic and isoaspartic acid yield ion fragments with significantly different intensities. ETD and charge tagging appear to be most effective at distinguishing these residues.

  19. Distinguishing types of compact-object binaries using the gravitational-wave signatures of their mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Ilya; Dominik, Michal; Belczynsk, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the distinguishability of populations of coalescing binary neutron stars, neutron-star black-hole binaries, and binary black holes, whose gravitational-wave signatures are expected to be observed by the advanced network of ground-based interferometers LIGO and Virgo. We consider population-synthesis predictions for plausible merging binary distributions in mass space, along with measurement accuracy estimates from the main gravitational-wave parameter-estimation pipeline. We find that for our model compact-object binary mass distribution, we can always distinguish binary neutron stars and black-hole--neutron-star binaries, but not necessarily black-hole--neutron-star binaries and binary black holes; however, with a few tens of detections, we can accurately identify the three subpopulations and measure their respective rates.

  20. Julio J. Ramirez: Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology is given in recognition of the efforts of psychologists who have made distinguished contributions to education and training, who have produced imaginative innovations, or who have been involved in the developmental phases of programs in education and training in psychology. The Career designation is added to the award at the discretion of the Education and Training Awards Committee to recognize continuous significant contributions made over a lifelong career in psychology. The 2014 recipient of this award is Julio J. Ramirez, for "creating a national infrastructure to support education and training in behavioral neuroscience and biological psychology, for playing a seminal role in creating an undergraduate neuroscience education journal, and for creating a nationally recognized mentoring program for junior faculty in the neurosciences, particularly with underrepresented groups." Ramirez's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  1. Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: Mark L. Hatzenbuehler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2016 corecipient of the Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Mark L. Hatzenbuehler. The Award recognizes Dr. Hatzenbuehler's advancements in understanding stigma, particularly "the stigma experience of being gay or bisexual at the psychological level in terms of rumination, secret keeping, and the like; at the social level in terms of stigma-imbued social interactions; and at the structural level in terms of policies such as the presence or absence of anti-bullying interventions in schools or gay marriage prohibitions at the level of states." Hatzenbuehler's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Rodney K. Goodyear: Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology is given in recognition of the efforts of psychologists who have made distinguished contributions to education and training, who have produced imaginative innovations, or who have been involved in the developmental phases of programs in education and training in psychology. The Career designation is added to the award at the discretion of the Education and Training Awards Committee to recognize continuous significant contributions made over a lifelong career in psychology. The 2015 recipient of this award is Rodney K. Goodyear "for his substantive, sustained, and enduring contributions to research and practice in the training and supervision of students and educators in professional psychology, and for his leadership in helping to establish competency standards in the area of clinical supervision both in the United States and internationally. Goodyear's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  3. Blast-Induced Acceleration in a Shock Tube: Distinguishing Primary and Tertiary Blast Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Annual, Year 2 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Blast-Induced Acceleration in a Shock Tube : Distinguishing Primary and Tertiary 5a...Using a highly characterized shock tube simulation of blast, rats will be exposed to BOP with varied peak amplitudes and impulse in association...understanding of the relation of the former to the latter. As the use of shock tubes has greatly expanded in recent years for biomedical research

  4. Haemophilus haemolyticus: A Human Respiratory Tract Commensal to Be Distinguished from Haemophilus influenzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, T.F.; Brauer, A.L.; Sethi, S.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Haemophilus influenzae is a common pathogen in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a prospective study, selected isolates of apparent H. influenzae had an altered phenotype. We tested the hypothesis that these variant strains were genetically different from ty...... distinguish H. haemolyticus from H. influenzae. H. haemolyticus is a respiratory tract commensal. The recognition that some strains of apparent H. influenzae are H. haemolyticus substantially strengthens the association of true H. influenzae with clinical infection....

  5. SUVmax/THKmax as a biomarker for distinguishing advanced gastric carcinoma from primary gastric lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gastric carcinoma and primary gastric lymphoma (PGL are the two most common malignancies in stomach. The purpose of this study was to screen and validate a biomarker of (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18F-FDG PET/CT for distinguishing advanced gastric carcinoma (AGC from PGL for clinical applications. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reviewed PET/CT scans collected from January 2008 to April 2012 of 69 AGC and 38 PGL (14 low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue [MALT], 24 non-MALT aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma [ANHL] with a focus on FDG intensity (maximum standardized uptake value [SUVmax] of primary lesions and its CT-detected abnormalities, including maximal gastrointestinal wall thickness (THKmax and mucosal ulcerations. Gastric FDG uptake was found in 69 (100% patients with AGC and 36 (95%, 12 MALT vs. 24 ANHLwith PGL. The presence of CT-detected abnormalities of AGC and PGL were 97% (67/69 and 89% (12 MALT vs. 22 ANHL, respectively. After controlling for THKmax, SUVmax was higher with ANHL than AGC (17.10 ± 8.08 vs. 9.65 ± 5.24, p0.05. Cross-validation analysis showed that for distinguishing ANHL from AGC, the classifier with SUVmax as a feature achieved a correct classification rate of 81% with thresholds 13.40 ± 1.12 and the classifier with SUVmax/THKmax as a feature achieved a correct classification rate of 83% with thresholds 7.51 ± 0.63. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SUVmax/THKmax may be as a promising biomarker of FDG-PET/CT for distinguishing ANHL from AGC. Structural CT abnormalities alone may not be reliable but can help with PET assessment of gastric malignancies. (18F-FDG PET/CT have potential for distinguishing AGC from PGL at the individual level.

  6. Multicolored Silver Nanoparticles for Multiplexed Disease Diagnostics: Distinguishing Dengue, Yellow Fever, and Ebola Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chun-Wan; de Puig, Helena; Tam, Justina; Gómez-Márquez, José; Bosch, Irene; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly; Gehrke, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Rapid point-of-care (POC) diagnostic devices are needed for field-forward screening of severe acute systemic febrile illnesses. Multiplexed rapid lateral flow diagnostics have the potential to distinguish among multiple pathogens, thereby facilitating diagnosis and improving patient care. Here, we present a platform for multiplexed pathogen detection using multi-colored silver nanoplates. This design requires no external excitation source and permits multiplexed analysis in a single channel, facilitating integration and manufacturing. PMID:25672590

  7. Distinguishing Between Related and Unrelated International Geographic Diversification: A Comprehensive Measure of Global Diversification

    OpenAIRE

    Sushil Vachani

    1991-01-01

    This paper argues that it is important to distinguish between related and unrelated international geographic diversification when measuring impact of diversification on performance. It then extends the Jacquemin-Berry entropy measure to propose a comprehensive measure of global diversification that comprises related and unrelated product diversification. It suggests a classification of firms based on diversification strategies and proposes hypotheses for future research.© 1991 JIBS. Journal o...

  8. The use of tribromoisocyanuric acid to distinguish among primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo, Livia T.C., E-mail: livia.vilela@ifrj.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica; Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro (IF-RJ), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Mattos, Marcio C.S. de; Esteves, Pierre M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica

    2013-09-01

    Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols can be easily distinguished due to their reactivity towards tribromoisocyanuric acid (TBCA). The test is performed by adding TBCA to the alcohol in a test tube heated in a boiling water bath. Orange color develops in the tube containing the primary alcohol, light yellow is observed in the tube containing the secondary alcohol while the tertiary alcohol results in a colorless mixture. (author)

  9. Distinguishing the Transcription Regulation Patterns in Promoters of Human Genes with Different Function or Evolutionary Age

    KAUST Repository

    Alam, Tanvir

    2012-07-01

    Distinguishing transcription regulatory patterns of different gene groups is a common problem in various bioinformatics studies. In this work we developed a methodology to deal with such a problem based on machine learning techniques. We applied our method to two biologically important problems related to detecting a difference in transcription regulation of: a/ protein-coding and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in human, as well as b/ a difference between primate-specific and non-primate-specific long non-coding RNAs. Our method is capable to classify RNAs using various regulatory features of genes that transcribe into these RNAs, such as nucleotide frequencies, transcription factor binding sites, de novo sequence motifs, CpG islands, repetitive elements, histone modification marks, and others. Ten-fold cross-validation tests suggest that our model can distinguish protein-coding and non-coding RNAs with accuracy above 80%. Twenty-fold cross-validation tests suggest that our model can distinguish primate-specific from non-primate-specific promoters of lncRNAs with accuracy above 80%. Consequently, we can hypothesize that transcription of the groups of genes mentioned above are regulated by different mechanisms. Feature selection techniques allowed us to reduce the number of features significantly while keeping the accuracy around 80%. Consequently, we can conclude that selected features play significant role in transcription regulation of coding and non-coding genes, as well as primate-specific and non-primate-specific lncRNA genes.

  10. Analysis of Financial Ratio to Distinguish Indonesia Joint Venture General Insurance Company Performance using Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subiakto Soekarno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance industry stands as a service business that plays a significant role in Indonesiaeconomical condition. The development of insurance industry in Indonesia, both of generalinsurance and life insurance, has increased very fast. The general insurance industry itselfdivided into two major players which are local private company and Joint Venture Company.Lately, the use of statistical techniques and financial ratios models to asses financial institutionsuch as insurance company have been used as one of the appropriate combination inpredicting the performance of an industry. This research aims to distinguish between JointVenture General Insurance Companies that have a good performance and those who are lessperforming well using Discriminant Analysis. Further, the findings led that DiscriminantAnalysis is able to distinguish Joint Venture General Insurance Companies that have a goodperformance and those who are not performing well. There are also six ratios which are RBC,Technical Reserve to Investment Ratio, Debt Ratio, Return on Equity, Loss Ratio, and ExpenseRatio that stand as the most influential ratios to distinguish the performance of joint venturegeneral insurance companies. In addition, the result suggest business people to be concernedtoward those six ratios, to increase their companies’ performance.Key words: general insurance, financial ratio, discriminant analysis

  11. A novel distinguishing system for the diagnosis of malignant pancreatic cystic neoplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Xiaoyong, E-mail: shanlixinc@163.com [Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Lu, Di, E-mail: lcyxld@126.com [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Xu, Xiao, E-mail: zdyyxx@163.com [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Wang, Jianguo, E-mail: 21118059@zju.edu.cn [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Wu, Jian, E-mail: drwujian@hotmail.com [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Yan, Sheng, E-mail: shengyan@zju.edu.cn [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Zheng, Shu-sen, E-mail: zyzss@zju.edu.cn [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To explore a simple and reliable non-invasive distinguishing system for the pre-operative evaluation of malignancy in pancreatic cystic neoplasm (PCN). Methods: This study first enrolled an observation cohort of 102 consecutive PCN patients. Demographic information, results of laboratory examinations, and computed tomography (CT) presentations were recorded and analyzed to achieve a distinguishing model/system for malignancy. A group of 21 patients was then included to validate the model/system prospectively. Results: Based on the 11 malignancy-related features identified by univariate analysis, a distinguishing model for malignancy in PCN was established by multivariate analysis: PCN malignant score = 2.967 × elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG) (≥6.16 mmol/L) ± 4.496 × asymmetrically thickened wall (or mural nodules ≥ 4 mm) ± 1.679 × septum thickening (≥2 mm) − 5.134. With the optimal cut-off value selected as −2.8 in reference to the Youden index, the proposed system for malignant PCN was established: septum thickening (>2 mm), asymmetrically thickened wall (or mural nodules > 4 mm), or elevated FBG (>6.16 mmol/L, accompanying commonly known malignant signs), the presence of at least one of these 3 features indicated malignancy in PCN. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of this system were 81.4%, 95.8% and 76.9%, respectively. MRI was performed on 32 patients, making correct prediction of malignancy explicitly in only 68.8% (22/32). The subsequent prospective validation study showed that the proposed distinguishing system had a predictive accuracy of 85.7% (18/21). Moreover, a higher model score, or aggregation of the features in the proposed system, indicated a higher grade of malignancy (carcinoma) in PCN. Conclusion: Elevated FBG (>6.16 mmol/L), asymmetrically thickened wall (or mural nodules > 4 mm) and septum thickening (>2 mm) are of great value in differentiating the malignancy in PCN. The developed distinguishing system is

  12. Texture descriptors to distinguish radiation necrosis from recurrent brain tumors on multi-parametric MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Pallavi; Prasanna, Prateek; Rogers, Lisa; Wolansky, Leo; Badve, Chaitra; Sloan, Andrew; Cohen, Mark; Madabhushi, Anant

    2014-03-01

    Di erentiating radiation necrosis (a radiation induced treatment e ect) from recurrent brain tumors (rBT) is currently one of the most clinically challenging problems in care and management of brain tumor (BT) patients. Both radiation necrosis (RN), and rBT exhibit similar morphological appearance on standard MRI making non-invasive diagnosis extremely challenging for clinicians, with surgical intervention being the only course for obtaining de nitive ground truth". Recent studies have reported that the underlying biological pathways de n- ing RN and rBT are fundamentally di erent. This strongly suggests that there might be phenotypic di erences and hence cues on multi-parametric MRI, that can distinguish between the two pathologies. One challenge is that these di erences, if they exist, might be too subtle to distinguish by the human observer. In this work, we explore the utility of computer extracted texture descriptors on multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) to provide alternate representations of MRI that may be capable of accentuating subtle micro-architectural di erences between RN and rBT for primary and metastatic (MET) BT patients. We further explore the utility of texture descriptors in identifying the MRI protocol (from amongst T1-w, T2-w and FLAIR) that best distinguishes RN and rBT across two independent cohorts of primary and MET patients. A set of 119 texture descriptors (co-occurrence matrix homogeneity, neighboring gray-level dependence matrix, multi-scale Gaussian derivatives, Law features, and histogram of gradient orientations (HoG)) for modeling di erent macro and micro-scale morphologic changes within the treated lesion area for each MRI protocol were extracted. Principal component analysis based variable importance projection (PCA-VIP), a feature selection method previously developed in our group, was employed to identify the importance of every texture descriptor in distinguishing RN and rBT on MP-MRI. PCA-VIP employs regression analysis to provide

  13. Gene expression accurately distinguishes liver metastases of small bowel and pancreas neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Scott K; Maxwell, Jessica E; Carr, Jennifer C; Wang, Donghong; Bellizzi, Andrew M; Sue O'Dorisio, M; O'Dorisio, Thomas M; Howe, James R

    2014-12-01

    Small bowel (SBNETs) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) often present with liver metastases. Although liver biopsy establishes a neuroendocrine diagnosis, the primary tumor site is frequently unknown without exploratory surgery. Gene expression differences in metastases may distinguish primary SBNETs and PNETs. This study sought to determine expression differences of four genes in neuroendocrine metastases and to create a gene expression algorithm to distinguish the primary site. Nodal and liver metastases from SBNETs and PNETs (n = 136) were collected at surgery under an Institutional Review Board-approved protocol. Quantitative PCR measured expression of bombesin-like receptor-3, opioid receptor kappa-1, oxytocin receptor, and secretin receptor in metastases. Logistic regression models defined an algorithm predicting the primary tumor site. Models were developed on a training set of 21 nodal metastases and performance was validated on an independent set of nodal and liver metastases. Expression of all four genes was significantly different in SBNET compared to PNET metastases. The optimal model employed expression of bombesin-like receptor-3 and opioid receptor kappa-1. When these genes did not amplify, the algorithm used oxytocin receptor and secretin receptor expression, which allowed classification of all 136 metastases with 94.1 % accuracy. In the independent liver metastasis validation set, 52/56 (92.9 %) were correctly classified. Positive predictive values were 92.5 % for SBNETs and 93.8 % for PNETs. This validated algorithm accurately distinguishes SBNET and PNET metastases based on their expression of four genes. High accuracy in liver metastases demonstrates applicability to the clinical setting. Studies assessing this algorithm's utility in prospective clinical decision-making are warranted.

  14. Topics in quantum foundations: Ontological models, and distinguishability as a resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ryan

    This thesis covers research in two disjoint research areas: The ontological model program (formerly hidden-variables program) for quantum theory has a long and noble tradition in the quantum foundations literature. By postulating a physical reality beyond the quantum state, we gain intuition on quantum phenomena and also come to understand constraints on realist interpretations of quantum theory. Bell's theorem tells us that such an underlying reality must be non-local, while the Kochen-Specker contextuality theorem abuses the classical notion that measurement should simply reveal pre-existing properties of reality. Recent research programs suggest that it is beneficial to view the quantum state as representing purely information. We show that the only current model which does this in a satisfactory manner is unable to reproduce all the statistics of quantum measurements. A recent generalization of the notion of contextuality has allowed for proofs of contextuality which differ from the original Kochen-Specker notion. We add a new result which shows that measurements in a model where the quantum state represents information must be contextual. Additionally, we refine the generalized notion of contextuality into strong and weak forms in order to parse the relationship between new and old results. Entanglement resource theory is a highly successful investigation of the usefulness of entanglement for information processing tasks. In this thesis we apply the ideas from entanglement resource theory to another resource: state distinguishability. We show analogies between distinguishability resource theory and entanglement resource theory. In particular, the analogy includes: measures which are monotonic under a class of transformations; units of a resource; and bounds on measures in terms of the amount of the unit resource needed to form states and the amount of unit resource that can be extracted from states. We show that the pairs of states which can be reversibly

  15. Distinguishing malaria and influenza: early clinical features in controlled human experimental infection studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Patrick J; Duncan, Christopher J A; Sheehy, Susanne H; Meyer, Joel; O'Hara, Geraldine A; Gilbert, Sarah C; Hill, Adrian V S

    2012-07-01

    During the H1N1 influenza pandemic (pH1N1/09) diagnostic algorithms were developed to guide antiviral provision. However febrile illnesses are notoriously difficult to distinguish clinically. Recent evidence highlights the importance of incorporating travel history into diagnostic algorithms to prevent the catastrophic misdiagnosis of life-threatening infections such as malaria. We applied retrospectively the UK pH1N1/09 case definition to a unique cohort of healthy adult volunteers exposed to Plasmodium falciparum malaria or influenza to assess the predictive value of this case definition, and to explore the distinguishing clinical features of early phase infection with these pathogens under experimental conditions. For influenza exposure the positive predictive value of the pH1N1/09 case definition was only 0.38 (95% CI: 0.06-0.60), with a negative predictive value of 0.27 (95% CI: 0.02-0.51). Interestingly, 8/11 symptomatic malaria-infected adults would have been inappropriately classified with influenza by the pH1N1/09 case definition, while 5/8 symptomatic influenza-exposed volunteers would have been classified without influenza (P = 0.18 Fisher's exact). Cough (P = 0.005) and nasal symptoms (P = 0.001) were the only clinical features that distinguished influenza-exposed from malaria-exposed volunteers. An open mind regarding the clinical cause of undifferentiated febrile illness, particularly in the absence of upper respiratory tract symptoms, remains important even during influenza pandemic settings. These data support incorporating travel history into pandemic algorithms.

  16. Distinguishing and Second-Preimage Attacks on CBC-Like MACs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Keting; Wang, Xiaoyun; Yuan, Zheng; Xu, Guangwu

    This paper first presents a new distinguishing attack on the CBC-MAC structure based on block ciphers in cipher block chaining (CBC) mode. This attack detects a CBC-like MAC from random functions. The second result of this paper is a second-preimage attack on the CBC-MAC, which is an extension of the attack of Brincat and Mitchell. The attack also covers MT-MAC, PMAC and MACs with three-key enciphered CBC mode. Instead of exhaustive search, both types of attacks are of birthday attack complexity.

  17. 2D Raman spectroscopy as an alternative technique for distinguishing oleanoic acid and ursolic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, César; Crotti, Antônio E. M.; Vessecchi, Ricardo; Cunha, Wilson R.

    2006-11-01

    The isomeric triterpenes oleanoic acid and ursolic acid are compounds exhibiting a variety of biological activities. Structurally, they differ only in the position of the methyl group (C-29) at ring E. The differentiation of these two compounds requires a detailed analysis of their 13C and 1H NMR spectra which is often tedious and time-consuming, besides the need of using deuterated solvents. In this work, we report the use of bidimensional Raman spectroscopy as a fast technique to distinguish these two bioactive isomeric compounds.

  18. Adam M. Reid: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. One of the 2015 award winners is Adam M. Reid, who received this award "for his community service, in which he has integrated the highest standards of professional psychological clinical practice and science." Adam's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  19. Failure in distinguishing colored noise from chaos using the ``noise titration'' technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Ubiratan S.; Letellier, Christophe; Aguirre, Luis A.

    2009-03-01

    Identifying chaos in experimental data—noisy data—remains a challenging problem for which conclusive arguments are still very difficult to provide. In order to avoid problems usually encountered with techniques based on geometrical invariants (dimensions, Lyapunov exponent, etc.), Poon and Barahona introduced a numerical titration procedure which compares one-step-ahead predictions of linear and nonlinear models [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 7107 (2001)]. We investigate the aformentioned technique in the context of colored noise or other types of nonchaotic behaviors. The main conclusion is that in several examples noise titration fails to distinguish such nonchaotic signals from low-dimensional deterministic chaos.

  20. Designing a decision support system for distinguishing ADHD from similar children behavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavarian, Mona; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Dibajnia, Parvin; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar

    2012-06-01

    In this study, a decision support system was designed to distinguish children with ADHD from other similar children behavioral disorders such as depression, anxiety, comorbid depression and anxiety and conduct disorder based on the signs and symptoms. Accuracy of classifying with Radial basis function and multilayer neural networks were compared. Finally, the average accuracy of the networks in classification reached to 95.50% and 96.62% by multilayer and radial basis function networks respectively. Our results indicate that a decision support system, especially RBF, may be a good preliminary assistant for psychiatrists in diagnosing high risk behavioral disorders of children.

  1. Cross-Linguistic Evidence for Distinguishing between Effected and Affected Objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵光庆

    2013-01-01

    In today’s academic field, the motivation for distinguishing between the effected and the affected objects has received scant attention. This article attempts to probe into this question by citing the related cross-linguistic evidence to justify such a dis-tinction. It concludes that some grammatical constructions or linguistic phenomena across languages cannot be well interpreted without the framework of effected-/affected-object dichotomy. Both types of objects show prototypical properties of direct ob-jects, and they are complementary in the realization of direct-objecthood.

  2. Multiphoton imaging to distinguish grana and starch inside an intact leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Yu; Zhuo, Guan-Yu; Chen, Po-Fu; Wu, Pei-Chun; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Chu, Shi-Wei

    2013-02-01

    We have demonstrated a straightforward and noninvasive method to identify the distribution of grana and starch within an intact leaf. Grana and starch are the major functional structures for photosynthesis and energy storage of plant, respectively. Both exhibit highly ordered molecular structures and appear as micrometer-sized granules inside chloroplasts. In order to distinguish grana and starch, we used multiphoton microscopy, with simultaneous acquisition of two photon fluorescence (2PF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) signals. Consequently, SHG is found on both grana and starch while 2PF from chlorophyll indicates the identity of grana.

  3. Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training: Cindy Lee Juntunen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training acknowledges psychologists who contribute to new teaching methods or solutions to learning problems through the use of research findings or evidence-based practices. The 2016 recipient is Cindy Lee Juntunen. She is recognized for "her steadfast commitment to the training of future counseling psychologists, for her leadership in key national organizations focused on education and training, and for her contributions to training competencies and practice guidelines within counseling psychology." Juntunen's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology: Luz Maria Garcini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. The 2016 award winners is Luz Maria Garcini, whose commitment to the health and mental health of those recently immigrated has led to research and service that "have greatly benefited the lives of undocumented individuals in the border area of southern California." Garcini's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. The importance of distinguishing illegality from guilt in trials for alleged medical malpractice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernando Díaz Brousse

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A proper analysis of the essential elements that comprise a criminal offense that falls under the purview of medical negligence is fundamental in order to rule, in justice, cases of alleged malpractice. It is necessary to properly distinguish between accusations of illegality and those of guilt. Open legal essays and precedents about such illicit acts provide judges with great latitude in determining when acts are consistent or not with standard care. This power mandates that judges should ground their convictions on objective infringements of the law rather than subjective criteria.

  6. Diagnostic utility of Fli-1 and D2-40 in distinguishing atypical fibroxanthoma from angiosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuda, Jonathan; Mirzamani, Neda; Kantipudi, Ramya; Robbins, Jason; Welsch, Micheal Jude; Sundram, Uma N

    2013-05-01

    Although in most cases one can easily distinguish between atypical fibroxanthomas and angiosarcomas, hemorrhagic atypical fibroxanthomas can pose a diagnostic problem. In rare cases, the large atypical cells of atypical fibroxanthoma can stain with CD31, leading to the erroneous diagnosis of angiosarcoma. We elected to further study this conundrum with 2 additional markers of lymphatic and vascular elements, namely D2-40 (podoplanin) and Fli-1, respectively. We studied 26 cases of atypical fibroxanthoma and 20 cases of angiosarcoma with Fli-1 and D2-40. We found that both Fli-1 and D2-40 stained a majority of cases of angiosarcoma (16/20 and 12/20, respectively), although only staining a minority of cases of atypical fibroxanthoma (8/26 for both). In addition, D2-40 staining of atypical fibroxanthoma was usually weak when positive, whereas Fli-1 staining of angiosarcomas was mostly strong and nuclear. Thus, both D2-40 and Fli-1 seem to be useful in distinguishing between atypical fibroxanthomas and angiosarcomas.

  7. A simple question about falls to distinguish balance and gait difficulties in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Abraham; Krishnamurthi, Narayanan; Dhall, Rohit; Santiago, Anthony; Moguel-Cobos, Guillermo; Sadreddin, Arshia; Husain, Sameea; Salins, Naomi; Pan, Di

    2012-12-01

    Although gait and balance difficulties often occur together in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, it is believed that they are actually two eparate symptoms. However, there are no simple tests to distinguish them. We have developed the self-administered Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) question to distinguish between gait and balance issues in PD and it was tested in 102 consecutive PD patients. The responses were compared with those of the walking and balance question (item # 2.12) of the Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS), and the MDS-UPDRS motor examination and its subsets such as gait and postural stability (PS). Fifty-five patients reported balance difficulty on the BNI question and 64 reported walking and balance difficulty on the MDS-UPDRS question. Of the patients who reported balance difficulty on the BNI question, 74.5% had a PS score ≥2 and 25.4% fell at least three times per month. Of the patients who reported walking and balance difficulty on the MDS-UPDRS question, only 59.4% had a PS score ≥2 and only 10.9% fell three or more times per month. These statistically significant results suggest that the BNI question is better able to detect balance difficulty and its associated falls in PD and can be a supplement to the MDS-UPDRS or a stand-alone question to evaluate balance difficulty and its associated falls in PD.

  8. DISTINGUISHING FEATURES OF ENDOMETRIAL PATHOLOGY FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO THE PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR MODULATOR MIFEPRISTONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscella, Julietta; Bonfiglio, Thomas; Winters, Paul; Eisinger, Steven H; Fiscella, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in use of progesterone receptor modulators (PRM) such as mifepristone for treatment of gynecological and other conditions, but interest in PRMs is dampened by effects of the agents on the endometrium. In this study, we examined the endometria of women exposed to mifepristone for treatment of leiomyomas in doses of 2.5 mg and 5 mg and compared them to unexposed endometria. We assessed the reliability of these features by comparing agreement in ratings between pathologists who were blinded to each other's readings. We assessed distinguishing features between exposed and unexposed groups by comparing frequency of features between groups. We found that key features could be reliably assessed by pathologists experienced in endometrial pathology. We observed several features (non synchronous endometrium, large fluid filled glands and abnormal blood vessels) that distinguished endometrial samples that were and were not exposed to the drug. These findings suggest several features that can be tracked during studies involving mifepristone and potentially other PRMs. PMID:21315422

  9. Superoxol and amylase inhibition tests for distinguishing gonococcal and nongonococcal cultures growing on selective media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R J; Odugbemi, T

    1984-01-01

    Two inexpensive screening tests were evaluated singly and in tandem for distinguishing Neisseria gonorrhoeae from other oxidase-positive microorganisms growing on selective gonococcal media. In tests of 728 cultures, including 460 N. gonorrhoeae, 4 Neisseria lactamica, 257 Neisseria meningitidis, and 7 Branhamella catarrhalis, both Superoxol (30% H2O2; J. T. Baker Chemical Co., Phillipsburg, N.J.) and amylase inhibition tests were 100% sensitive (positive) for 20-h cultures of N. gonorrhoeae. Singly, the Superoxol test was 92.7% specific for N. gonorrhoeae, compared with a specificity of 82.3% for the amylase inhibition test. By using tandem screening tests to distinguish gonococci, we achieved an overall specificity of 98.6%. Group A meningococci were the primary source of error in the Superoxol test, with 97% (37 of 38) strains producing gonococcal like reactions for catalase. From 5 to 20% of N. meningitidis serogroups X, Y, Z, and Z' and nontypable strains, as well as about 50% of B. catarrhalis and N. lactamica strains, were also strong catalase producers. Images PMID:6205016

  10. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic Tool for Distinguishing between Normal and Malignant Colorectal Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer diagnosis is one of the most important tasks of biomedical research and has become the main objective of medical investigations. The present paper proposed an analytical strategy for distinguishing between normal and malignant colorectal tissues by combining the use of near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy with chemometrics. The successive projection algorithm-linear discriminant analysis (SPA-LDA was used to seek a reduced subset of variables/wavenumbers and build a diagnostic model of LDA. For comparison, the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA based on full-spectrum classification was also used as the reference. Principal component analysis (PCA was used for a preliminary analysis. A total of 186 spectra from 20 patients with partial colorectal resection were collected and divided into three subsets for training, optimizing, and testing the model. The results showed that, compared to PLS-DA, SPA-LDA provided more parsimonious model using only three wavenumbers/variables (4065, 4173, and 5758 cm−1 to achieve the sensitivity of 84.6%, 92.3%, and 92.3% for the training, validation, and test sets, respectively, and the specificity of 100% for each subset. It indicated that the combination of NIR spectroscopy and SPA-LDA algorithm can serve as a potential tool for distinguishing between normal and malignant colorectal tissues.

  11. A Thought Experiment to Distinguish the Kerr Black Hole and Over-spinning Singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Chandrachur; Joshi, Pankaj S

    2016-01-01

    We propose a thought experiment here to distinguish an over-spinning Kerr singularity from a Kerr black hole, using the gyroscopic precession due to the frame-dragging effect. We show that there is an important characteristic difference in behavior of the gyroscope precession frequency for these objects, which can be used to distinguish one from the other. Specifically, if we lower the gyroscope along the pole of the Kerr black hole, the precession frequency becomes arbitrarily high, blowing up as the event horizon is approached. However, in the case of an over-spinning Kerr singularity, this frequency always remains finite and is fully well-behaved. It turns out that this behavior is intimately related to and governed by the nature of ergoregions in each of these cases. Interestingly, it turns out that in the over-spinning singularity case, the precession frequency ($\\Omega_{LT}$) of the gyro decreases as ($\\Omega_{LT}\\propto r$) after reaching a maximum, in the limit of approach to the singularity. In princ...

  12. Matching consequences to behavior: implications of failing to distinguish between noncompliance and nonresponsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejkowski, Jason; Festinger, David S; Benishek, Lois A; Dugosh, Karen L

    2011-01-01

    Neither punitive nor therapeutic approaches alone are effective at addressing the dual public health and public safety concerns associated with managing criminal behavior perpetrated by people who have psychiatric and substance use disorders. The optimal solution may instead require the integration of both criminal justice supervision and treatment. Using problem-solving courts (PSCs) as a model, we focus on one dimension of this integrated approach, distinguishing between behavior that stems from willful noncompliance with supervision and behavior that results from nonresponsivity to treatment. First, we discuss the public health and public safety consequences of using singular approaches to address the criminal behavior of this population. We then present lessons learned from PSCs that distinguish between noncompliant and nonresponsive behaviors in making treatment and supervision decisions. Finally, we consider how the concepts of nonresponsivity and noncompliance may be extended, via policy, to probation and parole settings as well as mental health and substance abuse treatment services outside the criminal justice setting in order to enhance public health and safety.

  13. Distinguishing forest and savanna African elephants using short nuclear DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yasuko; Demeke, Yirmed; van Coeverden de Groot, Peter J; Georgiadis, Nicholas J; Leggett, Keith E A; Fox, Virginia E; Roca, Alfred L

    2011-01-01

    A more complete description of African elephant phylogeography would require a method that distinguishes forest and savanna elephants using DNA from low-quality samples. Although mitochondrial DNA is often the marker of choice for species identification, the unusual cytonuclear patterns in African elephants make nuclear markers more reliable. We therefore designed and utilized genetic markers for short nuclear DNA regions that contain fixed nucleotide differences between forest and savanna elephants. We used M13 forward and reverse sequences to increase the total length of PCR amplicons and to improve the quality of sequences for the target DNA. We successfully sequenced fragments of nuclear genes from dung samples of known savanna and forest elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, and Namibia. Elephants at previously unexamined locations were found to have nucleotide character states consistent with their status as savanna or forest elephants. Using these and results from previous studies, we estimated that the short-amplicon nuclear markers could distinguish forest from savanna African elephants with more than 99% accuracy. Nuclear genotyping of museum, dung, or ivory samples will provide better-informed conservation management of Africa's elephants.

  14. Distinguishing PTSD, Complex PTSD, and Borderline Personality Disorder: A latent class analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylène Cloitre

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been debate regarding whether Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Complex PTSD is distinct from Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD when the latter is comorbid with PTSD. Objective: To determine whether the patterns of symptoms endorsed by women seeking treatment for childhood abuse form classes that are consistent with diagnostic criteria for PTSD, Complex PTSD, and BPD. Method: A latent class analysis (LCA was conducted on an archival dataset of 280 women with histories of childhood abuse assessed for enrollment in a clinical trial for PTSD. Results: The LCA revealed four distinct classes of individuals: a Low Symptom class characterized by low endorsements on all symptoms; a PTSD class characterized by elevated symptoms of PTSD but low endorsement of symptoms that define the Complex PTSD and BPD diagnoses; a Complex PTSD class characterized by elevated symptoms of PTSD and self-organization symptoms that defined the Complex PTSD diagnosis but low on the symptoms of BPD; and a BPD class characterized by symptoms of BPD. Four BPD symptoms were found to greatly increase the odds of being in the BPD compared to the Complex PTSD class: frantic efforts to avoid abandonment, unstable sense of self, unstable and intense interpersonal relationships, and impulsiveness. Conclusions: Findings supported the construct validity of Complex PTSD as distinguishable from BPD. Key symptoms that distinguished between the disorders were identified, which may aid in differential diagnosis and treatment planning.

  15. Network deconvolution as a general method to distinguish direct dependencies in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Soheil; Marbach, Daniel; Médard, Muriel; Kellis, Manolis

    2013-08-01

    Recognizing direct relationships between variables connected in a network is a pervasive problem in biological, social and information sciences as correlation-based networks contain numerous indirect relationships. Here we present a general method for inferring direct effects from an observed correlation matrix containing both direct and indirect effects. We formulate the problem as the inverse of network convolution, and introduce an algorithm that removes the combined effect of all indirect paths of arbitrary length in a closed-form solution by exploiting eigen-decomposition and infinite-series sums. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in several network applications: distinguishing direct targets in gene expression regulatory networks; recognizing directly interacting amino-acid residues for protein structure prediction from sequence alignments; and distinguishing strong collaborations in co-authorship social networks using connectivity information alone. In addition to its theoretical impact as a foundational graph theoretic tool, our results suggest network deconvolution is widely applicable for computing direct dependencies in network science across diverse disciplines.

  16. Using Relevance Feedback to Distinguish the Changes in EEG During Different Absence Seizure Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Xianzeng; Ouyang, Gaoxiang

    2016-07-01

    We carried out a series of statistical experiments to explore the utility of using relevance feedback on electroencephalogram (EEG) data to distinguish between different activity states in human absence epilepsy. EEG recordings from 10 patients with absence epilepsy are sampled, filtered, selected, and dissected from seizure-free, preseizure, and seizure phases. A total of 112 two-second 19-channel EEG epochs from 10 patients were selected from each phase. For each epoch, multiscale permutation entropy of the EEG data was calculated. The feature dimensionality was reduced by linear discriminant analysis to obtain a more discriminative and compact representation. Finally, a relevance feedback technique, that is, direct biased discriminant analysis, was applied to 68 randomly selected queries over nine iterations. This study is a first attempt to apply the statistical analysis of relevance feedback to the distinction of different EEG activity states in absence epilepsy. The average precision in the top 10 returned results was 97.5%, and the standard deviation suggested that embedding relevance feedback can effectively distinguish different seizure phases in absence epilepsy. The experimental results indicate that relevance feedback may be an effective tool for the prediction of different activity states in human absence epilepsy. The simultaneous analysis of multichannel EEG signals provides a powerful tool for the exploration of abnormal electrical brain activity in patients with epilepsy.

  17. Supervised clustering of immunohistochemical markers to distinguish atypical and non-atypical endometrial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laas, Enora; Ballester, Marcos; Cortez, Annie; Gonin, Julie; Canlorbe, Geoffroy; Daraï, Emile; Graesslin, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    The risk of endometrial hyperplasia (EH) progressing into endometrioid endometrial cancer ranges from 1% for simple EH without atypia (EHWA) to 46.2% for atypical EH (AEH). Differentiation between both entities is crucial to determine optimal management. As preoperative diagnosis of AEH can be difficult, we aimed to establish clusters of immunohistochemical markers to distinguish EHWA from AEH. We studied 13 immunohistochemical markers (steroid receptors, pro/anti-apoptotic proteins, metalloproteinases (MMP), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP), CD44 isoforms) known for their role in endometrial pathology. Using supervised clustering, we determined clusters of co-expressed proteins which contributed the most in differentiating EHWA from AEH. From 39 tissue samples (17 EHWA and 22 AEH), we found three clusters of co-expressed proteins: Cluster 1 included two proteins (over-expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and under-expression of progesterone receptor (PR) B in AEH compared to EHWA); Cluster 2: an ER, PR A, MMP-2 and TIMP-1 over-expression and a PR B and TIMP-2 under-expression; Cluster 3: over-expression of ER and MMP-7 and under-expression of PR B and TIMP-2. AEH can be accurately distinguished from EHWA using a supervised clustering of immunohistochemical markers. This promising approach could be useful to improve the preoperative diagnosis of EH.

  18. Distinguishing simulated from genuine dissociative identity disorder on the MMPI-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bethany L; Chasson, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    Due to high elevations on validity and clinical scales on personality and forensic measures, it is challenging to determine if individuals presenting with symptoms of dissociative identity disorder (DID) are genuine or not. Little research has focused on malingering DID, or on the broader issue of the profiles these patients obtain on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2), despite increasing awareness of dissociation. This study sought to characterize the MMPI-2 profiles of DID patients and to determine the utility of the MMPI-2 in distinguishing DID patients from uncoached and coached DID simulators. The analyses revealed that Infrequency, Back Infrequency, and Infrequency-Psychopathology (Fp) distinguished simulators from genuine DID patients. Fp was best able to discriminate simulated DID. Utility statistics and classification functions are provided for classifying individual profiles as indicative of genuine or simulated DID. Despite exposure to information about DID, the simulators were not able to accurately feign DID, which is inconsistent with the iatrogenic/sociocultural model of DID. Given that dissociation was strongly associated with elevations in validity, as well as clinical scales, including Scale 8 (i.e., Schizophrenia), considerable caution should be used in interpreting validity scales as indicative of feigning, and Scale 8 as indicative of schizophrenia, among highly dissociative individuals.

  19. Calcium oxalate crystallization index (COCI): an alternative method for distinguishing nephrolithiasis patients from healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bowei; Dissayabutra, Thasinas; Ungjaroenwathana, Wattanachai; Tosukhowong, Piyaratana; Srisa-Art, Monpichar; Supaprom, Thavorn; Insin, Numpon; Boonla, Chanchai

    2014-01-01

    Urinary supersaturation triggers lithogenic crystal formation. We developed an alternative test, designated calcium oxalate crystallization index (COCI), to distinguish nephrolithiasis patients from healthy individuals based on their urinary crystallization capability. The effect of urine volume, oxalate, phosphate, citrate, potassium, and sodium on COCI values was investigated. COCI values were determined in 24-hr urine obtained from nephrolithiasis patients (n=72) and matched healthy controls (n=71). Increases in urine oxalate and phosphate and decreases in urine volume and citrate resulted in significantly increased COCI values. The urinary COCI in nephrolithiasis patients was significantly higher than that in healthy individuals. Two healthy subjects who had elevated COCI values were found to have asymptomatic kidney calculi. The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of the urinary COCI test of 0.9499 (95%CI: 0.9131-0.9868) for distinguishing between nephrolithiasis and healthy subjects. At the cutoff of 165 mg oxalate equivalence/day, the urinary COCI test provided sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy amounts of 83.33%, 97.18%, and 90.21%, respectively. Urinary COCI values were primarily dependent on urine volume, oxalate, and phosphate. The test provided high sensitivity and specificity for clinically discriminating nephrolithiasis patients from healthy controls. It might be used to detect individuals with asymptomatic kidney calculi.

  20. Distinguishing mechanisms of plasma-based amplification for short laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qing; Edwards, Matthew; Barth, Ido; Mikhailova, Julia; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2016-10-01

    Several plasma-based amplification mechanisms have been proposed to obtain short laser pulses with ultrahigh intensities beyond the damage threshold of solid-state devices, including Compton-like superradiant amplification, backward Raman amplification and strongly-coupled Brillouin amplification. These three mechanisms are all based on the periodic structure of particle (electrons for the former two and ions for Brillouin amplification) density fluctuations that function as a grating. By turning off the ion motion in particle-in-cell simulations, we can distinguish Brillouin from Raman, and show that Raman amplification is responsible for the main leading spike amplification of ultrashort pulses. By artificially turning off the longitudinal electric field (Ex) in simulations, we can distinguish Raman from Compton-like superradiant amplification. Interestingly, we find that the superradiant amplification in Ex-off simulation is similar to the amplification in pair plasmas, with roughly half amplification efficiency of the latter due to absence of equal contribution from positrons. In addition, we also discuss the competition between Brillouin amplification and superradiant amplification in pair plasmas by comparing the dominance of thermal pressure and ponderomotive force.

  1. APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. A qualified candidate must demonstrate exemplary performance in working with an underserved population in an applied setting or have developed an innovative method for delivering health services to an underserved population. The 2016 recipient of the APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology was selected by the 2015 Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the 2015 APAGS Scholarship and Awards Selection Committee. Members of the 2015 BPA were Patricia Arredondo, EdD; Helen L. Coons, PhD, ABPP; Vickie Mays, PhD, MSPH; Linda A. Reddy, PhD; Lois O. Condi, PhD; Antonette M. Zeiss, PhD; Timothy A. Cavell, PhD; Robert T. Kinscherff, PhD, JD; and Jared L. Skillings, PhD, ABPP. Members of the 2015 APAGS Scholarship and Awards Selection Committee were Emily Voelkel, PhD; Blaire Schembari; and Yolanda Perkins-Volk. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Lesion profiling at primary isolation in RIII mice is insufficient in distinguishing BSE from classical scrapie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Katy E; Chaplin, Melanie; Stack, Michael; Sallis, Rosemary E; Simonini, Sarah; Lockey, Richard; Spiropoulos, John

    2010-03-01

    Primary isolation of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in RIII mice generates a lesion profile believed to be reproducible and distinct from that produced by classical scrapie. This profile, which is characterized by peaks at gray matter areas 1, 4 and 7 (dorsal medulla, hypothalamus and septal nuclei), is used to diagnose BSE on primary isolation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the BSE agent could be present in sheep diagnosed with classical scrapie, using lesion profiles in RIII mice as a discriminatory method. Sixty-two positive scrapie field cases were collected from individual farms between 1996 and 1999 and bioassayed in RIII mice. Fifty-five of these isolates transmitted successfully to at least one mouse. Of the 31 that produced adequate data to allow lesion profile analysis, 10 showed a consistent profile with peaks at brain areas 1, 4 and 7. All inocula for this subgroup were derived from sheep of genotype ARQ/ARQ. While the 1-4-7-scrapie profile exhibited similarities to BSE in RIII mice at primary isolation, it was distinguishable based on histopathology, immunohistochemistry and cluster analysis. We conclude that caution should be taken to distinguish this profile from BSE and that additional parameters should be considered to reach a final diagnosis.

  3. A Fuzzy Expert System for Distinguishing between Bacterial and Aseptic Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Langarizadeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Bacterial meningitis is a known infectious disease which occurs at early ages and should be promptly diagnosed and treated. Bacterial and aseptic meningitis are hard to be distinguished. Therefore, physicians should be highly informed and experienced in this area. The main aim of this study was to suggest a system for distinguishing between bacterial and aseptic meningitis, using fuzzy logic.    Materials and Methods In the first step, proper attributes were selected using Weka 3.6.7 software. Six attributes were selected using Attribute Evaluator, InfoGainAttributeEval, and Ranker search method items. Then, a fuzzy inference engine was designed using MATLAB software, based on Mamdani’s fuzzy logic method with max-min composition, prod-probor, and centroid defuzzification. The rule base consisted of eight rules, based on the experience of three specialists and information extracted from textbooks. Results Data were extracted from 106 records of patients with meningitis (42 cases with bacterial meningitis in order to evaluate the proposed system. The system accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were 89%, 92 %, and 97%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.93, and Kappa test revealed a good level of agreement (k=0.84, P

  4. Distinguishing between parenchymal and anastomotic leakage at duct-to-mucosa pancreatic reconstruction in pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Justin H Nguyen

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To distinguish anastomotic from parenchymal leakage at duct-to-mucosa reconstruction of the pancreatic remnant.METHODS:We reviewed the charts of 68 pancreaticoduodenectomies performed between 5/2000 and 12/2005 with end-to-side duct-to-mucosa pancreatojejunostomy (PJ).The results of pancreatography,as well as peripancreatic drain volumes,and amylase levels were analyzed.RESULTS:Of 68 pancreatojejunostomies,48 had no leak by pancreatography and had low-drain amylase(normal); eight had no pancreatographic leak but had elevated drain amylase (parenchymal leak); and 12 had pancreatographic leak and elevated drain amylase(anastomotic leak).Although drain volumes in the parenchymal leak group were significantly elevated at postoperative day (POD) 4,no difference was found at POD 7.Drain amylase level was not significantly different at POD 4.In contrast,at POD 7,the anastomotic-leak group had significantly elevated drain amylase level compared with normal and parenchymalleak groups (14158 + 24083 IU/L vs 89 + 139 IU/L and 1707±1515 IU/L,respectively,P=0.012).CONCLUSION:For pancreatic remnant reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenectomy,a combination of pancreatogram and peripancreatic drain amylase levels can be used to distinguish between parenchymal and anastomotic leakage at pancreatic remnant reconstruction.

  5. The doubly conditioned frequency spectrum does not distinguish between ancient population structure and hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    Eriksson, Anders

    2014-03-13

    Distinguishing between hybridization and population structure in the ancestral species is a key challenge in our understanding of how permeable species boundaries are to gene flow. The doubly conditioned frequency spectrum (dcfs) has been argued to be a powerful metric to discriminate between these two explanations, and it was used to argue for hybridization between Neandertal and anatomically modern humans. The shape of the observed dcfs for these two species cannot be reproduced by a model that represents ancient population structure in Africa with two populations, while adding hybridization produces realistic shapes. In this letter, we show that this result is a consequence of the spatial coarseness of the demographic model and that a spatially structured stepping stone model can generate realistic dcfs without hybridization. This result highlights how inferences on hybridization between recently diverged species can be strongly affected by the choice of how population structure is represented in the underlying demographic model. We also conclude that the dcfs has limited power in distinguishing between the signals left by hybridization and ancient structure. 2014 The Author.

  6. Gene expression profiling identifies inflammation and angiogenesis as distinguishing features of canine hemangiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slansky Jill E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The etiology of hemangiosarcoma remains incompletely understood. Its common occurrence in dogs suggests predisposing factors favor its development in this species. These factors could represent a constellation of heritable characteristics that promote transformation events and/or facilitate the establishment of a microenvironment that is conducive for survival of malignant blood vessel-forming cells. The hypothesis for this study was that characteristic molecular features distinguish hemangiosarcoma from non-malignant endothelial cells, and that such features are informative for the etiology of this disease. Methods We first investigated mutations of VHL and Ras family genes that might drive hemangiosarcoma by sequencing tumor DNA and mRNA (cDNA. Protein expression was examined using immunostaining. Next, we evaluated genome-wide gene expression profiling using the Affymetrix Canine 2.0 platform as a global approach to test the hypothesis. Data were evaluated using routine bioinformatics and validation was done using quantitative real time RT-PCR. Results Each of 10 tumor and four non-tumor samples analyzed had wild type sequences for these genes. At the genome wide level, hemangiosarcoma cells clustered separately from non-malignant endothelial cells based on a robust signature that included genes involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, adhesion, invasion, metabolism, cell cycle, signaling, and patterning. This signature did not simply reflect a cancer-associated angiogenic phenotype, as it also distinguished hemangiosarcoma from non-endothelial, moderately to highly angiogenic bone marrow-derived tumors (lymphoma, leukemia, osteosarcoma. Conclusions The data show that inflammation and angiogenesis are important processes in the pathogenesis of vascular tumors, but a definitive ontogeny of the cells that give rise to these tumors remains to be established. The data do not yet distinguish whether functional or ontogenetic

  7. Model distinguishability and inference robustness in mechanisms of cholera transmission and loss of immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Elizabeth C; Kelly, Michael R; Ochocki, Brad M; Akinwumi, Segun M; Hamre, Karen E S; Tien, Joseph H; Eisenberg, Marisa C

    2017-01-24

    Mathematical models of cholera and waterborne disease vary widely in their structures, in terms of transmission pathways, loss of immunity, and a range of other features. These differences can affect model dynamics, with different models potentially yielding different predictions and parameter estimates from the same data. Given the increasing use of mathematical models to inform public health decision-making, it is important to assess model distinguishability (whether models can be distinguished based on fit to data) and inference robustness (whether inferences from the model are robust to realistic variations in model structure). In this paper, we examined the effects of uncertainty in model structure in the context of epidemic cholera, testing a range of models with differences in transmission and loss of immunity structure, based on known features of cholera epidemiology. We fit these models to simulated epidemic and long-term data, as well as data from the 2006 Angola epidemic. We evaluated model distinguishability based on fit to data, and whether the parameter values, model behavior, and forecasting ability can accurately be inferred from incidence data. In general, all models were able to successfully fit to all data sets, both real and simulated, regardless of whether the model generating the simulated data matched the fitted model. However, in the long-term data, the best model fits were achieved when the loss of immunity structures matched those of the model that simulated the data. Two parameters, one representing person-to-person transmission and the other representing the reporting rate, were accurately estimated across all models, while the remaining parameters showed broad variation across the different models and data sets. The basic reproduction number (R0) was often poorly estimated even using the correct model, due to practical unidentifiability issues in the waterborne transmission pathway which were consistent across all models. Forecasting

  8. Distinguishing between non-orthogonal quantum states of a single spin

    CERN Document Server

    Waldherr, Gerald; Neumann, Philipp; Jelezko, Fedor; Andersson, Erika; Wrachtrup, Jorg

    2012-01-01

    An important task for quantum information processing is optimal discrimination between two non-orthogonal quantum states, which until now has only been realized optically. Here, we present and compare experimental realizations of optimal quantum measurements for distinguishing between two non-orthogonal quantum states encoded in a single ^14 N nuclear spin. Implemented measurement schemes are the minimum-error measurement (known as Helstrom measurement), unambiguous state discrimination using a standard projective mea-surement, and optimal unambiguous state discrimination (known as IDP measurement), which utilizes a three-dimensional Hilbert space. Measurement efficiencies are found to be above 80% for all schemes and reach a value of 90% for the IDP measurement

  9. Distinguishing Pattern Formation Phenotypes: Applying Minkowski Functionals to Cell Biology Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rericha, Erin; Guven, Can; Parent, Carole; Losert, Wolfgang

    2011-03-01

    Spatial Clustering of proteins within cells or cells themselves frequently occur in cell biology systems. However quantifying the underlying order and determining the regulators of these cluster patterns have proved difficult due to the inherent high noise levels in the systems. For instance the patterns formed by wild type and cyclic-AMP regulatory mutant Dictyostelium cells are visually distinctive, yet the large error bars in measurements of the fractal number, area, Euler number, eccentricity, and wavelength making it difficult to quantitatively distinguish between the patterns. We apply a spatial analysis technique based on Minkowski functionals and develop metrics which clearly separate wild type and mutant cell lines into distinct categories. Having such a metric facilitated the development of a computational model for cellular aggregation and its regulators. Supported by NIH-NGHS Nanotechnology (R01GM085574) and the Burroughs Wellcome Fund.

  10. A Biology Laboratory Exercise Using Macromolecule Assays to Distinguish Four Types of Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte W. Pratt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the drawbacks of cookbook-style laboratory exercises for General Biology courses is that students are not challenged to develop skills in scientific reasoning, such as formulating hypotheses and designing and carrying out experiments. Several traditional laboratory curricula include exercises involving semi-quantitative colorimetric assays to detect proteins (biuret test, reducing sugars (Benedict’s test, starch (Lugol’s test, and lipids (Sudan red test in a variety of easily prepared solutions (glucose, albumin, glycine, etc. and familiar food items (lemon juice, cornstarch, egg white, etc.. An extension of this lab exercise was developed to allow students to use their knowledge of the macromolecule assays to design an experiment to distinguish four types of “milk”: whole milk, skim milk, cream, and soy milk (rice milk or almond milk could also be included.

  11. Catatonic Symptoms Appearing before Autonomic Symptoms Help Distinguish Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome from Malignant Catatonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Nomura, Tomohisa; Takami, Hiroki; Sakamoto, So; Mizuno, Keiko; Sekii, Hajime; Hatta, Kotaro; Sugita, Manabu

    A 42-year-old Japanese woman with a 10-year history of schizophrenia was admitted due to a disturbance in consciousness that met the diagnostic criteria for both neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) and malignant catatonia. Despite systemic supportive treatments, the catatonic symptoms preceding autonomic symptoms persisted. The symptoms improved after lorazepam administration, leading to a retrospective diagnosis of malignant catatonia. Catatonia is thought to be caused by a dysfunction of ganmma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in the cortico-cortical networks of the frontal lobes, which causes hypoactivity of the dopaminergic transmission in the subcortical areas. Identifying the catatonic symptoms preceding autonomic symptoms could aid in distinguishing malignant catatonia from NMS.

  12. Distinguishing Event Spectator Spending Profiles: Projected Impacts of the 2009 U.S. Open Golf Championship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy K.S. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectators at mega-sport events are an aggregation of market segments with distinct consumer behaviours. Relatively few economic impact studies have distinguished spectator market segments or the event tourists crowding out other visitors, resulting in inaccurate results. Despite a plethora of prior studies, there remains a need for a refined and agile model to predict a sporting event’s economic impact. The purpose of this study is to describe the ex ante model, ACE: Assessing Consumers of Events, developed to estimate spending impacts by spectators. ACE is then applied to the 2009 U.S. Women’s Open Golf Championship to illustrate its data requirements and results. U.S. Open spectators are projected to spend $7.5 million in the host economy and induce a slight crowding out effect. Future applications of the ACE model are discussed.

  13. Distinguishing f(R) theories from general relativity by gravitational lensing effect

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hongguang; Li, Haida; Ma, Yongge

    2015-01-01

    The post-Newtonian formulation of a general class of f(R) theories is set up to 3rd order approximation. It turns out that the information of a specific form of f(R) gravity is encoded in the Yukawa potential, which is contained in the perturbative expansion of the metric components. It is shown that the Yukawa potantial does appear in the 3rd order expression of the effective refraction index of light, although it is cancelled in the 2nd order expression. Therefore the f(R) theories are distinguishable from general relativity by gravitational lensing effect at the 3rd order post-Newtonian approximation. Our result opens the possibility to bring new insights into the issue of dark matter from f(R) gravity.

  14. Distinguishing Supersymmetry From Universal Extra Dimensions or Little Higgs Models With Dark Matter Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Hooper, D; Hooper, Dan; Zaharijas, Gabrijela

    2007-01-01

    There are compelling reasons to think that new physics will appear at or below the TeV-scale. It is not known what form this new physics will take, however. Although The Large Hadron collider is very likely to discover new particles associated with the TeV-scale, it may be difficult for it to determine the nature of those particles, whether superpartners, Kaluza-Klein modes or other states. In this article, we consider how direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments may provide information complementary to hadron colliders, which can be used to discriminate between supersymmetry, models with universal extra dimensions, and Little Higgs theories. We find that, in many scenarios, dark matter experiments can be effectively used to distinguish between these possibilities.

  15. [Techniques for measuring phakic and pseudophakic accommodation. Methodology for distinguishing between neurological and mechanical accommodative insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, O; Roumes, C; Parsa, C

    2007-11-01

    The methods available for studying accommodation are evaluated: Donder's "push-up" method, dynamic retinoscopy, infrared optometry using the Scheiner principle, and wavefront analysis are each discussed with their inherent advantages and limitations. Based on the methodology described, one can also distinguish between causes of accommodative insufficiency. Dioptric insufficiency (accommodative lag) that remains equal at various testing distances from the subject indicates a sensory/neurologic (afferent), defect, whereas accommodative insufficiency changing with distance indicates a mechanical/restrictive (efferent) defect, such as in presbyopia. Determining accommodative insufficiency and the cause can be particularly useful when examining patients with a variety of diseases associated with reduced accommodative ability (e.g., Down syndrome and cerebral palsy) as well as in evaluating the effectiveness of various potentially accommodating intraocular lens designs.

  16. Using Multiple Beams to Distinguish Radio Frequency Interference from SETI Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Harp, G R

    2013-01-01

    The Allen Telescope Array is a multi-user instrument and will perform simultaneous radio astronomy and radio SETI (search for extra-terrestrial intelligence) observations. It is a multi-beam instrument, with 16 independently steerable dual-polarization beams at 4 different tunings. Given 4 beams at one tuning, it is possible to distinguish RFI from true ETI signals by pointing the beams in different directions. Any signal that appears in more than one beam can be identified as RFI and ignored during SETI. We discuss the effectiveness of this approach for RFI rejection using realistic simulations of the fully populated 350 element configuration of the ATA as well as the interim 32 element configuration. Over a 5 minute integration period, we find RFI rejection ratios exceeding 50 dB over most of the sky.

  17. Thomas L. Griffiths: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology (2012). Thomas L. Griffiths won the award for bringing mathematical precision to the deepest questions in human learning, reasoning, and concept formation. In his pioneering work, Thomas L. Griffiths has used probabilistic models and Bayesian learning methods to illuminate an extraordinarily wide range of problems in areas including causal reasoning, high-level hierarchical thinking, cultural evolution, theory formation, and cognitive development while also showing that thinking probabilistically can provide a genuine resolution of the age-old tension between nativism and empiricism. His rigorous mathematical and computational abilities are accompanied by an immensely creative imagination, a sure sense of the important problem, and an unerring touch for the right experiment. Griffith's Award citation and a selected biblography are also presented here.

  18. Adam M. Grant: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Presents Adam M. Grant, the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. "For extensive, elegant, and programmatic research on the power of relational job design in enhancing employee motivation, productivity, and satisfaction; for creative and rigorous studies documenting the profound and surprising effects of connecting employees to their impact on others; for highlighting prosocial motivation, not only extrinsic and intrinsic motivations, as a key force behind employee behavior; and for demonstrating by example the feasibility and benefits of conducting field experiments, yielding studies rich in internal validity, external validity, and practical impact. In addition to his accomplishments, Adam M. Grant is known for his generosity as a scholar, teacher, and colleague." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. David Melcher: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Presents David Melcher, the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. "For his elegant and groundbreaking work on one of the most important problems in perceptual psychology, the transfer of perceptual representations across eye movements. David Melcher's innovative experiments used perceptual aftereffects to show how remapping of visual locations underlies the creation of the percept of a clear and stable world. His work on the accumulation of memory contributed importantly to the understanding of natural perceptual representations and their neural underpinnings. His elegant reviews of transsaccadic perception communicated to a broad audience the remarkable capacity of the brain to create seamless perceptual representations despite the disruptions produced by eye movements." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Nucleosome Stability Distinguishes Two Different Promoter Types at All Protein-Coding Genes in Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Slawomir; Bruzzone, Maria Jessica; Jacquet, Philippe; Falcone, Jean-Luc; Rougemont, Jacques; Shore, David

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies indicate that eukaryotic promoters display a stereotypical chromatin landscape characterized by a well-positioned +1 nucleosome near the transcription start site and an upstream -1 nucleosome that together demarcate a nucleosome-free (or -depleted) region. Here we present evidence that there are two distinct types of promoters distinguished by the resistance of the -1 nucleosome to micrococcal nuclease digestion. These different architectures are characterized by two sequence motifs that are broadly deployed at one set of promoters where a nuclease-sensitive ("fragile") nucleosome forms, but concentrated in a narrower, nucleosome-free region at all other promoters. The RSC nucleosome remodeler acts through the motifs to establish stable +1 and -1 nucleosome positions, while binding of a small set of general regulatory (pioneer) factors at fragile nucleosome promoters plays a key role in their destabilization. We propose that the fragile nucleosome promoter architecture is adapted for regulation of highly expressed, growth-related genes.

  1. Quantitative super-resolution imaging of Bruchpilot distinguishes active zone states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmann, Nadine; van de Linde, Sebastian; Alon, Amit; Ljaschenko, Dmitrij; Keung, Xi Zhen; Holm, Thorge; Rings, Annika; DiAntonio, Aaron; Hallermann, Stefan; Ashery, Uri; Heckmann, Manfred; Sauer, Markus; Kittel, Robert J

    2014-08-18

    The precise molecular architecture of synaptic active zones (AZs) gives rise to different structural and functional AZ states that fundamentally shape chemical neurotransmission. However, elucidating the nanoscopic protein arrangement at AZs is impeded by the diffraction-limited resolution of conventional light microscopy. Here we introduce new approaches to quantify endogenous protein organization at single-molecule resolution in situ with super-resolution imaging by direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM). Focusing on the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ), we find that the AZ cytomatrix (CAZ) is composed of units containing ~137 Bruchpilot (Brp) proteins, three quarters of which are organized into about 15 heptameric clusters. We test for a quantitative relationship between CAZ ultrastructure and neurotransmitter release properties by engaging Drosophila mutants and electrophysiology. Our results indicate that the precise nanoscopic organization of Brp distinguishes different physiological AZ states and link functional diversification to a heretofore unrecognized neuronal gradient of the CAZ ultrastructure.

  2. Distinguishing shyness and sociability in adults: An event-related electrocortical-neuroendocrine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Alva; Santesso, Diane L; Segalowitz, Sidney J; Schulkin, Jay; Schmidt, Louis A

    2016-09-01

    Shyness and sociability are orthogonal personality dimensions, but little is known about how the two traits are instantiated in the brain and body. Using a 3-stimulus auditory oddball task, we examined whether shyness and sociability were distinguishable on P300 event-related potentials (ERPs) in processing task-relevant, novel, and standard auditory tones in 48 young adults. ERP amplitudes were measured at four midline scalp sites (Fz, FCz, Cz, Pz). We found that shyness, but not sociability, was related to reduced frontal novelty P300 amplitudes and to high emotionality. We also found that low baseline salivary cortisol levels mediated the relation between: (a) high shyness and reduced frontal P300 amplitudes to novel tones, and (b) high shyness and high scores of emotionality. We speculate that low baseline cortisol may serve as a putative mechanism influencing central attentional states of avoidance to threat and novelty and emotional arousal in adults who are shy.

  3. Discrete domains of gene expression in germinal layers distinguish the development of gyrencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Juan Romero, Camino; Bruder, Carl; Tomasello, Ugo; Sanz-Anquela, José Miguel; Borrell, Víctor

    2015-07-14

    Gyrencephalic species develop folds in the cerebral cortex in a stereotypic manner, but the genetic mechanisms underlying this patterning process are unknown. We present a large-scale transcriptomic analysis of individual germinal layers in the developing cortex of the gyrencephalic ferret, comparing between regions prospective of fold and fissure. We find unique transcriptional signatures in each germinal compartment, where thousands of genes are differentially expressed between regions, including ~80% of genes mutated in human cortical malformations. These regional differences emerge from the existence of discrete domains of gene expression, which occur at multiple locations across the developing cortex of ferret and human, but not the lissencephalic mouse. Complex expression patterns emerge late during development and map the eventual location of folds or fissures. Protomaps of gene expression within germinal layers may contribute to define cortical folds or functional areas, but our findings demonstrate that they distinguish the development of gyrencephalic cortices.

  4. Quantum-secret-sharing scheme based on local distinguishability of orthogonal multiqudit entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingtao; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Yang, Yixian

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we propose the concept of judgment space to investigate the quantum-secret-sharing scheme based on local distinguishability (called LOCC-QSS). Because of the proposing of this conception, the property of orthogonal mutiqudit entangled states under restricted local operation and classical communication (LOCC) can be described more clearly. According to these properties, we reveal that, in the previous (k ,n )-threshold LOCC-QSS scheme, there are two required conditions for the selected quantum states to resist the unambiguous attack: (i) their k -level judgment spaces are orthogonal, and (ii) their (k -1 )-level judgment spaces are equal. Practically, if k security, i.e., even if the (k -1 )-level judgment spaces of the selected quantum states are not equal, these states can still be used for defeating the unambiguous attack. With this encoding method, we propose a more secure (k ,n )-threshold LOCC-QSS scheme, and give two specific examples for illustration.

  5. Distinguishing Between Bombsags and Dropstones on Mars with Implications for Gusev and Gale Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, N. E.; Husch, J.; Karunatillake, S.; Skok, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Glaciolacustrine environments on Mars have been proposed at several locations, including Greg Crater[1], Gorgonum Chaos[2], and Meridiani Planum[3]. However, observations by orbiters and rovers provide only equivocal evidence, including difficulties in distinguishing between these environments and volcaniclastic counterparts. This creates a need to quantify differences between dropstones, typically associated with fine-grained marine or lacustrine sediments, and bombsags, typically associated with coarser, high-energy eruptive sediments. Impact cratering excavation may also provide a mechanism to entrain clasts into sediments, either directly or as a debris source for cold based glaciers and ice cover. However, we focused on the first two mechanisms. We developed quantitative measures to distinguish dropstones from bombsags using in situ and high-resolution remote sensing images, supplemented by chemical and mineralogical information. The development step employed images of paleo samples of both glacial and volcanic clasts on Earth, which represent the meta-stable configuration over geologic time scales. The resulting flow chart method involving distributional parameters can be applied in situ on Mars, advancing early work[4]. Four key indicators yield values that may distinguish between bombsag and dropstone deposits: (1) compositional distinctness from the sedimentary host layer, (2) penetration depth ratio, (3) impact symmetry ratio, and (4) clast population density. Dominance of cold-based mountain glaciers on Mars[5] may reduce debris entrainment and distal sampling, weakening the utility of Indicator 1, but terrestrial examples of significant entrainment and deposition by cold-based glaciers exist[6] We applied our newly developed flow chart to the putative bombsag at Gusev crater[7] as a case study. Any divergence from the consensus of the Home Plate clast as a bombsag would refine current models of pyroclastic activity[8], structural evolution[7], and

  6. Arthur C. Graesser: Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Presents Arthur C. Graesser as the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training. "As a multifaceted psychologist, cognitive engineer of useful education and training technologies, and mentor of new talent for the world of applied and translational cognitive science, Arthur C. Graesser is the perfect role model, showing how a strong scholar and intellect can shape both research and practice. His work is a mix of top-tier scholarship in psychology, education, intelligent systems, and computational linguistics. He combines cognitive science excellence with bold use of psychological knowledge and intelligent systems to design new generations of learning opportunities and to help lay the foundation for a translational science of learning." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Using lunar boulders to distinguish primary from distant secondary impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Gwendolyn D.; Melosh, H. J.

    2007-04-01

    A high-resolution study of 18 lunar craters, including both primary and distant secondary craters, shows that the secondary craters produce larger ejecta fragments at a given crater size than do the primary craters. The maximum boulder diameter (B) increases with crater size (D) according to the power law B = KD 2/3; for primary craters, when B and D are in meters, K is 0.29, whereas for secondary craters, we find that K is 0.46 (60% larger). Next we show that impact fracture theory predicts that secondary craters, because of their lower impact velocity, will produce larger ejecta fragments than primary craters. This result provides an opportunity for distinguishing between primary and secondary craters in high resolution planetary images. The ability to identify distant secondary craters will help constrain primary production rates of small craters and improve surface age determination of small areas based on small crater counts.

  8. Distinguishing science from pseudoscience in school psychology: science and scientific thinking as safeguards against human error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Ammirati, Rachel; David, Michal

    2012-02-01

    Like many domains of professional psychology, school psychology continues to struggle with the problem of distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific and otherwise questionable clinical practices. We review evidence for the scientist-practitioner gap in school psychology and provide a user-friendly primer on science and scientific thinking for school psychologists. Specifically, we (a) outline basic principles of scientific thinking, (b) delineate widespread cognitive errors that can contribute to belief in pseudoscientific practices within school psychology and allied professions, (c) provide a list of 10 key warning signs of pseudoscience, illustrated by contemporary examples from school psychology and allied disciplines, and (d) offer 10 user-friendly prescriptions designed to encourage scientific thinking among school psychology practitioners and researchers. We argue that scientific thinking, although fallible, is ultimately school psychologists' best safeguard against a host of errors in thinking.

  9. Allie Abrahamson: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. A qualified candidate must demonstrate exemplary performance in working with an underserved population in an applied setting or have developed an innovative method for delivering health services to an underserved population. This year there are joint recipients of the award, Allie Abrahamson and Rebeccah A. Bernard. Their vision, creativity, courage, and dedication led them to create the Human Rights Forum at Chestnut Hill College to promote human rights education, awareness, and community service opportunities for doctoral students. Allie Abrahamson's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  10. Jordan M. Braciszewski: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Presents Jordan M. Braciszewski as the 2011 winner of the American psychological Association APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology. "For his concerted efforts to identify the needs of homeless and other at-risk populations and to design and provide necessary services for them. Jordan M. Braciszewski is committed to using applied psychological science and evidence-based intervention methods to assist the most disadvantaged in our society. He has already provided additions to the relevant research literature and has volunteered countless hours of his time to implement community-based interventions and provide direct services himself. He has sought out the training experiences necessary to assist him in doing an even better job in the future in these public service activities." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Rebeccah A. Bernard: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. A qualified candidate must demonstrate exemplary performance in working with an underserved population in an applied setting or have developed an innovative method for delivering health services to an underserved population. This year there are joint recipients of the award, Allie Abrahamson and Rebeccah A. Bernard. Their vision, creativity, courage, and dedication led them to create the Human Rights Forum at Chestnut Hill College to promote human rights education, awareness, and community service opportunities for doctoral students. Rebeccah A. Bernard's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  12. Distinguishing Thermal Fluctuations from Instrumental Error for High Pressure Charged Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Bedroya, Alek

    2016-01-01

    Thermodynamic parameters such as temperature and pressure could be defined from the statistical behavior of the system. Therefore, always there exists a natural thermal fluctuations in these parameters which leads to fluctuations in experimental data. Analyzing these data fluctuations are very useful in studying systems in their critical points such as the phase transition points. But unfortunately it is hard to distinguish these fluctuations from the fluctuations due to the instrumental errors. In this article we have offered a method by which an experimenter can separate these fluctuations from each other. Additionally we have introduced a new computational idea which reduces the simulation time considerably. We have used the Euler algorithm which generally does not hold the internal energy conserved. However we have used this fact as a positive chance which allows us to travel in the phase space and reach different energies in much less time. This would be an acceptable only if system does spend enough tim...

  13. Sathasivan ("Saths") Cooper: Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology is given to individuals who have made sustained and enduring contributions to international cooperation and the advancement of knowledge in psychology. The 2014 recipient is Sathasivan ("Saths") Cooper. Cooper is active in global cooperation in psychology for the public and the discipline's benefit so that psychology can truly serve all of humanity. The first psychologist from outside the West to lead the International Union of Psychological Science, he is the driving force behind the Pan-African Psychology Union and continues to ensure that less-developed psychology dispensations play meaningful roles in international psychology." Cooper's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  14. Heinrich Hertz and Philipp Lenard: Two Distinguished Physicists, Two Disparate Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Joseph F.

    1999-12-01

    Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) and Philipp Lenard (1862-1947) both had distinguished careers as physicists. They were together in Bonn from April 1891 to January 1894, Hertz as Director of the Bonn Physics Institute, and Lenard as his assistant. Each did important experimental work on cathode rays and the photoelectric effect, and in 1905 Lenard received the Nobel Prize for his work in these fields. Lenard had great respect and admiration for Hertz before going to Bonn and while there, but gradually allowed his esteem for his mentor (who died in 1894) to diminish as Lenard became increasingly anti-Semitic and involved in National Socialism and the Nazi movement. This article illustrates how differences in their characters and personalities, together with the tragic events of the Great War and its aftermath, resulted in Hertz deservedly being much more highly regarded today both as a physicist and as a man than is Lenard.

  15. Transverse distinguishability of entangled photons with arbitrarily shaped spatial near- and far-field distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Elsner, Robert; Pieplow, Gregor; Heuer, Axel; Menzel, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Entangled photons generated by spontaneous parametric down conversion inside a nonlinear crystal exhibit a complex spatial photon count distribution. A quantitative description of this distribution helps with the interpretation of experiments that depend on this structure. We developed a theoretical model and an accompanying numerical calculation that includes the effects of phase matching and the crystal properties to describe a wide range of spatial effects in two-photon experiments. The numerical calculation was tested against selected analytical approximations. We furthermore performed a double-slit experiment where we measured the visibility V and the distinguishability D and obtained $D^2 + V^2 = 1.43$. The numerical model accurately predicts these experimental results.

  16. How to distinguish conformational selection and induced fit based on chemical relaxation rates

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Protein binding often involves conformational changes. Important questions are whether a conformational change occurs prior to a binding event ('conformational selection') or after a binding event ('induced fit'), and how conformational transition rates can be obtained from experiments. In this article, we present general results for the chemical relaxation rates of conformational-selection and induced-fit binding processes that hold for all concentrations of proteins and ligands and, thus, go beyond the standard pseudo-first-order approximation of large ligand concentration. These results allow to distinguish conformational-selection from induced-fit processes - also in cases in which such a distinction is not possible under pseudo-first-order conditions - and to extract conformational transition rates of proteins from chemical relaxation data.

  17. Distinguishing between the small ADD and RS black holes in accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stojkovic, D

    2004-01-01

    In models with extra dimensions that accommodate a TeV-scale gravity, small black holes could be produced in near future accelerator experiments. Such small black holes, whose gravitational radius is mush smaller than the characteristic size of extra dimensions (compactification radius in flat or AdS radius in warped extra dimensions) can be very well described by asymptotically flat solutions, thus losing the information about the global geometry of the extra manifold. One might conclude that such small black holes would be indistinguishable in different scenarios. We argue that important differences still exist, especially regarding experimental signature in colliders, which may help us distinguish between the various extra dimensional scenarios. The main differences come from the fact that most of the models with the warped extra dimension have an additional discrete $Z_2$ symmetry that makes the brane behave as if it were an infinite tension brane.

  18. Development of ITS sequence based molecular marker to distinguish, Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) from its adulterants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Murugan, Ramar; Ravikumar, Kaliamoorthy; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2010-09-01

    Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) is one of the highly traded raw drugs and also used as a stimulative food additive in Europe and USA. While, Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recognizes T. terrestris as Goksura, Tribulus lanuginosus and T. subramanyamii are also traded by the same name raising issues of quality control. The nuclear ribosomal RNA genes and ITS (internal transcribed spacer) sequence were used to develop species-specific DNA markers. The species-specific markers efficiently amplified 295bp for T. terrestris (TT1F and TT1R), 300bp for T. lanuginosus (TL1F and TL1R) and 214bp for T. subramanyamii (TS1F and TS1R). These DNA markers can be used to distinguish T. terrestris from its adulterants.

  19. DNA-water interactions distinguish messenger RNA genes from transfer RNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Garima; Jayaram, B

    2012-05-30

    Physicochemical properties of DNA sequences as a guide to developing insights into genome organization has received little attention. Here, we utilize the energetics of DNA to further advance the knowledge on its language at a molecular level. Specifically, we ask the question whether physicochemical properties of different functional units on genomes differ. We extract intramolecular and solvation energies of different DNA base pair steps from a comprehensive set of molecular dynamics simulations. We then investigate the solvation behavior of DNA sequences coding for mRNAs and tRNAs. Distinguishing mRNA genes from tRNA genes is a tricky problem in genome annotation without assumptions on length of DNA and secondary structure of the product of transcription. We find that solvation energetics of DNA behaves as an extremely efficient property in discriminating 2,063,537 genes coding for mRNAs from 56,251 genes coding for tRNAs in all (~1500) completely sequenced prokaryotic genomes.

  20. Using large galaxy surveys to distinguish z~0.5 quiescent galaxy models

    CERN Document Server

    Cohn, J D

    2013-01-01

    One of the most striking properties of galaxies is the bimodality in their star-formation rates. A major puzzle is why any given galaxy is star-forming or quiescent, and a wide range of physical mechanisms have been proposed as solutions. We consider how observations, such as might be available in upcoming large galaxy surveys, might distinguish different galaxy quenching scenarios. To do this, we combine an N-body simulation and multiple prescriptions from the literature to create several quiescent galaxy mock catalogues. Each prescription uses a different set of galaxy properties (such as history, environment, centrality) to assign individual simulation galaxies as quiescent. We find how and how much the resulting quiescent galaxy distributions differ from each other, both intrinsically and observationally. In addition to tracing observational consequences of different quenching mechanisms, our results indicate which sorts of quenching models might be most readily disentangled by upcoming observations and w...

  1. Hemangioblastoma and renal clear cell carcinoma distinguished by means of the AgNOR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, J; Carey, M P; Allcock, R

    1990-04-01

    In view of the difficulty encountered in distinguishing between 2 degrees renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and hemangioblastoma (HBl) in the central nervous system, the AgNOR technique has been applied empirically to a series of 16 specimens of HBl, 5 primary RCC, and 6 specimens of secondary RCC in the CNS. To avoid tautology, the nature of these was confirmed by immunostaining for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and factor VIII-related antigen (FVII RAg). It was found that mean nuclear AgNOR counts in the stromal and endothelial cells of HBl exceeded significantly the counts in the tumor and endothelial cells of RCC, with no overlap in values. It is suggested that the AgNOR method is a useful adjunct in achieving the differential diagnosis of HBl and RCC in the nervous system.

  2. Using fluorescent dissolved organic matter to trace and distinguish the origin of Arctic surface waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goncalves-Araujo, Rafael; Granskog, Mats A.; Bracher, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Climate change affects the Arctic with regards to permafrost thaw, sea-ice melt, alterations to the freshwater budget and increased export of terrestrial material to the Arctic Ocean. The Fram and Davis Straits represent the major gateways connecting the Arctic and Atlantic. Oceanographic surveys...... were performed in the Fram and Davis Straits, and on the east Greenland Shelf (EGS), in late summer 2012/2013. Meteoric (f(mw)), sea-ice melt, Atlantic and Pacific water fractions were determined and the fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (FDOM) were characterized. In Fram Strait...... was correlated to apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) and traced deep-water DOM turnover. In surface waters FDOM characteristics could distinguish between surface waters from eastern (Atlantic + modified polar waters) and western (Canada-basin polar waters) Arctic sectors. The findings highlight the potential...

  3. A Novel Face Recognition Algorithm for Distinguishing Faces with Various Angles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Zhong Lu

    2008-01-01

    In order to distinguish faces of various angles during face recognition, an algorithm of the combination of approximate dynamic programming (ADP) called action dependent heuristic dynamic programming (ADHDP) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) is presented. ADP is used for dynamically changing the values of the PSO parameters. During the process of face recognition, the discrete cosine transformation (DCT) is first introduced to reduce negative effects. Then, Karhunen-Loeve (K-L) transformation can be used to compress images and decrease data dimensions. According to principal component analysis (PCA), the main parts of vectors are extracted for data representation. Finally, radial basis function (RBF) neural network is trained to recognize various faces. The training of RBF neural network is exploited by ADP-PSO. In terms of ORL Face Database, the experimental result gives a clear view of its accurate efficiency.

  4. miR-215 overexpression distinguishes ampullary carcinomas from pancreatic carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong Ho; Park, Sang Jae; Kim, Hark Kyun

    2015-06-01

    Distinguishing ampullary carcinoma from pancreatic carcinoma is important because of their different prognoses. microRNAs are differentially expressed according to the tissue of origin. However, there is rare research on the differential diagnosis between the two types of cancers by microRNA in periampullary cancers. The present study was undertaken to compare microRNA profiles between ampullary and pancreatic carcinomas using microarrays. miR-215 was most significantly overexpressed in ampullary carcinomas; whereas the expressions of miR-134 and miR-214 were significantly lower in ampullary carcinomas than in pancreatic carcinomas. When these discriminatory microRNAs were applied to liver metastases, they were correctly predicted for the tissue of origin. Although this study is limited by small sample size, striking difference in microRNA expression and concordant expression of discriminating microRNAs in primary tumors and metastases suggest that these novel discriminatory microRNAs warrant future validation.

  5. Quantifying the influence of scientists and their publications: Distinguishing prestige from popularity

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Yan-Bo; Li, Menghui

    2011-01-01

    Number of citations is a widely used metric to evaluate the scientific credit of papers, scientists and journals. However, we all have experiences that a paper with fewer citations from prestige scientists may be of higher influence than some papers with more citations. We thus argue that who cited the paper may be more important than how many citations. Accordingly, we propose an interactive model on author-paper bipartite networks as well as an iterative algorithm to get better rankings for scientists and their publications. The main advantage of this method is twofold: (i) it is a parameter-free algorithm; (ii) it considers the interrelationship between the prestige of scientists and the quality of their publications. We implement real experiment on publications in econophysics, and further apply this method to evaluate the influences of related scientific journals. The discrepancies between the rankings by our method and simple citation counting suggest that our method is effective to distinguish prestige...

  6. Richard Rogers: Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Presents Richard Rogers as the 2001 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy. "Richard Rogers casts a long shadow over the realm of psychological research with public policy implications. His achievements concerning criminal responsibility and malingering have been important and lasting, but his most uniquely impactful contribution to public policy is his enhancement of our understanding of the constitutional protections embodied in Miranda rights. His investigations have exploded the myth of a single, easily understood Miranda warning. The ramifications of this work are profound, especially for socially marginalized populations, and include its direct acknowledgment as the impetus for critical developments in American Bar Association policy on custodial interrogations." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Use of On-Site GC/MS Analysis to Distinguish between Vapor Intrusion and Indoor Sources of VOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    ER-201119) Use of On-Site GC/MS Analysis to Distinguish between Vapor Intrusion and Indoor Sources of VOC December 2013 This document...SUBTITLE Use of On-Site GC/MS Analysis to Distinguish between Vapor Intrusion and Indoor Sources of VOC 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...ANALYSIS TO EVALUATE VAPOR INTRUSION ........................ 21 6.3.1 Site-by-Site Analysis of Results: Building VI Classifications ................. 21

  8. Distinguishing solid bitumens formed by thermochemical sulfate reduction and thermal chemical alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, S.R.; Walters, C.C.; Kwiatek, P.J.; Afeworki, M.; Sansone, M.; Freund, H.; Pottorf, R.J.; Machel, H.G.; Zhang, T.; Ellis, G.S.; Tang, Y.; Peters, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    Insoluble solid bitumens are organic residues that can form by the thermal chemical alteration (TCA) or thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) of migrated petroleum. TCA may actually encompass several low temperature processes, such as biodegradation and asphaltene precipitation, followed by thermal alteration. TSR is an abiotic redox reaction where petroleum is oxidized by sulfate. It is difficult to distinguish solid bitumens associated with TCA of petroleum from those associated with TSR when both processes occur at relatively high temperature. The focus of the present work was to characterize solid bitumen samples associated with TCA or TSR using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS is a surface analysis conducted on either isolated or in situ (>25 ??m diameter) solid bitumen that can provide the relative abundance and chemical speciation of carbon, organic and inorganic heteroatoms (NSO). In this study, naturally occurring solid bitumens from three locations, Nisku Fm. Brazeau River area (TSR-related), LaBarge Field Madison Fm. (TSR-related), and the Alaskan Brooks range (TCA-related), are compared to organic solids generated during laboratory simulation of the TSR and TCA processes. The abundance and chemical nature of organic nitrogen and sulfur in solid bitumens can be understood in terms of the nature of (1) petroleum precursor molecules, (2) the concentration of nitrogen by way of thermal stress and (3) the mode of sulfur incorporation. TCA solid bitumens originate from polar materials that are initially rich in sulfur and nitrogen. Aromaticity and nitrogen increase as thermal stress cleaves aliphatic moieties and condensation reactions take place. Organic sulfur in TCA organic solids remains fairly constant with increasing maturation (3.5 to ???17 sulfur per 100 carbons) into aromatic structures and to the low levels of nitrogen in their hydrocarbon precursors. Hence, XPS results provide organic chemical composition information that helps to

  9. Acceptance of the 2014 Geochemical Society Distinguished Service Award by Carla Koretsky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koretsky, Carla

    2015-06-01

    I am deeply touched to have received the Geochemical Society Distinguished Service Award. It was a great surprise when I received the notice that I had been chosen for the award. It has been a tremendous pleasure to work on behalf of student members of the Geochemical Society, Japanese Geochemical Society and the European Association of Geochemists to organize the student travel grants over the past few years. Certainly, this is not an effort that I undertook on my own. Many, many members of the GS, the JGS and the EAG generously donated their time and expertise to serve as reviewers for the many travel grant applicants we receive each year. Seth Davis, the GS Chief Operating Officer, spent countless hours helping to organize applications, the website, distribution of funds and many other aspects of the competition. Without Seth and the many expert reviewers, we could not run the travel grant program each year and provide this important financial support to allow more students to experience the Goldschmidt Conference. I also enjoyed my time as Geochemical News co-editor, and I should point out that GN during those years was ably co-edited by Johnson Haas. It has been a pleasure to see Elements take off, and GN evolve into a timely source of important announcements and information about cutting-edge science since I stepped down as co-editor. I feel very fortunate to work with so many outstanding colleagues in the global geochemical community, and I am a little embarrassed, and also very grateful, to have been selected for the Geochemical Society Distinguished Service Award. Thank you!

  10. Distinguishing patients with Parkinson's disease subtypes from normal controls based on functional network regional efficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delong Zhang

    Full Text Available Many studies have demonstrated that the pathophysiology and clinical symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD are inhomogeneous. However, the symptom-specific intrinsic neural activities underlying the PD subtypes are still not well understood. Here, 15 tremor-dominant PD patients, 10 non-tremor-dominant PD patients, and 20 matched normal controls (NCs were recruited and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Functional brain networks were constructed based on randomly generated anatomical templates with and without the cerebellum. The regional network efficiencies (i.e., the local and global efficiencies were further measured and used to distinguish subgroups of PD patients (i.e., with tremor-dominant PD and non-tremor-dominant PD from the NCs using linear discriminant analysis. The results demonstrate that the subtype-specific functional networks were small-world-organized and that the network regional efficiency could discriminate among the individual PD subgroups and the NCs. Brain regions involved in distinguishing between the study groups included the basal ganglia (i.e., the caudate and putamen, limbic regions (i.e., the hippocampus and thalamus, the cerebellum, and other cerebral regions (e.g., the insula, cingulum, and calcarine sulcus. In particular, the performances of the regional local efficiency in the functional network were better than those of the global efficiency, and the performances of global efficiency were dependent on the inclusion of the cerebellum in the analysis. These findings provide new evidence for the neurological basis of differences between PD subtypes and suggest that the cerebellum may play different roles in the pathologies of different PD subtypes. The present study demonstrated the power of the combination of graph-based network analysis and discrimination analysis in elucidating the neural basis of different PD subtypes.

  11. Distinguishing bacterial pathogens of potato using a genome-wide microarray approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aittamaa, M; Somervuo, P; Pirhonen, M; Mattinen, L; Nissinen, R; Auvinen, P; Valkonen, J P T

    2008-09-01

    A set of 9676 probes was designed for the most harmful bacterial pathogens of potato and tested in a microarray format. Gene-specific probes could be designed for all genes of Pectobacterium atrosepticum, c. 50% of the genes of Streptomyces scabies and c. 30% of the genes of Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus utilizing the whole-genome sequence information available. For Streptomyces turgidiscabies, 226 probes were designed according to the sequences of a pathogenicity island containing important virulence genes. In addition, probes were designed for the virulence-associated nip (necrosis-inducing protein) genes of P. atrosepticum, P. carotovorum and Dickeya dadantii and for the intergenic spacer (IGS) sequences of the 16S-23S rRNA gene region. Ralstonia solanacearum was not included in the study, because it is a quarantine organism and is not presently found in Finland, but a few probes were also designed for this species. The probes contained on average 40 target-specific nucleotides and were synthesized on the array in situ, organized as eight sub-arrays with an identical set of probes which could be used for hybridization with different samples. All bacteria were readily distinguished using a single channel system for signal detection. Nearly all of the c. 1000 probes designed for C. michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus, c. 50% and 40% of the c. 4000 probes designed for the genes of S. scabies and P. atrosepticum, respectively, and over 100 probes for S. turgidiscabies showed significant signals only with the respective species. P. atrosepticum, P. carotovorum and Dickeya strains were all detected with 110 common probes. By contrast, the strains of these species were found to differ in their signal profiles. Probes targeting the IGS region and nip genes could be used to place strains of Dickeya to two groups, which correlated with differences in virulence. Taken together, the approach of using a custom-designed, genome-wide microarray provided a robust means

  12. Attribution of human characteristics and bullying involvement in childhood: Distinguishing between targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noorden, Tirza H J; Haselager, Gerbert J T; Lansu, Tessa A M; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Bukowski, William M

    2016-07-01

    This investigation researched the association between the attribution of human characteristics and bullying involvement in children by distinguishing between targets. Study 1 focused on the attribution of human characteristics by bullies, victims, bully/victims, and non-involved children toward friends and non-friends. The data from 405 children (M = 10.7 years old) showed that they attributed fewer prosocial and more antisocial human characteristics to non-friends than to friends. Moreover, boy victims attributed fewer prosocial human characteristics to non-friends than boy bullies and non-involved boys did. In addition, victims attributed more antisocial human characteristics to non-friends than non-involved children did. Study 2 addressed bullies', victims', bully/victims', and non-involved children's attribution of human characteristics to each other. The data of 264 children (M = 10.0 years old) showed that bullies, victims, and bully/victims attributed fewer prosocial and more antisocial human characteristics to each other than to non-involved children. Non-involved children attributed fewer prosocial human characteristics to bully/victims than to bullies and victims, and more antisocial human characteristics to bully/victims than to victims. In addition, girls attributed more prosocial and fewer antisocial human characteristics to girls than to boys, whereas boys did not distinguish between girls and boys. Based on these findings, suggestions for future research are provided and implications for bullying prevention and intervention are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 42:394-403, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Distinguishing Antimicrobial Models with Different Resistance Mechanisms via Population Pharmacodynamic Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Jacobs

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Semi-mechanistic pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD modeling is increasingly used for antimicrobial drug development and optimization of dosage regimens, but systematic simulation-estimation studies to distinguish between competing PD models are lacking. This study compared the ability of static and dynamic in vitro infection models to distinguish between models with different resistance mechanisms and support accurate and precise parameter estimation. Monte Carlo simulations (MCS were performed for models with one susceptible bacterial population without (M1 or with a resting stage (M2, a one population model with adaptive resistance (M5, models with pre-existing susceptible and resistant populations without (M3 or with (M4 inter-conversion, and a model with two pre-existing populations with adaptive resistance (M6. For each model, 200 datasets of the total bacterial population were simulated over 24h using static antibiotic concentrations (256-fold concentration range or over 48h under dynamic conditions (dosing every 12h; elimination half-life: 1h. Twelve-hundred random datasets (each containing 20 curves for static or four curves for dynamic conditions were generated by bootstrapping. Each dataset was estimated by all six models via population PD modeling to compare bias and precision. For M1 and M3, most parameter estimates were unbiased (<10% and had good imprecision (<30%. However, parameters for adaptive resistance and inter-conversion for M2, M4, M5 and M6 had poor bias and large imprecision under static and dynamic conditions. For datasets that only contained viable counts of the total population, common statistical criteria and diagnostic plots did not support sound identification of the true resistance mechanism. Therefore, it seems advisable to quantify resistant bacteria and characterize their MICs and resistance mechanisms to support extended simulations and translate from in vitro experiments to animal infection models and

  14. Land Breeze and Thermals: A Scale Threshold to Distinguish Their Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Land breeze is a type of mesoscale circulation developed due to thermal forcing over a heterogeneous landscape. It can contribute to atmospheric dynamic and hydrologic processes through affecting heat and water fluxes on the land-atmosphere interface and generating shallow convective precipitation. If the scale of the landscape heterogeneity is smaller than a certain size, however, the resulting land breeze becomes weak and becomes mixed up with other thermal convections like thermals. This study seeks to identify a scale threshold to distinguish the effects between land breeze and thermals. Two-dimensional simulations were performed with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) to simulate thermals and land breeze. Their horizontal scale features were analyzed using the wavelet transform. The thermals developed over a homogeneous landscape under dry or wet conditions have an initial scale of 2-5 km during their early stage of development. The scale jumps to 10-15 km when condensation occurs. The solution of an analytical model indicates that the reduced degree of atmospheric instability due to the release of condensation potential heat could be one of the contributing factors for the increase in scale.The land breeze, on the other hand, has a major scale identical to the size of the landscape heterogeneity throughout various stages of development. The results suggest that the effects of land breeze can be clearly distinguished from those of thermals only if the size of the landscape heterogeneity is larger than the scale threshold of about 5 km for dry atmospheric processes or about 15 km for moist ones.

  15. Stable isotope ratios of carbon and hydrogen to distinguish olive oil from shark squalene-squalane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camin, Federica; Bontempo, Luana; Ziller, Luca; Piangiolino, Cristiana; Morchio, Gianni

    2010-06-30

    Squalene and its hydrogenated derivate squalane are widely used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields. The two compounds are mainly produced from the liver oil of deep sea sharks and from olive oil distillates. Squalene and squalane from shark cost less than the same compounds derived from olive oil, and the use of these shark-derived compounds is unethical in cosmetic formulations. In this work we investigate whether (13)C/(12)C and (2)H/(1)H ratios can distinguish olive oil from shark squalene/squalane and can detect the presence of shark derivates in olive oil based products. The (13)C/(12)C ratios (expressed as delta(13)C values) of bulk samples and of pure compounds measured using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) were significantly lower in authentic olive oil squalene/squalane (N: 13; -28.4 +/- 0.5 per thousand; -28.3 +/- 0.8 per thousand) than in shark squalene/squalane samples (N: 15; -20.5 +/- 0.7 per thousand; -20.4 +/- 0.6 per thousand). By defining delta(13)C threshold values of -27.4 per thousand and -26.6 per thousand for olive oil bulk and pure squalene/squalane, respectively, illegal addition of shark products can be identified starting from a minimum of 10%. (2)H/(1)H analysis is not useful for distinguishing the two different origins. Delta(13)C analysis is proposed as a suitable tool for detecting the authenticity of commercial olive oil squalene and squalane samples, using IRMS interfaced to an elemental analyser if the purity is higher than 80% and IRMS interfaced to a gas chromatography/combustion system for samples with lower purity, including solutions of squalane extracted from cosmetic products.

  16. T-wave morphology can distinguish healthy controls from LQTS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immanuel, S A; Sadrieh, A; Baumert, M; Couderc, J P; Zareba, W; Hill, A P; Vandenberg, J I

    2016-09-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an inherited disorder associated with prolongation of the QT/QTc interval on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) and a markedly increased risk of sudden cardiac death due to cardiac arrhythmias. Up to 25% of genotype-positive LQTS patients have QT/QTc intervals in the normal range. These patients are, however, still at increased risk of life-threatening events compared to their genotype-negative siblings. Previous studies have shown that analysis of T-wave morphology may enhance discrimination between control and LQTS patients. In this study we tested the hypothesis that automated analysis of T-wave morphology from Holter ECG recordings could distinguish between control and LQTS patients with QTc values in the range 400-450 ms. Holter ECGs were obtained from the Telemetric and Holter ECG Warehouse (THEW) database. Frequency binned averaged ECG waveforms were obtained and extracted T-waves were fitted with a combination of 3 sigmoid functions (upslope, downslope and switch) or two 9th order polynomial functions (upslope and downslope). Neural network classifiers, based on parameters obtained from the sigmoid or polynomial fits to the 1 Hz and 1.3 Hz ECG waveforms, were able to achieve up to 92% discrimination between control and LQTS patients and 88% discrimination between LQTS1 and LQTS2 patients. When we analysed a subgroup of subjects with normal QT intervals (400-450 ms, 67 controls and 61 LQTS), T-wave morphology based parameters enabled 90% discrimination between control and LQTS patients, compared to only 71% when the groups were classified based on QTc alone. In summary, our Holter ECG analysis algorithms demonstrate the feasibility of using automated analysis of T-wave morphology to distinguish LQTS patients, even those with normal QTc, from healthy controls.

  17. Trefoil factor 3 as a novel biomarker to distinguish between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Nan; Wang, Shu-Jing; Pandey, Vijay; Chen, Ping; Li, Qing; Wu, Zheng-Sheng; Wu, Qiang; Lobie, Peter E

    2015-05-01

    In carcinoma, such as of the lung, the histological subtype is important to select an appropriate therapeutic strategy for patients. However, carcinomas with poor differentiation cannot always be distinguished on the basis of morphology alone nor on clinical findings. Hence, delineation of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the 2 most common epithelial-origin carcinomas, is pivotal for selection of optimum therapy. Herein, we explored the potential utility of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) as a biomarker for primary lung adenocarcinoma and extrapulmonary adenocarcinomas derived from different organs. We observed that 90.9% of lung adenocarcinomas were TFF3-positive, whereas no expression of TFF3 was observed in squamous cell carcinomas. The subtype of lung carcinoma was confirmed by four established biomarkers, cytokeratin 7 and thyroid transcription factor 1 for adenocarcinoma and P63 and cytokeratin 5/6 for squamous cell carcinoma. Furthermore, expression of TFF3 mRNA was observed by quantitative PCR in all of 11 human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and highly correlated with markers of the adenocarcinomatous lineage. In contrast, little or no expression of TFF3 was observed in 4 lung squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. By use of forced expression, or siRNA-mediated depletion of TFF3, we determined that TFF3 appeared to maintain rather than promote glandular differentiation of lung carcinoma cells. In addition, TFF3 expression was also determined in adenocarcinomas from colorectum, stomach, cervix, esophagus, and larynx. Among all these extrapulmonary carcinomas, 93.7% of adenocarcinomas exhibited TFF3 positivity, whereas only 2.9% of squamous cell carcinomas were TFF3-positive. Totally, 92.9% of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary adenocarcinomas exhibited TFF3 positivity, whereas only 1.5% of squamous cell carcinomas were TFF3-positive. In conclusion, TFF3 is preferentially expressed in adenocarcinoma and may function as an additional

  18. A rapid cycleave PCR method for distinguishing the vaccine strain Brucella abortus A19 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenlong; Zhang, Yueyong; Tan, Pengfei; Xu, Zouliang; Chen, Yuqi; Mao, Kairong; Chen, Yiping

    2016-05-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. Immunization with attenuated vaccines has proved to be an effective method of prevention; however, it may also interfere with diagnosis. Brucella abortus strain A19, which is homologous to B. abortus strain S19, is widely used for the prevention of bovine brucellosis in China. For effective monitoring of the control of brucellosis, it is essential to distinguish A19 from field strains. Single-nucleotide polymorphism-based assays offer a new approach to such discrimination studies. In the current study, we developed a cycleave PCR assay that successfully distinguished attenuated vaccine strains A19 and S19 from 22 strains of B. abortus and 57 strains of 5 other Brucella species. The assay gave a negative reaction with 4 non-Brucella species. The minimum sensitivity of the assay, evaluated using 10-fold dilutions of chromosomal DNA, was 7.6 fg for the A19 strain and 220 fg for the single non-A19/non-S19 Brucella strain tested (B. abortus 104M). The assay was also reproducible (intra- and interassay coefficients of variation: 0.003-0.01 and 0.004-0.025, respectively). The cycleave assay gave an A19/S19-specific reaction in 3 out of 125 field serum samples, with the same 3 samples being positive in an alternative A19/S19-specific molecular assay. The cycleave assay gave a total of 102 Brucella-specific reactions (3 being the A19/S19-specific reactions), whereas an alternative Brucella-specific assay gave 92 positive reactions (all also positive in the cycleave assay). Therefore, this assay represents a simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific tool for use in brucellosis control.

  19. Beginning of the End: The Leadership of SS Obersturmbannfuehrer Jochen Peiper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    SS Sonderkommando Zossen (special commando) and SS Sonderkommando Jüterbog into the Adolf-Hitler- Standarte (Adolf Hitler guards). Hitler, himself...members, including Dietrich, were promoted for “distinguished service” (1991, 13). Butler points out that in 1934 the unit was renamed SS Standarte ...though little is known of this period (Agte 1999, 7-9; Westemeier 1996, 5-6). His next leadership experience was in the SS Reiter Standarte where he

  20. Distinguishing prostate cancer from benign confounders via a cascaded classifier on multi-parametric MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litjens, G. J. S.; Elliott, R.; Shih, N.; Feldman, M.; Barentsz, J. O.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C. A.; Kovacs, I.; Huisman, H. J.; Madabhushi, A.

    2014-03-01

    Learning how to separate benign confounders from prostate cancer is important because the imaging characteristics of these confounders are poorly understood. Furthermore, the typical representations of the MRI parameters might not be enough to allow discrimination. The diagnostic uncertainty this causes leads to a lower diagnostic accuracy. In this paper a new cascaded classifier is introduced to separate prostate cancer and benign confounders on MRI in conjunction with specific computer-extracted features to distinguish each of the benign classes (benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), inflammation, atrophy or prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PIN). In this study we tried to (1) calculate different mathematical representations of the MRI parameters which more clearly express subtle differences between different classes, (2) learn which of the MRI image features will allow to distinguish specific benign confounders from prostate cancer, and (2) find the combination of computer-extracted MRI features to best discriminate cancer from the confounding classes using a cascaded classifier. One of the most important requirements for identifying MRI signatures for adenocarcinoma, BPH, atrophy, inflammation, and PIN is accurate mapping of the location and spatial extent of the confounder and cancer categories from ex vivo histopathology to MRI. Towards this end we employed an annotated prostatectomy data set of 31 patients, all of whom underwent a multi-parametric 3 Tesla MRI prior to radical prostatectomy. The prostatectomy slides were carefully co-registered to the corresponding MRI slices using an elastic registration technique. We extracted texture features from the T2-weighted imaging, pharmacokinetic features from the dynamic contrast enhanced imaging and diffusion features from the diffusion-weighted imaging for each of the confounder classes and prostate cancer. These features were selected because they form the mainstay of clinical diagnosis. Relevant features for

  1. Distinguishing Ice from Snow for Melt Modeling Using Daily Observations from MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittger, K.; Brodzik, M. J.; Racoviteanu, A.; Barrett, A. P.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Painter, T. H.; Armstrong, R. L.; Burgess, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    In Earth's mountainous regions, melt from both seasonal snow and glacier ice contributes to streamflow. Few in-situ observations exist that can help distinguish between the two components of melt, particularly across large mountain ranges. In this study, we analyze daily time series of MODIS data products to distinguish ice from snow as the seasonal snowpack recedes revealing firn and glacier ice surfaces. We run a temperature index melt model for the Hunza, a sub-basin of the Upper Indus basin using the MODIS data to discriminate between glacier ice and snow and partition the corresponding streamflow. During the ablation period, this high elevation mid-latitude snowpack receives intense incoming solar radiation resulting in snow grain growth and surface albedo decreases. To explore snow grain growth, we use estimates of grain size from both the MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain Size Model (MODSCAG) and MODIS Dust Radiative Forcing in Snow (MODDRFS). To explore albedo reduction we use 2 standard albedo products from MODIS, the Terra Daily Snow Cover algorithm (MOD10A1) and Surface Reflectance BRDF/Albedo (MOD43). We use a threshold on the grain size and albedo products to discriminate ice from snow. We test the ability of the 4 MODIS products to discriminate snow from glacier ice using higher resolution data from the Landsat 8 sensor from July 5th and July 21st, 2013 for a subset of the study area in the Karakoram region of the Himalaya that includes the Yazghil and Hopper Glaciers that drain north and northeast in the Shimshall Valley, part of the Hunza River basin. Snow and glacier ice are mapped using band ratio techniques, and are then separated on the basis of broadband albedo values calculated from Landsat bands for comparison with MODIS-derived snow and glacier ice pixels. We run a temperature index melt model that uses gap filled snow covered area from MODSCAG and interpolated station temperature data for the Hunza River basin. The model outputs daily melt

  2. How to identify garnet lherzolite melts and distinguish them from pyroxenite melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, T. L.; Holbig, E.; Barr, J. A.; Till, C.; Krawczynski, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Liquids form in equilibrium with garnet lherzolite sources when the Earth's mantle melts at depths of greater than ~ 60 km. We present a phase equilibrium investigation of Tibetan plateau olivine leucitites from 2.2 to 2.8 GPa and 1380 to 1480 °C. The resulting liquids were multiply saturated with spinel and garnet lherzolite assemblages (olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and spinel +/-garnet) under nominally anhydrous conditions. These SiO2-undersaturated liquids and published experimental data have been used to develop a new model that parameterizes the major element compositions of garnet lherzolite partial melts, allowing the prediction of melt compositions from depleted to metasomatically enriched peridotite. The model is calibrated over the pressure range of 1.9 to 6 GPa. The model also predicts the suprasolidus pressure and temperature of the spinel to garnet lherzolite phase transition for natural peridotite compositions. Combined with the recent parameterization of melting in the plagioclase- and spinel- lherzolite facies (Till et al., 2012, JGR, 117, B06206), the new model distinguishes between melts of garnet vs. spinel vs. plagioclase lherzolites, but can also be used to distinguish between melts of lherzolitic vs. pyroxenitic source regions, allowing source lithology to be uniquely identified. Pyroxenite melts fall into two compositionally distinct groups; an olivine-normative, SiO2-undersaturated group and quartz-normative, SiO2-oversaturated group. Melts of plagioclase, spinel, and garnet lherzolite plot between these two types of pyroxenitic melts in mineral normative composition space. When our model is applied to high-K lavas erupted in the Tibetan plateau, we find that these magmas are derived from both pyroxenite and lherzolite source regions. Distinctive enrichments in compatible trace elements (Ni, Cr) are observed in the lherzolite-derived magmas. Applied to Hawaiian basalts, our model suggests the transitional and weakly alkaline pre

  3. Mucosal-associated invariant T cell is a potential marker to distinguish fibromyalgia syndrome from arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie Sugimoto

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia (FM is defined as a widely distributed pain. While many rheumatologists and pain physicians have considered it to be a pain disorder, psychiatry, psychology, and general medicine have deemed it to be a syndrome (FMS or psychosomatic disorder. The lack of concrete structural and/or pathological evidence has made patients suffer prejudice that FMS is a medically unexplained symptom, implying inauthenticity. Furthermore, FMS often exhibits comorbidity with rheumatoid arthritis (RA or spondyloarthritis (SpA, both of which show similar indications. In this study, disease specific biomarkers were sought in blood samples from patients to facilitate objective diagnoses of FMS, and distinguish it from RA and SpA.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from patients and healthy donors (HD were subjected to multicolor flow cytometric analysis. The percentage of mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT cells in PBMCs and the mean fluorescent intensity (MFI of cell surface antigen expression in MAIT cells were analyzed.There was a decrease in the MAIT cell population in FMS, RA, and SpA compared with HD. Among the cell surface antigens in MAIT cells, three chemokine receptors, CCR4, CCR7, and CXCR1, a natural killer (NK receptor, NKp80, a signaling lymphocyte associated molecule (SLAM family, CD150, a degrunulation marker, CD107a, and a coreceptor, CD8β emerged as potential biomarkers for FMS to distinguish from HD. Additionally, a memory marker, CD44 and an inflammatory chemokine receptor, CXCR1 appeared possible markers for RA, while a homeostatic chemokine receptor, CXCR4 deserved for SpA to differentiate from FMS. Furthermore, the drug treatment interruption resulted in alternation of the expression of CCR4, CCR5, CXCR4, CD27, CD28, inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS, CD127 (IL-7 receptor α, CD94, NKp80, an activation marker, CD69, an integrin family member, CD49d, and a dipeptidase, CD26, in FMS.Combined with the currently available

  4. Evaluation of rules to distinguish unique female grizzly bears with cubs in Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C.C.; Haroldson, M.A.; Cherry, S.; Keating, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    The United States Fish and Wildlife Service uses counts of unduplicated female grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) with cubs-of-the-year to establish limits of sustainable mortality in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA. Sightings are dustered into observations of unique bears based on an empirically derived rule set. The method has never been tested or verified. To evaluate the rule set, we used data from radiocollared females obtained during 1975-2004 to simulate populations under varying densities, distributions, and sighting frequencies. We tested individual rules and rule-set performance, using custom software to apply the rule-set and duster sightings. Results indicated most rules were violated to some degree, and rule-based dustering consistently underestimated the minimum number of females and total population size derived from a nonparametric estimator (Chao2). We conclude that the current rule set returns conservative estimates, but with minor improvements, counts of unduplicated females-with-cubs can serve as a reasonable index of population size useful for establishing annual mortality limits. For the Yellowstone population, the index is more practical and cost-effective than capture-mark-recapture using either DNA hair snagging or aerial surveys with radiomarked bears. The method has useful application in other ecosystems, but we recommend rules used to distinguish unique females be adapted to local conditions and tested.

  5. Distinguished quantum states in a class of cosmological spacetimes and their Hadamard property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dappiaggi, Claudio; Pinamonti, Nicola [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Moretti, Valter [Trento Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Matematica; Ist. Nazionale di Alta Matematica, Unita locale di Trento (Italy); Ist. Nazionale di Fisica, Povo (Italy)

    2008-12-15

    In a recent paper, we proved that a large class of spacetimes, not necessarily homogeneous or isotropic and relevant at a cosmological level, possesses a preferred codimension one submanifold, i.e., the past cosmological horizon, on which it is possible to encode the information of a scalar field theory living in the bulk. Such bulk-to-boundary reconstruction procedure entails the identification of a preferred quasifree algebraic state for the bulk theory, enjoying remarkable properties concerning invariance under isometries (if any) of the bulk and energy positivity, and reducing to well-known vacua in standard situations. In this paper, specialising to open FRW models, we extend previously obtained results and we prove that the preferred state is of Hadamard form, hence the backreaction on the metric is finite and the state can be used as a starting point for renormalisation procedures. That state could play a distinguished role in the discussion of the evolution of scalar fluctuations of the metric, an analysis often performed in the development of any model describing the dynamic of an early Universe which undergoes an inflationary phase of rapid expansion in the past. (orig.)

  6. On the adjacent-vertex-strongly-distinguishing total coloring of graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    For any vertex u∈V(G), let TN(U)={u}∪{uv|uv∈E(G), v∈v(G)}∪{v∈v(G)|uv∈E(G)}and let f be a total k-coloring of G. The total-color neighbor of a vertex u of G is the color set Cf(u)={f(x)|x∈TN(U)}. For any two adjacent vertices x and y of V(G)such that Cf(x)≠Cf(y), we refer to f as a k-avsdt-coloring of G("avsdt"is the abbreviation of"adjacent-vertex-strongly- distinguishing total"). The avsdt-coloring number of G, denoted by Xast(G), is the minimal number of colors required for a avsdt-coloring of G. In this paper, the avsdt-coloring numbers on some familiar graphs are studied, such as paths, cycles, complete graphs, complete bipartite graphs and so on. We proveΔ(G)+1≤Xast(G)≤Δ(G)+2 for any tree or unique cycle graph G.

  7. Techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events using segmented germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeninger, K.

    2007-06-05

    Two techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events in germanium detectors were studied: (1) anti-coincidence requirements between the segments of segmented germanium detectors and (2) the analysis of the time structure of the detector response. An 18-fold segmented germanium prototype detector for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta-decay experiment was characterized. The rejection of photon induced events was measured for the strongest lines in {sup 60}Co, {sup 152}Eu and {sup 228}Th. An accompanying Monte Carlo simulation was performed and the results were compared to data. An overall agreement with deviations of the order of 5-10% was obtained. The expected background index of the GERDA experiment was estimated. The sensitivity of the GERDA experiment was determined. Special statistical tools were developed to correctly treat the small number of events expected. The GERDA experiment uses a cryogenic liquid as the operational medium for the germanium detectors. It was shown that germanium detectors can be reliably operated through several cooling cycles. (orig.)

  8. Neural stem cells respond to stress hormones: distinguishing beneficial from detrimental stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassemi eKoutmani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells, the progenitors of the nervous system, control distinct, position-specific functions and are critically involved in the maintenance of homeostasis in the brain. The responses of these cells to various stressful stimuli are shaped by genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors via mechanisms that are age and developmental stage-dependent and still remain, to a great extent, elusive. Increasing evidence advocates for the beneficial impact of the stress response in various settings, complementing the extensive number of studies on the detrimental effects of stress, particularly in the developing brain. In this review, we discuss suggested mechanisms mediating both the beneficial and detrimental effects of stressors on neural stem cell activity across the lifespan. We focus on the specific effects of secreted factors and we propose neural stem cells as a sensor, capable of distinguishing among the different stressors and adapting its functions accordingly. All the above suggest the intriguing hypothesis that neural stem cells are an important part of the adaptive response to stressors via direct and indirect, specific mechanisms.

  9. DISTINGUISHING A HYPOTHETICAL ABIOTIC PLANET–MOON SYSTEM FROM A SINGLE INHABITED PLANET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tong; Tian, Feng; Wei, Wanjing; Huang, Xiaomeng [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Wang, Yuwei, E-mail: tianfengco@tsinghua.edu.cn [Laboratory for Climate and Ocean-Atmosphere Sciences, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China)

    2016-02-01

    It has recently been suggested that an exomoon with a CH{sub 4} atmosphere, orbiting an abiotic Earth-mass planet with an O{sub 2}-rich atmosphere, can produce a false positive biosignature at a low–moderate spectral resolution (R = λ/Δλ ≤ 2000). If this were true, inferring the presence of life on exoplanets will be beyond our reach in the next several decades. Here we use a line-by-line radiative transfer model to compute the relevant reflection spectrum between 1 and 3.3 μm. We show that it is possible to separate the combined spectra of such planet–moon systems from an inhabited planet by multiple-band NIR observations. We suggest that future observations near the 2.3 μm CH{sub 4} absorption band at a resolution of 100 and an SNR of 10 or more may be a good way to distinguish an abiotic planet–moon system from a inhabited single planet.

  10. Distinguishing between learning and motivation in behavioral tests of the reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smillie, Luke D; Dalgleish, Len I; Jackson, Chris J

    2007-04-01

    According to Gray's (1973) Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST), a Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and a Behavioral Activation System (BAS) mediate effects of goal conflict and reward on behavior. BIS functioning has been linked with individual differences in trait anxiety and BAS functioning with individual differences in trait impulsivity. In this article, it is argued that behavioral outputs of the BIS and BAS can be distinguished in terms of learning and motivation processes and that these can be operationalized using the Signal Detection Theory measures of response-sensitivity and response-bias. In Experiment 1, two measures of BIS-reactivity predicted increased response-sensitivity under goal conflict, whereas one measure of BAS-reactivity predicted increased response-sensitivity under reward. In Experiment 2, two measures of BIS-reactivity predicted response-bias under goal conflict, whereas a measure of BAS-reactivity predicted motivation response-bias under reward. In both experiments, impulsivity measures did not predict criteria for BAS-reactivity as traditionally predicted by RST.

  11. Antipeptide antibodies that can distinguish specific subunit polypeptides of glutamine synthetase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.; Henry, R. L.; Takemoto, L. J.; Guikema, J. A.; Wong, P. P.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the beta and gamma subunit polypeptides of glutamine synthetase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) root nodules are very similar. However, there are small regions within the sequences that are significantly different between the two polypeptides. The sequences between amino acids 2 and 9 and between 264 and 274 are examples. Three peptides (gamma 2-9, gamma 264-274, and beta 264-274) corresponding to these sequences were synthesized. Antibodies against these peptides were raised in rabbits and purified with corresponding peptide-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Western blot analysis of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bean nodule proteins demonstrated that the anti-beta 264-274 antibodies reacted specifically with the beta polypeptide and the anti-gamma 264-274 and anti-gamma 2-9 antibodies reacted specifically with the gamma polypeptide of the native and denatured glutamine synthetase. These results showed the feasibility of using synthetic peptides in developing antibodies that are capable of distinguishing proteins with similar primary structures.

  12. Number of patient-reported allergies helps distinguish epilepsy from psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Nathaniel M; Larimer, Phillip; Bourgeois, James A; Lowenstein, Daniel H

    2016-02-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are relatively common, accounting for 5-40% of visits to tertiary epilepsy centers. Inpatient video-electroencephalogram (vEEG) monitoring is the gold standard for diagnosis, but additional positive predictive tools are necessary given vEEG's relatively scarce availability. In this study, we investigated if the number of patient-reported allergies distinguishes between PNES and epilepsy. Excessive allergy-reporting, like PNES, may reflect somatization. Using electronic medical records, ICD-9 codes, and text-identification algorithms to search EEG reports, we identified 905 cases of confirmed PNES and 5187 controls with epilepsy but no PNES. Patients with PNES averaged more self-reported allergies than patients with epilepsy alone (1.93 vs. 1.00, p<0.001). Compared to those with no allergies, each additional allergy linearly increased the percentage of patients with PNES by 2.98% (R(2)=0.71) such that with ≥12 allergies, 12/28 patients (42.8%) had PNES compared to 349/3368 (11.6%) of the population with no allergies (odds ratio=6.49). This relationship remained unchanged with logistic regression analysis. We conclude that long allergy lists may help identify patients with PNES. We hypothesize that a tendency to inaccurately self-report allergies reflects a maladaptive externalization of psychologic distress and that a similar mechanism may be responsible for PNES in some patients with somatic symptom disorder.

  13. Complex suppression patterns distinguish between major energy loss effects in Quark-Gluon Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2016-12-01

    Interactions of high momentum partons with Quark-Gluon Plasma created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions provide an excellent tomography tool for this new form of matter. Recent measurements for charged hadrons and unidentified jets at the LHC show an unexpected flattening of the suppression curves at high momentum, exhibited when either momentum or the collision centrality is changed. Furthermore, a limited data available for B probes indicate a qualitatively different pattern, as nearly the same flattening is exhibited for the curves corresponding to two opposite momentum ranges. We here show that the experimentally measured suppression curves are well reproduced by our theoretical predictions, and that the complex suppression patterns are due to an interplay of collisional, radiative energy loss and the dead-cone effect. Furthermore, for B mesons, we predict that the uniform flattening of the suppression indicated by the limited dataset is in fact valid across the entire span of the momentum ranges, which will be tested by the upcoming experiments. Overall, the study presented here, provides a rare opportunity for pQCD theory to qualitatively distinguish between the major energy loss mechanisms at the same (nonintuitive) dataset.

  14. Phosphoproteomic profiling of human myocardial tissues distinguishes ischemic from non-ischemic end stage heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Matthew A; Hsieh, Michael K H; Njoroge, Linda W; Thompson, J Will; Soderblom, Erik J; Feger, Bryan J; Troupes, Constantine D; Hershberger, Kathleen A; Ilkayeva, Olga R; Nagel, Whitney L; Landinez, Gina P; Shah, Kishan M; Burns, Virginia A; Santacruz, Lucia; Hirschey, Matthew D; Foster, Matthew W; Milano, Carmelo A; Moseley, M Arthur; Piacentino, Valentino; Bowles, Dawn E

    2014-01-01

    The molecular differences between ischemic (IF) and non-ischemic (NIF) heart failure are poorly defined. A better understanding of the molecular differences between these two heart failure etiologies may lead to the development of more effective heart failure therapeutics. In this study extensive proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiles of myocardial tissue from patients diagnosed with IF or NIF were assembled and compared. Proteins extracted from left ventricular sections were proteolyzed and phosphopeptides were enriched using titanium dioxide resin. Gel- and label-free nanoscale capillary liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution accuracy mass tandem mass spectrometry allowed for the quantification of 4,436 peptides (corresponding to 450 proteins) and 823 phosphopeptides (corresponding to 400 proteins) from the unenriched and phospho-enriched fractions, respectively. Protein abundance did not distinguish NIF from IF. In contrast, 37 peptides (corresponding to 26 proteins) exhibited a ≥ 2-fold alteration in phosphorylation state (pfailure etiology examined. Proteins exhibiting phosphorylation alterations were grouped into functional categories: transcriptional activation/RNA processing; cytoskeleton structure/function; molecular chaperones; cell adhesion/signaling; apoptosis; and energetic/metabolism. Phosphoproteomic analysis demonstrated profound post-translational differences in proteins that are involved in multiple cellular processes between different heart failure phenotypes. Understanding the roles these phosphorylation alterations play in the development of NIF and IF has the potential to generate etiology-specific heart failure therapeutics, which could be more effective than current therapeutics in addressing the growing concern of heart failure.

  15. Determination of Urinary Neopterin/Creatinine Ratio to Distinguish Active Tuberculosis from Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Eisenhut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Biomarkers to distinguish latent from active Mycobacterium (M. tuberculosis infection in clinical practice are lacking. The urinary neopterin/creatinine ratio can quantify the systemic interferon-gamma effect in patients with M. tuberculosis infection. Methods. In a prospective observational study, urinary neopterin levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in patients with active tuberculosis, in people with latent M. tuberculosis infection, and in healthy controls and the urinary neopterin/creatinine ratio was calculated. Results. We included a total of 44 patients with M. tuberculosis infection and nine controls. 12 patients had active tuberculosis (8 of them culture-confirmed. The median age was 15 years (range 4.5 to 49. Median urinary neopterin/creatinine ratio in patients with active tuberculosis was 374.1 micromol/mol (129.0 to 1072.3, in patients with latent M. tuberculosis infection it was 142.1 (28.0 to 384.1, and in controls it was 146.0 (40.3 to 200.0, with significantly higher levels in patients with active tuberculosis (p<0.01. The receiver operating characteristics curve had an area under the curve of 0.84 (95% CI 0.70 to 0.97 (p<0.01. Conclusions. Urinary neopterin/creatinine ratios are significantly higher in patients with active tuberculosis compared to patients with latent infection and may be a significant predictor of active tuberculosis in patients with M. tuberculosis infection.

  16. Use of DNA barcoding to distinguish the malaria vector Anopheles neivai in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rubio, Andrés; Suaza-Vasco, Juan; Marcet, Paula L; Ruíz-Molina, Natalia; Cáceres, Lorenzo; Porter, Charles; Uribe, Sandra

    2016-10-17

    A reference 535 bp barcode sequence from a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI), acquired from specimens of An. neivai Howard, Dyar & Knab, 1913 from its type locality in Panama, was used as a tool for distinguishing this species from others in the subgenus Kerteszia. Comparisons with corresponding regions of COI between An. neivai and other species in the subgenus (An. bellator Dyar & Knab 1906, An. homunculus Komp 1937, An cruzii Dyar & Knab, 1908 and An. laneanus Corrêa & Cerqueira, 1944) produced K2P genetic distances of 8.3-12.6%, values well above those associated with intraspecific variation. In contrast, genetic distances among 55 specimens from five municipalities in the Colombian Pacific coastal state of Chocó were all within the range of 0-2.5%, with an optimized barcode threshold of 1.3%, the limit for unambiguous differentiation of An. neivai. Among specimens from the Chocó region, 18 haplotypes were detected, two of which were widely distributed over the municipalities sampled. The barcode sequence permits discrimination of An. neivai from sympatric species and indicates genetic variability within the species; aspects key to malaria surveillance and control as well as defining geographic distribution and dispersion patterns.

  17. Distinguishing noise from chaos: objective versus subjective criteria using horizontal visibility graph.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Gómez Ravetti

    Full Text Available A recently proposed methodology called the Horizontal Visibility Graph (HVG [Luque et al., Phys. Rev. E., 80, 046103 (2009] that constitutes a geometrical simplification of the well known Visibility Graph algorithm [Lacasa et al., Proc. Natl. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 4972 (2008], has been used to study the distinction between deterministic and stochastic components in time series [L. Lacasa and R. Toral, Phys. Rev. E., 82, 036120 (2010]. Specifically, the authors propose that the node degree distribution of these processes follows an exponential functional of the form [Formula: see text], in which [Formula: see text] is the node degree and [Formula: see text] is a positive parameter able to distinguish between deterministic (chaotic and stochastic (uncorrelated and correlated dynamics. In this work, we investigate the characteristics of the node degree distributions constructed by using HVG, for time series corresponding to [Formula: see text] chaotic maps, 2 chaotic flows and [Formula: see text] different stochastic processes. We thoroughly study the methodology proposed by Lacasa and Toral finding several cases for which their hypothesis is not valid. We propose a methodology that uses the HVG together with Information Theory quantifiers. An extensive and careful analysis of the node degree distributions obtained by applying HVG allow us to conclude that the Fisher-Shannon information plane is a remarkable tool able to graphically represent the different nature, deterministic or stochastic, of the systems under study.

  18. Distinguishing between vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease by means of the WAIS: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterman, Joukje M; Scherder, Erik J A

    2006-10-01

    This study was intended to, meta-analytically, review whether the subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale are useful in differentiating between vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. We expected the Alzheimer's disease group to outperform the vascular dementia group on those subtests that require executive functions, whereas inferior performance of the Alzheimer's disease patients was expected on memory tests. Two steps in the analysis were undertaken in an attempt to clarify this issue. The first step consisted of including all studies examining Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale subtest performance in vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease patients. Secondly, a subcortical vascular dementia subgroup was distinguished and performance of this subgroup was compared to that of the Alzheimer's disease group.Overall, the analyses showed that both the vascular dementia and, more strongly, the subcortical vascular dementia group revealed decreased executive functions on several subtests compared to the Alzheimer's disease group. The Alzheimer's disease group showed inferior performance on a single semantic memory test only compared to both the vascular dementia and the subcortical vascular dementia groups. These results indicate that several subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale can differentiate between these two clinical groups, and that most of these tests reveal more impaired performance in the vascular dementia group.

  19. Spin-filtered and spatially distinguishable crossed Andreev reflection in a silicene-superconductor junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kangkang; Zhang, Yan-Yang

    2016-10-01

    We theoretically investigate the quantum transport in a junction between a superconductor and a silicene nanoribbon, under the effect of a magnetic exchange field. We find that for a narrow nanoribbon of silicene, remarkable crossed Andreev reflection (with a fraction >50 % ) can be induced in the energy window of the elastic cotunneling, by destroying some symmetries of the system. Since the energy responses of electrons to the exchange field are opposite for opposite spins, these transport channels can be well spin polarized. Moreover, due to the helicity conservation of the topological edge states, the Andreev reflection, the crossed Andreev reflection, and the elastic cotunneling are spatially separated in three different locations of the device, making them experimentally distinguishable. This crossed Andreev reflection is a nonlocal quantum interference between opposite edges through evanescent modes. If two superconducting leads with different phases are connected to two edges of the silicene nanoribbon, the crossed Andreev reflection can present Josephson type oscillations, with a maximal fraction ˜100 % .

  20. HLA allele distribution distinguishes sporadic inclusion body myositis from hereditary inclusion body myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffman, B M; Sivakumar, K; Simonis, T; Stroncek, D; Dalakas, M C

    1998-04-15

    We studied the HLA class II associations in patients with sporadic inclusion body myositis (s-IBM) and hereditary inclusion body myopathies (h-IBM) and attempted to distinguish these myopathies on the basis of HLA allele assignments. Forty-five patients, 30 with s-IBM and 15 with h-IBM, underwent HLA class II allele-specific typing using polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primers for 71 alleles contained in the DRbeta1, DRbeta3-5, and DQbeta1 loci. In s-IBM, we found a high (up to 77%) frequency of DRbeta1*0301, DRbeta3*0101 (or DRbeta3*0202) and DQbeta1*0201 alleles. No significant association with alleles in the DR and DQ haplotypes was found among the 15 h-IBM patients. The strong association of prominent alleles with s-IBM, but not h-IBM, suggests that s-IBM is a distinct disorder with an immunogenetic background that differs from h-IBM.

  1. Use of DNA barcoding to distinguish the malaria vector Anopheles neivai in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    LÓPEZ-RUBIO, ANDRÉS; SUAZA-VASCO, JUAN; MARCET, PAULA L; RUÍZ-MOLINA, NATALIA; CÁCERES, LORENZO; PORTER, CHARLES; URIBE, SANDRA

    2016-01-01

    A reference 535 bp barcode sequence from a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI), acquired from specimens of An. neivai Howard, Dyar & Knab, 1913 from its type locality in Panama, was used as a tool for distinguishing this species from others in the subgenus Kerteszia. Comparisons with corresponding regions of COI between An. neivai and other species in the subgenus (An. bellator Dyar & Knab 1906, An. homunculus Komp 1937, An cruzii Dyar & Knab, 1908 and An. laneanus Corrêa & Cerqueira, 1944) produced K2P genetic distances of 8.3–12.6%, values well above those associated with intraspecific variation. In contrast, genetic distances among 55 specimens from five municipalities in the Colombian Pacific coastal state of Chocó were all within the range of 0–2.5%, with an optimized barcode threshold of 1.3%, the limit for unambiguous differentiation of An. neivai. Among specimens from the Chocó region, 18 haplotypes were detected, two of which were widely distributed over the municipalities sampled. The barcode sequence permits discrimination of An. neivai from sympatric species and indicates genetic variability within the species; aspects key to malaria surveillance and control as well as defining geographic distribution and dispersion patterns. PMID:27811749

  2. Dog experts' brains distinguish socially relevant body postures similarly in dogs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Miiamaaria V; Kujala, Jan; Carlson, Synnöve; Hari, Riitta

    2012-01-01

    We read conspecifics' social cues effortlessly, but little is known about our abilities to understand social gestures of other species. To investigate the neural underpinnings of such skills, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the brain activity of experts and non-experts of dog behavior while they observed humans or dogs either interacting with, or facing away from a conspecific. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) of both subject groups dissociated humans facing toward each other from humans facing away, and in dog experts, a distinction also occurred for dogs facing toward vs. away in a bilateral area extending from the pSTS to the inferior temporo-occipital cortex: the dissociation of dog behavior was significantly stronger in expert than control group. Furthermore, the control group had stronger pSTS responses to humans than dogs facing toward a conspecific, whereas in dog experts, the responses were of similar magnitude. These findings suggest that dog experts' brains distinguish socially relevant body postures similarly in dogs and humans.

  3. Transcript Profiling Distinguishes Complete Treatment Responders With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fernandez-Retana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer (CC mortality is a major public health concern since it is the second cause of cancer-related deaths among women. Patients diagnosed with locally advanced CC (LACC have an important rate of recurrence and treatment failure. Conventional treatment for LACC is based on chemotherapy and radiotherapy; however, up to 40% of patients will not respond to conventional treatment; hence, we searched for a prognostic gene signature able to discriminate patients who do not respond to the conventional treatment employed to treat LACC. Tumor biopsies were profiled with genome-wide high-density expression microarrays. Class prediction was performed in tumor tissues and the resultant gene signature was validated by quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. A 27-predictive gene profile was identified through its association with pathologic response. The 27-gene profile was validated in an independent set of patients and was able to distinguish between patients diagnosed as no response versus complete response. Gene expression analysis revealed two distinct groups of tumors diagnosed as LACC. Our findings could provide a strategy to select patients who would benefit from neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy-based treatment.

  4. Distinguishing Foeniculum vulgare fruit from two adulterants by combination of microscopy and GC-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Dong; Mao, Wen-Wen; Zhou, Ping; Li, Ping; Li, Hui-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Foeniculum vulgare fruit (FVF) is a widely used traditional medicine. However, two adulterants, namely Anethum graveolens fruit (AGF) and Cuminum cyminum fruit (CCF), have been found in use as FVF in China owing to similar appearance and odor. For the purpose of accurate differentiation of the three herbal medicines, extensive anatomical examination and chemical profiling were conducted. Using light microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, the macroscopic and microscopic features of the three species were compared. It was found that some microscopic characteristics, including transverse shape of mericarp, presence or absence of reticulate cells and non-glandular hairs, as well as fluorescence of endocarp, were of diagnostic significance. Moreover, essential oils were qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed using GC-MS. The analytical results indicated significant chemical variations in different species: in FVF, trans-anethole (83.20%) was the predominant volatile compound followed by estragole (5.03%) and limonene (3.45%), while in AGF, the first, second and third compounds with highest content were carvone (42.58%), apiol (20.76%) and limonene (20.32%), and in CCF were cuminlaldehyde (36.00%), 2-caren-10-al (23.25%) and γ-terpinene (9.65%), respectively. In conclusion, the proposed light microscopy coupled with fluorescence microscopy and/or GC-MS analysis allowed successful distinguishing FVF from AGF and CCF.

  5. Utilization of circular dichroism experiment to distinguish acanthoside D and eleutheroside E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Yun-Seo; Park, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Youngmee; Nam, Sang-Jip; Kim, Sung-Jin; Kim, Yeong Shik; Seo, Eun Kyoung

    2015-11-01

    Two lignan glycosides, acanthoside D (1) (=liriodendrin, (+)-syringaresinol di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) and eleutheroside E (2) have been confused each other for so long time, and hard to be distinguished each other. Now, this two compounds need to be defined properly so that all the commercial mistakes and confusions should not be made. They have identical planar structures except for the configurations at C-7 and C-8 in each structure according to the chemistry database, SciFinder(®). The systematic name of acanthoside D is [(1S,3aR,4S,6aR)-tetrahydro-1H,3H-furo[3,4-c]furan-1,4-diyl]bis(2,6-dimethoxy-4,1-phenylene) bis-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), and the name of eleutheroside E is [(1R,3aR,4S,6aS)-tetrahydro-1H,3H-furo[3,4-c]furan-1,4-diyl]bis(2,6-dimethoxy-4,1-phenylene) bis-β-D-glucopyranoside (2). The differences at two chiral centers do not make any differences in the NMR spectra. Thus, the circular dichroism were utilized to dissolve this difficult problem. Acanthoside D (1) showed a positive Cotton effect at 200 nm, whereas eleutheroside E (2) exhibited a negative cotton effect at 200 nm. The absolute structure of acanthoside D was also confirmed by X-ray crystallography.

  6. Zebra finches can use positional and transitional cues to distinguish vocal element strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiani; Ten Cate, Carel

    2015-08-01

    Learning sequences is of great importance to humans and non-human animals. Many motor and mental actions, such as singing in birds and speech processing in humans, rely on sequential learning. At least two mechanisms are considered to be involved in such learning. The chaining theory proposes that learning of sequences relies on memorizing the transitions between adjacent items, while the positional theory suggests that learners encode the items according to their ordinal position in the sequence. Positional learning is assumed to dominate sequential learning. However, human infants exposed to a string of speech sounds can learn transitional (chaining) cues. So far, it is not clear whether birds, an increasingly important model for examining vocal processing, can do this. In this study we use a Go-Nogo design to examine whether zebra finches can use transitional cues to distinguish artificially constructed strings of song elements. Zebra finches were trained with sequences differing in transitional and positional information and next tested with novel strings sharing positional and transitional similarities with the training strings. The results show that they can attend to both transitional and positional cues and that their sequential coding strategies can be biased toward transitional cues depending on the learning context. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan.

  7. How to Distinguish between Cloudy Mini-Neptunes and Water/Volatile-Dominated Super-Earths

    CERN Document Server

    Benneke, Björn

    2013-01-01

    One of the most profound questions about the newly discovered class of low-density super-Earths is whether these exoplanets are predominately H2-dominated mini-Neptunes or volatile-rich worlds with gas envelopes dominated by H2O, CO2, CO, CH4, or N2. Transit observations of the super-Earth GJ 1214b rule out a cloud-free H2-dominated atmosphere, but are not able to determine whether the lack of deep spectral features is due to high-altitude clouds or the presence of a high mean molecular mass atmosphere. Here, we demonstrate that one can unambiguously distinguish between cloudy mini-Neptunes and volatile-dominated worlds based on the differences in the wing steepness and relative depths of water absorption features in moderate-resolution NIR transmission spectra (R~100). In a numerical retrieval study, we show for GJ 1214b that an unambiguous distinction between a cloudy H2-dominated atmosphere and cloud-free H2 atmosphere will be possible if the uncertainties in the spectral transit depth measurements can be ...

  8. Indication to distinguish the burst region of coal gas from seismic data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jian-yuan; TANG Hong-wei; XU Lin; LI Yan-fang

    2009-01-01

    The velocity of an over-burst coal seam is about 1/3 compared to a normal coal seam based on laboratory test results. This can be considered as a basis to confirm the area of coal and gas burst by seismic exploration technique. Similarly, the simulation result of the theoretical seismic model shows that there is obvious distinction between over-burst coal and normal coal based on the coal reflection's travel-time, energy and frequency. The results from the actual seismic data acquired in the coal and gas over-burst cases is con-sistent with that of the laboratory and seismic modeling; that is, in the coal and gas burst region, seismic reflection travel time is delayed, seismic amplitude is weakened and seis-mic frequency is reduced. Therefore, it can be concluded that seismic exploration tech-nique is promising for use in distinguishing coal and gas over-burst regions based on the variation of seismic reflection travel time, amplitude and frequency.

  9. Rules for distinguishing toxicants that cause type I and type II narcosis syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veith, G.D.; Broderius, S.J. (Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth, MN (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Narcosis is a nonspecific reversible state of arrested activity of protoplasmic structures caused by a wide variety of organic chemicals. The vast majority of industrial organic chemicals can be characterized by a baseline structure-toxicity relationship as developed for diverse aquatic organisms, using only the n-octanol/water partition coefficient as a descriptor. There are, however, many apparent narcotic chemicals that are more toxic than baseline narcosis predicts. Some of these chemicals have been distinguished as polar narcotics. Joint toxic theory and isobole diagrams were used to show that chemicals strictly additive with phenol were generally more toxic than predicted by narcosis I models and characterized by a different mode of action called narcosis II syndrome. This type of toxicity is exemplified by certain amides, amines, phenols, and nitrogen heterocycles. Evidence is provided that suggests that narcosis II syndrome may result from the presence of a strong hydrogen bonding group on the molecule, and narcosis I syndrome results from hydrophobic bonding of the chemical to enzymes and/or membranes. This shift in toxic action is apparently indistinguishable for narcotic chemicals with log P greater than about 2.7. General rules for selecting the appropriate models are proposed.

  10. Parameter-free methods distinguish Wnt pathway models and guide design of experiments

    KAUST Repository

    MacLean, Adam L.

    2015-02-17

    The canonical Wnt signaling pathway, mediated by β-catenin, is crucially involved in development, adult stem cell tissue maintenance, and a host of diseases including cancer. We analyze existing mathematical models of Wnt and compare them to a new Wnt signaling model that targets spatial localization; our aim is to distinguish between the models and distill biological insight from them. Using Bayesian methods we infer parameters for each model from mammalian Wnt signaling data and find that all models can fit this time course. We appeal to algebraic methods (concepts from chemical reaction network theory and matroid theory) to analyze the models without recourse to specific parameter values. These approaches provide insight into aspects of Wnt regulation: the new model, via control of shuttling and degradation parameters, permits multiple stable steady states corresponding to stem-like vs. committed cell states in the differentiation hierarchy. Our analysis also identifies groups of variables that should be measured to fully characterize and discriminate between competing models, and thus serves as a guide for performing minimal experiments for model comparison.

  11. Mitochondrial DNA in CSF distinguishes LRRK2 from idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesniy, Petar; Vilas, Dolores; Taylor, Peggy; Shaw, Leslie M; Tolosa, Eduard; Trullas, Ramon

    2016-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA regulates mitochondrial function which is altered in both idiopathic and familial forms of Parkinson's disease. To investigate whether these two disease forms exhibit an altered regulation of mitochondrial DNA we measured cell free mitochondrial DNA content in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from idiopathic and LRRK2-related Parkinson's disease patients. The concentration of mitochondrial DNA was measured using a digital droplet polymerase chain reaction technique in a total of 98 CSF samples from a cohort of subjects including: 20 LRRK2(G2019S) mutation carriers with Parkinson's disease, 26 asymptomatic LRRK2(G2019S) mutation carriers, 31 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 21 first-degree relatives of LRRK2 Parkinson's disease patients without the mutation. Here we report that LRRK2(G2019S) mutation carriers with Parkinson's disease exhibit a high concentration of mitochondrial DNA in CSF compared with asymptomatic LRRK2(G2019S) mutation carriers and with idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients. In addition, idiopathic, but not LRRK2 Parkinson's disease is associated with low CSF concentration of α-synuclein. These results show that high mitochondrial DNA content in CSF distinguishes idiopathic from LRRK2-related Parkinson's disease suggesting that different biochemical pathways underlie neurodegeneration in these two disorders.

  12. Spectroscopic (multi-energy) CT distinguishes iodine and barium contrast material in MICE

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, NG; Firsching, M; de Ruiter, N; Schleich, N; Butzer, J S; Cook, N J; Grasset, R; Campbell, M; Scott, N J A; Anderson, N G

    2010-01-01

    Spectral CT differs from dual-energy CT by using a conventional X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. We wished to produce 3D spectroscopic images of mice that distinguished calcium, iodine and barium. We developed a desktop spectral CT, dubbed MARS, based around the Medipix2 photon-counting energy-discriminating detector. The single conventional X-ray tube operated at constant voltage (75 kVp) and constant current (150 A mu A). We anaesthetised with ketamine six black mice (C57BL/6). We introduced iodinated contrast material and barium sulphate into the vascular system, alimentary tract and respiratory tract as we euthanised them. The mice were preserved in resin and imaged at four detector energy levels from 12 keV to 42 keV to include the K-edges of iodine (33.0 keV) and barium (37.4 keV). Principal component analysis was applied to reconstructed images to identify components with independent energy response, then displayed in 2D and 3D. Iodinated and barium contrast material was spectrally distinct f...

  13. Diagnostic criteria for distinguishing endometrial adenocarcinoma from complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Khush; Salem, Amira; Lo, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Morphologic criteria for distinguishing endometrial adenocarcinoma from complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia have been described previously, but they have not been examined extensively for their individual ability for predicting endometrial adenocarcinoma as determined by subsequent hysterectomy. We examined endometrial biopsies diagnosed in the spectrum of complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia to well-differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma for various morphologic features that may be predictive for the presence of myoinvasive endometrial adenocarcinoma in subsequent hysterectomy. Cases diagnosed as FIGO grade I endometrial adenocarcinoma or complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia in endometrial biopsies seen at New York University Medical Center from 2003 to 2006 were analyzed for the presence of various morphologic features without the knowledge of hysterectomy findings. Only those cases with subsequent hysterectomy were included in the study. The data were analyzed to identify features with high specificity for a finding of myoinvasive endometrial adenocarcinoma in subsequent hysterectomy. Extreme glandular crowding (95% or greater area with glands, aggregate size 3 mm or greater) and cribriform foci of any size were found to have high sensitivity and specificity for the finding of myoinvasive carcinoma in subsequent hysterectomy (P < .0001).

  14. Genetic Abnormalities in Biliary Brush Samples for Distinguishing Cholangiocarcinoma from Benign Strictures in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, Margriet R.; Lau, Chiu T.; Meijer, Sybren L.; Fockens, Paul; Rauws, Erik A. J.; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Calpe, Silvia; Krishnadath, Kausilia K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease and is strongly associated with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The lack of efficient diagnostic methods for CCA is a major problem. Testing for genetic abnormalities may increase the diagnostic value of cytology. Methods. We assessed genetic abnormalities for CDKN2A, TP53, ERBB2, 20q, MYC, and chromosomes 7 and 17 and measures of genetic clonal diversity in brush samples from 29 PSC patients with benign biliary strictures and 12 patients with sporadic CCA or PSC-associated CCA. Diagnostic performance of cytology alone and in combination with genetic markers was evaluated by sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve analysis. Results. The presence of MYC gain and CDKN2A loss as well as a higher clonal diversity was significantly associated with malignancy. MYC gain increased the sensitivity of cytology from 50% to 83%. However, the specificity decreased from 97% to 76%. The diagnostic accuracy of the best performing measures of clonal diversity was similar to the combination of cytology and MYC. Adding CDKN2A loss to the panel had no additional benefit. Conclusion. Evaluation of MYC abnormalities and measures of clonal diversity in brush cytology specimens may be of clinical value in distinguishing CCA from benign biliary strictures in PSC. PMID:27127503

  15. Genetic Abnormalities in Biliary Brush Samples for Distinguishing Cholangiocarcinoma from Benign Strictures in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margriet R. Timmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC is a chronic inflammatory liver disease and is strongly associated with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA. The lack of efficient diagnostic methods for CCA is a major problem. Testing for genetic abnormalities may increase the diagnostic value of cytology. Methods. We assessed genetic abnormalities for CDKN2A, TP53, ERBB2, 20q, MYC, and chromosomes 7 and 17 and measures of genetic clonal diversity in brush samples from 29 PSC patients with benign biliary strictures and 12 patients with sporadic CCA or PSC-associated CCA. Diagnostic performance of cytology alone and in combination with genetic markers was evaluated by sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve analysis. Results. The presence of MYC gain and CDKN2A loss as well as a higher clonal diversity was significantly associated with malignancy. MYC gain increased the sensitivity of cytology from 50% to 83%. However, the specificity decreased from 97% to 76%. The diagnostic accuracy of the best performing measures of clonal diversity was similar to the combination of cytology and MYC. Adding CDKN2A loss to the panel had no additional benefit. Conclusion. Evaluation of MYC abnormalities and measures of clonal diversity in brush cytology specimens may be of clinical value in distinguishing CCA from benign biliary strictures in PSC.

  16. Major Chromosomal Rearrangements Distinguish Willow and Poplar After the Ancestral "Salicoid" Genome Duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jing; Ye, Ning; Dong, Zhongyuan; Lu, Mengzhu; Li, Laigeng; Yin, Tongming

    2016-06-27

    Populus (poplar) and Salix (willow) are sister genera in the Salicaceae family. In both lineages extant species are predominantly diploid. Genome analysis previously revealed that the two lineages originated from a common tetraploid ancestor. In this study, we conducted a syntenic comparison of the corresponding 19 chromosome members of the poplar and willow genomes. Our observations revealed that almost every chromosomal segment had a parallel paralogous segment elsewhere in the genomes, and the two lineages shared a similar syntenic pinwheel pattern for most of the chromosomes, which indicated that the two lineages diverged after the genome reorganization in the common progenitor. The pinwheel patterns showed distinct differences for two chromosome pairs in each lineage. Further analysis detected two major interchromosomal rearrangements that distinguished the karyotypes of willow and poplar. Chromosome I of willow was a conjunction of poplar chromosome XVI and the lower portion of poplar chromosome I, whereas willow chromosome XVI corresponded to the upper portion of poplar chromosome I. Scientists have suggested that Populus is evolutionarily more primitive than Salix. Therefore, we propose that, after the "salicoid" duplication event, fission and fusion of the ancestral chromosomes first give rise to the diploid progenitor of extant Populus species. During the evolutionary process, fission and fusion of poplar chromosomes I and XVI subsequently give rise to the progenitor of extant Salix species. This study contributes to an improved understanding of genome divergence after ancient genome duplication in closely related lineages of higher plants.

  17. Plasma microRNA profiles distinguish lethal injury in acetaminophen toxicity: A research study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeanine Ward; Shashi Bala; Jan Petrasek; Gyongyi Szabo

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate plasma microRNA (miRNA) profiles indicative of hepatotoxicity in the setting of lethal acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in mice.METHODS:Using plasma from APAP poisoned mice,either lethally (500 mg/kg) or sublethally (150 mg/kg) dosed,we screened commercially available murine microRNA libraries (SABiosciences,Qiagen Sciences,MD) to evaluate for unique miRNA profiles between these two dosing parameters.RESULTS:We distinguished numerous,unique plasma miRNAs both up- and downregulated in lethally compared to sublethally dosed mice.Of note,many of the greatest up- and downregulated miRNAs,namely 574-5p,466g,466f-3p,375,29c,and 148a,have been shown to be associated with asthma in prior studies.Interestingly,a relationship between APAP and asthma has been previously well described in the literature,with an as yet unknown mechanism of pathology.There was a statistically significant increase in alanine aminotransferase levels in the lethal compared to sublethal APAP dosing groups at the 12 h time point (P <0.001).There was 90% mortality in the lethally compared to sublethally dosed mice at the 48 h time point (P =0.011).CONCLUSION:We identified unique plasma miRNAs both up- and downregulated in APAP poisoning which are correlated to asthma development.

  18. Distinguishing the influence of task difficulty on error-related ERPs using surface Laplacian transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Borght, Liesbet; Houtman, Femke; Burle, Boris; Notebaert, Wim

    2016-03-01

    Electrophysiologically, errors are characterized by a negative deflection, the error related negativity (ERN), which is followed by the error positivity (Pe). However, it has been suggested that this latter component consists of two subcomponents, with an early frontocentral Pe reflecting a continuation of the ERN, and a centro-parietal Pe reflecting error awareness. Using Laplacian transformed averages, a correct-related negativity (CRN; similar to the ERN), can be found on correct trials. As this technique allows for the decomposition of the recorded scalp potentials resulting in a better dissociation of the underlying brain activities, Laplacian transformation was used in the present study to differentiate between both the ERN/CRN and both Pe components. Additionally, task difficulty was manipulated. Our results show a clearly distinguishable early and late Pe. Both the ERN/CRN and the early Pe varied with task difficulty, showing decreased ERN/early Pe in the difficult condition. However, the late Pe was not influenced by our difficulty manipulation. This suggests that the early and the late Pe reflect qualitatively different processes.

  19. From face to interface recognition: a differential geometric approach to distinguish DNA from RNA binding surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shazman, Shula; Elber, Gershon; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2011-09-01

    Protein nucleic acid interactions play a critical role in all steps of the gene expression pathway. Nucleic acid (NA) binding proteins interact with their partners, DNA or RNA, via distinct regions on their surface that are characterized by an ensemble of chemical, physical and geometrical properties. In this study, we introduce a novel methodology based on differential geometry, commonly used in face recognition, to characterize and predict NA binding surfaces on proteins. Applying the method on experimentally solved three-dimensional structures of proteins we successfully classify double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) from single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) binding proteins, with 83% accuracy. We show that the method is insensitive to conformational changes that occur upon binding and can be applicable for de novo protein-function prediction. Remarkably, when concentrating on the zinc finger motif, we distinguish successfully between RNA and DNA binding interfaces possessing the same binding motif even within the same protein, as demonstrated for the RNA polymerase transcription-factor, TFIIIA. In conclusion, we present a novel methodology to characterize protein surfaces, which can accurately tell apart dsDNA from an ssRNA binding interfaces. The strength of our method in recognizing fine-tuned differences on NA binding interfaces make it applicable for many other molecular recognition problems, with potential implications for drug design.

  20. The role of intratumoral lymphovascular density in distinguishing primary from secondary mucinous ovarian tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacerda Almeida, Bernardo Gomes; Bacchi, Carlos E; Carvalho, Jesus P; Ferreira, Cristiane R; Carvalho, Filomena M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ovarian mucinous metastases commonly present as the first sign of the disease and are capable of simulating primary tumors. Our aim was to investigate the role of intratumoral lymphatic vascular density together with other surgical-pathological features in distinguishing primary from secondary mucinous ovarian tumors. METHODS: A total of 124 cases of mucinous tumors in the ovary (63 primary and 61 metastatic) were compared according to their clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical profiles. The intratumoral lymphatic vascular density was quantified by counting the number of vessels stained by the D2-40 antibody. RESULTS: Metastases occurred in older patients and were associated with a higher proportion of tumors smaller than 10.0 cm; bilaterality; extensive necrosis; extraovarian extension; increased expression of cytokeratin 20, CDX2, CA19.9 and MUC2; and decreased expression of cytokeratin 7, CA125 and MUC5AC. The lymphatic vascular density was increased among primary tumors. However, after multivariate analysis, the best predictors of a secondary tumor were a size of 10.0 cm or less, bilaterality and cytokeratin 7 negativity. Lack of MUC2 expression was an important factor excluding metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: The higher intratumoral lymphatic vascular density in primary tumors when compared with secondary lesions suggests differences in the microenvironment. However, considering the differential diagnosis, the best discriminator of a secondary tumor is the combination of tumor size, laterality and the pattern of expression of cytokeratin 7 and MUC2. PMID:25518016

  1. Distinguishing induced seismicity from natural seismicity in Ohio: Demonstrating the utility of waveform template matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoumal, Robert J.; Brudzinski, Michael R.; Currie, Brian S.

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the utility of multistation waveform cross correlation to help discern induced seismicity. Template matching was applied to all Ohio earthquakes cataloged since the arrival of nearby EarthScope TA stations in late 2010. Earthquakes that were within 5 km of fluid injection activities in regions that lacked previously documented seismicity were found to be swarmy. Moreover, the larger number of events produced by template matching for these swarmy sequences made it easier to establish more detailed temporal and spatial relationships between the seismicity and fluid injection activities, which is typically required for an earthquake to be considered induced. Study results detected three previously documented induced sequences (Youngstown, Poland Township, and Harrison County) and provided evidence that suggests two additional cases of induced seismicity (Belmont/Guernsey County and Washington County). Evidence for these cases suggested that unusual swarm-like behaviors in regions that lack previously documented seismicity can be used to help distinguish induced seismicity, complementing the traditional identification of an anthropogenic source spatially and temporally correlated with the seismicity. In support of this finding, we identified 17 additional cataloged earthquakes in regions of previously documented seismicity and away from disposal wells or hydraulic fracturing that returned very few template matches. The lack of swarminess helps to indicate that these events are most likely naturally occurring.

  2. Distinguishing between limited systemic scleroderma-associated pseudo-obstruction and peritoneal dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigusa, Susumu; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Ohi, Masaki; Imaoka, Hiroki; Uratani, Ryo; Kobayashi, Minako; Kusunoki, Masato

    2015-12-01

    A 78-year-old woman receiving treatment for limited systemic scleroderma (SSc) underwent high anterior resection and partial liver resections for rectosigmoid colon cancer with multiple liver metastases. A year after surgery, an abdominal computed tomography (CT) demonstrated suspicion for peritoneal dissemination with an increase in ascites, and (18)F-fluorodeoxy glucose-positron emission tomography-CT was suggestive of carcinomatosis. We began to decompress the small intestine and administer octreotide. However, the intestinal obstruction did not improve. Although intestinal pseudo-obstruction caused by limited SSc was considered as a differential diagnosis, we performed an exploratory laparotomy because the possibility of peritoneal dissemination-associated obstruction could not be excluded. We observed a moderate amount of serous ascites and dilatation of the small intestine that was white in color, hard, and with limited contractility. There was no evidence of peritoneal dissemination nor of mechanical obstruction. Our experience thus shows the difficulty of distinguishing SSc-associated intestinal pseudo-obstruction from peritoneal dissemination.

  3. Contrasting patterns of X/Y polymorphism distinguish Carica papaya from other sex chromosome systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, Laura A; Moore, Richard C

    2012-12-01

    The sex chromosomes of the tropical crop papaya (Carica papaya) are evolutionarily young and consequently allow for the examination of evolutionary mechanisms that drive early sex chromosome divergence. We conducted a molecular population genetic analysis of four X/Y gene pairs from a collection of 45 wild papaya accessions. These population genetic analyses reveal striking differences in the patterns of polymorphism between the X and Y chromosomes that distinguish them from other sex chromosome systems. In most sex chromosome systems, the Y chromosome displays significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the X chromosome maintains a level of polymorphism that is comparable to autosomal loci. However, the four papaya sex-linked loci that we examined display diversity patterns that are opposite this trend: the papaya X alleles exhibit significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the papaya Y alleles maintain greater than expected levels of diversity. Our analyses suggest that selective sweeps in the regions of the X have contributed to this pattern while also revealing geographically restricted haplogroups on the Y. We discuss the possible role sexual selection and/or genomic conflict have played in shaping the contrasting patterns of polymorphism found for the papaya X and Y chromosomes.

  4. Vortex Imprints at the Wall, But Not in the Bulk, Distinguish Ruptured from Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varble, Nicole; Meng, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Intracranial aneurysms affect 3% of the population. Risk stratification of aneurysms is important, as rupture often leads to death or permanent disability. Image-based CFD analyses of patient-specific aneurysms have identified low and oscillatory wall shear stress to predict rupture. These stresses are sensed biologically at the luminal wall, but the flow dynamics related to aneurysm rupture requires further understanding. We have conducted two studies: one examines vortex dynamics, and the other, high frequency flow fluctuations in patient-specific aneurysms. In the first study, based on Q-criterion vortex identification, we developed two measures to quantify regions within the aneurysm where rotational flow is dominate: the ratio of volume or surface area where Q >0 vs. the total aneurysmal volume or surface area, respectively termed volume vortex fraction (VVF) and surface vortex fraction (SVF). Statistical analysis of 204 aneurysms shows that SVF, but not VVF, distinguishes ruptured from unruptured aneurysms, suggesting that once again, the local flow patterns on the wall is directly relevant to rupture. In the second study, high-resolution CFD (high spatial and temporal resolutions and second-order discretization schemes) on 56 middle cerebral artery aneurysms shows the presence of temporal fluctuations in 8 aneurysms, but such flow instability bears no correlation with rupture. Support for this work was partially provided by NIH grant (R01 NS091075-01) and a grant from Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.

  5. Transcript Profiling Distinguishes Complete Treatment Responders With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Retana, Jorge; Lasa-Gonsebatt, Federico; Lopez-Urrutia, Eduardo; Coronel-Martínez, Jaime; Cantu De Leon, David; Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia; Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Perez-Montiel, Delia; Reynoso-Noveron, Nancy; Vazquez-Romo, Rafael; Perez-Plasencia, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) mortality is a major public health concern since it is the second cause of cancer-related deaths among women. Patients diagnosed with locally advanced CC (LACC) have an important rate of recurrence and treatment failure. Conventional treatment for LACC is based on chemotherapy and radiotherapy; however, up to 40% of patients will not respond to conventional treatment; hence, we searched for a prognostic gene signature able to discriminate patients who do not respond to the conventional treatment employed to treat LACC. Tumor biopsies were profiled with genome-wide high-density expression microarrays. Class prediction was performed in tumor tissues and the resultant gene signature was validated by quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. A 27-predictive gene profile was identified through its association with pathologic response. The 27-gene profile was validated in an independent set of patients and was able to distinguish between patients diagnosed as no response versus complete response. Gene expression analysis revealed two distinct groups of tumors diagnosed as LACC. Our findings could provide a strategy to select patients who would benefit from neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy-based treatment. PMID:25926073

  6. Complex suppression patterns distinguish between major energy loss effects in Quark–Gluon Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Djordjevic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of high momentum partons with Quark–Gluon Plasma created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions provide an excellent tomography tool for this new form of matter. Recent measurements for charged hadrons and unidentified jets at the LHC show an unexpected flattening of the suppression curves at high momentum, exhibited when either momentum or the collision centrality is changed. Furthermore, a limited data available for B probes indicate a qualitatively different pattern, as nearly the same flattening is exhibited for the curves corresponding to two opposite momentum ranges. We here show that the experimentally measured suppression curves are well reproduced by our theoretical predictions, and that the complex suppression patterns are due to an interplay of collisional, radiative energy loss and the dead-cone effect. Furthermore, for B mesons, we predict that the uniform flattening of the suppression indicated by the limited dataset is in fact valid across the entire span of the momentum ranges, which will be tested by the upcoming experiments. Overall, the study presented here, provides a rare opportunity for pQCD theory to qualitatively distinguish between the major energy loss mechanisms at the same (nonintuitive dataset.

  7. Serum Creatinine Level: A Supplemental Index to Distinguish Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy from Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To improve assessment of dystrophinopathy, the aim of this study was to identify whether serum creatinine (Crn level reflects disease severity. Methods. Biochemical, Vignos score, and genetic data were collected on 212 boys with dystrophinopathy. Results. Serum Crn level had a strong inverse correlation with Vignos score by simple correlation (r=-0.793 and partial correlation analysis after adjustment for age, height, and weight (r=-0.791; both P<0.01. Serum Crn level was significantly higher in patients with in-frame than out-of-frame mutations (Z=-4.716, P<0.01 and in Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD patients than Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD patients at ages 4, 5, 7, and 9 yr (all P<0.0125. After adjusting for age, height, and weight, BMD patients still had a significantly higher serum Crn level than DMD patients (β=7.140, t=6.277, P<0.01. Conclusions. Serum Crn level reflected disease severity and may serve as a supplemental index to distinguish DMD from BMD in clinical practice.

  8. A suggested experiment to distinguish between the Bohmian Interpretation and the Standard Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Ke-Xia

    2010-01-01

    Based on the double-slit experiment of electrons, we suggest a proposal of thought experiment to distinguish between the Bohmian Interpretation (BI) and the Standard Quantum Mechanics (SQM). We mainly focus on the discussion of the meaning of the wave function (Schr\\"{o}dinger-$\\psi$). The key technique is require to insert some slow-electrons or weak electron current into the space between the double-slit and the detector plane. We find that the two theories finally give out two totally different results about the affections which the externally inserted electrons cause to the original pattern of the interference fringes. Under the BI, the externally inserted electrons also can be influenced by the Quantum Potential (QP) in a totally same way with the electrons which come from the slits, so the positions they arrived at are preferred to certain bright zones, and the interference pattern will become more clearer. While under the SQM, the Schr\\"{o}dinger-$\\psi$ does not represent an objectively real field, but...

  9. Distinguishing a Hypothetical Abiotic Planet-Moon System from a Single Inhabited Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Tian, Feng; Wang, Yuwei; Wei, Wanjing; Huang, Xiaomeng

    2016-02-01

    It has recently been suggested that an exomoon with a CH4 atmosphere, orbiting an abiotic Earth-mass planet with an O2-rich atmosphere, can produce a false positive biosignature at a low-moderate spectral resolution (R = λ/Δλ ≤ 2000). If this were true, inferring the presence of life on exoplanets will be beyond our reach in the next several decades. Here we use a line-by-line radiative transfer model to compute the relevant reflection spectrum between 1 and 3.3 μm. We show that it is possible to separate the combined spectra of such planet-moon systems from an inhabited planet by multiple-band NIR observations. We suggest that future observations near the 2.3 μm CH4 absorption band at a resolution of 100 and an SNR of 10 or more may be a good way to distinguish an abiotic planet-moon system from a inhabited single planet.

  10. Design of RNA enzymes distinguishing a single base mutation in RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, M; Hayase, Y; Iwai, S; Kamiya, H; Inoue, H; Ohtsuka, E

    1989-09-12

    RNA enzymes (ribozymes) which can cleave RNA by recognizing sequences of 9-15 bases are described. Substrates must contain UX (X = U, C or A). A ribozyme consisting of two oligoribonucleotides (19 mer and 15 mer) was shown to cleave a ribo 11 mer catalytically with Km and kcat values of 0.53 microM and 0.03 min-1, respectively. A non-cleavable substrate-ribozyme complex containing 2'-O-methylnucleoside was prepared and CD spectra were compared at different temperature. In order to obtain an efficient ribozyme, a one-strand RNA with a chain length of 37 was prepared. The ribozyme was shown to distinguish a single base mutation in mRNA's which were prepared by transcription of two synthetic DNA duplexes coding for positions 7-26 of c-Ha-ras protein. The mutant (Val-12) mRNA which had GUU was cleaved but the wild type mRNA which contained GGU was not changed, when treated by the ribozymes in the presence of Mg2+.

  11. Distinguishing between attention-deficit hyperactivity and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in children: clinical guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Peadon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Peadon, Elizabeth J ElliottDiscipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, AustraliaAbstract: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are the physical and neurodevelopmental outcomes of fetal alcohol exposure. The behavioral phenotype of children with FASD includes difficulties with executive function, memory, planning, processing speed, and attention. Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is diagnosed in up to 94% of individuals with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, the exact relationship between FASD and ADHD is unclear. There is some evidence that ADHD in FASD may be a specific clinical subtype and thus may require a different treatment approach. Although traditional behavioral observation scales may not distinguish between the two groups, there is evidence that children with FASD have a different profile on the four-factor model of attention than children with ADHD who do not have FASD. There is a paucity of good scientific evidence on effective interventions for individuals with ADHD and FASD. There is weak evidence that children with FASD and ADHD may have a better response to dexamphetamine than methylphenidate. There is a strong need for larger, high quality studies to examine the relationship between ADHD and FASD and identify effective treatments because management of inattention and hyperactivity may improve learning and ameliorate the common secondary disabilities associated with FASD.Keywords: fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

  12. Distinguishing between HII regions and planetary nebulae with Hi-GAL, WISE, MIPSGAL, and GLIMPSE

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Loren D; Barlow, M J; Garcia-Lario, P; Noriega-Crespo, A

    2011-01-01

    HII regions and planetary nebulae (PNe) both emit at radio and infrared (IR) wavelengths, and angularly small HII regions can be mistaken for PNe. This problem of classification is most severe for HII regions in an early evolutionary stage, those that are extremely distant, or those that are both young and distant. Using data from the Herschel Hi-GAL survey, as well as WISE and the Spitzer MIPSGAL and GLIMPSE surveys, we wish to establish characteristic IR colors that can be used to distinguish between HII regions and PNe. We perform aperture photometry measurements for a sample of 126 HII regions and 43 PNe at wavelengths from 8.0 micron to 500 micron. We find that HII regions and PNe have distinct IR colors. The most robust discriminating color criteria are [F12/F8] 1.3, and [F160/F24] > 0.8 (or alternately [F160/F22] > 0.8), where the brackets indicate the log of the flux ratio. All three of these criteria are individually satisfied by over 98% of our sample of HII regions and by about 10% of our sample o...

  13. Isozyme and allozyme markers distinguishing two morphologically similar, medically important Mastomys species (Rodentia: Muridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van der Bank Herman FH

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two common southern African mice species, Mastomys coucha and M. natalensis, are widely distributed throughout the subregion and overlap in many areas. They also share a high degree of morphological similarity, making them impossible to distinguish in the field at present. These multimammate mice are documented carriers of serious disease vectors causing Lassa fever, plague and encephalomyocarditis, which coupled to their cohabitation with humans in many areas, could pose a significant health risk. A preliminary study reported the presence of isozyme markers at three loci (GPI-2, PT-2, -3 in one population each of M. coucha and M. natalensis. Two additional populations (from the Vaal Dam and Richards Bay were sampled to determine the reliability of these markers, and to seek additional genetic markers. Results Fifteen proteins or enzymes provided interpretable results at a total of 39 loci. Additional fixed allele differences between the species were detected at AAT-1, ADH, EST-1, PGD-1, Hb-1 and -2. Average heterozygosities for M. coucha and M. natalensis were calculated as 0.018 and 0.032 respectively, with a mean genetic distance between the species of 0.26. Conclusions The confirmation of the isozyme and the detection of the additional allozyme markers are important contributions to the identification of these two medical and agricultural pest species.

  14. Can Big Five Facets Distinguish between Hedonic and Eudaimonic Well-Being? A Dominance Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Rosario J; Rey, Mar; Hernández-Cabrera, Juan Andrés

    2016-11-22

    In this study, the aim was to analyze the relative importance of Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality facets for eudaimonic or psychological well-being (PWB) and hedonic or subjective well-being (SWB) through dominance analyses. The participants were 1,403 adult residents of Spain (mean age 37.2 years, SD = 13.9). As expected, facets captured a substantial proportion of the variance in PWB and SWB, with PWB being better predicted than SWB (explaining around 36-55% of the variance of PWB vs. 25% of the variance of SWB). Some facets were common to both types of well-being such as depression (explaining between 5-33% of the variance), vulnerability (explaining between 4-21% of the variance), positive emotions (explaining between 2-9% of the variance) and achievement striving (explaining between 2-10% of the variance), whereas others made a unique contribution according to type of well-being. Certain facets had a greater relative importance for women's well-being -e.g., positive emotions explained 9% of the variance of self-acceptance for women vs. 3% for men- and others for men's well-being -e.g., achievement striving explained 9% of the variance of personal growth for men vs. 2% for women-. The present results contribute to the literature by identifying which Big Five facets showed greater relative importance in explaining and distinguishing between PWB and SWB for women and men.

  15. Children with postsurgical capillary leak syndrome can be distinguished by antigen expression on neutrophils and monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnok, Attila; Pipek, Michal; Valet, Guenter; Richter, Jacqueline; Hambsch, Joerg; Schneider, Peter

    1999-04-01

    Our initial studies indicate that children who develop post- operative capillary leak syndrome (CLS) following cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can be distinguished based on their pre-operative level of circulating cytokines an adhesion molecules. We tested flow cytometric analysis of surface antigen expression as a potential assay for risk assessment of CLS. 24th preoperative blood samples were stained with monoclonal antibodies for the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, LFA1, MAC1, (beta) -integrin, activation markers CD25, CD54, CD69, HLA- DR, CD14 or CD4. Cells were measured on a dual-laser flow cytometer calibrated with microbeads. Antigen expression was detected as mean fluorescence intensity. The data indicate, that neutrophils of CLS patients express preoperatively higher levels of LFA1 and monocytes higher levels of HLA-DR and activation markers thus are in a state of activation. This could in combination with surgical trauma and CPB lead to their additional stimulation and migration into sites of inflammation and induce postoperative CLS. It is planned to set up a Flow-Classification program for individual risk assessment. By discriminate analysis over 80 percent of the patients were correctly classified. Our preliminary study indicates that flow cytometry with its low samples requirements and rapid access of the results could be a powerful tool to perform risk assessment prior to pediatric open heart surgery.

  16. Distinguishing congestion from malicious behavior in mobile ad-hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jin; Medidi, Sirisha R.

    2004-08-01

    Packet dropping in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks could be a result of wireless link errors, congestion, or malicious packet drop attack. Current techniques for detecting malicious behavior either do not consider congestion in the network or are not able to detect in real time. Further more, they usually work at network layer. In this paper, we propose a TCP-Manet protocol, which reacts to congestion like TCP Reno protocol, and has additional capability to distinguish among congestion, wireless link error, and malicious packet drop attack. It is an end-to-end mechanism that does not require additional modifications to the nodes in the network. Since it is an extension of existing TCP protocol, it is compatible with existing protocols. It works in conjunction with the network layer and an unobtrusive monitor to assist the network in the detection and characterization of the nature of the behavior. Experimental results show that TCP-Manet has the same performance as that of TCP-Reno in wired network, and performs better in wireless ad-hoc networks in terms of throughput while having good detection effectiveness.

  17. Using fluorescent dissolved organic matter to trace and distinguish the origin of Arctic surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Araujo, Rafael; Granskog, Mats A.; Bracher, Astrid; Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko; Dodd, Paul A.; Stedmon, Colin A.

    2016-09-01

    Climate change affects the Arctic with regards to permafrost thaw, sea-ice melt, alterations to the freshwater budget and increased export of terrestrial material to the Arctic Ocean. The Fram and Davis Straits represent the major gateways connecting the Arctic and Atlantic. Oceanographic surveys were performed in the Fram and Davis Straits, and on the east Greenland Shelf (EGS), in late summer 2012/2013. Meteoric (fmw), sea-ice melt, Atlantic and Pacific water fractions were determined and the fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (FDOM) were characterized. In Fram Strait and EGS, a robust correlation between visible wavelength fluorescence and fmw was apparent, suggesting it as a reliable tracer of polar waters. However, a pattern was observed which linked the organic matter characteristics to the origin of polar waters. At depth in Davis Strait, visible wavelength FDOM was correlated to apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) and traced deep-water DOM turnover. In surface waters FDOM characteristics could distinguish between surface waters from eastern (Atlantic + modified polar waters) and western (Canada-basin polar waters) Arctic sectors. The findings highlight the potential of designing in situ multi-channel DOM fluorometers to trace the freshwater origins and decipher water mass mixing dynamics in the region without laborious samples analyses.

  18. ST-segment elevation: Distinguishing ST elevation myocardial infarction from ST elevation secondary to nonischemic etiologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alok; Deshpande; Yochai; Birnbaum

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of early perfusion in ST elevation myocardial infarctions(STEMI) are established; howeverearly perfusion of non-ST elevation myocardial infarctions has not been shown to be beneficial. In additionST elevation(STE) caused by conditions other thanacute ischemia is common. Non-ischemic STE may beconfused as STEMI, but can also mask STEMI on electrocardiogram(ECG). As a result, activating the primarypercutaneous coronary intervention(pPCI) protocooften depends on determining which ST elevation patterns reflect transmural infarction due to acute coronary artery thrombosis. Coordination of interpreting theECG in its clinical context and appropriately activatingthe pPCI protocol has proved a difficult task in borderline cases. But its importance cannot be ignored, asreflected in the 2013 American College of CardiologyFoundation/American Heart Association guidelines concerning the treatment of ST elevation myocardial infarction. Multiples strategies have been tested and studiedand are currently being further perfected. No mattethe strategy, at the heart of delivering the best care lies rapid and accurate interpretation of the ECG. Here, we present the different patterns of non-ischemic STE and methods of distinguishing between them. In writing this paper, we hope for quicker and better stratification of patients with STE on ECG, which will lead to be bet-ter outcomes.

  19. Distinguishing clinical and imaging features of nodular regenerative hyperplasia and large regenerative nodules of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, J.T. [Departments of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Federle, M.P., E-mail: federle@stanford.ed [Departments of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Chopra, K. [Departments of Gastroenterology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Aim: Nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) and large regenerative nodules (LRN) are distinct types of hepatocellular nodules that have been confused in the radiology literature. However, distinction is critical because their clinical significance is quite different. Our purpose was to review the clinical and imaging findings in a series of patients with NRH and LRN in order to identify distinguishing clinical and imaging features. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective case series. The clinical and imaging features were compared in 36 patients with pathological proof of NRH and 23 patients with pathological evidence of LRN. Results: NRH and LRN have different predisposing factors and imaging findings. NRH is often associated with organ transplantation, myeloproliferative disease, or autoimmune processes. Livers with NRH typically do not have enhancing nodules; none of the present patients with NRH had enhancing liver masses. In contrast, LRN are often associated with Budd-Chiari syndrome. Enhancing liver masses were noted in 19 (83%) of the 23 patients with LRN. The p values for the comparisons were less than 0.001 for both enhancing liver masses and hepatic vein thrombosis. Conclusion: NRH and LRN can have distinct clinical presentations and imaging appearances. LRN often result in enhancing liver nodules, whereas NRH usually does not. Clinical and imaging information enables the distinction of LRN and NRH in many cases.

  20. Distinguishing neurofibroma from desmoplastic melanoma: the value of the CD34 fingerprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Iwei; McCalmont, Timothy H

    2011-08-01

    We have observed 'fingerprint' immunopositivity in association with perineurioma and neurofibroma. A fingerprint consists of delicate, elongated areas of positive labeling that fall between collagen bundles, thereby creating a whorled configuration that is reminiscent of a human fingerprint. At present, the differential diagnosis between early desmoplastic melanoma and neurofibroma remains challenging in a subset of cases because of overlapping histopathological and immunohistochemical features. To assess whether fingerprint CD34 reactivity could be contributory in this context, we stained 50 desmoplastic melanomas and 50 neurofibromas with CD34. Fingerprint CD34 labeling was present in greater than 30% of the proliferation in 96% (n = 48) of neurofibromas and in only 4% (n = 2) of desmoplastic melanomas. Over two-thirds of the neurofibromas exhibited a CD34 fingerprint involving more than 60% of their surface area. In the two cases of desmoplastic melanoma that showed CD34 fingerprint positivity, the staining was patchy and involved less than 60% of the tumor. In partially staining neurofibromas, areas without a CD34 fingerprint tended to occur in central lobular areas. We conclude that CD34 fingerprint immunoreactivity is useful in distinguishing neurofibroma from early desmoplastic melanoma, especially if the fingerprint involves more than 60% of a tumor's cross-sectional area.

  1. CSF levels of DJ-1 and tau distinguish MSA patients from PD patients and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Megan K; Eeftens, Jorine M; Aerts, Marjolein B; Esselink, Rianne A J; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Kuiperij, H Bea; Verbeek, Marcel M

    2014-01-01

    Differential diagnosis between Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) is difficult, particularly at early disease stages, but is important for therapeutic management. The protein DJ-1 is implicated in the pathology of PD but little is known about its involvement in MSA. We aimed to determine the diagnostic value of CSF DJ-1 and tau proteins for discriminating PD and MSA. DJ-1 and total tau levels were quantified in the CSF of 43 PD patients, 23 MSA patients and 30 non-neurological controls matched for age and gender. Patients were part of a study with a 3-year prospective design with extended case-review follow-up of up to 9 years, ensuring maximum accuracy of the clinical diagnosis. Our results showed that CSF DJ-1 levels could distinguish MSA from PD with a 78% sensitivity and 78% specificity (AUC = 0.84). The combination of DJ-1 and tau proteins significantly improved this discrimination to 82% sensitivity and 81% specificity to identify MSA from PD (AUC = 0.92). Our results highlight the potential benefits of a combination of DJ-1 and total tau as biomarkers for differential diagnosis of MSA and PD.

  2. Distinguishing between similar tubular objects using pulse reflectometry: a study of trumpet and cornet leadpipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buick, J. M.; Kemp, J.; Sharp, D. B.; van Walstijn, M.; Campbell, D. M.; Smith, R. A.

    2002-05-01

    This paper considers the measurement of the internal radius of a number of similar, short, tubular leadpipes using pulse reflectometry. Pulse reflectometry is an acoustical technique for measuring the internal bore of a tubular object by analysing the reflections which occur when an acoustical pulse is directed into the object. The leadpipes are designed to form the initial, or lead, part of a trumpet or cornet and their internal radii differ by less than 0.1 mm between similar pipes. The ability of the reflectometer to detect these small differences, which are considered by players to produce a noticeable difference in the sound of an instrument, are investigated. It is seen that the pulse reflectometer is able to distinguish between leadpipes with different nominal radii varying by as little as 0.03 mm, demonstrating its potential in the study of musical instruments and showing that it can be used as a diagnostic tool by the instrument manufacturer to detect defects which are significant enough to acoustically alter performance. The absolute accuracy of the radius measurements is also considered at the end of the leadpipe, where the uncertainty is ±0.05 mm.

  3. Antonio E. Puente: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Presents Antonio E. Puente as the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent Practice. "For his decades of efforts to enhance the recognition of psychologists in providing health care services, through his work with the Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) Panel to develop and maintain appropriate CPT codes for the breadth of professional practice; for his willingness to participate in litigation establishing the expertise of neuropsychologists to testify in court about their findings; for his tireless work in cross-cultural assessment relative to criminal trials; for his leadership of professional societies in clinical neuropsychology; for his promotion of legislation and policy at all levels of government; and for his countless other contributions to the enhancement of independent practice in psychology. Antonio Puente is a far-thinking visionary who freely shares his knowledge to improve the quality of psychological practice and the reimbursement system that attests to the worth of the profession. He is the very embodiment of the psychologist for whom this award is intended." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Patterns of salivary analytes provide diagnostic capacity for distinguishing chronic adult periodontitis from health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L; Schuster, Julie L; Stevens, Jason; Dawson, Dolph; Kryscio, Richard J; Lin, Yushin; Thomas, Mark V; Miller, Craig S

    2013-01-01

    Salivary biomarker discovery requires identification of analytes with high discriminatory capacity to distinguish disease from health, including day-to-day variations that occur in analyte levels. In this study, seven biomarkers associated with inflammatory and tissue destructive processes of periodontal disease were investigated. In a prospective cohort study design, analyte expression levels were determined in unstimulated whole saliva samples collected on multiple occasions from 30 healthy adults (i.e., orally and systemically) and 50 chronic adult periodontitis patients. Salivary levels of IL-1β, IL-6, MMP-8, and albumin were significantly elevated (5.4 to 12.6X) and levels of IFNα were consistently lower (8.7X) in periodontitis patients compared with the daily variation observed in healthy adults. ROC analyses of IL-1β, IL-6 and MMP-8 yielded areas under the curves of 0.963-0.984 for discriminating periodontitis from health. These results demonstrate that levels of salivary bioanalytes of patients who have periodontitis are uniquely different from normal levels found in healthy subjects, and a panel consisting of IL-1β, MMP-8 and IL-6 shows particular diagnostic potential.

  5. First-ever optic neuritis: distinguishing subsequent neuromyelitis optica from multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Min; Pyun, So Young; Lim, Hyun Taek; Jeong, In Hye; Kim, Kwang-Kuk

    2014-05-01

    To identify factors distinguishing subsequent neuromyelitis optica (NMO) from multiple sclerosis (MS) after first-ever optic neuritis (ON), we compared ophthalmic findings and MRI features of 24 NMO and 55 MS patients who initially presented with ON. The female-to-male ratio was higher, and bilateral ON was more common in NMO patients than in MS patients (p = 0.044 and p = 0.020, respectively). The visual acuity (VA) score was higher in NMO patients (p = 0.034), and a greater proportion of NMO patients had a VA score ≥ 5 (p = 0.003). The frequency of patients without pattern-reversal and flash visual evoked potentials was higher in the NMO group (p = 0.015). Brain MRI abnormalities were more common in the MS group (p = 0.001). The optic chiasm was affected in 25 % of NMO patients and was unaffected in MS patients, although it did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.096). There were no differences with respect to the severity of swelling and enhancement of the optic nerve. In conclusion, severe optic nerve damage at the first ON attack was associated with subsequent development of NMO, whereas presence of brain MRI abnormalities was associated with developing MS.

  6. Giant notochordal hamartoma of intraosseous origin: a newly reported benign entity to be distinguished from chordoma. Report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirra, J.M. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Pathology, Orthopaedic Hospital, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Brien, E.W. [Dept. of Musculoskeletal Tumors, Orthopaedic Hospital, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Two cases are reported of a newly described intraosseous entity of vertebral bodies deemed ''giant notochordal hamartoma of intraosseous origin''. This entity is commonly mistaken for chordoma and must be distinguished from it as the consequences of misinterpretation may be serious. The clinical, radiological and histologic criteria that can be used to distinguish these two entities are emphasized. Included is a proposed pathogenesis for this lesion, its probable notochordal origin, and a review of other probable cases. (orig.)

  7. On the (In)Equivalence of Impossible Differential and Zero-Correlation Distinguishers for Feistel- and Skipjack-Type Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blondeau, Celine; Bogdanov, Andrey; Wang, Meiqin

    2014-01-01

    significant.At EUROCRYPT'13, a link between these two distinguishers has been presented. However, though being independent of the underling structure of the cipher, it is usually not useful for most known ID or ZC distinguishers. So despite the relevance of those attacks, the question of their equivalence...... or inequivalence has not been formally addressed so far in a constructive practical way.In this paper, we aim to bridge this gap in the understanding of the links between the ID and ZC properties. We tackle this problem at the example of two wide classes of ciphers, namely, Feistel- and Skipjack-type ciphers...

  8. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F;

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This consti......Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women...

  9. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F;

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women....... This constitutes a problem, as recent studies have reported an accelerated metabolism in pregnant smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum cut-off cotinine level distinguishing pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers....

  10. Distinguishing adult-onset asthma from COPD: a review and a new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramson MJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Abramson,1 Jennifer L Perret,2,3 Shyamali C Dharmage,2 Vanessa M McDonald,4 Christine F McDonald3 1School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, 2Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; 3Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Australia; 4Priority Research Centre for Asthma and Respiratory Disease, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia Abstract: Adult-onset asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are major public health burdens. This review presents a comprehensive synopsis of their epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentations; describes how they can be distinguished; and considers both established and proposed new approaches to their management. Both adult-onset asthma and COPD are complex diseases arising from gene–environment interactions. Early life exposures such as childhood infections, smoke, obesity, and allergy influence adult-onset asthma. While the established environmental risk factors for COPD are adult tobacco and biomass smoke, there is emerging evidence that some childhood exposures such as maternal smoking and infections may cause COPD. Asthma has been characterized predominantly by Type 2 helper T cell (Th2 cytokine-mediated eosinophilic airway inflammation associated with airway hyperresponsiveness. In established COPD, the inflammatory cell infiltrate in small airways comprises predominantly neutrophils and cytotoxic T cells (CD8 positive lymphocytes. Parenchymal destruction (emphysema in COPD is associated with loss of lung tissue elasticity, and small airways collapse during exhalation. The precise definition of chronic airflow limitation is affected by age; a fixed cut-off of forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity leads to overdiagnosis of COPD in the elderly. Traditional approaches to distinguishing between asthma and COPD have highlighted age of onset

  11. [Distinguishing normal identity formation process for sexual minorities from obsessive compulsive disorder with sexual orientation obsessions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igartua, Karine J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In synthesizing a homosexual or bisexual identity, an individual may go through different stages before coming to a positive healthy identity. It is likely that there will be a period in which homosexual yearnings will be unwanted. Sometimes this distress leads the person to consult a health professional. Conversion therapy has been proven both ineffective and harmful and therefore has been ethically prohibited by all major psychiatric and psychological associations. The responsible clinician will attempt to assist the individual in his acceptance of his sexual minority. Occasionally individuals without homoeroticism consult because of distress related to sexual identity questioning which poses a different problem for clinicians especially if the situation goes unrecognized. The objective of this paper is to describe homosexual obsessive compulsive disorder (HOCD) and distinguish it clinically from the normal process of sexual minority identity formation in western culture.Methods A literature review yielded very few descriptions of homosexual OCD. A retrospective chart review of all patients seen in the last 3 years at the McGill University Sexual Identity Centre was conducted to identify all the cases of OCD. Six cases were found, 4 of which were of HOCD and are presented. Similarities between cases are highlighted.Results All cases were young men with relatively little relationship and sexual experience. Most were rather shy and had some other obsessional history in the past though often at a sub-clinical threshold. Obsessional doubt about their orientation was very distressing and did not abate over time as would normally occur with a homoerotic individual. The four patients who had an obsession of being gay despite little or no homoerotism are presented in detail. They all presented mental compulsions, avoidance and physiological monitoring. Continuous internal debate trying to prove or disprove sexual orientation was a ubiquitous mental

  12. Rainfall–runoff temporal variability in Kermanshah province, Iran and distinguishing anthropogenic effects from climatic effects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Ghafarian; S Gholami; E Owlad; H Gerivani

    2016-08-01

    Investigation of changes in rainfall and runoff patterns in various regions and determining their relationship in the sense of hydrology and climatology are of great importance, considering those patterns efficiently reveal the human and natural factors in this variability. One of the mathematical methods to recognise and model these fluctuations is Wavelet Analysis. This is a spectral method used in multivariateanalysis and also tracing fluctuations in temporal series. In this study, continuous wavelet transformation is used to identify temporal changes in rainfall–runoff patterns. The hydrological and rain gauge data were collected from in situ measurements of Kermanshah province located in the western border of Iran.Precipitation anomalies were reconsidered in a number of stations, including Kermanshah, for a period of 55 years (1955–2010) and discharge of Gamasiab River in Polchehr station, discharge of Khoram Rood River in Aran-Gharb station and discharge of Gharasoo River in Polekohne station. In addition, anomaliesof the climatic teleconnections were studied to emphasise the climatological effects on the runoff pattern in the region. The role of natural and anthropogenic effects (land use changes) has been distinguished and identified, using the comparison of the teleconnections and hydrological data. The results achieved from three stations show that there was an approximate correlation between rainfall, runoff and teleconnections until the year 1995; however, after 1995, a great difference appeared among them, specifically for the Aran-Gharb station (Khoram Rood River). The post-1995 slope of cumulative standardised anomaly is much steeper in the case of runoff compared to rainfall. As there were no significant climate changes in the region, it could be concluded that the runoff decrease is not caused by climatechanges, but by anthropogenic effects, human interventions and extra water usage from the surface and underground water resources for

  13. Polarization Signatures distinguish the kinetic- and the magnetic-driven blazar jet models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haocheng; Li, Hui; Taylor, Gregory B.

    2017-01-01

    Blazars are a type of active galaxies whose jets direct close to our line of sight. They exhibit strong variability across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from radio up to TeV gamma-rays. The radio to optical polarization signatures, which originate from synchrotron emission in a partially ordered magnetic field, show strong variability as well. Two scenarios have been advanced to explain the blazar variability. The kinetic-driven model argues that the emission region can drain kinetic energy through shocks to accelerate nonthermal particles and generate flares. The magnetic-driven model suggests that the magnetic energy can dissipate through current-driven instabilities to fuel the variability. Both models have their merits in understanding blazar spectra and light curves during flares, thus they cannot be distinguished. We perform comprehensive polarization-dependent radiation modeling of shocks and kink instabilities in the blazar emission region, based on detailed relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) simulations. Our approach involves self-consistent magnetic field evolution, nonthermal particle injection based on the energy release from the RMHD simulation, and detailed radiation transfer including all light travel time effects. Hence our method offers the self-consistent time-dependent radiation and polarization signatures from first principles. By comparing the shock and the kink models, we find that while both can interpret the light curves well, the shock model generally produce too strong polarization variations compared to observations. On the other hand, the kink model well fits the general polarization fluctuations and polarization angle swings. We conclude that by coupling first-principle simulations and detailed polarization-dependent radiaiton modeling, polarization signatures can probe the origin of the blazar jet variability, and offer a general diagnostic of the jet physics, including the energy composition, the particle acceleration, and

  14. Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora distinguish odour profiles from qualitatively different potatoes Solanum tuberosum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter; Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Nimal Punyasiri, P A; Bengtsson, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Guatemalan potato moth, Tecia solanivora, lay eggs in the soil nearby potato Solanum spp. and larvae feed on the tubers. We investigated the oviposition behaviour of T. solanivora females and the survival of larval offspring on healthy vs. stressed, i.e. light exposed and/or damaged potato tubers. In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine: healthy potatoes contained lower amounts than stressed tubers, ranging from 25 to 500 μg g⁻¹ and from 30 to 600 μg g⁻¹, respectively. Analysis of volatile compounds emitted by potato tubers revealed that stressed tubers could clearly be distinguished from healthy tubers by the composition of their volatile profiles. Compounds that contributed to this difference were e.g. decanal, nonanal, isopropyl myristate, phenylacetaldehyde, benzothiazole, heptadecane, octadecane, myristicin, E,E-α-farnesene and verbenone. Oviposition assays, when female moths were not in contact with the tubers, clearly demonstrated that volatiles guide the females to lay fewer eggs on stressed tubers that are of inferior quality for the larvae. We propose that volatiles, such as sesquiterpenes and aldehydes, mediate oviposition behaviour and are correlated with biosynthetically related, non-volatile compounds, such as steroidal glycoalkaloids, which influence larval survival. We conclude that the oviposition response and larval survival of T. solanivora on healthy vs. stressed tubers supports the preference performance hypothesis for insect herbivores.

  15. Intraoperative near-infrared imaging can distinguish cancer from normal tissue but not inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Holt

    Full Text Available Defining tumor from non-tumor tissue is one of the major challenges of cancer surgery. Surgeons depend on visual and tactile clues to select which tissues should be removed from a patient. Recently, we and others have hypothesized near-infrared (NIR imaging can be used during surgery to differentiate tumors from normal tissue.We enrolled 8 canines and 5 humans undergoing cancer surgery for NIR imaging. The patients were injected with indocyanine green (ICG, an FDA approved non-receptor specific NIR dye that accumulates in hyperpermeable tissues, 16-24 hours prior to surgery. During surgery, NIR imaging was used to discriminate the tumor from non-tumor tissue.NIR imaging identified all tumors with a mean signal-to-background ratio of 6.7. Optical images were useful during surgery in discriminating normal tissue from cancer. In 3 canine cases and 1 human case, the tissue surrounding the tumor was inflamed due to obstruction of the vascular supply due to mass effect. In these instances, NIR imaging could not distinguish tumor tissue from tissue that was congested, edematous and did not contain cancer.This study shows that NIR imaging can identify tumors from normal tissues, provides excellent tissue contrast, and it facilitates the resection of tumors. However, in situations where there is significant peritumoral inflammation, NIR imaging with ICG is not helpful. This suggests that non-targeted NIR dyes that accumulate in hyperpermeable tissues will have significant limitations in the future, and receptor-specific NIR dyes may be necessary to overcome this problem.

  16. Distinguishing between enamel fluorosis and other enamel defects in permanent teeth of children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabokseir, Aira

    2016-01-01

    Background. The inconsistent prevalence of fluorosis for a given level of fluoride in drinking water suggests developmental defects of enamel (DDEs) other than fluorosis were being misdiagnosed as fluorosis. The imprecise definition and subjective perception of fluorosis indices could result in misdiagnosis of dental fluorosis. This study was conducted to distinguish genuine fluorosis from fluorosis-resembling defects that could have adverse health-related events as a cause using Early Childhood Events Life-grid method (ECEL). Methods. A study was conducted on 400 9-year-old children from areas with high, optimal and low levels of fluoride in the drinking water of Fars province, Iran. Fluorosis cases were diagnosed on the standardized one view photographs of the anterior teeth using Dean’s and TF (Thylstrup and Fejerskov) Indices by calibrated dentists. Agreements between examiners were tested. Early childhood health-related data collected retrospectively by ECEL method were matched with the position of enamel defects. Results. Using both Dean and TF indices three out of four dentists diagnosed that 31.3% (115) children had fluorosis, 58.0%, 29.1%, and 10.0% in high (2.12–2.85 ppm), optimal (0.62–1.22 ppm), and low (0.24–0.29 ppm) fluoride areas respectively (p < 0.001). After matching health-related events in the 115 (31.3%) of children diagnosed with fluorosis, 31 (8.4%) of children had fluorosis which could be matched with their adverse health-related events. This suggests that what was diagnosed as fluorosis were non-fluoride related DDEs that resemble fluorosis. Discussion. The frequently used measures of fluorosis appear to overscore fluorosis. Use of ECEL method to consider health related events relevant to DDEs could help to differentiate between genuine fluorosis and fluorosis-resembling defects. PMID:26966672

  17. P06SUPRATENTORIAL PNET IN ADULTS: MRI CAN HELP DISTINGUISH FROM GLIOBLASTOMA - DWI IS KEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eralil, George; Jones, Timothy L.; Howe, Franklyn A.; Barrick, Tom R.; MacKinnon, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Extra-pineal supratentorial primitive neuro-ectodermal tumours (sPNETs) are considered rare in adults and little is known about their radiological appearances. The most clinically relevant pre-surgical differential diagnosis is glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We present a series of patients with sPNET over a 6 year period (2008-2014), and provide an imaging update with a review of the existing literature. METHOD: Retrospective review of CT and MRI characteristics of 7 patients with histologically proven sPNETs. Comparisons were made with similarly located and histopathologically confirmed WHO Grade 4 GBMs. RESULTS: 6 of the 7 sPNETs occurred de novo. One arose within the resection bed of a WHO Grade 1 pilocytic astrocytoma. There were 4 frontal and 3 temporal lobe incidences. Mean age was 42.8yrs (range 23 - 73 yrs, median 36 yrs). On CT the solid component of the tumour was usually hyperdense. Some of the small sPNETs contained central haemorrhage, confirmed on MRI. Larger tumours were solid/cystic. On MRI the solid component of all sPNETs was T2 hypointense, showed avid enhancement and marked restricted diffusion, typical of a high grade tumour. The degree of restricted diffusion was notably greater in the sPNET group when compared to the GBM cohort. CONCLUSION: The extreme rarity of sPNETs in adults makes for difficult interpretation of existing imaging modalities. In non-histopathologically confirmed cases, imaging could be misinterpreted as high grade glioma. However, greater restricted diffusion in sPNETs may help distinguish them from GBMs. Advanced MRI techniques and correlation with spectroscopy and molecular markers will also help in the future.

  18. Quantifying local heterogeneity via morphologic scale: Distinguishing tumoral from stromal regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Janowczyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The notion of local scale was introduced to characterize varying levels of image detail so that localized image processing tasks could be performed while simultaneously yielding a globally optimal result. In this paper, we have presented the methodological framework for a novel locally adaptive scale definition, morphologic scale (MS, which is different from extant local scale definitions in that it attempts to characterize local heterogeneity as opposed to local homogeneity. Methods: At every point of interest, the MS is determined as a series of radial paths extending outward in the direction of least resistance, navigating around obstructions. Each pixel can then be directly compared to other points of interest via a rotationally invariant quantitative feature descriptor, determined by the application of Fourier descriptors to the collection of these paths. Results: Our goal is to distinguish tumor and stromal tissue classes in the context of four different digitized pathology datasets: prostate tissue microarrays (TMAs stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE (44 images and TMAs stained with only hematoxylin (H (44 images, slide mounts of ovarian H (60 images, and HE breast cancer (51 images histology images. Classification performance over 50 cross-validation runs using a Bayesian classifier produced mean areas under the curve of 0.88 ± 0.01 (prostate HE, 0.87 ± 0.02 (prostate H, 0.88 ± 0.01 (ovarian H, and 0.80 ± 0.01 (breast HE. Conclusion: For each dataset listed in [Table 3], we randomly selected 100 points per image, and using the procedure described in Experiment 1, we attempted to separate them as belonging to stroma or epithelium.

  19. New mitral annular force transducer optimized to distinguish annular segments and multi-plane forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov, Søren Nielsen; Røpcke, Diana Mathilde; Ilkjær, Christine; Rasmussen, Jonas; Tjørnild, Marcell Juan; Jimenez, Jorge H; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Nygaard, Hans; Nielsen, Sten Lyager; Jensen, Morten Olgaard

    2016-03-21

    Limited knowledge exists about the forces acting on mitral valve annuloplasty repair devices. The aim of this study was to develop a new mitral annular force transducer to measure the forces acting on clinically used mitral valve annuloplasty devices. The design of an X-shaped transducer in the present study was optimized for simultaneous in- and out-of-plane force measurements. Each arm was mounted with strain gauges on four circumferential elements to measure out-of-plane forces, and the central parts of the X-arms were mounted with two strain gauges to measure in-plane forces. A dedicated calibration setup was developed to calibrate isolated forces with tension and compression for in- and out-of-plane measurements. With this setup, it was possible with linear equations to isolate and distinguish measured forces between the two planes and minimize transducer arm crosstalk. An in-vitro test was performed to verify the crosstalk elimination method and the assumptions behind it. The force transducer was implanted and evaluated in an 80kg porcine in-vivo model. Following crosstalk elimination, in-plane systolic force accumulation was found to be in average 4.0±0.1N and the out-of-plane annular segments experienced an average force of 1.4±0.4N. Directions of the systolic out-of-plane forces indicated movements towards a saddle shaped annulus, and the transducer was able to measure independent directional forces in individual annular segments. Further measurements with the new transducer coupled with clinical annuloplasty rings will provide a detailed insight into the biomechanical dynamics of these devices.

  20. A Bayesian approach to distinguishing interdigitated tongue muscles from limited diffusion magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chuyang; Murano, Emi; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L

    2015-10-01

    The tongue is a critical organ for a variety of functions, including swallowing, respiration, and speech. It contains intrinsic and extrinsic muscles that play an important role in changing its shape and position. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been used to reconstruct tongue muscle fiber tracts. However, previous studies have been unable to reconstruct the crossing fibers that occur where the tongue muscles interdigitate, which is a large percentage of the tongue volume. To resolve crossing fibers, multi-tensor models on DTI and more advanced imaging modalities, such as high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) and diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI), have been proposed. However, because of the involuntary nature of swallowing, there is insufficient time to acquire a sufficient number of diffusion gradient directions to resolve crossing fibers while the in vivo tongue is in a fixed position. In this work, we address the challenge of distinguishing interdigitated tongue muscles from limited diffusion magnetic resonance imaging by using a multi-tensor model with a fixed tensor basis and incorporating prior directional knowledge. The prior directional knowledge provides information on likely fiber directions at each voxel, and is computed with anatomical knowledge of tongue muscles. The fiber directions are estimated within a maximum a posteriori (MAP) framework, and the resulting objective function is solved using a noise-aware weighted ℓ1-norm minimization algorithm. Experiments were performed on a digital crossing phantom and in vivo tongue diffusion data including three control subjects and four patients with glossectomies. On the digital phantom, effects of parameters, noise, and prior direction accuracy were studied, and parameter settings for real data were determined. The results on the in vivo data demonstrate that the proposed method is able to resolve interdigitated tongue muscles with limited gradient directions. The distributions of the

  1. Smooth and Rough Biotypes of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum Can Be Genetically Distinguished at the Arcanolysin Locus.

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    Haley S Ruther

    Full Text Available Arcanobacterium haemolyticum is a Gram-positive, β-hemolytic emerging human pathogen that is classified into smooth or rough biotypes. This bacterial species is also a rare pathogen of animals. Smooth biotypes possess smooth colony edges, are moderate to strong in β-hemolysis, and predominately cause wound infections. In contrast, rough biotypes possess rough and irregular colony edges, have weak to no β-hemolytic activity, and predominately cause pharyngitis. Using horse erythrocytes we confirmed that smooth isolates are generally more hemolytic than rough isolates. A hemolysin from A. haemolyticum, arcanolysin (aln/ALN, was recently discovered and is a member of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC family. PCR amplification of aln from all 36 smooth A. haemolyticum isolates yielded the expected 2.0 kb product. While 21 rough isolates yielded the 2.0 kb product, 16 isolates had a 3.2 kb product. The extra 1.2 kb segment was 99% identical to IS911 (insertion sequence from Corynebacterium diphtheriae. PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the upstream region of aln revealed ~40 nucleotide polymorphisms among 73 clinical isolates from Finland, Denmark, Germany and United States (Nebraska. Remarkably, multi-sequence alignments of the aln upstream region demonstrated that ~90% of the isolates phylogenetically clustered as either smooths or roughs. Differential restriction enzyme analysis of the aln upstream region also demonstrated that the aln upstream region of most (~75% smooth isolates was cleaved with ClaI while this region in most (~86% rough isolates was cleaved with XcmI. We conclude that the aln upstream region can be used to genetically distinguish between smooth and rough biotypes of this important emerging pathogen.

  2. Ocular motor characteristics of different subtypes of spinocerebellar ataxia: distinguishing features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Sun; Kim, Ji Soo; Youn, Jinyoung; Seo, Dae-Won; Jeong, Yuri; Kang, Ji-Hoon; Park, Jeong Ho; Cho, Jin Whan

    2013-08-01

    Because of frequent involvement of the cerebellum and brainstem, ocular motor abnormalities are key features of spinocerebellar ataxias and may aid in differential diagnosis. Our objective for this study was to distinguish the subtypes by ophthalmologic features after head-shaking and positional maneuvers, which are not yet recognized as differential diagnostic tools in most common forms of spinocerebellar ataxias. Of the 302 patients with a diagnosis of cerebellar ataxia in 3 Korean University Hospitals from June 2011 to June 2012, 48 patients with spinocerebellar ataxia types 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, or 8 or with undetermined spinocerebellar ataxias were enrolled. All patients underwent a video-oculographic recording of fixation abnormalities, gaze-evoked nystagmus, positional and head-shaking nystagmus, and dysmetric saccades. Logistic regression analysis controlling for disease duration revealed that spontaneous and positional downbeat nystagmus and perverted head-shaking nystagmus were strong predictors for spinocerebellar ataxia 6, whereas saccadic intrusions and oscillations were identified as positive indicators of spinocerebellar ataxia 3. In contrast, the presence of gaze-evoked nystagmus and dysmetric saccades was a negative predictor of spinocerebellar ataxia 2. Positional maneuvers and horizontal head shaking occasionally induced or augmented saccadic intrusions/oscillations in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia types 1, 2, and 3 and undetermined spinocerebellar ataxia. The results indicated that perverted head-shaking nystagmus may be the most sensitive parameter for SCA6, whereas saccadic intrusions/oscillations are the most sensitive for spinocerebellar ataxia 3. In contrast, a paucity of gaze-evoked nystagmus and dysmetric saccades is more indicative of spinocerebellar ataxia 2. Head-shaking and positional maneuvers aid in defining ocular motor characteristics in spinocerebellar ataxias. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  3. Distinguishing enzymes using metabolome data for the hybrid dynamic/static method

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    Nakayama Yoichi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the process of constructing a dynamic model of a metabolic pathway, a large number of parameters such as kinetic constants and initial metabolite concentrations are required. However, in many cases, experimental determination of these parameters is time-consuming. Therefore, for large-scale modelling, it is essential to develop a method that requires few experimental parameters. The hybrid dynamic/static (HDS method is a combination of the conventional kinetic representation and metabolic flux analysis (MFA. Since no kinetic information is required in the static module, which consists of MFA, the HDS method may dramatically reduce the number of required parameters. However, no adequate method for developing a hybrid model from experimental data has been proposed. Results In this study, we develop a method for constructing hybrid models based on metabolome data. The method discriminates enzymes into static modules and dynamic modules using metabolite concentration time series data. Enzyme reaction rate time series were estimated from the metabolite concentration time series data and used to distinguish enzymes optimally for the dynamic and static modules. The method was applied to build hybrid models of two microbial central-carbon metabolism systems using simulation results from their dynamic models. Conclusion A protocol to build a hybrid model using metabolome data and a minimal number of kinetic parameters has been developed. The proposed method was successfully applied to the strictly regulated central-carbon metabolism system, demonstrating the practical use of the HDS method, which is designed for computer modelling of metabolic systems.

  4. Distinguishing Grenvillian basement from pre-Taconian cover rocks in the Northern Appalachians

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    Karabinos, P.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Fanning, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Distinguishing Grenvillian basement rocks from pre-Taconian cover sequences in the Appalachians is a first-order problem essential for accurate structural interpretations. The Cavendish Formation in southeastern Vermont presents a classic example of this problem. Doll and others (1961) showed the Cavendish Formation as younger than the Middle Proterozoic Mount Holly Complex but older than the lithologically similar Cambrian Tyson and Hoosac Formations. More recently, the name Cavendish Formation has been informally abandoned, and its metasedimentary units have been mapped as the Tyson and Hoosac Formations of Late Proterozoic to Cambrian age. In a radical departure from these interpretations, Ratcliffe and others (1997) reassigned metasedimentary rocks of the Cavendish Formation to the Mount Holly Complex based on an inferred intrusive relationship between them and a 1.42 Ga tonalite. This new age assignment, if correct, requires a completely new structural interpretation of the region. SHRIMP and Pb evaporation ages of detrital zircons extracted from a quartzite layer from Cavendish Gorge near the proposed intrusive contact with the tonalite constrain the time of deposition of the Cavendish Formation. Grain shapes of the zircons vary from euhedral to nearly spherical. Virtually all the grains have pitted surfaces and show at least some rounding of edges and terminations; grains exhibit oscillatory zoning typical of zircons that crystallized from a magma. Single-grain Pb evaporation analyses of ten zircons and SHRIMP analyses of 15 zircons all yield ages less than 1.42 Ga. Seven of the grains are consistent with derivation from the Bull Hill Gneiss that postdates the Grenville orogenic cycle and predates deposition of the Cavendish Formation. Thus, the metasedimentary units of the Cavendish Formation should not be assigned to the Mount Holly Complex.

  5. Molecular and antimicrobial susceptibility analyses distinguish clinical from bovine Escherichia coli O157 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidovic, Sinisa; Tsoi, Sarah; Medihala, Prabhakara; Liu, Juxin; Wylie, John L; Levett, Paul N; Korber, Darren R

    2013-07-01

    A population-based study combining (i) antimicrobial, (ii) genetic, and (iii) virulence analyses with molecular evolutionary analyses revealed segregative characteristics distinguishing human clinical and bovine Escherichia coli O157 strains from western Canada. Human (n = 50) and bovine (n = 50) strains of E. coli O157 were collected from Saskatchewan and Manitoba in 2006 and were analyzed by using the six-marker lineage-specific polymorphism assay (LSPA6), antimicrobial susceptibility analysis, the colicin assay, plasmid and virulence profiling including the eae, ehxA, espA, iha, stx1, stx2, stx2c, stx2d, stx2d-activatable, stx2e, and stx2f virulence-associated genes, and structure analyses. Multivariate logistic regression and Fisher's exact test strongly suggested that antimicrobial susceptibility was the most distinctive characteristic (P = 0.00487) associated with human strains. Among all genetic, virulence, and antimicrobial determinants, resistance to tetracycline (P coli O157 strains. Among 11 virulence-associated genes, stx2c showed the strongest association with E. coli O157 strains of bovine origin. LSPA6 genotyping showed the dominance of the lineage I genotype among clinical (90%) and bovine (70%) strains, indicating the importance of lineage I in O157 epidemiology and ecology. Population structure analysis revealed that the more-diverse bovine strains came from a unique group of strains characterized by a high degree of antimicrobial resistance and high frequencies of lineage II genotypes and stx2c variants. These findings imply that antimicrobial resistance generated among bovine strains of E. coli O157 has a large impact on the population of this human pathogen.

  6. A simplified molecular method for distinguishing among species and ploidy levels in European water frogs (Pelophylax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauswaldt, J Susanne; Höer, Manuela; Ogielska, Maria; Christiansen, Ditte G; Dziewulska-Szwajkowska, Daria; Czernicka, Elżbieta; Vences, Miguel

    2012-09-01

    Western Palearctic water frogs in the genus Pelophylax are a set of morphologically similar anuran species that form hybridogenetic complexes. Fully reliable identification of species and especially of hybrid ploidy depends on karyological and molecular methods. In central Europe, native water frog populations consist of the Pelophylax esculentus complex, that is, P. lessonae (LL), P. ridibundus (RR) and the hybrid form P. esculentus that can have different karyotypes (RL, LLR and RRL). We developed existing molecular methods further and propose a simple PCR method based on size-differences in the length of the serum albumin intron-1 and the RanaCR1, a non-LTR retrotransposon of the chicken repeat (CR) family. This PCR yields taxon-specific banding patterns that can easily be screened by standard agarose gel electrophoresis and correctly identify species in all of the 160 samples that had been identified to karyotype with other methods. To distinguish ploidy levels in LR, LLR and RRL specimens, we used the ratio of the peak heights of the larger (ridibundus specific) to the smaller (lessonae specific) bands of fluorescently labelled PCR products resolved on a capillary DNA sequencer and obtained a correct assignment of the karyotype in 93% of cases. Our new method will cut down time and expenses drastically for a reliable identification of water frogs of the P. esculentus complex and potentially for identification of other hybridogenetic complexes and/or taxa, and it even serves as a good indicator of the ploidy status of hybrid individuals.

  7. Phage display-derived binders able to distinguish Listeria monocytogenes from other Listeria species.

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    Josephine Morton

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to produce phage display-derived binders with the ability to distinguish Listeria monocytogenes from other Listeria spp., which may have potential utility to enhance detection of Listeria monocytogenes. To obtain binders with the desired binding specificity a series of surface and solution phage-display biopannings were performed. Initially, three rounds of surface biopanning against gamma-irradiated L. monocytogenes serovar 4b cells were performed followed by an additional surface biopanning round against L. monocytogenes 4b which included prior subtraction biopanning against gamma-irradiated L. innocua cells. In an attempt to further enhance binder specificity for L. monocytogenes 4b two rounds of solution biopanning were performed, both rounds included initial subtraction solution biopanning against L. innocua. Subsequent evaluations were performed on the phage clones by phage binding ELISA. All phage clones tested from the second round of solution biopanning had higher specificity for L. monocytogenes 4b than for L. innocua and three other foodborne pathogens (Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni. Further evaluation with five other Listeria spp. revealed that one phage clone in particular, expressing peptide GRIADLPPLKPN, was highly specific for L. monocytogenes with at least 43-fold more binding capability to L. monocytogenes 4b than to any other Listeria sp. This proof-of-principle study demonstrates how a combination of surface, solution and subtractive biopanning was used to maximise binder specificity. L. monocytogenes-specific binders were obtained which could have potential application in novel detection tests for L. monocytogenes, benefiting both the food and medical industries.

  8. Distinguishing magnetic vs. quadrupolar relaxation in b-NMR using 8Li and 9Li

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzichristos, A.; McFadden, R. M. L.; Karner, V. L.; Cortie, D. L.; Fang, A.; Levy, C. D. P.; Macfarlane, W. A.; Morris, G. D.; Pearson, M. R.; Salman, Z.; Kiefl, R. F.

    2016-09-01

    Beta-detected NMR is a powerful technique in condensed matter physics. It uses the parity violation of beta decay to detect the NMR signal from a beam of highly polarized radionuclides implanted in a sample material. Spin-lattice relaxation (SLR) is studied by monitoring the rate with which the asymmetry between the beta counts in two opposing detectors is lost. Unlike classical NMR, b-NMR can study thin films and near-surface effects. The most common b-NMR isotope at TRIUMF is 8Li, which has a quadrupole moment, thus it is sensitive to both magnetic fields and electric field gradients. A challenge with 8Li b-NMR is identifying the predominant mechanism of SLR in a given sample. It is possible to distinguish between SLR mechanisms by varying the probe isotope. For two isotopes with different nuclear moments, the ratio of SLR rates should be different in the limits of either pure magnetic or quadrupolar relaxation. This method has been used in classical NMR and we report its first application to b-NMR. We measured the SLR rates for 8Li and 8Li in Pt foil and SrTiO3. Pt is a test case for pure magnetic relaxation. SrTiO3 is a non-magnetic insulator, but the source of its relaxation is not well understood. Here we show that its relaxation is mainly quadrupolar. We thank TRIUMF's CMMS for their technical support. This work was supported by: NSERC Discovery Grants to R.F.K. and W.A.M.; and IsoSiM fellowships to A.C. and R.M.L.M.

  9. Phosphoproteomic profiling of human myocardial tissues distinguishes ischemic from non-ischemic end stage heart failure.

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    Matthew A Schechter

    Full Text Available The molecular differences between ischemic (IF and non-ischemic (NIF heart failure are poorly defined. A better understanding of the molecular differences between these two heart failure etiologies may lead to the development of more effective heart failure therapeutics. In this study extensive proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiles of myocardial tissue from patients diagnosed with IF or NIF were assembled and compared. Proteins extracted from left ventricular sections were proteolyzed and phosphopeptides were enriched using titanium dioxide resin. Gel- and label-free nanoscale capillary liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution accuracy mass tandem mass spectrometry allowed for the quantification of 4,436 peptides (corresponding to 450 proteins and 823 phosphopeptides (corresponding to 400 proteins from the unenriched and phospho-enriched fractions, respectively. Protein abundance did not distinguish NIF from IF. In contrast, 37 peptides (corresponding to 26 proteins exhibited a ≥ 2-fold alteration in phosphorylation state (p<0.05 when comparing IF and NIF. The degree of protein phosphorylation at these 37 sites was specifically dependent upon the heart failure etiology examined. Proteins exhibiting phosphorylation alterations were grouped into functional categories: transcriptional activation/RNA processing; cytoskeleton structure/function; molecular chaperones; cell adhesion/signaling; apoptosis; and energetic/metabolism. Phosphoproteomic analysis demonstrated profound post-translational differences in proteins that are involved in multiple cellular processes between different heart failure phenotypes. Understanding the roles these phosphorylation alterations play in the development of NIF and IF has the potential to generate etiology-specific heart failure therapeutics, which could be more effective than current therapeutics in addressing the growing concern of heart failure.

  10. Human impact on fluvial sediments: how to distinguish regional and local sources of heavy metals contamination

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    Novakova T.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Regional contamination of southern Moravia (SE part of the Czech Republic by heavy metals and magnetic particles during the 20th century was quantified in fluvial sediments of the Morava River. The influence of local sources to the regional contamination of the river sediments and impact of sampling sites heterogeneity were studied in profiles with different sedimentology (facies and lithology. For this purpose, hundreds of samples were obtained from regulated channel banks and naturally inundated floodplains and proxy elementary analyses have been carried out by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (ED XRF, further calibrated by ICP MS. Magnetic susceptibility as a proxy of industrial contamination was determined and the age model has been obtained by 210Pb dating method. After establishing the lithological background from floodplain profiles, assessment of heavy metal contamination was done by using enrichment factors (EFs of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr and magnetic susceptibility. Floodplain sedimentary profiles were found to be realiable for assessment of contamination and reconstruction of large scale, i.e. a really averaged regional contamination, while regulated channel banks are suitable for obtaining of more or less qualitative information of influence of local point sources in the area because sediments from regulated river banks qualitatively reflect the actual local contamination of the river system. It allowed us to distinguish the influence of local sources of contamination by comparing with more spatially averaged contamination signal from more distal floodplain profiles. The study area is rather weakly contaminated (EF ∼ 1-2, while individual sediment strata from regulated channel banks contains several times larger concentrations of heavy metals.

  11. Preoperative misdiagnosis analysis and accurate distinguish intrathymic cyst from small thymoma on computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Han, Xingpeng; Sun, Wei; Wang, Meng; Jing, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the role of computed tomography (CT) in preoperative diagnosis of intrathymic cyst and small thymoma, and determine the best CT threshold for distinguish intrathymic cyst from small thymoma. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 30 patients (17 intrathymic cyst and 13 small thymoma) who had undergone mediastinal masses resection (with diameter less than 3 cm) under thoracoscope between January 2014 and July 2015 at our hospital. Clinical and CT features were compared and receiver-operating characteristics curve (ROC) analysis was performed. Results The CT value of small thymoma [39.5 HU (IQR, 33.7–42.2 HU)] was significantly higher than intrathymic cyst [25.8 HU (IQR, 22.3–29.3 HU), P=0.004]. When CT value was 31.2 HU, it could act as a threshold for identification of small thymoma and intrathymic cyst (the sensitivity and specificity was 92.3% and 82.4%, respectively). The ΔCT value of enhanced CT value with the non-enhanced CT value was significantly different between small thymoma [18.7 HU (IQR, 10.9–19.0 HU)] and intrathymic cyst [4.3 HU (IQR, 3.0–11.7 HU), P=0.04]. The density was more homogenous in intrathymic cyst than small thymoma, and the contour of the intrathymic cyst was more smoothly than small thymoma. Conclusions Preoperative CT scans could help clinicians to identify intrathymic cyst and small thymoma, and we recommend 31.2 HU as the best thresholds. Contrast-enhanced CT scans is useful for further identification of the two diseases. PMID:27621863

  12. Distinguishing signal from noise: New techniques for gravitational wave data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Paul Thomas

    The principal problem of gravitational wave detection is distinguishing true gravitational wave signals from non-Gaussian noise artifacts. We describe two methods to deal with the problem of non-Gaussian noise in the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Observatory (LIGO). Perturbed black holes (BH) are known to vibrate at determinable quasi-normal mode frequencies. These vibrational modes are strongly excited during the inspiral and merger of binary BH systems. We will develop a template based search for gravitational waves from black hole ringdowns: the final stage of binary merger. Past searches for gravitational waves developed ad hoc detection statistics in an attempt to separate the expected gravitational wave signals from noise. We show how using the output of a multi-variate statistical classifier trained to directly probe the high dimensional parameter space of gravitational waves can improve a search over more traditional means. We conclude by placing preliminary upper limits on the rate of ringdown producing binary BH mergers. LIGO data contains frequent, non-Gaussian, instrument artifacts or glitches. Current LIGO searches for un-modeled gravitational wave bursts are primarily limited by the presence of glitches in analyzed data. We describe the BayesWave algorithm, wherein we model gravitational wave signals and detector glitches simultaneously in the wavelet domain. Using bayesian model selection techniques and a reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo, we are able determine whether data is consistent with the presence of gravitational waves, detector glitches, or both. We demonstrate BayesWave's utility as a data quality tool by fitting glitches non-Gaussian LIGO data. Finally, we discuss how BayesWave can be extended into a full-fledged search for gravitational wave bursts.

  13. Classification algorithms with multi-modal data fusion could accurately distinguish neuromyelitis optica from multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshaghi, Arman; Riyahi-Alam, Sadjad; Saeedi, Roghayyeh; Roostaei, Tina; Nazeri, Arash; Aghsaei, Aida; Doosti, Rozita; Ganjgahi, Habib; Bodini, Benedetta; Shakourirad, Ali; Pakravan, Manijeh; Ghana'ati, Hossein; Firouznia, Kavous; Zarei, Mojtaba; Azimi, Amir Reza; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) exhibits substantial similarities to multiple sclerosis (MS) in clinical manifestations and imaging results and has long been considered a variant of MS. With the advent of a specific biomarker in NMO, known as anti-aquaporin 4, this assumption has changed; however, the differential diagnosis remains challenging and it is still not clear whether a combination of neuroimaging and clinical data could be used to aid clinical decision-making. Computer-aided diagnosis is a rapidly evolving process that holds great promise to facilitate objective differential diagnoses of disorders that show similar presentations. In this study, we aimed to use a powerful method for multi-modal data fusion, known as a multi-kernel learning and performed automatic diagnosis of subjects. We included 30 patients with NMO, 25 patients with MS and 35 healthy volunteers and performed multi-modal imaging with T1-weighted high resolution scans, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). In addition, subjects underwent clinical examinations and cognitive assessments. We included 18 a priori predictors from neuroimaging, clinical and cognitive measures in the initial model. We used 10-fold cross-validation to learn the importance of each modality, train and finally test the model performance. The mean accuracy in differentiating between MS and NMO was 88%, where visible white matter lesion load, normal appearing white matter (DTI) and functional connectivity had the most important contributions to the final classification. In a multi-class classification problem we distinguished between all of 3 groups (MS, NMO and healthy controls) with an average accuracy of 84%. In this classification, visible white matter lesion load, functional connectivity, and cognitive scores were the 3 most important modalities. Our work provides preliminary evidence that computational tools can be used to help make an objective differential diagnosis of NMO and MS.

  14. Distinguishing Intestinal Lymphoma From Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Canine Duodenal Endoscopic Biopsy Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, V; Rodríguez-Bertos, A; Rodríguez-Franco, F; Wise, A G; Maes, R; Mullaney, T; Kiupel, M

    2015-07-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and intestinal lymphoma are intestinal disorders in dogs, both causing similar chronic digestive signs, although with a different prognosis and different treatment requirements. Differentiation between these 2 conditions is based on histopathologic evaluation of intestinal biopsies. However, an accurate diagnosis is often difficult based on histology alone, especially when only endoscopic biopsies are available to differentiate IBD from enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) type 2, a small cell lymphoma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of histopathology; immunohistochemistry (IHC) for CD3, CD20, and Ki-67; and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for antigen receptor rearrangement (T-cell clonality) in the differential diagnosis of severe IBD vs intestinal lymphoma. Endoscopic biopsies from 32 dogs with severe IBD or intestinal lymphoma were evaluated. The original diagnosis was based on microscopic examination of hematoxylin and eosin (HE)-stained sections alone followed by a second evaluation using morphology in association with IHC for CD3 and CD20 and a third evaluation using PCR for clonality. Our results show that, in contrast to feline intestinal lymphomas, 6 of 8 canine small intestinal lymphomas were EATL type 1 (large cell) lymphomas. EATL type 2 was uncommon. Regardless, in dogs, intraepithelial lymphocytes were not an important diagnostic feature to differentiate IBD from EATL as confirmed by PCR. EATL type 1 had a significantly higher Ki-67 index than did EATL type 2 or IBD cases. Based on the results of this study, a stepwise diagnostic approach using histology as the first step, followed by immunophenotyping and determining the Ki67 index and finally PCR for clonality, improves the accuracy of distinguishing intestinal lymphoma from IBD in dogs.

  15. Discriminative ability of reflex receptive fields to distinguish patients with acute and chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Monika; Biurrun Manresa, José A; Treichel, Fabienne; Agten, Christoph A; Heini, Paul; Andersen, Ole K; Curatolo, Michele; Jüni, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Low back pain has a life time prevalence of 70% to 85%. Approximately 10% to 20% of all patients experience recurrent episodes or develop chronic low back pain. Sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics explain the transition from acute to chronic low back pain only to a limited extent. Altered central pain processing may be a contributing mechanism. The measurement of reflex receptive fields (RRF) is a novel method to assess altered central pain processing. The RRF area denotes the area of the foot sole from which spinal nociceptive reflexes can be elicited. It was shown to be enlarged in patients with acute and chronic low back pain compared with pain-free individuals. The aim of the study was to explore the discriminative ability of the RRF to distinguish patients with acute and chronic low back pain with the hypothesis that enlarged RRF are associated with chronic low back pain. We included 214 patients with either acute or chronic low back pain and compared RRF between groups in both univariable and multivariable analyses adjusted for different sociodemographic and clinical characteristics possibly associated with the transition to chronic pain. We found a mean difference between patients with acute and chronic low back pain of -0.01 (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.06 to 0.04) in the crude, -0.02 (95% CI, -0.08 to 0.04) in the age and sex adjusted, and -0.02 (95% CI, -0.09 to 0.05) in the fully adjusted model. Our results suggest that the enlargement of RRF area may not be associated with the transition from acute to chronic low back pain.

  16. Classification algorithms with multi-modal data fusion could accurately distinguish neuromyelitis optica from multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Eshaghi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO exhibits substantial similarities to multiple sclerosis (MS in clinical manifestations and imaging results and has long been considered a variant of MS. With the advent of a specific biomarker in NMO, known as anti-aquaporin 4, this assumption has changed; however, the differential diagnosis remains challenging and it is still not clear whether a combination of neuroimaging and clinical data could be used to aid clinical decision-making. Computer-aided diagnosis is a rapidly evolving process that holds great promise to facilitate objective differential diagnoses of disorders that show similar presentations. In this study, we aimed to use a powerful method for multi-modal data fusion, known as a multi-kernel learning and performed automatic diagnosis of subjects. We included 30 patients with NMO, 25 patients with MS and 35 healthy volunteers and performed multi-modal imaging with T1-weighted high resolution scans, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting-state functional MRI (fMRI. In addition, subjects underwent clinical examinations and cognitive assessments. We included 18 a priori predictors from neuroimaging, clinical and cognitive measures in the initial model. We used 10-fold cross-validation to learn the importance of each modality, train and finally test the model performance. The mean accuracy in differentiating between MS and NMO was 88%, where visible white matter lesion load, normal appearing white matter (DTI and functional connectivity had the most important contributions to the final classification. In a multi-class classification problem we distinguished between all of 3 groups (MS, NMO and healthy controls with an average accuracy of 84%. In this classification, visible white matter lesion load, functional connectivity, and cognitive scores were the 3 most important modalities. Our work provides preliminary evidence that computational tools can be used to help make an objective differential diagnosis

  17. Multivariate Criteria Most Accurately Distinguish Cardiac from Noncardiac Causes of Dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mirza Nubair; Yusuf, Syed Hasan; Ullah, Rafath; Ahmad, Mirza Mujadil; Ellis, Mary K; Yousaf, Haroon; Paterick, Timothy E; Ammar, Khawaja Afzal

    2015-12-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing provides oxygen pulse as a continuous measure of stroke volume, which is superior to other stress-testing methods in which systolic function is measured at baseline and at peak stress. However, the optimal peak oxygen pulse criterion for distinguishing cardiac from noncardiac causes of exercise limitation is unknown. In comparing several peak oxygen pulse criteria against the clinical standard of cardiopulmonary exercise testing, we retrospectively studied 54 consecutive patients referred for cardiopulmonary exercise testing. These exercise tests included measurement of oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, breathing reserve, arterial blood gases at baseline and at peak stress, exercise electrocardiogram, heart rate, and blood pressure response. Results were blindly interpreted and patients were categorized as members either of our Cardiac Group (abnormal result secondary to cardiac causes of exercise limitation) or of our Noncardiac Group (normal or abnormal result secondary to any noncardiac cause of exercise limitation). The accuracy of the peak oxygen pulse criteria ranged from 50% for univariate criterion (≤15 mL/beat), to 61% for oxygen pulse curve pattern, to 63% for bivariate criterion (≤15 mL/beat for men, ≤10 mL/beat for women), to as high as 81% for a multivariate criterion. All multivariate criteria outperformed oxygen pulse curve pattern, univariate, and bivariate criteria. This is the first study to evaluate the optimal peak oxygen pulse criterion for differentiating cardiac from noncardiac causes of exercise limitation. Multivariate criteria (especially a criterion incorporating age, sex, height, and weight) should be used preferentially, as opposed to the commonly used univariate and bivariate criteria.

  18. Distinguishing 3He and 4He with the Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) on Solar Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, S.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Steinhagen, J.; Tammen, J.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Boettcher, S. I.; Seimetz, L.; Ravanbakhsh, A.; Elftmann, R.; Schuster, B.; Kulemzin, A.; Kolbe, S.; Mahesh, Y.; Knieriem, V.; Yu, J.; Kohler, J.; Panitzsch, L.; Terasa, C.; Boehm, E.; Rodriguez-Pacheco, J.; Prieto, M.; Gomez-Herrero, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) is one of the sensors of the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) for the Solar Orbiter mission, which will provide key measurements to address particle acceleration at and near the Sun. The EPD suite consists of four different sensors (STEP, SIS, EPT and HET) which together will resolve the energetic particle spectrum from 2 keV to 20 MeV for electrons, 3 keV to 100 MeV for protons and circa 100 keV/nuc to 100 MeV/nuc for heavier ions.EPT itself is primarily designed to cleanly separate and measure electrons in the energy range from 20 - 400 keV and protons from 20 - 7000 keV. To achieve this, EPT uses two back-to-back solid state detectors with a magnet system to deflect electrons on one side and a Polyimide foil to stop protons below ~400 keV on the other side. The two detectors then serve as each other's anti-coincidence. Additionally this setup also allows us to measure penetrating particles with deposited energies in the 1 MeV to 40 MeV range. Looking at the ratio of deposited energy in the two detectors versus total deposited energy allows us to differentiate between protons and alpha particles. Distinguishing 3He from 4He will be challenging, but possible provided good knowledge of the instrument, high-fidelity modeling and a precise calibration of EPT. Here, we will present feasibility studies leading to a determination of the 3He / 4He ratio with EPT.

  19. Rainfall-runoff temporal variability in Kermanshah province, Iran and distinguishing anthropogenic effects from climatic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafarian, P.; Gholami, S.; Owlad, E.; Gerivani, H.

    2016-08-01

    Investigation of changes in rainfall and runoff patterns in various regions and determining their relationship in the sense of hydrology and climatology are of great importance, considering those patterns efficiently reveal the human and natural factors in this variability. One of the mathematical methods to recognise and model these fluctuations is Wavelet Analysis. This is a spectral method used in multivariate analysis and also tracing fluctuations in temporal series. In this study, continuous wavelet transformation is used to identify temporal changes in rainfall-runoff patterns. The hydrological and rain gauge data were collected from in situ measurements of Kermanshah province located in the western border of Iran. Precipitation anomalies were reconsidered in a number of stations, including Kermanshah, for a period of 55 years (1955-2010) and discharge of Gamasiab River in Polchehr station, discharge of Khoram Rood River in Aran-Gharb station and discharge of Gharasoo River in Polekohne station. In addition, anomalies of the climatic teleconnections were studied to emphasise the climatological effects on the runoff pattern in the region. The role of natural and anthropogenic effects (land use changes) has been distinguished and identified, using the comparison of the teleconnections and hydrological data. The results achieved from three stations show that there was an approximate correlation between rainfall, runoff and teleconnections until the year 1995; however, after 1995, a great difference appeared among them, specifically for the Aran-Gharb station (Khoram Rood River). The post-1995 slope of cumulative standardised anomaly is much steeper in the case of runoff compared to rainfall. As there were no significant climate changes in the region, it could be concluded that the runoff decrease is not caused by climate changes, but by anthropogenic effects, human interventions and extra water usage from the surface and underground water resources for

  20. A reliable approach to distinguish between transient with and without HFOs using TQWT and MCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaibi, Sahbi; Lajnef, Tarek; Sakka, Zied; Samet, Mounir; Kachouri, Abdennaceur

    2014-07-30

    Recent studies have reported that discrete high frequency oscillations (HFOs) in the range of 80-500Hz may serve as promising biomarkers of the seizure focus in humans. Visual scoring of HFOs is tiring, time consuming, highly subjective and requires a great deal of mental concentration. Due to the recent explosion of HFOs research, development of a robust automated detector is expected to play a vital role in studying HFOs and their relationship to epileptogenesis. Therefore, a handful of automated detectors have been introduced in the literature over the past few years. In fact, all the proposed methods have been associated with high false-positive rates, which essentially arising from filtered sharp transients like spikes, sharp waves and artifacts. In order to specifically minimize false positive rates and improve the specificity of HFOs detection, we proposed a new approach, which is a combination of tunable Q-factor wavelet transform (TQWT), morphological component analysis (MCA) and complex Morlet wavelet (CMW). The main findings of this study can be summarized as follows: The proposed method results in a sensitivity of 96.77%, a specificity of 85.00% and a false discovery rate (FDR) of 07.41%. Compared to this, the classical CMW method applied directly on the signals without pre-processing by TQWT-MCA achieves a sensitivity of 98.71%, a specificity of 18.75%, and an FDR of 29.95%. The proposed method may be considered highly accurate to distinguish between transients with and without HFOs. Consequently, it is remarkably reliable and robust for the detection of HFOs.

  1. Distinguishing protein-coding from non-coding RNAs through support vector machines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Liu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available RIKEN's FANTOM project has revealed many previously unknown coding sequences, as well as an unexpected degree of variation in transcripts resulting from alternative promoter usage and splicing. Ever more transcripts that do not code for proteins have been identified by transcriptome studies, in general. Increasing evidence points to the important cellular roles of such non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs. The distinction of protein-coding RNA transcripts from ncRNA transcripts is therefore an important problem in understanding the transcriptome and carrying out its annotation. Very few in silico methods have specifically addressed this problem. Here, we introduce CONC (for "coding or non-coding", a novel method based on support vector machines that classifies transcripts according to features they would have if they were coding for proteins. These features include peptide length, amino acid composition, predicted secondary structure content, predicted percentage of exposed residues, compositional entropy, number of homologs from database searches, and alignment entropy. Nucleotide frequencies are also incorporated into the method. Confirmed coding cDNAs for eukaryotic proteins from the Swiss-Prot database constituted the set of true positives, ncRNAs from RNAdb and NONCODE the true negatives. Ten-fold cross-validation suggested that CONC distinguished coding RNAs from ncRNAs at about 97% specificity and 98% sensitivity. Applied to 102,801 mouse cDNAs from the FANTOM3 dataset, our method reliably identified over 14,000 ncRNAs and estimated the total number of ncRNAs to be about 28,000.

  2. Neurophysiological marker of inhibition distinguishes language groups on a non-linguistic executive function test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, M; Tartar, J L; Padron, D; Acosta, J

    2013-12-01

    Successful interaction with the environment depends on flexible behaviors which require shifting attention, inhibiting primed responses, ignoring distracting information, and withholding motor responses. These abilities, termed executive function (EF), are believed to be mediated by inhibitory processes in the frontal lobes. Superior performance on EF tests (i.e., faster reaction times (RT), and fewer errors) has been shown in bilinguals compared to monolingual speakers. However, findings are inconsistent, and no study has directly linked this bilingual advantage to frontal lobe inhibitory processes. To clarify this uncertainty, we concomitantly tested neural inhibitory processes and behavioral responses on an EF test in bilinguals and monolinguals. Specifically, we compared English monolinguals (N=15) to Spanish/English bilinguals (N=13) on event-related brain potentials (ERP) during a non-linguistic, auditory Go/NoGo task, a task linked to non-motor, cognitive inhibition in monolinguals. Participants responded with a button press on trials in which target tone-pairs (Go trials) were presented and withheld their responses on non-target trials (NoGo trials). Results revealed significantly greater inhibition (i.e., greater mean N2 amplitude) in bilinguals compared to monolinguals during NoGo trials even though both groups performed the task equally well (i.e., withheld a motor response). On Go trials where participants pressed a response button, neither ERPs nor RT distinguished the groups. Additionally, scores on a second language proficiency test (i.e., English in our bilingual group) were positively correlated with N2 amplitude. These findings are the first to directly link this bilingual advantage to a neural correlate of inhibition and to reveal that inhibition in bilinguals is moderated by second language proficiency. Results are discussed in the context of plasticity, and we propose that evaluating bilinguals at varying levels of second-language proficiency

  3. Phage display-derived binders able to distinguish Listeria monocytogenes from other Listeria species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Josephine; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Charlermroj, Ratthaphol; Stewart, Linda D; Elliott, Christopher T; Grant, Irene R

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to produce phage display-derived binders with the ability to distinguish Listeria monocytogenes from other Listeria spp., which may have potential utility to enhance detection of Listeria monocytogenes. To obtain binders with the desired binding specificity a series of surface and solution phage-display biopannings were performed. Initially, three rounds of surface biopanning against gamma-irradiated L. monocytogenes serovar 4b cells were performed followed by an additional surface biopanning round against L. monocytogenes 4b which included prior subtraction biopanning against gamma-irradiated L. innocua cells. In an attempt to further enhance binder specificity for L. monocytogenes 4b two rounds of solution biopanning were performed, both rounds included initial subtraction solution biopanning against L. innocua. Subsequent evaluations were performed on the phage clones by phage binding ELISA. All phage clones tested from the second round of solution biopanning had higher specificity for L. monocytogenes 4b than for L. innocua and three other foodborne pathogens (Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni). Further evaluation with five other Listeria spp. revealed that one phage clone in particular, expressing peptide GRIADLPPLKPN, was highly specific for L. monocytogenes with at least 43-fold more binding capability to L. monocytogenes 4b than to any other Listeria sp. This proof-of-principle study demonstrates how a combination of surface, solution and subtractive biopanning was used to maximise binder specificity. L. monocytogenes-specific binders were obtained which could have potential application in novel detection tests for L. monocytogenes, benefiting both the food and medical industries.

  4. Predictive gene signatures: molecular markers distinguishing colon adenomatous polyp and carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Janice E; Farquharson, Andrew J; Mayer, Claus Dieter; Vase, Hollie F; Coates, Philip J; Steele, Robert J; Carey, Francis A

    2014-01-01

    Cancers exhibit abnormal molecular signatures associated with disease initiation and progression. Molecular signatures could improve cancer screening, detection, drug development and selection of appropriate drug therapies for individual patients. Typically only very small amounts of tissue are available from patients for analysis and biopsy samples exhibit broad heterogeneity that cannot be captured using a single marker. This report details application of an in-house custom designed GenomeLab System multiplex gene expression assay, the hCellMarkerPlex, to assess predictive gene signatures of normal, adenomatous polyp and carcinoma colon tissue using archived tissue bank material. The hCellMarkerPlex incorporates twenty-one gene markers: epithelial (EZR, KRT18, NOX1, SLC9A2), proliferation (PCNA, CCND1, MS4A12), differentiation (B4GANLT2, CDX1, CDX2), apoptotic (CASP3, NOX1, NTN1), fibroblast (FSP1, COL1A1), structural (ACTG2, CNN1, DES), gene transcription (HDAC1), stem cell (LGR5), endothelial (VWF) and mucin production (MUC2). Gene signatures distinguished normal, adenomatous polyp and carcinoma. Individual gene targets significantly contributing to molecular tissue types, classifier genes, were further characterised using real-time PCR, in-situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry revealing aberrant epithelial expression of MS4A12, LGR5 CDX2, NOX1 and SLC9A2 prior to development of carcinoma. Identified gene signatures identify aberrant epithelial expression of genes prior to cancer development using in-house custom designed gene expression multiplex assays. This approach may be used to assist in objective classification of disease initiation, staging, progression and therapeutic responses using biopsy material.

  5. Molecular phenotypes distinguish patients with relatively stable from progressive idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Boon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a progressive, chronic interstitial lung disease that is unresponsive to current therapy and often leads to death. However, the rate of disease progression differs among patients. We hypothesized that comparing the gene expression profiles between patients with stable disease and those in which the disease progressed rapidly will lead to biomarker discovery and contribute to the understanding of disease pathogenesis. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To begin to address this hypothesis, we applied Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE to generate lung expression profiles from diagnostic surgical lung biopsies in 6 individuals with relatively stable (or slowly progressive IPF and 6 individuals with progressive IPF (based on changes in DLCO and FVC over 12 months. Our results indicate that this comprehensive lung IPF SAGE transcriptome is distinct from normal lung tissue and other chronic lung diseases. To identify candidate markers of disease progression, we compared the IPF SAGE profiles in stable and progressive disease, and identified a set of 102 transcripts that were at least 5-fold up regulated and a set of 89 transcripts that were at least 5-fold down regulated in the progressive group (P-valuedistinguished relatively stable from progressive IPF. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that molecular signatures from lung parenchyma at the time of diagnosis could prove helpful in predicting the

  6. Predictive gene signatures: molecular markers distinguishing colon adenomatous polyp and carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice E Drew

    Full Text Available Cancers exhibit abnormal molecular signatures associated with disease initiation and progression. Molecular signatures could improve cancer screening, detection, drug development and selection of appropriate drug therapies for individual patients. Typically only very small amounts of tissue are available from patients for analysis and biopsy samples exhibit broad heterogeneity that cannot be captured using a single marker. This report details application of an in-house custom designed GenomeLab System multiplex gene expression assay, the hCellMarkerPlex, to assess predictive gene signatures of normal, adenomatous polyp and carcinoma colon tissue using archived tissue bank material. The hCellMarkerPlex incorporates twenty-one gene markers: epithelial (EZR, KRT18, NOX1, SLC9A2, proliferation (PCNA, CCND1, MS4A12, differentiation (B4GANLT2, CDX1, CDX2, apoptotic (CASP3, NOX1, NTN1, fibroblast (FSP1, COL1A1, structural (ACTG2, CNN1, DES, gene transcription (HDAC1, stem cell (LGR5, endothelial (VWF and mucin production (MUC2. Gene signatures distinguished normal, adenomatous polyp and carcinoma. Individual gene targets significantly contributing to molecular tissue types, classifier genes, were further characterised using real-time PCR, in-situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry revealing aberrant epithelial expression of MS4A12, LGR5 CDX2, NOX1 and SLC9A2 prior to development of carcinoma. Identified gene signatures identify aberrant epithelial expression of genes prior to cancer development using in-house custom designed gene expression multiplex assays. This approach may be used to assist in objective classification of disease initiation, staging, progression and therapeutic responses using biopsy material.

  7. Distinguishing between enamel fluorosis and other enamel defects in permanent teeth of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aira Sabokseir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The inconsistent prevalence of fluorosis for a given level of fluoride in drinking water suggests developmental defects of enamel (DDEs other than fluorosis were being misdiagnosed as fluorosis. The imprecise definition and subjective perception of fluorosis indices could result in misdiagnosis of dental fluorosis. This study was conducted to distinguish genuine fluorosis from fluorosis-resembling defects that could have adverse health-related events as a cause using Early Childhood Events Life-grid method (ECEL. Methods. A study was conducted on 400 9-year-old children from areas with high, optimal and low levels of fluoride in the drinking water of Fars province, Iran. Fluorosis cases were diagnosed on the standardized one view photographs of the anterior teeth using Dean’s and TF (Thylstrup and Fejerskov Indices by calibrated dentists. Agreements between examiners were tested. Early childhood health-related data collected retrospectively by ECEL method were matched with the position of enamel defects. Results. Using both Dean and TF indices three out of four dentists diagnosed that 31.3% (115 children had fluorosis, 58.0%, 29.1%, and 10.0% in high (2.12–2.85 ppm, optimal (0.62–1.22 ppm, and low (0.24–0.29 ppm fluoride areas respectively (p < 0.001. After matching health-related events in the 115 (31.3% of children diagnosed with fluorosis, 31 (8.4% of children had fluorosis which could be matched with their adverse health-related events. This suggests that what was diagnosed as fluorosis were non-fluoride related DDEs that resemble fluorosis. Discussion. The frequently used measures of fluorosis appear to overscore fluorosis. Use of ECEL method to consider health related events relevant to DDEs could help to differentiate between genuine fluorosis and fluorosis-resembling defects.

  8. A molecular biological protocol to distinguish potentially human pathogenic Stenotrophomonas maltophilia from plant-associated Stenotrophomonas rhizophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribbeck-Busch, K.; Roder, A.; Hasse, D.; De Boer, W.; Martinez, J.L.; Hagemann, M.; Berg, G.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the importance of the Gram-negative bacterium Stenotrophomonas as an opportunistic pathogen as well as in biotechnology has increased. The aim of the present study was to develop new methods for distinguishing between strains closely related to the potentially human pathogenic Steno

  9. Action Researchers' Perspectives about the Distinguishing Characteristics of Action Research: A Delphi and Learning Circles Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Lonnie L.; Polush, Elena Yu; Riel, Margaret; Bruewer, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify distinguishing characteristics of action research within the Action Research Special Interest Group of the American Educational Research Association. The authors sought to delineate the foundational framework endorsed by this community. The study was conducted during January-April 2012 and employed an…

  10. 29 CFR 779.341 - Sales “made within the State” and “engagement in commerce” distinguished.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in commerce” distinguished. Sales to customers located in the same State as the establishment are sales made “within the State” even though such sales may constitute engagement in interstate commerce as... order; or (c) is made to a customer for use in interstate commerce or in production of goods for...

  11. Beijing Star River: An Elegant-Distinguished Pet Stone(International Marketing Masters Make Marketings for Beijing Star River)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian

    2005-01-01

    @@ Star River(or Star Bay), an elite works of Hong Yu Group, is located in Sijixinghe Road, Chaoyang Beilu,Beijing. It is a distinguished residence area, occupying land of 300 thousand sq. Meters. The north side is a forest garden with 1600 or more mu, the eastern side is a green belt with 2000-more mu.

  12. Beijing Star River: An Elegant-Distinguished Pet Stone(International Marketing Masters Make Marketings for Beijing Star River)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Yongjian

    2005-01-01

      Star River(or Star Bay), an elite works of Hong Yu Group, is located in Sijixinghe Road, Chaoyang Beilu,Beijing. It is a distinguished residence area, occupying land of 300 thousand sq. Meters. The north side is a forest garden with 1600 or more mu, the eastern side is a green belt with 2000-more mu.……

  13. A Factor Analytic Approach to Distinguish Pure and Co-Occurring Dimensions of Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula J.; Colder, Craig R.; Pelham, William E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This study used a confirmatory factor model to distinguish pure and co-occurring dimensions of proactive and reactive aggression, and examined the relation between parenting variables and these dimensions of aggression in a sample of 100 children (9 to 12 years of age; 69 boys). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported 3 dimensions of…

  14. Diagnostic value of combined versus individual MRI parameters in distinguishing adenomatous from non-adenomatous adrenal lesions in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Emad-Eldin

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The most specific predictors for adrenal mass characterization were CSI signal drop and Gd-DTPA enhancement characteristics. Combining the MR parameters did not prove superior to those two individual parameters, however it yielded a valuable diagnostic protocol for distinguishing the adrenal masses, considering that size criterion should not be used as an individual discriminator.

  15. Albert Einstein Distinguished Educators Fellowship Act of 1994. Report To Accompany S. 2104. 103D Congress, 2d Session, Senate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources.

    This document contains the text of the "Albert Einstein Distinguished Educators Fellowship Act of 1994" (S. 2104) along with related analysis. The bill establishes a Department of Energy (DOE) fellowship program for math and science teachers that provides them opportunities to work at DOE labs in order to enhance coordination and…

  16. Individual, Family, and Neighborhood Factors Distinguish Resilient from Non-Resilient Maltreated Children: A Cumulative Stressors Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Sara R.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Polo-Tomas, Monica; Taylor, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Children who are physically maltreated are at risk of a range of adverse outcomes in childhood and adulthood, but some children who are maltreated manage to function well despite their history of adversity. Which individual, family, and neighborhood characteristics distinguish resilient from non-resilient maltreated children? Do…

  17. Use of propidium monoazide in reverse transcriptase PCR to distinguish between infectious and noninfectious enteric viruses in water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human enteric viruses can be present in untreated and inadequately treated drinking water. Molecular methods, such as the reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), can detect viral genomes in a few hours, but they cannot distinguish between infectious and noninfectious viruses. Since o...

  18. Why Can't Learners of Japanese as a Foreign Language Distinguish Polite from Impolite Speech Styles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Haruko Minegichi

    A study investigated the extent to which American learners of Japanese as a foreign language (JFL) are able to distinguish polite Japanese speech, and the effect of instruction on this skill. Specifically, it looked at performance on a midterm listening comprehension question in which students listened to self-introductory speeches of three job…

  19. The Value of CT Attenuation in Distinguishing Atypical Adenomatous Hyperplasia from Adenocarcinoma in Situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binghu JIANG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Advances in high-resolution computed tomography (CT scanning have increased the detection of small ground-glass opacity (GGO nodules and also allowed such images to be investigated in detail. However, it is difficult to differentiate atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH from adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS with CT, even at follow-up, because they share many similar CT manifestations. While AAH is thought to be a precursor or even an early-stage lesion of lung adenocarcinoma, and the stepwise progression from AAH to AIS is thought to be reasonable. Therefore, the hypothesis that the attenuation of GGO is increased gradually from AAH to AIS is proposed. The aim of this study was to distinguish AAH from AIS with CT attenuation in patients with pure GGO nodules. 
Methods: Between January 2010 and December 2012, the CT findings in terms of the greatest diameter and mean CT attenuation (HU were reviewed and correlated with pathology in 56 patients with AAH (n=21 and non-mucinous AIS (n=38 by two independent observers. All the 59 lesions were pure GGO nodules with size of 2 cm or smaller. To determine variability of measuring CT attenuation, we calculated the 95% confidence interval (CI for the limits of agreement by using Bland-Altman analysis. Student t test was used to compare AAH and AIS in terms of diameter and CT attenuation. And receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to determine the optimal cut-off value of mean CT attenuation for differentiating AAH from AIS and obtain the diagnostic value. Two-tailed P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. 
Results: For the manually measured CT attenuation, the 95%CI for the limits of agreement was -40 HU, 50 HU for inter-observer variability. Although there was significant difference in nodule diameter between AAH and AIS (P=0.046, the overlap was considerable. The mean CT attenuation was (-718±53 HU (95%CI: -822, -604 for AAH, which was

  20. The Value of CT Attenuation in Distinguishing Atypical Adenomatous Hyperplasia from Adenocarcinoma in Situ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binghu JIANG; Jichen WANG; Peng JIA; Meizhao LE

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective:Advances in high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scanning have increased the detection of small ground-glass opacity (GGO) nodules and also allowed such images to be investigated in detail. However, it is diffcult to differentiate atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) from adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) with CT, even at follow-up, because they share many similar CT manifestations. While AAH is thought to be a precursor or even an early-stage lesion of lung adenocarcinoma, and the stepwise progression from AAH to AIS is thought to be reasonable. hTerefore, the hypothesis that the attenuation of GGO is increased gradually from AAH to AIS is proposed. hTe aim of this study was to distinguish AAH from AIS with CT attenuation in patients with pure GGO nodules. Methods:Between January 2010 and December 2012, the CT ifndings in terms of the greatest diameter and mean CT attenuation (HU) were reviewed and correlated with pathology in 56 patients with AAH (n=21) and non-mucinous AIS (n=38) by two independent observers. All the 59 lesions were pure GGO nodules with size of 2 cm or smaller. To determine variability of measuring CT attenuation, we calculated the 95%conifdence interval (CI) for the limits of agreement by using Bland-Altman analysis. Student t test was used to compare AAH and AIS in terms of diameter and CT attenuation. And receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the optimal cut-off value of mean CT attenuation for differentiating AAH from AIS and obtain the diagnostic value. Two-tailed P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be signiifcant. Results:For the manually measured CT attenuation, the 95%CI for the limits of agreement was-40 HU, 50 HU for inter-observer variability. Although there was significant difference in nodule diameter between AAH and AIS (P=0.046), the overlap was considerable. hTe mean CT attenuation was (-718±53) HU (95%CI:-822,-604) for AAH, which was signiifcantly smaller than

  1. A robust classifier to distinguish noise from fMRI independent components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Sochat

    Full Text Available Analyzing Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI of resting brains to determine the spatial location and activity of intrinsic brain networks--a novel and burgeoning research field--is limited by the lack of ground truth and the tendency of analyses to overfit the data. Independent Component Analysis (ICA is commonly used to separate the data into signal and Gaussian noise components, and then map these components on to spatial networks. Identifying noise from this data, however, is a tedious process that has proven hard to automate, particularly when data from different institutions, subjects, and scanners is used. Here we present an automated method to delineate noisy independent components in ICA using a data-driven infrastructure that queries a database of 246 spatial and temporal features to discover a computational signature of different types of noise. We evaluated the performance of our method to detect noisy components from healthy control fMRI (sensitivity = 0.91, specificity = 0.82, cross validation accuracy (CVA = 0.87, area under the curve (AUC = 0.93, and demonstrate its generalizability by showing equivalent performance on (1 an age- and scanner-matched cohort of schizophrenia patients from the same institution (sensitivity = 0.89, specificity = 0.83, CVA = 0.86, (2 an age-matched cohort on an equivalent scanner from a different institution (sensitivity = 0.88, specificity = 0.88, CVA = 0.88, and (3 an age-matched cohort on a different scanner from a different institution (sensitivity = 0.72, specificity = 0.92, CVA = 0.79. We additionally compare our approach with a recently published method. Our results suggest that our method is robust to noise variations due to population as well as scanner differences, thereby making it well suited to the goal of automatically distinguishing noise from functional networks to enable investigation of human brain function.

  2. Emotions in prospective secondary teachers when teaching science content, distinguishing by gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belén Borrachero, Ana; Brígido, María; Mellado, Lucía; Costillo, Emilio; Mellado, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    Background:Until recently, the affective components of education had long been undervalued. Today, one finds ever more studies on cognitive and affective interrelationships that are lending support to the idea that affect and cognition are best understood when viewed as independent and complementary mental functions. Purpose:The present work analyses the emotions of prospective secondary education teachers, distinguishing them by gender, in relation to the teaching of Biology, Geology, Physics and Chemistry in order to contribute to designing subsequent interventions targeted at improving science teachers' occupational health. Sample:The total sample consisted of 178 students (53 male and 125 female) of the post-graduate teaching certificate course at the University of Extremadura, all of whom were prospective secondary school teachers. We also worked with a sub-sample of 66 Science and Engineering graduates (33 male and 33 female). Design and methods:A questionnaire was prepared that includes items on each of the emotions that the prospective teacher might feel when teaching the science content of the proposed courses. The chi-squared test was used to determine whether a relationship exists between emotions and the variable gender when it came to their teaching Biology, Geology, Physics and Chemistry at the compulsory secondary education level. Results:The results showed that the male teachers more frequently report positive emotions than the female. The latter manifested an increase in negative emotions in teaching Geology, Physics and Chemistry content. And the study of the sub-sample showed positive emotions are more frequently reported than negative ones in all four subjects, with this being particularly so in Biology. Conclusions:The study of emotions is vital in the educational formation of prospective secondary teachers. These students will soon face day-to-day life in the classroom, and many of them, especially the women, declare themselves to be

  3. Distinguishing the genotype 1 genes and proteins of human Wa-like rotaviruses vs. porcine rotaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernanda D F; Gregori, F; McDonald, Sarah M

    2016-09-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are 11-segmented, double-stranded RNA viruses and important causes of gastroenteritis in the young of many animal species. Previous studies have suggested that human Wa-like RVAs share a close evolutionary relationship with porcine RVAs. Specifically, the VP1-VP3 and NSP2-5/6 genes of these viruses are usually classified as genotype 1 with >81% nucleotide sequence identity. Yet, it remains unknown whether the genotype 1 genes and proteins of human Wa-like strains are distinguishable from those of porcine strains. To investigate this, we performed comprehensive bioinformatic analyses using all known genotype 1 gene sequences. The RVAs analyzed represent wildtype strains isolated from humans or pigs at various geographical locations during the years of 2004-2013, including 11 newly-sequenced porcine RVAs from Brazil. We also analyzed archival strains that were isolated during the years of 1977-1992 as well as atypical strains involved in inter-species transmission between humans and pigs. We found that, in general, the genotype 1 genes of typical modern human Wa-like RVAs clustered together in phylogenetic trees and were separate from those of typical modern porcine RVAs. The only exception was for the NSP5/6 gene, which showed no host-specific phylogenetic clustering. Using amino acid sequence alignments, we identified 34 positions that differentiated the VP1-VP3, NSP2, and NSP3 genotype 1 proteins of typical modern human Wa-like RVAs versus typical modern porcine RVAs and documented how these positions vary in the archival/unusual isolates. No host-specific amino acid positions were identified for NSP4, NSP5, or NSP6. Altogether, the results of this study support the notion that human Wa-like RVAs and porcine RVAs are evolutionarily related, but indicate that some of their genotype 1 genes and proteins have diverged over time possibly as a reflection of sequestered replication and protein co-adaptation in their respective hosts.

  4. Ictal high frequency oscillations distinguish two types of seizure territories in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Shennan A; Banks, Garrett P; McKhann, Guy M; Goodman, Robert R; Emerson, Ronald G; Trevelyan, Andrew J; Schevon, Catherine A

    2013-12-01

    High frequency oscillations have been proposed as a clinically useful biomarker of seizure generating sites. We used a unique set of human microelectrode array recordings (four patients, 10 seizures), in which propagating seizure wavefronts could be readily identified, to investigate the basis of ictal high frequency activity at the cortical (subdural) surface. Sustained, repetitive transient increases in high gamma (80-150 Hz) amplitude, phase-locked to the low-frequency (1-25 Hz) ictal rhythm, correlated with strong multi-unit firing bursts synchronized across the core territory of the seizure. These repetitive high frequency oscillations were seen in recordings from subdural electrodes adjacent to the microelectrode array several seconds after seizure onset, following ictal wavefront passage. Conversely, microelectrode recordings demonstrating only low-level, heterogeneous neural firing correlated with a lack of high frequency oscillations in adjacent subdural recording sites, despite the presence of a strong low-frequency signature. Previously, we reported that this pattern indicates a failure of the seizure to invade the area, because of a feedforward inhibitory veto mechanism. Because multi-unit firing rate and high gamma amplitude are closely related, high frequency oscillations can be used as a surrogate marker to distinguish the core seizure territory from the surrounding penumbra. We developed an efficient measure to detect delayed-onset, sustained ictal high frequency oscillations based on cross-frequency coupling between high gamma amplitude and the low-frequency (1-25 Hz) ictal rhythm. When applied to the broader subdural recording, this measure consistently predicted the timing or failure of ictal invasion, and revealed a surprisingly small and slowly spreading seizure core surrounded by a far larger penumbral territory. Our findings thus establish an underlying neural mechanism for delayed-onset, sustained ictal high frequency oscillations, and

  5. Functional neuroimaging with default mode network regions distinguishes PTSD from TBI in a military veteran population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raji, Cyrus A; Willeumier, Kristen; Taylor, Derek; Tarzwell, Robert; Newberg, Andrew; Henderson, Theodore A; Amen, Daniel G

    2015-09-01

    PTSD and TBI are two common conditions in veteran populations that can be difficult to distinguish clinically. The default mode network (DMN) is abnormal in a multitude of neurological and psychiatric disorders. We hypothesize that brain perfusion SPECT can be applied to diagnostically separate PTSD from TBI reliably in a veteran cohort using DMN regions. A group of 196 veterans (36 with PTSD, 115 with TBI, 45 with PTSD/TBI) were selected from a large multi-site population cohort of individuals with psychiatric disease. Inclusion criteria were peacetime or wartime veterans regardless of branch of service and included those for whom the traumatic brain injury was not service related. SPECT imaging was performed on this group both at rest and during a concentration task. These measures, as well as the baseline-concentration difference, were then inputted from DMN regions into separate binary logistic regression models controlling for age, gender, race, clinic site, co-morbid psychiatric diseases, TBI severity, whether or not the TBI was service related, and branch of armed service. Predicted probabilities were then inputted into a receiver operating characteristic analysis to compute sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Compared to PSTD, persons with TBI were older, male, and had higher rates of bipolar and major depressive disorder (p TBI in the veterans with 92 % sensitivity, 85 % specificity, and 94 % accuracy. With concentration scans, there was 85 % sensitivity, 83 % specificity and 89 % accuracy. Baseline-concentration (the difference metric between the two scans) scans were 85 % sensitivity, 80 % specificity, and 87 % accuracy. In separating TBI from PTSD/TBI visual readings of baseline scans had 85 % sensitivity, 81 % specificity, and 83 % accuracy. Concentration scans had 80 % sensitivity, 65 % specificity, and 79 % accuracy. Baseline-concentration scans had 82 % sensitivity, 69 % specificity, and 81 % accuracy. For separating PTSD

  6. Distinguishing grass from ground using LiDAR: Techniques and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, J. D.; Swetnam, T.; Papuga, S. A.; Nelson, K.; Brooks, P. D.; Harpold, A. A.; Chorover, J.

    2011-12-01

    Standard protocols exist for extracting bare-earth Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) from LiDAR point clouds that include trees and other large woody vegetation. Grasses and other herbaceous plants can also obscure the ground surface, yet methods for optimally distinguishing grass from ground to generate accurate LiDAR-based raster products for geomorphic and ecological applications are still under development. Developing such methods is important because LiDAR-based difference products (e.g. snow thickness) require accurate representations of the ground surface and because raster data for grass height and density have important applications in ecology. In this study, we developed and tested methods for constructing optimal bare-earth and grass height raster layers from LiDAR point clouds and compared the results to high-quality field-based measurements of grass height, density, and species type for nearly 1000 precisely geo-referenced locations collected during the acquisition of a >200 km^2 airborne LiDAR flight of the Valles Caldera National Preserve (New Mexico). In cases of partially bare ground (where the skewness of return heights above a plane fit to the lowest first returns is sufficiently large), a planar fit to the lowest first returns provides a good method of producing an accurate bare-earth DEM and the statistics of the first returns above that planar fit provide good estimates of the mean and variance of grass height. In areas of relatively thick grass cover, however, a fit to the lowest first returns yields a bare-earth DEM that may be a meter or more above the actual ground surface. Here we propose a method to solve this problem using field-measured correlations among the mean, variance, and skewness of grass heights. In this method, the variance and skewness of the differences between LiDAR first returns and a 10m^2 planar fit to the lowest first returns is used, together with field-based correlations of grass height statistics, to estimate the mean

  7. Distinguishing spatiotemporal variability of sediment sources in small urbanized catchment as a response to urban expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Vladimir; Feoktistov, Artem; Huygens, Dries; Shamshurina, Eugenia; Golosov, Valentin

    2014-05-01

    for distinguishing contributions of different sediment sources into catchment sediment budgets on a reliable quantitative basis. In combination with microstratigraphic differentiation and dating of sediment in continuous deposition zones by 137Cs depth distribution curves and available land use records, spatial and temporal variability of sediment sources and sinks can be reconstructed for the last several decades. That is especially important for catchments which experienced profound land use changes such as transition from pristine or agriculture-dominated to urbanized environment. The example presented here describes the results of reconstruction of changing sediment source types, contributions and spatial patterns for small reservoir catchment within the city of Kursk (Sredenerusskaya Upland, Central European Russia). Combination of compound specific stable isotopes, 137Cs, sediment grain size composition, land use information for several time intervals and daily rainfall record for the Kursk meteorological station (conveniently located within the study catchment) have been employed in order to evaluate major sediment sources within the catchment, their spatial pattern and temporal changes and compare those to history of reservoir sedimentation. The reservoir is situated on the Kur River - small river which gave its name to the city itself. The dam and reservoir were constructed and put into operation in 1969, thus the beginning of its infill is located stratigraphically later than the main peak of the global 137Cs fallout. It has been found that transition from dominantly agricultural land use to urbanized conditions caused decrease of contribution of soil erosion from cultivated land and increase of that of the active gullies into reservoir sedimentation. However, it is important to note that during extreme runoff events contribution of sediment originated from soil erosion on arable land still remains dominant, even though its area within the catchment recently

  8. Distinguishing the Asian dust sources based on cathodoluminescence analysis of single quartz grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, K.; Nishido, H.; Kayama, M.; Tada, R.; Isozaki, Y.; Sun, Y.; Igarashi, Y.

    2009-12-01

    -CL. The CL signals were collected by photon counting method using a PMT (Hamamatsu R2228) in the range from 300 to 800 nm. Most of the silt size quartz in the samples from the Taklimakan Desert and the Mongolian Gobi exhibit double peaks in blue region at around 450 nm (2.75 eV) and red region at around 620 nm (2.00 eV). The wavelengths (energy) of the red peak show slight but significant differences between the samples from the two deserts, although CL intensities of the two peaks show no distinct differences. This result implies that the red peaks of CL spectra of the quartz samples from the two deserts originate from different defects of quartz, and the characteristics of the red peaks have potential to distinguish the source areas of Asian dust.

  9. Matrix metalloproteinase protein expression profiles cannot distinguish between normal and early osteoarthritic synovial fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heard Bryan J

    2012-07-01

    & 9 can be used to effectively separate individuals diagnosed with advanced arthritis from early osteoarthritic and normal individuals, however, these MMP profiles do not separate early OA from normal synovial fluid. An apparent separation between advanced OA and RA subjects was also revealed through PCA. K-means clustering verified the presence of 3 clusters: normal joints clustered with early OA, and separate clusters of advanced OA or RA. Conclusions This study demonstrates that unique MMP and TIMP expression profiles are present within normal, advanced OA and RA synovial fluid. These MMP profiles can be used to distinguish advanced OA & RA synovial fluid from early OA & normal synovial fluid, and even between synovial fluid samples from OA and RA joints. Although this methodology cannot be used for the diagnosis of early OA, high throughput multiplex technology of MMPs and TIMPs in synovial fluid may prove useful in determining the severity of the disease state, and/or quantifying the response of individuals to disease interventions.

  10. Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: José Toro-Alfonso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2016 corecipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is José Toro-Alfonso, who was posthumously given this award for his commitment to "issues of inequity, diversity, and to the alleviation of human suffering particularly among Latino/Latina and LGBTQ communities." He "pioneered HIV/AIDS-related services for youth, women, gay, and transgender populations," and Toro-Alfonso's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Using Long-Term Experimental Warming To Distinguish Vegetation Responses To Warming From Other Environmental Drivers Related To Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, W. A.; Welker, J. M.; Mercado-Díaz, J. A.; Anderson, A.; Menken, M.

    2010-12-01

    Long term studies of vegetation change throughout the tundra biome show increases in the height, canopy extent and dominance of vascular vegetation versus bryophytes and lichens, with mixed responses of the dominant shrub and graminoid growth forms. Increases in vascular vegetation are recorded for sites with and without measurable climatic warming over recent decades, but with other potential drivers, i.e., increased summer precipitation. Experimental warming of tundra vegetation at Toolik Lake, Alaska shows a clear increase in shrub abundance relative to graminoids, with correlated higher NDVI values, increasing canopy heights, and thaw depths. Responses were similar between moist and dry tundra vegetation, with greater responses in moist vegetation. NDVI, with its ability to distinguish shrub from graminoid vegetation, may be a tool to distinguish fine scale differences in the response of tundra vegetation to climatic change, i.e., shifting balances of shrub and graminoid relative abundances that may be related to distinct climatic change drivers.

  12. Selection of maintaining, method for keeping of biologial purity, patternship and health, regarding viruses infection of distinguished potato breeding lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza MIKE

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A large number of potato varieties and distinguished breeding lines disappeared as an effect of nonfavourable climatically conditions and especially by viruses diseases, as well as other biological and viruses degeneration. To avoid the negative effect of degeneration on potato varieties and distinguished breeding lines, the method of selection for maintaining and multiplication of potato is applying in Romania in the frame of National Center for Maintaining of potato varieties and distinguished breeding lines Apa Rosie, Covasna County, which belong to the Station for Research and Development of Potato, Targu Secuiesc, Covasna County.In this center are maintained and multiplied all distinguished varieties and breeding centers from Romania (National Institute for research and Development of Potato and Sugar beet Brasov, Research and Development Station for Agriculture Suceava, Research and Development Station for Potato Targu Secuiesc, Research and development Station for Potato Miercurea Ciuc.Using the method of selection for maintaining it is possible an early identification of somatic mutations, disease (especially viruses infection by visual elimination or by serological testing.The viruses’ infection of potato leads to disturbed the metabolism of plants and produces anatomical – morphological alters as: mosaic, crinkle, rolling, browning of leaves and plants deformation.The disturbing of plant metabolism has as negative effect the reduction of vegetation period, decreasing the yield capacity, depreciation of physical and chemical quality of tubers.The genetically complex structure of cultivated potato (2n = 4x = 48 and strong segregation of long – expected characters in the obtained future progeny by sexual hybridization, complicated many times by nonfavourable linkage, are the backgrounds for initiation of maintain selection.

  13. Low tendon stiffness and abnormal ultrastructure distinguish classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome from benign joint hypermobility syndrome in patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rie Harboe; Couppé, Christian; Jensen, Jacob Kildevang;

    2014-01-01

    There is a clinical overlap between classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (cEDS) and benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS), with hypermobility as the main symptom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of type V collagen mutations and tendon pathology in these 2 syndromes. In patients...... and abnormal ultrastructure distinguish classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome from benign joint hypermobility syndrome in patients....

  14. Distinguishing Molecular Features and Clinical Characteristics of a Putative New Rhinovirus Species, Human Rhinovirus C (HRV C)

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the most frequently detected pathogens in acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) and yet little is known about the prevalence, recurrence, structure and clinical impact of individual members. During 2007, the complete coding sequences of six previously unknown and highly divergent HRV strains were reported. To catalogue the molecular and clinical features distinguishing the divergent HRV strains, we undertook, for the first time, in silico analyse...

  15. Use of Compound-Specific Stable Isotope Analysis to Distinguish between Vapor Intrusion and Indoor Sources of VOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Program GC gas chromatography GSI GSI Environmental GW groundwater HC hydrocarbons IRMS isotope ratio mass spectrometer µg/L micrograms per...per thousand PHC petroleum hydrocarbons pp positive pressure ppbV parts per billion by volume QA quality assurance sq ft square feet TCE...environmental samples can be used to 1) distinguish between different sources of the contaminants, and 2) understand biodegradation and other

  16. MicroRNA panels as disease biomarkers distinguishing hepatitis B virus infection caused hepatitis and liver cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-Xun Jin; Yong-Hong Zhang; Wen-Jing Jin; Xiang-Ying Sun; Gui-Fang Qiao; Ying-Ying Wei; Li-Bo Sun; Wei-Hong Zhang; Ning Li

    2015-01-01

    An important unresolved clinical issue is to distinguish hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection caused chronic hepatitis and their corresponding liver cirrhosis (LC). Recent research suggests that circulating microRNAs are useful biomarkers for a wide array of diseases. We analyzed microRNA profiles in the plasmas of a total of 495 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, LC patients and healthy donors and identified 10 miRNAs that were differentially expressed between CHB and LC patients. Our logistic...

  17. Distinguishing between Rural and Urban Road Segment Traffic Safety Based on Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial Regression Models

    OpenAIRE

    Xuedong Yan; Bin Wang; Meiwu An; Cuiping Zhang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the traffic crash rate, total crash frequency, and injury and fatal crash frequency were taken into consideration for distinguishing between rural and urban road segment safety. The GIS-based crash data during four and half years in Pikes Peak Area, US were applied for the analyses. The comparative statistical results show that the crash rates in rural segments are consistently lower than urban segments. Further, the regression results based on Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial (...

  18. New miRNA Profiles Accurately Distinguish Renal Cell Carcinomas and Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinomas from the Normal Kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolos Zaravinos; George I Lambrou; Nikos Mourmouras; Patroklos Katafygiotis; Gregory Papagregoriou; Krinio Giannikou; Dimitris Delakas; Constantinos Deltas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Upper tract urothelial carcinomas (UT-UC) can invade the pelvicalyceal system making differential diagnosis of the various histologically distinct renal cell carcinoma (RCC) subtypes and UT-UC, difficult. Correct diagnosis is critical for determining appropriate surgery and post-surgical treatments. We aimed to identify microRNA (miRNA) signatures that can accurately distinguish the most prevalent RCC subtypes and UT-UC form the normal kidney. METHODS AND FINDINGS: miRNA profiling...

  19. Distinguishing communal narcissism from agentic narcissism: a behavior genetics analysis on the agency-communion model of narcissism

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Y.L.L; Cai, H.; Sedikides, C.; Song, H.

    2014-01-01

    This article examined the genetic and environmental bases of the newly proposed agency–communion model of narcissism. The model distinguishes between agentic narcissism and communal narcissism. The sample comprised 304 pairs of twins. Genes explained 47% and 25% of the variance in agentic and communal narcissism, respectively; shared environments contributed 0% and 15%, respectively, to agentic and communal narcissism, with non-shared environments accounting for the remaining portions. Althou...

  20. A Biography of Distinguished Scientist Gilbert Newton Lewis (by Edward S. Lewis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Reviewed By Harold H.

    1999-11-01

    reminded that quality counts, too. His story deserves much greater recognition (he should have won a Nobel of his own) and I am happy to see the appearance of this biography. On the other hand, it is unfortunate that a better book did not result from the author's heartfelt best intentions. Edward Lewis covers his father's career in barely over 100 pages of uninspiring prose. Ten percent of that is wasted in printing letters from famous scientists, many of them Lewis's students and Nobel laureates, endorsing the greatness of their colleague. Even the title of the book is off-putting: if the subject of a biography is "distinguished", it should not be necessary to make the claim in the title. I also wonder at the price of this slim volume. In the more than fifty years since Lewis died in 1946, nearly all of his students have also died. Even his chemist son had difficulty in finding contemporaries of his father who could provide recollections and original material for the history. The best of his sources is this Journal, which published in January-March issues of 1984 the proceedings of a symposium on the life and work of G. N. Lewis that had been held March 30-31, 1982, in Las Vegas. I recommend those papers, by Derek Davenport, Richard Lewis (G. N.'s other chemist son), John Servos, Melvin Calvin, Glenn Seaborg, Gerald Branch, Leo Brewer, Kenneth Pitzer, Jacob Bigeleisen, Anthony Stranges, Linus Pauling, William Jensen, and Michael Kasha.

  1. Epitope-based recombinant diagnostic antigen to distinguish natural infection from vaccination with hepatitis A virus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qiudong; Guo, Minzhuo; Jia, Zhiyuan; Qiu, Feng; Lu, Xuexin; Gao, Yan; Meng, Qingling; Tian, Ruiguang; Bi, Shengli; Yi, Yao

    2016-07-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection can stimulate the production of antibodies to structural and non-structural proteins of the virus. However, vaccination with an inactivated or attenuated HAV vaccine produces antibodies mainly against structural proteins, whereas no or very limited antibodies are produced against the non-structural proteins. Current diagnostic assays to determine exposure to HAV, such as the Abbott HAV AB test, detect antibodies only to the structural proteins and so are not able to distinguish a natural infection from vaccination with an inactivated or attenuated virus. Here, we constructed a recombinant tandem multi-epitope diagnostic antigen (designated 'H1') based on the immune-dominant epitopes of the non-structural proteins of HAV to distinguish the two situations. H1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity and anion exchange chromatography was applied in a double-antigen sandwich ELISA for the detection of anti-non-structural HAV proteins, which was confirmed to distinguish a natural infection from vaccination with an inactivated or attenuated HAV vaccine.

  2. Risk and protective factors that distinguish adolescents who attempt suicide from those who only consider suicide in the past year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J

    2014-02-01

    Data from the 2010 Minnesota Student Survey was analyzed to identify risk and protective factors that distinguished adolescents across three groups: no suicidality, suicidal ideation only, and suicide attempt. The population-based sample included 70,022 students in grades 9 and 12. Hopelessness and depressive symptoms emerged as important risk factors to distinguish youth who reported suicidal ideation or behavior from those without a history of suicidality. However, these factors were not as important in differentiating adolescents who attempted suicidal from those who considered suicide but did not act on their thoughts. Instead, for both genders, self-injury represented the most important factor to distinguish these youth. Other risk factors that differentiated the latter groups, but not the former groups, for males were dating violence victimization and cigarette smoking, and for females was a same-sex sexual experience. Running away from home also seemed to increase the risk of a suicide attempt among youth in this study. Parent connectedness and academic achievement emerged as important protective factors to differentiate all the groups, yet neighborhood safety appeared to protect against the transition from suicidal thoughts to behavior. Findings from this study suggest risk and protective factors practitioners should target in clinical assessments and intervention programs to help prevent suicidal behavior among youth at greatest risk.

  3. PCR-RFLP assays to distinguish the Western and Eastern phylogroups in wild and cultured tench Tinca tinca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajbner, Z; Kotlík, P

    2011-03-01

    The tench Tinca tinca is a valued table fish native to Europe and Asia, but which is now widely distributed in many temperate freshwater regions of the world as the result of human-mediated translocations. Fish are currently being transplanted between watersheds without concern for genetic similarity to wild populations or local adaptation, and efficient phylogeographic markers are therefore urgently needed to rapidly distinguish genetically distinct geographical populations and to assess their contribution to the hatchery breeds and to the stocked wild populations. Here, we present a new method to distinguish recently discovered and morphologically undistinguishable Western and Eastern phylogroups of the tench. The method relies on PCR-RFLP assays of two independent nuclear-encoded exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC) markers and of one mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) marker and allows the rapid identification of the Western and Eastern phylogroup and also of three geographical mtDNA clades within the Eastern phylogroup. Our method will enable researchers and fishery practitioners to rapidly distinguish genetically divergent geographical populations of the tench and will be useful for monitoring the introduction and human-mediated spread of the phylogroups in wild populations, for characterization of cultured strains and in breeding experiments.

  4. Hygrine and cuscohygrine as possible markers to distinguish coca chewing from cocaine abuse in workplace drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C; Strano-Rossi, S; Tabernero, M J; Anzillotti, L; Chiarotti, M; Bermejo, A M

    2013-04-10

    Cocaine abuse is widespread all over the world, and is performed generally by sniffing, injecting or smoking cocaine or crack. The distinction between the recreational use of cocaine from the practice of the so called "coqueo" is still an issue in those countries where this habit is diffused and where it is not considered an addiction, by this reason is necessary to develop a method for to distinguish the coca chewers and cocaine abusers. The use of an unique marker to distinguish between cocaine abuse and chewing of coca leaves is of fundamental importance in those countries where this habit is diffused. Certain alkaloids of the leaves of Erythroxylum coca are lost during the process of extraction/purification of cocaine and it is not possible to find them neither in seizures of chlorhidrate of cocaine nor urine samples of cocaine abusers. These markers are the hygrine and cuscohygrine that are present in the leaves of E. coca. A fast GC/MS method involving a liquid:liquid extraction procedure with tertbutylmethylether (TBME) is proposed for the determination of some alkaloids in cocaine leaves, cocaine seizures and biological samples. All specimens were alkalinized to pH 9 with a carbonate/bicarbonate buffer and then extracted with TBME. The analysis was carry out by GC/MS with electron impact at 70 eV and in full scan mode. The results demonstrate that hygrine and cuscohygrine are not found neither in the urine of cocaine abusers nor in cocaine seizures. For this reason this compounds could be considered as markers of coca chewing. This developed method permits to distinguish coca chewing from cocaine abuse in workplace drug testing through the analysis of urine samples.

  5. Resting-state BOLD networks versus task-associated functional MRI for distinguishing Alzheimer's disease risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, Adam S; Sherzai, Ayesha; Taylor, Curtis; Langbaum, Jessica B S; Chen, Kewei; Buxton, Richard B

    2009-10-01

    To assess the ability of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to distinguish known risk factors for AD, we evaluated 17 cognitively normal individuals with a family history of AD and at least one copy of the apolipoprotein e4 allele compared to 12 individuals who were not carriers of the APOE4 gene and did not have a family history of AD. Blood oxygen level dependent fMRI was performed evaluating encoding-associated signal and resting-state default mode network signal differences between the two risk groups. Neurocognitive testing revealed that the high risk group performed worse on category fluency testing, but the groups were equivalent on all other cognitive measures. During encoding of novel face-name pairs, there were no regions of encoding-associated BOLD activations that were different in the high risk group. Encoding-associated deactivations were greater in magnitude in the low risk group in the medial and right lateral parietal cortex, similar to findings in AD studies. The resting-state DMN analysis demonstrated nine regions in the prefrontal, orbital frontal, temporal and parietal lobes that distinguished the two risk groups. Resting-state DMN analysis could distinguish risk groups with an effect size of 3.35, compared to an effect size of 1.39 using encoding-associated fMRI techniques. Imaging of the resting state avoids performance related variability seen in activation fMRI, is less complicated to acquire and standardize, does not require radio-isotopes, and may be more effective at identifying functional pathology associated with AD risk compared to non-resting fMRI techniques.

  6. Rhigognostis senilella (Zetterstedt, 1839) and R. marmorosella (Wocke, 1849): two valid species distinguishable in genitalia (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraniak, Edward

    2016-02-26

    Rhigognostis senilella was described from Greenland over 150 years ago by Zetterstedt. Its historical range of distribution included also mountains in most of Europe. It was classified in Europe as a boreal-alpine zoogeographic element.  Analysis of the structure of the male and female genitalia over its historical range shows that two distinct species are present. The range of R. senilella (Zetterstedt, 1839) is limited to Greenland and Iceland, whereas the mountains of Europe are inhabited by R. marmorosella (Wocke, 1849). The paper includes keys to distinguish these two species, one based on external characters, another on male or female genitalia.

  7. Distinguishing between Fictional and Non-fictional TV Contents in Special Educative Elementary Schools – Evaluation of a Manualised Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Castello

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning disabled students often show difficulties towards reality perception in television. Based on a theoretical model, specific features distinguishing between fictional and non-fictional contents were drawn on to evolve a manualised program for students by the end of german special educative elementary schools. Relying on one-to-one guided interviews, an evaluation of the program was realized by means of a 2x2 pre-post-control design (n = 57. Results show the effectiveness of the program regarding the confident use of distinctive features concerning several telecasts.

  8. The Application of Genetic Algorithms and Multidimensional Distinguishing Model in Forecasting and Evaluating Credits for Mobile Clients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhan; Xu Ji-sheng

    2003-01-01

    To solve the arrearage problem that puzzled most of the mobile corporations, we propose an approach to forecast and evaluate the credits for mobile clients, devising a method that is of the coalescence of genetic algorithm and multidimensional distinguishing model. In the end of this pa-per, a result of a testing application in Zhuhai Branch, GMCC was provided. The precision of the forecasting and evaluation of the client's credit is near 90%. This study is very signifi-cant to the mobile communication corporation at all levels.The popularization of the techniques and the result would pro-duce great benefits of both society and economy.

  9. The Application of Genetic Algorithms and Multidimensional Distinguishing Model in Forecasting and Evaluating Credits for Mobile Clients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiZhan; XuJi-sheng

    2003-01-01

    To solve the arrearage problem that puzzled most of the mobile corporations, we propose an approach to forecast and evaluate the credits for mobile clients, devising a method that is of the coalescence of genetic algorithm and multidimensional distinguishing model. In the end of this paper, a result of a testing application in Zhuhai Branch, GMCC was provided. The precision of the forecasting and evaluation of the client's credit is near 90%. This study is very significant to the mobile communication corporation at all levels.The popularization o{ the techniques and the result would produce great benefits of both society and economy.

  10. Is it easy to clinically distinguish inflammatory arthritis of bacterial origin from monoarthritis attacks of gout disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atik, O Şahap; Ergişi, Yılmaz; Ayanoğlu, Tacettin; Tokgöz, Mehmet Ali; Sezgin, Erdem Aras; Göçün, Pınar Uyar

    2016-12-01

    Acute monoarthritis is a common situation in orthopedic emergency where the patient presents with typical inflamed joint. It is hard to clinically distinguish inflammatory arthritis of bacterial origin from monoarthritis attacks of gout disease. If these two situations, which are the most common causes of acute monoarthritis, are misdiagnosed, outcomes might be catastrophic and costly. Synovial fluid analysis is the most reliable method for confirming the diagnosis although it might not always lead to definitive diagnosis. If there is clinical suspicion for crystal arthropathy, repeated examinations may provide benefits for confirming the diagnosis.

  11. 2016 Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology: Héctor Fernández-Álvarez.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology is given to individuals who have made sustained and enduring contributions to international cooperation and the advancement of knowledge in psychology. The 2016 award winner is Héctor Fernández-Álvarez, who "has woven a sophisticated network of international cooperation in psychotherapy research, training, and service provision throughout Latin America, Europe, and the United States." He was selected for his outstanding, innovative contributions to psychotherapy integration, clinical supervision, and the personal style of the therapist. Dr. Fernández-Álvarez's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. How to Distinguish Between the Activity of HDAC1-3 and HDAC6 with Western Blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Mandy; Kiweler, Nicole; Mahboobi, Siavosh; Krämer, Oliver H

    2017-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze the deacetylation of lysine residues in their target proteins. This biochemical modification can have profound effects on the functions of these proteins and a dysregulation of HDAC activity contributes to severe diseases, including neoplastic transformation. In the following chapter, we present a strategy that allows to distinguish between the inhibition of the class I HDACs HDAC1, 2, and 3 and of the class IIb HDAC HDAC6. This method is based on Western blot and relies on the detection of hyperacetylated substrates of class I or class IIb HDACs in lysates from cells that were treated with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi).

  13. Vertex-Distinguishing E-Total Coloring of the Graphs mC3 and mC4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaug En CHEN; Yue ZU

    2011-01-01

    Let G be a simple graph. A total coloring f of G is called E-total-coloring if no two adjacent vertices of G receive the same color and no edge of G receives the same color as one of its endpoints. For E-total-coloring f of a graph G and any vertex u of G, let Cf (u) or C(u) denote the set of colors of vertex u and the edges incident to u. We call C(u) the color set of u. If C(u)≠C(v) for any two different vertices u and v of V(G), then we say that f is a vertex-distinguishing E-total-coloring of G, or a VDET coloring of G for short. The minimum number of colors required for a VDET colorings of G is denoted by Xvte(G), and it is called the VDET chromatic number of G. In this article, we will discuss vertex-distinguishing E-total colorings of the graphs mC3 and mC4.

  14. Distinguishing benign from malignant mesothelial cells in effusions by Glut-1, EMA, and Desmin expression: an evidence-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Michael; Florence, Roxanne R; Pantanowitz, Liron; Visintainer, Paul F; Cibas, Edmund S; Otis, Christopher N

    2013-02-01

    Distinguishing malignant mesothelioma (MM) from reactive mesothelial hyperplasia (RM) may be difficult in effusions. This study tested the hypothesis that immunocytochemistry (IC) in effusion cell blocks (CB) can distinguish MM from RM and that the results may be applied to individual specimens. External validation of a risk score (RS) model associating sensitivity and specificity was applied to an external set of MM and RM specimens from a separate institution. Forty three effusion cytology CBs of 25 confirmed malignant mesotheliomas were compared to CBs of 23 benign mesothelial effusions without inflammation and 13 reactive mesothelial proliferations associated with inflammation. Glut-1, EMA, and Desmin expression were evaluated by immunocytochemistry on CBs. Each antibody was compared using ROC values, where the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.90, 0.82, and 0.84 for Glut-1, EMA, and Desmin, respectively. Logistic regression (LR) analysis was applied to a combination of Glut-1 and EMA. A combined ROC curve was modeled for Glut-1 and EMA (AUC = 0.93). A RS = 2 × (Glut-1%) + 1 × (EMA%) was created from this ROC curve. When applied to an external set of MM and RM, the RS resulted in an ROC with AUC = 0.91. In conclusion, a RS derived from a LR of Glut-1 and EMA IC greatly improves the distinction between MM from RM cells in individual effusions. The study illustrates principles of evidence-based pathology concerning internal and external test performance in the differential diagnosis of MM versus RM.

  15. A New Formalism for Quantifying Character of Vibrational Modes in Solids: Distinguishing Between Propagons, Diffusons and Locons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyf, Hamid Reza; Henry, Asegun

    2017-01-01

    The solutions to the equations of motions for the atoms in homogenous crystalline solids result in plane wave modulated velocity fields for the normal modes of vibration. However, when a system lacks periodicity, either compositional or structural, the normal modes of vibration can still be determined, but the solutions take on different characters and many modes may be non-plane wave modulated. Previous work has classified the types of vibrations into three primary categories, namely propagons, diffusons and locons. Localized modes can be distinguished by calculation of participation ratio while distinguishing between propagons and diffusons is challenging because both are spatially delocalized. We present a new method that quantifies the extent to which a mode's character corresponds to a propagating mode, e.g., with a plane wave modulation. This then allows for clear and quantitative distinctions between propagons and diffusons. By resolving this issue quantitatively, one can now automate the classification of modes for any arbitrary structure subject to a single constraint that the atoms must vibrate stably around their respective equilibrium sites.

  16. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein-based decision tree model for distinguishing PFAPA flares from acute infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kraszewska-Głomba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As no specific laboratory test has been identified, PFAPA (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis remains a diagnosis of exclusion. We searched for a practical use of procalcitonin (PCT and C-reactive protein (CRP in distinguishing PFAPA attacks from acute bacterial and viral infections. Levels of PCT and CRP were measured in 38 patients with PFAPA and 81 children diagnosed with an acute bacterial (n=42 or viral (n=39 infection. Statistical analysis with the use of the C4.5 algorithm resulted in the following decision tree: viral infection if CRP≤19.1 mg/L; otherwise for cases with CRP>19.1 mg/L: bacterial infection if PCT>0.65ng/mL, PFAPA if PCT≤0.65 ng/mL. The model was tested using a 10-fold cross validation and in an independent test cohort (n=30, the rule’s overall accuracy was 76.4% and 90% respectively. Although limited by a small sample size, the obtained decision tree might present a potential diagnostic tool for distinguishing PFAPA flares from acute infections when interpreted cautiously and with reference to the clinical context.

  17. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein-based decision tree model for distinguishing PFAPA flares from acute infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraszewska-Głomba, Barbara; Szymańska-Toczek, Zofia; Szenborn, Leszek

    2016-03-10

    As no specific laboratory test has been identified, PFAPA (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis) remains a diagnosis of exclusion. We searched for a practical use of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in distinguishing PFAPA attacks from acute bacterial and viral infections. Levels of PCT and CRP were measured in 38 patients with PFAPA and 81 children diagnosed with an acute bacterial (n=42) or viral (n=39) infection. Statistical analysis with the use of the C4.5 algorithm resulted in the following decision tree: viral infection if CRP≤19.1 mg/L; otherwise for cases with CRP>19.1 mg/L: bacterial infection if PCT>0.65ng/mL, PFAPA if PCT≤0.65 ng/mL. The model was tested using a 10-fold cross validation and in an independent test cohort (n=30), the rule's overall accuracy was 76.4% and 90% respectively. Although limited by a small sample size, the obtained decision tree might present a potential diagnostic tool for distinguishing PFAPA flares from acute infections when interpreted cautiously and with reference to the clinical context.

  18. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for distinguishing between normal and malignant human gastric tissue

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abasalt Hosseinzadeh Colagar; Mohammad Javad Chaichi; Tahereh Khadjvand

    2011-09-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy can be considered to be a fast and non-invasive tool for distinguishing between normal and cancerous cells and tissues without the need for laborious and invasive sampling procedures. Gastric samples from four patients (age, 65±2 years) were analysed. Samples were obtained from the organs removed during gastrectomy and then classified as normal or cancerous. Classification was based on histopathological examinations at our institution. Formalin-fixed sections of gastric tissue were analysed by FTIR-microspectroscopy. To characterize differences between sections of normal and cancerous tissue, specific regions of the spectra were analysed to study variations in the levels of metabolites. To distinguish between two conditions (normal and cancerous), changes in the relative intensity of bands in the range 600–4000 cm−1 were analysed. A FTIR spectral map of the bands in the region 2800–3100 cm–1 and 900–1800 cm–1 were created to analyse pathological changes in tissues. The limited data available showed that normal gastric tissue had stronger absorption than cancerous tissue over a wide region in the four patients. There was a significant decrease in total biomolecular components for cancerous tissue compared with normal tissue.

  19. A Panel of CpG Methylation Sites Distinguishes Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs are epigenetically identical to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs has been debated in the stem cell field. In this study, we analyzed DNA methylation patterns in a large number of hiPSCs (n = 114 and hESCs (n = 155, and identified a panel of 82 CpG methylation sites that can distinguish hiPSCs from hESCs with high accuracy. We show that 12 out of the 82 CpG sites were subject to hypermethylation in part by DNMT3B. Notably, DNMT3B contributes directly to aberrant hypermethylation and silencing of the signature gene, TCERG1L. Overall, we conclude that DNMT3B is involved in a wave of de novo methylation during reprogramming, a portion of which contributes to the unique hiPSC methylation signature. These 82 CpG methylation sites may be useful as biomarkers to distinguish between hiPSCs and hESCs.

  20. MicroRNA panels as disease biomarkers distinguishing hepatitis B virus infection caused hepatitis and liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Bo-Xun; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Jin, Wen-Jing; Sun, Xiang-Ying; Qiao, Gui-Fang; Wei, Ying-Ying; Sun, Li-Bo; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Li, Ning

    2015-10-12

    An important unresolved clinical issue is to distinguish hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection caused chronic hepatitis and their corresponding liver cirrhosis (LC). Recent research suggests that circulating microRNAs are useful biomarkers for a wide array of diseases. We analyzed microRNA profiles in the plasmas of a total of 495 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, LC patients and healthy donors and identified 10 miRNAs that were differentially expressed between CHB and LC patients. Our logistic models show that three panels of miRNAs have promising diagnostic performances in discriminating CHB from LC. Blinded tests were subsequently conducted to evaluate the diagnostic performances in clinical practice and a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 70% have been achieved in separating CHB from LC pateints. The expression levels of some circulating miRNAs were significantly correlated with HBV DNA load and liver function, such as prothrombin activity (PTA) and levels of alanin aminotransferase (ALT), albumin (ALB) and cholinesterase (CHE). Our results provide important information for developing novel diagnostic tools for distinguishing chronic HBV hepatitis and their corresponding cirrhosis.

  1. Interacting 3-form dark energy models: Distinguishing interactions and avoiding the Little Sibling of the Big Rip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, João; Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Kumar, K. Sravan; Marto, João; Tavakoli, Yaser

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we consider 3-form dark energy (DE) models with interactions in the dark sector. We aim to distinguish the phenomenological interactions that are defined through the dark matter (DM) and the DE energy densities. We do our analysis mainly in two stages. In the first stage, we identify the non-interacting 3-form DE model which generically leads to an abrupt late-time cosmological event which is known as the little sibling of the Big Rip (LSBR). We classify the interactions which can possibly avoid this late-time abrupt event. We also study the parameter space of the model that is consistent with the interaction between DM and DE energy densities at present as indicated by recent studies based on BAO and SDSS data. In the later stage, we observationally distinguish those interactions using the statefinder hierarchy parameters { S3(1), S4(1) } , { S3(1), S5(1)} . We also compute the growth factor parameter ɛ(z) for the various interactions we consider herein and use the composite null diagnostic (CND) { S3(1), ɛ(z) } as a tool to characterise those interactions by measuring their departures from the concordance model. In addition, we make a preliminary analysis of our model in light of the recently released data by SDSS III on the measurement of the linear growth rate of structure.

  2. [Case of abdominal wall malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor which is difficult to distinguish from a urachal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatenuma, Tomoyuki; Sakata, Ryoko; Sugiura, Shinpei; Tajiri, Takehiro; Gondo, Toshikazu; Kitami, Kazuo

    2013-09-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are highly malignant soft tissue sarcomas. It is very rare for MPNST to arise in the abdominal wall. We report a case of abdominal wall MPNST that was difficult to distinguish from a urachal disease. A 72-year-old woman found a mass of the umbilicus in October 2011. She visited a digestive surgery department in November because it gradually enlarged. Diagnostic imaging suggested a urachal tumor. She was then referred to our clinic. Contrast enhanced CT showed that the 5-cm cystic tumor extended from the umbilicus to abdominal wall. The tumor showed low uptake value in PET-CT. We diagnosed her with a urachal cyst, but could not deny urachal carcinoma. Therefore, we performed surgical resection in January 2012. The pathological diagnosis was MPNST. She has not experienced recurrence for 9 months. MPNST mostly occur in the retroperitoneum close to the spine, extremities, head, and neck. It is very rare for them to occur in the abdominal wall. This is the sixth case including overseas reports. In addition, this is the first case in which it was difficult to distinguish from a urachal disease.

  3. A molecular biological protocol to distinguish potentially human pathogenic Stenotrophomonas maltophilia from plant-associated Stenotrophomonas rhizophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbeck-Busch, Kathrin; Roder, Anja; Hasse, Dirk; de Boer, Wietse; Martínez, José Luis; Hagemann, Martin; Berg, Gabriele

    2005-11-01

    In recent years, the importance of the Gram-negative bacterium Stenotrophomonas as an opportunistic pathogen as well as in biotechnology has increased. The aim of the present study was to develop new methods for distinguishing between strains closely related to the potentially human pathogenic Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and those closely related to the plant-associated Stenotrophomonas rhizophila. To accomplish this, 58 strains were characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), and the occurrence of specific functional genes. Based on 16S rDNA sequences, an ARDRA protocol was developed which allowed differentiation between strains of the S. maltophilia and the S. rhizophila group. As it was known that only salt-treated cells of S. rhizophila were able to synthesize the compatible solute glucosylglycerol (GG), the ggpS gene responsible for GG synthesis was used for differentiation between both species and it was confirmed that it only occurred in S. rhizophila strains. As a further genetic marker the smeD gene, which is part of the genes coding for the multidrug efflux pump SmeDEF from S. maltophilia, was used. Based on the results we propose a combination of fingerprinting techniques using the 16S rDNA and the functional genes ggpS and smeD to distinguish both Stenotrophomonas species.

  4. Mitotic spindle orientation distinguishes stem cell and terminal modes of neuron production in the early spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcock, Arwen C; Swedlow, Jason R; Storey, Kate G

    2007-05-01

    Despite great insight into the molecular mechanisms that specify neuronal cell type in the spinal cord, cell behaviour underlying neuron production in this tissue is largely unknown. In other neuroepithelia, divisions with a perpendicular cleavage plane at the apical surface generate symmetrical cell fates, whereas a parallel cleavage plane generates asymmetric daughters, a neuron and a progenitor in a stem cell mode, and has been linked to the acquisition of neuron-generating ability. Using a novel long-term imaging assay, we have monitored single cells in chick spinal cord as they transit mitosis and daughter cells become neurons or divide again. We reveal new morphologies accompanying neuron birth and show that neurons are generated concurrently by asymmetric and terminal symmetric divisions. Strikingly, divisions that generate two progenitors or a progenitor and a neuron both exhibit a wide range of cleavage plane orientations and only divisions that produce two neurons have an exclusively perpendicular orientation. Neuron-generating progenitors are also distinguished by lengthening cell cycle times, a finding supported by cell cycle acceleration on exposure to fibroblast growth factor (FGF), an inhibitor of neuronal differentiation. This study provides a novel, dynamic view of spinal cord neurogenesis and supports a model in which cleavage plane orientation/mitotic spindle position does not assign neuron-generating ability, but functions subsequent to this step to distinguish stem cell and terminal modes of neuron production.

  5. A dual mode targeting probe for distinguishing HER2-positive breast cancer cells using silica-coated fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; An, Yan-Li; Zang, Feng-Chao; Zong, Shen-Fei; Cui, Yi-Ping; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2013-10-01

    We report a composite nanoprobe based on silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) for distinguishing breast cancers at different HER2 statuses. The nanoprobe has a core-shell structure, with Fe3O4 NPs as the magnetic core and dye-embedded silica as the fluorescent shell, whose average size is about 150 nm. Besides, the outmost surfaces of the probes were modified with specific antibodies to endow the probe with a targeting ability. With such a structure, the nanoprobe can accomplish dual mode targeting of human breast cancer cells based on fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the experiments, three human breast cancer cell lines were used to test the targeting ability of the nanoprobe. Specifically, SKBR3 cells with a high HER2 expression level were used as the model target cells, while MCF7 cells with a lower HER2 expression levels and HER2-negative MDA-MB-231 cells were used as the controls. Both the fluorescence and MRI imaging results confirmed that the nanoprobe can distinguish three cancer cell lines with different HER2 expression levels. With the dual mode imaging and specific targeting properties, we anticipate that the presented nanoprobe may have a great potential in the diagnosis and treatment of cancerous diseases.

  6. An Investigation of the Ability of the Glutaraldehyde Test to Distinguish between Acute and Chronic Inflammatory Disease in Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schumacher J

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Glutaraldehyde test (GT, a rapid and inexpensive test, has been utilized empirically for many years in bovine practice for diagnosing inflammatory diseases. GT is used primarily to demonstrate increased serum concentrations of fibrinogen and globulin. Glutaraldehyde binds with free amino groups in fibrinogen and immunoglobulin to create a clot in a first degree chemical reaction. The clotting time of the GT estimates the content of proteins produced in response to inflammation. The applicability of GT for diagnosing inflammation in the horse has never been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of GT to distinguish between acute and chronic inflammatory disease in horses. Thirty-seven horses with suspected inflammatory diseases were evaluated using the GT, history, complete clinical examination and routine blood analysis. GT-times, laboratory results and clinical outcome were compared statistically. Horses that were determined to be acutely affected (based on history, clinical examination and routine blood analysis tended to have a negative GT (75%. Results of the GT did not correlate with blood fibrinogen concentration. Positive GT also predicted a fatal outcome in 69% of the clinical cases. The results of this trial indicate that GT can be a useful screening test to distinguish between acute and chronic inflammatory disease in horses.

  7. Biomarkers to Distinguish Aggressive Cancers from Non-aggressive or Non-progressing Cancer — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distinguishing aggressive cancers from non-aggressive or non-progressing cancers is an issue of both clinical and public health importance particularly for those cancers with an available screening test. With respect to breast cancer, mammographic screening has been shown in randomized trials to reduce breast cancer mortality, but given the limitations of its sensitivity and specificity some breast cancers are missed by screening. These so called interval detected breast cancers diagnosed between regular screenings are known to have a more aggressive clinical profile. In addition, of those cancers detected by mammography some are indolent while others are more likely to recur despite treatment. The pilot study proposed herein is highly responsive to the EDRN supplement titled “Biomarkers to Distinguish Aggressive Cancers from Nonaggressive or Non-progressing Cancers” in that it addresses both of the research objectives related to these issues outlined in the notice for this supplement: Aim 1: To identify biomarkers in tumor tissue related to risk of interval detected vs. mammography screen detected breast cancer focusing on early stage invasive disease. We will compare gene expression profiles using the whole genome-cDNA-mediated Annealing, Selection, extension and Ligation (DASL) assay of 50 screen detected cancers to those of 50 interval detected cancers. Through this approach we will advance our understanding of the molecular characteristics of interval vs. screen detected breast cancers and discover novel biomarkers that distinguish between them. Aim 2: To identify biomarkers in tumor tissue related to risk of cancer recurrence among patients with screen detected early stage invasive breast cancer. Using the DASL assay we will compare gene expression profiles from screen detected early stage breast cancer that either recurred within five years or never recurred within five years. These two groups of patients will be matched on multiple factors including

  8. Chapter 37: alexia and agraphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Victor W

    2010-01-01

    Studies of alexia and agraphia have played important roles in understanding how complex cognitive functions are related to brain structure and activity. Modern interests in brain-behavior relations began during the second half of the 19th century as an outgrowth of flawed correlative studies by neuroanatomist Franz Gall and subsequent clinical-pathological analyses by Jean-Baptiste Boulliaud on speech and the frontal lobes. In 1856, Louis Victor Marcé drew attention to writing disorders and postulated a cerebral faculty for writing. Following Paul Broca's epochal reports on aphemia, many European physicians investigated reading and writing impairments after brain injury. Albert Pitres published the first detailed description of isolated agraphia, and Adolf Kussmaul identified alexia as an isolated symptom of brain disease. Jules Dejerine in 1892 provided the first clinical-pathological descriptions of pure alexia, and he suggested a key role for the left parietal lobe in reading and writing. In the 20th century, varieties of agraphia or alexia were linked to apraxia (Hugo Liepmann), impaired body image (Josef Gerstmann), spatial misperception, and interhemispheric disconnection. Other analyses focused on error types that defined new clinical syndromes (e.g. deep dyslexia) and provided evidence for cognitive modularity.

  9. Some early cases of aphasia and the capacity to sing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Julene K; Graziano, Amy B

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines early cases of aphasia that include observations of the capacity to sing. Although the majority of these cases were published in the late nineteenth century, earlier reports exist and provide insights into the early thinking about the capacity to sing in aphasia, a topic that continues to the present day. The observation that some patients with aphasia and limited speech output were able to sing the texts of songs inspired scholars to examine the relationship between music and language. Early ideas about the capacity to sing were provided by well-known neurologists, such as John Hughlings Jackson and Adolf Kussmaul. The work of Herbert Spencer about the origins and function of music heavily influenced Jackson and others in their thinking about aphasia. This work also led to an increased interest in understanding music abilities in persons with aphasia and, later, in the brain mechanisms of music. The chapter provides a background as to why there was an interest in the capacity to sing in persons with aphasia and what influenced early thinking on this topic.

  10. Distinguishing black-hole spin-orbit resonances by their gravitational wave signatures. II: Full parameter estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Trifirò, Daniele; Gerosa, Davide; Berti, Emanuele; Kesden, Michael; Littenberg, Tyson; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational waves from coalescing binary black holes encode the evolution of their spins prior to merger. In the post-Newtonian regime and on the precession timescale, this evolution has one of three morphologies, with the spins either librating around one of two fixed points ("resonances") or circulating freely. In this work we perform full parameter estimation on resonant binaries with fixed masses and spin magnitudes, changing three parameters: a conserved "projected effective spin" $\\xi$ and resonant family $\\Delta\\Phi=0,\\pi$ (which uniquely label the source); the inclination $\\theta_{JN}$ of the binary's total angular momentum with respect to the line of sight (which determines the strength of precessional effects in the waveform); and the signal amplitude. We demonstrate that resonances can be distinguished for a wide range of binaries, except for highly symmetric configurations where precessional effects are suppressed. Motivated by new insight into double-spin evolution, we introduce new variables t...

  11. Motion of a Distinguishable Impurity in the Bose Gas: Arrested Expansion Without a Lattice and Impurity Snaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Neil J.; Caux, Jean-Sébastien; Konik, Robert M.

    2016-04-01

    We consider the real-time dynamics of an initially localized distinguishable impurity injected into the ground state of the Lieb-Liniger model. Focusing on the case where integrability is preserved, we numerically compute the time evolution of the impurity density operator in regimes far from analytically tractable limits. We find that the injected impurity undergoes a stuttering motion as it moves and expands. For an initially stationary impurity, the interaction-driven formation of a quasibound state with a hole in the background gas leads to arrested expansion—a period of quasistationary behavior. When the impurity is injected with a finite center-of-mass momentum, the impurity moves through the background gas in a snaking manner, arising from a quantum Newton's cradlelike scenario where momentum is exchanged back and forth between the impurity and the background gas.

  12. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry-based molecular distribution distinguishing healthy and osteoarthritic human cartilage

    CERN Document Server

    Cillero-Pastor, Berta; Kiss, Andras; Blanco, Francisco J; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a pathology that ultimately causes joint destruction. The cartilage is one of the principal affected tissues. Alterations in the lipid mediators and an imbalance in the metabolism of cells that form the cartilage (chondrocytes) have been described as contributors to the OA development. In this study, we have studied the distribution of lipids and chemical elements in healthy and OA human cartilage. Time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) allows us to study the spatial distribution of molecules at a high resolution on a tissue section. TOF-SIMS revealed a specific peak profile that distinguishes healthy from OA cartilages. The spatial distribution of cholesterol-related peaks exhibited a remarkable difference between healthy and OA cartilages. A distinctive colocalization of cholesterol and other lipids in the superficial area of the cartilage was found. A higher intensity of oleic acid and other fatty acids in the OA cartilages exhibited a similar localization. On the ...

  13. Is it possible to distinguish the understanding of denture adhesive between Japanese dental students and Indonesian peers by a questionnaire?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Sadamori

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare cross-national differences in the recognition of denture adhesive between dental students. The design of the research was cross-cultural differences. The research was done in Japan and Indonesia. Seventy-seven dental students from Japan and Indonesia were surveyed using a questionnaire regarding knowledge/comprehension of denture adhesive (in Japanese and Indonesian versions respectively. Logistic regression using the Wald method showed that it was possible to distinguish Japanese dental students from Indonesian peers with a probability of 96.1 per cent by using 3 items out of 12. For the question of “How many domestic products denture adhesive do you know?” 85 per cent of the Japanese dentists answered “less than 3”, whereas 10 percent of Indonesian subjects did so. It was concluded that there were big differences between Japanese and Indonesian dental students’ understanding and experience of denture adhesive.

  14. Edward A. Delgado-Romero: Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Presents Edward A. Delgado-Romero, the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest. "Societies, professions, and individual citizens are enriched by the contributions of those who care. Edward A. Delgado-Romero has demonstrated through his scholarship, leadership in psychological associations such as the National Latina/Latino Psychological Association, and collaborations with universities and school districts in Georgia that he cares and is committed to addressing challenges in the provision of culturally sensitive psychological services to benefit the public interest. His example of servant leadership leaves a legacy to other early career professionals and graduate students alike. Es un hijo honorado." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. No specific time window distinguishes between community-, healthcare-, and hospital-acquired bacteremia, but they are prognostically robust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, Court; Ostergaard, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We examined whether specific time windows after hospital admission reflected a sharp transition between community and hospital acquisition of bacteremia. We further examined whether different time windows to distinguish between community acquisition, healthcare association (HCA...... mortality pertaining to bacteremia 0, 1, 2, …, 30, and 31 days and later after admission. Next, we assessed whether different admission (0-1, 0-2, 0-3, 0-7 days) and HCA (30, 90 days) time windows were associated with changes in odds ratio (OR) and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC......) curve for 30-day mortality, adjusting for sex, age, comorbidity, and microorganisms. Results. For 56,606 bacteremic episodes, no sharp transitions were detected on a specific day after admission. Among the 8 combined time windows, ORs for 30-day mortality varied from 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI...

  16. Distinguishable RGE Running Effects Between Dirac Neutrinos and Majorana Neutrinos with Vanishing Majorana CP-Violating Phases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In a novel parametrization of neutrino mixing and in the approximation of т-lepton dominance, we show that the one-loop renormalization-group equations (RGEs) of Dirac neutrinos are different from those of Majorana neutrinos even if two Majorana CP-violating phases vanish. As the latter can keep vanishing from the electroweak scale to the typical seesaw scale, it makes sense to distinguish between the RGE running effects of neutrino mixing parameters in Dirac and Majorana cases. The differences are found to be quite large in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with sizable tanβ, provided the masses of three neutrinos are nearly degenerate or have an inverted hierarchy.

  17. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for characterizing mineral oils in foods and distinguishing them from synthetic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni

    2015-01-02

    Many foods are contaminated by hydrocarbons of mineral oil or synthetic origin. High performance liquid chromatography on-line coupled with gas chromatography and flame ionization detection (HPLC-GC-FID) is a powerful tool for the quantitative determination, but it would often be desirable to obtain more information about the type of hydrocarbons in order to identify the source of the contamination and specify pertinent legislation. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) is shown to produce plots distinguishing mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) from polymer oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons (POSH) and characterizing the degree of raffination of a mineral oil. The first dimension separation occurred on a phenyl methyl polysiloxane, the second on a dimethyl polysiloxane. Mass spectrometry (MS) was used for identification, FID for quantitative determination. This shows the substantial advances in chromatography to characterize complex hydrocarbon mixtures even as contaminants in food.

  18. Proton-proton correlations in distinguishing the two-proton emission mechanism of $^{23}$Al and $^{22}$Mg

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, D Q; Sun, X Y; Zhou, P; Togano, Y; Aoi, N; Baba, H; Cai, X Z; Cao, X G; Chen, J G; Fu, Y; Guo, W; Hara, Y; Honda, T; Hu, Z G; Ieki, K; Ishibashi, Y; Ito, Y; Iwasa, N; Kanno, S; Kawabata, T; Kimura, H; Kondo, Y; Kurita, K; Kurokawa, M; Moriguchi, T; Murakami, H; Ooishi, H; Okada, K; Ota, S; Ozawa, A; Sakurai, H; Shimoura, S; Shioda, R; Takeshita, E; Takeuchi, S; Tian, W D; Wang, H W; Wang, J S; Wang, M; Yamada, K; Yamada, Y; Yasuda, Y; Yoneda, K; Zhang, G Q; Motobayashi, T

    2016-01-01

    The proton-proton momentum correlation functions ($C_{pp}(q)$) for kinematically complete decay channels of $^{23}$Al $\\rightarrow$ p + p + $^{21}$Na and $^{22}$Mg $\\rightarrow$ p + p + $^{20}$Ne have been measured at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory. From the very different correlation strength of $C_{pp}(q)$ for $^{23}$Al and $^{22}$Mg, the source size and emission time information were extracted from the $C_{pp}(q)$ data by assuming a Gaussian source profile in the correlation function calculation code (CRAB). The results indicated that the mechanism of two-proton emission from $^{23}$Al was mainly sequential emission, while that of $^{22}$Mg was mainly three-body simultaneous emission. By combining our earlier results of the two-proton relative momentum and the opening angle, it is pointed out that the mechanism of two-proton emission could be distinguished clearly.

  19. A species-specific primer pair for distinguishing between Paramisgurnus dabryanus and Misgurnus anguillicaudatus based on mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongfu; Hou, Jilun; Wang, Guixing; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Haijin

    2016-07-01

    Paramisgurnus dabryanus and Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (family Cobitidae) are loaches with high morphological similarity. In this study, we designed primers to distinguish between Paramisgurnus dabryanus and Misgurnus anguillicaudatus based on the length differences in the mitochondrial COXII to tRNA(Lys) gene region. Samples of P. dabryanus and M. anguillicaudatus from different geographical locations were collected and amplified to verify primer specificity. The results of electrophoresis revealed the successful amplification of all P. dabryanus and M. anguillicaudatus DNA samples, which had distinct, specific-specific sizes (214 bp for P. dabryanus and 285 bp for M. anguillicaudatus). In conclusion, the new primers provide fast, reliable, and accurate identification between P. dabryanus and M. anguillicaudatus.

  20. Elevated expression of Ki-67 identifies aggressive prostate cancers but does not distinguish BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, A V; Jameson, C; Barbachano, Y;

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancers in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are more aggressive than morphologically similar cancers in men without these mutations. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that enhanced expression of Ki-67, as a surrogate of cell proliferation, is a characteristic...... feature of prostate cancers occurring in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. The study cohort comprised 20 cases of prostate cancer in mutation carriers and 126 control sporadic prostate cancers. Of the combined sample cohort, 65.7% stained only within malignant tissues while 0.7% stained in both malignant...... a background of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations or as sporadic disease. The data suggest that, since elevated Ki-67 does not distinguish prostate cancers occurring in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers from sporadic prostatic malignancies, the effects of these genetic mutations are probably independent. While all...