WorldWideScience

Sample records for adolescents study protocol

  1. Early signaling, referral, and treatment of adolescent chronic pain: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voerman Jessica S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic pain is prevalent among young people and negatively influences their quality of life. Furthermore, chronic pain in adolescence may persist into adulthood. Therefore, it is important early on to promote the self-management skills of adolescents with chronic pain by improving signaling, referral, and treatment of these youngsters. In this study protocol we describe the designs of two complementary studies: a signaling study and an intervention study. Methods and design The signaling study evaluates the Pain Barometer, a self-assessed signaling instrument for chronic pain in adolescents. To evaluate the feasibility of the Pain Barometer, the experiences of youth-health care nurses will be evaluated in semi-structured interviews. Also, we will explore the frequencies of referral per health-care provider. The intervention study evaluates Move It Now, a guided self-help intervention via the Internet for teenagers with chronic pain. This intervention uses cognitive behavioural techniques, including relaxation exercises and positive thinking. The objective of the intervention is to improve the ability of adolescents to cope with pain. The efficacy of Move It Now will be examined in a randomized controlled trial, in which 60 adolescents will be randomly assigned to an experimental condition or a waiting list control condition. Discussion If the Pain Barometer is proven to be feasible and Move It Now appears to be efficacious, a health care pathway can be created to provide the best tailored treatment promptly to adolescents with chronic pain. Move It Now can be easily implemented throughout the Netherlands, as the intervention is Internet based. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR1926

  2. Peer mentorship to promote effective pain management in adolescents: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Loran P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This protocol is for a study of a new program to improve outcomes in children suffering from chronic pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia, recurrent headache, or recurrent abdominal pain. Although teaching active pain self-management skills through cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT or a complementary program such as hypnotherapy or yoga has been shown to improve pain and functioning, children with low expectations of skill-building programs may lack motivation to comply with therapists' recommendations. This study will develop and test a new manualized peer-mentorship program which will provide modeling and reinforcement by peers to other adolescents with chronic pain (the mentored participants. The mentorship program will encourage mentored participants to engage in therapies that promote the learning of pain self-management skills and to support the mentored participants' practice of these skills. The study will examine the feasibility of this intervention for both mentors and mentored participants, and will assess the preliminary effectiveness of this program on mentored participants' pain and functional disability. Methods This protocol will recruit adolescents ages 12-17 with chronic pain and randomly assign them to either peer mentorship or a treatment-as-usual control group. Mentored participants will be matched with peer mentors of similar age (ages 14-18 who have actively participated in various treatment modalities through the UCLA Pediatric Pain Program and have learned to function successfully with a chronic pain disorder. The mentors will present information to mentored participants in a supervised and monitored telephone interaction for 2 months to encourage participation in skill-building programs. The control group will receive usual care but without the mentorship intervention. Mentored and control subjects' pain and functioning will be assessed at 2 months (end of intervention for mentored participants and

  3. Evaluating a selective prevention programme for binge drinking among young adolescents: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

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    Wiers Reinout

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In comparison to other Europe countries, Dutch adolescents are at the top in drinking frequency and binge drinking. A total of 75% of the Dutch 12 to 16 year olds who drink alcohol also engage in binge drinking. A prevention programme called Preventure was developed in Canada to prevent adolescents from binge drinking. This article describes a study that aims to assess the effects of this selective school-based prevention programme in the Netherlands. Methods A randomized controlled trial is being conducted among 13 to 15-year-old adolescents in secondary schools. Schools were randomly assigned to the intervention and control conditions. The intervention condition consisted of two 90 minute group sessions, carried out at the participants' schools and provided by a qualified counsellor and a co-facilitator. The intervention targeted young adolescents who demonstrated personality risk for alcohol abuse. The group sessions were adapted to four personality profiles. The control condition received no further intervention above the standard substance use education sessions provided in the Dutch national curriculum. The primary outcomes will be the percentage reduction in binge drinking, weekly drinking and drinking-related problems after three specified time periods. A screening survey collected data by means of an Internet questionnaire. Students have completed, or will complete, a post-treatment survey after 2, 6, and 12 months, also by means of an online questionnaire. Discussion This study protocol presents the design and current implementation of a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a selective alcohol prevention programme. We expect that a significantly lower number of adolescents will binge drink, drink weekly, and have drinking-related problems in the intervention condition compared to the control condition, as a result of this intervention. Trial registration This trial is registered in the Dutch

  4. Peer mentorship to promote effective pain management in adolescents: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes Loran P; Tsao Jennie CI; Allen Laura B; Zeltzer Lonnie K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background This protocol is for a study of a new program to improve outcomes in children suffering from chronic pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia, recurrent headache, or recurrent abdominal pain. Although teaching active pain self-management skills through cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or a complementary program such as hypnotherapy or yoga has been shown to improve pain and functioning, children with low expectations of skill-building programs may lack motivation to comply w...

  5. Does Interpersonal Psychotherapy improve clinical care for adolescents with depression attending a rural child and adolescent mental health service? Study protocol for a cluster randomised feasibility trial

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    Villanueva Elmer V

    2007-10-01

    -class correlation coefficient will be calculated and used to inform sample size calculations for subsequent large-scale trials. Qualitative data regarding process implementation will be collected quarterly from focus groups with participating clinicians over 18 months, plus phone interviews with participating adolescents and parent/guardians at 12 weeks and 24 weeks of treatment. The focus group qualitative data will be analysed using a Fourth Generation Evaluation methodology that includes a constant comparative cyclic analysis method. Discussion This study protocol will be informative for researchers and clinicians interested in considering, designing and/or conducting cluster randomised trials within community practice such as mental health services. Trial Registration Australian Clinical Trials Registry ACTRNO12607000324415

  6. A new perspective on adolescent athletes’ transition into upper secondary school: A longitudinal mixed methods study protocol

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    Tatiana V. Ryba

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of combining elite sport and education into a dual career pathway remains to be a source of concern for many high-performance athletes. Previous research findings suggest that committed participation in both domains is highly demanding and success in one pursuit often comes at the expense of the other. There are emergent studies, however, that argue for the beneficial and complementary nature of dual career pathways. Consequently, we emphasize the importance of understanding the processes underlying differences in the development of athletes’ life trajectories. This article presents a study protocol to explore new methodological and analytical approaches that may extend current understandings of the ways psychological and sociocultural processes are interconnected in the construction of adolescent athletes’ identities, motivation, well-being, and career aspirations in the transitory social world.

  7. Early signaling, referral, and treatment of adolescent chronic pain: A study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Voerman (Jane); S.C. Remerie (Sylvia); L.E. de Graaf (Esther); P.M. van de Looij-Jansen (Petra); T. Westendorp (Tessa); I. van Elderen (Ina); F. de Waart (Frouwkje); J. Passchier (Jan); A. Dommisse-Van Berkel (Anke); C. de Klerk (Cora)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Chronic pain is prevalent among young people and negatively influences their quality of life. Furthermore, chronic pain in adolescence may persist into adulthood. Therefore, it is important early on to promote the self-management skills of adolescents with chronic pain by imp

  8. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis;

    2013-01-01

    of first-line cancer therapy. Secondary endpoints are quality of life measured by validated questionnaires and interviews, and physical performance. RESPECT includes a multimodal intervention program, including ambassador-facilitated educational, physical, and social interventions. The educational......Background During cancer treatment children have reduced contact with their social network of friends, and have limited participation in education, sports, and leisure activities. During and following cancer treatment, children describe school related problems, reduced physical fitness......, and problems related to interaction with peers. Methods/design The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years newly diagnosed with cancer in eastern Denmark (n = 120) and a matched control group in western Denmark...

  9. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helle Østergaard; Dam, Ole Henrik; Hageman, Ida

    2012-01-01

    yields a Global Seasonal Score and a prevalence of SAD. Outcomes from the two groups will be compared. Moreover, outcomes from subgroups of the visually impaired population will be compared. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study is approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency. Results will be published...... in persons with severe visual impairments or blindness and to compare the results to a control group without visual impairments. Moreover, the authors wish to investigate whether SAD is correlated to the degree of impairment or to the diagnosis. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 2781 persons with visual impairments...

  10. Lifestyle modification and metformin as long-term treatment options for obese adolescents: study protocol

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    Watson Margaret

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a serious health concern affecting over 155 million children in developed countries worldwide. Childhood obesity is associated with significantly increased risk for development of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and psychosocial functioning problems (i.e., depression and decreased quality of life. The two major strategies for management of obesity and associated metabolic abnormalities are lifestyle modification and pharmacologic therapy. This paper will provide the background rationale and methods of the REACH childhood obesity treatment program. Methods/design The REACH study is a 2-year multidisciplinary, family-based, childhood obesity treatment program. Seventy-two obese adolescents (aged 10-16 years and their parents are being recruited to participate in this randomized placebo controlled trial. Participants are randomized to receive either metformin or placebo, and are then randomized to a moderate or a vigorous intensity supervised exercise program for the first 12-weeks. After the 12-week exercise program, participants engage in weekly exercise sessions with an exercise facilitator at a local community center. Participants engage in treatment sessions with a dietitian and social worker monthly for the first year, and then every three months for the second year. The primary outcome measure is change in body mass index and the secondary outcome measures are changes in body composition, risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, changes in diet, physical activity, and psychosocial well-being (e.g., quality of life. It is hypothesized that participants who take metformin and engage in vigorous intensity exercise will show the greatest improvements in body mass index. In addition, it is hypothesized that participants who adhere to the REACH program will show improvements in body composition, physical activity, diet, psychosocial functioning and risk factor profiles for type 2

  11. Transitions of Care from Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services to Adult Mental Health Services (TRACK Study: A study of protocols in Greater London

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    Ford Tamsin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although young people's transition from Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS to Adult Mental Health Services (AMHS in England is a significant health issue for service users, commissioners and providers, there is little evidence available to guide service development. The TRACK study aims to identify factors which facilitate or impede effective transition from CAHMS to AMHS. This paper presents findings from a survey of transition protocols in Greater London. Methods A questionnaire survey (Jan-April 2005 of Greater London CAMHS to identify transition protocols and collect data on team size, structure, transition protocols, population served and referral rates to AMHS. Identified transition protocols were subjected to content analysis. Results Forty two of the 65 teams contacted (65% responded to the survey. Teams varied in type (generic/targeted/in-patient, catchment area (locality-based, wider or national and transition boundaries with AMHS. Estimated annual average number of cases considered suitable for transfer to AMHS, per CAMHS team (mean 12.3, range 0–70, SD 14.5, n = 37 was greater than the annual average number of cases actually accepted by AMHS (mean 8.3, range 0–50, SD 9.5, n = 33. In April 2005, there were 13 active and 2 draft protocols in Greater London. Protocols were largely similar in stated aims and policies, but differed in key procedural details, such as joint working between CAHMS and AMHS and whether protocols were shared at Trust or locality level. While the centrality of service users' involvement in the transition process was identified, no protocol specified how users should be prepared for transition. A major omission from protocols was procedures to ensure continuity of care for patients not accepted by AMHS. Conclusion At least 13 transition protocols were in operation in Greater London in April 2005. Not all protocols meet all requirements set by government policy. Variation in

  12. The Impact of Protocol Assignment for Older Adolescents with Hodgkin Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Pieters, Richard S.; Wagner, Henry; Baker, Stephen; Morano, Karen; Ulin, Kenneth; Cicchetti, Maria Giulia; Bishop-Jodoin, Maryann; FitzGerald, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treatment has evolved to reduce or avoid radiotherapy (RT) dose and volume and minimize the potential for late effects. Some older adolescents are treated on adult protocols. The purpose of this study is to examine the protocol assignment of older adolescents and its impact on radiation dose to relevant thoracic structures. Materials and Methods: Cooperative group data were reviewed and 12 adolescents were randomly selected from a pediatric HL ...

  13. [Influence of a program of physical activity in children and obese adolescents with sleep apnea; study protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Cordero, M J; Sánchez López, A M; Mur Villar, N; Sánchez Marenco, A; Guisado Barrilao, R

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies show an alarming increase in the rate of overweight / obesity among the infant - juvenile population. Obesity in childhood is associated with a significant number of complications, such as sleep apnea syndrome, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and some cancers. It is estimated that the prevalence of sleep apnea in children is 2-3% in the general population, while in obese adolescents, varies between 13% and 66%, according to various studies. It is associated with impairment of neurocognitive function, behavior, cardiovascular system, metabolic disorders and growth. Sleep apnea is a serious public health problem that increases when children and adolescents are overweight or obese. We hypothesize that aerobic endurance exercise can be an effective treatment for obesity and apnea at the same time. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of physical activity in children and adolescents with overweight / obesity in sleep apnea. An observational, descriptive, prospective, longitudinal study will be carried out in children with sleep apnea and obesity. The universe will be made up of 60 children and adolescents aged between 10 and 18 years, attending the endocrinology service for suffering of obesity in the Hospital Clinico San Cecilio of Granada during the period September 2012-September 2013. The smple will consist of children and adolescents that meet these characteristics and to whom their parents/tutors have authorized through the informed consent. Sleep apnea in children wil be measured by polysomnography and sleep quality questionnaire. There will also be a nutritional assessment by a food frequency questionnaire and an anthropometric assessment. Among the expected results are the lower overweight and obesity in children through the physical activity program. To reduce apnea and to improve sleep quality.

  14. The impact of protocol assignment for older adolescents with Hodgkin Lymphoma

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    Richard S Pieters

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL treatment has evolved to reduce or avoid radiotherapy (RT dose and volume and minimize the potential for late effects. Some older adolescents are treated on adult protocols. The purpose of this study is to examine the protocol assignment of older adolescents and its impact on radiation dose to relevant thoracic structures.Material and Methods: Cooperative group data were reviewed and 12 adolescents were randomly selected from a pediatric HL protocol. Treatment plans were generated per one pediatric and two adult protocols. Dose volume histograms for heart, lung and breast allowed comparison of radiation dose to these sites across these 3 protocols.Results: A total of 15.2% of adolescents were treated on adult HL protocols and received significantly higher radiation dosage to heart and lung compared to pediatric HL protocols. Adolescents treated on either pediatric or adult protocols received similar RT dose to breast.Conclusions: Older adolescents treated on adult HL protocols received higher RT dose to thoracic structures except breast. Level of nodal involvement may impact overall RT dose to breast. The impact of varying field design and RT dose on survival, local, and late effects needs further study for this vulnerable age group.

  15. Study protocol: determinants of participation and quality of life of adolescents with cerebral palsy: a longitudinal study (SPARCLE2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colver, Allan F; Dickinson, Heather O; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children and adults with impairments such as cerebral palsy have lower participation in life situations than able-bodied people. Less is known about their subjective perception of their lives, called their quality of life.During adolescence, rapid physical and psychological changes oc...

  16. A randomised controlled trial of a community-based healthy lifestyle program for overweight and obese adolescents: the Loozit® study protocol

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    Shah Smita

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need to develop sustainable and clinically effective weight management interventions that are suitable for delivery in community settings where the vast majority of overweight and obese adolescents should be treated. This study aims to evaluate the effect of additional therapeutic contact as an adjunct to the Loozit® group program – a community-based, lifestyle intervention for overweight and lower grade obesity in adolescents. The additional therapeutic contact is provided via telephone coaching and either mobile phone Short Message Service or electronic mail, or both. Methods and design The study design is a two-arm randomised controlled trial that aims to recruit 168 overweight and obese 13–16 year olds (Body Mass Index z-score 1.0 to 2.5 in Sydney, Australia. Adolescents with secondary causes of obesity or significant medical illness are excluded. Participants are recruited via schools, media coverage, health professionals and several community organisations. Study arm one receives the Loozit® group weight management program (G. Study arm two receives the same Loozit® group weight management program plus additional therapeutic contact (G+ATC. The 'G' intervention consists of two phases. Phase 1 involves seven weekly group sessions held separately for adolescents and their parents. This is followed by phase 2 that involves a further seven group sessions held regularly, for adolescents only, until two years follow-up. Additional therapeutic contact is provided to adolescents in the 'G+ATC' study arm approximately once per fortnight during phase 2 only. Outcome measurements are assessed at 2, 12 and 24 months post-baseline and include: BMI z-score, waist z-score, metabolic profile indicators, physical activity, sedentary behaviour, eating patterns, and psychosocial well-being. Discussion The Loozit® study is the first randomised controlled trial of a community-based adolescent weight management

  17. Study protocol: Determinants of participation and quality of life of adolescents with cerebral palsy: a longitudinal study (SPARCLE2

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    Colver Allan F

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children and adults with impairments such as cerebral palsy have lower participation in life situations than able-bodied people. Less is known about their subjective perception of their lives, called their quality of life. During adolescence, rapid physical and psychological changes occur; although these may be more difficult for disabled than for able-bodied adolescents, little research has examined the lives of disabled adolescents. In 2003-4 a European Union funded project, SPARCLE, visited 818 children aged 8-12 years with cerebral palsy, sampled from population-based registers in nine European regions. The quality of life reported by these disabled children was similar to that of the general population but their participation was lower; levels of participation varied between countries even for children with similar severity of cerebral palsy. We are currently following up these children, now aged 13-17 years, to identify (i to what extent contemporaneous factors (pain, impairment, psychological health and parental stress predict their participation and quality of life, (ii what factors modify how participation and quality of life at age 8-12 years are associated with participation and quality of life in adolescence, and (iii whether differences between European countries in participation and quality of life can be explained by variations in environmental factors. Methods/Design Trained researchers will visit families to administer questionnaires to capture the adolescents' type and severity of impairment, socio-demographic characteristics, participation, quality of life, psychological health, pain, environmental access and parental stress. We will use multivariable models (linear, logistic or ordinal to assess how adolescent participation, quality of life, psychological health, pain, environmental access and parental stress, vary with impairment and socio-demographic characteristics and, where possible, how these

  18. Effectiveness of depression and anxiety prevention in adolescents with high familial risk: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasing, S.P.A.; Creemers, D.H.M.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Depression and anxiety disorders during adolescence can have detrimental consequences. Both disorders are related to negative outcome in various areas during adolescence and are also predictive of depression and anxiety disorders later in life. Especially parental psychopathology and bei

  19. A randomised controlled trial of a theory-based intervention to improve sun protective behaviour in adolescents ('you can still be HOT in the shade': study protocol

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    Hawkes Anna L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most skin cancers are preventable by encouraging consistent use of sun protective behaviour. In Australia, adolescents have high levels of knowledge and awareness of the risks of skin cancer but exhibit significantly lower sun protection behaviours than adults. There is limited research aimed at understanding why people do or do not engage in sun protective behaviour, and an associated absence of theory-based interventions to improve sun safe behaviour. This paper presents the study protocol for a school-based intervention which aims to improve the sun safe behaviour of adolescents. Methods/design Approximately 400 adolescents (aged 12-17 years will be recruited through Queensland, Australia public and private schools and randomized to the intervention (n = 200 or 'wait-list' control group (n = 200. The intervention focuses on encouraging supportive sun protective attitudes and beliefs, fostering perceptions of normative support for sun protection behaviour, and increasing perceptions of control/self-efficacy over using sun protection. It will be delivered during three × one hour sessions over a three week period from a trained facilitator during class time. Data will be collected one week pre-intervention (Time 1, and at one week (Time 2 and four weeks (Time 3 post-intervention. Primary outcomes are intentions to sun protect and sun protection behaviour. Secondary outcomes include attitudes toward performing sun protective behaviours (i.e., attitudes, perceptions of normative support to sun protect (i.e., subjective norms, group norms, and image norms, and perceived control over performing sun protective behaviours (i.e., perceived behavioural control. Discussion The study will provide valuable information about the effectiveness of the intervention in improving the sun protective behaviour of adolescents.

  20. Studying Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Linda M.

    2006-01-01

    Young people in their teens constitute the largest age group in the world, in a special stage recognized across the globe as the link in the life cycle between childhood and adulthood. Longitudinal studies in both developed and developing countries and better measurements of adolescent behavior are producing new insights. The physical and psychosocial changes that occur during puberty make manifest generational and early-childhood risks to development, in the form of individual differences in...

  1. Markedly improved outcomes and acceptable toxicity in adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia following treatment with a pediatric protocol: a phase II study by the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The superiority of the pediatric protocol for adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has already been demonstrated, however, its efficacy in young adults remains unclear. The ALL202-U protocol was conducted to examine the efficacy and feasibility of a pediatric protocol in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with BCR–ABL-negative ALL. Patients aged 15–24 years (n=139) were treated with the same protocol used for pediatric B-ALL. The primary objective of this study was to assess the disease-free survival (DFS) rate and its secondary aims were to assess toxicity, the complete remission (CR) rate and the overall survival (OS) rate. The CR rate was 94%. The 5-year DFS and OS rates were 67% (95% confidence interval (CI) 58–75%) and 73% (95% CI 64–80%), respectively. Severe adverse events were observed at a frequency that was similar to or lower than that in children treated with the same protocol. Only insufficient maintenance therapy significantly worsened the DFS (hazard ratio 5.60, P<0.001). These results indicate that this protocol may be a feasible and highly effective treatment for AYA with BCR–ABL-negative ALL

  2. Following young people with perinatal HIV infection from adolescence into adulthood: the protocol for PHACS AMP Up, a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Patel, Kunjal; Alperen, Julie; Kacanek, Deborah; Ellis, Angela; Berman, Claire; Allison, Susannah M; Hazra, Rohan; Barr, Emily; Cantos, Krystal; Siminski, Suzanne; Massagli, Michael; Bauermeister, Jose; Siddiqui, Danish Q; Puga, Ana; Van Dyke, Russell; Seage, George R

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The first generation of adolescents born with HIV infection has reached young adulthood due to advances in treatment. It is important to continue follow-up of these individuals to assess their long-term medical, behavioural and mental health and ability to successfully transition to adulthood while coping with a chronic, potentially stigmatising condition. To accomplish this, and to maintain their interest in long-term research participation, we need to accommodate the changing lifestyles and interests of young adult study participants while ensuring valid data collection. We report the protocol for Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) Adolescent Master Protocol (AMP) Up, a prospective cohort study enrolling young adult participants for long-term follow-up. Methods and analysis AMP Up is recruiting 850 young men and women 18 years of age and older—600 perinatally HIV-infected and a comparison group of 250 perinatally HIV-exposed, uninfected—at 14 clinical research sites in the USA and Puerto Rico. Recruitment began in April 2014 and is ongoing, with 305 participants currently enrolled. Planned follow-up is ≥6 years. Data are collected with a flexible hybrid of online and in-person methods. Outcomes include: transition to adult clinical care and retention in care; end-organ diseases; malignancies; metabolic complications; sexually transmitted infections; reproductive health; mental health and neurocognitive functioning; adherence to antiretroviral treatment; sexual behaviour and substance use; hearing and language impairments; and employment and educational achievement. Ethics and dissemination The study received ethical approval from the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health's institutional review board (IRB), and from the IRBs of each clinical research site. All participants provide written informed consent; for cognitively impaired individuals with legally authorised representatives, legal guardian permission and participant assent

  3. Effects of a 10-Minutes Peer Education Protocol to Reduce Binge Drinking among Adolescents during Holidays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planken, Martijn J. E.; Boer, Henk

    2010-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate a standard ten-minute peer education protocol to reduce binge drinking among Dutch adolescents at campsites during summer holidays. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated the effects of the peer education protocol as applied by trained peer educators. We collected data by telephone interviews fourteen…

  4. Understanding the role of the immune system in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Immunometabolic CONnections to Scoliosis (ICONS) study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaan, M Constantine; Missiuna, Paul; Peterson, Devin; Thabane, Lehana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) affects up to 3% of children around the world. There is limited knowledge of AIS aetiopathogenesis, and this evidence is needed to develop new management strategies. Paraspinal muscle in AIS demonstrates evidence of differential fibrosis based on curve sidedness. Fibrosis is the hallmark of macrophage-driven inflammation and tissue remodelling, yet the mechanisms of fibrosis in paraspinal muscle in AIS are poorly understood. Objectives The primary objective of this study is to determine the influence of curve sidedness on paraspinal muscle inflammation. Secondary objectives include defining the mechanisms of macrophage homing to muscle, and determining muscle–macrophage crosstalk in muscle fibrosis in AIS. Methods and analysis This is a cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary paediatric centre in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. We will recruit boys and girls, 10–17 years of age, who are having surgery to correct AIS. We will exclude children who have an active infection or are on immunosuppressive therapies within 2 weeks of surgery, smokers and pregnant girls. Paraspinal muscle biopsies will be obtained at the start of surgery. Also, blood and urine samples will be collected from participants, who will fill questionnaires about their lifestyle. Anthropometric measures will also be collected including height, weight, waist and hip circumferences. Ethics and dissemination This study has received ethics authorisation by the institutional review board. This work will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will be presented in oral and poster formats at scientific meetings. Discussion This study will explore the mechanisms of paraspinal muscle inflammation, remodelling and fibrosis in AIS. This will help identify pathways and molecules as potential therapeutic targets to treat and prevent AIS. It may also yield markers that predict scoliosis progression and response to treatment in these children. PMID

  5. The MOBI-Kids Study Protocol: Challenges in Assessing Childhood and Adolescent Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Wireless Telecommunication Technologies and Possible Association with Brain Tumor Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadetzki, Siegal; Langer, Chelsea Eastman; Bruchim, Revital; Kundi, Michael; Merletti, Franco; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Maslanyj, Myron; Sim, Malcolm R.; Taki, Masao; Wiart, Joe; Armstrong, Bruce; Milne, Elizabeth; Benke, Geza; Schattner, Rosa; Hutter, Hans-Peter; Woehrer, Adelheid; Krewski, Daniel; Mohipp, Charmaine; Momoli, Franco; Ritvo, Paul; Spinelli, John; Lacour, Brigitte; Delmas, Dominique; Remen, Thomas; Radon, Katja; Weinmann, Tobias; Klostermann, Swaantje; Heinrich, Sabine; Petridou, Eleni; Bouka, Evdoxia; Panagopoulou, Paraskevi; Dikshit, Rajesh; Nagrani, Rajini; Even-Nir, Hadas; Chetrit, Angela; Maule, Milena; Migliore, Enrica; Filippini, Graziella; Miligi, Lucia; Mattioli, Stefano; Yamaguchi, Naohito; Kojimahara, Noriko; Ha, Mina; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Mannetje, Andrea ’t; Eng, Amanda; Woodward, Alistair; Carretero, Gema; Alguacil, Juan; Aragones, Nuria; Suare-Varela, Maria Morales; Goedhart, Geertje; Schouten-van Meeteren, A. Antoinette Y. N.; Reedijk, A. Ardine M. J.; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in mobile phone use in young people has generated concern about possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). MOBI-Kids, a multinational case–control study, investigates the potential effects of childhood and adolescent exposure to EMF from mobile communications technologies on brain tumor risk in 14 countries. The study, which aims to include approximately 1,000 brain tumor cases aged 10–24 years and two individually matched controls for each case, follows a common protocol and builds upon the methodological experience of the INTERPHONE study. The design and conduct of a study on EMF exposure and brain tumor risk in young people in a large number of countries is complex and poses methodological challenges. This manuscript discusses the design of MOBI-Kids and describes the challenges and approaches chosen to address them, including: (1) the choice of controls operated for suspected appendicitis, to reduce potential selection bias related to low response rates among population controls; (2) investigating a young study population spanning a relatively wide age range; (3) conducting a large, multinational epidemiological study, while adhering to increasingly stricter ethics requirements; (4) investigating a rare and potentially fatal disease; and (5) assessing exposure to EMF from communication technologies. Our experience in thus far developing and implementing the study protocol indicates that MOBI-Kids is feasible and will generate results that will contribute to the understanding of potential brain tumor risks associated with use of mobile phones and other wireless communications technologies among young people. PMID:25295243

  6. The MOBI-Kids study protocol: challenges in assessing childhood and adolescent exposure to electromagnetic fields from wireless telecommunication technologies and possible association with brain tumor risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegal eSadetzki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase in mobile phone use in young people has generated concern about possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF, extremely low frequency (ELF electromagnetic fields (EMF. MOBI-Kids, a multinational case-control study, investigates the potential effects of childhood and adolescent exposure to EMF from mobile communications technologies on brain tumor risk in 14 countries. The study, which aims to include approximately 1,000 brain tumor cases aged 10-24 years and two individually matched controls for each case, follows a common protocol and builds upon the methodological experience of the INTERPHONE study. The design and conduct of a study on EMF exposure and brain tumor risk in young people in a large number of countries is complex and poses methodological challenges. This manuscript discusses the design of MOBI-Kids and describes the challenges and approaches chosen to address them, including: 1 the choice of controls operated for suspected appendicitis, to reduce potential selection bias related to low response rates among population controls; 2 investigating a young study population spanning a relatively wide age-range. 3 conducting a large, multinational epidemiological study, while adhering to increasingly stricter ethics requirements; 4 investigating a rare and potentially fatal disease; and 5 assessing exposure to EMF from communication technologies. Our experience thus far developing and implementing the study protocol indicates that MOBI-Kids is feasible and will generate results that will contribute to the understanding of potential brain tumor risks associated with use of mobile phones and other wireless communications technologies among young people.

  7. The MOBI-Kids Study Protocol: Challenges in Assessing Childhood and Adolescent Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Wireless Telecommunication Technologies and Possible Association with Brain Tumor Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadetzki, Siegal; Langer, Chelsea Eastman; Bruchim, Revital; Kundi, Michael; Merletti, Franco; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Maslanyj, Myron; Sim, Malcolm R; Taki, Masao; Wiart, Joe; Armstrong, Bruce; Milne, Elizabeth; Benke, Geza; Schattner, Rosa; Hutter, Hans-Peter; Woehrer, Adelheid; Krewski, Daniel; Mohipp, Charmaine; Momoli, Franco; Ritvo, Paul; Spinelli, John; Lacour, Brigitte; Delmas, Dominique; Remen, Thomas; Radon, Katja; Weinmann, Tobias; Klostermann, Swaantje; Heinrich, Sabine; Petridou, Eleni; Bouka, Evdoxia; Panagopoulou, Paraskevi; Dikshit, Rajesh; Nagrani, Rajini; Even-Nir, Hadas; Chetrit, Angela; Maule, Milena; Migliore, Enrica; Filippini, Graziella; Miligi, Lucia; Mattioli, Stefano; Yamaguchi, Naohito; Kojimahara, Noriko; Ha, Mina; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Mannetje, Andrea 't; Eng, Amanda; Woodward, Alistair; Carretero, Gema; Alguacil, Juan; Aragones, Nuria; Suare-Varela, Maria Morales; Goedhart, Geertje; Schouten-van Meeteren, A Antoinette Y N; Reedijk, A Ardine M J; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in mobile phone use in young people has generated concern about possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). MOBI-Kids, a multinational case-control study, investigates the potential effects of childhood and adolescent exposure to EMF from mobile communications technologies on brain tumor risk in 14 countries. The study, which aims to include approximately 1,000 brain tumor cases aged 10-24 years and two individually matched controls for each case, follows a common protocol and builds upon the methodological experience of the INTERPHONE study. The design and conduct of a study on EMF exposure and brain tumor risk in young people in a large number of countries is complex and poses methodological challenges. This manuscript discusses the design of MOBI-Kids and describes the challenges and approaches chosen to address them, including: (1) the choice of controls operated for suspected appendicitis, to reduce potential selection bias related to low response rates among population controls; (2) investigating a young study population spanning a relatively wide age range; (3) conducting a large, multinational epidemiological study, while adhering to increasingly stricter ethics requirements; (4) investigating a rare and potentially fatal disease; and (5) assessing exposure to EMF from communication technologies. Our experience in thus far developing and implementing the study protocol indicates that MOBI-Kids is feasible and will generate results that will contribute to the understanding of potential brain tumor risks associated with use of mobile phones and other wireless communications technologies among young people.

  8. Validation of the distress thermometer for use among adolescents and young adults with cancer in Australia: a multicenter study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson P

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pandora Patterson,1,2 Fiona EJ McDonald,1,2 Antoinette Anazodo,3 Daniel SJ Costa,4 Claire E Wakefield,5,6 Kate White,2 Kate Thompson,7 Michael P Osborn8 1Research, Evaluation and Social Policy, CanTeen Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Cancer Nursing Research Unit, Sydney Nursing School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Sydney Youth Cancer Service, Sydney Children's Hospital and Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia; 4Psycho-oncology Co-operative Research group, School of Psychology, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5School of Women's and Children's Health, UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia; 6Behavioural Sciences Unit, Kids Cancer Centre, Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia; 7Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 8Youth Cancer Service SA/NT, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA, Australia Background: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs diagnosed with cancer commonly experience elevated levels of distress. Routinely administered distress screening tools can be effective in identifying individuals in need of referral to psychosocial services. The distress thermometer and problem checklist are widely used screening tools that have been validated among some cancer populations, but which have not to date been validated for use among AYAs with cancer. The primary aim of this study is to validate the distress thermometer and a modified problem checklist for use with AYA cancer patients, aged 15–25 years. Specifically, we aim to 1 determine appropriate cutoffs for clinical referral on the distress thermometer; 2 investigate the content validity of the modified problem checklist; and 3 assess the clinical utility of the tool from the perspectives of both patients and health care professionals. The secondary aims of the study are to 4 establish prevalence and predictors of distress in AYA cancer patients and 5 examine the

  9. A randomised controlled trial of a community-based healthy lifestyle program for overweight and obese adolescents: the Loozit® study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Smita; Kohn Michael R; Hill Andrew J; Lee Anthea; Stevenson Kate; Steinbeck Katharine S; O'Connor Janice; Shrewsbury Vanessa A; Torvaldsen Siranda; Baur Louise A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a need to develop sustainable and clinically effective weight management interventions that are suitable for delivery in community settings where the vast majority of overweight and obese adolescents should be treated. This study aims to evaluate the effect of additional therapeutic contact as an adjunct to the Loozit® group program – a community-based, lifestyle intervention for overweight and lower grade obesity in adolescents. The additional therapeutic contact...

  10. Improving adolescent mental health and resilience through a resilience-based intervention in schools: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Freund, Megan; Campbell, Elizabeth; Wolfenden, Luke; Hodder, Rebecca K.; Wiggers, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Research investigating the effectiveness of universal interventions to reduce the risk of mental health problems remains limited. Schools are a promising setting within which adolescents can receive interventions aimed at promoting their mental health. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a resilience-based prevention-focused intervention in reducing the risk of mental health problems among adolescents attending secondary school in socio-economically disadvantage...

  11. Effects of exercise intensity and nutrition advice on myocardial function in obese children and adolescents: a multicentre randomised controlled trial study protocol.

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Katrin A; Coombes, Jeff S.; Green, DJ; Gomersall, SR; Keating, SE; Tjønna, Arnt Erik; Hollekim-Strand, Siri Marte; Hosseini, Mansoureh Sadat; Rø, Torstein Baade; Haram, M; Huuse, EM; Davies, PS; Cain, PA; Leong, GM; Ingul, Charlotte Bjørk

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of paediatric obesity is increasing, and with it, lifestyle-related diseases in children and adolescents. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has recently been explored as an alternate to traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in adults with chronic disease and has been shown to induce a rapid reversal of subclinical disease markers in obese children and adolescents. The primary aim of this study is to compare the effects of HIIT with MICT on...

  12. Physical activity as a preventive measure against overweight, obesity, infections, allergies and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents: AFINOS Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calle María E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior studies addressing the impacts of regular physical activity or sedentary habits on the immune system have been conducted in adults and laboratory settings. Thus, it is practically unknown how a healthy active lifestyle could affect low-grade inflammation processes, infections or allergies in young persons. The AFINOS Study was designed to determine the relationship between the regular physical activity levels of adolescents and overweight, infection, and allergies along with the presence of metabolic and immunological biomarkers of a deteriorated health status. A further objective of the AFINOS Study is to assess the health status and lifestyle habits of an adolescent population in an effort to identify any protective factors that could be used as preventive measures, since many chronic diseases and their associated co-morbidities often persist from adolescence into adulthood. Methods/Design This study was conducted as three separate sub-studies in three different populations as follows: (a Study 1 was performed on a population sample of adolescents; (b Study 2 on the adolescents' parents; and (c Study 3 on a subset of the adolescents from Study 1. Study 1 assessed health and lifestyle indicators through a questionnaire administered to a representative sample of adolescents from the Madrid Region (n = 2400 aged 13 to 16 years. In Study 2, the parents of the teenagers participating in Study 1 were required to fill out a questionnaire. Finally in Study 3, body composition, physical activity, health-related physical fitness, and blood measurements were determined in a subset (n = 200 of the individuals included in Study 1. Discussion This paper describes the rationale, design, and methodologies used in the AFINOS Study. This multidisciplinary, multicenter study seeks to evaluate several aspects of existing relationships between routine physical activity/sedentary behaviour and several health status markers, specifically

  13. Effects of exercise intensity and nutrition advice on myocardial function in obese children and adolescents: a multicentre randomised controlled trial study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Katrin A; Coombes, Jeff S; Green, Daniel J; Gomersall, Sjaan R; Keating, Shelley E; Tjonna, Arnt Erik; Hollekim-Strand, Siri Marte; Hosseini, Mansoureh Sadat; Ro, Torstein Baade; Haram, Margrete; Huuse, Else Marie; Davies, Peter S W; Cain, Peter A; Leong, Gary M; Ingul, Charlotte B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of paediatric obesity is increasing, and with it, lifestyle-related diseases in children and adolescents. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has recently been explored as an alternate to traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in adults with chronic disease and has been shown to induce a rapid reversal of subclinical disease markers in obese children and adolescents. The primary aim of this study is to compare the effects of HIIT with MICT on myocardial function in obese children and adolescents. Methods and analysis Multicentre randomised controlled trial of 100 obese children and adolescents in the cities of Trondheim (Norway) and Brisbane (Australia). The trial will examine the efficacy of HIIT to improve cardiometabolic outcomes in obese children and adolescents. Participants will be randomised to (1) HIIT and nutrition advice, (2) MICT and nutrition advice or (3) nutrition advice. Participants will partake in supervised exercise training and/or nutrition sessions for 3 months. Measurements for study end points will occur at baseline, 3 months (postintervention) and 12 months (follow-up). The primary end point is myocardial function (peak systolic tissue velocity). Secondary end points include vascular function (flow-mediated dilation assessment), quantity of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, myocardial structure and function, body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, autonomic function, blood biochemistry, physical activity and nutrition. Lean, healthy children and adolescents will complete measurements for all study end points at one time point for comparative cross-sectional analyses. Ethics and dissemination This randomised controlled trial will generate substantial information regarding the effects of exercise intensity on paediatric obesity, specifically the cardiometabolic health of this at-risk population. It is expected that communication of results will allow for the development of

  14. Comparing group-based acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) with enhanced usual care for adolescents with functional somatic syndromes: a study protocol for a randomised trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallesøe, Karen Hansen; Schröder, Andreas; Wicksell, Rikard K; Fink, Per; Ørnbøl, Eva; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Functional somatic syndromes (FSS) are common in adolescents, characterised by severe disability and reduced quality of life. Behavioural treatments such as acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has shown promising results in children and adolescents with FSS, but has focused on specific syndromes such as functional pain. The current study will compare the efficacy of group-based ACT with that of enhanced usual care (EUC) in adolescents with a range of FSS operationalised by the unifying construct of multiorgan bodily distress syndrome (BDS). Methods and analysis A total of 120 adolescents aged 15–19 and diagnosed with multiorgan BDS, of at least 12 months duration, will be assessed and randomised to either: (1) EUC: a manualised consultation with a child and adolescent psychiatrist and individualised treatment plan or (2) manualised ACT-based group therapy plus EUC. The ACT programme consists of 9 modules (ie, 27 hours) and 1 follow-up meeting (3 hours). The primary outcome is physical health, assessed by an Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) aggregate score 12 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes include self-reported symptom severity, symptom interference, depression and anxiety, illness worry, perceived stress and global improvement; as well as objective physical activity and bodily stress response measured by heart rate variability, hair cortisol and inflammatory biomarkers. Process measures are illness perception, illness-related behaviour and psychological flexibility. Ethics and dissemination The study is conducted in accordance with Helsinki Declaration II. Approval has been obtained from the Science Ethics Committee of the Central Denmark Region and the Danish Data Protection. The results will be sought to be published according to the CONSORT statement in peer-reviewed journals. Discussion This is one of the first larger randomised clinical trials evaluating the effect of a group-based intervention for adolescents with a

  15. The DOMUS study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordly, Mie; Benthien, Kirstine Skov; Von Der Maase, Hans;

    2014-01-01

    is a controlled randomized clinical trial with a balanced parallel-group randomization (1:1). The planned sample size is 340 in- and outpatients treated at the Department of Oncology at Copenhagen University Hospital. Patients are randomly assigned either to: a) standard care plus SPC enriched with a...... cancer can be a powerful tool to improve patients' quality of life and support family/caregivers during the disease trajectory. The present study offers a model for achieving optimal delivery of palliative care in the patient's preferred place of care and attempt to clarify challenges. TRIAL REGISTRATION...

  16. Development of a treatment protocol for Puerto Rican adolescents with suicidal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarté-Vélez, Yovanska; Torres-Dávila, Paloma; Spirito, Anthony; Polanco, Norka; Bernal, Guillermo

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents in Puerto Rico are at an increased risk for suicide attempts, though evidence-based treatments specifically for this group have not been tested. The current study was designed to develop and pilot test a culturally sensitive, manualized outpatient treatment for Puerto Rican adolescents who have experienced a suicidal crisis. The study was divided into phases. Phase 1 consisted of developing a socio-cognitive behavioral treatment for suicidal behavior. Phase 2 tested the treatment protocol in an open trial with 11 (6 male and 5 female) Puerto Rican adolescents. Active treatment had an approximate duration of 3-6 months. An initial assessment, process measures, and posttreatment assessment were completed with each participant to measure treatment feasibility as well as suicidality, symptoms, and risk factors. Participants were very satisfied with treatment and reported relevant clinical benefits. The retention rate was 73% (8 out of 11). For those who completed the treatment protocol, the goal of reducing further suicide risk was achieved; 2 showed reliable clinical changes in suicidal ideation, while 6 maintained low levels during treatment. All treatment completers had either a partial or total remission of their pretreatment diagnosis and half had reliable improvements in at least 1 risk factor. A theory-driven treatment protocol was developed according to patient's needs, but further research is needed to continue its development and to explore its efficacy. PMID:26928136

  17. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT girls randomized controlled trial for adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools: rationale, study protocol, and baseline results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okely Anthony D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools. Methods/Design The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls intervention will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. NEAT Girls is a 12-month multi-component school-based intervention developed in reference to Social Cognitive Theory and includes enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity (PA sessions, PA and nutrition handbooks, parent newsletters, pedometers for self-monitoring and text messaging for social support. The following variables were assessed at baseline and will be completed again at 12- and 24-months: adiposity, objectively measured PA, muscular fitness, time spent in sedentary behaviors, dietary intake, PA and nutrition social-cognitive mediators, physical self-perception and global self-esteem. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA and nutrition behavior change will be explored. Discussion NEAT Girls is an innovative intervention targeting low-active girls using evidence-based behavior change strategies and nutrition and PA messages and has the potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain and reduce the decline in physical activity and poor dietary habits associated with low socio-economic status. Few studies have reported the long-term effects of school-based obesity prevention programs and the current study has the potential to make an

  18. Evaluating a selective prevention program for substance use and comorbid behavioral problems in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijven, E.S.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kleinjan, M.; Poelen, E.A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Substance use and abuse is a growing problem among adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (ID). Substance use patterns in general population are similar to patterns among non-disabled peers, but substance use has more negative consequences for adolescents with mild

  19. Developing a Tablet-Based Self-Persuasion Intervention Promoting Adolescent HPV Vaccination: Protocol for a Three-Stage Mixed-Methods Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tiro, Jasmin A; Lee, Simon Craddock; Marks, Emily G.; Persaud, Donna; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Street, Richard L.; Wiebe, Deborah J.; Farrell, David; Bishop, Wendy Pechero; Fuller, Sobha; Baldwin, Austin S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers are a significant burden on the US health care system that can be prevented through adolescent HPV vaccination. Despite guidelines recommending vaccination, coverage among US adolescents is suboptimal particularly among underserved patients (uninsured, low income, racial, and ethnic minorities) seen in safety-net health care settings. Many parents are ambivalent about the vaccine and delay making a decision or talking with a provider about...

  20. Contingency Management for Adolescent Smokers: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Gwaltney, Chad; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Miranda, Robert; Barnett, Nancy P.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of a contingency management (CM) protocol for adolescent smokers that included use of a reduction phase. Using a within-participants design, 19 adolescents completed three 7-day phases: (1) reinforcement for attendance and provision of breath samples (RA) phase, (2) a washout phase,…

  1. Universal protocol for alopecia areata clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesinkovska, Natasha A; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2013-12-01

    Within the area of alopecia areata research, there is an obvious need for well-designed clinical trials of therapeutic agents. The National Alopecia Areata Foundation (NAAF) has created an initiative for the development of a unified protocol with guidelines for clinical studies. The NAAF universal protocol represents a joint effort of clinicians and investigators with experience in treating alopecia areata. This protocol will serve as a tremendous resource to facilitate future clinical studies. PMID:24326554

  2. Security Protocol Design: A Case Study Using Key Distribution Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Dojen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays security protocols are a key component in providing security services for fixed and mobile networks. These services include data confidentiality, radio link encryption, message integrity, mobile subscriber authentication, electronic payment, certified e-mail, contract signing and nonrepudiation. This paper is concerned with design of effective security protocols. Security protocols are introduced and some common attacks against security protocols are discussed. The vulnerabilities that lead to theattacks are analyzed and guidelines for effective security protocol design are proposed. The presented guidelines are applied to the Andrew Secure RPC protocol and its adapted versions. It is demonstrated that compliance with the guidelines successfully avoidsfreshness and parallel session attacks.

  3. The MOBI-Kids Study Protocol : Challenges in Assessing Childhood and Adolescent Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Wireless Telecommunication Technologies and Possible Association with Brain Tumor Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadetzki, Siegal; Langer, Chelsea Eastman; Bruchim, Revital; Kundi, Michael; Merletti, Franco; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Maslanyj, Myron; Sim, Malcolm R; Taki, Masao; Wiart, Joe; Armstrong, Bruce; Milne, Elizabeth; Benke, Geza; Schattner, Rosa; Hutter, Hans-Peter; Woehrer, Adelheid; Krewski, Daniel; Mohipp, Charmaine; Momoli, Franco; Ritvo, Paul; Spinelli, John; Lacour, Brigitte; Delmas, Dominique; Remen, Thomas; Radon, Katja; Weinmann, Tobias; Klostermann, Swaantje; Heinrich, Sabine; Petridou, Eleni; Bouka, Evdoxia; Panagopoulou, Paraskevi; Dikshit, Rajesh; Nagrani, Rajini; Even-Nir, Hadas; Chetrit, Angela; Maule, Milena; Migliore, Enrica; Filippini, Graziella; Miligi, Lucia; Mattioli, Stefano; Yamaguchi, Naohito; Kojimahara, Noriko; Ha, Mina; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Mannetje, Andrea 't; Eng, Amanda; Woodward, Alistair; Carretero, Gema; Alguacil, Juan; Aragones, Nuria; Suare-Varela, Maria Morales; Goedhart, Geertje; Schouten-van Meeteren, A Antoinette Y N; Reedijk, A Ardine M J; Cardis, Elisabeth; Goedhart - de Wolf, Geertje

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in mobile phone use in young people has generated concern about possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). MOBI-Kids, a multinational case-control study, investigates the potential effects of childhood

  4. Statistical principles for prospective study protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Robin; Langberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    In the design of scientific studies it is essential to decide on which scientific questions one aims to answer, just as it is important to decide on the correct statistical methods to use to answer these questions. The correct use of statistical methods is crucial in all aspects of research...... (rigorous) protocol writing too troublesome, will realize that they have already written the first half of the final paper if they follow these recommendations; authors simply need to change the protocols future tense into past tense. Thus, the aim of this clinical commentary is to describe and explain...

  5. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in adolescents: experiences in 378 adolescent NHL patients treated according to pediatric NHL-BFM protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, B; Oschlies, I; Klapper, W; Zimmermann, M; Woessmann, W; Meinhardt, A; Landmann, E; Attarbaschi, A; Niggli, F; Schrappe, M; Reiter, A

    2011-01-01

    Age-related differences in the distribution, biology and treatment response of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in adolescents remain to be elucidated. The current analyses present clinical parameters and outcomes of adolescents treated in pediatric NHL-BFM trials. Patients were stratified by histological subtype: lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL); mature B-NHL, including Burkitt's lymphoma/leukemia (BL/B-AL), diffuse B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL-CB) and mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMLBL); and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). Between October 1986 and December 2007, 2915 patients were registered, including 378 (13%) adolescents (15-18 years) with BL/B-AL (n=101), ALCL (n=74), DLBCL-CB (n=55), T-LBL (n=45), PMLBL (n=24), pB-LBL (n=13) and rare or not-specified NHL subtypes (n=66). The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) was 79±2% for adolescents compared with 85±1% for patients aged B-AL, 85±5% with DLBCL-CB, 57±10% with PMLBL and 70±6% with ALCL. According to sex, the 5-year EFS in females versus males, respectively, was 70±5 versus 83±2% overall (P=0.004), 57±17 versus 92±6% (P=0.0036) for T-LBL patients and 71±9 versus 97±3% (P=0.0067) for DLBCL-CB patients. Adolescents with NHL treated according to pediatric NHL-BFM protocols had an EFS of 79±2%, which is marginally inferior to that of children. In adolescents with T-LBL and DLBCL-CB, female sex was associated with a worse prognosis. PMID:21030984

  6. Evaluating Computer-Tutors: A Protocol Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, James

    A protocol study investigated whether computer tutors (programs that interactively guide writers while they freewrite with a word processing program) promote or hinder a richer understanding of the composing process. The analysis focused on writers' attitudes toward computer tutors in the invention process. Data were collected by tape recording a…

  7. The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder - study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA - net trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitag Christine M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group-based social skills training (SST has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD. To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manualised SOSTA–FRA program will result in improved social responsiveness (measured by the parent rated social responsiveness scale, SRS compared to treatment as usual (TAU. It is further expected, that parent and self reported anxiety and depressive symptoms will decline and pro-social behaviour will increase in the treatment group. A neurophysiological study in the Frankfurt HFASD subgroup will be performed pre- and post treatment to assess changes in neural function induced by SST versus TAU. Methods/design The SOSTA – net trial is designed as a prospective, randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with two parallel groups. The primary outcome is change in SRS score directly after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up. Several secondary outcome measures are also obtained. The target sample consists of 220 individuals with ASD, included at the six study centres. Discussion This study is currently one of the largest trials on SST in children and adolescents with HFASD worldwide. Compared to recent randomised controlled studies, our study shows several advantages with regard to in- and exclusion criteria, study methods, and the therapeutic approach chosen, which can be easily implemented in non-university-based clinical settings. Trial registration ISRCTN94863788 – SOSTA – net: Group-based social skills training in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder.

  8. A school-based intervention incorporating smartphone technology to improve health-related fitness among adolescents: rationale and study protocol for the NEAT and ATLAS 2.0 cluster randomised controlled trial and dissemination study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J; Peralta, Louisa R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Okely, Anthony D; Salmon, Jo; Eather, Narelle; Dewar, Deborah L; Kennedy, Sarah; Lonsdale, Chris; Hilland, Toni A; Estabrooks, Paul; Finn, Tara L; Pollock, Emma; Morgan, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical inactivity has been described as a global pandemic. Interventions aimed at developing skills in lifelong physical activities may provide the foundation for an active lifestyle into adulthood. In general, school-based physical activity interventions targeting adolescents have produced modest results and few have been designed to be ‘scaled-up’ and disseminated. This study aims to: (1) assess the effectiveness of two physical activity promotion programmes (ie, NEAT and ATLAS) that have been modified for scalability; and (2) evaluate the dissemination of these programmes throughout government funded secondary schools. Methods and analysis The study will be conducted in two phases. In the first phase (cluster randomised controlled trial), 16 schools will be randomly allocated to the intervention or a usual care control condition. In the second phase, the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (Re-AIM) framework will be used to guide the design and evaluation of programme dissemination throughout New South Wales (NSW), Australia. In both phases, teachers will be trained to deliver the NEAT and ATLAS programmes, which will include: (1) interactive student seminars; (2) structured physical activity programmes; (3) lunch-time fitness sessions; and (4) web-based smartphone apps. In the cluster RCT, study outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 6 months (primary end point) and 12-months. Muscular fitness will be the primary outcome and secondary outcomes will include: objectively measured body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility, resistance training skill competency, physical activity, self-reported recreational screen-time, sleep, sugar-sweetened beverage and junk food snack consumption, self-esteem and well-being. Ethics and dissemination This study has received approval from the University of Newcastle (H-2014-0312) and the NSW Department of Education (SERAP: 2012121) human research ethics committees. This

  9. Self Fault-Tolerance of Protocols: A Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The prerequisite for the existing protocols' correctness is that protocols can be normally operated under the normal conditions, rather than dealing with abnormal conditions.In other words, protocols with the fault-tolerance can not be provided when some fault occurs. This paper discusses the self fault-tolerance of protocols. It describes some concepts and methods for achieving self fault tolerance of protocols. Meanwhile, it provides a case study, investigates a typical protocol that does not satisfy the self fault-tolerance, and gives a new redesign version of this existing protocol using the proposed approach.

  10. Proposed trial: safety and efficacy of resveratrol for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated insulin resistance in adolescents who are overweight or obese adolescents - rationale and protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklow, Brandy; Wittmeier, Kristy; T' Jong, Geert W; McGavock, Jonathon; Robert, Marni; Duhamel, Todd; Dolinsky, Vernon W

    2015-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) disease (NAFLD) affects 30% of overweight adolescents and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Resveratrol is a naturally occurring compound with potential to reverse NAFL and its associated insulin resistance in adults. The use of resveratrol to reduce risk for T2D through its effect on NAFL has not been examined to date in youth. This paper provides a literature review and protocol for a 30 day proof of principle trial of resveratrol in a population of adolescents at risk for T2D. This randomized double-blind controlled trial is designed with the primary objective of evaluating a twice daily supplementation of 75 mg of resveratrol for safety and tolerability in overweight and obese adolescent subjects (13 to physical activity, and nutritional assessment. This study will determine the safety and tolerability of resveratrol in an overweight adolescent population and inform the design of a larger randomized controlled trial.

  11. Assessing the efficacy of the healthy eating and lifestyle programme (HELP compared with enhanced standard care of the obese adolescent in the community: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie Deborah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The childhood obesity epidemic is one of the foremost UK health priorities. Childhood obesity tracks into adult life and places individuals at considerable risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, liver disease and other morbidities. There is widespread need for paediatric lifestyle programmes as change may be easier to accomplish in childhood than later in life. Study Design/Method The study will evaluate the management of adolescent obesity by conducting a Medical Research Council complex intervention phase III efficacy randomised clinical trial of the Healthy Eating Lifestyle Programme within primary care. The study tests a community delivered multi-component intervention designed for adolescents developed from best practice as identified by National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. The hospital based pilot reduced body mass index and improved health-related quality of life. Subjects will be individually randomised to receiving either the Healthy Eating Lifestyle Programme (12 fortnightly family sessions or enhanced standard care. Baseline and follow up assessments will be undertaken blind to allocation status. A health economic evaluation is also being conducted. 200 obese young people (13-17 years, body mass index > 98th centile for age and sex will be recruited from primary care within the greater London area. The primary hypothesis is that a motivational and solution-focused family-based weight management programme delivered over 6 months is more efficacious in reducing body mass index in obese adolescents identified in the community than enhanced standard care. The primary outcome will be body mass index at the end of the intervention, adjusted for baseline body mass index, age and sex. The secondary hypothesis is that the Healthy Eating Lifestyle Programme is more efficacious in improving quality of life and psychological function and reducing waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors in

  12. Exercise for Adolescents with Depressive Disorders: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Dopp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Adolescence is associated with increased depressive symptoms and decreased aerobic exercise, yet the relationship between exercise and clinical depression among adolescents requires further examination. This study assessed the feasibility of a 12-week intervention designed to increase exercise for adolescents with depressive disorders: Will a teenager with depression exercise? Methods. Participants were 13 adolescents with depression reporting low levels of aerobic exercise. They completed a 12-week intervention (15 supervised exercise sessions and 21 independent sessions. Exercise was measured through the aerobic exercise Questionnaire, actigraphy, and heart-rate monitoring. Depression was measured with the Children’s Depression Rating Scale, Revised, and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Self-Report. Results. All participants who started the intervention completed the protocol, attending all supervised exercise sessions. Actigraphy verified 81% adherence to the protocol’s independent sessions. Analysis of secondary outcomes showed a significant increase in exercise levels and a significant decrease in depression severity. Initially, ten participants were overweight or obese, and three were healthy weight. After 12 weeks of exercise, the number of participants in the healthy-weight category doubled. Conclusions. Adolescents suffering from depression can complete a rigorous protocol requiring structured increases in aerobic exercise. Participants showed significant increases in exercise, and significant decreases in depressive symptoms.

  13. A Study on Merits and Demerits of SAN Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    ASHUTOSH KUMAR SINGH

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on SAN protocols and their various topologies, protocol layers, addresses. This article gives the description of rules and regulation of SAN that work in networks of storage. This study paper deals with the study of SAN and DAS, how they work in the open industrial network. This paper surveys on protocols and their working in storage. DAS have SATA, SCSI and SAN have uses FC, FCOE protocols.

  14. A cluster randomised trial of a school-based intervention to prevent decline in adolescent physical activity levels: study protocol for the ‘Physical Activity 4 Everyone’ trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutherland Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is an established period of physical activity decline. Multi-component school-based interventions have the potential to slow the decline in adolescents’ physical activity; however, few interventions have been conducted in schools located in low-income or disadvantaged communities. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a multi-component school-based intervention in reducing the decline in physical activity among students attending secondary schools located in disadvantaged communities. Methods/Design The cluster randomised trial will be conducted with 10 secondary schools located in selected regions of New South Wales, Australia. The schools will be selected from areas that have a level of socio-economic status that is below the state average. Five schools will be allocated to receive an intervention based on the Health Promoting Schools framework, and will be supported by a part-time physical activity consultant placed in intervention schools who will implement a range of intervention adoption strategies. Study measures will be taken at baseline when students are in Year 7 (12–13 years and again after 12- and 24-months. The primary outcome, minutes of moderate- to-vigorous- intensity physical activity per day and percentage of time in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA, will be objectively assessed using accelerometers (Actigraph GT3x+. Group allocation and intervention delivery will commence after baseline data collection. The intervention will continue during school terms through to 24-month follow-up. Discussion The study will provide evidence regarding the effectiveness of a multi-component school-based intervention that includes an in-school physical activity consultant targeting the physical activity levels of adolescents in disadvantaged Australian secondary schools. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000382875.

  15. [The research protocol IV: study variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    The variables in a research study are all that is measured, the information collected, or the data that is collected in order to answer the research questions, which are specified in the objectives. Their selection is essential to the research protocol. This article aims to point out the elements to be considered in the section of the variables. To avoid ambiguity, it is necessary to select only those that will help achieve the study objectives. It should subsequently be defined how they will be measured to ensure that the findings can be replicated; it is therefore desirable to include conceptual and operational definitions. From the methodological point of view, the classification of variables helps us understand how the relationship between them is conceptualized. Depending on the study design, the independent, dependent, universal, and confounding variables should be noted. Another indispensable element for planning statistical analyses is the scale of variable measurement. Therefore, one must specify whether the variables correspond to one of the following four: qualitative nominal, qualitative ordinal, quantitative range, or quantitative ratio. Finally, we should detail the measurement units of each variable. PMID:27560918

  16. Mentalization-based treatment in groups for adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) or subthreshold BPD versus treatment as usual (M-GAB): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Emma; Bo, Sune; Gondan, Matthias; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Pedersen, Liselotte; Pedersen, Jesper; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based outpatient psychotherapeutic programs are first line treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Early and effective treatment of BPD is crucial to the prevention of its individual, psychosocial, and economic consequences. However, in spite of recent advantages in diagnosing adolescent BPD, there is a lack of cost effective evidence-based treatment programs for adolescents. Mentalization-Based Treatment is an evidence-based program for BPD, originally develo...

  17. The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder - study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA - net trial

    OpenAIRE

    Freitag Christine M; Cholemkery Hannah; Elsuni Leyla; Kroeger Anne K; Bender Stephan; Kunz Cornelia Ursula; Kieser Meinhard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Group-based social skills training (SST) has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manu...

  18. Mac protocols for wireless sensor network (wsn): a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data communication between nodes is carried out under Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol which is defined at data link layer. The MAC protocols are responsible to communicate and coordinate between nodes according to the defined standards in WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks). The design of a MAC protocol should also address the issues of energy efficiency and transmission efficiency. There are number of MAC protocols that exist in the literature proposed for WSN. In this paper, nine MAC protocols which includes S-MAC, T-MAC, Wise-MAC, Mu-MAC, Z-MAC, A-MAC, D-MAC, B-MAC and B-MAC+ for WSN have been explored, studied and analyzed. These nine protocols are classified in contention based and hybrid (combination of contention and schedule based) MAC protocols. The goal of this comparative study is to provide a basis for MAC protocols and to highlight different mechanisms used with respect to parameters for the evaluation of energy and transmission efficiency in WSN. This study also aims to give reader a better understanding of the concepts, processes and flow of information used in these MAC protocols for WSN. A comparison with respect to energy reservation scheme, idle listening avoidance, latency, fairness, data synchronization, and throughput maximization has been presented. It was analyzed that contention based MAC protocols are less energy efficient as compared to hybrid MAC protocols. From the analysis of contention based MAC protocols in term of energy consumption, it was being observed that protocols based on preamble sampling consume lesser energy than protocols based on static or dynamic sleep schedule. (author)

  19. Characterisation of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields in the Spanish INMA birth cohort: Study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Gallastegi (Mara); M. Guxens (Mònica ); A. Jiménez-Zabala (Ana); I. Calvente (Irene); M. Fernández (Marta); L. Birks (Laura); B. Struchen (Benjamin); M. Vrijheid (Martine); M. Estarlich (Marisa); M.F. Fernandez (Mariana); M. Torrent (Maties); F. Ballester (Ferran); J.J. Aurrekoetxea (Juan José); J. Ibarluzea (Jesús); D. Guerra (David); J. González (Julián); M. Röösli (Martin); L. Santa-Marina (Loreto)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Analysis of the association between exposure to electromagnetic fields of non-ionising radiation (EMF-NIR) and health in children and adolescents is hindered by the limited availability of data, mainly due to the difficulties on the exposure assessment. This study protocol de

  20. Interactive verification of Markov chains: Two distributed protocol case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Hölzl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic model checkers like PRISM only check probabilistic systems of a fixed size. To guarantee the desired properties for an arbitrary size, mathematical analysis is necessary. We show for two case studies how this can be done in the interactive proof assistant Isabelle/HOL. The first case study is a detailed description of how we verified properties of the ZeroConf protocol, a decentral address allocation protocol. The second case study shows the more involved verification of anonymity properties of the Crowds protocol, an anonymizing protocol.

  1. Study Application of RADIUS Protocol on Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Fang; YANG Huan-yu; LI Hong

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents how to apply the RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service)protocol ,which is generally applied to dial-up network, to the authentication & charge of Broad Band accessing control system on Ethernet. It is provided that the Broad Band accessing control system included a self-designed communication protocol is used in communicating between an terminal user and Network Access Server .The interface module on the servers side and the Radius system is also given in this article.

  2. Fears in Czech Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalcáková, Radka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kyjonková, Hana; Bouša, Ondrej; Jelínek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates developmental patterns of fear in adolescence. It is based on longitudinal data collected as a part of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) project. A total of 186 Czech adolescents (43% girls) were assessed repeatedly at the age of 11, 13, and 15 years. The free-response method was…

  3. Fatigue In Teenagers on the interNET--the FITNET Trial. A randomized clinical trial of web-based cognitive behavioural therapy for adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome: study protocol. [ISRCTN59878666

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, S.L.; Bleijenberg, G.; Uiterwaal, C.S.; Kimpen, J.L.L.; Putte, E.M. van de

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is increasingly recognized as a cause of disability and inactivity in adolescents in the Netherlands. CFS is characterized by unexplained fatigue lasting more than 6 months. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) has proven to be effective. However, CBT availa

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Effects of a Special Extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08) on Hyperactivity and Inattention in Male Children and Adolescents: BACHI Study Protocol (ANZCTRN12612000827831)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, James D.; Kaufman, Jordy; Lomas, Justine; Goh, Antionette; White, David; Simpson, David; Scholey, Andrew; Singh, Hemant; Sarris, Jerome; Zangara, Andrea; Stough, Con

    2015-01-01

    Clinical diagnoses of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the use of prescription medications for its treatment have increased in recent years. Current treatments may involve the administration of amphetamine-type substances, a treatment path many parents are apprehensive to take. Therefore, alternative pharmacological treatments are required. Few nutritional or pharmacological alternatives that reduce ADHD associated symptoms (hyperactivity and inattention) have been subjected to rigorous clinical trials. Bacopa monnieri is a perennial creeping herb. CDRI 08 is a special extract of Bacopa monnieri which has been subjected to hundreds of scientific studies and has been shown in human randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to improve memory, attention, and mood. It is hypothesised that chronic administration of CDRI 08 will improve attention, concentration and behaviour in children with high levels of hyperactivity and/or inattention. This paper reports the protocol for the first 16-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel groups trial examining the efficacy and safety of CDRI 08 in male children aged 6–14 years with high levels of inattention and hyperactivity. The primary outcome variable will be the level of hyperactivity and inattention measured by the Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS). Secondary outcome variables include cognition, mood, sleep, and EEG. Trial registration: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12612000827831. PMID:26633481

  5. A Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Effects of a Special Extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08 on Hyperactivity and Inattention in Male Children and Adolescents: BACHI Study Protocol (ANZCTRN12612000827831

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Kean

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical diagnoses of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and the use of prescription medications for its treatment have increased in recent years. Current treatments may involve the administration of amphetamine-type substances, a treatment path many parents are apprehensive to take. Therefore, alternative pharmacological treatments are required. Few nutritional or pharmacological alternatives that reduce ADHD associated symptoms (hyperactivity and inattention have been subjected to rigorous clinical trials. Bacopa monnieri is a perennial creeping herb. CDRI 08 is a special extract of Bacopa monnieri which has been subjected to hundreds of scientific studies and has been shown in human randomized controlled trials (RCTs to improve memory, attention, and mood. It is hypothesised that chronic administration of CDRI 08 will improve attention, concentration and behaviour in children with high levels of hyperactivity and/or inattention. This paper reports the protocol for the first 16-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel groups trial examining the efficacy and safety of CDRI 08 in male children aged 6–14 years with high levels of inattention and hyperactivity. The primary outcome variable will be the level of hyperactivity and inattention measured by the Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS. Secondary outcome variables include cognition, mood, sleep, and EEG. Trial registration: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12612000827831.

  6. Studying Media Access andControl Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Alalelddin Fuad Yousif

    2010-01-01

    This thesis project’s goal is to enable undergraduate students to gain insight into media access and control protocols based upon carrying out laboratory experiments. The educational goal is to de-mystifying radio and other link and physical layer communication technologies as the students can follow packets from the higher layers down through the physical layer and back up again. The thesis fills the gap between the existing documentation for the Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) re...

  7. ADOLESCENT GYNAECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakriti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT/BACKGROUND Adolescence, meaning “To grow up,” is a transitional stage of physical, sexual and mental human development occurring between puberty and legal adulthood. The Government of India in National Youth Policy defines adolescents as individuals between 13 to 19 yrs. of age. AIMS To study the magnitude of different adolescent gynecological problems in patients attending OPD of GRMC, Gwalior, MP. SETTINGS AND DESIGN Prospective study in patients attending gynecological OPD of GRMC, Gwalior, MP. SAMPLE SIZE: 75 METHODS AND MATERIALS Seventy five adolescent girls in the age group of 13-19 yrs. attending gynecological OPD of GRMC, Gwalior, from November 2013 to October 2014 were included in the study. Detailed history, general examinations and investigations were done to evaluate their health. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Was done using Microsoft Excel. RESULTS Incidence of gynecological problem in our study was 3.33%. Different gynecological problems were menstrual disorders (60%, leucorrhoea (10.66%, infections (8%, ovarian cyst (5.33%, sexual assault (2.66%, teenage pregnancy (10.66% and infertility (2.66%. Majority of girls with menstrual disorders suffered from puberty menorrhagia (55.55%. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding was diagnosed in 96% of girls suffering from puberty menorrhagia. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease was exclusively seen in married adolescent girls. Vaginal atresia and imperforate hymen were causes of primary amenorrhoea. PCOD was commonest cause of secondary amenorrhoea amongst adolescents. CONCLUSION Menstrual abnormalities are the most common problems of adolescent girls. Setting up adolescent clinics is desirable.

  8. Extraction protocols for orthodontic treatment: A retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukkarasu, Vaishnevi N.; Ramachandra, Srinivas Sulugodu; Dicksit, Daniel D.; Gundavarapu, Kalyan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Various extraction protocols have been followed for successful orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extraction protocols in patients who had previously undergone orthodontic treatment and also who had reported for continuing orthodontic treatment from other clinics. Materials and Methods: One hundred thirty eight patients who registered for orthodontic treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry were divided into 10 extraction protocols based on the Orthodontic treatment protocol given by Janson et al. and were evaluated for statistical significance. Results: The descriptive statistics of the study revealed a total of 40 (29%) patients in protocol 1, 43 (31.2%) in protocol 2, 18 (13%) in protocol 3, 16 (11.6%) in protocol 5, and 12 (8.7%) in Type 3 category of protocol 9. The Type 3 category in protocol 9 was statistically significant compared to other studies. Midline shift and collapse of the arch form were noticed in these individuals. Conclusion: Extraction of permanent teeth such as canine and lateral incisors without rational reasons could have devastating consequences on the entire occlusion. The percentage of cases wherein extraction of permanent teeth in the crowded region was adopted as a treatment option instead of orthodontic treatment is still prevalent in dental practice. The shortage of orthodontists in Malaysia, the long waiting period, and lack of subjective need for orthodontic treatment at an earlier age group were the reasons for the patient's to choose extraction of the mal-aligned teeth such as the maxillary canine or maxillary lateral incisors. PMID:27041899

  9. A Cross-Cultural Study of Adolescent Procrastination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Robert M.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Chong, Wan Har; Krawchuk, Lindsey L.; Huan, Vivien S.; Wong, Isabella Y. F.; Yeo, Lay See

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we explore academic procrastination and associated motivation variables in 612 adolescents from Canada and Singapore. Few studies have explored adolescent procrastination and no previous studies have investigated adolescent procrastination using a cross-cultural framework. Singaporean adolescents reported higher levels of…

  10. An Exploratory Study of Adolescent Pimping Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Pamela M.; Coyle, Karin K.; Johnson, Anisha; Denner, Jill

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, public attention to the problem of commercially sexually exploited children (CSEC) has grown. This exploratory qualitative study examines adolescent pimping relationships, including how urban youth perceive these types of relationships. Study data stem from interviews with three young adult informants with first-hand knowledge of adolescent pimping, as well as three gender-specific focus group discussions with a convenience sample of 26 urban high school students who have ...

  11. SIMULATION STUDY AND IMPLEMENTATION ON ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Yadav

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc networks are characterized by a lack of infrastructure, and by a random and quickly changing network topology; thus the need for a robust dynamic routing protocol that can accommodate such an environment. Consequently, many routing algorithms have come in toexistence to satisfy the needs of communications in such networks. This article presents a simulation study and comparison the performance between two categories of routing protocols, table-driven (Proactive and on-demand (Reactive routing protocols, this two categories were illustrated by using two different examples ofrouting protocols, first example is DSDV (Destination Sequenced Distance-Vector from the Proactive family and the second example isAODV (Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector and DSR (Dynamic Source Routing Protocol from the Reactive family. Both protocols weresimulated by using NS-2 (network simulator-2 package. Both routing protocols were compared in terms of average throughput (packets delivery ratio while varying data rate, TCP types ,maximumpackets in queue and number of packet drop while varying data rate by using the Trace file. For the same queue length DSDV performsbetter than AODV. AODV is preferred due to its more efficient use of bandwidth.

  12. Characterisation of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields in the Spanish INMA birth cohort: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Gallastegi, Mara; Guxens, Mònica; Jiménez-Zabala, Ana; Calvente, Irene; Fernández, Marta; Birks, Laura; Struchen, Benjamin; Vrijheid, Martine; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernandez, Mariana; Torrent, Maties; Ballester, Ferran; Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Guerra, David

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Analysis of the association between exposure to electromagnetic fields of non-ionising radiation (EMF-NIR) and health in children and adolescents is hindered by the limited availability of data, mainly due to the difficulties on the exposure assessment. This study protocol describes the methodologies used for characterising exposure of children to EMF-NIR in the INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente- Environment and Childhood) Project, a prospective cohort study. Methods/Des...

  13. [Study of food characteristics of Uruguayan adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Alfonsina; Pereyra, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the diet of Uruguayan adolescents and demographic aspects that influence it. The data come from the National Survey of Adolescents and Youth in 2008 which worked with 2,943 cases, representative sample of all adolescents in Uruguay. The characteristics of feeding studied were: consumption of fruits and vegetables, soft drinks, fast food, added salt to meals served at the table and meal times shared with a parent. These variables were also studied in aggregate to determine a pattern of eating behavior. It was found that 89% of adolescents did not meet the recommendation of 5 servings of fruits and vegetables a day, 50% consumed daily soft drinks, fast foods ingested 24% 2 or more times per week and 13% added salt at all preparations. We also found that 31% did not share mealtimes with parents daily. By adding the variables studied, we observed that 58% were inadequately fed, and is higher among older adolescents (p fast food and adding salt to served meals, which defined it as inadequate. This was mainly observed in older adolescents, better economic situation and residents within the country..

  14. STUDY FOR ADOLESCENT PROBLEM AND PSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Astha; MRS Monika; Gitika; Abhishek,

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is defined as the age group of 10-19 years. Adolescents suffer from psychosocial problems at one time or other during their development. Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization majority of young couple are employed and get less time to look after their children. Psychosocial problem and drug abuse are quite prevalent in this age group. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of psychosocial, emotional, behavioral problems, sexual orientation, drug abuse in...

  15. Childhood Psychopathology Predicts Adolescence-Onset Offending: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Nicole; Verhulst, Frank; van Marle, Hjalmar; van der Ende, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Moffitt, Caspi, Harrington, and Milne (2002) found in a follow-up study that many of the supposedly adolescence-limited offenders had committed offenses past adolescence. This finding raises the question of whether adulthood starts later or whether there are two distinct delinquency types, adolescence limited and adolescence onset, each with its…

  16. THE RELIABILITY OF ADOLESCENT THERMOREGULATORY RESPONSES DURING A HEAT ACCLIMATION PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Williams

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the between trial variation of thermoregulatory measures during a heat acclimation protocol. Eight 14-16 y old boys completed three bouts of 20-min cycling at 45 % peak VO2 in a hot environment (35.1 ± 1.2 °C and 46. 4 ± 1.0 % relative humidity on two occasions separated by a minimum of 24 h. Reliability was assessed through analysis of within-subject variation, the change in the mean, and retest correlation for measurements of aural temperature (Tau, mean skin temperature (Tsk, heart rate (HR and oxygen uptake (VO2. Between trial differences were low for Tau, Tskbout1, Tskbout2and3 and HR with coefficients of variation 0.6 %, 1.5 %, 0.5 % and 4.0 %, respectively. The results demonstrate good reliability that will allow future investigators to precisely determine the extent of heat acclimation protocols in relation to the measurement error

  17. Statistical principles for prospective study protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Robin; Langberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    In the design of scientific studies it is essential to decide on which scientific questions one aims to answer, just as it is important to decide on the correct statistical methods to use to answer these questions. The correct use of statistical methods is crucial in all aspects of research to qu...

  18. [Functional Neuroimaging Pilot Study of Borderline Personality Disorder in Adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Amélie; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Labelle, Réal; Luck, David

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is being increasingly recognized by clinicians working with adolescents, and the reliability and validity of the diagnosis have been established in the adolescent population. Adolescence is known to be a period of high risk for BPD development as most patients identify the onset of their symptoms to be in the adolescent period. As with other mental health disorders, personality disorder, are thought to result from the interaction between biological and environmental factors. Functional neuroimaging studies are reporting an increasing amount of data on abnormal neuronal functions in BPD adult patients. However, no functional neuroimaging studies have been conducted in adolescents with BPD.Objectives This pilot project aims to evaluate the feasibility of a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study coupled with clinical and psychological measures in adolescent girls with a diagnosis of BPD. It also aims to identify neuronal regions of interest (ROI) for the study of BPD in adolescent girls.Method Six female adolescents meeting DSM-IV criteria for BPD and 6 female adolescents without psychiatric disorder were recruited. Both groups were evaluated for BPD symptoms, depressive symptoms, impulsivity, affective lability, and other potential psychiatric comorbidities. We used fMRI to compare patterns of regional brain activation between these two groups as they viewed 20 positive, 20 negative and 20 neutral emotion-inducing pictures, which were presented in random order.Results Participants were recruited over a period of 22 months. The protocol was well tolerated by participants. Mean age of the BPD group and control group was 15.8 ± 0.9 years-old and 15.5 ± 1.2 years-old respectively. Psychiatric comorbidity and use of medication was common among participants in the BPD group. This group showed higher impulsivity and affective lability scores. For the fMRI task, BPD patients demonstrated greater differences in activation

  19. A parathyroid adenoma case study: Protocol review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Technetium-99m (99mTc) Sestamibi as opposed to Thallous-201 Chloride and 99mTc Sodium Pertechnetate subtraction, has become the radiopharmaceutical of choice for detection of parathyroid adenomas. A 17-year-old female patient presented to the department for a parathyroid 99mTc Sestamibi scan to evaluate possible parathyroid adenoma/s. She was initially admitted with increasing serum Calcium levels, polyuria, abdominal pain and general malaise. The patient was injected with 900MBq of 99mTc Sestamibi, and a pinhole dynamic at a distance of 10 cm from the neck was acquired followed by a 5-minute static image at 7 cm. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) was then performed on a dual-head gamma camera followed by an anterior and posterior 10-minute static image. At 3 and 5 hours post injection the 10-minute static image was repeated. This study was reported as normal with uniform uptake and washout of the tracer over the 5-hour period. An ultrasound study was performed, and it showed a lesion believed to be a parathyroid adenoma measuring 2.2 x 0.8 x 0.4 cm in size in the right upper lobe of the thyroid. A subsequent thyroid scan was performed to confirm that it was non-functioning thyroid tissue. The patient was injected with 250MBq of 99mTc Sodium Pertechnetate and scanned with a pinhole collimator at a distance of 7 cm. When the 99mTc Sestamibi and 99mTc Sodium Pertechnetate scan were viewed together, it was clear that there was excess 99mTc Sestamibi distribution on the right upper lobe of the thyroid, which washed out over time. This corresponded to the ultrasound findings and was confirmed at surgery to be a parathyroid adenoma. A 99mTc Sodium Pertechnetate scan and an ultrasound are now also routinely performed on patients presenting for 99mTc Sestamibi parathyroid scans

  20. Studies on Algorithms for Self-Stabilizing Communication Protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Layuan; LI Chunlin

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the algorithms forself-stabilizing communication protocols are studied. First someconcepts and a formal method for describing the proposed algorithms aredescribed, then an improved algorithm for achieving global states ispresented. Thestudy shows that the improved algorithm can be applied to obtain the globalstates in the case of a loss of cooperation of the different processesin the protocol, which can be used as a recovery point that will be usedby the following recovery procedure. Thus, the improved algorithm can beused to self-stabilize a communication protocol. Meanwhile,a recovery algorithm for self-stabilizing communicationprotocols is presented. After a failure is detected, all processes caneventuallyknow the error. The recovery algorithm uses the contextual information exchanged during the progress of the protocol and recorded on the stablememory. The proof of correctness and analysis of complexity for these algorithms have been made. The availability and efficiency of the algorithms have been verified by illustrating the example protocols.Finally, some conclusions and remarks are given.

  1. Depression screening and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents: a systematic review protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Thombs Brett D; Roseman Michelle; Kloda Lorie A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Depression is an important cause of disability among children and adolescents. Depression screening is one possible method for managing depression, and screening programs have been initiated in some school and medical settings. However, in 2005, the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care and the United Kingdom National Institute of Clinical Excellence did not recommend depression screening among children and adolescents. By contrast, in 2009, the United States Preve...

  2. Efficacy of three treatment protocols for adolescents with social anxiety disorder: a 5-year follow-up assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Lopez, Luis-Joaquin; Olivares, Jose; Beidel, Deborah; Albano, Anne-Marie; Turner, Samuel; Rosa, Ana I

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have reported long-term follow-up data in adults and even fewer in adolescents. The purpose of this work is to report on the longest follow-up assessment in the literature on treatments for adolescents with social phobia. A 5-year follow-up assessment was conducted with subjects who originally received either Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents (CBGT-A), Social Effectiveness Therapy for Adolescents--Spanish version (SET-Asv), or Intervención en Adolescentes con Fobia Social--Treatment for Adolescents with Social Phobia (IAFS) in a controlled clinical trial. Twenty-three subjects completing the treatment conditions were available for the 5-year follow-up. Results demonstrate that subjects treated either with CBGT-A, SET-Asv and IAFS continued to maintain their gains after treatments were terminated. Either the CBGT-A, SET-Asv and IAFS can provide lasting effects to the majority of adolescents with social anxiety. Issues that may contribute to future research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:16464703

  3. A Quantitative Study and Comparison of Secure OLSR Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Tamilarasan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of thesecure OLSR (Optimized Link State RoutingProtocol in mobile ad-hoc network with otherapproach. We compare the security from thedifferent approach and their effect on the existingOLSR. The Main aim of this paper is to study thevarious securities and compare the different attacksin MANET. Different approaches uses differentcryptography security scheme and trying to providethe security to OLSR routing protocols. We alsoconcern the different possible attacks on the OLSRand check that which security scheme is better toprovide the security from the attacks.

  4. Design and evaluation protocol of "FATaintPHAT", a computer-tailored intervention to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van de Looij-Jansen Petra M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer tailoring may be a promising technique for prevention of overweight in adolescents. However, very few well-developed, evidence-based computer-tailored interventions are available for this target group. We developed and evaluated a computer-tailored intervention for adolescents targeting energy balance-related behaviours: i.e. consumption of snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit, vegetables, and fibre, physical activity, and sedentary behaviours. This paper describes the planned development of a school-based computer-tailored intervention aimed at improving energy balance-related behaviours in order to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents, and the protocol for evaluating this intervention. Methods/design Intervention development: Informed by the Precaution Adoption Process Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the computer-tailored intervention provided feedback on personal behaviour and suggestions on how to modify it. The intervention (VETisnietVET translated as 'FATaintPHAT' has been developed for use in the first year of secondary school during eight lessons. Evaluation design: The intervention will be evaluated in a cluster-randomised trial including 20 schools with a 4-months and a 2-years follow-up. Outcome measures are BMI, waist circumference, energy balance-related behaviours, and potential determinants of these behaviours. Process measures are appreciation of and satisfaction with the program, exposure to the program's content, and implementation facilitators and barriers measured among students and teachers. Discussion This project resulted in a theory and evidence-based intervention that can be implemented in a school setting. A large-scale randomised controlled trial with a short and long-term follow-up will provide sound statements about the effectiveness of this computer-tailored intervention in adolescents. Trial Registration ISRCTN15743786

  5. STUDY OF PEER PRESSURE AND SOCIAL MATURITY AMONG LATE ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sakshi; Rakesh Behman; Raj Kumar; Dharmender Kumar Nehra; Naresh Kuma

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adolescents are the energy of today and the bright hope of the future. Peer pressure plays a vital role in the lives and social adjustment of adolescents as it is a time of experimentation with new identities, attitudes and experiences. The purpose of the present study was to provide an examination of the peer pressure and social maturity in late adolescence. Material and methods: It is a cross sectional study, in which Two Hundred (200) adolescents were select...

  6. Adolescents in Wilderness Therapy: A Qualitative Study of Attachment Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettmann, Joanna E.; Olson-Morrison, Debra; Jasperson, Rachael A.

    2011-01-01

    Characterized by acute changes in attachment relationships, adolescence is a time of balancing autonomy and attachment needs. For adolescents in wilderness therapy programs, the setting often challenges their understanding of their own attachment relationships. The current study evaluates the narratives of 13 adolescents in a wilderness therapy…

  7. STUDY FOR ADOLESCENT PROBLEM AND PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is defined as the age group of 10-19 years. Adolescents suffer from psychosocial problems at one time or other during their development. Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization majority of young couple are employed and get less time to look after their children. Psychosocial problem and drug abuse are quite prevalent in this age group. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of psychosocial, emotional, behavioral problems, sexual orientation, drug abuse in adolescents (less than 18 years and compare with college students (18-22years of age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The permission was taken from the head of the schools and colleges. A questionnaire was made and was distributed and information was collected. Sample 610 collected from school and 700 from college. RESULT: 580 and 669 students from schools and colleges respectively answered data correctly. 18% of school and 15% of college students have witnessed domestic violence in their families. Anxiety and stress was more in school going children than college (might be due to exams i.e.75%: 50% and 46%:41% respectively. Depression rate was almost equal among school and college i.e. 30%. Behavior of our children is influenced by their co-students, on assessing peer pressure it was found that 26-29%(1/3rd from school and college age group submit to peer pressure. In drug abuse alcohol intake was 12% and 19% in school and college group while prevalence of smoking was 4% and 12% respectively. Total number of students who were active in sexual activity was found to be 7.5% in schools and 14.6% in colleges. CONCLUSION: Adolescents constitute 1/5th of our population and prevalence of psychosocial problems along with drug abuse is increasing. With effective counseling by parents and teachers, sex education, stress reduction and improving familial environment, we can ensure a better future and improved adolescent health.

  8. Parental socioeconomic position and development of overweight in adolescence: longitudinal study of Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Rasmussen, Mette;

    2010-01-01

    An inverse social gradient in overweight among adolescents has been shown in developed countries, but few studies have examined whether weight gain and the development of overweight differs among adolescents from different socioeconomic groups in a longitudinal study. The objective was to identif...... the possible association between parental socioeconomic position, weight change and the risk of developing overweight among adolescents between the ages 15 to 21....

  9. Trends in child and adolescent obesity prevalence according to socioeconomic position: protocol for a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Alexandra; Backholer, Kathryn; Wong, Evelyn; Palermo, Claire; Keating, Catherine; Peeters, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is a significant public health issue and is socially patterned, with greater prevalence of obesity observed in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Recent evidence suggests that the prevalence of childhood obesity is levelling off in some countries. However, this may not be the case across all socioeconomic strata. The aim of this review is to examine whether trends in child and adolescent obesity prevalence since 1990 differ according to socioeconomic position ...

  10. Development of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico National Protocol for the Management of Victims of Sexual Violence: Adults/Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Rose Marie; Kulbok, Pamela; Lawson, Sarah; Matos, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Sexual violence is a public health problem in Puerto Rico (PR), with an incidence of 7.4 cases for every 10,000 people during 2005-2006 (Departamento de Salud Secretaría Auxiliar de Salud Familiar y Servicios Integrados, 2007). Findings from the literature review indicated that the traditional model of care provided to the victims of sexual violence in the Emergency Department is incomplete; furthermore, it may cause revictimization because of the attitudes, behaviors, and practices of the community service providers, resulting in additional trauma. Emerging evidence demonstrates that Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs are providing effective quality care. In PR, SANEs do not intervene in sexual assault cases; nevertheless, the Department of Health of PR has recognized the importance of SANE intervention. Consequently, there is a need for current evidence-based protocols and standards of care to describe the procedures, roles, and responsibilities for the provision of quality care to victims. This project involves the implementation of the Stufflebeam's Context-Input-Process-Product Model in the creation of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico National Protocol for the Management of Victims of Sexual Violence: Adults/Adolescents. PMID:24158134

  11. Development of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico National Protocol for the Management of Victims of Sexual Violence: Adults/Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Rose Marie; Kulbok, Pamela; Lawson, Sarah; Matos, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Sexual violence is a public health problem in Puerto Rico (PR), with an incidence of 7.4 cases for every 10,000 people during 2005-2006 (Departamento de Salud Secretaría Auxiliar de Salud Familiar y Servicios Integrados, 2007). Findings from the literature review indicated that the traditional model of care provided to the victims of sexual violence in the Emergency Department is incomplete; furthermore, it may cause revictimization because of the attitudes, behaviors, and practices of the community service providers, resulting in additional trauma. Emerging evidence demonstrates that Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs are providing effective quality care. In PR, SANEs do not intervene in sexual assault cases; nevertheless, the Department of Health of PR has recognized the importance of SANE intervention. Consequently, there is a need for current evidence-based protocols and standards of care to describe the procedures, roles, and responsibilities for the provision of quality care to victims. This project involves the implementation of the Stufflebeam's Context-Input-Process-Product Model in the creation of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico National Protocol for the Management of Victims of Sexual Violence: Adults/Adolescents.

  12. Boosting bioluminescence neuroimaging: an optimized protocol for brain studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswendt, Markus; Adamczak, Joanna; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Hoehn, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Bioluminescence imaging is widely used for optical cell tracking approaches. However, reliable and quantitative bioluminescence of transplanted cells in the brain is highly challenging. In this study we established a new bioluminescence imaging protocol dedicated for neuroimaging, which increases sensitivity especially for noninvasive tracking of brain cell grafts. Different D-Luciferin concentrations (15, 150, 300 and 750 mg/kg), injection routes (i.v., i.p., s.c.), types of anesthesia (Isoflurane, Ketamine/Xylazine, Pentobarbital) and timing of injection were compared using DCX-Luc transgenic mice for brain specific bioluminescence. Luciferase kinetics was quantitatively evaluated for maximal photon emission, total photon emission and time-to-peak. Photon emission followed a D-Luciferin dose-dependent relation without saturation, but with delay in time-to-peak increasing for increasing concentrations. The comparison of intravenous, subcutaneous and intraperitoneal substrate injection reflects expected pharmacokinetics with fastest and highest photon emission for intravenous administration. Ketamine/Xylazine and Pentobarbital anesthesia showed no significant beneficial effect on maximal photon emission. However, a strong difference in outcome was observed by injecting the substrate pre Isoflurane anesthesia. This protocol optimization for brain specific bioluminescence imaging comprises injection of 300 mg/kg D-Luciferin pre Isoflurane anesthesia as an efficient and stable method with a signal gain of approx. 200% (compared to 150 mg/kg post Isoflurane). Gain in sensitivity by the novel imaging protocol was quantitatively assessed by signal-to-noise calculations of luciferase-expressing neural stem cells grafted into mouse brains (transplantation of 3,000-300,000 cells). The optimized imaging protocol lowered the detection limit from 6,000 to 3,000 cells by a gain in signal-to-noise ratio.

  13. Borderline personality disorder: study in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, A; Berelowitz, M; Vereker, M

    1996-04-01

    The study of the presentation, symptomatology and family characteristics of an exclusively adolescent sample of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) was undertaken. Twenty-four cases of borderline personality disorder, 20 females, 4 males, identified using chart review and meeting the criteria of the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines (DIB) and DSM III-R, were matched with psychiatric controls. Adolescents with borderline personality disorder were found to have high rates of affective symptomatology with Axis I diagnosis of major depressive disorder MDD (DSM-III-R), and high rates of interpersonal psychopathology, i.e., manipulation, devaluation, and a pervasive sense of boredom. The latter seem to be characteristic as for adults with borderline personality disorder. The families were particularly angry and volatile. PMID:9117533

  14. Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mandic, Sandra; Williams, John; Moore, Antoni; Hopkins, Debbie; Flaherty, Charlotte; Wilson, Gordon; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Spence, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Active transport to school (ATS) is a convenient way to increase physical activity and undertake an environmentally sustainable travel practice. The Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study examines ATS in adolescents in Dunedin, New Zealand, using ecological models for active transport that account for individual, social, environmental and policy factors. The study objectives are to: (1) understand the reasons behind adolescents and their parents' choice of...

  15. A Study of Self-Esteem and Romanticism among Pregnant Adolescents, Adolescent Mothers, and a Control Group in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Hellen, Cheryl; And Others

    In the United States over one million adolescent girls will become pregnant each year. Adolescent pregnancy often leads to truncated educational attainment and subsequently results in a prolonged cycle of poverty and dependence. This study investigated feelings of self-esteem and romanticism among pregnant adolescents (N=276), adolescent mothers…

  16. A comparative study of protocols for secure quantum communication under noisy environment: single-qubit-based protocols versus entangled-state-based protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vishal; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban; Banerjee, Subhashish

    2016-07-01

    The effect of noise on various protocols of secure quantum communication has been studied. Specifically, we have investigated the effect of amplitude damping, phase damping, squeezed generalized amplitude damping, Pauli type as well as various collective noise models on the protocols of quantum key distribution, quantum key agreement, quantum secure direct quantum communication and quantum dialogue. From each type of protocol of secure quantum communication, we have chosen two protocols for our comparative study: one based on single-qubit states and the other one on entangled states. The comparative study reported here has revealed that single-qubit-based schemes are generally found to perform better in the presence of amplitude damping, phase damping, squeezed generalized amplitude damping noises, while entanglement-based protocols turn out to be preferable in the presence of collective noises. It is also observed that the effect of noise depends upon the number of rounds of quantum communication involved in a scheme of quantum communication. Further, it is observed that squeezing, a completely quantum mechanical resource present in the squeezed generalized amplitude channel, can be used in a beneficial way as it may yield higher fidelity compared to the corresponding zero squeezing case.

  17. A Study of Dysmenorrhea During Menstruation in Adolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal Anil; Agarwal Anju

    2010-01-01

    Research question: What is the prevalence of dysmenorrhea severity and its associated symptoms among adolescent girls? Objectives: (1) To study the prevalence of dysmenorrhea in high school adolescent girls of Gwalior. (2) To study the evidence of severity of the problem with associated symptoms and general health status. Study design: An explorative survey technique with a correlational approach. Setting and Participants: Nine hundred and seventy adolescent girls of age 15 to 20 years, study...

  18. Effectiveness of the universal prevention program 'Healthy School and Drugs': Study protocol of a randomized clustered trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malmberg Monique

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use is highly prevalent among Dutch adolescents. The Healthy School and Drugs program is a nationally implemented school-based prevention program aimed at reducing early and excessive substance use among adolescents. Although the program's effectiveness was tested in a quasi-experimental design before, many program changes were made afterwards. The present study, therefore, aims to test the effects of this widely used, renewed universal prevention program. Methods/Design A randomized clustered trial will be conducted among 3,784 adolescents of 23 secondary schools in The Netherlands. The trial has three conditions; two intervention conditions (i.e., e-learning and integral and a control condition. The e-learning condition consists of three digital learning modules (i.e., about alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana that are sequentially offered over the course of three school years (i.e., grade 1, grade 2, and grade 3. The integral condition consists of parental participation in a parental meeting on substance use, regulation of substance use, and monitoring and counseling of students' substance use at school, over and above the three digital modules. The control condition is characterized as business as usual. Participating schools were randomly assigned to either an intervention or control condition. Participants filled out a digital questionnaire at baseline and will fill out the same questionnaire three more times at follow-up measurements (8, 20, and 32 months after baseline. Outcome variables included in the questionnaire are the percentage of binge drinking (more than five drinks per occasion, the average weekly number of drinks, and the percentage of adolescents who ever drunk a glass of alcohol and the percentage of adolescents who ever smoked a cigarette or a joint respectively for tobacco and marijuana. Discussion This study protocol describes the design of a randomized clustered trial that evaluates the

  19. A Prospective Study of Adolescent Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockaday, Cathy; Crase, Sedahlia Jasper; Shelley, Mack C., II; Stockdale, Dahlia F.

    2000-01-01

    Examines prospectively the characteristics contributing to adolescent pregnancy in a pregnant and comparison group of adolescents. Adolescent pregnancy in Blacks was predicted by approval of delaying a family and pursuing a career, aspirations of working, and lower educational expectations. Higher educational wishes, lower educational…

  20. Outcome of children and adolescents with Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma treated with a modified NHL-BFM-90 protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓非

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of a modified NHL-BFM-90 protocol in childhood and adolescence with Burkitt lymphoma(BL)and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma(DLBCL).Methods A total of 138 de novo patients with BL and DLBCL were enrolled.All patients were stratified into low(R1),intermediate(R2)and high risk(R3)groups based on the stage,chemotherapy

  1. Chiropractic manipulation in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoline Michael R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS remains the most common deforming orthopedic condition in children. Increasingly, both adults and children are seeking complementary and alternative therapy, including chiropractic treatment, for a wide variety of health concerns. The scientific evidence supporting the use chiropractic intervention is inadequate. The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot study and explore issues of safety, patient recruitment and compliance, treatment standardization, sham treatment refinement, inter-professional cooperation, quality assurance, and outcome measure selection. Methods Six patients participated in this 6-month study, 5 of whom were female. One female was braced. The mean age of these patients was 14 years, and the mean Cobb angle was 22.2 degrees. The study design was a randomized controlled clinical trial with two independent and blinded observers. Three patients were treated by standard medical care (observation or brace treatment, two were treated with standard medical care plus chiropractic manipulation, and one was treated with standard medical care plus sham manipulation. The primary outcome measure was Cobb, and the psychosocial measure was Scoliosis Quality of Life Index. Results Orthopedic surgeons and chiropractors were easily recruited and worked cooperatively throughout the trial. Patient recruitment and compliance was good. Chiropractic treatments were safely employed, and research protocols were successful. Conclusion Overall, our pilot study showed the viability for a larger randomized trial. This pilot confirms the strength of existing protocols with amendments for use in a full randomized controlled trial. Trial registration This trial has been assigned an international standard randomized controlled trial number by Current Controlled Trials, Ltd. http://www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn/. The number is ISRCTN41221647.

  2. Clinical features of adolescents with deliberate self-harm: A case control study in Lisbon, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo F Guerreiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Diogo F Guerreiro, Ema L Neves, Rita Navarro, Raquel Mendes, Ana Prioste, Diana Ribeiro, Tiago Lila, António Neves, Mónica Salgado, Nazaré Santos, Daniel SampaioYouth Suicide Study Group (NES, The Hospital Santa Maria, Psychiatry Department, Lisbon Faculty of Medicine, PortugalAbstract: Deliberate self-harm (DSH among adolescents is a high-risk condition for suicide. The aim of the present study is to describe the characteristic clinical features of adolescents with DSH according to our local context (Lisbon, Portugal, using easily available information from clinical settings. A case control study was constructed from a sample of 100 adolescents (aged 12 to 21 years. The sample was divided into two groups: adolescents with and without DSH. Case files were examined and data was completed by clinical interviews. Demographic, psychosocial, and psychopathological data were assessed and compared. Ninety-eight subjects completed the protocol. The DSH group was associated with the following: suicidal ideation or suicidal behavior as consultation motive, emergency room referral, previous follow-up attempts, suicidal ideation, psychosocial difficulties, or lack of therapeutic goals. There was a nonsignificant trend towards diagnosis of depression in the DSH group. These results reflect our clinical practice with adolescents and add data about teenagers who self-harm to the literature. Prevention and early recognition of DSH (and frequently associated depression in adolescents are essential and could be life-saving measures. An integrated approach, which takes into account psychosocial difficulties, family dysfunction, and negative expectations, seems to be of great importance.Keywords: deliberate self-harm, suicide, adolescents, suicide risk, case control

  3. Comparison Study of Transmission Control Protocol and User Datagram Protocol Behavior over Multi-Protocol Label Switching Networks in Case of Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha A.A Radaei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In only a few years, Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS has evolved from an exotic technology to a mainstream tool used by service providers to create revenue-generating services. MPLS provides a high reliable Label Switched Path (LSP. MPLS failures may degrade the reliability of the MPLS networks. Approach: For that reason, many studies have been conducted to keep the high reliability and survivability of the MPLS networks. Unlike User Datagram Protocol (UDP, Transmission Control Protocol does not perform well in case of like-failure of MPLS networks because of its inability to distinguish packet loss due to link-failure. After the recovery time, TCP takes longer time than UDP to continue as it was before the failure. Results: In terms of packet loss, TCP performs better than UDP. However, the receiving rate of the TCP traffic is much worse than UDP traffic. A need for a mechanism to improve the behavior of TCP after a link failure is needed. This study focused on comparing the behavior of different types TCP as well as UDP traffic over MPLS networks in case of link, node or congestion failures. Conclusion: Although extensions of RSVP-TE protocol support fast recovery mechanism of MPLS networks, the behavior of TCP will be affected during recovery time much more than with UDP.

  4. Study and Improvement of WTLS Protocol in WAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Kai; LIU Ying; XIAO Guozhen

    2001-01-01

    Wireless application protocol (WAP)is a set of protocol designed for mobile terminal toconnect to Internet and is likely to become world stan-dard. Wireless transport layer security (WTLS) incor-porates the security features in WAP. In this paper,the analysis of the performance of WTLS is made.Two improvement schemes on WTLS are given: oneis that the client stores the certificate of servers; theother is that a new WTLS protocol is proposed basedon the designed authentication scheme.

  5. A Comparative Study of Various Routing Protocols in VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Rakesh; Dave, Mayank

    2011-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) is a subclass of Mobile ad hoc networks which provides a distinguished approach for Intelligent Transport System (ITS). The survey of routing protocols in VANET is important and necessary for smart ITS. This paper discusses the advantages / disadvantages and the applications of various routing protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks. It explores the motivation behind the designed, and traces the evolution of these routing protocols. F inally the paper conclud...

  6. A Comparative Study of Various Routing Protocols in VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh Kumar; Mayank Dave

    2011-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) is a subclass of Mobile ad hoc networks which provides a distinguished approach for Intelligent Transport System (ITS). The survey of routing protocols in VANET is important and necessary for smart ITS. This paper discusses the advantages / disadvantages and the applications of various routing protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks. It explores the motivation behind the designed, and traces the evolution of these routing protocols. Finally the paper conclude...

  7. A Comparative Study of Various Routing Protocols in VANET

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) is a subclass of Mobile ad hoc networks which provides a distinguished approach for Intelligent Transport System (ITS). The survey of routing protocols in VANET is important and necessary for smart ITS. This paper discusses the advantages / disadvantages and the applications of various routing protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks. It explores the motivation behind the designed, and traces the evolution of these routing protocols. F inally the paper concludes by a tabular comparison of the various routing protocols for VANET.

  8. Acupressure therapy for insomnia in adolescents: a polysomnographic study

    OpenAIRE

    Carotenuto M; Gallai B; Parisi L; Roccella M; Esposito M.

    2013-01-01

    Marco Carotenuto,1 Beatrice Gallai,2 Lucia Parisi,3 Michele Roccella,3 Maria Esposito11Sleep Clinic for Developmental Age, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Second University of Naples, Naples, 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, 3Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, ItalyBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of acupressure therapy in a sample of adolescents with ins...

  9. Dietary habits during adolescence - results of the Belgian Adolux Study

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Dominique; Saint-Remy, Annie; JeanJean, Michel

    2001-01-01

    STUDY: To analyse the usual dietary habits of Belgian adolescents from a high cardiovascular risk population. METHODS: A food frequency questionnaire (57 items) was administered to the whole sample. Complementary questions specified some types of food (eg fat content). A subgroup of 234 adolescents gave detailed information on portion size (picture book and food samples). SETTING: Twenty-four secondary schools in the Belgian province of Luxembourg. SUBJECTS: A total of 1,526 adolesce...

  10. Recommended Protocol for Round Robin Studies in Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Shawn; Brown, Christopher U.; Slotwinski, John

    2016-01-01

    One way to improve confidence and encourage proliferation of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies and parts is by generating more high quality data describing the performance of AM processes and parts. Many in the AM community see round robin studies as a way to generate large data sets while distributing the cost among the participants, thereby reducing the cost to individual users. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has conducted and participated in several of these AM round robin studies. While the results of these studies are interesting and informative, many of the lessons learned in conducting these studies concern the logistics and methods of the study and unique issues presented by AM. Existing standards for conducting interlaboratory studies of measurement methods, along with NIST’s experience, form the basis for recommended protocols for conducting AM round robin studies. The role of round robin studies in AM qualification, some of the limitations of round robin studies, and the potential benefit of less formal collaborative experiments where multiple factors, AM machine being only one, are varied simultaneously are also discussed. PMID:27274602

  11. The bakery protocol : a comparitive case-study in formal verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, W.O.D.; Korver, H.P.

    1995-01-01

    A Comparative Case-Study in Formal Verification Groote and the second author verified (a version of) the Bakery Protocol in $muCRL$. Their process-algebraic verification is rather complex compared to the protocol. Now the question is: How do other verification techniques perform on this protocol? In

  12. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: A Comparative Study of QoS Routing Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Gangwar, Sanjeev; Kumar, Krishan

    2012-01-01

    This Article presents a thorough overview of QoS routing metrics, resources and factors affecting performance of QoS routing protocols. The relative strength, weakness, and applicability of existing QoS routing protocols are also studied and compared. QoS routing protocols are classified according to the QoS metrics used type of QoS guarantee assured.

  13. Efficacy of smoking prevention program 'Smoke-free Kids': study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Schayck Onno CP

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A strong increase in smoking is noted especially among adolescents. In the Netherlands, about 5% of all 10-year olds, 25% of all 13-year olds and 62% of all 17-year olds report ever smoking. In the U.S., an intervention program called 'Smoke-free Kids' was developed to prevent children from smoking. The present study aims to assess the effects of this home-based smoking prevention program in the Netherlands. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial is conducted among 9 to 11-year old children of primary schools. Participants are randomly assigned to the intervention and control conditions. The intervention program consists of five printed activity modules designed to improve parenting skills specific to smoking prevention and parent-child communication regarding smoking. These modules will include additional sheets with communication tips. The modules for the control condition will include solely information on smoking and tobacco use. Initiation of cigarette smoking (first instance of puffing on a lighted cigarette, susceptibility to cigarette smoking, smoking-related cognitions, and anti-smoking socialization will be the outcome measures. To collect the data, telephone interviews with mothers as well as with their child will be conducted at baseline. Only the children will be examined at post-intervention follow-ups (6, 12, 24, and 36 months after the baseline. Discussion This study protocol describes the design of a randomized controlled trial that will evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based smoking prevention program. We expect that a significantly lower number of children will start smoking in the intervention condition compared to control condition as a direct result of this intervention. If the program is effective, it is applicable in daily live, which will facilitate implementation of the prevention protocol. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR1465

  14. Adapting an evidence-based model to retain adolescent study participants in longitudinal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Erin; Demby, Hilary; Jenner, Lynne Woodward; Gregory, Alethia; Broussard, Marsha

    2016-02-01

    Maintaining contact with and collecting outcome data from adolescent study participants can present a significant challenge for researchers conducting longitudinal studies. Establishing an organized and effective protocol for participant follow-up is crucial to reduce attrition and maintain high retention rates. This paper describes our methods in using and adapting the evidence-based Engagement, Verification, Maintenance, and Confirmation (EVMC) model to follow up with adolescents 6 and 12 months after implementation of a health program. It extends previous research by focusing on two key modifications to the model: (1) the central role of cell phones and texting to maintain contact with study participants throughout the EVMC process and, (2) use of responsive two-way communication between staff and participants and flexible administration modes and methods in the confirmation phase to ensure that busy teens not only respond to contacts, but also complete data collection. These strategies have resulted in high overall retention rates (87-91%) with adolescent study participants at each follow-up data collection point without the utilization of other, more involved tracking measures. The methods and findings presented may be valuable for other researchers with limited resources planning for or engaged in collecting follow-up outcome data from adolescents enrolled in longitudinal studies. PMID:26539953

  15. Measurement and Design Issues in the Study of Adolescent Sexual Behavior and the Evaluation of Adolescent Sexual Health Behavior Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael; Palacios, Rebecca; Penhollow, Tina M.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the quality of research and commentary concerning adolescent sexuality and evaluation of both comprehensive sexuality education and abstinence education programs, this article aims to help readers (1) select appropriate measures to study adolescent sexual behavior, (2) develop appropriate study designs to evaluate adolescent sexual…

  16. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N = 887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic…

  17. Adolescent Vicissitudes and Medical Judgment: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Eugene B.; Farrall, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    Notes usual presumption that pregnant adolescents are in good health but suffer from socioeconomic and cultural disadvantages, which the pregnancy will exacerbate. Presents case study to illustrate how problems of pregnant adolescent are more complex when she also has a severe medical handicap and when medical problems interact with the…

  18. Drug Taking Beliefs of Australian Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypiec, Grace; Owens, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    In this study adolescents offered their insights and perspectives of factors associated with adolescent illicit drug taking intentions. The factors explored were identified using a cross-disciplinary approach involving the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and criminological theories, and these formed the framework for data analysis. Interviews…

  19. [Social representation of sexual violence and its relationship with the adherence to the chemoprophylaxis protocol of HIV in young women and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procópio, Ericka Viviane Pontes; Feliciano, Camila Guerra; Silva, Kalina Vanderlei Paiva da; Katz, Cintia Regina Tornisiello

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this study was to understand the social representations of sexual violence and its relationship with adherence to the chemoprophylaxis protocol of HIV in young women and adolescents. Qualitative research was conducted based on the theory of social representations through recorded interviews with 13 female subjects aged between 12 and 23. It was observed that the social representations about sexual violence exerted a considerable influence on adherence to chemoprophylaxis treatment in the group. The individuals surveyed elaborated images in which the concern caused to the family, discomfort caused by the effects of drugs, change of routine, fear of getting sick, being stigmatized, anxiety and anger, appeared as constant elements, which can lead to the abandonment of treatment. Considering the influence of these representations on treatment, there is a need for greater attention of the health services in relation to these possibilities, and for resources to ensure care based on these different needs. In addition to investing in research into new drugs, it is necessary to invest in qualitative research, providing input for more appropriate care for patients. PMID:24897495

  20. Study protocol: The Intensive Care Outcome Network ('ICON' study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barber Vicki S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extended follow-up of survivors of ICU treatment has shown many patients suffer long-term physical and psychological consequences that affect their health-related quality of life. The current lack of rigorous longitudinal studies means that the true prevalence of these physical and psychological problems remains undetermined. Methods/Design The ICON (Intensive Care Outcome Network study is a multi-centre, longitudinal study of survivors of critical illness. Patients will be recruited prior to hospital discharge from 20–30 ICUs in the UK and will be assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months following ICU discharge for health-related quality of life as measured by the Short Form-36 (SF-36 and the EuroQoL (EQ-5D; anxiety and depression as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS; and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms as measured by the PTSD Civilian Checklist (PCL-C. Postal questionnaires will be used. Discussion The ICON study will create a valuable UK database detailing the prevalence of physical and psychological morbidity experienced by patients as they recover from critical illness. Knowledge of the prevalence of physical and psychological morbidity in ICU survivors is important because research to generate models of causality, prognosis and treatment effects is dependent on accurate determination of prevalence. The results will also inform economic modelling of the long-term burden of critical illness. Trial Registration ISRCTN69112866

  1. The characteristics of serious suicide attempters in Japanese adolescents- comparison study between adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawashima Yoshitaka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is the leading cause of death among Japanese adolescents, and they may commit suicide differently from adults. However, there are few studies in medical-based data concerning adolescent patients seriously attempting suicide. We aimed to explore the characteristics of serious suicide attempts in Japanese adolescents, comparing them with those in adults. Methods We investigated adolescents who seriously attempted suicide and were treated at the Critical Care Medical Center (CCMC of Nippon Medical School Hospital between 2000 and 2010, and we compared them with adult suicide attempters treated during 2009. We retrospectively studied medical records and collected clinical data and socio-demographic factors, including age, sex, psychiatric symptoms or diagnosis, methods of suicide attempt, motives for suicide attempt, previous deliberate self-harm, previous psychiatric history, parent loss experience, and previous psychiatric history in the family. Results Adolescent attempters were 15 males and 44 females, 13 to 18 years old (mean 16.39. Adult attempters were 37 males and 65 females, 19 to 79 years old (mean 39.45. In comparison to adult attempters, adolescent attempters were more frequently diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, had more school problems and parent loss experience, but they had less financial problems. Gender differences between adolescents and adults were examined, and male adolescent attempters were found to be more frequently diagnosed with schizophrenia and had less financial problems than their adult counterparts, while female adolescent attempters were more frequently diagnosed with BPD, had more school problems and parent loss, but they had less previous psychiatric history than their adult counterparts. Conclusions Our findings indicated that adolescent attempters were more frequently diagnosed with BPD and had more school problems and parent loss experience but had less financial

  2. RPL Routing Protocol a case study: Precision agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Y.; Chanet, J.P.; K. M. Hou

    2012-01-01

    International audience The routing protocol for low power and lossy network (RPL) was designed in the ROLL working group at IETF since the year of 2008. Until the latest version of draft 19 released, this protocol algorithms and its four application scenario, such as home automation, industrial control, urban environment and building automation, have been nearly grounded. However, it is still very difficult to find effective approaches to simulate and evaluate RPL's behavior and other exte...

  3. Child abuse and neglect: Relations to adolescent binge drinking in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Edwards, Erika M.; Heeren, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between child maltreatment and adolescent binge drinking. Given that many victimized children have been maltreated in multiple ways, we examine the effects of co-occurrence of multiple types of maltreatment on adolescent binge drinking. We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth), which included a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 12,748). Adolescent binge drinking was defined as five or ...

  4. Sodium intake and blood pressure in children and adolescents: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyvraz, Magali; Taffé, Patrick; Chatelan, Angeline; Paradis, Gilles; Tabin, René; Bovet, Pascal; Bochud, Murielle; Chiolero, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. In adults, high sodium intake is associated with elevated blood pressure. In children, experimental studies have shown that reducing sodium intake can reduce blood pressure. However, their external validity is limited, notably because the sodium reduction was substantial and not applicable in a real-life setting. Observational studies, on the other hand, allow assess the association between blood pressure and sodium intake across usual levels of consumption. There is also evidence that the association differs between subgroups of children according to age and body weight. Our objective is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental and observational studies on the association between sodium intake and blood pressure in children and adolescents and to assess whether the association differs according to age and body weight. Methods and analysis A systematic search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and CENTRAL databases will be conducted and supplemented by a manual search of bibliographies and unpublished studies. Experimental and observational studies involving children or adolescents between 0 and 18 years of age will be included. The exposure will be dietary sodium intake, estimated using different methods including urinary sodium excretion. The outcomes will be systolic and diastolic blood pressure, elevated blood pressure and hypertension. If appropriate, meta-analyses will be performed by pooling data across all studies together and separately for experimental and observational studies. Subgroup meta-analyses by age and body weight will be also conducted. Moreover, separate meta-analyses for different sodium intake levels will be conducted to investigate the dose–response relationship. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review and meta-analysis will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. A report will be prepared for national authorities and other

  5. STUDY OF VANET ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR END TO END DELAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunilkumar M. Bhagat

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Less than a century since the automobile was made affordable enough for the general public, hundreds of millions of vehicles now travel along highways and streets around the world. Innovations in safety, comfort, and convenience have made vast improvements in automobiles during that time, and now new technologies promise to change the face of vehicular travel once again. Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET is network which provides the communication between vehicle to vehicle for p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o travelers with new features and applications that have never previously been possible. This paper focuses on vehicle to vehicle (V2V communications in VANET. Lot of research is going on for determining route between source and destination vehicles for routing the information with good packet delivery ratio. In this paper we provide a simulation and study of VANET Routing Protocols for end-to-end delay in V2V communication.

  6. A protocol for conducting rainfall simulation to study soil runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibet, Leonard C; Saporito, Louis S; Allen, Arthur L; May, Eric B; Kleinman, Peter J A; Hashem, Fawzy M; Bryant, Ray B

    2014-04-03

    Rainfall is a driving force for the transport of environmental contaminants from agricultural soils to surficial water bodies via surface runoff. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of antecedent soil moisture content on the fate and transport of surface applied commercial urea, a common form of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, following a rainfall event that occurs within 24 hr after fertilizer application. Although urea is assumed to be readily hydrolyzed to ammonium and therefore not often available for transport, recent studies suggest that urea can be transported from agricultural soils to coastal waters where it is implicated in harmful algal blooms. A rainfall simulator was used to apply a consistent rate of uniform rainfall across packed soil boxes that had been prewetted to different soil moisture contents. By controlling rainfall and soil physical characteristics, the effects of antecedent soil moisture on urea loss were isolated. Wetter soils exhibited shorter time from rainfall initiation to runoff initiation, greater total volume of runoff, higher urea concentrations in runoff, and greater mass loadings of urea in runoff. These results also demonstrate the importance of controlling for antecedent soil moisture content in studies designed to isolate other variables, such as soil physical or chemical characteristics, slope, soil cover, management, or rainfall characteristics. Because rainfall simulators are designed to deliver raindrops of similar size and velocity as natural rainfall, studies conducted under a standardized protocol can yield valuable data that, in turn, can be used to develop models for predicting the fate and transport of pollutants in runoff.

  7. Protocol: optimisation of a grafting protocol for oilseed rape (Brassica napus) for studying long-distance signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Ostendorp, Anna; Pahlow, Steffen; Deke, Jennifer; Thieß, Melanie; Kehr, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Background Grafting is a well-established technique for studying long-distance transport and signalling processes in higher plants. While oilseed rape has been the subject of comprehensive analyses of xylem and phloem sap to identify macromolecules potentially involved in long-distance information transfer, there is currently no standardised grafting method for this species published. Results We developed a straightforward collar-free grafting protocol for Brassica napus plants with high repr...

  8. Comparative Study on Various Authentication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswari, S Raja; Seenivasagam, V

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices with low cost, low power, and short-ranged wireless communication. The sensors can communicate with each other to form a network. In WSNs, broadcast transmission is widely used along with the maximum usage of wireless networks and their applications. Hence, it has become crucial to authenticate broadcast messages. Key management is also an active research topic in WSNs. Several key management schemes have been introduced, and their benefits are not recognized in a specific WSN application. Security services are vital for ensuring the integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of the critical information. Therefore, the authentication mechanisms are required to support these security services and to be resilient to distinct attacks. Various authentication protocols such as key management protocols, lightweight authentication protocols, and broadcast authentication protocols are compared and analyzed for all secure transmission applications. The major goal of this survey is to compare and find out the appropriate protocol for further research. Moreover, the comparisons between various authentication techniques are also illustrated. PMID:26881272

  9. Protocol for fir tree sampling for provenance studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Thomas; Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    Isotopic (stable and radiogenic) as well as trace element fingerprinting methods used for tracing the geographical origin, rely on databases, that need to contain data sets representative of the measurands of the individual samples for a specific geographic entity. Through this work, we want to assess different sampling strategies for obtaining representative sample of fir trees (Abies sp.). Motivation for this work is the protection of the local Austrian Christmas tree market from wrongly tagged trees of non-Austrian origin. In particular, we studied three typical Christmas trees the most common species sold as Christmas tree, namely Abies nordmanniana (Nordmann Fir), from the same locality in lower Austria. For the initial tests we applied the elemental fingerprinting method, to study the suitability of the different parts of the tree applying ICP-MS analysis after complete acid digestion in a high pressure asher system (HPA-S).Needle samples from each year of life of the tree and stem wood from three different heights were analyzed for their trace element content to prove the repeatability and to find the best sampling protocol. For the analysis of the needles, the natural wax coating had to be removed in order to get reproducible results. For the analysis of stem wood only the bark was removed. As expected the data of all three trees allowed the differentiation of the individual needle ages, but interestingly enough also between the three sampling heights of the needs. Both needles and wood proved to be suitable for successful fingerprinting, but importantly, provided that sample of the same type and ages are compared. The same samples for the three trees will also be used for isotopic analysis studies to better understand the influence of age and sampling height on the representativeness of fir tree samples. Based on elemental fingerprinting alone, a successful discrimination between local (Austrian) and foreign (Danish, Irish) Christmas trees was possible.

  10. Prospective community study of family stress and anxiety in (pre)adolescents: the TRAILS study

    OpenAIRE

    Van Oort, Floor; Verhulst, Frank; Ormel, Johan Hans; Huizink, Anja

    2009-01-01

    textabstractFor prevention of anxiety in children and adolescents, it is important to know whether family stress is a predictor of anxiety. We studied this in 1,875 adolescents from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) who were followed up for 2 years, from age 10-12 to 12-14 years. Adolescents reported anxiety and depression symptoms at both assessments, and parents reported family stress (family dysfunction and parenting stress) at the first assessment. Family dysfunct...

  11. STUDY OF ANEMIA IN ADOLESCENT SCHOOL GIRLS OF BHOPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kakkar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common form of malnutrition, early intervention during adolescence (girls can prevent high morbidity and mortality of these future mothers. Objectives: To study prevalence & factors contributing to anaemia among adolescent school girls. Material and Methods: Area or region addressed – Iron deficiency anemia in adolescent girls. Present study was conducted among 317 adolescent (10-19Yrs government schoolgirls of Bhopal city from June2005-July2006. Three study groups were selected from three different girls’ school by random sampling method. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS. Result & Conclusion: Overall prevalence was 58.4% among adolescent schoolgirls. Prevalence of anemia was dependent on the knowledge about prevention of anemia, literacy level, food habits, birth order & also frequency of Iron rich source viz. green leafy vegetable & non vegetarian diet. While there was no significant relation of anemia with duration of menstrual flow but there was significant (P<0.05 difference in number of anaemic cases with age at menarche i.e. with higher age at menarche; there was more chances of anemia. Level of anemia was higher (p<0.05 in early adolescent (10 -13 Years age group (81% as compared to middle (58.3% and late adolescent (17-19 years age group girls (48.7%.

  12. Prospective community study of family stress and anxiety in (pre)adolescents : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, Floor V. A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Huizink, Anja C.

    2010-01-01

    For prevention of anxiety in children and adolescents, it is important to know whether family stress is a predictor of anxiety. We studied this in 1,875 adolescents from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) who were followed up for 2 years, from age 10-12 to 12-14 years. Adoles

  13. Prospective community study of family stress and anxiety in (pre)adolescents: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, F.V.A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    For prevention of anxiety in children and adolescents, it is important to know whether family stress is a predictor of anxiety. We studied this in 1,875 adolescents from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) who were followed up for 2 years, from age 10-12 to 12-14 years. Adoles

  14. Improving outpatient safety through effective electronic communication: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espadas Donna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health information technology and electronic medical records (EMRs are potentially powerful systems-based interventions to facilitate diagnosis and treatment because they ensure the delivery of key new findings and other health related information to the practitioner. However, effective communication involves more than just information transfer; despite a state of the art EMR system, communication breakdowns can still occur. 123 In this project, we will adapt a model developed by the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS to understand and improve the relationship between work systems and processes of care involved with electronic communication in EMRs. We plan to study three communication activities in the Veterans Health Administration's (VA EMR: electronic communication of abnormal imaging and laboratory test results via automated notifications (i.e., alerts; electronic referral requests; and provider-to-pharmacy communication via computerized provider order entry (CPOE. Aim Our specific aim is to propose a protocol to evaluate the systems and processes affecting outcomes of electronic communication in the computerized patient record system (related to diagnostic test results, electronic referral requests, and CPOE prescriptions using a human factors engineering approach, and hence guide the development of interventions for work system redesign. Design This research will consist of multiple qualitative methods of task analysis to identify potential sources of error related to diagnostic test result alerts, electronic referral requests, and CPOE; this will be followed by a series of focus groups to identify barriers, facilitators, and suggestions for improving the electronic communication system. Transcripts from all task analyses and focus groups will be analyzed using methods adapted from grounded theory and content analysis.

  15. Design and evaluation protocol of "FATaintPHAT", a computer-tailored intervention to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.P.M. Ezendam (Nicole); A. Oenema (Anke); P.M. van de Looij-Jansen (Petra); J. Brug (Hans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractComputer tailoring may be a promising technique for prevention of overweight in adolescents. However, very few well-developed, evidence-based computer-tailored interventions are available for this target group. We developed and evaluated a computer-tailored intervention for adolescents t

  16. Pilot study of a paediatric emergency department oral rehydration protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, R.; Busuttil, M; Stuart, P

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain if the use of a paediatric oral rehydration protocol in the emergency department changed rates of admission, total time spent in hospital, total time spent in the emergency department, or number of unscheduled returns to the emergency department.

  17. Dating Violence: Study with Adolescents from Heredia (Costa Rica)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Avelino Fernández-Fuertes; María Begoña Orgaz-Baz; Mariana De Lima-Silva; Manuel Arturo Fallas-Vargas; José Antonio García-Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Most of human aggressive behavior occurs in the context of a romantic relationship. Adolescents are not an exception: research show a significant prevalence of dating violence, revealing the need for further study, especially in Latin America, given the lack of research on this topic. This study aims at strengthening knowledge about aggressive behavior in adolescent dating relationships in Costa Rica, taking into account different aggressive behaviors, not only physical or sexual abuse; diffe...

  18. The effectiveness and safety of treatments used for polycystic ovarian syndrome management in adolescents: a systematic review and network meta-analysis protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Al Khalifah, Reem A; Flórez, Iván D.; Dennis, Brittany; Neupane, Binod; Thabane, Lehana; Bassilious, Ereny

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrine disease that is seen among adolescent women. Currently, there is limited evidence to support treatment options leading to considerable variation in practice among healthcare specialists. The objective of this study is to review and synthesize all the available evidence on treatment options for PCOS among adolescent women. Methods/design We will conduct a systematic review of all randomized controlled trials evalu...

  19. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of a school based cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) intervention to prevent depression in high risk adolescents (PROMISE).

    OpenAIRE

    Sayal Kapil; Lewis Glynn; Anderson Rob; Araya Ricardo; Montgomery Alan A; Stallard Paul; Buck Rhiannon; Millings Abigail; Taylor John A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Depression in adolescents is a significant problem that impairs everyday functioning and increases the risk of severe mental health disorders in adulthood. Relatively few adolescents with depression are identified and referred for treatment indicating the need to investigate alternative preventive approaches. Study Design A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a school based prevention programme on symptoms of depression in "high ri...

  20. Protocol: using virus-induced gene silencing to study the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Mette; Olsen, Anne; Johansen, Elisabeth;

    2010-01-01

    , the available PEBV-VIGS protocols are inadequate for studying genes involved in the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Here we describe a PEBV-VIGS protocol suitable for reverse genetics studies in pea of genes involved in the symbiosis with AMF and show its effectiveness in silencing genes...... involved in the early and late stages of AMF symbiosis....

  1. Outcome of Adolescent Pregnancy: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ozdogan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to review the sociodemographic characteristics, maternal, natal and postnatal outcomes of adolescent pregnancy. Subjects and method: The records of all adolescent pregnancies (aged 13–19 years delivered at Sisli Hamidiye Etfal Research and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, over a period of two years were reviewed. Structured survey was conducted with adolescent mothers over the phone. Results: The incidence of adolescent pregnancy was 7.06%; 91.1% of the cases were reported to be married. Consanguineous marriage was found to be 27.6%. Maternal anaemia was detected in 43.1% of cases. Premature birth rate was 6.3%. The rate of Cesarean section was 31.8%. Adolescent mothers were categorized into two groups: 17 years and below and above 17 years. The maternal, natal and postnatal outcomes were not statistically different between the two groups. Conclusions: Health policies should be revised and improved to take the necessary steps for providing adequate health services for adolescents and for improving prenatal, natal and postnatal care of pregnant adolescents.

  2. Hypertension Improvement Project (HIP: study protocol and implementation challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollak Kathryn I

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertension affects 29% of the adult U.S. population and is a leading cause of heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure. Despite numerous effective treatments, only 53% of people with hypertension are at goal blood pressure. The chronic care model suggests that blood pressure control can be achieved by improving how patients and physicians address patient self-care. Methods and design This paper describes the protocol of a nested 2 × 2 randomized controlled trial to test the separate and combined effects on systolic blood pressure of a behavioral intervention for patients and a quality improvement-type intervention for physicians. Primary care practices were randomly assigned to the physician intervention or to the physician control condition. Physician randomization occurred at the clinic level. The physician intervention included training and performance monitoring. The training comprised 2 internet-based modules detailing both the JNC-7 hypertension guidelines and lifestyle modifications for hypertension. Performance data were collected for 18 months, and feedback was provided to physicians every 3 months. Patient participants in both intervention and control clinics were individually randomized to the patient intervention or to usual care. The patient intervention consisted of a 6-month behavioral intervention conducted by trained interventionists in 20 group sessions, followed by 12 monthly phone contacts by community health advisors. Follow-up measurements were performed at 6 and 18 months. The primary outcome was the mean change in systolic blood pressure at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were diastolic blood pressure and the proportion of patients with adequate blood pressure control at 6 and 18 months. Discussion Overall, 8 practices (4 per treatment group, 32 physicians (4 per practice; 16 per treatment group, and 574 patients (289 control and 285 intervention were enrolled. Baseline characteristics of patients and

  3. Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Sandra; Williams, John; Moore, Antoni; Hopkins, Debbie; Flaherty, Charlotte; Wilson, Gordon; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Active transport to school (ATS) is a convenient way to increase physical activity and undertake an environmentally sustainable travel practice. The Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study examines ATS in adolescents in Dunedin, New Zealand, using ecological models for active transport that account for individual, social, environmental and policy factors. The study objectives are to: (1) understand the reasons behind adolescents and their parents' choice of transport mode to school; (2) examine the interaction between the transport choices, built environment, physical activity and weight status in adolescents; and (3) identify policies that promote or hinder ATS in adolescents. Methods and analysis The study will use a mixed-method approach incorporating both quantitative (surveys, anthropometry, accelerometers, Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis, mapping) and qualitative methods (focus groups, interviews) to gather data from students, parents, teachers and school principals. The core data will include accelerometer-measured physical activity, anthropometry, GIS measures of the built environment and the use of maps indicating route to school (students)/work (parents) and perceived safe/unsafe areas along the route. To provide comprehensive data for understanding how to change the infrastructure to support ATS, the study will also examine complementary variables such as individual, family and social factors, including student and parental perceptions of walking and cycling to school, parental perceptions of different modes of transport to school, perceptions of the neighbourhood environment, route to school (students)/work (parents), perceptions of driving, use of information communication technology, reasons for choosing a particular school and student and parental physical activity habits, screen time and weight status. The study has achieved a 100% school recruitment rate (12 secondary schools). Ethics and

  4. ANALYTIC STUDY OF ADOLESCENT GIRLS ATTENDING SULTANIA ZANANA HOSPITAL, BHOPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Aim of our study was to analyze the reasons for which adolescent girls attend Sultania Zanana Hospital, Bhopal, which is a tertiary care Centre holding the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal. OBJECTIVE: To know what percentage of patients belong to adolescent age group and there a sons they come, to SZH, Bhopal. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After prior approval of Review Board and Institute Ethics Committtee. This hospital based analytical study was carried out from 1st June ‘12 to 30th May’ 13 in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Gandhi Medical College and associated Sultania Zanana Hospital, Bhopal. All adolescent girls attending OPD, Antenatal Clinic, Family planning Clinic, and Integrated Counseling Testing Centre or admitted in Sultania Zanana Hospital, Bhopal in the age group of 10 – 19 years during the study duration was analysed. RESULT: Analysis revealed that during the study period, a total of 455 adolescent girls attended indoor of Sultania Zanana Hospital Bhopal which constitutes 2.7% of total indoor patient load. CONCLUSION: It was concluded from study that early age at menarche, early age at marriage, low education, and high incidence of genitourinary infection, lack of awareness about contraception and reproduction health issues, and non-consensual sex are major health issues of adolescent years. This is still an "unmet need" in reproductive and sexual health care of this age group. This unmet need varies among married and unmarried adolescents.

  5. A Comparative Study of Key Management Protocols for WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Verma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased employment of WSN (Wireless Sensor Network in real life applications and their hostile and remote locations accelerate demand of security in WSN. Publicly accessible wireless communication channel also makes WSN vulnerable to numerous security attacks. Scarcity of resources acquaints new sort of challenges and difficulties during implementation of effective security mechanisms. In this paper, we evaluate and compare performance of three different security mechanisms (ECRKS, CKP and AP scheme. ECRKS (Energy-efficient, Connected, Resilient Key pre-distribution Scheme is based upon multi hop communication architecture specifically designed for homogeneous WSN. Clustering based protocols, AP (Asymmetric pre-distribution scheme and CKP (Clustering based Key management Protocol are proposed for heterogeneous WSN. All the above mentioned schemes are simulated in MATLAB to evaluate their effectiveness and suitability for WSN. Simulation result shows that CKP outperforms other two schemes in terms of transmission distance, memory burden, energy dissipation and resilience.

  6. Partner randomized controlled trial: study protocol and coaching intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbutt Jane M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children with asthma live with frequent symptoms and activity limitations, and visits for urgent care are common. Many pediatricians do not regularly meet with families to monitor asthma control, identify concerns or problems with management, or provide self-management education. Effective interventions to improve asthma care such as small group training and care redesign have been difficult to disseminate into office practice. Methods and design This paper describes the protocol for a randomized controlled trial (RCT to evaluate a 12-month telephone-coaching program designed to support primary care management of children with persistent asthma and subsequently to improve asthma control and disease-related quality of life and reduce urgent care events for asthma care. Randomization occurred at the practice level with eligible families within a practice having access to the coaching program or to usual care. The coaching intervention was based on the transtheoretical model of behavior change. Targeted behaviors included 1 effective use of controller medications, 2 effective use of rescue medications and 3 monitoring to ensure optimal control. Trained lay coaches provided parents with education and support for asthma care, tailoring the information provided and frequency of contact to the parent's readiness to change their child's day-to-day asthma management. Coaching calls varied in frequency from weekly to monthly. For each participating family, follow-up measurements were obtained at 12- and 24-months after enrollment in the study during a telephone interview. The primary outcomes were the mean change in 1 the child's asthma control score, 2 the parent's quality of life score, and 3 the number of urgent care events assessed at 12 and 24 months. Secondary outcomes reflected adherence to guideline recommendations by the primary care pediatricians and included the proportion of children prescribed controller medications

  7. Attachment and the Body in Suicidal Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, John; Briggs, Stephen; Behringer, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    There is a relative dearth of studies in the field of adolescent attachment despite the potential impact of such developmental changes on the organization of attachment systems. This omission is even more acute among clinical populations, although adolescence is notable for dramatic increases in specific psychopathologies, e.g. eating disorders, delinquency, and suicide and self-harm. This article attempts to address the shortfall using a mixed quantitative/qualitative research design. First,...

  8. Adolescent Eating Disorders: Treatment and Response in a Naturalistic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Boisseau, Christina L.; Satir, Dana A.

    2010-01-01

    This naturalistic study investigated the treatment and outcome of adolescents with eating disorders (EDs) in the community. Clinicians from a practice-research network provided data on ED symptoms, global functioning, comorbidity, treatment, and outcome for 120 adolescents with EDs. ED “not otherwise specified” was the most common ED diagnosed. After an average of 8 months of treatment, about one third of patients had recovered, with patients with anorexia nervosa showing the most improvement...

  9. Recovery from adolescent onset anorexia nervosa : a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Anorexia Nervosa is a psychiatric illness with peak onset in ages 14-17. Most cases recover within a few years, but the illness can have a fatal outcome or long duration. Multifactor causes of anorexia nervosa include genetics, personality, family, and socio-cultural factors. This study measures mortality, recovery from anorexia nervosa, and psychosocial outcome of patients with adolescent onset anorexia nervosa that were treated in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in northern Sweden from 1980...

  10. A case study on the communication of older adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lauren; Spencer, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Alison

    2011-11-01

    This study compared the communication of two older male adolescents (aged 17 and 19 years) with each other (peer interaction) and with a teacher (non-peer interaction) in three different types of activity (casual conversation, providing/listening to a recount and collaborative problem-solving). Conversation analysis, selected analyses from the perspective of systemic functional linguistics and social psychology (communication accommodation theory) were applied in data analysis. Peer interaction showed fewer questions, fewer challenging moves and the absence of divergent accommodation strategies. In the non-peer interaction, the teacher's higher number of turns, questions and interruptions appeared to influence the opportunity for adolescent contribution to the interactions. Some aspects of language use by each adolescent - mean turn length, use of one-word utterances and sarcasm - were consistent across communication partner and activity. The methodology is suggested to provide a suitable procedure for use in similar research with older adolescents who have traumatic brain injury.

  11. Pilot studies for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project - Site selection, sampling protocols, analytical methods, and quality control protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.B.; Woodruff, L.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Cannon, W.F.; Garrett, R.G.; Kilburn, J.E.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada sampled and chemically analyzed soils along two transects across Canada and the USA in preparation for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America. This effort was a pilot study to test and refine sampling protocols, analytical methods, quality control protocols, and field logistics for the continental survey. A total of 220 sample sites were selected at approximately 40-km intervals along the two transects. The ideal sampling protocol at each site called for a sample from a depth of 0-5 cm and a composite of each of the O, A, and C horizons. The Quality control (QC) of the analyses was monitored at three levels: the laboratory performing the analysis, the USGS QC officer, and the principal investigator for the study. This level of review resulted in an average of one QC sample for every 20 field samples, which proved to be minimally adequate for such a large-scale survey. Additional QC samples should be added to monitor within-batch quality to the extent that no more than 10 samples are analyzed between a QC sample. Only Cr (77%), Y (82%), and Sb (80%) fell outside the acceptable limits of accuracy (% recovery between 85 and 115%) because of likely residence in mineral phases resistant to the acid digestion. A separate sample of 0-5-cm material was collected at each site for determination of organic compounds. A subset of 73 of these samples was analyzed for a suite of 19 organochlorine pesticides by gas chromatography. Only three of these samples had detectable pesticide concentrations. A separate sample of A-horizon soil was collected for microbial characterization by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), soil enzyme assays, and determination of selected human and agricultural pathogens. Collection, preservation and analysis of samples for both organic compounds and microbial characterization add a great degree of complication to the sampling and preservation protocols and a

  12. Pilot studies for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project - Site selection, sampling protocols, analytical methods, and quality control protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada sampled and chemically analyzed soils along two transects across Canada and the USA in preparation for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America. This effort was a pilot study to test and refine sampling protocols, analytical methods, quality control protocols, and field logistics for the continental survey. A total of 220 sample sites were selected at approximately 40-km intervals along the two transects. The ideal sampling protocol at each site called for a sample from a depth of 0-5 cm and a composite of each of the O, A, and C horizons. The 3, HClO4, and HF. Separate methods were used for Hg, Se, total C, and carbonate-C on this same size fraction. Only Ag, In, and Te had a large percentage of concentrations below the detection limit. Quality control (QC) of the analyses was monitored at three levels: the laboratory performing the analysis, the USGS QC officer, and the principal investigator for the study. This level of review resulted in an average of one QC sample for every 20 field samples, which proved to be minimally adequate for such a large-scale survey. Additional QC samples should be added to monitor within-batch quality to the extent that no more than 10 samples are analyzed between a QC sample. Only Cr (77%), Y (82%), and Sb (80%) fell outside the acceptable limits of accuracy (% recovery between 85 and 115%) because of likely residence in mineral phases resistant to the acid digestion. A separate sample of 0-5-cm material was collected at each site for determination of organic compounds. A subset of 73 of these samples was analyzed for a suite of 19 organochlorine pesticides by gas chromatography. Only three of these samples had detectable pesticide concentrations. A separate sample of A-horizon soil was collected for microbial characterization by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), soil enzyme assays, and determination of selected human and agricultural

  13. Implementing enhanced recovery after bariatric surgery protocol: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proczko, Monika; Kaska, Lukasz; Twardowski, Pawel; Stepaniak, Pieter

    2016-02-01

    While the demand for bariatric surgery is increasing, hospital capacity remains limited. The ERABS (Enhanced Recovery After Bariatric Surgery) protocol has been implemented in a number of bariatric centers. We retrospectively compared the operating room logistics and postoperative complications between pre-ERABS and ERABS periods in an academic hospital. The primary endpoint was the length of stay in hospital. The secondary endpoints were turnover times-the time required for preparing the operating room for the next case, induction time (from induction of anesthesia until a patient is ready for surgery), surgical time (duration of surgery), procedure time (duration of stay in the operating room), and the incidence of re-admissions, re-operations and complications during admission and within 30 days after surgery. Of a total of 374 patients, 228 and 146 received surgery following the pre-ERABS and ERABS protocols, respectively. The length of hospital stay was significantly shortened from 3.7 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 3.1-4.7) days to 2.1 (95 % CI 1.6-2.6) days (P surgery, respectively (P < 0.001 for both), by introducing the ERABS protocol. Induction times were reduced from 15.2 (95 % CI 14.3-16.1) min to 12.5 (95 % CI 11.7-13.3) min (P < 0.001).Turnover times were shortened significantly from 38 (95 % CI 44-32) min to 11 (95 % CI 8-14) min. The incidence of re-operations, re-admissions and complications did not change.

  14. Active gaming in Dutch adolescents: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simons Monique

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate levels of physical activity are part of a healthy lifestyle and in this way linked to better health outcomes. For children and adolescents, the physical activity guideline recommends at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity every day. However, many adolescents are not physically active enough and they spend a lot of their time on sedentary activities (such as video games. A new generation of video games that require body movements to play them, so-called "active games", could serve to increase physical activity in adolescents. The activity level while playing these games is comparable to light-to-moderate intensity physical activity. The current study aims to increase our understanding of 1 the demographic characteristics of adolescents who play active games regularly (≥ 1 hour per week and non-regularly ( Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a Dutch internet panel, questioning adolescents in conjunction with one of their parents. A random sample of 320 households (with stratification on gender of the parent and the adolescent, the age of the adolescent and the region of the household was selected that owned a console or application for active video games and that had a child aged 12 through 16 years. 201 child–parent couples (63% response completed an internet survey with questions about demographics, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and gaming behaviour. The questionnaire also contained questions designed to assess whether and how active gaming replaces other activities. Besides descriptive analyses, independent t-test, Pearson’s chi-square and Mann–Whitney test (when data were not normally distributed were used for comparisons between regular and non-regular active gamers. Results Eleven percent of the adolescents with an active game in their household never used the game. There were no significant differences in gender, education level (of adolescent and

  15. Adolescent Intimacy: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbedour, Salman; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Compared perceptions of intimacy in friendships among Israeli Jewish (IJ) and Israeli Bedouin (IB) adolescents. Results from 288 IJ and 327 IB junior and senior high school students show that intimacy was perceived to reflect a balance between closeness and individuality in close friendships. Closeness and individuality appear to govern all close…

  16. Acupressure therapy for insomnia in adolescents: a polysomnographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carotenuto M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marco Carotenuto,1 Beatrice Gallai,2 Lucia Parisi,3 Michele Roccella,3 Maria Esposito11Sleep Clinic for Developmental Age, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Second University of Naples, Naples, 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, 3Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, ItalyBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of acupressure therapy in a sample of adolescents with insomnia using a standard polysomnographic evaluation.Methods: For this study, 25 adolescents affected by psychophysiological insomnia (mean age 15.04 ± 1.18 years, 12 boys were enrolled. A device known as the Sea-Band® was used by the patients in order to improve their symptoms related to difficulty in falling asleep. All subjects enrolled underwent two sets of consecutive overnight polysomnographic studies in the Sleep Laboratory of the Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, comprising two studies at baseline (before treatment and another two studies at the end of 6 months of treatment.Results: At the end of 6 months of treatment, there was a significant increase in all macrostructural parameters of sleep duration, and a reduction in sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, and stage 2 sleep. Moreover, the study group showed a significant increase in percent sleep efficiency (P < 0.001 and in slow wave sleep representation.Conclusion: Acupressure is a noninvasive, safe, and effective method for the management of insomnia in adolescents, with good compliance and no adverse effects.Keywords: insomnia, adolescence, acupressure, polysomnography

  17. Adapting Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adolescents Exposed to Interpersonal Trauma: A Case Study With Two Teens

    OpenAIRE

    DePrince, Anne P.; Shirk, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence indicates that interpersonal trauma increases risk for adolescent and adult depression. Findings from 4 clinical trials for adolescent depression show poorer response to standard cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) among depressed adolescents with a trauma history than youth without such a history. This paper reports on the development of a modified CBT (mCBT) protocol that has been adapted for treating depressed adolescents who have been exposed to traumatic int...

  18. Simulation study for Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using DMAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Sejwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of deafness problem in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs using directional antennas. Directional antennas arebeneficial for wireless ad hoc networks consisting of a collection of wireless hosts. A suitable Medium Access Control (MAC protocol must be designed to best utilize directional antennas. Deafness is caused whentwo nodes are in ongoing transmission and a third node (Deaf Node wants to communicate with one of that node. But it get no response because transmission of two nodes are in process. Though directional antennas offer better spatial reuse, but this problem can have a serious impact on network performance. A New DMAC (Directional Medium Access Control protocol uses flags in DNAV (Directional Network Allocation Vector tables to maintain information regarding the transmissionbetween the nodes in the network and their neighbor’s location. Two performance matrices have been used to show the impact of New DMAC algorithm on Deafness problem using simulator. These are RTS Failure Ratio and RTS Retransmission due to timeout

  19. Performance and Comparison of Multi-Hop Ad-Hoc Routing Protocols - Quantitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamilarasan S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad-hoc network is emerging network and form temporary networks. Due to its spontaneous nature the topology is frequently changes. Protocols selection and set up routing between any pair of nodes are the primary goal design for any wireless network. Several protocols are proposed in Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET and selected protocol must provide best capability of data delivery and data integrity. In this paper, we are study and analysis the performance and characteristic of Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR and Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV protocols using NS2 simulator. We are comparing the above said protocols based on the delay, throughput, control overhead and packet delivery ratio.

  20. STUDY OF QoS ISSUES FOR ROUTING PROTOCOLS in IEEE 802.11s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikumani Choudhury

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the two routing protocols proposed by IEEE 802.11s for Wireless Mesh Networks. Towards this goal, this paper contributes in several areas of Routing and Quality-of-Service provisioning in IEEE 802.11-based wireless mesh networks. It compares the variety of routing protocols that could be used for Wireless Mesh Networks and later we specially focus on the recommended routing protocols HWMP and RA-OLSR by IEEE 802.11. We simulated using ns3 simulator under various parameters and observed how the two protocols reacted with changes in these parameters. From these observations, wehave been able to study and compare few QoS of the routing protocols of Wireless Mesh Networks.

  1. Separation-Individuation of Late Adolescents : A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Sevda; Gelbal, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the change in separation-individuation between late adolescents in the first, second, third and fourth year of higher education. The study sample used for this longitudinal study consisted of 148 students attending class studies, computer education and science education departments of Kirikkale University.…

  2. Study protocol: Intensive care anxiety and emotional recovery (Icare) - A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, M.; Aitken, L. M.; Cooke, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Survivors of intensive care units (ICUs) commonly present with symptoms of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during recovery. A number of factors have been identified as predictors of these adverse emotional outcomes, but the role of state anxiety during critical illness in the development of these emotional problems remains unknown. Purpose The Intensive Care Anxiety and Emotional Recovery (ICARe) study protocol proposes the development of a s...

  3. Bulk transfer protocols on satellite link - Study within the OSI reference model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valet, I.

    Since satellite systems, such as TELECOM1 in France, are available for data transmission, new protocols need to be designed to fit the requirements of satellite communication systems and to offer specific facilities to the users. The main features of these new transmission protocols, as they have been specified by NADIR studies, are described. Next, the reasons for choosing to study these protocols within the OSI Reference Model are explained. A detailed study about introducing the protocol mechanisms described above in the OSI Reference model layers is then presented. Different approaches are presented, and the solutions studied are appraised in terms of efficiency, and of conformity to the OSI Reference Model. Finally, the experiments planned by NADIR are mentionned.

  4. Predicting implementation from organizational readiness for change: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly P Adam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is widespread interest in measuring organizational readiness to implement evidence-based practices in clinical care. However, there are a number of challenges to validating organizational measures, including inferential bias arising from the halo effect and method bias - two threats to validity that, while well-documented by organizational scholars, are often ignored in health services research. We describe a protocol to comprehensively assess the psychometric properties of a previously developed survey, the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment. Objectives Our objective is to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the psychometric properties of the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment incorporating methods specifically to address threats from halo effect and method bias. Methods and Design We will conduct three sets of analyses using longitudinal, secondary data from four partner projects, each testing interventions to improve the implementation of an evidence-based clinical practice. Partner projects field the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment at baseline (n = 208 respondents; 53 facilities, and prospectively assesses the degree to which the evidence-based practice is implemented. We will conduct predictive and concurrent validities using hierarchical linear modeling and multivariate regression, respectively. For predictive validity, the outcome is the change from baseline to follow-up in the use of the evidence-based practice. We will use intra-class correlations derived from hierarchical linear models to assess inter-rater reliability. Two partner projects will also field measures of job satisfaction for convergent and discriminant validity analyses, and will field Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment measures at follow-up for concurrent validity (n = 158 respondents; 33 facilities. Convergent and discriminant validities will test associations between organizational readiness and

  5. Advantages of a Warfarin Protocol for Long-term Care Pharmacists: a Retrospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sargent, Randall; Brocklebank, Cynthia; Tam-Tham, Helen; Williamson, Tyler; Quail, Patrick; Turner, Diana; Drummond, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Background Warfarin is an anticoagulant prescribed to 12% of long-term care residents to reduce the risk of thrombo-embolism. This study used indicators to compare warfarin management by pharmacists to usual care. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study comparing a pharmacist-managed warfarin protocol with usual care of qualified warfarin recipients at long-term care facilities (two protocol, one control) in Calgary, Alberta. We compared the proportion of international normalized ratio ...

  6. Internet addiction among Iranian adolescents: a nationwide study.

    OpenAIRE

    Khodabakhsh Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Problematic use of the Internet by children and adolescents is a newly emerging disorder that has alerted health authorities throughout the world. In Iran, despite the very high speed rate of Internet spread, there is not enough data on the rate of Internet addiction among the adolescents. This study is the first nationwide study that addresses this issue. Overall 4500 students of high school or pre-college schools were recruited from 13/31 provinces of Iran by a cluster sampling method and 4...

  7. Adolescent's perspective on reproductive health: a study from Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To determine the existing knowledge, attitude and behavior about reproductive and sexual health in adolescents of Karachi and seek their opinion about reproductive health education. Study type, settings and duration: A cross sectional study was conducted on adolescents (17-19 years) of both gender studying in colleges of Karachi during 2010. Subject sand Methods: Using stratified sampling procedure, a cross sectional study was carried out. After informed consent and ensuring confidentiality an anonymous quantitative questionnaire was completed to ascertain the knowledge of adolescents on reproductive health. Results: A total of 912 adolescents (470 males and 442 females) of 12 public and private sector colleges of Karachi participated in the study. Acquaintance to reproductive health was present in 75% males and 71% females and most participants confirmed discussing reproductive health issues with friends. About 81% males and 91 % females affirmed for a need for enhanced reproductive health education and awareness while over 50% of the respondents were of the opinion that the right age for reproductive health education was 16 to 18 years. Confining sexual activity to one partner and avoiding exposure to blood and needles for the prevention of AIDS was known to 38% males and 44% females but the prevention of sexually transmitted infections using condoms, was known to only 1/3 rd of the respondents. Although 70% of the respondents of both genders knew that pregnancy can be avoided but only 20% knew about contraceptives. Conclusions: Most adolescents' knew about the reproductive cycle but were not well aware of how to avoid exposures to sexually transmitted infections and pregnancies. Policy message: Reproductive health education is insufficient in adolescents should be gender specific and socio culturally sensitive. (author)

  8. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  9. Twenty four year time trends in fats and cholesterol intake by adolescents. Warsaw Adolescents Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charzewska Jadwiga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine time trends (1982–2006 in total fat intake and changes in fatty acid structure intake in adolescents from Warsaw in view of increasing prevalence of obesity. Data come from four successive surveys randomly selected samples of adolescents (aged 11–15 years old, from Warsaw region. In total 9747 pupils have been examined, with response rate varying from 55% to 87% depending on year. Surveys were done always in the spring season of the year. Food intake was assessed by using 24 hours recall method of consumption by the pupils all products, including enriched, dishes and beverages as well as diet supplements, in the last 24 hours preceding the examination. The content of energy and nutrients was calculated by means of own computer softwares (DIET 2 and 4, taking into account successive revisions of the tables of food composition and nutritional values, as well as current Polish DRI. A significant decreasing trend was found in intake of total fat, of saturated fatty acids (SFA and cholesterol. The percentage of energy from total fat, also decreased both in boys (to 35,1% and girls (to 33,7%, what failed to reach the desired level below 30% of energy from fat which is recommended. Also significant decrease of SFA consumption was not satisfactory enough to approach the values <10% of energy recommended as was from 13% to 15%. Decreasing trends in fat intake was not in accordance with the trend in obesity prevalence in the adolescents as average BMI is going up. To stabilize the health-oriented changes especially in the diets of adolescents, further activity is desired from professionals working with prevention of adolescents obesity.

  10. Prospective community study of family stress and anxiety in (pre)adolescents: the TRAILS study

    OpenAIRE

    Oort, Floor V. A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    International audience For prevention of anxiety in children and adolescents, it is important to know whether family stress is a predictor of anxiety. We studied this in 1,875 adolescents from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) who were followed up for 2 years, from age 10–12 to 12–14 years. Adolescents reported anxiety and depression symptoms at both assessments, and parents reported family stress (family dysfunction and parenting stress) at the first assessment. F...

  11. Implementation of Mass Transfusion Protocol in the Outpatient Operating Room Setting: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Holly-May; Warner, Brenda

    2015-06-01

    The current definition of massive transfusion is replacement of 5 U of packed red blood cells in 3 hours because of uncontrolled hemorrhage or replacement of the entire blood volume within a 24-hour period. The prompt activation of a transfusion protocol can quickly restore hemodynamic stability. Effective teamwork and communication is critical for a favorable patient outcome. This case study demonstrates the effectiveness of using a massive transfusion protocol in an outpatient setting. PMID:26137761

  12. Research Knowledge among the Participants in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Silva, Susan; Curry, John; Reinecke, Mark; Pathak, Sanjeev; Waslick, Bruce; Hughes, Carroll W.; Prentice, Ernest D.; May, Diane E.; March, John S.

    2007-01-01

    A study examined the extent to which parents and adolescents participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) understood the study. The results concluded that most were well-informed, and also parents were overall better informed than adolescents.

  13. The Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morley D

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available David Morley, Sarah Dummett, Laura Kelly, Jill Dawson, Ray Fitzpatrick, Crispin JenkinsonNuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UKBackground: With an ageing population and increasing demands on health and social care services, there is growing importance attached to the management of long-term conditions, including maximizing the cost-effectiveness of treatments. In line with this, there is increasing emphasis on the need to keep people both active and participating in daily life. Consequently, it is essential that well developed and validated instruments that can meaningfully assess levels of participation and activity are widely available. Current measures, however, are largely focused on disability and rehabilitation, and there is no measure of activity or participation for generic use that fully meets the standards set by regulatory bodies such as the US Food and Drug Administration. Here we detail a protocol for the development and validation of a new patient-reported outcome measure (PROM for assessment of participation and activity in people experiencing a variety of health conditions, ie, the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire (Ox-PAQ. The stages incorporated in its development are entirely in line with current regulations and represent best practice in the development of PROMs.Methods: Development of the Ox-PAQ is theoretically grounded in the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. The project incorporates a new strategy of engaging with stakeholders from the outset in an attempt to identify those characteristics of PROMs considered most important to a range of potential users. Items will be generated through interviews with patients from a range of conditions. Pretesting of the instrument will be via cognitive interviews and focus groups. A postal survey will be conducted, with data subject to factor and Rasch analysis in order to

  14. Parental influences on adolescent physical activity: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Guadalupe X

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is increasing among adolescents in the U.S., especially among girls. Despite growing evidence that parents are an important influence on adolescent health, few longitudinal studies have explored the causal relationship between parental influence and physical activity. This study examines how the relationships between parental influences and adolescent physical activity differ by gender and tests whether these relationships are mediated by adolescents' self-esteem and depression. Methods Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample includes 13,246 youth, grades 7 to 12, interviewed in 1995 and again 1 year later. Logit models were used to evaluate parental influences on achieving five or more bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week [MVPA] and whether the relationship between parental influence and MVPA was mediated by adolescents' level of self-esteem and depression. Results Family cohesion, parent-child communication and parental engagement positively predicted MVPA for both genders one year later (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for females, 1.09 [1.05–1.12], 1.13 [1.07–1.19], 1.25 [1.17–1.33] and males, 1.08 [1.04–1.11], 1.14 [1.07–1.23], 1.23 [1.14–1.33], respectively; however, parental monitoring did not (odds ratio and confidence intervals for females and males, 1.02 [.97–1.07]. For both females and males, self-esteem mediated the relationship between parental influence and physical activity. Depressive symptoms were only a mediator among males. Females reported higher levels of parent-child communication and lower family cohesion compared with males. There were no gender differences in levels of parental monitoring and engagement. Females had significantly lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of depressive symptoms than males. Conclusion Strategies to promote physical activity among adolescents should focus on

  15. Simulation Based: Study and Analysis of Routing Protocol in Vehicular Ad-hoc Network Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali D. Khairnar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET consists of vehicles which communicate with each other and exchange data via wireless communication links available between the vehicles which are in communication ranges of vehicles to improve the road safety in city. The communication between vehicles is used to provide road safety, comfort and entertainment. The performance of communication depends on how better routing takes place in the network. Routing data between the source and destination vehicle depends on the routing protocols being used in vehicular ad-hoc network. In this simulation based study we investigated about different ad hoc routing protocols for vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET. The main goal of our study was to identify which ad hoc routing protocol has better performance in highly mobile environment of vehicular ad-hoc network. We have measured the performance of routing protocols using 802.11p in vehicular ad-hoc network in which we considered the scenario of city (i.e. Route between Nerul and Vashi where we have take 1200 different types of vehicles and checked their performance. Routing protocols are selected after the literature review. The selected protocols are then evaluated through simulation under 802.11p in terms of performance metrics (i.e PDR & E2E delay

  16. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  17. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms : An adolescent population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonvanie, Irma J.; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A. M.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship. I

  18. Adolescent Ethnolinguistic Stability and Change: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Mary Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Most sociolinguistic studies rely on apparent time, cross-sectional methods to analyze language change. On the basis of apparent time data, sociolinguists have hypothesized that cultural processes of lifespan change create predictable cycles of linguistic behavior in which adolescents lead in the use of vernacular variants and advance sound change…

  19. Self-Concept of Pregnant Adolescents: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkes, Barbara Halpren; Crocitto, John A.

    1987-01-01

    Used case study approach to assess self-concepts of pregnant adolescents regarding life history, personality traits, and development. Results revealed common themes of historic background and personality traits: no intact families, lack of trust in family members, history of drug and alcohol abuse, permissive sexual attitudes and early sexual…

  20. Heterogeneity in development of adolescent anxiety disorder symptoms in an 8-year longitudinal community study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, Stefanie A.; Hale, William W.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Frijns, Tom; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we prospectively examined developmental trajectories of five anxiety disorder symptom dimensions (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, school anxiety, separation anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder) from early to late adolescence in a community sample of 239 adolesc

  1. Prospective Assessment of Cannabis Withdrawal in Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milin, Robert; Manion, Ian; Dare, Glenda; Walker, Selena

    2008-01-01

    A study to identify and assess the withdrawal symptoms in adolescents afflicted with cannabis dependence is conducted. Results conclude that withdrawal symptoms of cannabis were present in adolescents seeking treatment for this substance abuse.

  2. Treatment Compliance of Adolescents after Attempted Suicide: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Craig D.; Cortell, Ranon; Wagner, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates compliance with mental health treatments among suicidal adolescents. Results show that child psychopathology and parental attitudes toward treatment plays an important part in increasing compliance with mental health treatment for adolescent suicide attempters.

  3. Impact of Educational Status of Parents on Nutritional Status of Adolescent Girls: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit K Singh, Gagan Garg, Sanjeev Davey, Santosh Kumar Raghav, Khursheed Muzammil, Jai Vir Singh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This study found strong association between the nutritional status of adolescent girls and education of parents. Illiteracy of their parent is the main factor of malnutrition among adolescents.

  4. Adolescents' experiences of being food-hypersensitive: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilde-Larsson Bodil

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experiencing or being at risk of adverse reactions to certain food items is a common health issue, especially among children and adolescents. Research has shown that living with the risk of food reactions and always having to take measures to avoid certain food in one's diet has a negative impact on quality of life. The aim of this study was to illuminate adolescents' experiences of being food hypersensitive. Methods Three focus group interviews and six individual interviews were carried out with all together 17 adolescents, 14–18 years of age, who had exclusion diets at school due to food hypersensitivity. The interviews were taped and transcribed verbatim and a qualitative content analysis was carried out. Results Five categories with subcategories, and one pervading theme, emerged. The categories were: Perceiving oneself as being particular, Feeling constrained, Experiencing others' ignorance, Keeping control, and Feeling it's okay. A pervading theme was conceptualised as Striving to normalise the experience of being food-hypersensitive. The adolescents regarded themselves as competent and courageous, but also described how they avoided the extra attention it implied to ask for special food considerations taken into account. Their self-conceptions were probably essential for their management of and attitude toward the hypersensitivity condition. They felt deprived, and those at risk of severe food reactions experienced insecurity and fear. Feelings of being disregarded were expressed, as well as facing unreliability and a lack of understanding from others. The continual work of constant vigilance and decision-making was described as time-consuming and frustrating. However, the adolescents also experienced considerate and supportive surroundings and were at pains to tone down the negative experiences and consequences of being food-hypersensitive. Conclusion Food avoidance by itself, and not only the somatic food reactions

  5. MENSTRUAL HYGIENE PRACTICES AMONG ADOLESCENT GIRLS: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekkalale Chikkalingaiah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Menstruation has often been dealt with secrecy in many cultures. Such perceptions coupled with poor and inadequate sanitary facilities have often kept girls from not attending schools especially during periods of menstruation. There is gross lack of information on menstrual management among adolescent girls; most of these girls seek information about menstruation from their peers who do not know better. Adolescence being a time of tremendous opportunity, and at the same time also a time of heightened vulnerabilities, it is imperative to empower adolescent girls with adequate information and skills on crucial issues like menstrual hygiene and its management. AIM: To know the knowledge and menstrual hygiene practices of adolescent girls. MATERIAL & METHODS: Across sectional study was conducted among 210 adolescent girls in a rural field practice area of Rajarajeswari Medical College & Hospital. Data on socio-economic variables and menstrual characteristics were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. RESULTS: 87.6% of the girls were aware about menstruation prior to the attainment of menarche. Mothers were the first informants in about 56.5% girls. Overall 51.5% adolescent girls were using sanitary napkins as menstrual absorbent, while 45.6% were using used cloths. Regarding practices, for cleaning of used cloths 88.9% girls used both soap and water. Regarding restrictions practiced, 97.6% girls practiced different restrictions during menstruation. CONCLUSION: There is a need to educate the girls about menstruation, its importance and hygiene maintenance; so as to enable them to lead a healthy reproductive life in future.

  6. Prospective community study of family stress and anxiety in (pre)adolescents: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.V. van Oort; F.C. Verhulst; J. Ormel; A.C. Huizink

    2010-01-01

    For prevention of anxiety in children and adolescents, it is important to know whether family stress is a predictor of anxiety. We studied this in 1,875 adolescents from the Tracking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) who were followed up for 2 years, from age 10-12 to 12-14 years. Adoles

  7. Clinical features of adolescents with deliberate self-harm: A case control study in Lisbon, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo F Guerreiro; Neves, Ema L; Navarro, Rita; Mendes, Raquel; Prioste, Ana; Ribeiro, Diana; Lila, Tiago; Neves, António; Salgado, Mónica; Santos, Nazaré; Sampaio, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm (DSH) among adolescents is a high-risk condition for suicide. The aim of the present study is to describe the characteristic clinical features of adolescents with DSH according to our local context (Lisbon, Portugal), using easily available information from clinical settings. A case control study was constructed from a sample of 100 adolescents (aged 12 to 21 years). The sample was divided into two groups: adolescents with and without DSH. Case files were examined and dat...

  8. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial to assess the feasibility of an open label intervention to improve hydroxyurea adherence in youth with sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldone, Arlene; Findley, Sally; Bakken, Suzanne; Matiz, L. Adriana; Rosenthal, Susan L.; Jia, Haomiao; Matos, Sergio; Manwani, Deepa; Green, Nancy S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Community health workers (CHW) are increasingly recognized as a strategy to improve health outcomes for the underserved with chronic diseases but has not been formally explored in adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). SCD primarily affects African American, Hispanic and other traditionally underserved populations. Hydroxyurea (HU), an oral, once-daily medication, is the only approved therapeutic drug for sickle cell disease and markedly reduces symptoms, morbidity and mortality and improves quality of life largely by increasing hemoglobin F blood levels. This paper presents the rationale, study design and protocol for an open label randomized controlled trial to improve parent-youth partnerships in self-management and medication adherence to HU in adolescents with SCD. Methods/Design A CHW intervention augmented by text messaging was designed for adolescents with SCD ages 10–18 years and their parents to improve daily HU adherence. Thirty adolescent parent dyads will be randomized with 2:1 intervention group allocation. Intervention dyads will establish a relationship with a culturally aligned CHW to identify barriers to HU use, identify cues to build a habit, and develop a dyad partnership to improve daily HU adherence and achieve their individualized “personal best” hemoglobin F target. Intervention feasibility, acceptability and efficacy will be assessed via a 2-site trial. Outcomes of interest are HU adherence, dyad self-management communication, quality of life, and resource use. Discussion Despite known benefits, poor HU adherence is common. If feasible and acceptable, the proposed intervention may improve health of underserved adolescents with SCD by enhancing long-term HU adherence. PMID:27327779

  9. A Longitudinal Adoption Study of Substance Use Behavior in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huibregtse, Brooke M; Corley, Robin P; Wadsworth, Sally J; Vandever, Joanna M; DeFries, John C; Stallings, Michael C

    2016-08-01

    Although cross-sectional twin studies have assessed the genetic and environmental etiologies of substance use during adolescence and early adulthood, comparisons of results across different samples, measures, and cohorts are problematic. While several longitudinal twin studies have investigated these issues, few corroborating adoption studies have been conducted. The current study is the first to estimate the magnitude of genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana) from ages 14 to 18 years, using a prospective longitudinal adoption design. Adoptive and control sibling correlations provided substantial evidence for early genetic effects on cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use/no use. Shared environmental effects were relatively modest, except for alcohol use, which showed increases in late adolescence (age 17 to 18 years). Sibling similarity for quantity/frequency of use also support additive genetic influences across adolescence, with some shared environmental influences for all three substances. To test the stability of these influences across time, a series of independent pathway models were run to explore common and age-specific influences. For all substances, there were minimal age-specific additive genetic and shared environmental influences on quantity/frequency of use. Further, there was a trend toward increasing genetic influences on cigarette and alcohol use across ages. Genetic influences on marijuana were important early, but did not contribute substantially at age 17 and 18 years. Overall, the findings indicate that genetic influences make important contributions to the frequency/quantity of substance use in adolescence, and suggest that new genetic influences may emerge in late adolescence for cigarette and alcohol use. PMID:27161024

  10. A Longitudinal Adoption Study of Substance Use Behavior in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huibregtse, Brooke M; Corley, Robin P; Wadsworth, Sally J; Vandever, Joanna M; DeFries, John C; Stallings, Michael C

    2016-08-01

    Although cross-sectional twin studies have assessed the genetic and environmental etiologies of substance use during adolescence and early adulthood, comparisons of results across different samples, measures, and cohorts are problematic. While several longitudinal twin studies have investigated these issues, few corroborating adoption studies have been conducted. The current study is the first to estimate the magnitude of genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana) from ages 14 to 18 years, using a prospective longitudinal adoption design. Adoptive and control sibling correlations provided substantial evidence for early genetic effects on cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use/no use. Shared environmental effects were relatively modest, except for alcohol use, which showed increases in late adolescence (age 17 to 18 years). Sibling similarity for quantity/frequency of use also support additive genetic influences across adolescence, with some shared environmental influences for all three substances. To test the stability of these influences across time, a series of independent pathway models were run to explore common and age-specific influences. For all substances, there were minimal age-specific additive genetic and shared environmental influences on quantity/frequency of use. Further, there was a trend toward increasing genetic influences on cigarette and alcohol use across ages. Genetic influences on marijuana were important early, but did not contribute substantially at age 17 and 18 years. Overall, the findings indicate that genetic influences make important contributions to the frequency/quantity of substance use in adolescence, and suggest that new genetic influences may emerge in late adolescence for cigarette and alcohol use.

  11. Assessment of Adverse Events in Protocols, Clinical Study Reports, and Published Papers of Trials of Orlistat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Jeppe Bennekou; Penninga, Elisabeth I; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    the results of studies conducted as part of the application for marketing authorisation for the slimming pill orlistat. The purpose of this study was to study how adverse events were summarised and reported in study protocols, CSRs, and published papers of orlistat trials. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We received...... the CSRs from seven randomised placebo controlled orlistat trials (4,225 participants) submitted by Roche. The CSRs consisted of 8,716 pages and included protocols. Two researchers independently extracted data on adverse events from protocols and CSRs. Corresponding published papers were identified on Pub...... group. Finally, only between 3% and 33% of the total number of investigator-reported adverse events from the trials were reported in the publications because of post hoc filters, though six of seven papers stated that "all adverse events were recorded." For one trial, we identified an additional 1...

  12. Self-esteem: a comparative study of adolescents from mainstream and minority religious groups in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ahmad, Riaz; Ayub, Nadia

    2013-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the level of self-esteem among religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) by making a comparison with their dominant counterparts (Muslims) in Pakistan. It was hypothesized that adolescents of religious minorities would have lower level of self-esteem than their dominant counterparts. In the present study 320 adolescents participated, in which 160 adolescents belonged to minority religious groups (i.e. 76 Christians and 84 Hindus) and 160 adolescents belonged to dominant religious group i.e. Muslims. To assess self-esteem of the participants, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg in Society and the adolescent self image, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1965) was used. One Way Analysis of Variance reveals that religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) inclined to have lower self-esteem as compared to their dominant counterpart (Muslim adolescents).

  13. A Pilot Study on the effects of Music Therapy on Frontotemporal Dementia - developing a research protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Wigram, Tony; Ottesen, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    of Life (ADRQL), the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), and the Neuro-Psychiatric Inventory (NPI), and related to case descriptions and video analyses. Results: Recommendations for a mixed method research protocol focused on measuring the effect of music therapy with persons with frontotemporal....... As an example of a non-pharmacologic treatment procedure music therapy was investigated. With the focus to develop a research protocol for a future larger population study a pilot study was carried out. In two case studies a combination of data collection methods were examined with the overall goal to document...

  14. Dietary Intake among Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country: An Outcome from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Study (the MyHeARTs Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Hazreen Abdul Majid; Liyana Ramli; Sim Pei Ying; Tin Tin Su; Muhammad Yazid Jalaludin; Nabilla Al-Sadat Abdul Mohsein

    2016-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is essential for healthy growth during adolescence. This study aims to investigate the baseline nutritional intake of Malaysian adolescents by gender, body mass index, and places of residence, both urban and rural. A cohort study was conducted consisting of 794 adolescents (aged 13-years) attending 15 public secondary schools from the Central (Kuala Lumpur and Selangor) and Northern (Perak) Regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Qualified dietitians conducted a 7-day historical ass...

  15. Older Persons’ Transitions in Care (OPTIC: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummings Greta G

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in health status, triggered by events such as infections, falls, and geriatric syndromes, are common among nursing home (NH residents and necessitate transitions between NHs and Emergency Departments (EDs. During transitions, residents frequently experience care that is delayed, unnecessary, not evidence-based, potentially unsafe, and fragmented. Furthermore, a high proportion of residents and their family caregivers report substantial unmet needs during transitions. This study is part of a program of research whose overall aim is to improve quality of care for frail older adults who reside in NHs. The purpose of this study is to identify successful transitions from multiple perspectives and to identify organizational and individual factors related to transition success, in order to inform improvements in care for frail elderly NH residents during transitions to and from acute care. Specific objectives are to: 1. define successful and unsuccessful elements of transitions from multiple perspectives; 2. develop and test a practical tool to assess transition success; 3. assess transition processes in a discrete set of transfers in two study sites over a one year period; 4. assess the influence of organizational factors in key practice locations, e.g., NHs, emergency medical services (EMS, and EDs, on transition success; and 5. identify opportunities for evidence-informed management and quality improvement decisions related to the management of NH – ED transitions. Methods/Design This is a mixed-methods observational study incorporating an integrated knowledge translation (IKT approach. It uses data from multiple levels (facility, care unit, individual and sources (healthcare providers, residents, health records, and administrative databases. Discussion Key to study success is operationalizing the IKT approach by using a partnership model in which the OPTIC governance structure provides for team decision-makers and

  16. Sarcopenia and its determinants among Iranian elderly (SARIR: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi Rezvan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elderly populations increase in world because of improved health status in communities, so health and independency of seniors has become and will be one of the main priorities of public health systems. Ageing have been associated with changes in body composition, including loss of muscle mass, loss of bone mass and increase fat mass. Involuntary age related loss of muscle mass, sarcopenia,has been linked to functional impairment and physical disability. Several definitions for sarcopenia have been presented based on the method of measuring body composition, but an internationally accepted definition doesn’t presently exist yet. In 2010, the European working group on sarcopenia developed a new definition for sarcopenia according to measure muscle mass and muscle function. Several studies have been done about sarcopenia in world, but to our knowledge this study is the first in Iran which is one of the largest countries of the Middle East that faces a fast growing elderly population. The aim of this study is to evaluate sarcopenia and related risk factors in Iran according new definition of sarcopenia. Methods This study will be conducted in two phase among elderly men and women over 55 years in the 6th district of TehranThe first phase will be a population-based cross-sectional study to determine the frequency of sarcopenia in the study population, and to conduct case finding for the second phase. The second phase will be a case–control study to comparison the metabolic and inflammatory factors in sarcopenic and non sarcopenic groups. The association between sarcopenia and major dietary pattern will be evaluated using factor analysis. Conclusion This study is the first study that evaluates sarcopenia and its risk factor in Iranian elderlies. We discuss details of how we collect the data and appropriate instruments to measure muscle mass, muscle power and muscle strength, and suitable cut- off to define sarcopenia in

  17. Adolescent (Mis)Perceptions about Nicotine Addiction: Results from a Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditis, Maria; Lee, Joann; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite evidence that adolescents become addicted to nicotine even after limited use, adolescents believe they can experiment with or smoke cigarettes for a few years and easily quit. The goal of this study was to examine adolescents' understanding of the definition and process of nicotine addiction using a mixed-methods approach. Method:…

  18. Personality and Parenting Processes Associated with Problem Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents in Santiago, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Cristina B.; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Andrade, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Considerable research in the United States has established that adolescent antisocial, aggressive, and attention problem behaviors negatively influence adolescents' ability to become productive members of society. However, little is known about the development of these problems among adolescents in other countries. This study contributes to our…

  19. Virtualization of network environment and study of dynamic routing protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Tremolosa Rovira, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] The main purpose of this thesis has been to build a Virtual Network Laboratory Environment. This concept has been performed with a virtual environment generator called VNUML developed by “Universidad Politecnica de Madrid”. All the component of this labs like VNUML, Quagga and the tools to test it like Wireshark has been studied before. In fact, we've learnt how to install Ubuntu in an USB pen-drive and all the study environment has been developed using this USB. During the thesis, w...

  20. The Reinforcing Therapist Performance (RTP experiment: Study protocol for a cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godley Mark D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rewarding provider performance has been recommended by the Institute of Medicine as an approach to improve the quality of treatment, yet little empirical research currently exists that has examined the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of such approaches. The aim of this study is to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of providing monetary incentives directly to therapists as a method to improve substance abuse treatment service delivery and subsequent client treatment outcomes. Design Using a cluster randomized design, substance abuse treatment therapists from across 29 sites were assigned by site to either an implementation as usual (IAU or pay-for-performance (P4P condition. Participants Substance abuse treatment therapists participating in a large dissemination and implementation initiative funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Intervention Therapists in both conditions received comprehensive training and ongoing monitoring, coaching, and feedback. However, those in the P4P condition also were given the opportunity to earn monetary incentives for achieving two sets of measurable behaviors related to quality implementation of the treatment. Outcomes Effectiveness outcomes will focus on the impact of the monetary incentives to increase the proportion of adolescents who receive a targeted threshold level of treatment, months that therapists demonstrate monthly competency, and adolescents who are in recovery following treatment. Similarly, cost-effectiveness outcomes will focus on cost per adolescent receiving targeted threshold level of treatment, cost per month of demonstrated competence, and cost per adolescent in recovery. Trial Registration Trial Registration Number: NCT01016704

  1. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Children and Adolescents With Dystrophinopathies : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Bart; Takken, Tim; Blank, A. Christian; van Moorsel, Huib; van der Pol, W. Ludo; de Groot, Janke F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine exercise response during cardiopulmonary exercise testing in children and adolescents with dystrophinopathies. Methods: Exercise response on the cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) was compared with a standard care test protocol. Results: Nine boys (aged 10.8 +/- 4.7 years) wi

  2. Protocol for studying cough frequency in people with pulmonary tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravard, Marjory A; Tracey, Brian H; López, José W; Comina, German; Zimic, Mirko; Coronel, Jorge; O'Neill Lee, Gwenyth; Caviedes, Luz; Luis Cabrera, Jose; Salas, Antonio; Ticona, Eduardo; Kirwan, Daniela E; Friedland, Jon S; Evans, Carlton A; Moore, David A; Gilman, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cough is a key symptom of tuberculosis (TB) as well as the main cause of transmission. However, a recent literature review found that cough frequency (number of coughs per hour) in patients with TB has only been studied once, in 1969. The main aim of this study is to describe cough frequency patterns before and after the start of TB treatment and to determine baseline factors that affect cough frequency in these patients. Secondarily, we will evaluate the correlation between cough frequency and TB microbiological resolution. Methods This study will select participants with culture confirmed TB from 2 tertiary hospitals in Lima, Peru. We estimated that a sample size of 107 patients was sufficient to detect clinically significant changes in cough frequency. Participants will initially be evaluated through questionnaires, radiology, microscopic observation drug susceptibility broth TB-culture, auramine smear microscopy and cough recordings. This cohort will be followed for the initial 60 days of anti-TB treatment, and throughout the study several microbiological samples as well as 24 h recordings will be collected. We will describe the variability of cough episodes and determine its association with baseline laboratory parameters of pulmonary TB. In addition, we will analyse the reduction of cough frequency in predicting TB cure, adjusted for potential confounders. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the ethics committees at each participating hospital in Lima, Peru, Asociación Benéfica PRISMA in Lima, Peru, the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru and Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, USA. We aim to publish and disseminate our findings in peer-reviewed journals. We also expect to create and maintain an online repository for TB cough sounds as well as the statistical analysis employed. PMID:27105713

  3. A longitudinal study of Hong Kong adolescents' and parents' perceptions of family functioning and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T

    1998-12-01

    In this longitudinal study, the relationships between Hong Kong Chinese adolescents' and parents' discrepancies in their perceptions of family functioning and adolescents' psychological well-being were investigated via adolescents' and parents' reports of family functioning (N = 378 families). Results showed that discrepancies in perceptions of family functioning between adolescents and parents were related to adolescents' feelings of hopelessness, life satisfaction, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 1 and Time 2. Longitudinal and prospective analyses (Time 1 predictors predicting Time 2 criterion variables) suggested that the relationship between discrepancies in perceptions of family functioning and adolescents' psychological well-being are bidirectional. Adolescent-father and adolescent-mother discrepancies had similar effects on adolescents' psychological well-being. The negative impact of discrepancies among family members in perceptions of family functioning on adolescents' psychological well-being was greater for adolescent girls than for adolescent boys. PMID:9845971

  4. Ostracism among Gifted Adolescents: A Preliminary Study in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Uzeyir Ogurlu

    2015-01-01

    Ostracism has an influence on psychological and social functioning. The aim of this study is to examine ostracism among gifted students, with regard to gender and grade levels. Also, the relationship between ostracism and intelligence level was investigated. The study was conducted in a gifted education center, with 94 gifted students who were attending middle school (grades 5-8). The Ostracism Experience Scale for Adolescents and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Revised Form were e...

  5. Adolescent girls' views on cosmetic surgery: a focus group study

    OpenAIRE

    Ashikali, E.-M.; Dittmar, H.; Ayers, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent girls’ views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15 to 18 (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1) Dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) Acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) Feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery, and (4) Cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosm...

  6. Body Weight Concerns among Urban Adolescent Girls: A Microlevel Study

    OpenAIRE

    Susmita Mukhopadhyay; Nandini Ganguly; Shailendra Kumar Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Growing consciousness about ideal body image leads to dietary modifications and consequent eating disorders among girls in developing countries like India. The present study aims to (i) assess the prevalence of body weight consciousness and related behaviours among a group of adolescent girls; (ii) assess the sociodemographic correlates of weight related behaviours; and (iii) compare weight related behaviours of the girls of two religious groups residing in Howrah. The study is the outcome of...

  7. Current trends in study of xenophobia in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Malantseva O.D.

    2012-01-01

    Xenophobia is one of the most topical problems of the modern world which attains special significance in view of its extension among adolescents. The article regards the results of the latest studies of xenophobia in works of foreign scholars, as well as mechanisms of its emergence and the ways of preventing it. In the course of analysis of the latest findings of foreign investigators three main directions in study of xenophobia were singled out: investigations at the level of individual psyc...

  8. Protocols to study the physiology of oral biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, José A; Abranches, Jacqueline; Koo, Hyun; Marquis, Robert E; Burne, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    The oral cavity harbors several hundred different bacterial species that colonize both hard (teeth) and soft tissues, forming complex populations known as microbial biofilms. It is widely accepted that the phenotypic characteristics of bacteria grown in biofilms are substantially different from those grown in suspensions. Because biofilms are the natural habitat for the great majority of oral bacteria, including those contributing to oral diseases, a better understanding of the physiology of adherent populations is clearly needed to control oral microbes in health and disease. In this chapter, we use oral streptococci as examples for studying the physiology of oral biofilms.

  9. Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality) : A longitudinal, multi-domain study on sexual development of Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitz, Ellen; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan; Dalenberg, Wieke; Dubas, Judith; van Aken, Marcel; Overbeek, Geertjan; ter Bogt, Tom; van den Eijnden, Regina; Vanwesenbeeck, Wilhelmina; Kunnen, Saskia; Timmerman, Greetje; van Geert, Paul; Deković, Maja

    2015-01-01

    This study gives an overview of Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality), a four-wave longitudinal study of 1297 Dutch adolescents. First, the sample, measures and four sub-projects are described. Second, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to exa

  10. Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality): A longitudinal, multi-domain study on sexual development of Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Reitz; D. van de Bongardt; L. Baams; S. Doornwaard; W. Dalenberg; J. Dubas; M. van Aken; G. Overbeek; T. ter Bogt; R. van der Eijnden; I. Vanwesenbeeck; S. Kunnen; G. Timmerman; P. van Geert; M. Deković

    2015-01-01

    This study gives an overview of Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality), a four-wave longitudinal study of 1297 Dutch adolescents. First, the sample, measures and four sub-projects are described. Second, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to exa

  11. An Empirical Study on variants of TCP over AODV routing protocol in MANET

    CERN Document Server

    Morshed, Md Monzur; Islam, Md Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    The cardinal concept of TCP development was to carry data within the network where network congestion plays a vital role to cause packet loss. On the other hand, there are several other reasons to lose packets in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks due to fading, interfaces, multi-path routing, malicious node, and black hole. Along with throughput, fairness of TCP protocols is important to establish a good communication. In this paper, an empirical study has been done by simulation and analysis of TCP variations under AODV routing protocol. In our simulation, we studied multiple variations of TCP, such as Reno, New-Reno, Vegas, and Tahoe. The simulation work has been done in NS2 environment. Based on the analysis simulation result of we carried out our observations with respect to the behavior of AODV routing protocol for different TCP packets under several QoS metrics such as drop, throughput, delay, and jitter.

  12. Acceptance-Enhanced Behavior Therapy for Trichotillomania in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Kathi M.; Walther, Michael R.; Joseph, Jessica M.; Robinson, Jordan; Ricketts, Emily J.; Bowe, William E.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the efficacy of Acceptance Enhanced Behavior Therapy (AEBT) for the treatment of trichotillomania (TTM) in adults, data are limited with respect to the treatment of adolescents. Our case series illustrates the use of AEBT for TTM in the treatment of two adolescents. The AEBT protocol (Woods & Twohig, 2008) is…

  13. Aerobic Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO[subscript 2peak] (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level II and 336 typically developing…

  14. Aerobic capacity in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO(2peak) (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level

  15. Adolescent risk factors for purging in young women: findings from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen, Eric M; Rose, Jennifer; Kenney, Lindsay; Rosselli-Navarra, Francine; Weissman, Ruth Striegel

    2014-01-01

    Background There exists a dearth of prospective adolescent eating disorder studies with samples that are large enough to detect small or medium sized effects for risk factors, that are generalizable to the broader population, and that follow adolescents long enough to fully capture the period of development when the risk of eating disorder symptoms occurring is highest. As a result, the purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial risk factors for purging for weight control in a national...

  16. Manualized social skills group training for children and adolescents with higher functioning autism spectrum disorder: protocol of a naturalistic multicenter, randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Choque Olsson, Nora; Tammimies, Kristiina; Bölte, Sven

    2015-01-01

    AbstractAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social communication and interaction, and the presence of stereotyped, repetitive and restricted behavior, interests, and activities. Despite prior studies showing moderate efficacy of social skills group training (SSGT) for children and adolescents with ASD, its effectiveness remains unclear. To investigate the efficacy and effectiveness of SSGT, we have initiated a large randomiz...

  17. HIV status disclosure to perinatally-infected adolescents in Zimbabwe: a qualitative study of adolescent and healthcare worker perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khameer K Kidia

    Full Text Available Due to the scale up of antiretroviral therapy, increasing numbers of HIV-infected children are living into adolescence. As these children grow and surpass the immediate threat of death, the issue of informing them of their HIV status arises. This study aimed to understand how perinatally-infected adolescents learn about their HIV-status as well as to examine their preferences for the disclosure process.In-depth interviews were conducted with 31 (14 male, 17 female perinatally-infected adolescents aged 16-20 at an HIV clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe, and focused on adolescents' experiences of disclosure. In addition, 15 (1 male, 14 female healthcare workers participated in two focus groups that were centred on healthcare workers' practices surrounding disclosure in the clinic. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants. A coding frame was developed and major themes were extracted using grounded theory methods.Healthcare workers encouraged caregivers to initiate disclosure in the home environment. However, many adolescents preferred disclosure to take place in the presence of healthcare workers at the clinic because it gave them access to accurate information as well as an environment that made test results seem more credible. Adolescents learned more specific information about living with an HIV-positive status and the meaning of that status from shared experiences among peers at the clinic.HIV-status disclosure to adolescents is distinct from disclosure to younger children and requires tailored, age-appropriate guidelines. Disclosure to this age group in a healthcare setting may help overcome some of the barriers associated with caregivers disclosing in the home environment and make the HIV status seem more credible to an adolescent. The study also highlights the value of peer support among adolescents, which could help reduce the burden of psychosocial care on caregivers and healthcare workers.

  18. Study protocol for the Fukushima health management survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accidents that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 have resulted in long-term, ongoing anxiety among the residents of Fukushima, Japan. Soon after the disaster, Fukushima Prefecture launched the Fukushima Health Management Survey to investigate long-term low-dose radiation exposure caused by the accident. Fukushima Medical University took the lead in planning and implementing this survey. The primary purposes of this survey are to monitor the long-term health of residents, promote their future well-being, and confirm whether long-term low-dose radiation exposure has health effects. This report describes the rationale and implementation of the Fukushima Health Management Survey. This cohort study enrolled all people living in Fukushima Prefecture after the earthquake and comprises a basic survey and 4 detailed surveys. The basic survey is to estimate levels of external radiation exposure among all 2.05 million residents. It should be noted that internal radiation levels were estimated by Fukushima Prefecture using whole-body counters. The detailed surveys comprise a thyroid ultrasound examination for all Fukushima children aged 18 years or younger, a comprehensive health check for all residents from the evacuation zones, an assessment of mental health and lifestyles of all residents from the evacuation zones, and recording of all pregnancies and births among all women in the prefecture who were pregnant on 11 March. All data have been entered into a database and will be used to support the residents and analyze the health effects of radiation. The low response rate (<30%) to the basic survey complicates the estimation of health effects. There have been no cases of malignancy to date among 38 114 children who received thyroid ultrasound examinations. The importance of mental health care was revealed by the mental health and lifestyle survey and the pregnancy and birth survey. This long

  19. FIRE (facilitating implementation of research evidence: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seers Kate

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research evidence underpins best practice, but is not always used in healthcare. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS framework suggests that the nature of evidence, the context in which it is used, and whether those trying to use evidence are helped (or facilitated affect the use of evidence. Urinary incontinence has a major effect on quality of life of older people, has a high prevalence, and is a key priority within European health and social care policy. Improving continence care has the potential to improve the quality of life for older people and reduce the costs associated with providing incontinence aids. Objectives This study aims to advance understanding about the contribution facilitation can make to implementing research findings into practice via: extending current knowledge of facilitation as a process for translating research evidence into practice; evaluating the feasibility, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of two different models of facilitation in promoting the uptake of research evidence on continence management; assessing the impact of contextual factors on the processes and outcomes of implementation; and implementing a pro-active knowledge transfer and dissemination strategy to diffuse study findings to a wide policy and practice community. Setting and sample Four European countries, each with six long-term nursing care sites (total 24 sites for people aged 60 years and over with documented urinary incontinence Methods and design Pragmatic randomised controlled trial with three arms (standard dissemination and two different programmes of facilitation, with embedded process and economic evaluation. The primary outcome is compliance with the continence recommendations. Secondary outcomes include proportion of residents with incontinence, incidence of incontinence-related dermatitis, urinary tract infections, and quality of life. Outcomes are assessed at baseline

  20. The Bipolar Interactive Psychoeducation (BIPED study: trial design and protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Ian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bipolar disorders affect between 3–5% of the population and are associated with considerable lifelong impairment. Since much of the morbidity associated with bipolar disorder is caused by recurrent depressive symptoms, which are often only poorly responsive to antidepressants, there is a need to develop alternative, non-pharmacological interventions. Psychoeducational interventions have emerged as promising long-term therapeutic options for bipolar disorder. Methods/design The study is an exploratory, individually randomised controlled trial. The intervention known as 'Beating Bipolar' is a psychoeducational programme which is delivered via a novel web-based system. We will recruit 100 patients with a diagnosis of DSM-IV bipolar disorder (including type I and type II currently in clinical remission. The primary outcome is quality of life. This will be compared for those patients who have participated in the psychoeducational programme with those who received treatment as usual. Quality of life will be assessed immediately following the intervention as well as 10 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes include current depressive and manic symptoms, number of episodes of depression and mania/hypomania experienced during the follow-up period, global functioning, functional impairment and insight. An assessment of costs and a process evaluation will also be conducted which will explore the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention as well as potential barriers to effectiveness. Discussion Bipolar disorder is common, under-recognised and often poorly managed. It is a chronic, life-long, relapsing condition which has an enormous impact on the individual and the economy. This trial will be the first to explore the effectiveness of a novel web-based psychoeducational intervention for patients with bipolar disorder which has potential to be easily rolled out to patients. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials

  1. Understanding Factors That Influence Adolescent Mothers' Doula Use: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Sheryl L; Nichols, Tracy R

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined factors that influenced doula use among adolescent mothers in a community-based childbirth education and doula program. We used a qualitative case study approach to gather perspectives from adolescent mothers and doulas through semistructured interviews, field observations, and a focus group. These women collectively revealed multiple themes related to doula use among adolescent mothers, including relationship development and barriers to doula use at the individual and structural levels. Effective training and support for doulas that serve adolescent clients can improve these mothers' birth experiences, and program planners in the United States and other countries can use process evaluations to improve doula programs for adolescent mothers.

  2. Comparative study of preventive protocols in children at high cariogenic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María C; Tolcachir, Betina; Lescano de Ferrer, Alfonsina; Bojanich, María A; Barembaum, Silvina R; Calamari, Silvia E; Azcurra, Ana I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of two preventive protocols -fluoride gel (F) alone or combined with chlorhexidine varnishes (CHX) - on sialochemical, clinical and microbiological parameters in a group of children at high cariogenic risk Two therapeutic-preventive protocols were applied in 73 children at high cariogenic risk (average age 6.2 +/- 1.4 years old) and clinical parameters (simplified oral hygiene index: OHI-S; decayed, missing and filled teeth: dmf index; sugar intake and exposure to fluoride), as well as sialochemical parameters (salivary pH and flow, buffer capacity) and microbiological parameters (CFU/mg of dental biofilm of Streptococcus mutans group) were recorded and correlated before and after the protocols. Association was found between parameters that cause deficient control of dental biofilm: high values of OHIS index, CFU/mg dental biofilm, sugar intake and the d component of dmft index, and lower values of salivary flow rate and buffer capacity. After the protocols, a significant decrease was found in OHI-S and CFU/mg dental biofilm. No significant difference was found with children's gender and age. The association observed between OHI-S and cariogenic bacteria emphasizes the importance of prevention, especially regarding the oral health of the most vulnerable children. The early inclusion of F associated with CHX in the initial step of preventive and therapeutic protocols would provide benefits regarding oral microbe control while children acquire new habits of oral hygiene.

  3. Advantages of a Warfarin Protocol for Long-term Care Pharmacists: a Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Randall; Brocklebank, Cynthia; Tam-Tham, Helen; Williamson, Tyler; Quail, Patrick; Turner, Diana; Drummond, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Background Warfarin is an anticoagulant prescribed to 12% of long-term care residents to reduce the risk of thrombo-embolism. This study used indicators to compare warfarin management by pharmacists to usual care. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study comparing a pharmacist-managed warfarin protocol with usual care of qualified warfarin recipients at long-term care facilities (two protocol, one control) in Calgary, Alberta. We compared the proportion of international normalized ratio (INR) tests in the range 2.0 to 3.0, time in range, number of tests, and frequency of bleeding at protocol and control sites. Our primary outcome, time in INR therapeutic range, is an indicator for assuring care quality. A cross-sectional survey at these sites compared health professionals’ perceptions of workload and effectiveness of warfarin management. Results Of the 197 residents’ charts reviewed in the study period, those on protocol had 45.0 INR tests while those on usual care had 52.7 tests (p = .034, 95% CI for the difference: 0.6 to 14.6 INR tests). No significant difference was found for time in therapeutic range, number of tests in range, or major bleeding events. Of 178 health professionals surveyed, those from protocol facilities were more satisfied with warfarin management (p = .013). Workload and safety were perceived similarly at all sites. Interpretation Our results suggest that a pharmacist-managed warfarin protocol is as effective as usual care and has advantages pertaining to work satisfaction, knowledge of drug interactions, consistent documentation, and fewer INR tests. Further research on teamwork and coagulation management in long-term care facilities is recommended. PMID:27403212

  4. Internet addiction among Iranian adolescents: a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Problematic use of the Internet by children and adolescents is a newly emerging disorder that has alerted health authorities throughout the world. In Iran, despite the very high speed rate of Internet spread, there is not enough data on the rate of Internet addiction among the adolescents. This study is the first nationwide study that addresses this issue. Overall 4500 students of high school or pre-college schools were recruited from 13/31 provinces of Iran by a cluster sampling method and 4342 (96%) participated. Two self-rated questionnaires (one demographics and one Young's Internet addiction scale) were filled b the participants. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. 962 (22.2%) of the study participants were labeled as having "internet addiction." Males were significantly more likely to be an internet addict (PInternet addiction (Pinternet addiction, and the least rate of addiction was observed when the mother was a housewife (PInternet addiction (PInternet addiction. This study showed that Internet addiction in Iranian adolescents is prevalent, and has several independent factors, from which, family relations is most likely to be modifiable. Improvements in family relations and more strict parental supervision, especially when mothers have active job employment, are recommended.

  5. STUDY & ANALYSIS OF SECURED E-COMMERCE TRANSACTIONS INFORMATION PROTOCOLS-PURCHASING ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepu Soni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Commerce is the very rapid growing field in today’s scenario. It is used for Purchasing Order i.e. for buying and selling electronic goods and all other type of things. And there is need for development of a number of e-commerce protocols, which ensure integrity, confidentiality, atomicity and fair exchange.The protocol uses a smart card for ensuring mutual authentication, dispute resolution and fair exchange and reduces reliance on a trusted third party. Also study and analysis of the security in e-transactions may avoid some of the frauds on internet transactionsfor purchasing and buying orders.

  6. Declarative Specification of Fault Tolerant Auction Protocols: The English Auction Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragoni, Nicola; Gaspari, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    and shared allowing agents to dynamically engage well‐known and trusted negotiation protocols. To cope with real‐world applications, these rules should also specify fault tolerant patterns of interaction, enabling negotiating agents to interact with each other tolerating failures, for instance terminating...... an auction process even if some bidding agents dynamically crash. In this paper, we propose an approach to specify fault tolerant auction protocols in open and dynamic environments by means of communication rules dealing with crash failures of agents. We illustrate these concepts considering a case study...

  7. STUDY ON NEIGHBORHOOD DISCOVERY PROTOCOL IN COMMUNICATION NETWORKSGRANULAR SLUDGE BY BATCH TESTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时成阁; 胡家骏

    2001-01-01

    One algorithm and one method for PNNI(Private Network to Network Interface) routing were presented. The algorithm is OIL (Older Is Leader) algorithms for Peer Group selection, and the method is the DOO (Distributed object-oriented) method for HDOS (Hierarchy Distributed-Object System), PNNI systems and IP(Internet Protocol) networks. Based on the specifications from ATM forum, and the creative ideas from Distributed System realization, this paper studies and analyzes the private ATM network environment. The OIL algorithm and the DOO method are both for PNNI routing protocol. Through the PNNI simulation, the availability and robustness are proved for the above two improvements.

  8. Web-based screening and brief intervention for poly-drug use among teenagers: study protocol of a multicentre two-arm randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Nicolas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mid to late adolescence is characterised by a vulnerability to problematic substance use since the consumption of alcohol and illicit drugs is frequently initiated and increased in this life period. While the detrimental long- and short-term effects of problematic consumption patterns in adolescence pose a major public health concern, current prevention programs targeting alcohol- and other substance-using adolescents are scarce. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief intervention aimed at reducing problematic alcohol use and promoting abstinence from illegal drugs in adolescents with risky substance use aged 16 to 18 years old in four EU-countries. Methods/design To determine the effectiveness of our web-BI, we apply a two-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT study design, with baseline assessment at study entry and a three month follow-up assessment. Adolescents aged 16 to 18 years from Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany, and Sweden will be randomly assigned to either the fully electronically delivered brief intervention group (N = 400 or an assessment only control group (N = 400 depending on their screening for risky substance use (using the CRAFFT. Recruitment, informed consent, randomization, intervention and follow-up will be implemented online. Primary outcomes are reductions in frequency and quantity of use of alcohol and drugs other than alcohol over a 30 day period, as well as consumption per typical occasion. Secondary outcomes concern changes in substance use related cognitions including the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, implementation intentions, and stages of change. Moreover the study addresses a number of moderator variables, including age of first use, general psychopathology and quality of parent–child relationship. Discussion The trial is expected to contribute to the growing literature on theory- and web-based brief interventions

  9. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Lindfors Pirjo L; Kaltiala-Heino Riittakerttu; Rimpelä Arja H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, an...

  10. Like Circles on the Water: A Study of Adolescent Identity. Linkoping Studies in Education and Psychology, No. 62.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Lena

    This thesis explores the subject of identity development during late adolescence by analyzing research from three studies: "Self-concept and questions of life: Identity development during late adolescence" (Adamson and Lyxell, 1996); "Adolescent identity--a qualitative approach: Self-concept, existential questions and adult contacts" (Adamson and…

  11. Digital protocol for reference-based guided surgery and immediate loading: a prospective clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Tahmaseb; R. de Clerck; I. Aartman; D. Wismeijer

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of a computer-aided three-dimensional planning protocol in combination with previously inserted reference mini-implants and CAD/CAM technology to restore completely edentulous patients. The study evaluated implant and superstructure survival in a prospective clin

  12. The Dutch 'Focus on Strength' intervention study protocol : programme design and production, implementation and evaluation plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Hoor, G A; Kok, G; Rutten, G M; Ruiter, R A C; Kremers, S P J; Schols, A M J W; Plasqui, G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overweight youngsters are better in absolute strength exercises than their normal-weight counterparts; a physiological phenomenon with promising psychological impact. In this paper we describe the study protocol of the Dutch, school-based program 'Focus on Strength' that aims to improve

  13. Family-Centered Care in Juvenile Justice Institutions: A Mixed Methods Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Eva; Rigter, Henk; Breuk, René; van der Vaart, Wander; Vermeiren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment and rehabilitation interventions in juvenile justice institutions aim to prevent criminal reoffending by adolescents and to enhance their prospects of successful social reintegration. There is evidence that these goals are best achieved when the institution adopts a family-centered approach, involving the parents of the adolescents. The Academic Workplace Forensic Care for Youth has developed two programs for family-centered care for youth detained in groups for short-term and long-term stay, respectively. Objective The overall aim of our study is to evaluate the family-centered care program in the first two years after the first steps of its implementation in short-term stay groups of two juvenile justice institutions in the Netherlands. The current paper discusses our study design. Methods Based on a quantitative pilot study, we opted for a study with an explanatory sequential mixed methods design. This pilot is considered the first stage of our study. The second stage of our study includes concurrent quantitative and qualitative approaches. The quantitative part of our study is a pre-post quasi-experimental comparison of family-centered care with usual care in short-term stay groups. The qualitative part of our study involves in-depth interviews with adolescents, parents, and group workers to elaborate on the preceding quantitative pilot study and to help interpret the outcomes of the quasi-experimental quantitative part of the study. Results We believe that our study will result in the following findings. In the quantitative comparison of usual care with family-centered care, we assume that in the latter group, parents will be more involved with their child and with the institution, and that parents and adolescents will be more motivated to take part in therapy. In addition, we expect family-centered care to improve family interactions, to decrease parenting stress, and to reduce problem behavior among the adolescents. Finally, we assume

  14. Adolescent boys with asthma – a pilot study on embodied gendered habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westergren T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Westergren,1 Ulla-Britt Lilleaas21Faculty of Health and Sport Science, Department of Health and Nursing Science, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway; 2Faculty of Humanities and Education, Centre for Gender and Equality, University of Agder, Kristiansand, NorwayPurpose: Asthma is a common chronic disease with gender differences in terms of severity and quality of life. This study aimed to understand the gendered practices of male asthmatic adolescents in terms of living with and managing their chronic disease. The study applied a sociological perspective to identify the gender-related practices of participants and their possible consequences for health and disease.Patients and methods: The study used a combined ethnomethodology and grounded theory design, which was interpreted using Bourdieu's theory of practice. We aimed to discover how participants interpreted their social worlds to create a sense of meaning in their everyday lives. The study was based on multistage focus group interviews with five adolescent participants at a specialist center for asthmatic children and youths. We took necessary precautions to protect the participants, according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. The study protocol was approved by the Regional Committee for Medical Research Ethics and the hospital's research department.Results: The core concept for asthmatic male adolescents was being men. They were focused on being nonasthmatic, and exhibited ambivalence towards the principles of the health services. Physical activity supported their aim of being men and being nonasthmatic, as well as supported their treatment goals. Being fearless, unconcerned, “cool,” and dependent also supported the aim of being men and being nonasthmatic, but not the health service principle of regular medication. Occasionally, the participants were asthmatic when they were not able to or gained no advantages from being nonasthmatic. Their practice of being men

  15. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of a school based cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT intervention to prevent depression in high risk adolescents (PROMISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal Kapil

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression in adolescents is a significant problem that impairs everyday functioning and increases the risk of severe mental health disorders in adulthood. Relatively few adolescents with depression are identified and referred for treatment indicating the need to investigate alternative preventive approaches. Study Design A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a school based prevention programme on symptoms of depression in "high risk" adolescents (aged 12-16. The unit of allocation is year groups (n = 28 which are assigned to one of three conditions: an active intervention based upon cognitive behaviour therapy, attention control or treatment as usual. Assessments will be undertaken at screening, baseline, 6 months and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is change on the Short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures will assess changes in negative thoughts, self esteem, anxiety, school connectedness, peer attachment, alcohol and substance misuse, bullying and self harm. Discussion As of August 2010, all 28 year groups (n = 5023 had been recruited and the assigned interventions delivered. Final 12 month assessments are scheduled to be completed by March 2011. Trial Registration ISRCTN19083628

  16. Adolescent boys and girls with behavioral disorders in residential homes: A camera-glasses study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wettstein

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Children and adolescents with behavioral disorders are often referred to residential homes. These homes cater and treat socially disadvantaged adolescents with a history of deviant behavior. This study investigated the environment of eight adolescents in these residential homes and four non-aggressive adolescents living with their families. The daily activities were recorded by using camera-glasses attached to the subject. These activities took place in school, leisure time, family and residential homes. Other additional methods were used to investigate the perception and experience of these adolescents. The results of this study indicate that the adolescents in residential homes have a smaller living space in contrast to the non-aggressive adolescents. They also have less close relationships and fewer interactions with their peers. Moreover they have more conflicts and show more often aggressive behavior and they are more often victims of aggression.

  17. Leadership and adolescent girls: a qualitative study of leadership development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A; Kennedy, Cara L

    2008-12-01

    This research investigated youth leadership experiences of adolescent girls who participated in a comprehensive feminist-based leadership program. This qualitative study utilized a grounded theory approach to understand changes that occurred in 10 female adolescent participants. The words of the participants revealed that initially they viewed leadership in traditional terms and were hesitant to identify themselves as leaders or to see themselves included within their concepts of leadership. Following the program their view of leadership expanded and diversified in a manner that allowed for inclusion of themselves within it. They spoke with greater strength and confidence and felt better positioned and inspired to act as leaders. Participants identified having examples of women leaders, adopting multiple concepts of leadership, and participating in an environment of mutual respect and trust as factors that contributed to their expanded conceptualization.

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN DYNAMIC WINDOW SECURED IMPLICIT GEOGRAPHIC FORWARDING ROUTING PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Idris Umar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An Ideal WSNs should operate with the least possible energy required in order to increase the lifetime of the sensor nodes and at the same time, ensure network connectivity. But the Inherent power limitation makes power-awareness a critical requirement for WSN, this calls for the need to manage energy in sensor nodes. Also In order to ensure successful transmission of data from sensor node source to destination, it becomes necessary to maintain network availability. The network must be resilient to individual node failure which can happen due to zero power posses by the node and due to security attacks posed on the node and the network. Dynamic Window Secured Implicit Geographic Forwarding (DWSIGF routing protocol has proven to be robust, efficient and resistant to some security attack which causes failure in network availability. However the extent to which energy is consumed in sensor nodes which deploys DWSIGF as its routing protocol has never been mentioned. In this research, we performed a comparative study on energy consumption in DWSIGF routing protocol. Using the first order radio model, we determined the energy consumed in a network. The protocol (DWSIGF is matched up against its counterpart SIGF as the traffic is increased. Observation shows that DWSIGF due to the variable timing assigned to the CTS collection window, CTS signal fails to reach destination as collection window time expires, thus the need for retransmission. This in turn consumes more energy than the counterpart SIGF which has a fixed CTS collection time. The simulation work was done using Matlab 7.0. Energy consumed in the random variant of both protocols (DWSIGF and SIGF was also observed to be higher than the priority variant of the protocols.

  19. HIV infection in male adolescents: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquette, Stella Regina; Rodrigues, Adriana de Oliveira; Bortolotti, Livia Rocha

    2015-07-01

    `The gradual reduction in the incidence of AIDS among men who have sex with men has not occurred in the youngest age group; on the contrary, it is growing. This paper examines the vulnerabilities of adolescent males at risk of HIV infection. This is a qualitative study conducted through interviews with HIV positive young men undergoing treatment, whose diagnosis was made during adolescence. The interviews were recorded and transcribed in full. They were analyzed by intensive reading, classified by issues, and interpreted from a hermeneutic-dialectic perspective in dialogue with the literature. We interviewed 16 young men whose diagnosis occurred between the ages of 11 and 19 and for all of them the method of HIV transmission was sexual; 12 of the men were homosexual and 4 were heterosexual. It was evident that vulnerable situations included disbelief in the possibility of contamination, subjection to sex, homophobia and commercial sexual exploitation. This study demonstrates the importance of the formulation of public policies on sexual and reproductive health, which include adolescents and young men. These policies should embody the perspective of masculinity in all its widest aspects, as well as actions in favor of sexual diversity. PMID:26132259

  20. The Dynamic Interplay among Maternal Empathy, Quality of Mother-Adolescent Relationship, and Adolescent Antisocial Behaviors: New Insights from a Six-Wave Longitudinal Multi-Informant Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Moscatelli, Silvia; Van der Graaff, Jolien; Keijsers, Loes; van Lier, Pol; Koot, Hans M; Rubini, Monica; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents' behavior is often a matter of concern, given their increased likelihood of enacting antisocial behaviors, which cause disruptions in the social order and are potentially harmful for the adolescents themselves and for the people around them. In this six-wave longitudinal study we sought to examine the interplay among maternal empathy, multiple indicators of mother-adolescent relationship quality (i.e., balanced relatedness, conflict, and support), and adolescent antisocial behaviors rated both by adolescents and their mothers. Participants for the current study were 497 Dutch adolescents (56.9% males) followed from age 13 to 18, and their mothers. A series of cross-lagged panel models revealed reciprocal associations between maternal empathy and mother-adolescent relationship quality and between mother-adolescent relationship quality and adolescent antisocial behaviors. Interestingly, we also found some indirect effects of adolescent antisocial behaviors on maternal empathy mediated by mother-adolescent relationship quality. Overall, this study further highlights a process of reciprocal influences within mother-adolescent dyads.

  1. The Dynamic Interplay among Maternal Empathy, Quality of Mother-Adolescent Relationship, and Adolescent Antisocial Behaviors: New Insights from a Six-Wave Longitudinal Multi-Informant Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Crocetti

    Full Text Available Adolescents' behavior is often a matter of concern, given their increased likelihood of enacting antisocial behaviors, which cause disruptions in the social order and are potentially harmful for the adolescents themselves and for the people around them. In this six-wave longitudinal study we sought to examine the interplay among maternal empathy, multiple indicators of mother-adolescent relationship quality (i.e., balanced relatedness, conflict, and support, and adolescent antisocial behaviors rated both by adolescents and their mothers. Participants for the current study were 497 Dutch adolescents (56.9% males followed from age 13 to 18, and their mothers. A series of cross-lagged panel models revealed reciprocal associations between maternal empathy and mother-adolescent relationship quality and between mother-adolescent relationship quality and adolescent antisocial behaviors. Interestingly, we also found some indirect effects of adolescent antisocial behaviors on maternal empathy mediated by mother-adolescent relationship quality. Overall, this study further highlights a process of reciprocal influences within mother-adolescent dyads.

  2. Ultrasound study of ovarian pain in pre adolescent and adolescent girls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the role of ultrasound in the study of acute ovarian pain in pre adolescent and adolescent girls. B-mode ultrasound was employed to study 40 ovarian lesions in 37 girls between the age of 6 and 17 years complaining of acute pelvic pain of ovarian origin. Thirteen of the lesions were also assessed by color Doppler ultrasound. We found 25 cases of hemorrhagic cysts, 8 of simple cyst and 7 of ovarian torsion. Surgical and pathological correlation was established in 17 cases (7 cases hemorrhagic cyst, 3 of simple cysts and 7 of ovarian torsion). The remaining lesions are being followed by clinical and ultrasonographic monitoring. Simple and hemorrhagic cysts presenting the so called hematocrit effect are easily diagnosed by B-mode ultrasound. The ultrasonographic features of torsion and certain hemorrhagic cysts are similar on occasion, and surgery and histologic assessment are necessary for the definitive diagnosis. Doppler ultrasound provides no additional information to aid in the diagnosis of these lesions. (Author) 28 refs

  3. A Pilot Study Involving the Effect of Two Different Complex Training Protocols on Lower Body Power

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Chad E.; Lyons Brian; Hannon James C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Complex training (CT) involves the coupling of two exercises ostensibly to enhance the effect of the second exercise. Typically, the first exercise is a strength exercise and the second exercise is a power exercise involving similar muscles. In most cases, CT is designed to enhance power. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, this study was designed to determine if lower body power could be enhanced using complex training protocols. Second, this study investigated whether the...

  4. Efficacy of family mediation and the role of family violence: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Cleak, Helen; Schofield, Margot; Bickerdike, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Family law reforms in Australia require separated parents in dispute to attempt mandatory family dispute resolution (FDR) in community-based family services before court attendance. However, there are concerns about such services when clients present with a history of high conflict and family violence. This study protocol describes a longitudinal study of couples presenting for family mediation services. The study aims to describe the profile of family mediation clients, including ...

  5. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  6. Cumulative Vulnerability: A Case Study on intrafamilial violence, Drug Addiction and Adolescent Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Paula Orchiucci; Passarini, Gislaine Martins Ricardo; Ferreira, Loraine Seixas; Paixão, Rui Alexandre Paquete; Tardivo, Leila Salomão de La Plata Cury; Barrientos, Dora Mariela Salcedo

    2014-12-01

    A pregnant adolescent's vulnerability increases when she is a victim of intrafamilial violence and drug addiction, which cause physical and biopsychosocial damage to the mother and her baby. Objective Present and analyze the case of an adolescent who is addicted to drugs, pregnant and the victim of lifelong intrafamilial violence. Method A case study based on a semi-structured interview conducted in the Obstetrics Emergency Unit at the Teaching Hospital of the University of São Paulo. The data were interpreted and analyzed using Content Analysis. Results intrafamilial violence experienced at the beginning of the adolescent's early relationships seriously affected her emotional maturity, triggering the development of psychopathologies and leaving her more susceptible to the use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs. The adolescent is repeating her history with her daughter, reproducing the cycle of violence. Conclusion Adolescent pregnancy combined with intrafamilial violence and drug addiction and multiplies the adolescent's psychosocial vulnerability increased the adolescent's vulnerability.

  7. Cumulative Vulnerability: A Case Study on intrafamilial violence, Drug Addiction and Adolescent Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Paula Orchiucci; Passarini, Gislaine Martins Ricardo; Ferreira, Loraine Seixas; Paixão, Rui Alexandre Paquete; Tardivo, Leila Salomão de La Plata Cury; Barrientos, Dora Mariela Salcedo

    2014-12-01

    A pregnant adolescent's vulnerability increases when she is a victim of intrafamilial violence and drug addiction, which cause physical and biopsychosocial damage to the mother and her baby. Objective Present and analyze the case of an adolescent who is addicted to drugs, pregnant and the victim of lifelong intrafamilial violence. Method A case study based on a semi-structured interview conducted in the Obstetrics Emergency Unit at the Teaching Hospital of the University of São Paulo. The data were interpreted and analyzed using Content Analysis. Results intrafamilial violence experienced at the beginning of the adolescent's early relationships seriously affected her emotional maturity, triggering the development of psychopathologies and leaving her more susceptible to the use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs. The adolescent is repeating her history with her daughter, reproducing the cycle of violence. Conclusion Adolescent pregnancy combined with intrafamilial violence and drug addiction and multiplies the adolescent's psychosocial vulnerability increased the adolescent's vulnerability. PMID:25830736

  8. Adolescents' presentation of food in social media: An explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Christopher; E Chaplin, John; Hillman, Thomas; Berg, Christina

    2016-04-01

    The study aimed to explore how adolescents communicate food images in a widely used social media image-sharing application. We examined how and in what context food was presented and the type of food items that were frequently portrayed by following a youth related hashtag on Instagram. The hashtag #14år ("14 years") was used to find adolescent users on Instagram: these users public photo streams were then searched for food items they had shared with others. Food items were identified and categorized based on type of food and how the food items were presented. Most of the adolescent users (85%) shared images containing food items. A majority of the images (67.7%) depicted foods high in calories but low in nutrients. Almost half of these images were arranged as a still life with food brand names clearly exposed. Many of these images were influenced by major food marketing campaigns. Fruits and vegetables occurred in 21.8% of all images. This food group was frequently portrayed zoomed in with focus solely on the food, with a hashtag or caption expressing palatability. These images were often presented in the style of a cook book. Food was thus presented in varied ways. Adolescents themselves produced images copying food advertisements. This has clear health promotion implications since it becomes more challenging to monitor and tackle young people's exposure to marketing of unhealthy foods in these popular online networks because images are part of a lifestyle that the young people want to promote. Shared images contain personal recommendations, which mean that they may have a more powerful effect than commercial advertising. PMID:26792765

  9. Inappropriate eating behavior: a longitudinal study with female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the inappropriate eating behaviors (IEB of female adolescents over a one-year period. Methods: 290 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old participated in the three research stages (T1: first four months, T2: second four months and T3: third four months. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was applied to assess the IEB. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI in the three study periods. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data, adjusted for the scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Brazil Economic Classification Criteria. Results: Girls at T1 showed a higher frequency of IEB compared to T2 (p=0.001 and T3 (p=0.001. The findings also indicated higher values for BMI in T3 in relation to T1 (p=0.04. The other comparisons did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: IEB scores of female adolescents declined over one year.

  10. Bridging the gap between comprehensive extraction protocols in plant metabolomics studies and method validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; Van der Auwera, Anastasia; Foubert, Kenn; Voorspoels, Stefan; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    It is vital to pay much attention to the design of extraction methods developed for plant metabolomics, as any non-extracted or converted metabolites will greatly affect the overall quality of the metabolomics study. Method validation is however often omitted in plant metabolome studies, as the well-established methodologies for classical targeted analyses such as recovery optimization cannot be strictly applied. The aim of the present study is to thoroughly evaluate state-of-the-art comprehensive extraction protocols for plant metabolomics with liquid chromatography-photodiode array-accurate mass mass spectrometry (LC-PDA-amMS) by bridging the gap with method validation. Validation of an extraction protocol in untargeted plant metabolomics should ideally be accomplished by validating the protocol for all possible outcomes, i.e. for all secondary metabolites potentially present in the plant. In an effort to approach this ideal validation scenario, two plant matrices were selected based on their wide versatility of phytochemicals: meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) for its polyphenols content, and spicy paprika powder (from the genus Capsicum) for its apolar phytochemicals content (carotenoids, phytosterols, capsaicinoids). These matrices were extracted with comprehensive extraction protocols adapted from literature and analysed with a generic LC-PDA-amMS characterization platform that was previously validated for broad range phytochemical analysis. The performance of the comprehensive sample preparation protocols was assessed based on extraction efficiency, repeatability and intermediate precision and on ionization suppression/enhancement evaluation. The manuscript elaborates on the finding that none of the extraction methods allowed to exhaustively extract the metabolites. Furthermore, it is shown that depending on the extraction conditions enzymatic degradation mechanisms can occur. Investigation of the fractions obtained with the different extraction methods

  11. Adolescent-parent interactions and attitudes around screen time and sugary drink consumption: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howlett Sarah A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how adolescents and their parents interact and talk about some of the key lifestyle behaviors that are associated with overweight and obesity, such as screen time (ST and sugary drink (SD consumption. This qualitative study aimed to explore adolescents' and parents' perceptions, attitudes, and interactions in regards to these topics. Methods Using an exploratory approach, semi-structured focus groups were conducted separately with adolescents and (unrelated parents. Participants were recruited from low and middle socio-economic areas in the Sydney metropolitan area and a regional area of New South Wales, Australia. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis for each of the four content areas (adolescent-ST, adolescent-SD consumption, parents' views on adolescents' ST and parents' views on adolescents' SD consumption. Results Nine focus groups, with a total of 63 participants, were conducted. Broad themes spanned all groups: patterns of behavior; attitudes and concerns; adolescent-parent interactions; strategies for behavior change; and awareness of ST guidelines. While parents and adolescents described similar patterns of behaviour in relation to adolescents' SD consumption and ST, there were marked differences in their attitudes to these two behaviours which were also evident in the adolescent-parent interactions in the home that they described. Parents felt able to limit adolescents' access to SDs, but felt unable to control their adolescents' screen time. Conclusion This study offers unique insights regarding topics rarely explored with parents or adolescents, yet which are part of everyday family life, are known to be linked to risk of weight gain, and are potentially amenable to change.

  12. Spinal pain and nutrition in adolescents - an exploratory cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Oddy Wendy H; Straker Leon M; Perry Mark C; O'Sullivan Peter B; Smith Anne J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Spinal pain is an important health issue for adolescents resulting in functional limitations for many and increasing the risk of spinal pain in adulthood. Whilst human and animal studies suggest nutrition could influence spinal pain, this has not been investigated in adolescents. The objective of this exploratory cross sectional study was to evaluate associations between diet and adolescent spinal pain. Methods This study surveyed the spinal pain (neck and back) and nutrit...

  13. Systematic evaluation of patient-reported outcome (PRO) protocol content and reporting in UK cancer clinical trials: the EPiC study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Khaled; Kyte, Derek; Keeley, Thomas; Efficace, Fabio; Armes, Jo; Brown, Julia M; Calman, Lynn; Copland, Chris; Gavin, Anna; Glaser, Adam; Greenfield, Diana M; Lanceley, Anne; Taylor, Rachel; Velikova, Galina; Brundage, Michael; Mercieca-Bebber, Rebecca; King, Madeleine T

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Emerging evidence suggests that patient-reported outcome (PRO)-specific information may be omitted in trial protocols and that PRO results are poorly reported, limiting the use of PRO data to inform cancer care. This study aims to evaluate the standards of PRO-specific content in UK cancer trial protocols and their arising publications and to highlight examples of best-practice PRO protocol content and reporting where they occur. The objective of this study is to determine if these early findings are generalisable to UK cancer trials, and if so, how best we can bring about future improvements in clinical trials methodology to enhance the way PROs are assessed, managed and reported. Hypothesis: Trials in which the primary end point is based on a PRO will have more complete PRO protocol and publication components than trials in which PROs are secondary end points. Methods and analysis Completed National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Portfolio Cancer clinical trials (all cancer specialities/age-groups) will be included if they contain a primary/secondary PRO end point. The NIHR portfolio includes cancer trials, supported by a range of funders, adjudged as high-quality clinical research studies. The sample will be drawn from studies completed between 31 December 2000 and 1 March 2014 (n=1141) to allow sufficient time for completion of the final trial report and publication. Two reviewers will then review the protocols and arising publications of included trials to: (1) determine the completeness of their PRO-specific protocol content; (2) determine the proportion and completeness of PRO reporting in UK Cancer trials and (3) model factors associated with PRO protocol and reporting completeness and with PRO reporting proportion. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the ethics committee at University of Birmingham (ERN_15-0311). Trial findings will be disseminated via presentations at local, national and international conferences, peer

  14. Stream Control Transmission Protocol as a Transport for SIP: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe De Marco

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The dominant signalling protocol both in future wireless and wired networks will be the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP, as pointed out in the 3G IP-based mobile networks specifications, entailing a fully Internet integrated network. The use of SIP in the IP Multimedia Subsytem (IMS of Release 5 involves the development of servers capable to handle a large number of call requests. The signaling traffic associated to such requests could explode, if an intelligent congestion control were not introduced. Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP was born to support transport of SS7 signaling messages. However, many of the SCTP features are also useful for transport of SIP messages, as: congestion control mechanism, good separation among independent messages, multihoming. Indeed, adoption of SCTP as transport of SIP signaling might prove useful in some situations where usual transport protocols, like TCP and UDP, suffer performance degradation. In this paper, we analyse the general framework wherein SIP operates and we discuss the benefits of using SCTP as a transport for SIP, toward fair sharing of network resources. This study is carried on in the context of the implementation of an high-performance SIP Proxy Server. We also present some preliminar results of an implementation of SIP over SCTP/UDP in a real LAN environment.

  15. Association of physical activity with cognition, metacognition and academic performance in children and adolescents: a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Bueno, Celia; Pesce, Caterina; Cavero-Redondo, Iván; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Pardo-Guijarro, María Jesús; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Schools provide a relevant context for improving children's and adolescents’ physical and mental health by increasing physical activity during school hours and/or beyond. The interest in the relationship between physical activity programmes and cognition during development has recently increased, with evidence suggesting a positive association. We present a protocol of systematic reviews and meta-analysis of intervention studies that, by determining the effects of chronic physica...

  16. Disinfection Contact Time study plan (100-N Area tracer protocol). Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Hanford, Inc. will prepare an Engineering Tracer Study Protocol for the determination of contact time for the disinfection process at Group A Non-transient Non-community water treatment plant for the 100-N Water Plant at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Included in this report are the results of a study that determine the actual detention time within the plant clearwell, and thus the disinfection contact time at several clearwell effluent flow rates

  17. The CAP study, evaluation of integrated universal and selective prevention strategies for youth alcohol misuse: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Nicola C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse amongst young people is a serious concern. The need for effective prevention is clear, yet there appear to be few evidenced-based programs that prevent alcohol misuse and none that target both high and low-risk youth. The CAP study addresses this gap by evaluating the efficacy of an integrated approach to alcohol misuse prevention, which combines the effective universal internet-based Climate Schools program with the effective selective personality-targeted Preventure program. This article describes the development and protocol of the CAP study which aims to prevent alcohol misuse and related harms in Australian adolescents. Methods/Design A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT is being conducted with Year 8 students aged 13 to 14-years-old from 27 secondary schools in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Blocked randomisation was used to assign schools to one of four groups; Climate Schools only, Preventure only, CAP (Climate Schools and Preventure, or Control (alcohol, drug and health education as usual. The primary outcomes of the trial will be the uptake and harmful use of alcohol and alcohol related harms. Secondary outcomes will include alcohol and cannabis related knowledge, cannabis related harms, intentions to use, and mental health symptomatology. All participants will complete assessments on five occasions; baseline; immediately post intervention, and at 12, 24 and 36 months post baseline. Discussion This study protocol presents the design and current implementation of a cluster RCT to evaluate the efficacy of the CAP study; an integrated universal and selective approach to prevent alcohol use and related harms among adolescents. Compared to students who receive the stand-alone universal Climate Schools program or alcohol and drug education as usual (Controls, we expect the students who receive the CAP intervention to have significantly less uptake of alcohol use, a reduction in average

  18. Determinants of Internet Addiction among Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

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    Artemis Tsitsika

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet Addiction (IA is associated with adverse psychosocial development and mental disorders. The study aims were to evaluate the psychosocial profiles and psychiatric comorbidities associated with IA among adolescents. A case-control study was conducted among 129 adolescents in the outpatient setting of the Adolescent Health Unit of the Second University Department of Pediatrics in Athens, Greece. The case group consisted of 86 adolescents with IA as evaluated following psychiatric interview with two independent examiners. The control group consisted of 43 adolescents without IA, frequency matched for age and gender with case group participants. The study findings indicated that adolescents with IA were significantly more likely to have divorced parents (p = 0.012 and/or dysfunctional familial relationships (p < 0.0001. The proportion of adolescents with poor academic performance (p < 0.0001 and unexcused school absences (p = 0.004 was greater among those with IA. Moreover, approximately two-thirds of the adolescents with IA were engaged in high-risk behaviors (p < 0.0001. Finally, adolescents with IA were 3.89 times more likely to present with comorbid psychiatric conditions (CI 95%: 1.19–12.70, including depression (10.5 vs. 0%; p = 0.022. Adolescent IA is associated with deterred familial functions, poor academic performance, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and an augmented likelihood for depression.

  19. [Genome-wide association study for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Yoji; Kou, Ikuyo; Scoliosis, Japan; Matsumoto, Morio; Watanabe, Kota; Ikegawa, Shiro

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis(AIS)is a polygenic disease. Genome-wide association studies(GWASs)have been performed for a lot of polygenic diseases. For AIS, we conducted GWAS and identified the first AIS locus near LBX1. After the discovery, we have extended our study by increasing the numbers of subjects and SNPs. In total, our Japanese GWAS has identified four susceptibility genes. GWASs for AIS have also been performed in the USA and China, which identified one and three susceptibility genes, respectively. Here we review GWASs in Japan and abroad and functional analysis to clarify the pathomechanism of AIS. PMID:27013625

  20. [Genome-wide association study for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Yoji; Kou, Ikuyo; Scoliosis, Japan; Matsumoto, Morio; Watanabe, Kota; Ikegawa, Shiro

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis(AIS)is a polygenic disease. Genome-wide association studies(GWASs)have been performed for a lot of polygenic diseases. For AIS, we conducted GWAS and identified the first AIS locus near LBX1. After the discovery, we have extended our study by increasing the numbers of subjects and SNPs. In total, our Japanese GWAS has identified four susceptibility genes. GWASs for AIS have also been performed in the USA and China, which identified one and three susceptibility genes, respectively. Here we review GWASs in Japan and abroad and functional analysis to clarify the pathomechanism of AIS.

  1. Assessment of self-awareness among rural adolescents: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Bilas Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adolescence is a period of biological, cognitive and social transition of such magnitude and rapidity that it is no surprise to find that it is associated with the onset or exacerbation of a number of health-related problems. It is the level of self-awareness among adolescents, which enables them to see where their thoughts and emotions take them. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the extent of awareness regarding adolescent changes/problems among school going adolescents. Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study and was carried out in Block Beri, District, Jhajjar (Haryana. Materials and Methods: A sample of 320 adolescent students of 9 th -12 th classes (80 from each school were selected from four randomly chosen large Government senior secondary schools with strength of more than 250 students (two girls and two boys/co-ed senior secondary schools. Data were collected on predesigned, pre-tested and semi-structured schedules by conducting in-depth interviews of selected study adolescents by the investigator. Statistical Analysis Used: Percentages, proportions, Chi-square test, Chi-square test with Yate′s correction and t-test. Results: Out of 320, 212 (66.3% study adolescents were aware of at least one adolescent change(s whereas, when probed and further asked to enumerate the changes taking place in them, 272/320 (85% adolescents could narrate at least one such change. Out of those 272, 24 (8.82% (95% CI 6.0-12.79 adolescents either did not consider these changes as normal or they did not know whether the changes were normal or abnormal. Conclusions: Adolescents greatly lack correct information related to their bodies′ physiological, psychological and sexual changes. There is an urgent need for regular adolescent friendly information, education and communication activities covering different aspects of adolescent knowledge needs/problems.

  2. A prospective study of GnRH long agonist versus flexible GnRH antagonist protocol in PCOS: Indian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a common endocrine disorder of reproductive age women. Many controlled ovarian stimulation (COS strategies have been offered for the treatment of patients with PCOS undergoing in vitro fertilization, but the optimal protocol is still a controversy. There is no compelling evidence for the advantage of one stimulation protocol over the other. Materials and Methods: This is a single-center prospective controlled study comparing long agonist and antagonist protocol in PCOS women. Results: There was no significant difference in live birth rate and clinical pregnancy rate. Rate of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome was significantly higher in the agonist group. Number of oocytes retrieved, number of follicles and peak estradiol levels were significantly more in the agonist group. Conclusion: The GnRH antagonist protocol is an equally effective but safer protocol in PCOS patients compared with the long agonist protocol.

  3. Association of lifestyle habits and academic achievement in Norwegian adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Stea, Tonje H; Torstveit, Monica K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: While healthy lifestyle habits are generally assumed to be important for high academic achievement, there has been little research on this topic among adolescents. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the associations between several lifestyle habits and academic achievement in adolescent girls and boys. Methods: The study included 2,432 Norwegian adolescents, 15–17 years old. A self-report questionnaire was used to assess dietary-, physical activity-, smokin...

  4. Predictors of sexual risk behaviour among adolescents from welfare institutions in Malaysia: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Farid, Nik Daliana Nik; Rus, Sulaiman Che'; Dahlui, Maznah; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Background In welfare institutions, it is essential to address the health-related needs of adolescent populations who often engage in sexual activities. This study examines the association between individual and interpersonal factors concerning sexual risk behaviour (SRB) among adolescents in welfare institutions in Malaysia. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study of 1082 adolescents in 22 welfare institutions located across Peninsular Malaysia in 2009. Using supervised self-a...

  5. Patterns of sedentary behavior and compliance with public health recommendations in Spanish adolescents: the AFINOS study.

    OpenAIRE

    David Martínez Gómez; Veiga, Oscar L; Belén Zapatera; Verónica Cabanas-Sánchez; Sonia Gomez-Martinez; David Martinez-Hernández; Ascensión Marcos

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the present study were: (i) describe patterns of sedentary behavior in Spanish adolescents; and (ii) determine the proportion of adolescents that do not meet the public health recommendations for sedentary behavior. This study comprised 1,724 Spanish adolescents (882 girls), aged 13 to 16 years. Patterns of sedentary behavior (TV viewing, use of computer games, console games and surfing the Internet) were assessed using the HELENA sedentary behavior questionnaire. The total propor...

  6. Internet addiction among Iranian adolescents: a nationwide study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodabakhsh Ahmadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Problematic use of the Internet by children and adolescents is a newly emerging disorder that has alerted health authorities throughout the world. In Iran, despite the very high speed rate of Internet spread, there is not enough data on the rate of Internet addiction among the adolescents. This study is the first nationwide study that addresses this issue. Overall 4500 students of high school or pre-college schools were recruited from 13/31 provinces of Iran by a cluster sampling method and 4342 (96% participated. Two self-rated questionnaires (one demographics and one Young's Internet addiction scale were filled b the participants. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. 962 (22.2% of the study participants were labeled as having "internet addiction." Males were significantly more likely to be an internet addict (P<0.001. Students whose father and/or mother had a doctorate degree were most likely to have Internet addiction (P<0.001 for both. Job engagement of mothers was significantly associated with students' internet addiction, and the least rate of addiction was observed when the mother was a housewife (P<0.001; having no exercise was associated with the highest rate of Internet addiction (P<0.001. Stepwise logistic regression models showed gender (male, older age, mother's occupation, family's financial status (either very high or very low, low quality of family relationship, and students' lower levels of religious devotion were significantly associated with having Internet addiction. This study showed that Internet addiction in Iranian adolescents is prevalent, and has several independent factors, from which, family relations is most likely to be modifiable. Improvements in family relations and more strict parental supervision, especially when mothers have active job employment, are recommended.

  7. Health-related quality of life of adolescents conservatively treated for idiopathic scoliosis in Korea: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyejung; Choi, Jihea; Hwang, Jin-Ho; Park, Jung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Young adolescents with scoliosis are more likely than adults to experience psychological distress affecting health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Adolescence is a sensitive period of psychological development, and thus physical deformity from scoliosis can negatively affect body image and appearance of adolescents. The present study evaluated HRQoL in young Korean adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis and identified related factors. Methods One hundred and ten adolescents with id...

  8. Writing Homer, Reading Riordan: Intertextual Study in Contemporary Adolescent Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Amy

    2011-01-01

    When readers of contemporary adolescent literature are encouraged to participate in conversations about what is considered canonical literature, the literary value of adolescent reading expands past narrowly defined borders. Several recent adolescent novels provide access to the classics and may generate interest among middle school students in…

  9. The Hemingway: Measure of Adolescent Connectedness-- Validation Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, Michael J.

    This investigation reports the development of a measure of adolescent connectedness and estimates of its psychometric properties. A measure was developed to assess the ecological and developmental dimensions of adolescent connectedness, defined as adolescents' caring for and involvement in specific relationships and contexts within their social…

  10. Cortical thickness in adolescent marijuana and alcohol users: A three-year prospective study from adolescence to young adulthood

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    Joanna Jacobus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest marijuana impacts gray and white matter neural tissue development, however few prospective studies have determined the relationship between cortical thickness and cannabis use spanning adolescence to young adulthood. This study aimed to understand how heavy marijuana use influences cortical thickness trajectories across adolescence. Subjects were adolescents with heavy marijuana use and concomitant alcohol use (MJ + ALC, n = 30 and controls (CON, n = 38 with limited substance use histories. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and comprehensive substance use assessment at three independent time points. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to look at main effects of group, time, and Group × Time interactions on cortical thickness. MJ + ALC showed thicker cortical estimates across the brain (23 regions, particularly in frontal and parietal lobes (ps < .05. More cumulative marijuana use was associated with increased thickness estimates by 3-year follow-up (ps < .05. Heavy marijuana use during adolescence and into young adulthood may be associated with altered neural tissue development and interference with neuromaturation that can have neurobehavioral consequences. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will help understand ongoing neural changes that are associated with development of problematic use into adulthood, as well as potential for neural recovery with cessation of use.

  11. Adolescents Aspiration and Their Parental Relations: A Study among Rural School Going Adolescents in a Block of Darjeeling District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents’ future aspirations and expectations are important precursor of adult attainment. Objectives: To document rural adolescents’ understanding of their aspirations and the problems they face for achieving them. The relationship of adolescents with their family and how they feel about themselves have also been determined. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among school-going adolescents of Fashidewa block of Darjeeling district from July to October, 2007. A total of 420 students comprised the study population. Results - Among them, 41.4%, responded that they want to pursue a professional career in future. Poverty was found to be the commonest obstacle. The commonest problem-solving method was having discussions with friends. The study revealed that 56.4% of the adolescents communicated their problem and about 27.6% of them had conflict with their parents in last one year. Conclusion: Interventions at the community level like youth clubs for safe social interaction and literacy classes, training of peer educators to teach life-skills, forums for parents and teachers to discuss their own concerns and those of the adolescents may help to design programmes that will contribute to greater financial independence and employment opportunities for adolescents

  12. [Eating disorders in early adolescence--study from the section on young adolescent nutrition in Jerusalem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, N; Halevy, A

    2000-04-01

    Young adolescents were assessed with regard to cognitive, socio-cultural and behavioral components of eating disturbances. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to 5th-8th grade pupils, 280 girls and 251 boys, to assess eating habits, body image, self-confidence, environmental-cultural influences, risk behaviors and socio-economic state. Girls scored consistently higher on all weight-control behaviors. Discontent with own body, and attitudes and behaviors associated with eating disorders, were reported by under-studied populations such as boys and younger girls. Both frequency and severity of weight-control behaviors were associated with "social age." Highly significant differences between scores of 6th and 7th graders indicate that they may be at a time of increased susceptibility. Measuring the influence of the mass media gave inconsistent results. PMID:10883175

  13. Proposed computerized protocol for epidemiological study of patients undergoing microsurgery of the larynx

    OpenAIRE

    Catani, Guilherme Simas do Amaral; Carvalho, Bettina; Ido Filho, Jorge Massaaki; Macedo Filho, Evaldo Dacheux de; Pinto, José Simão de Paula; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Stahlke Junior, Henrique Jorge, 1942-

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The merging of medicine with information technology facilitates the retrieval of stored data, aiding the conduct of research with greater scientific rigor. Studies in the field of otorhinolaryngology, specifically in the area of laryngology and voice, are of fundamental importance, since 70% of the economically active need their voice to work. Objective: To create a computerized protocol of the diseases of the larynx, apply and validate it, and use it to evaluate patient...

  14. Multi-centred mixed-methods PEPFAR HIV care & support public health evaluation: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Fayers Peter; Namisango Eve; Mwangi-Powell Faith; Powell Richard A; Downing Julia; Moreland Scott; McCrone Paul; Penfold Suzanne; Simms Victoria; Harding Richard; Curtis Siân; Higginson Irene J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background A public health response is essential to meet the multidimensional needs of patients and families affected by HIV disease in sub-Saharan Africa. In order to appraise curret provision of HIV care and support in East Africa, and to provide evidence-based direction to future care programming, and Public Health Evaluation was commissioned by the PEPFAR programme of the US Government. Methods/Design This paper described the 2-Phase international mixed methods study protocol uti...

  15. Anorexia in the Adolescence - case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida de Paiva, Maria O

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders lead to special biological and psychological states. The result of the total lack of food is treated in a distinct way by anorexia. Nutritionists have thus had difficulty in coming to an agreement on the best therapy to prevent such disorders. First it is essential to understand which treatment aims are and then to attempt to know how the several treatment models used nowadays can reach those aims. Someone who suffers from eating disorders, together with an inner deformation, suffers from too much sensitiveness. In order to solve these problems, one needs a change in the relationship with oneself, with the others and with the world. This study presents a teenager’s case study – Anorexia. Is, in fact, a problem that society faces and can’t ignore. Many youngsters have already died and others are following their steps. But there are also those ones that succeeded in overcoming the problem and now are reporting their stories.

  16. Study Protocol - an exploratory trial on health promoting schools at Dutch secondary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Busch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies show adolescent health-related behaviours to co-occur synergistically. This paper describes the study design for an exploratory trial on the effects of a comprehensive, whole-school health promoting school intervention. This intervention tackles seven different behavioural domains simultaneously via a combination of education, creating a healthy environment and introducing healthy behavioural policies. Additionally, extensive partnerships are formed between schools, parents, neighbourhoods and youth health authorities to coordinate health promotion efforts.Study design and data collection methods: The intervention will be implemented at two secondary schools. Results will be compared with two control schools (n≈1500. The intervention's effectiveness in changing student behaviours as well as physical and psychosocial health status along with qualitative lessons learned on the integration of youth health care services and school health education practices are the main aimed outcomes of this study. Data are collected via a mixed methods design combining an annual youth health (behaviour monitor with a qualitative process evaluation via interviews with key stakeholders.Data analysis: A multilevel analysis is performed combined with a systematic analysis of qualitative interview data.Conclusions: This study will produce an evaluation of a comprehensive health promoting school intervention that combines an integrated approach of schools, neighbourhoods, families and youth health services to improve adolescent health.

  17. Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

  18. Bidirectionality in the relationship between asthma and smoking in adolescents : A population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ven, Monique O. M. Van; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Several cross-sectional studies have showed higher smoking rates among adolescents with asthma, but hardly any study has investigated this relation longitudinally. This study examines whether these cross-sectional results are caused by higher smoking onset among adolescents with asthma, or

  19. Effectiveness of the universal prevention program 'Healthy School and Drugs': Study protocol of a randomized clustered trial

    OpenAIRE

    Malmberg Monique; Overbeek Geertjan; Kleinjan Marloes; Vermulst Ad; Monshouwer Karin; Lammers Jeroen; Vollebergh Wilma AM; Engels Rutger CME

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Substance use is highly prevalent among Dutch adolescents. The Healthy School and Drugs program is a nationally implemented school-based prevention program aimed at reducing early and excessive substance use among adolescents. Although the program's effectiveness was tested in a quasi-experimental design before, many program changes were made afterwards. The present study, therefore, aims to test the effects of this widely used, renewed universal prevention program. Method...

  20. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindfors Pirjo L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey. The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%; and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%. Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying

  1. A follow-up study of heroin addicts (VEdeTTE2: study design and protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampis Fabio

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Italy, a large cohort study (VEdeTTE1 was conducted between 1998–2001 to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments in reducing mortality and increasing treatment retention among heroin addicts. The follow-up of this cohort (VEdeTTE2 was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments on long-term outcomes, such as rehabilitation and social re-integration. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol of the VEdeTTE2 study, and to present the results of the pilot study carried out to assess the feasibility of the study and to improve study procedures. Methods The source population for the VEdeTTE2 study was the VEdeTTE1 cohort, from which a sample of 2,200 patients, traced two or more years after enrolment in the cohort, were asked to participate. An interview investigates drug use; overdose; family and social re-integration. Illegal activity are investigated separately in a questionnaire completed by the patient. Patients are also asked to provide a hair sample to test for heroin and cocaine use. Information on treatments and HIV, HBV and HCV morbidity are obtained from clinical records. A pilot phase was planned and carried out on 60 patients. Results The results of the pilot phase pointed out the validity of the procedures designed to limit attrition: the number of traced subjects was satisfactory (88%. Moreover, the pilot phase was very useful in identifying possible causes of delays and attrition, and flaws in the instruments. Improvements to the procedures and the instruments were subsequently implemented. Sensitivity of the biological test was quite good for heroin (78% but lower for cocaine (42.3%, highlighting the need to obtain a hair sample from all patients. Conclusion In drug addiction research, studies investigating health status and social re-integration of subjects at long-term follow-up are lacking. The VEdeTTE2 study aims to investigate these outcomes at long-term follow-up. Results of the

  2. Factors influencing ambulance nurses' adherence to a national protocol ambulance care: an implementation study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, R.H.; Vloet, L.C.M.; Grunsven, P.M. van; Breeman, W.; Goosselink, B.; Lichtveld, R.A.; Groot, J. de; Achterberg, T. van

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Adherence to prehospital guidelines and protocols is suboptimal. Insight into influencing factors is necessary to improve adherence. The aim of this study was to identify factors that influence ambulance nurses' adherence to a National Protocol Ambulance Care (NPAC). METHODS: A questionn

  3. Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Pedersen, Nadia; Ramstad, Erica;

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the harmful effects of methylphenidate treatment for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in non-randomised studies.......This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the harmful effects of methylphenidate treatment for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in non-randomised studies....

  4. Adolescent-parent interactions and attitudes around screen time and sugary drink consumption: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Howlett Sarah A; King Lesley A; Shrewsbury Vanessa A; Hattersley Libby A; Hardy Louise L; Baur Louise A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Little is known about how adolescents and their parents interact and talk about some of the key lifestyle behaviors that are associated with overweight and obesity, such as screen time (ST) and sugary drink (SD) consumption. This qualitative study aimed to explore adolescents' and parents' perceptions, attitudes, and interactions in regards to these topics. Methods Using an exploratory approach, semi-structured focus groups were conducted separately with adolescents and (u...

  5. Role of parenting styles in adolescent substance use: results from a Swedish longitudinal cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, J.; Sundell, K; Öjehagen, A; Håkansson, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adolescent substance use is an area of concern because early substance use is associated with a higher risk of adverse outcomes. Parenting style, defined as the general style of parenting, as well as substance-specific parenting practices may influence children's substance use behaviour. The present study aims to probe the impact of parenting style on adolescent substance use. Method A cohort of 1268 adolescents (48% girls), aged 12–13 years at baseline, from 21 junior high schools ...

  6. Mental Health and Community Violence Among Adolescents in Indonesia (School-Based Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Utama, Budhi

    2014-01-01

    Research consistently reported that adolescents experienced high levels of exposure to community violence in the their life. There is a trend that adolescents in several cities in Indonesia exposed to violence in the community. The community violence among adolescents also affects their mental health problems. However, there are limited number of studies looking at the prevalence and association between exposure to community violence and mental health in developing countries such as Indonesia...

  7. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Salazar-Pousada; Dalton Arroyo; Luis Hidalgo; Pérez-López, Faustino R.; Peter Chedraui

    2010-01-01

    Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS), respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adult...

  8. Nutritional Status of Adolescent Girls in Rural Area of Kolar District -A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sarithareddy; A.V. Deepa; H.R. Shivaramakrishna

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the nutritional status of adolescent girls in selected villages of the Kolar district. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of two months. 230 adolescent girls of age 10–19 years were selected randomly. Data was collected by interviewing the adolescent girls using predesigned and pre tested Proforma. Various statistical applications like percentiles, mean, standard deviation and proportions were used for analysis of the data. Resu...

  9. Fluid intake in Spanish children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Miguel Fenández-Alvira; Iris Iglesia; Cíntia Ferreira-Pego; Nancy Babio; Jordi Salas-Salvadó; Luis A. Moreno

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Some studies demonstrated that dehydration process is prevalent among young populations and subsequently, a cause of concern. However, the evaluation of the fluid consumption pattern of children and adolescent populations has not been widely assessed. Objective: To evaluate the total fluid intake from different types of beverages in Spanish children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 238 children and adolescents aged 3-17 years were randomly recruited from all Spanish regions....

  10. Video Game Playing Effects on Obesity in an Adolescent with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Strahan, Brandy E.; Elder, Jennifer H.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has tripled in the past two decades, and adolescents with disabilities, specifically autism spectrum disorders (ASD), may be at greater risk for obesity due to the behavioral, physical, and psychosocial complications related to their disorder. This case study reports the effects of video game playing on an obese adolescent with ASD and illustrates the use of a multiple baseline single subject design. Over 12 weeks, the participant played inactive (6 weeks) and active video ...

  11. Adolescent-parent interactions and communication preferences regarding body weight and weight management: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Howlett Sarah A; Hattersley Libby A; King Lesley A; Shrewsbury Vanessa A; Hardy Louise L; Baur Louise A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aimed to canvass the nature of adolescent-parent interactions about weight, particularly overweight, and to explore ideas of how to foster supportive discussions regarding weight, both in the home and with family doctors. Methods A market research company was contracted to recruit and conduct a series of separate focus groups with adolescents and unrelated parents of adolescents from low-middle socio-economic areas in Sydney and a regional centre, Australia. Gro...

  12. The longitudinal urban cohort ageing study (LUCAS: study protocol and participation in the first decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapp Ulrike

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present concept, study protocol and selected baseline data of the Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study (LUCAS in Germany. LUCAS is a long-running cohort study of community-dwelling seniors complemented by specific studies of geriatric patients or diseases. Aims were to (1 Describe individual ageing trajectories in a metropolitan setting, documenting changes in functional status, the onset of frailty, disability and need of care; (2 Find determinants of healthy ageing; (3 Assess long-term effects of specific health promotion interventions; (4 Produce results for health care planning for fit, pre-frail, frail and disabled elderly persons; (5 Set up a framework for embedded studies to investigate various hypotheses in specific subgroups of elderly. Methods/Design In 2000, twenty-one general practitioners (GPs were recruited in the Hamburg metropolitan area; they generated lists of all their patients 60 years and older. Persons not terminally ill, without daily need of assistance or professional care were eligible. Of these, n = 3,326 (48 % agreed to participate and completed a small (baseline and an extensive health questionnaire (wave 1. In 2007/2008, a re-recruitment took place including 2,012 participants: 743 men, 1,269 women (647 deaths, 197 losses, 470 declined further participation. In 2009/2010 n = 1,627 returned the questionnaire (90 deaths, 47 losses, 248 declined further participation resulting in a good participation rate over ten years with limited and quantified dropouts. Presently, follow-up data from 2007/2008 (wave 2 and 2009/2010 (wave 3 are available. Data wave 4 is due in 2011/2012, and the project will be continued until 2013. Information on survival and need of nursing care was collected continuously and cross-checked against official records. We used Fisher’s exact test and t-tests. The study served repeatedly to evaluate health promotion interventions and concepts. Discussion LUCAS

  13. Current trends in study of xenophobia in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malantseva O.D.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Xenophobia is one of the most topical problems of the modern world which attains special significance in view of its extension among adolescents. The article regards the results of the latest studies of xenophobia in works of foreign scholars, as well as mechanisms of its emergence and the ways of preventing it. In the course of analysis of the latest findings of foreign investigators three main directions in study of xenophobia were singled out: investigations at the level of individual psychological processes; investigations at the level of group processes; investigations at the level of cultural, public processes. The directions of xenophobia studies mentioned above make it possible to determine the main forms of xenophobia prophylaxis among adolescents; development of socio-cultural competence, enlargement of capabilities and choice of various forms of inter-racial and inter-national cooperation; inclusion of conciliation techniques for resolution of individual and intergroup conflicts into educational process at school sites; discussion and analysis of different views on the events taking place in the contemporary world.

  14. Gravidez na adolescência: estudo comparativo Adolescent pregnancy: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Viviana Lopez Alegria

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se uma população de 349 mulheres que deram à luz no período de 01/05/86 a 31/07/86, num Serviço de Obstetrícia da Grande São Paulo. Os resultados revelam que o grupo de gestantes adolescentes (22,2% teve uma assistência pré-natal deficiente, já que a grande maioria (70,6% teve a primeira consulta no segundo trimestre, tendo em média duas consultas. Durante a gestação, este grupo apresentou menor incidência de patologias com tratamento ambulatorial (39,3% e hospitalar (7,9%, em comparação com as gestantes adultas (44,4% e 14,7%, respectivamente. Em relação ao tipo de parto, as adolescentes apresentaram maior proporção de partos operatórios, sendo 25,7% por fórceps e 22,9% cesárea, contra 14,7% e 19,7% nas gestantes adultas, respectivamente. Verificou-se nas gestantes adolescentes maior proporção de intercorrências intraparto (12,9% contra 8,2% nas gestantes adultas, predominando neste período a hemorragia e a toxemia. Quanto as intercorrências no puerpério, estas se verificaram em 15,7% das gestantes adolescentes e era 11,8% das adultas, sendo a anemia pós-parto, a toxemia e a infecção puerperal as patologias mais comuns.A population of 349 women who gave birth, in an Obstetric Clinic in Greater S. Paulo, Brazil, during the period from 01/05/86 to 31/07/86 were studied. The results show that the group of pregnant adolescents (22.2% received inadequate prenatal assistance, as the large majority of them (70.6% started consultations during the second trimester of their pregnancy, and had an average of two consultations. During pregnancy this group presented a lower incidence of pathological disorders leading to out-patient and hospital treatment (39.3% and 7.9%, respectively than did the adult pregnant women (44.4% and 14.7%, respectively. With regard to the type of delivery, the adolescents underwent a larger proportion of surgical deliveries, 25.7% of forceps births and 22.9% of cesarian sections, as

  15. Adolescent culture brokering and family functioning: a study of families from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Edison J; Jones, Curtis J

    2007-04-01

    In immigrant families, culture brokering (CB) refers to the ways in which children and adolescents serve as mediator between their family and aspects of the new culture. This study focused on the debate in the literature about whether CB implies "role reversal" in the family and "adultification" of the adolescent or whether CB is better understood as simply one of the many ways that immigrant children contribute to family functioning. Results indicated a mixed picture with respect to this debate. Greater amounts of adolescent CB were indeed related to higher adolescent reports of family conflict, but also to greater family adaptability. In addition, the amount of CB was unrelated to family satisfaction and family cohesion. Secondary questions centered on the relationship of CB to adolescent and parent demographic and acculturation variables. Here, CB was related to parent acculturation patterns but not those of adolescents. Implications for future research on the CB role are discussed.

  16. Parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being: a longitudinal study in a Chinese context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T

    1999-02-01

    In this longitudinal study, the relationships between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being were examined in a sample of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents (N = 378). The results indicated that global parenting styles and specific parenting behaviors are concurrently related to hopelessness, life satisfaction, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 1 and Time 2. Longitudinal and prospective analyses (Time 1 predictors of Time 2 criterion variables) suggested that the relations between parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are bidirectional in nature. The results indicated that the strengths of association between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are stronger in female than in male adolescents. Relative to maternal parenting characteristics, paternal parenting was found to exert a stronger influence on adolescent psychological well-being.

  17. Parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being: a longitudinal study in a Chinese context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T

    1999-02-01

    In this longitudinal study, the relationships between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being were examined in a sample of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents (N = 378). The results indicated that global parenting styles and specific parenting behaviors are concurrently related to hopelessness, life satisfaction, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 1 and Time 2. Longitudinal and prospective analyses (Time 1 predictors of Time 2 criterion variables) suggested that the relations between parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are bidirectional in nature. The results indicated that the strengths of association between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are stronger in female than in male adolescents. Relative to maternal parenting characteristics, paternal parenting was found to exert a stronger influence on adolescent psychological well-being. PMID:10063611

  18. Factors associated with adolescent cigarette smoking in Greece: Results from a cross sectional study (GYTS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourgoulianis Konstantinos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data about the predictors of smoking among adolescents in Greece are sparse. We tried to identify factors associated with current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Greece in the context of GYTS study. Methods A secondary analysis of data from a questionnaire study using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey methodology was conducted to identify factors associated with smoking among adolescents in Greece. Data were collected in 2004–2005. The outcome variable was cigarette smoking within the past 30 days preceding the survey while independent variables included age, gender, parental educational status, parental smoking, perception of harmfulness of smoking, and the amount of pocket money at the adolescent's disposal. Results 6141 adolescents (51.5% males and 48.5% females participated in the study. In multivariate analysis, cigarette smoking was associated with male gender (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1, 08–3.08, parental smoking (OR: 2.59; 95% CI: 1.45–5.89, and having pocket money ≥ 16 Euros (OR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.19–5.98. Conclusion Male gender, parental smoking, and having pocket-money ≥ 16 Euros were independently associated with current smoking among Greek students. These findings could be taken into account in order to formulate a comprehensive anti-smoking strategy in Greece.

  19. Effectiveness Study of a CBT-Based Adolescent Coping with Depression Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvik, Margit; Idsoe, Thormod; Bru, Edvin

    2014-01-01

    Even though the efficacy of group-based cognitive behavioural interventions is well established both for adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorders as well as for adolescents with depressive symptoms, in order to prevent further development, there has been a call for effectiveness studies in real world settings. This study investigated…

  20. The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Demographic and Clinical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    n/a; n/a

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study is a multicenter, randomized clinical trial sponsored by the NIMH. This study is designed to evaluate the short- and long-term effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with major depressive disorder: fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, their combination, and, acutely,…

  1. Smoking in Movies and Adolescent Smoking Initiation Longitudinal Study in Six European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgenstern, M.; Sargent, J.D.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Florek, E.; Hunt, K.; Sweeting, H.; Mathis, F.; Faggiano, F.; Hanewinkel, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Longitudinal studies from the U.S. suggest a causal relationship between exposure to images of smoking in movies and adolescent smoking onset. Purpose: This study investigates whether adolescent smoking onset is predicted by the amount of exposure to smoking in movies across six European

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Depressive Symptomology and Self-Concept in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Marjorie; Enders, Craig; Dietz, Samantha; Dixon, Jennifer; Cavendish, Wendy Morrison

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the trajectories of depressive symptomology and self-concept in adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 and to determine whether primary school teacher ratings of adaptive and maladaptive behavior predict self-reported depressive symptoms and self-concept in adolescence. This study is part of an…

  3. Neurobiology of Decision Making in Depressed Adolescents: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shad, Mujeeb U.; Bidesi, Anup P.; Chen, Li-Ann; Ernst, Monique; Rao, Uma

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Despite evidence that impaired reward- and risk-related behavior during adolescence can have potentially serious short- and long-term consequences, few studies have investigated the impact of depression on reward-related selection in adolescents. This study examined the relationship between reward-related behavior and prefrontal…

  4. "Let's talk about sex": A qualitative study of Rwandan adolescents' views on sex and HIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.I. van Nuil; P.R. Mutwa; B. Asiimwe-Kateera; E. Kestelyn; J. Vyankandondera; R. Pool; J. Ruhirimbura; C. Kanakuze; P. Reiss; S.P.M. Geelen; J.H. van de Wijgert; K.R. Boer

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This qualitative study explored the views and experiences of adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV in Kigali, Rwanda, regarding sex, love, marriage, children and hope for the future. DESIGN: The study enrolled 42 adolescents who had received combination antiretroviral therapy for at l

  5. Pilot Study of Community-Based Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents with Social Phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Susan; Garland, E. Jane

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for adolescents with social phobia, simplified both in terms of time and labor intensity from a previously studied program (Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children and Adolescents) to be more appropriate for a community outpatient psychiatric…

  6. Bupropion SR in Adolescents with Comorbid ADHD and Nicotine Dependence: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Wang, Wei

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Bupropion SR has been shown to be effective for the treatment of nicotine dependence in adults. This open-label pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility and preliminary tolerability of bupropion SR in adolescents with nicotine dependence. Method: Sixteen adolescents aged 12 to 19 years were enrolled in the study. Eleven of…

  7. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Andrea F; Visser, Leenke; Verhulst, Frank C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among adolescent

  8. Prediction of Postpartum Social Support and Symptoms of Depression in Pregnant Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logsdon, M. Cynthia; Cross, Rene; Williams, Beverly; Simpson, Theresa

    2004-01-01

    Many pregnant adolescents remain in school, creating unique challenges for professionals to meet their educational and health needs. In this descriptive pilot study of pregnant adolescents (n = 26), 68% demonstrated symptoms of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). In addition, there was an…

  9. An Internationally Comparative Study of Immigration and Adolescent Emotional and Behavioral Problems : Effects of Generation and Gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Walsh, Sophie D; Huijts, Tim; Maes, Marlies; Madsen, Katrine Rich; Cavallo, Franco; Molcho, Michal

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although the potential consequences of immigration for adolescent problem behaviors have been addressed in many former studies, internationally comparative research is scarce. This study investigated the impact of immigration on four indicators of adolescents' emotional and behavioral probl

  10. On shaky ground - A study of security vulnerabilities in control protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent introduction of information technologies such as Ethernet R into nuclear industry control devices has resulted in significantly less isolation from the outside world. This raises the question of whether these systems could be attacked by malware, network hackers or professional criminals to cause disruption to critical operations in a manner similar to the impacts now felt in the business world. To help answer this question, a study was undertaken to test a representative control protocol to determine if it had vulnerabilities that could be exploited. A framework was created in which a test could express a large number of test cases in very compact formal language. This in turn, allowed for the economical automation of both the generation of selectively malformed protocol traffic and the measurement of device under test's (DUT) behavior in response to this traffic. Approximately 5000 protocol conformance tests were run against two major brands of industrial controller. More than 60 categories of errors were discovered, the majority of which were in the form of incorrect error responses to malformed traffic. Several malformed packets however, caused the device to respond or communicate in inappropriate ways. These would be relatively simple for an attacker to inject into a system and could result in the plant operator losing complete view or control of the control device. Based on this relatively small set of devices, we believe that the nuclear industry urgently needs to adopt better security robustness testing of control devices as standard practice. (authors)

  11. Proposed computerized protocol for epidemiological study of patients undergoing microsurgery of the larynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catani, Guilherme Simas do Amaral

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The merging of medicine with information technology facilitates the retrieval of stored data, aiding the conduct of research with greater scientific rigor. Studies in the field of otorhinolaryngology, specifically in the area of laryngology and voice, are of fundamental importance, since 70% of the economically active need their voice to work. Objective: To create a computerized protocol of the diseases of the larynx, apply and validate it, and use it to evaluate patients undergoing laryngoscopic microsurgery of the larynx. Method: We created a database of ENT diseases through a literature review of textbooks and scientific articles. Next, we computerized the data and incorporated it into the SINPE©, creating a master protocol (ENT diseases and a specific protocol (laryngeal diseases. Data were collected prospectively from patients undergoing laryngeal microsurgery in the ENT Hospital of Paraná. The collected data were analyzed with graphs through the SINPE© Analyzer module. Results: We evaluated 245 patients aged 9-79 years, and determined that 36.61% (93 patients underwent surgery for the presence of polyps on the vocal folds, 12.6% (32 underwent surgery for papillomatosis, and 11.83% (29 underwent surgery for intracordal cysts. Conclusions: The creation of an electronic database of clinical ENT diseases was feasible. We were also able to implement and validate the protocol. The database may be released to physicians involved in clinical data collection and retrieval of information to conduct scientific research in an organized manner. The most common laryngeal disorders identified were polyps, papilloma, and intracordal cysts.

  12. Efficiency of different protocols for enamel clean-up after bracket debonding: an in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigilião, Lara Carvalho Freitas; Marquezan, Mariana; Elias, Carlos Nelson; Ruellas, Antônio Carlos; Sant'Anna, Eduardo Franzotti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the efficiency of six protocols for cleaning-up tooth enamel after bracket debonding. Methods: A total of 60 premolars were divided into six groups, according to the tools used for clean-up: 12-blade bur at low speed (G12L), 12-blade bur at high speed (G12H), 30-blade bur at low speed (G30L), DU10CO ORTHO polisher (GDU), Renew System (GR) and Diagloss polisher (GD). Mean roughness (Ra) and mean roughness depth (Rz) of enamel surface were analyzed with a profilometer. Paired t-test was used to assess Ra and Rz before and after enamel clean-up. ANOVA/Tukey tests were used for intergroup comparison. The duration of removal procedures was recorded. The association between time and variation in enamel roughness (∆Ra, ∆Rz) were evaluated by Pearson's correlation test. Enamel topography was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: In Groups G12L and G12H, original enamel roughness did not change significantly. In Groups G30L, GDU, GR and GD, a smoother surface (p < 0.05) was found after clean-up. In Groups G30L and GD, the protocols used were more time-consuming than those used in the other groups. Negative and moderate correlation was observed between time and (∆Ra, ∆Rz); Ra and (∆Ra, ∆Rz); Rz (r = - 0.445, r = - 0.475, p < 0.01). Conclusion: All enamel clean-up protocols were efficient because they did not result in increased surface roughness. The longer the time spent performing the protocol, the lower the surface roughness. PMID:26560825

  13. Efficiency of different protocols for enamel clean-up after bracket debonding: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Carvalho Freitas Sigilião

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the efficiency of six protocols for cleaning-up tooth enamel after bracket debonding.Methods:A total of 60 premolars were divided into six groups, according to the tools used for clean-up: 12-blade bur at low speed (G12L, 12-blade bur at high speed (G12H, 30-blade bur at low speed (G30L, DU10CO ORTHO polisher (GDU, Renew System (GR and Diagloss polisher (GD. Mean roughness (Ra and mean roughness depth (Rz of enamel surface were analyzed with a profilometer. Paired t-test was used to assess Ra and Rz before and after enamel clean-up. ANOVA/Tukey tests were used for intergroup comparison. The duration of removal procedures was recorded. The association between time and variation in enamel roughness (∆Ra, ∆Rz were evaluated by Pearson's correlation test. Enamel topography was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM.Results:In Groups G12L and G12H, original enamel roughness did not change significantly. In Groups G30L, GDU, GR and GD, a smoother surface (p < 0.05 was found after clean-up. In Groups G30L and GD, the protocols used were more time-consuming than those used in the other groups. Negative and moderate correlation was observed between time and (∆Ra, ∆Rz; Ra and (∆Ra, ∆Rz; Rz (r = - 0.445, r = - 0.475, p < 0.01.Conclusion:All enamel clean-up protocols were efficient because they did not result in increased surface roughness. The longer the time spent performing the protocol, the lower the surface roughness.

  14. Ostracism among Gifted Adolescents: A Preliminary Study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzeyir Ogurlu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ostracism has an influence on psychological and social functioning. The aim of this study is to examine ostracism among gifted students, with regard to gender and grade levels. Also, the relationship between ostracism and intelligence level was investigated. The study was conducted in a gifted education center, with 94 gifted students who were attending middle school (grades 5-8. The Ostracism Experience Scale for Adolescents and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Revised Form were employed as data collection tools. According to the findings obtained from the study, it is concluded that ostracism did not differ in terms of gender among gifted students. Besides, being socially excluded may be higher in 8th grades than 6th and 7th grades. Also in the study, a positive correlation was found between intelligence level and ostracism. Discussion and suggestions were also provided based on the results.

  15. Breakfast habits among European adolescents and their association with sociodemographic factors: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study

    OpenAIRE

    Hallströma, Lena; Gómez Martínez, Sonia; Sjöström, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe breakfast habits at food group level in European adolescents and to investigate the associations between these habits and sociodemographic factors. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Secondary schools from nine European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study. Breakfast habits were assessed twice using a computer-based 24 h dietary recall. Adolescents who consumed breakfast on at least one recall day were clas...

  16. Inhibition control impairments in adolescent smokers: electrophysiological evidence from a Go/NoGo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Junsen; Yuan, Kai; Feng, Dan; Cheng, Jiadong; Li, Yangding; Cai, Chenxi; Bi, Yanzhi; Sha, Shi; Shen, Xiaomin; Zhang, Ben; Xue, Ting; Qin, Wei; Yu, Dahua; Lu, Xiaoqi; Tian, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Smoking during adolescence may promote nicotine dependence later on in life. Therefore, it is extremely important to study the neural mechanisms of adolescent smokers. As inhibition control is emphasized in several contemporary theoretical models of addiction, in the current study, we focused on the electrophysiological evidence of inhibition control deficits in adolescent smokers. By using relatively homogenous groups of adolescent smokers (n = 18) and matched nonsmokers (n = 18), we employed event-related potentials (ERP) to investigate the N200 and P300 amplitude and latency differences during a Go/NoGo task between the adolescent smokers and nonsmokers. Relative to nonsmokers, more NoGo response errors, reduced NoGo P300 amplitude, and longer P300 latency were observed in adolescent smokers. Correlation analysis revealed that the NoGo P300 amplitudes were significantly correlated with NoGo errors in both adolescent smokers and nonsmokers. Our findings provided direct electrophysiological evidence for inhibitory control impairments in adolescent smokers. It is hoped that our results may enhance understanding of the pathology of inhibitory control in adolescent smokers. PMID:26093534

  17. Neural changes induced by antipsychotic administration in adolescence: A review of studies in laboratory rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Aung Aung Kywe; Scott, James G; Burne, Thomas Hj; Eyles, Darryl W

    2016-08-01

    Adolescence is characterized by major remodelling processes in the brain. Use of antipsychotic drugs (APDs) in adolescents has increased dramatically in the last 20 years; however, our understanding of the neurobiological consequences of APD treatment on the adolescent brain has not kept the same pace and significant concerns have been raised. In this review, we examined currently available preclinical studies of the effects of APDs on the adolescent brain. In animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders, adolescent APD treatment appears to be protective against selected structural, behavioural and neurochemical phenotypes. In "neurodevelopmentally normal" adolescent animals, a range of short- and long-term alterations in behaviour and neurochemistry have been reported. In particular, the adolescent brain appears to be sensitive to long-term locomotor/reward effects of chronic atypical APDs in contrast with the outcomes in adults. Long-lasting changes in dopaminergic, glutamatergic and gamma-amino butyric acid-ergic systems induced by adolescent APD administration have been observed in the nucleus accumbens. A detailed examination of other potential target regions such as striatum, prefrontal cortex and ventral tegmental area is still required. Through identification of specific neural pathways targeted by adolescent APD treatment, future studies will expand the current knowledge on long-term neural outcomes which are of translational value. PMID:27413140

  18. Why standard brain-computer interface (BCI) training protocols should be changed: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeunet, Camille; Jahanpour, Emilie; Lotte, Fabien

    2016-06-01

    Objective. While promising, electroencephaloraphy based brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) are barely used due to their lack of reliability: 15% to 30% of users are unable to control a BCI. Standard training protocols may be partly responsible as they do not satisfy recommendations from psychology. Our main objective was to determine in practice to what extent standard training protocols impact users’ motor imagery based BCI (MI-BCI) control performance. Approach. We performed two experiments. The first consisted in evaluating the efficiency of a standard BCI training protocol for the acquisition of non-BCI related skills in a BCI-free context, which enabled us to rule out the possible impact of BCIs on the training outcome. Thus, participants (N = 54) were asked to perform simple motor tasks. The second experiment was aimed at measuring the correlations between motor tasks and MI-BCI performance. The ten best and ten worst performers of the first study were recruited for an MI-BCI experiment during which they had to learn to perform two MI tasks. We also assessed users’ spatial ability and pre-training μ rhythm amplitude, as both have been related to MI-BCI performance in the literature. Main results. Around 17% of the participants were unable to learn to perform the motor tasks, which is close to the BCI illiteracy rate. This suggests that standard training protocols are suboptimal for skill teaching. No correlation was found between motor tasks and MI-BCI performance. However, spatial ability played an important role in MI-BCI performance. In addition, once the spatial ability covariable had been controlled for, using an ANCOVA, it appeared that participants who faced difficulty during the first experiment improved during the second while the others did not. Significance. These studies suggest that (1) standard MI-BCI training protocols are suboptimal for skill teaching, (2) spatial ability is confirmed as impacting on MI-BCI performance, and (3) when faced

  19. Why standard brain-computer interface (BCI) training protocols should be changed: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeunet, Camille; Jahanpour, Emilie; Lotte, Fabien

    2016-06-01

    Objective. While promising, electroencephaloraphy based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are barely used due to their lack of reliability: 15% to 30% of users are unable to control a BCI. Standard training protocols may be partly responsible as they do not satisfy recommendations from psychology. Our main objective was to determine in practice to what extent standard training protocols impact users’ motor imagery based BCI (MI-BCI) control performance. Approach. We performed two experiments. The first consisted in evaluating the efficiency of a standard BCI training protocol for the acquisition of non-BCI related skills in a BCI-free context, which enabled us to rule out the possible impact of BCIs on the training outcome. Thus, participants (N = 54) were asked to perform simple motor tasks. The second experiment was aimed at measuring the correlations between motor tasks and MI-BCI performance. The ten best and ten worst performers of the first study were recruited for an MI-BCI experiment during which they had to learn to perform two MI tasks. We also assessed users’ spatial ability and pre-training μ rhythm amplitude, as both have been related to MI-BCI performance in the literature. Main results. Around 17% of the participants were unable to learn to perform the motor tasks, which is close to the BCI illiteracy rate. This suggests that standard training protocols are suboptimal for skill teaching. No correlation was found between motor tasks and MI-BCI performance. However, spatial ability played an important role in MI-BCI performance. In addition, once the spatial ability covariable had been controlled for, using an ANCOVA, it appeared that participants who faced difficulty during the first experiment improved during the second while the others did not. Significance. These studies suggest that (1) standard MI-BCI training protocols are suboptimal for skill teaching, (2) spatial ability is confirmed as impacting on MI-BCI performance, and (3) when faced

  20. Enhancing research quality and reporting: why the Journal of Comorbidity is now publishing study protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Smith

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Journal of Comorbidity was launched in 2011 and has since become established as a high-quality journal that publishes open-access, peer-reviewed articles, with a focus on advancing the clinical management of patients with comorbidity/multimorbidity. To further enhance research quality and reporting of studies in this field, the journal is now offering authors the opportunity to publish a summary of their study protocols – a move designed to generate interest and raise awareness in ongoing clinical research and to enable researchers to detail their methodologies in order that replication by scientific peers is possible.

  1. Research on Protocol Migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪芸; 顾冠群; 等

    1996-01-01

    This paper elaborates the concept and model of protocol migration in network interconnection.Migration strategies and principles are discussed and several cases are studied in detail which show the basic procedure and techniques used in protocol migration.

  2. Parent Involvement in CBT Treatment of Adolescent Depression: Experiences in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Karen C.; Albano, Anne Marie

    2005-01-01

    The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) evaluated the short- and long-term effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) alone, fluoxetine alone, and their combination, relative to pill placebo, and the 12-week treatment effects were recently published (TADS Team, 2004). Results showed that treatment that combined CBT with…

  3. Does a competitive voucher program for adolescents improve the quality of reproductive health care? A simulated patient study in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorter Anna C

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how sexual and reproductive (SRH health can be made accessible and appropriate to adolescents. This study evaluates the impact and sustainability of a competitive voucher program on the quality of SRH care for poor and underserved female adolescents and the usefulness of the simulated patient (SP method for such evaluation. Methods 28,711 vouchers were distributed to adolescents in disadvantaged areas of Managua that gave free-of-charge access to SRH care in 4 public, 10 non-governmental and 5 private clinics. Providers received training and guidelines, treatment protocols, and financial incentives for each adolescent attended. All clinics were visited by female adolescent SPs requesting contraception. SPs were sent one week before, during (with voucher and one month after the intervention. After each consultation they were interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. Twenty-one criteria were scored and grouped into four categories. Clinics' scores were compared using non-parametric statistical methods (paired design: before-during and before-after. Also the influence of doctors' characteristics was tested using non-parametric statistical methods. Results Some aspects of service quality improved during the voucher program. Before the program started 8 of the 16 SPs returned 'empty handed', although all were eligible contraceptive users. During the program 16/17 left with a contraceptive method (p = 0.01. Furthermore, more SPs were involved in the contraceptive method choice (13/17 vs.5/16, p = 0.02. Shared decision-making on contraceptive method as well as condom promotion had significantly increased after the program ended. Female doctors had best scores before- during and after the intervention. The improvements were more pronounced among male doctors and doctors older than 40, though these improvements did not sustain after the program ended. Conclusion This study illustrates provider

  4. Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS: rationale, design, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waslick Bruce D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To present the design, methods, and rationale of the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS, a recently completed federally-funded, multi-site, randomized placebo-controlled trial that examined the relative efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT, sertraline (SRT, and their combination (COMB against pill placebo (PBO for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder (SAD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD and social phobia (SoP in children and adolescents. Methods Following a brief review of the acute outcomes of the CAMS trial, as well as the psychosocial and pharmacologic treatment literature for pediatric anxiety disorders, the design and methods of the CAMS trial are described. Results CAMS was a six-year, six-site, randomized controlled trial. Four hundred eighty-eight (N = 488 children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of SAD, GAD, or SoP were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: CBT, SRT, COMB, or PBO. Assessments of anxiety symptoms, safety, and functional outcomes, as well as putative mediators and moderators of treatment response were completed in a multi-measure, multi-informant fashion. Manual-based therapies, trained clinicians and independent evaluators were used to ensure treatment and assessment fidelity. A multi-layered administrative structure with representation from all sites facilitated cross-site coordination of the entire trial, study protocols and quality assurance. Conclusions CAMS offers a model for clinical trials methods applicable to psychosocial and psychopharmacological comparative treatment trials by using state-of-the-art methods and rigorous cross-site quality controls. CAMS also provided a large-scale examination of the relative and combined efficacy and safety of the best evidenced-based psychosocial (CBT and pharmacologic (SSRI treatments to date for the most commonly occurring pediatric anxiety disorders. Primary and secondary results

  5. Dietary Intake among Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country: An Outcome from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Study (the MyHeARTs Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Majid, Hazreen; Ramli, Liyana; Ying, Sim Pei; Su, Tin Tin; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Abdul Mohsein, Nabilla Al-Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is essential for healthy growth during adolescence. This study aims to investigate the baseline nutritional intake of Malaysian adolescents by gender, body mass index, and places of residence, both urban and rural. A cohort study was conducted consisting of 794 adolescents (aged 13-years) attending 15 public secondary schools from the Central (Kuala Lumpur and Selangor) and Northern (Perak) Regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Qualified dietitians conducted a 7-day historical assessment of habitual food intakes. Facilitated by flipcharts and household measurement tools, detailed information on portion sizes and meal contents were recorded. Nutritionist Pro™ Diet Analysis software was also used to analyze the dietary records.The mean age of the adolescents was 12.86 ± 0.33 y; the mean energy intake was 1659.0 ± 329.6 kcal/d. Males had significantly (P inequality. PMID:27187889

  6. The Newcastle 85+ study: biological, clinical and psychosocial factors associated with healthy ageing: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin-Ruiz Carmen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK, like other developed countries, is experiencing a marked change in the age structure of its population characterised by increasing life expectancy and continuing growth in the older fraction of the population. There is remarkably little up-to-date information about the health of the oldest old (over 85 years, demographically the fastest growing section of the population. There is a need, from both a policy and scientific perspective, to describe in detail the health status of this population and the factors that influence individual health trajectories. For a very large proportion of medical conditions, age is the single largest risk factor. Gaining new knowledge about why aged cells and tissues are more vulnerable to pathology is likely to catalyse radical new insights and opportunities to intervene. The aims of the Newcastle 85+ Study are to expose the spectrum of health within an inception cohort of 800 85 year-olds; to examine health trajectories and outcomes as the cohort ages and their associations with underlying biological, medical and social factors; and to advance understanding of the biological nature of ageing. Methods A cohort of 800 85 year olds from Newcastle and North Tyneside will be recruited at baseline and followed until the last participant has died. Eligible individuals will be all those who turn 85 during the year 2006 (i.e. born in 1921 and who are registered with a Newcastle or North Tyneside general practice. Participants will be visited in their current residence (own home or institution by a research nurse at baseline, 18 months and 36 months. The assessment protocol entails a detailed multi-dimensional health assessment together with review of general practice medical records. Participants will be flagged with the NHS Central Register to provide details of the date and cause of death. Discussion The Newcastle 85+ Study will address key questions about health and health-maintenance in the

  7. Adolescent Career Development in Urban-Residing Aboriginal Families in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sheila K.; Young, Richard A.; Stevens, Alison; Spence, Wayne; Deyell, Stewart; Easterbrook, Adam; Brokenleg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how urban-residing Aboriginal adolescent-parent dyads (n = 11) jointly constructed and acted on goals and strategies with their social supports (n = 17) to facilitate the adolescents' career development. A modified protocol following the qualitative action-project method was used. A discrete joint…

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Narrative Development in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleave, Patricia; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Czutrin, Rachael; Smith, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome longitudinally. Narratives were collected from 32 children and adolescents with Down syndrome three times over a 1-year period. Both micro- and macrolevel analyses were conducted. Significant growth over the 1-year period was seen in semantic complexity…

  9. Impact of Childhood Trauma on Treatment Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Nguyen, Lananh J.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Reid, Mark W.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The impact of childhood trauma was examined in 427 adolescents (54% girls, 74% Caucasian, mean = 14.6, SD = 1.5) with major depressive disorder participating in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: TADS compared the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), their combination (COMB),…

  10. Life events and functional somatic symptoms : A population study in older adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonvanie, Irma J; Janssens, Karin A M; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of negative life events on functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents, based on data from 957 participants of the population cohort TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey. Life events experienced between age 16 and age 19 were ass

  11. Neuropsychological Studies on Adolescents with Phenylketonuria Returned to Phenylalanine-Restricted Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, J. T. R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study evaluated neuropsychological effects of high or low phenylalanine diets on nine phenylketonuric (PKU) adolescents who had been on unrestricted diets for 2 to 11 years. Results found that PKU adolescents on unrestricted diets have a neuropsychological deficit which can be partly reversed by returning to dietary phenylalanine restricted…

  12. Identifying target groups for the prevention of depression in early adolescence : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monshouwer, K.; Smit, F.; Ruiter, M.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, F.; Vollebergh, W.; Oldehinkel, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Depression in adolescence is associated with long-term adverse consequences. The aim of the present study is to identify target groups at increased risk of developing depression in early adolescence, such that prevention is associated with the largest health benefit at population-level f

  13. Functioning and Quality of Life in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Rohde, Paul; Silva, Susan; Wells, Karen; Casat, Charles; Waslick, Bruce; Simons, Anne; Reinecke, Mark; Weller, Elizabeth; Kratochvil, Christopher; Walkup, John; Pathak, Sanjeev; Robins, Michele; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Obective: To test whether 12-week treatment of major depression improved the level of functioning, global health, and quality of life of adolescents. Method: The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study was a multisite, randomized clinical trial of fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or clinical…

  14. Predictors and Moderators of Acute Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, John; Rohde, Paul; Simons, Anne; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher; Reinecke, Mark; Feeny, Norah; Wells, Karen; Pathak, Sanjeev; Weller, Elizabeth; Rosenberg, David; Kennard, Betsy; Robins, Michele; Ginsburg, Golda; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors and moderators of response to acute treatments among depressed adolescents (N = 439) randomly assigned to fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), both fluoxetine and CBT, or clinical management with pill placebo in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS). Method: Potential baseline…

  15. Acute Time to Response in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvil, Christopher; Emslie, Graham; Silva, Susan; McNulty, Steve; Walkup, John; Curry, John; Reinecke, Mark; Vitiello, Benedetto; Rohde, Paul; Feeny, Nora; Casat, Charles; Pathak, Sanjeev; Weller, Elizabeth; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Robins, Michele; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the time to response for both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: Adolescents (N = 439, ages 12 to 17 years) with major depressive disorder were randomized to fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or pill placebo…

  16. The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Methods and Message at 12 Weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, John; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2006-01-01

    Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) is intended to evaluate the short-term (12 weeks) and longer-term (36 weeks) effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with DSM-IV major depressive disorder: clinical management with fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy…

  17. Factors Associated with Recruitment and Screening in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Diane E.; Hallin, Mary J.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Puumala, Susan E.; Smith, Lynette S.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; Weller, Elizabeth B.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Breland-Noble, Alfiee; March, John S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine factors associated with eligibility and randomization and consider the efficiency of recruitment methods. Method: Adolescents, ages 12 to 17 years, were telephone screened (N = 2,804) followed by in-person evaluation (N = 1,088) for the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study. Separate logistic regression models,…

  18. Maturation of EEG Power Spectra in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragg, Lucy; Kovacevic, Natasa; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Poulsen, Catherine; Martinu, Kristina; Leonard, Gabriel; Paus, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the fine-grained development of the EEG power spectra in early adolescence, and the extent to which it is reflected in changes in peak frequency. It also sought to determine whether sex differences in the EEG power spectra reflect differential patterns of maturation. A group of 56 adolescents were tested at age 10 years and…

  19. Adolescent Gambling Behaviour and Attitudes: A Prevalence Study and Correlates in an Australian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alun C.; Dowling, Nicki; Thomas, Shane A.; Bond, Lyndal; Patton, George

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that a range of risk factors are associated with adolescent problem gambling. Using a representative sample of 2,788 eighth grade students in Victoria, Australia, the primary aim of this study was to examine the degree to which these risk factors are associated with different levels of adolescent gambling…

  20. Emotional Dynamics in the Development of Early Adolescent Psychopathology: A One-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Anna; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Frijns, Tom; Meeus, Wim; Koot, Hans M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the role of the level and variability of happiness, anger, anxiety, and sadness in the development of adolescent-reported anxiety disorder symptoms, depressive symptoms, and aggressive behavior in 452 adolescents (250 male) followed from age 13 to 14. Level and between-day variability of emotions were assessed through…

  1. Study of Delinquent, Diverted, and High-Risk Adolescent Girls: Implications for Mental Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffolo, Mary C.; Sarri, Rosemary; Goodkind, Sara

    2004-01-01

    This study examines risk and protective factors for delinquent, diverted, and high-risk adolescent girls to inform the development of effective mental health prevention and intervention programs. Delinquent, diverted, and high-risk adolescent girls (N = 159) involved or at risk of involvement with the juvenile justice system, who were receiving…

  2. A Prospective Study of Risk Factors for the Development of Depression and Disordered Eating in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that females display higher levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating than males from adolescence onward. This study examined whether different risk factors and their interaction with sex (moderator effect) prospectively predicted depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescents. A total of 415 female…

  3. Educational Computer Use in Leisure Contexts: A Phenomenological Study of Adolescents' Experiences at Internet Cafes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilesiz, Sebnem

    2009-01-01

    Computer use is a widespread leisure activity for adolescents. Leisure contexts, such as Internet cafes, constitute specific social environments for computer use and may hold significant educational potential. This article reports a phenomenological study of adolescents' experiences of educational computer use at Internet cafes in Turkey. The…

  4. School-Related Stress and Depression in Adolescents with and without Learning Disabilities: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurer, D. Paige; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined school-related stress and depression in adolescents with and without learning disabilities. A total of 87 students (38 learning-disabled and 49 nondisabled) from secondary schools in Calgary completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and on school-related stress. Results indicated that the adolescents with LD reported…

  5. Dimensionality of Thoughts of Death and Suicide: Evidence from a Study of Homeless Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Kevin A.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2008-01-01

    This study used data from a sample of 444 homeless adolescents to determine whether thoughts of death and suicide form one construct (unidimensionality) or two distinct but correlated constructs (multi-dimensionality). Thoughts of death and suicide were common in the sample; over two-thirds of the adolescents positively endorsed at least one of…

  6. A Qualitative Study of Parental Modeling and Social Support for Physical Activity in Underserved Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marcie S.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Griffin, Sarah; Evans, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    This study obtained qualitative data to assess how parental role modeling and parental social support influence physical activity in underserved (minority, low-income) adolescents. Fifty-two adolescents (22 males, 30 females; ages 10-14 years, 85% African-American) participated in a focus group (6-10 per group, same gender). Focus groups were…

  7. Alcohol Use and Social Adjustment in Adolescence : A Longitudinal, Multilevel Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Sentse, Miranda; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2012-01-01

    The study examined to what extent alcohol use among Dutch adolescents (1,421 adolescents, aged 12-16) was related to sociability and whether the social context affects this association. Data were based on self-reports and peer reports during 2005 and 2006. The results indicated that in contrast to p

  8. Relationships between Substance Use and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relationships between depressive symptoms and use of alcohol, cigarettes, and illicit substances among adolescents, addressing methodological limitations and potential confounding in the extant literature. The sample comprised adolescents who were surveyed in Grades 6 (n = 916), 9 (n = 804), and 11 (n = 791).…

  9. A longitudinal case–control study on goals in adolescents with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulkers, Esther; Janse, Moniek; Brinksma, Aeltsje; Roodbol, Petrie F.; Kamps, Willem A.; Tissing, Wim J.E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Fleer, Joke

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether: (1) the goals of adolescents with cancer at 3 months post-diagnosis (T1) and healthy peers differed in terms of content, valuation, and abstraction level, (2) the content, valuation and abstraction level of the goals of the adolescents with cancer differed bet

  10. A longitudinal case-control study on goals in adolescents with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulkers, Esther; Janse, Moniek; Brinksma, Aeltsje; Roodbol, Petrie F.; Kamps, Willem A.; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Fleer, Joke

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether: (1) the goals of adolescents with cancer at 3months post-diagnosis (T1) and healthy peers differed in terms of content, valuation, and abstraction level, (2) the content, valuation and abstraction level of the goals of the adolescents with cancer differed betw

  11. Adolescents' Exposure to Sexually Explicit Internet Material and Sexual Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, within a social comparison framework, the causal relationship between adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) and their sexual satisfaction. In addition, we tested which adolescents were most susceptible to a potential influence of SEIM on sexual satisfaction. Between May 2006 and…

  12. Impetus for Worship: An Exploratory Study of Adolescents' Idol Adoration Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Ching; Lin, Chien-Hsin

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this article is to explore the idolization behaviors of Taiwanese adolescents. The study gathered 1,636 questionnaires from 13 senior high schools across northern, central, southern, and eastern Taiwan. The results indicate that adolescents' gender correlates with the idol type they choose to adore when the idol is male. This…

  13. Multiple Identities and Religious Transmission: A Study among Moroccan-Dutch Muslim Adolescents and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem; Stevens, Gonneke

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between religious group identification and ethnic and national identity among Moroccan-Dutch Muslim adolescents (11-18 years) and their parents (n = 369). Compared to their parents, adolescents showed higher national identification and lower religious and ethnic group identification. However, for adolescents…

  14. The relationship between early sexual debut and psychosocial outcomes: a longitudinal study of Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Udell; T. Sandfort; E. Reitz; H. Bos; M. Dekovic

    2010-01-01

    In a longitudinal dataset of 470 Dutch adolescents, the current study examined the ways in which early sexual initiation was related to subsequent attachment, self-perception, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. For male adolescents, analyses revealed general attachment to mother and

  15. Pilot Study: Fluvoxamine Treatment for Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothelf, Doron; Rubinstein, Maly; Shemesh, Eyal; Miller, Orit; Farbstein, Ilana; Klein, Anat; Weizman, Abraham; Apter, Alan; Yaniv, Isaac

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and benefit of fluvoxamine for the treatment of major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with cancer. Method: The study was conducted from 2001 to 2004 at a pediatric hematology-oncology center. Fifteen children and adolescents with cancer were treated with…

  16. Glutamatergic Effects of Divalproex in Adolescents with Mania: A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawn, Jeffrey R.; Patel, Nick C.; Chu, Wen-Jang; Lee, Jing-Huei; Adler, Caleb M.; Kim, Mi Jung; Bryan, Holly S.; Alfieri, David C.; Welge, Jeffrey A.; Blom, Thomas J.; Nandagopal, Jayasree J.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; DelBello, Melissa P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ([superscript 1]H MRS) to evaluate the in vivo effects of extended-release divalproex sodium on the glutamatergic system in adolescents with bipolar disorder, and to identify baseline neurochemical predictors of clinical remission. Method: Adolescents with bipolar disorder who were…

  17. A prospective study of screen time in adolescence and depression symptoms in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Singhammer, John; Froberg, Karsten;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between screen time in adolescence and depressive symptoms in young adulthood in a population-based cohort study of Danish adolescents. METHODS: Data were from a cohort of adolescents who were followed-up in young adulthood for ...... in young adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Limiting screen time, particularly television viewing, during adolescence may be important for preventing depression in young adulthood.......OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between screen time in adolescence and depressive symptoms in young adulthood in a population-based cohort study of Danish adolescents. METHODS: Data were from a cohort of adolescents who were followed-up in young adulthood...... for a period of up to 12years (1997-2010, mean 8.8years, n=435). Information on television viewing, computer use, total screen time and other determinants of depression were obtained in adolescence. Depressive symptoms were obtained in young adulthood using the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and classified...

  18. School-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression: A Benchmarking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Kaplinski, Heather; Gudmundsen, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adolescent depression delivered in health clinics and counseling centers in four high schools. Outcomes were benchmarked to results from prior efficacy trials. Fifty adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorders were treated by eight doctoral-level psychologists who followed a…

  19. Adolescent Students' Reading during Writing Behaviors and Relationships with Text Quality: An Eyetracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Scott F.; Quinlan, Thomas; Harbaugh, Allen G.

    2010-01-01

    This study employed eyetracking technology to investigate adolescent students' reading processes as they composed and to explore relationships between these reading processes and text quality. A sample of 32 adolescent students composed narrative and expository texts while eyetracking equipment recorded their eye movements. Eye movements upon a…

  20. The Rural Context of Illicit Substance Offers: A Study of Appalachian Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice; Hecht, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Rural adolescents are at risk for early initiation and problematic substance use, but to date few studies have examined the rural context of substance use. To better understand substance offers in the rural context, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 118, 12- to 19-year-old adolescents (M = 13.68, SD = 1.37) from Appalachian, rural…

  1. The Initiation of Dating in Adolescence: The Effect of Parental Divorce. The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Katya; Mills, Melinda; Veenstra, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of parental divorce on the time it took adolescents to initiate their first romantic relationships. Individual differences in temperament and pubertal development and the age of the adolescent at the time of divorce were also taken into account. Hypotheses were tested using event history analysis with a sample of…

  2. Cardiovascular Health in Anxiety or Mood Problems Study (CHAMPS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tully, Phillip J; Turnbull, Deborah A; Horowitz, John D; Beltrame, John F.; Selkow, Terina; Baune, Bernhard T; Markwick, Elizabeth; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Baumeister, Harald; Cosh, Suzanne; Gary A Wittert

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous psychological and pharmacological interventions have primarily focused on depression disorders in populations with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and the efficacy of anxiety disorder interventions is only more recently being explored. Transdiagnostic interventions address common emotional processes and the full range of anxiety and depression disorders often observed in populations with CVDs. The aim of CHAMPS is to evaluate the feasibility of a unified protocol (UP) for t...

  3. STUDY OF INFECTIOUS AND NON INFECTIOUS PROBLEMS IN ADOLESCENTS OF URBAN CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In adolescents there is a unique set of health problems due to more social contact, less immunity, increase in requirement for nutrition, pubertal growth spurt, behavior problems, so the present study is undertaken to find out infectious and non-infectious problems in the adolescents. AIM & OBJECTIVES: To know the extent of infectious and non-infectious problems in adolescents and also to compare among different socioeconomic groups. METHODS: Adolescents belonging to different socioeconomic groups selected. Three schools and one slum in urban area chosen of adolescents aging between 11-19yrs, there weight, height, blood pressure, clinical examination of face, eye, ear, lips, teeth, gum, nails, tongue, glands, subcutaneous tissue, Musculoskeletal system, CVS, RS, GIT, CNS and previous health record checked. OBSERVATIONS: Study group comprised of 437 adolescents aging between 11-19yrs consisting of 299 girls and 138 boys, In the present study, good habit of personal hygiene was observed in 12.4% of slum adolescents, 46.8% in lower middle class group (OFH+VVH and 62.2% in upper middle class, 37.9% adolescents had falling hair. 34.5% adolescents had Dandruff. Pediculosis and hirsutism were present in 6.4% and 0.9% adolescents respectively, Acne was present in 33.9% of adolescents, 7.3% had white patches, Pyoderma and scabies 2% and 1% of adolescents respectively, 19.4% had Dental pain. It was also observed that Caries in 15.7%, Gum bleeding in 6.6%, Gingivitis in 4.1% and Malocclusion in 3.4% were present, 14.6% adolescents had Sinusitis, 8.6% had Tonsillitis and Rhinitis in 8% and Ear discharge in 0.9% was observed, 15% had Refractive error, 1.3% had Pterigium, 1.1% had Conjunctivitis, 0.7% had Stye and 0.6% had Squint, 6.8% adolescents had Asthma and 0.4% had Tuberculosis. Epilepsy, RHD, CHD, Hyperthyroidism and Goiter was observed in 0.2% adolescents. DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION: Socio economic status plays an important role in infectious

  4. The Bakery Protocol: A Comparative Case-Study in Formal Verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, D.; Korver, H.

    2008-01-01

    Groote and the second author verified (a version of) the Bakery Protocol in μCRL. Their process-algebraic verification is rather complex compared to the protocol. Now the question is: How do other verification techniques perform on this protocol? In this paper we present a new correctness proof by u

  5. Comparison between stress myocardial perfusion SPECT recorded with cadmium-zinc-telluride and Anger cameras in various study protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verger, Antoine; Karcher, Gilles [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); INSERM U947, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Djaballah, Wassila [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); INSERM U947, Nancy (France); Fourquet, Nicolas [Clinique Pasteur, Toulouse (France); Rouzet, Francois; Le Guludec, Dominique [AP-HP, Hopital Bichat, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); INSERM U 773 Inserm and Denis Diderot University, Paris (France); Koehl, Gregoire; Roch, Veronique [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Imbert, Laetitia [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Centre Alexis Vautrin, Department of Radiotherapy, Vandoeuvre (France); Poussier, Sylvain [INSERM U947, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Fay, Renaud [INSERM, Centre d' Investigation Clinique CIC-P 9501, Nancy (France); Marie, Pierre-Yves [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); INSERM U961, Nancy (France); Hopital de Brabois, CHU-Nancy, Medecine Nucleaire, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2013-03-15

    The results of stress myocardial perfusion SPECT could be enhanced by new cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) cameras, although differences compared to the results with conventional Anger cameras remain poorly known for most study protocols. This study was aimed at comparing the results of CZT and Anger SPECT according to various study protocols while taking into account the influence of obesity. The study population, which was from three different institutions equipped with identical CZT cameras, comprised 276 patients referred for study using protocols involving {sup 201}Tl (n = 120) or {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi injected at low dose at stress ({sup 99m}Tc-Low; stress/rest 1-day protocol; n = 110) or at high dose at stress ({sup 99m}Tc-High; rest/stress 1-day or 2-day protocol; n = 46). Each Anger SPECT scan was followed by a high-speed CZT SPECT scan (2 to 4 min). Agreement rates between CZT and Anger SPECT were good irrespective of the study protocol (for abnormal SPECT, {sup 201}Tl 92 %, {sup 99m}Tc-Low 86 %, {sup 99m}Tc-High 98 %), although quality scores were much higher for CZT SPECT with all study protocols. Overall correlations were high for the extent of myocardial infarction (r = 0.80) and a little lower for ischaemic areas (r = 0.72), the latter being larger on Anger SPECT (p < 0.001). This larger extent was mainly observed in 50 obese patients who were in the {sup 201}Tl or {sup 99m}Tc-Low group and in whom stress myocardial counts were particularly low with Anger SPECT (228 {+-} 101 kcounts) and dramatically enhanced with CZT SPECT (+279 {+-} 251 %). Concordance between the results of CZT and Anger SPECT is good regardless of study protocol and especially when excluding obese patients who have low-count Anger SPECT and for whom myocardial counts are dramatically enhanced on CZT SPECT. (orig.)

  6. Dietary Intake among Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country: An Outcome from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Study (the MyHeARTs Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazreen Abdul Majid

    Full Text Available Optimal nutrition is essential for healthy growth during adolescence. This study aims to investigate the baseline nutritional intake of Malaysian adolescents by gender, body mass index, and places of residence, both urban and rural. A cohort study was conducted consisting of 794 adolescents (aged 13-years attending 15 public secondary schools from the Central (Kuala Lumpur and Selangor and Northern (Perak Regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Qualified dietitians conducted a 7-day historical assessment of habitual food intakes. Facilitated by flipcharts and household measurement tools, detailed information on portion sizes and meal contents were recorded. Nutritionist Pro™ Diet Analysis software was also used to analyze the dietary records.The mean age of the adolescents was 12.86 ± 0.33 y; the mean energy intake was 1659.0 ± 329.6 kcal/d. Males had significantly (P < .001 higher energy intake than females (1774.0 ± 369.8 vs 1595.2 ± 320.6 kcal/d; adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and cholesterol (P < .001 compared to adolescents in urban schools (1706.1 ± 377.7 kcal/d and 244.1 ± 100.2 mg/d, respectively. Obese adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and sugar (1987.6 ± 374.0 kcal/d and 48.9 ± 23.0 g/d (p-value <0.001.The dietary intake of normal weight versus obese adolescents differs by the location of their school. Thus, the implementation of a structured and tailored intervention is recommended to help minimize this nutritional inequality.

  7. Dietary Intake among Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country: An Outcome from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Study (the MyHeARTs Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Majid, Hazreen; Ramli, Liyana; Ying, Sim Pei; Su, Tin Tin; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Abdul Mohsein, Nabilla Al-Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is essential for healthy growth during adolescence. This study aims to investigate the baseline nutritional intake of Malaysian adolescents by gender, body mass index, and places of residence, both urban and rural. A cohort study was conducted consisting of 794 adolescents (aged 13-years) attending 15 public secondary schools from the Central (Kuala Lumpur and Selangor) and Northern (Perak) Regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Qualified dietitians conducted a 7-day historical assessment of habitual food intakes. Facilitated by flipcharts and household measurement tools, detailed information on portion sizes and meal contents were recorded. Nutritionist Pro™ Diet Analysis software was also used to analyze the dietary records.The mean age of the adolescents was 12.86 ± 0.33 y; the mean energy intake was 1659.0 ± 329.6 kcal/d. Males had significantly (P < .001) higher energy intake than females (1774.0 ± 369.8 vs 1595.2 ± 320.6 kcal/d); adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and cholesterol (P < .001) compared to adolescents in urban schools (1706.1 ± 377.7 kcal/d and 244.1 ± 100.2 mg/d, respectively). Obese adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and sugar (1987.6 ± 374.0 kcal/d and 48.9 ± 23.0 g/d) (p-value <0.001).The dietary intake of normal weight versus obese adolescents differs by the location of their school. Thus, the implementation of a structured and tailored intervention is recommended to help minimize this nutritional inequality.

  8. The "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" randomized controlled trial for girls: study design, protocol, and baseline results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Ana Carolina Barco; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the study design, protocol, and baseline results of the "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" program. The intervention is being evaluated through a randomized controlled trial in 10 public schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data on the following variables were collected and assessed at baseline and will be reevaluated at 7 and 12 months: body mass index, waist circumference, dietary intake, nutrition, physical activity, social cognitive mediators, physical activity level, sedentary behaviors, self-rated physical status, and overall self-esteem. According to the baseline results, 32.4% and 23.4% of girls were overweight in the intervention and control groups, respectively, and in both groups a higher percentage failed to meet daily recommendations for moderate and vigorous physical activity and maximum screen time (TV, computer, mobile devices). There were no significant differences between the groups for most of the variables, except age (p = 0.000) and waist circumference (p = 0.014). The study showed a gap in the Brazilian literature on protocols for randomized controlled trials to prevent obesity among youth. The current study may thus be an important initial contribution to the field. PMID:26248094

  9. Factors related to physical activity: a study of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsson, R; Thorlindsson, T

    1998-09-01

    Although the consequences of physical activity have been carefully documented, less is known about its correlates, particularly among children and youth. Based on a representative national survey of 1131 Icelandic adolescents, the study examined various physical, psychological, social and demographic factors related to physical activity. Male sex, significant others' involvement in physical activity (father, friend and older brother), sociability, perceived importance of sport and of health improvement and satisfaction with mandatory gym classes in school, were all related to more involvement, whereas hours of paid work and TV-viewing were related to less. Furthermore, the data suggested that the influence of friend's participation in physical activity depends on his or her emotional significance. Influential others appeared to affect males and females in the same way. The meaning of the results and their implications for future research are discussed.

  10. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents in Seven Arab Countries: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman O. Musaiger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in seven Arab countries using similar reference standard. Methods. A school-based cross-sectional study was carried out in seven cities in Arab countries, namely, Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria, and United Arab Emirates. A multistage stratified random sampling technique was used. The total sample included was 4698 adolescents aged from 15 to 18 years (2240 males, 2458 females. The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF reference standard was used to classify the adolescents as nonobese, overweight, and obese. Results. Among males, overweight was highest among Kuwaiti adolescents (25.6%, followed by Jordanian (21.6%, and Syrian (19.7% adolescents. Among females, the highest prevalence of overweight was reported in Libyan adolescents (26.6%, followed by Kuwaiti (20.8%, and Syrian (19.7% adolescents. As for obesity, Kuwaiti adolescents showed the highest prevalence of obesity for both males (34.8% and females (20.6%. Conclusion. There is an urgent need to establish a plan of action to combat obesity in schoolchildren in these countries.

  11. A Study of Psychosocial Risk Status and Knowledge of Reproductive Health in Adolescents in Raipur City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is the period of physical and psychological development from the onset of puberty to maturity. The World Health Organization defines an adolescent as a person between ages 10 and 19 years. A dramatic shift in thinking from concrete to abstract gives adolescents a whole new set of mental tools, to analyze situations logically in terms of cause and effect, appreciate hypothetical situations, evaluate alternatives, introspection, decision making and cognitive abilities. Adolescents experience intense physical, psychological changes as they make transition from childhood to adulthood. This period of transition is the most vulnerable time. Adolescents are at risk of developing behavioral problems like school failure and drop outs, substance abuse, delinquency and violence, sexually transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancies, domestic violence, stress and depression and risk-taking behaviour. It is the responsibility of the society to utilize this period constructively through education, counseling, mass media, awareness programmes and address the reproductive health needs of adolescents. The present study analyzes the psychosocial risk status and knowledge of reproductive health in adolescents in Raipur city. The study recommends implementation of provisions by government to provide continuous education and economic security for adolescents. Programmes like age-appropriate reproductive health curriculum should be introduced in schools and colleges with counseling facilities at school and primary health care levels.

  12. Self-determined motivation towards physical activity in adolescents treated for obesity: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theuwis Lotte

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the Self-Determination Theory (SDT framework, the first major study aim was to investigate the SDT tenets in an obese adolescent population by examining the factor structure of the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2 and by investigating associations between physical activity (PA and motivation in obese adolescents. The second aim was to study differences in motivation according to adolescents' educational level, since lower educated obese adolescent are a sub-risk group for lower PA levels among the obese adolescents. The third aim was to investigate whether attending a residential obesity treatment program could lead to an increase in autonomous motivation towards PA and to see if the treatment effect on motivation was different in low versus high educated youth. Methods For the first study aim, the sample comprised 177 obese adolescents at the start of a 10-month multidisciplinary residential obesity treatment program (BMI = 35.9 ± 6.0 kg/m2, 15.1 ± 1.5 years, 62% girls. A subsample of 65 adolescents (stratified by educational level were divided into low (n = 34 versus high educated (n = 31 as part of the second and third study aim. Motivation was assessed using the BREQ-2 and PA using the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results Exploratory factor analysis showed sufficient validations with the original factor for 17 out of 19 BREQ-2 items. Significant positive correlations were found between PA and the composite score of relative autonomy (r = 0.31, p Conclusions The BREQ-2 can be used in an obese adolescent population. Higher levels of autonomous motivation towards PA were related to higher PA levels. Adolescents had increases in both autonomous and controlled forms of motivation during treatment. Special attention for lower educated adolescents during treatment is needed, as they have a lower autonomous motivation at the start of treatment and an increase in introjected

  13. Synchrotron radiation X-ray micro-fluorescence: Protocol to study mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Karla Mayra; Bönecker, Marcelo; Perez, Carlos Alberto; Mantesso, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    The micro-X-ray fluorescence by synchrotron radiation (μ-XRF) is a method to determine the composition of tissues without destroying the samples. However, this technique has never been used for the analysis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). This study compared different protocols for fixing, storing, preserving, and establishing the correct numbers of dental derived MSC submitted to μ-XRF analysis. Stem cells were obtained from human dental tissue. After cell expansion, and MACS isolation, the samples were fixed and the following quantities of cells 1 × 10(4) to 1 × 10(7) were divided in two groups: G1: fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde diluted in phosphate-buffered saline solution, and G2: fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde diluted in MilliQ water. The G1 cells showed precipitation of chemical components from the solution resulting in the formation of salt crystals while G2 cells were clear and almost transparent in the sample holder. With regards to cells concentration, the best results occurred when four droplets of 1 × 10(7) cells were analyzed. This work shows that to identify and study the distribution of trace elements in MSC by μ-XRF, the best protocol is fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde diluted with MilliQ water at 4°C and a concentration of four incremental droplets of 1 × 10(7) cells. PMID:26749077

  14. Simulation Studies On An Energy Efficient Multipath Routing Protocol Using Directional Antennas For Manets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Chilukuri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the development of an energy efficient multipath routing protocol with directional antenna for MANET as an optimization task as well as a multidisciplinary entity. A comprehensive analysis to link all the multi-disciplinary viewpoints involved in the development of desired multipath routing protocol with requisite technical details is presented in this paper. A simple and elegant mathematical formulation for the analysis of relative improvement of the performance metrics of ad-hocnetworks with omnidirectional and directional antenna is presented. Through extensive numerical simulations, the multi-dimensional desirable performance attributes of wireless link such as improvedrange, improved RSS, reduced RF transmit power and consequent reduced consumption of battery power have been analyzed keeping the directional gain of the antenna as a variable parameter. Development or modification of a protocol with concurrent focus on multipath routing with optimization of the batteryenergy is a significant step to increase the life time of MANET without recharging. Selection of the energy efficient path amongst several alternative ones is of paramount significance in the evaluation of overall performance of MANET system. A formulation to compute the required Battery Energy taking into account the data pertaining to the power efficiency of the associated transceiver design as well as the specified link performance parameters is also discussed. Through a case study involving the specifications of a typical transceiver operating in the 2.4 GHz band, the desirable impact of higher gain of a directional antenna in the reduction of RF transmitter power is illustrated. The consequential reduced battery power consumption while still retaining the specified performance parameters of the adhoc network like range and Received Signal Strength (RSS is also demonstrated. This paper also addresses the importance of alignment of beam peaks of directional

  15. Neighborhood income inequality, social capital and emotional distress among adolescents: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsdottir, Arndis; Gardarsdottir, Ragna B; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2016-08-01

    Theory holds that income inequality may harm adolescent mental health by reducing social capital within neighborhood communities. However, research on this topic has been very limited. We use multilevel data on 102 public schools and 5958 adolescents in Iceland (15 and 16 years old) to examine whether income inequality within neighborhoods is associated with emotional distress in adolescents. Moreover, we test whether indicators of social capital, including social trust and embeddedness in neighborhood social networks, mediate this contextual effect. The findings show that neighborhood income inequality positively influences emotional distress of individual adolescents, net of their personal household situations and social relations. However, although the indicators of social capital negatively influence emotional distress, they do not mediate the contextual effect of neighborhood income inequality. The study illustrates the role of economic disparities in adolescent mental health, but calls for more research on the underlying social and social-psychological mechanisms. PMID:27337213

  16. Neighborhood income inequality, social capital and emotional distress among adolescents: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsdottir, Arndis; Gardarsdottir, Ragna B; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2016-08-01

    Theory holds that income inequality may harm adolescent mental health by reducing social capital within neighborhood communities. However, research on this topic has been very limited. We use multilevel data on 102 public schools and 5958 adolescents in Iceland (15 and 16 years old) to examine whether income inequality within neighborhoods is associated with emotional distress in adolescents. Moreover, we test whether indicators of social capital, including social trust and embeddedness in neighborhood social networks, mediate this contextual effect. The findings show that neighborhood income inequality positively influences emotional distress of individual adolescents, net of their personal household situations and social relations. However, although the indicators of social capital negatively influence emotional distress, they do not mediate the contextual effect of neighborhood income inequality. The study illustrates the role of economic disparities in adolescent mental health, but calls for more research on the underlying social and social-psychological mechanisms.

  17. The management of autonomy in adolescent diabetes: a case study of triadic medical interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, Mara

    2009-03-01

    The transfer of responsibility for diabetes management from parent to child has been seen as a central challenge for the clinical care of adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. Research is needed to better understand how clinicians, patients, and families handle the delicate balance between parental involvement and adolescent responsibility for diabetes management. The aim of this study is to investigate the interactional processes by which an adolescent's autonomy is facilitated and constrained in a clinical interaction between a nurse practitioner (NP), a 13-year-old diabetes patient, and the patient's mother. Integrating psychological perspectives on adolescent autonomy and responsibility with conversation analytic approaches to participation, I examine participation frameworks and shifting alignments to illuminate the negotiation of adolescent autonomy within a single clinical encounter. The analysis demonstrates that the patient's autonomy is emphasized while identifying problems, yet restricted when considering solutions. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:19228827

  18. Adolescent functioning in housing and family contexts: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Margaret C; Shuey, Elizabeth A; Leventhal, Tama

    2016-09-01

    Although adolescents begin to seek autonomy and strive to be out of the home on their own, the housing context remains the primary setting of their daily lives. Using survey and ethnographic data from (e.g., Winston et al., 1999), this study explored quantitatively and qualitatively how two salient aspects of the housing context, physical housing problems and household size, were associated with low-income adolescents' emotional and academic functioning, and how these associations were modified by mother-adolescent relationships (specifically, trust and communication) and gender. Results of cross-lagged hierarchical linear models suggest that adolescents living in homes with more housing problems had more mental health symptoms, whereas living in larger households was associated with higher achievement, but only in the context of lower quality mother-adolescent relationships. Qualitative analyses helped to interpret these results by illuminating potential pathways underlying associations observed in quantitative results. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Impact of antipsychotic medication on physical activity and physical fitness in adolescents: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Probst, Michel; Daenen, Anne; Damme, Tine Van; De Hert, Marc; Rosenbaum, Simon; Bruyninckx, David

    2016-08-30

    Antipsychotics are used increasingly in adolescents for a range of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether physical activity levels and physical fitness of adolescent inpatients treated with antipsychotic medication, differs from either (i) antipsychotic naïve adolescents with mental health problems and, (ii) healthy controls. All participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents, the Positive-and-Negative-Affect-Schedule and performed the Eurofit test battery. Adolescents with mental health problems (irrespective of antipsychotic medication) were significantly (Prunning speed and cardiovascular endurance compared to healthy controls (n=15, 8♂, 15.9±1.3 years). Adolescents treated with antipsychotic medication (n=15, 8♂, 15.5±1.3 years) were less physically active and had an impaired whole body balance compared with antipsychotic naïve adolescents (n=15, 8♂, 15.7±1.4 years). Given the overwhelming deleterious impact of physical inactivity and low physical fitness on physical and mental health outcomes, interventions specifically targeting physical activity and physical fitness among adolescents experiencing mental illness, both treated with, and not treated with antipsychotic medication are warranted as a priority. Antipsychotic medication should be considered as a risk factor for physical inactivity and poor physical fitness. PMID:27288738

  20. Adolescent-parent interactions and communication preferences regarding body weight and weight management: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howlett Sarah A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to canvass the nature of adolescent-parent interactions about weight, particularly overweight, and to explore ideas of how to foster supportive discussions regarding weight, both in the home and with family doctors. Methods A market research company was contracted to recruit and conduct a series of separate focus groups with adolescents and unrelated parents of adolescents from low-middle socio-economic areas in Sydney and a regional centre, Australia. Group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed, and then a qualitative content analysis of the data was performed. Results Nine focus groups were conducted; two were held with girls (n = 13, three with boys (n = 18, and four with parents (20 mothers, 12 fathers. Adolescent and parent descriptions of weight-related interactions could be classified into three distinct approaches: indirect/cautious (i.e. focus on eating or physical activity behaviors without discussing weight specifically; direct/open (i.e. body weight was discussed; and never/rarely discussing the subject. Indirect approaches were described most frequently by both adolescents and parents and were generally preferred over direct approaches. Parents and adolescents were circumspect but generally supportive of the potential role for family doctors to monitor and discuss adolescent weight status. Conclusions These findings have implications for developing acceptable messages for adolescent and family overweight prevention and treatment interventions.

  1. Protocol for studying extinction of conditioned fear in naturally cycling female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Lisa Y; Cover, Kara K; Landau, Aaron J; Milad, Mohammed R; Lebron-Milad, Kelimer

    2015-01-01

    Extinction of conditioned fear has been extensively studied in male rodents. Recently, there have been an increasing number of studies indicating that neural mechanisms for certain behavioral tasks and response behaviors are different in females and males. Using females in research studies can represent a challenge because of the variation of gonadal hormones during their estrous cycle. This protocol describes well-established procedures that are useful in investigating the role of estrogen in fear extinction memory consolidation in female rats. Phase of the estrous cycle and exogenous estrogen administration prior to extinction training can influence extinction recall 24 hr later. The vaginal swabbing technique for estrous phase identification described here aids the examination and manipulation of naturally cycling gonadal hormones. The use of this basic rodent model may further delineate the mechanisms by which estrogen can modulate fear extinction memory in females. PMID:25741747

  2. Validation study of the Dinamap ProCare 200 upper arm blood pressure monitor in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Guk Lee

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To validate the Dinamap ProCare 200 blood pressure (BP monitor against a mercury sphygmomanometer in children 7 to 18 years old in accordance with the 2010 International Protocol of European Society of Hypertension (ESH-IP2 and the British Hypertension Society (BHS protocol. Methods : Forty-five children were recruited for the study. A validation procedure was performed following the protocol based on the ESHIP2 and BHS protocols for children and adolescents. Each subject underwent 7 sequential BP measurements alternatively with a mercury sphygmomanometer and the test device by trained nurses. The results were analyzed according to the validation criteria of ESH-IP2. Results : The mean (¡?#?D ;difference in the absolute BP values between test device and mercury sphygmomanometer readings was 1.85¡?#?.65; mmHg for systolic BP (SBP and 4.41¡?#?.53; mmHg for diastolic BP (DBP. These results fulfilled the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation criterion of a mean¡?#?D b;elow 5¡?#? mm;Hg for both SBP and DBP. The percentages of test device-observer mercury sphygmomanometer BP differences within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg were 96%, 100%, and 100% for SBP, and 69%, 92%, and 100% for DBP, respectively, in the part 1 analysis; both SBP and DBP passed the part 1 criteria. In the part 2 analysis, SBP passed the criteria but DBP failed. Conclusion : Although the Dinamap ProCare 200 BP monitor failed an adapted ESH-IP2, SBP passed. When comparing BP readings measured by oscillometers and mercury sphygmomanometers, one has to consider the differences between them, particularly in DBP, because DBP can be underestimated.

  3. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF 97 CASES TO ARRIVE AT TREATMENT PROTOCOLS FOR FLOATING KNEE

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    Prasad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Floating knee is an injury in which fractures are present both above and below isolating it. It’s a high velocity injury 1 f requently associated with multiple fractures and injuries to other organs . ² The management i.e. , timing of surgery , no of incisions and the type of implants is still a gray area as several protocols have been advocated. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This study comprises of 97 cases and was conducted in the two tertiary care hospitals of Hyderabad , during a period of 6 yrs i.e. , between 2007 - 2013. The average of the patients is 28.2 years and the Male to Female ratio is 6:1 , there were 68 open fractur es. Each case is individually assessed and managed. Different implants are used to fix these fractures depending upon the situation and fracture type. RESULTS : All the cases are evaluated after fracture union based on criteria Karlstrom and Olerud. Sixty f ive patients had union of femoral and tibial fractures with 90 degrees of knee flexion falling into the category of excellent and good results. Complications encountered were Infection , Knee - stiffness , nonunion , malunion , injury to nerves. CONCLUSIONS : The re is no fixed protocol in the number of incisions , choice of fixation device , and timing of surgery in the management of floating knee injuries. Each case should be dealt with basing on its merits. The management should be tailor - made for that particular case.

  4. A multi-parametric protocol to study exercise intolerance in McArdle's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Giulia; Bertolucci, Federica; Logerfo, Annalisa; Simoncini, Costanza; Papi, Riccardo; Franzoni, Ferdinando; Dell'Osso, Giacomo; Servadio, Adele; Masoni, Maria Chiara; Siciliano, Gabriele

    2015-12-01

    McArdle's disease is the most common metabolic myopathy of muscle carbohydrate metabolism, due to deficiency of myophosphorylase and alteration of glycogen breakdown in muscle. The clinical manifestations usually begin in young adulthood, with exercise intolerance, exercise-induced muscle cramps, pain and recurrent episodes of myoglobinuria. Many patients experience the second wind phenomenon, characterized by an improved tolerance for aerobic exercise approximately after eight minutes of motor activity, secondary to the increased availability of blood glucose and free fatty acids associated to an enhanced glucose uptake by muscle cells. In this study, we aimed to test a multi-parametric protocol in order to detect the impairment of muscular metabolism and motor performance in patients with McArdle's disease. We enrolled 5 patients and 5 age-matched healthy subjects, that were evaluated by: (01) monitoring of physical activity with an electronic armband; (02) testing of cardiopulmonary, metabolic and respiratory responses to exercise with a cardiopulmonary exercise test and analyzing muscle fatigue during exercise test by surface electromyography (04) evaluating blood lactate and oxidative stress biomarkers at rest and during exercise. The patients were tested at baseline and after three days of carbohydrate-rich diet integrated with tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate and creatine. The multiparametric protocol proved to be useful to detect the oxidative capacity impairment and the second wind phenomenon of patients. We did not observe any significant differences of muscle metabolic response during the exercise test after three days of carbohydrate-rich diet. PMID:27199539

  5. Family-oriented multilevel study on the psychological functioning of adolescent children having a mother with cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Huizinga, Gea; Visser, Annemieke; van der Graaf, W. T.; Hoekstra, H J; Stewart, R. E.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to identify the predictive power of adolescents', parents', and illness characteristics on the functioning of adolescents when a mother has cancer. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-one adolescents, 128 mothers with cancer, and 96 spouses completed standardized questionnaires 1-5 years after diagnosis. Stress response symptoms (SRS), internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed in adolescents. Parents' SRS, trait anxiety, marital satisfaction, and parent-ad...

  6. Religiosity and mental health of pre-adolescents with psychiatric problems and their parents : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jagt-Jelsma, W.; de Vries-Schot, M. R.; de Jong, Rint; Hartman, C. A.; Verhulst, F. C.; Klip, H.; van Deurzen, P. A. M.; Buitelaar, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the association between the religiosity of parents and pre-adolescents, and pre-adolescents' psychiatric problems. Method: In a clinic-referred cohort of 543 pre-adolescents at least once referred to a mental health outpatient clinic mental health problems were as

  7. Religiosity and mental health of pre-adolescents with psychiatric problems and their parents: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt-Jelsma, W. van der; Vries-Schot, M.R. de; Jong, R. de; Hartman, C.A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Klip, H.; Deurzen, P.A. van; Buitelaar, J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study investigated the association between the religiosity of parents and pre-adolescents, and pre-adolescents' psychiatric problems. METHOD: In a clinic-referred cohort of 543 pre-adolescents at least once referred to a mental health outpatient clinic mental health problems were as

  8. The Impact of Host Family Relations and Length of Stay on Adolescent Identity Expression during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Averil Marie

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationships between host family success, social integration, length of stay and acquisition of adolescent language by students on extended international homestay programmes. Degree of adolescent language acquisition and integration is measured by use of two hallmarks of adolescent language: markers of approximation…

  9. Model versus Military Pilot: A Mixed-Methods Study of Adolescents' Attitudes toward Women in Varied Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Elizabeth A.; Sherman, Aurora M.

    2016-01-01

    Using an experimental methodology, the present study investigated adolescents' attitudes toward media images of women in non-appearance-focused (CEO and military pilot) and appearance-focused occupations (model and actor). One hundred adolescent girls and 76 adolescent boys provided ratings of likability, competence, and similarity to self after…

  10. Tentative evidence for striatal hyperactivity in adolescent cannabis-using boys: a cross-sectional multicenter fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, G.; Block, R.I.; Luijten, M.; Ramsey, N.F.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents' risk-taking behavior has been linked to a maturational imbalance between reward ("go") and inhibitory-control ("stop")-related brain circuitry. This may drive adolescent drug-taking, such as cannabis use. In this study, we assessed the non-acute effects of adolescent cannabis use on rew

  11. Multi-centred mixed-methods PEPFAR HIV care & support public health evaluation: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayers Peter

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A public health response is essential to meet the multidimensional needs of patients and families affected by HIV disease in sub-Saharan Africa. In order to appraise curret provision of HIV care and support in East Africa, and to provide evidence-based direction to future care programming, and Public Health Evaluation was commissioned by the PEPFAR programme of the US Government. Methods/Design This paper described the 2-Phase international mixed methods study protocol utilising longitudinal outcome measurement, surveys, patient and family qualitative interviews and focus groups, staff qualitative interviews, health economics and document analysis. Aim 1 To describe the nature and scope of HIV care and support in two African countries, including the types of facilities available, clients seen, and availability of specific components of care [Study Phase 1]. Aim 2 To determine patient health outcomes over time and principle cost drivers [Study Phase 2]. The study objectives are as follows. 1 To undertake a cross-sectional survey of service configuration and activity by sampling 10% of the facilities being funded by PEPFAR to provide HIV care and support in Kenya and Uganda (Phase 1 in order to describe care currently provided, including pharmacy drug reviews to determine availability and supply of essential drugs in HIV management. 2 To conduct patient focus group discussions at each of these (Phase 1 to determine care received. 3 To undertake a longitudinal prospective study of 1200 patients who are newly diagnosed with HIV or patients with HIV who present with a new problem attending PEPFAR care and support services. Data collection includes self-reported quality of life, core palliative outcomes and components of care received (Phase 2. 4 To conduct qualitative interviews with staff, patients and carers in order to explore and understand service issues and care provision in more depth (Phase 2. 5 To undertake document

  12. Optimization of the scan protocols for CT-based material extraction in small animal PET/CT studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ching-Ching [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Tzu Chi College of Technology, 880, Sec 2, Chien-Kuo Rd., Hualien, Taiwan (China); Yu, Jhih-An [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Sec. 2, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yang, Bang-Hung [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Sec. 2, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Tung-Hsin, E-mail: tung@ym.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Sec. 2, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-11

    We investigated the effects of scan protocols on CT-based material extraction to minimize radiation dose while maintaining sufficient image information in small animal studies. The phantom simulation experiments were performed with the high dose (HD), medium dose (MD) and low dose (LD) protocols at 50, 70 and 80 kV{sub p} with varying mA s. The reconstructed CT images were segmented based on Hounsfield unit (HU)-physical density (ρ) calibration curves and the dual-energy CT-based (DECT) method. Compared to the (HU;ρ) method performed on CT images acquired with the 80 kV{sub p} HD protocol, a 2-fold improvement in segmentation accuracy and a 7.5-fold reduction in radiation dose were observed when the DECT method was performed on CT images acquired with the 50/80 kV{sub p} LD protocol, showing the possibility to reduce radiation dose while achieving high segmentation accuracy.

  13. Personality Subtypes in Adolescent and Adult Children of Alcoholics: A two part study

    OpenAIRE

    Hinrichs, Jonathan; DeFife, Jared; Westen, Drew

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted two studies to identify and validate potential personality subtypes in adolescent and adult children of alcoholics. As part of a broader NIMH-funded study, randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists provided personality data on adolescent (n = 229) or adult (n = 359) children of alcoholics using a Q-sort procedure (SWAP-II-A for adolescents and SWAP-II for adults), which were subjected to a cluster-analytic procedure, Q-factor analysis. Q-factor analysis yielded f...

  14. Adolescent school absenteeism and service use in a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Haugland, Siren; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Bøe, Tormod; Hysing, Mari

    2015-01-01

    Background School absenteeism is linked to a range of health concerns, health risk behaviors and school dropout. It is therefore important to evaluate the extent to which adolescents with absenteeism are in contact with health care and other services. The aim of the current study was to investigate service use of Norwegian adolescents with moderate and high absenteeism in comparison to students with lower rates of absence. Methods The study employs data from a population-based study from 2012...

  15. Peer sexual harassment in adolescent girls: A cross-national study (Spain-Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Ortega; Virginia Sánchez; Javier Ortega-Rivera; Annalaura Nocentini; Ersilia Menesini

    2010-01-01

    International studies have concluded that sexual harassment among adolescents is more frequent than expected. However, estimations of sexual harassment vary according to different studies. Some of these differences can be explained in terms of the different dimensions and explicative models used. This descriptive study tried to contribute to this area of investigation testing different models of sexual harassment in a sample of 318 female adolescents (mean age 17.05 years old) ...

  16. EFFECT OF CONVENTIONAL TENS VERSUS SPINAL MOBILIZATION IN PRIMARY DYSMENORRHEA IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Manisha Mistry; Vishnu Vardhan; Tushar Palekar; Rasika Panse

    2015-01-01

    Background: Primary dysmenorrhea is a common disabilitating factor in most of the adolescent girls. It is a major cause of inability to concentrate on their work or studies, class or school absenteeism, inability to perform in their academic activities. This study conducted to assess the effect of non-invasive treatments for pain relief during dysmenorrhea. Aim and Objectives: To study the effect of Conventional TENS and Spinal mobilization on pain in Primary Dysmenorrhea in adolescent gi...

  17. Emotional, behavioural problems and cigarette smoking in adolescence: findings of a Greek cross-sectional study

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    Rotsika Vasiliki

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several studies have reported findings concerning the association between smoking and emotional/behavioural problems, little research has investigated this association after controlling for confounding factors which have been found to be significantly correlated with both cigarette smoking and emotional/behavioural problems and may have a strong effect on the relationship between adolescents' mental health and smoking. The present study attempted to assess the association between adolescents' smoking status and their emotional/behavioural problems after controlling for a number of possible confounders (i.e. age, gender, parental smoking status, exposure to family smoking, family socioeconomic status, adolescents' leisure time in a Greek nation-wide school-based sample. Methods Participants completed a questionnaire which retrieved information about age, gender, family socioeconomic status, smoking status, parental smoking, adolescents' leisure time and emotional/behavioural problems. Data were modelled using multiple logistic regression analysis with adolescents' smoking status as the dependent variable. Results A total of 1194 (i.e. 63% response rate of self-reported questionnaires (40.1% boys, 59.9% girls; 12-18 years old were returned. Data from 1030 participants with full data were analyzed. Cigarette smoking was strongly associated with higher levels of emotional/behavioural problems (p Conclusions This study supports the association between smoking and emotional/behavioural problems among adolescents. Addressing adolescents' needs regarding their emotional/behavioural health could be helpful in the development of effective anti-smoking strategies in school environment and elsewhere.

  18. A Study on the Distributed Antenna Based Heterogeneous Cognitive Wireless Network Synchronous MAC Protocol

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    Lian-Fen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces distributed antennas into a cognitive radio network and presents a heterogeneous network. The best contribution of this paper is that it designs a synchronous cognitive MAC protocol (DAHCWNS-MAC protocol: distributed antenna based heterogeneous cognitive wireless network synchronous MAC protocol. The novel protocol aims at combining the advantages of cognitive radio and distributed antennas to fully utilize the licensed spectrum, broaden the communication range, and improve throughput. This paper carries out the mathematical modeling and performance simulation to demonstrate its superiority in improving the network throughput at the cost of increasing antenna hardware costs.

  19. Active gaming in Dutch adolescents: a descriptive study

    OpenAIRE

    Simons Monique; Bernaards Claire; Slinger Jantine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Adequate levels of physical activity are part of a healthy lifestyle and in this way linked to better health outcomes. For children and adolescents, the physical activity guideline recommends at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity every day. However, many adolescents are not physically active enough and they spend a lot of their time on sedentary activities (such as video games). A new generation of video games that require body movements to play the...

  20. National validation study of a swab protocol for the recovery of Bacillus anthracis spores from surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Lisa R; Rose, Laura J; O'Connell, Heather; Arduino, Matthew J

    2010-05-01

    Twelve Laboratory Response Network (LRN) affiliated laboratories participated in a validation study of a macrofoam swab protocol for the recovery, detection, and quantification of viable B. anthracis (BA) Sterne spores from steel surfaces. CDC personnel inoculated steel coupons (26cm(2)) with 1-4 log(10) BA spores and recovered them by sampling with pre-moistened macrofoam swabs. Phase 1 (P1) of the study evaluated swabs containing BA only, while dust and background organisms were added to swabs in Phase 2 (P2) to mimic environmental conditions. Laboratories processed swabs and enumerated spores by culturing eluted swab suspensions and counting colonies with morphology consistent with BA. Processed swabs were placed in enrichment broth, incubated 24h, and cultured by streaking for isolation. Real-time PCR was performed on selected colonies from P2 samples to confirm the identity of BA. Mean percent recovery (%R) of spores from the surface ranged from 15.8 to 31.0% (P1) and from 27.9 to 55.0% (P2). The highest mean percent recovery was 31.0% (sd 10.9%) for P1 (4 log(10) inoculum) and 55.0% (sd 27.6%) for P2 (1 log(10) inoculum). The overall %R was higher for P2 (44.6%) than P1 (24.1%), but the overall reproducibility (between-lab variability) was lower in P2 than in P1 (25.0 vs 16.5%CV, respectively). The overall precision (within-lab variability) was close to identical for P1 and P2 (44.0 and 44.1, respectively), but varied greatly between inoculum levels. The protocol demonstrated linearity in %R over the three inoculum levels and is able to detect between 26 and 5x10(6)spores/26cm(2). Sensitivity as determined by culture was >98.3% for both phases and all inocula, suggesting that the culture method maintains sensitivity in the presence of contaminants. The enrichment broth method alone was less sensitive for sampled swabs (66.4%) during P2, suggesting that the presence of background organisms inhibited growth or isolation of BA from the broth. The addition of

  1. Study of psychosocial problems among adolescent students in Pune, India

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    Shankar Bhosale

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Psychosocial health problems are highly prevalent and one of the hidden public health problems amongst the children and adolescents. Early diagnosis by primary care physicians and prompt referral to the specialist is very important for controlling it. Objectives: To screen all school going children for the risk of psychosocial problems, identify risk factors and refer at risk children to the psychiatrist for counseling. Material and Methods: A Cross sectional study in urban and rural field practice area of a teaching hospital in Pune. A screening tool-the youth report of pediatric symptom checklist (Y-PSC was used .Statistical analysis by Chi square test and Multivariate logistic regression was used as the test for significance. Results: Out of the total 2154 children, 328 (15.2% were found to be at risk of psychosocial problems. Statistically significant difference was observed as per type of management, medium of education, location of the school, age group, class of the student, total members in the family and socioeconomic status. No significant difference was observed as per gender or the type of the family. However after the application of multinomial logistic regression, significant statistical difference was observed only for the type of management running the schools with significantly more number of proportions of psychological disorders seen in students studying in government run schools. Conclusions: Our study clearly brings out the role of management in psychosocial impairment. The psychosocial impairment is about 15.2% with more impairment seen amongst government schools.

  2. Body Weight Concerns among Urban Adolescent Girls: A Microlevel Study

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    Susmita Mukhopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing consciousness about ideal body image leads to dietary modifications and consequent eating disorders among girls in developing countries like India. The present study aims to (i assess the prevalence of body weight consciousness and related behaviours among a group of adolescent girls; (ii assess the sociodemographic correlates of weight related behaviours; and (iii compare weight related behaviours of the girls of two religious groups residing in Howrah. The study is the outcome of a cross-sectional school based survey involving 280 (159 Hindu and 121 Muslim girls from standards 8 to 11. Significant differences exist between two religious groups with respect to their family size, socioeconomic profile, and media exposures (in terms of watching television. Consciousness about body weight among girls shows significant difference with respect to religion, family size (χ2=64.77, father’s occupation (χ2=60.28, level of education of both the parents, and media exposure (P<0.05. Consciousness about body weight drives them to adopt several behavioural measures like calorie restriction, food avoidance, and dieting. Sociodemographic correlates of all these behaviours have been analyzed. The study documents that concern over body image and weight loss is quite important among these urban girls.

  3. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2008-01-01

    The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and…

  4. The Link between Mother and Adolescent Substance Use: Intergenerational Findings from the British Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Maggs, Jennifer L; Greene, Kaylin M; Morgan, Nicole R; Schulenberg, John E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify mother, family, and individual factors associated with adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use using mother and child self-reports. Adolescents aged 12-15 (N=276) and their mothers who were participants in the British Cohort Study (BCS; born 1970) were both surveyed when mothers were 34 years old. Predictors included mother's substance use as well as characteristics of the child (gender, age, conduct problems) and family (social class, two-parent family, parent-adolescent conflict). Outcome variables were adolescent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Child characteristics were predictive, with older children more likely to engage in all behaviors. After controlling for other predictors, mothers' current drinking frequency and problems (i.e., CAGE 1+) predicted adolescent ever and sometimes/regular drinking; mothers' marijuana use was a marginally significant predictor of adolescent marijuana use. Results suggest that mothers' substance use is an important component of adolescent use, even after accounting for characteristics of the child and the intergenerational family context. PMID:24489608

  5. A prospective study of intraindividual and peer influences on adolescents' heterosexual romantic and sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Siebenbruner, Jessica; Collins, W Andrew

    2004-08-01

    Theories and empirical studies of adolescent sexual behavior have identified the contributions of personal attributes and social experiences; however, it is rare that models have clarified developmental pathways to adolescent sexual behavior that include (1) factors assessed prior to and early in adolescence and (2) dyadic experiences in adolescence that provide the opportunity for sexual behavior (i.e., dating). Using data from a prospective study, structural equation modeling was used to test a model predicting adolescent sexual behavior at age 19, denoted by the number of lifetime sexual partners. Predictors examined were sociability and impulsivity assessed at 30 months of age, physical characteristics and experiences with peers measured at age 12-13, the age of first romantic relationship, and frequency of alcohol use at age 16. The pathway to greater sexual involvement was marked by some desired personal attributes (e.g., sociability) and peer experiences (e.g., higher quality friendships). These associations were mediated, however, by earlier initiation of romantic relationships and more frequent use of alcohol in middle adolescence. Earlier initiation of romantic relationships and more frequent alcohol use were predicted by greater sociability and less impulsivity in childhood, higher quality friendships and greater peer acceptance in early adolescence, and a more mature appearance and physical attractiveness (among females) at age 13. The findings imply a complex pathway that leads to a greater accumulation of sexual partners by age 19. This pathway begins in childhood and includes individual qualities, peer acceptance, romantic relationships, and alcohol use. PMID:15162084

  6. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jennifer L; Mothi, Suraj Sarvode; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2016-03-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common and severe disorder that typically onsets in adolescence, but often goes unrecognized. Despite BDD's severity and early onset, treatment outcome research on adolescent BDD is scarce. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the gold-standard psychosocial treatment for BDD in adults and has shown promise in adolescents. The current study examined the development and testing of a new CBT for adolescents with BDD. We tested feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcome in a sample of 13 adolescents (mean age 15.23years, range: 13-17) with primary BDD. Treatment was delivered in 12-22 weekly individual sessions. Standardized clinician ratings and self-report measures were used to assess BDD and related symptoms pre- and posttreatment and at 3- and 6-months follow-up. At posttreatment, BDD and related symptoms (e.g., insight, mood) were significantly improved. Scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for BDD indicated a 50% (intent-to-treat) and 68% (completer) improvement in BDD symptoms. Seventy-five percent of adolescents who started treatment and 100% of completers were considered treatment responders. Treatment gains were maintained at follow-up. High patient satisfaction ratings and patient feedback indicated that treatment was acceptable. This represents the largest study of a psychosocial treatment for adolescent BDD. PMID:26956653

  7. The GOALS Study: The association between physical activity, cognitive performance, and academic achievement in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Van Dijk, M. L., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, 26 April). The GOALS Study: The association between physical activity, cognitive performance, and academic achievement in adolescents. Presentation at the Learning & Cognition meeting, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  8. Cannabis Use in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Review of Findings from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Carolyn; Patton, George C

    2016-06-01

    The Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VAHCS) is a long-term Australian cohort study that has documented cannabis use in young Australians from the mid-teens to the mid-30s. The study findings have described the natural history of early cannabis use, remission, and escalation and the social and mental health consequences of different patterns of use. The adverse consequences of cannabis use are most clear-cut in heavy early adolescent users. These consequences include educational failure, persisting mental health problems, and progression to other substance use. For later onset and occasional users, the risks are lower and appear to entail modest elevations in risk for other drug use compared with never users. With growing evidence of health consequences, there is a strong case for actions around early heavy adolescent users. Prevention of early use, identification and treatment of early heavy users, and harm reduction through diversion of early heavy users away from the custodial justice system into health care are all priority responses. PMID:27254840

  9. Cannabis Use in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Review of Findings from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Carolyn; Patton, George C

    2016-06-01

    The Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VAHCS) is a long-term Australian cohort study that has documented cannabis use in young Australians from the mid-teens to the mid-30s. The study findings have described the natural history of early cannabis use, remission, and escalation and the social and mental health consequences of different patterns of use. The adverse consequences of cannabis use are most clear-cut in heavy early adolescent users. These consequences include educational failure, persisting mental health problems, and progression to other substance use. For later onset and occasional users, the risks are lower and appear to entail modest elevations in risk for other drug use compared with never users. With growing evidence of health consequences, there is a strong case for actions around early heavy adolescent users. Prevention of early use, identification and treatment of early heavy users, and harm reduction through diversion of early heavy users away from the custodial justice system into health care are all priority responses.

  10. Supporting Tablet Configuration, Tracking, and Infection Control Practices in Digital Health Interventions: Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furberg, Robert D; Zulkiewicz, Brittany A; Hudson, Jordan P; Taylor, Olivia M; Lewis, Megan A

    2016-01-01

    Background Tablet-based health care interventions have the potential to encourage patient care in a timelier manner, allow physicians convenient access to patient records, and provide an improved method for patient education. However, along with the continued adoption of tablet technologies, there is a concomitant need to develop protocols focusing on the configuration, management, and maintenance of these devices within the health care setting to support the conduct of clinical research. Objective Develop three protocols to support tablet configuration, tablet management, and tablet maintenance. Methods The Configurator software, Tile technology, and current infection control recommendations were employed to develop three distinct protocols for tablet-based digital health interventions. Configurator is a mobile device management software specifically for iPhone operating system (iOS) devices. The capabilities and current applications of Configurator were reviewed and used to develop the protocol to support device configuration. Tile is a tracking tag associated with a free mobile app available for iOS and Android devices. The features associated with Tile were evaluated and used to develop the Tile protocol to support tablet management. Furthermore, current recommendations on preventing health care–related infections were reviewed to develop the infection control protocol to support tablet maintenance. Results This article provides three protocols: the Configurator protocol, the Tile protocol, and the infection control protocol. Conclusions These protocols can help to ensure consistent implementation of tablet-based interventions, enhance fidelity when employing tablets for research purposes, and serve as a guide for tablet deployments within clinical settings. PMID:27350013

  11. Social correlates of cigarette smoking among Icelandic adolescents: A population-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allegrante John P

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that between 80 and 90 percent of adult smokers report having started smoking before 18 years of age. Several studies have revealed that multiple social factors influence the likelihood of smoking during adolescence, the period during which the onset of smoking usually occurs. To better understand the social mechanisms that influence adolescent smoking, we analyzed the relationship and relative importance of a broad spectrum of social variables in adolescent smoking in Iceland, a Nordic country with high per-capita income. Methods We used cross-sectional data from 7,430 14- to 16 year-old students (approximately 81% of all Icelanders in these age cohorts in the 2006 Youth in Iceland study. The Youth in Iceland studies are designed to investigate the role of several cognitive, behavioral, and social factors in the lives of adolescents, and the data collected are used to inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of substance use prevention programs that are being developed by Icelandic social scientists, policy makers, and practitioners. Results Our analysis revealed that friends' smoking behavior and attitude toward smoking were strongly associated with adolescent smoking and other tobacco use, as well as alcohol consumption during the previous 30 days. Main protective factors were parent's perceived attitude toward smoking, the quantity of time spent with parents, absence of serious verbal conflict between parents and adolescents, and participation in physical activity. Family structure was related to adolescent smoking to a small extent, but other background factors were not. Conclusion We conclude that multiple social factors are related to adolescent smoking. Parents and other primary preventive agents need to be informed about the complicated nature of the adolescent social world in order to maximize their impact.

  12. Optimal protocol for teleconsultation with a cellular phone for dentoalveolar trauma: an in-vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dental trauma is frequently unpredictable. The initial assessment and urgent treatment are essential for dentists to save the patient's teeth. Mobile-phone-assisted teleconsultation and telediagnosis for dental trauma could be an aid when a dentist is not available. In the present in-vitro study, we evaluated the success rate and time to transfer images under various conditions. We analyzed the image quality of cameras built into mobile phones based on their resolution, autofocus, white-balance, and anti-movement functions. The image quality of most built-in cameras was acceptable to perform the initial assessment, with the autofocus function being essential to obtain high-quality images. The transmission failure rate increased markedly when the image size exceeded 500 kB and the additional text messaging did not improve the success rate or the transmission time. Our optimal protocol could be useful for emergency programs running on the mobile phones.

  13. Optimal protocol for teleconsultation with a cellular phone for dentoalveolar trauma: an in-vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Se; Lee, Hae Na; Jeong, Jin Sun; Kwon, Jung Hoon; Lee, Grace H; Kim, Kee Dong [College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Dental trauma is frequently unpredictable. The initial assessment and urgent treatment are essential for dentists to save the patient's teeth. Mobile-phone-assisted teleconsultation and telediagnosis for dental trauma could be an aid when a dentist is not available. In the present in-vitro study, we evaluated the success rate and time to transfer images under various conditions. We analyzed the image quality of cameras built into mobile phones based on their resolution, autofocus, white-balance, and anti-movement functions. The image quality of most built-in cameras was acceptable to perform the initial assessment, with the autofocus function being essential to obtain high-quality images. The transmission failure rate increased markedly when the image size exceeded 500 kB and the additional text messaging did not improve the success rate or the transmission time. Our optimal protocol could be useful for emergency programs running on the mobile phones.

  14. Burnout among chiropractic practitioners: real or imagined an exploratory study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Shawn; Innes, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    Burnout is a psychological syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment that has been found to exist in a significant number of healthcare and helping professionals. It imposes a significant societal burden by shortened practitioner lifespan, decreased efficiency, negative health outcomes and poorer levels of patient care. Theoretical models suggest that it appears to be the result of a complex interaction between job resources and job demands. It may be reasonable to conclude that Chiropractic professionals experience similar vocational demands and thus experience significant levels of occupational stress and subsequent burnout. However the data on burnout within the chiropractic profession is limited. It is possible that this results in significant negative outcomes on chiropractors and their patients. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to demonstrate the need to explore burnout in chiropractic practice and offer a research protocol for a potential study. PMID:22369737

  15. Tracking Adolescents with GPS-enabled Cell Phones to Study Contextual Exposures and Alcohol and Marijuana Use: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Morrison, Christopher N.; Remer, Lillian G.; Wiehe, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Measuring activity spaces, places adolescents spend time, provides information about relations between contextual exposures and risk behaviors. We studied whether contextual exposures in adolescents’ activity spaces differ from contextual risks present in residential contexts and examined relationships between contextual exposures in activity spaces and alcohol/marijuana use. Methods Adolescents (N=18) aged 16–17 carried GPS-enabled smartphones for one week, with locations tracked. Activity spaces were created by connecting GPS points sequentially and adding buffers. Contextual exposure data (e.g., alcohol outlets) were connected to routes. Adolescents completed texts regarding behaviors. Results Adolescent activity spaces intersected 24.3 census tracts and contained 9 times more alcohol outlets than residential census tracts. Outlet exposure in activity spaces was related to drinking. Low SES exposure was related to marijuana use. Conclusions Findings suggest substantial differences between activity spaces and residential contexts, and suggest that activity spaces are relevant for adolescent risk behaviors. PMID:26206448

  16. A qualitative study of the views of adolescents on their caries risk and prevention behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Hall-Scullin, Emma; Goldthorpe, Joanna; Milsom, Keith; Tickle, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes and beliefs of adolescents towards dental caries and their use or non-use of caries prevention regimens. Methods Adolescents aged 16 years from four state-funded secondary schools in North West of England (n = 19). Purposive sampling strategically selected participants with characteristics to inform the study aims (gender, ethnicity, and caries status). Semi-structured interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a f...

  17. Fluid intake patterns: an epidemiological study among children and adolescents in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Feferbaum Rubens; de Abreu Luiz; Leone Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Energy from liquids is one of the most important factors that could impact on the high prevalence of children and adolescents obesity around the world. There are few data on the liquid consumption in Brazil. The aim of this study is to evaluate the volume and quality of liquids consumed by Brazilian children and adolescents and to determine the proportion of their daily energy intake composed of liquids. Methods A multicenter study was conducted in five Brazilian cities; t...

  18. Clinical features of adolescents with deliberate self-harm: A case control study in Lisbon, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo F Guerreiro; Neves, Ema L; Rita Navarro; et al, ...

    2009-01-01

    Diogo F Guerreiro, Ema L Neves, Rita Navarro, Raquel Mendes, Ana Prioste, Diana Ribeiro, Tiago Lila, António Neves, Mónica Salgado, Nazaré Santos, Daniel SampaioYouth Suicide Study Group (NES), The Hospital Santa Maria, Psychiatry Department, Lisbon Faculty of Medicine, PortugalAbstract: Deliberate self-harm (DSH) among adolescents is a high-risk condition for suicide. The aim of the present study is to describe the characteristic clinical features of adolesce...

  19. A study of anemia among adolescent girls in eastern part of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Piush Kanodia; Mukesh Bhatta; Rupa Rajbhandari Singh; Bhatta, Nisha K.; Gauri Shankar Shah

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Anemia is a global health problem. About 40% of the world's population suffers from anemia and adolescence is one of the most vulnerable age group. Hence the objective of the study was to determine prevalence and distribution of anemia among adolescent girls in eastern part of Nepal.Materials & Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in a Government School of Dharan over a period of one year. There were total 433 participants, whose clinical and demo...

  20. Orofacial Pathologic Lesions in Children and Adolescents: A Clinicopathological Study in Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafari Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Ahmadi Sheshdeh, Zahra; Kamali, Fereshteh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Oral and maxillofacial lesions vary regarding their clinical presentation in different populations. Until now, oral and maxillofacial lesions in Iranian children and adolescents have not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the type and distribution of biopsied oral lesions among children and adolescents in Southern Iran. Methods: All the patients referred to the pathology department of Shiraz Faculty of Dentistry from 1991-2009 were enrolled in this retrospective, ...

  1. Adolescent Perceptions of Parenting Styles in Sweden, Italy and Greece: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Giulia Olivari; Elisabeth Hertfelt Wahn; Katerina Maridaki-Kassotaki; Katerina Antonopoulou; Emanuela Confalonieri

    2015-01-01

    Comparative research on parenting styles among Nordic and Mediterranean countries is still missing, despite the increasing number of studies on parenting styles in adolescence. This study explores similarities and differences in adolescents’ retrospective perceptions of parenting styles, for both parents, in Sweden, Italy and Greece, using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. In particular, it examines the relation between parental role, adolescent gender, country of origin, SES...

  2. Adolescent mental health and subsequent parenting: a longitudinal birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Byford, M; Abbott, R A; Maughan, B.; Richards, M.; Kuh, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescent mental health problems are associated with a range of adverse outcomes in adulthood but little is known about the effects on adult parenting practices. This study aimed to examine prospective associations between adolescent conduct and emotional problems and subsequent parenting behaviours in adulthood. Methods The study sample comprised 1110 members from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Prospective data were collected from teacher reports of conduct an...

  3. The prevalence of triggers in paediatric migraine: a questionnaire study in 102 children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Neut, Dorothée; Fily, Antoine; Cuvellier, Jean-Christophe; Vallée, Louis

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence and characterization of migraine triggers have not been rigorously studied in children and adolescents. Using a questionnaire, we retrospectively studied the prevalence of 15 predefined trigger factors in a clinic-based population. In 102 children and adolescents fulfilling the Second Edition of The International Headache Classification criteria for paediatric migraine, at least one migraine trigger was reported by the patient and/or was the parents’ interpretation in 100% of p...

  4. BMI changes in children and adolescents attending a specialized childhood obesity center: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Maggio, Albane Bertha; Saunders, Catherine Tamsin; Gal-Duding, Claudine; Beghetti, Maurice; Martin, Xavier; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie; Chamay-weber, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidisciplinary group therapies for obese children and adolescents are effective but difficult to implement. There is a crucial need to evaluate simpler management programs that target the obese child and his family. This study aimed to determine changes in body mass indexes (BMI) after individual family-based obesity intervention with a pediatrician in a specialized obesity center for child and adolescent. Methods This cohort study included 283 patients (3.3 to 17.1 years, mean ...

  5. A cognitive-behavioural program for adolescents with chronic pain - A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Merlijn, Vivian; Hunfeld, Joke; Wouden, Hans; Hazebroek-Kampschreur, Alice; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette; Koes, Bart; Passchier, Jan

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this pilot study is to evaluate the feasibility of a cognitive-behavioural training program for adolescents with chronic pain irrespective of pain localisation. A secondary aim was to give an impression of the effect of the program on pain and quality of life. Eight adolescents (14-18 years) with chronic non-organic pain recruited from the general population (and their parents) participated in this pilot study. The intervention included five group meetings alternate...

  6. A Bounded Retransmission Protocol for Large Data Packets: A Case Study in Computer Checked Algebraic Verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote, J.F.; Pol, J. van de

    2008-01-01

    This note describes a protocol for the transmission of data packets that are too large to be transferred in their entirety. Therefore, the protocol splits the data packets and broadcasts it in parts. It is assumed that in case of failure of transmission through data channels, only a limited number o

  7. An Empirical Study and some Improvements of the MiniMac Protocol for Secure Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Lauritsen, Rasmus; Toft, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    suggest a modification of MiniMac that achieves increased parallelism at no extra communication cost. This gives an asymptotic improvement of the original protocol as well as an 8-fold speed-up of our implementation. We compare the resulting protocol to TinyOT for the case of secure computation in parallel...

  8. An Internet-Based Intervention to Promote Alcohol-Related Attitudinal and Behavioral Change Among Adolescents: Protocol of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko-Ling; Chow, Chun-Bong; Lam, Tai-Hing; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Wong, Margaret Fung-Yee

    2016-01-01

    Background Underage drinking is a prevalent risk behavior and common public health problem. Research shows that alcohol abuse not only affects the quality of life of drinkers themselves. The problems resulting from underage drinking pose substantial costs to society as well. The proposed study will address underage drinking with the use of an Internet campaign, which is a cost-effective way of tackling the problem. Objective The aims of this study are to test the effectiveness of an online quiz competition in changing adolescents’ alcohol-related attitudes and behavior and to explore the feasibility of using Internet viral marketing to reach a significant number of adolescents. Methods The study will constitute a cluster randomized controlled trial for 20 secondary schools (6720 Grade 7-9 students). Schools will be randomized to intervention or control arm with equal likelihood. Students in intervention schools will be invited to take part in the Internet campaign, whereas those in control schools will receive relevant promotional leaflets. Results Alcohol-related attitude and behavior will be the primary outcome measures. The results of the proposed study will provide evidence on the efficacy of an Internet intervention in modifying adolescents’ attitudes and behavior and guide further investigation into the prevention of and intervention in such risk behaviors as underage drinking. The project was funded July 2015, enrollment started September 2015, and results are expected July 2017. Conclusions With the Internet increasingly being recognized as a practical and cost-effective platform for health information delivery, the proposed Internet-based intervention is expected to be more effective in altering adolescents’ alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors than traditional health promotion. ClinicalTrial ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02450344; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02450344 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6heB2zMBD) PMID:27252072

  9. Personal values and involvement in problem behaviors among Bahamian early adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaoming

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies, particularly in developing countries, have explored the relationship between adolescents and parental values with adolescent problem behaviors. The objectives of the study are to (1 describe adolescents' personal values, their problem behaviors, and the relationships thereof according to gender and (2 examine the relationship between parental values, adolescent values, and adolescents' problem behaviors among sixth-grade students and one of their parents. Methods The data used in these analyses were from the baseline assessment of a school-based HIV risk reduction intervention being conducted and evaluated among sixth grade students and one of their parents across 9 elementary schools in The Bahamas. Personal values were measured by the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ. Seven reported problem behaviors were queried from the students, which included physical fight with a friend, drank alcohol, beer, or wine, smoked a cigarette, pushed or carried any drugs, carried a gun, knife, screwdriver or cutlass to use as a weapon, had sex and used marijuana or other illicit drugs over the past 6 months. Multilevel modeling for binary data was performed to estimate the associations between adolescent and parental values and adolescent problem behaviors. Results Among 785 students, 47% of the students reported at least one problem behavior. More boys (54% reported having one or more problem behaviors than girls (41%, p Conclusion In designing interventions for reducing adolescents' problem behaviors, it may be important to understand the values associated with specific problem behaviors. Further exploration regarding lack of association between adolescent and parental values and problem behaviors is needed.

  10. Cognitive Risk and Protective Factors for Suicidal Ideation: A Two Year Longitudinal Study in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Taylor A; Connolly, Samantha L; Hamilton, Jessica L; Stange, Jonathan P; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-08-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period associated with heightened risk for both the onset and escalation of suicidal ideation (SI). Given that SI is a potent predictor of suicidal behavior, it is important to develop models of vulnerability for and protection against SI, particularly among young adolescents. This study examined the relative impact of several cognitive vulnerabilities, as well as protective factors, for SI among young adolescents over a 2-year interval encompassing their transition to mid-adolescence. At baseline, 324 adolescents (M = 12.39 years; SD = 0.63; 52.5 % female) completed measures of depressive symptoms, self-referent information processing biases, negative inferential style, and responses to negative affect. Further, the adolescents and their mothers were administered a diagnostic interview to assess current and past depressive disorders and SI. Over follow-up, adolescents and their mothers were administered the diagnostic interview every 12 months and adolescents completed a self-report measure inquiring about SI every 6 months to assess interviewer-rated and self-reported SI. Logistic regressions indicated that preferential endorsement of negative adjectives as self-referent (only among girls), rumination in response to negative affect, and a negative inferential style prospectively predicted SI. Additionally, young adolescents' tendency to respond to negative affect with distraction and problem-solving buffered against their risk for exhibiting SI. When these factors were entered simultaneously, preferential endorsement of negative adjectives as self-referent and the use of distraction and problem-solving skills remained the only significant prospective predictors of SI. No previous studies have examined these variables as predictors of SI, thereby highlighting their potential utility in improving the predictive validity of extant models of suicide risk and resilience. PMID:26597963

  11. STUDY OF DEPRESSION AMONG ADOLESCENT STUDENTS OF RURAL MAHARASHTRA AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Shelke Umesh S, Kunkulol Rahul R, Phalke Vaishali D, Narwane Sandeep P, Patel Prashant C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder that appears in adolescents. It has an adverse effect on physical as well as mental health. Many adolescents remain undiagnosed due to no accessibility to clinics. Objectives: To study demographic factors and their association with depression among adolescents of rural Maharashtra. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 300 students (30 of either sex from 8th to 12th class). 6 item KADS (Kutcher Adolescent Depression ...

  12. Quality of life of Portuguese and Spanish adolescents. A comparative study between natives and immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cristina; Hernando, Ángel; Lemos, Ida; Ayala-Nunes, Lara; Oliva, Cristina Romero; Coronado, Cecilia Montilla

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse differences in quality of life (QOL) between Spanish and Portuguese immigrant and native adolescents. In total, 475 native and immigrant adolescents (52% boys) from Algarve (Portugal) and Huelva (Spain), aged between 12 and 17 years old, were assessed with the KIDSCREEN-52. QOL dimensions were not related to most academic variables, with the exception of number of school failures, Financial Resources and Social Support from Peers. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to examine statistical differences in adolescents QOL. Age differences in QOL levels were not found. Girls reported worse QOL levels on Physical Wellbeing than boys (F = 10.32, p = .001, η2 =.02). Immigrant Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Mood (F = 17.57, p = .000, η2 =.11), and native Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Social Acceptance (F = 4.87, p = .002, η2=.033). Immigrant and native adolescents had similar levels of perceived QOL. Overall, it seems that in both countries, the living contexts for immigrant and native adolescents are fairly homogeneous.

  13. Quality of life of Portuguese and Spanish adolescents. A comparative study between natives and immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Nunes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse differences in quality of life (QOL between Spanish and Portuguese immigrant and native adolescents. In total, 475 native and immigrant adolescents (52% boys from Algarve (Portugal and Huelva (Spain, aged between 12 and 17 years old, were assessed with the KIDSCREEN-52. QOL dimensions were not related to most academic variables, with the exception of number of school failures, Financial Resources and Social Support from Peers. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was used to examine statistical differences in adolescents QOL. Age differences in QOL levels were not found. Girls reported worse QOL levels on Physical Wellbeing than boys (F = 10.32, p = .001, η2 =.02. Immigrant Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Mood (F = 17.57, p = .000, η2 =.11, and native Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Social Acceptance (F = 4.87, p = .002, η2=.033. Immigrant and native adolescents had similar levels of perceived QOL. Overall, it seems that in both countries, the living contexts for immigrant and native adolescents are fairly homogeneous.

  14. Quality of life of Portuguese and Spanish adolescents. A comparative study between natives and immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cristina; Hernando, Ángel; Lemos, Ida; Ayala-Nunes, Lara; Oliva, Cristina Romero; Coronado, Cecilia Montilla

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse differences in quality of life (QOL) between Spanish and Portuguese immigrant and native adolescents. In total, 475 native and immigrant adolescents (52% boys) from Algarve (Portugal) and Huelva (Spain), aged between 12 and 17 years old, were assessed with the KIDSCREEN-52. QOL dimensions were not related to most academic variables, with the exception of number of school failures, Financial Resources and Social Support from Peers. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to examine statistical differences in adolescents QOL. Age differences in QOL levels were not found. Girls reported worse QOL levels on Physical Wellbeing than boys (F = 10.32, p = .001, η2 =.02). Immigrant Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Mood (F = 17.57, p = .000, η2 =.11), and native Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Social Acceptance (F = 4.87, p = .002, η2=.033). Immigrant and native adolescents had similar levels of perceived QOL. Overall, it seems that in both countries, the living contexts for immigrant and native adolescents are fairly homogeneous. PMID:27076012

  15. Behavior assessments of pregnant adolescents using TFA Systems (tm)

    OpenAIRE

    Bundy, Patricia Pulliam

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess the thoughts, feelings, and actions of pregnant teens at significant decision-making times: time of intercourse, confirmation of pregnancy, and six weeks post delivery. Factors associated with adolescent pregnancy and patterns of behavior were analyzed. Examination of the extant literature on adolescent pregnancy yielded insight into parental, socio-economic, and partner factors. The interview protocol emanated from the literature anal...

  16. Study of effective dose of various protocols in equipment cone beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, M. R.; Maia, A. F. [Universidade Federale de Sergipe, Departamento de Fisica, Cidade Universitaria Prof. Jose Aloisio de Campos, Marechal Rondon s/n, Jardim Rosa Elze, 49-100000 Sao Cristovao, Sergipe (Brazil); Batista, W. O. [Instituto Federal da Bahia, Rua Emidio dos Santos s/n, Barbalho, Salvador, 40301015 Bahia (Brazil); Caldas, L. V. E.; Lara, P. A., E-mail: mrs2206@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Currently the cone beam computed tomography is widely used in various procedures of dental radiology. Although the doses values associated with the procedures of cone beam CT are low compared to typical values associated with dental radiology procedure in multi slices CT. However can be high compared to typical values of other techniques commonly used in dental radiology. The present scenario is a very wide range of designs of equipment and, consequently, lack of uniformity in all parameters associated with x-ray generation and geometry. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate and calculate the absorbed dose in organs and tissues relevant and estimate effective dose for different protocols with different geometries of exposure in five cone beam CT equipment. For this, a female Alderson anthropomorphic phantom, manufactured by Radiology Support Devices was used. The phantom was irradiated with 26 dosimeters LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD-100), inserted in organs and tissues along the layers forming the head and neck of the phantom. The equipment used, in this present assessment, was: i-CAT Classical, Kodak 9000 3D, Gendex GXCB 500, Sirona Orthophos X G 3D and Planmeca Pro Max 3D. The effective doses were be determined by the ICRP 103 weighting factors. The values were between 7.0 and 111.5 micro Sv, confirming the broad dose range expected due to the diversity of equipment and protocols used in each equipment. The values of effective dose per Fov size were: between 7 and 51.2 micro Sv for located Fov; between 17.6 and 52.0 micro Sv for medium Fov; and between 11.5 and 43.1 micro Sv to large Fov (maxillofacial). In obtaining the effective dose the measurements highlighted a relevance contribution of dose absorbed by the remaining organs (36%), Salivary glands (30%), thyroid (12%) and bone marrow (12%). (Author)

  17. Comparing patterns of sexual risk among adolescent and young women in a mixed-method study in Tanzania: implications for adolescent participation in HIV prevention trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E Tolley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the disproportionate impact of HIV on women, and adolescents in particular, those below age 18 years are underrepresented in HIV prevention trials due to ethical, safety and logistical concerns. This study examined and compared the sexual risk contexts of adolescent women aged 15–17 to young adult women aged 18–21 to determine whether adolescents exhibited similar risk profiles and the implications for their inclusion in future trials. Methods: We conducted a two-phase, mixed-method study to assess the opportunities and challenges of recruiting and retaining adolescents (aged 15–17 versus young women (18–21 in Tanzania. Phase I, community formative research (CFR, used serial in-depth interviews with 11 adolescent and 12 young adult women from a range of sexual risk contexts in preparation for a mock clinical trial (MCT. For Phase II, 135 HIV-negative, non-pregnant adolescents and young women were enrolled into a six-month MCT to assess and compare differences in sexual and reproductive health (SRH outcomes, including risky sexual behaviour, incident pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs, reproductive tract infections (RTIs and HIV. Results: In both research phases, adolescents appeared to be at similar, if not higher, risk than their young adult counterparts. Adolescents reported earlier sexual debut, and similar numbers of lifetime partners, pregnancy and STI/RTI rates, yet had lower perceived risk. Married women in the CFR appeared at particular risk but were less represented in the MCT. In addition, adolescents were less likely than their older counterparts to have accessed HIV testing, obtained gynaecological exams or used protective technologies. Conclusions: Adolescent women under 18 are at risk of multiple negative SRH outcomes and they underuse preventive services. Their access to new technologies such as vaginal microbicides or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP may similarly be compromised unless

  18. Medical device design for adolescent adherence and developmental goals: a case study of a cystic fibrosis physiotherapy device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang AR

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra R Lang,1 Jennifer L Martin,2 Sarah Sharples,1 John A Crowe3 1Human Factors Research Group, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 2Mindtech Healthcare Technology Cooperative (Htc, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institute of Mental Health, Nottingham, UK; 3Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, UK Purpose: This study investigates the psychosocial aspects of adolescent medical device use and the impact on adolescent adherence and goals for the transitional years between child and adulthood. Patients and methods: Interviews were carried out with 20 adolescents with cystic fibrosis, investigating adolescent medical device use and experiences in relation to their personal and social lives and development through the adolescent years. The qualitative dataset was thematically examined using a content analysis method. Results: The results show that adolescent users of medical technologies want their independence and capabilities to be respected. Adolescent adherence to medical device use was associated with short- and long-term motivations, where older adolescents were able to comprehend the longer-term benefits of use against short-term inconvenience more acutely than younger adolescents. It was suggested that medical devices could provide a tool for communication with families and clinicians and could support adolescents as they take responsibility for managing their condition. Themes of “fitting into teenage life” and “use in the community” were associated with adolescents' needs to form their own identity and have autonomy. Conclusion: This study shows that adolescent needs regarding medical device use are complex. It provides evidence to suggest that devices designed inclusively for adolescents may lead to improved adherence and also facilitate transition through the adolescent years and achievement of adolescent goals. Keywords: young people, teenagers

  19. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Salazar-Pousada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10 and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS, respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P<.05. Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06–4.0, P=.03 and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43–6.55, P=.004 related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged.

  20. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Pousada, Danny; Arroyo, Dalton; Hidalgo, Luis; Pérez-López, Faustino R.; Chedraui, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS), respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P < .05). Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06–4.0, P = .03) and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43–6.55, P = .004) related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged. PMID:21461335

  1. Periodontal status among adolescents in Georgia. A pathfinder study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liran Levin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the present pathfinder study was to screen and map the periodontal status of Georgian population in accordance with the guidelines of the World Health Organization for population based surveys. Methods. During 2012, a pathfinder study was conducted to collect this data. For the periodontal portion of the study, 15-year-old school children were examined in the capital city of Tbilisi as well as in two other large cities and 4 smaller villages. All participants were examined by a trained dental team in a classroom using a dental mirror and a periodontal probe. Periodontal examination included plaque scores, calculus scores, probing depth measurements and bleeding on probing. These measurements were recorded for the Ramfjord index teeth. Results. A total of 397 15-year-old participants were examined in this pathfinder study. There were 240 females (60.45% and 157 males (39.55%. Of the total participants 196 (49.37% were urban adolescents while 201 (50.63% were from rural communities. Mean probing depth was 3.34 ± 0.57 mm with a range of 1 to 10 mm; a relatively high proportion (34.26% of these subjects presented with at least one site with pockets of 5 mm or deeper. Males presented with greater plaque, calculus and probing depths than females. When urban and rural populations were compared, urban participants presented with more plaque, probing depths and bleeding on probing. Greater pocket depths were found to be related to the presence of plaque calculus and bleeding on probing. Conclusions. Overall, rather high incidences of periodontal pockets ≥ 5 mm were detected in this population. This data should serve to prepare further more detailed epidemiological studies that will serve to plan and implement prevent and treat strategies for periodontal diseases in Georgia and also help make manpower decisions.

  2. Effects of parenting quality on adolescents' personality resemblance to their parents. The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Komdeur, Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the development of resemblance between 741 adolescents and their biological parents, across six NEO-PI-R personality traits known to be important in psychological problems: anger-hostility, impulsiveness, vulnerability, assertiveness, excitement-seeking, and self-discipline. We modelled the association between perceived parental warmth and rejection at age eleven and personality resemblance to parents at about age sixteen. Parenting experienced during early adolescence was related to the degree and direction in which adolescents resembled their parents five years later in life. Rejection, especially from fathers, significantly predicted a smaller resemblance to both the parents. Girls were more strongly affected by parental quality than boys, and there was some indication that adolescents responded in opposite ways to parenting from mothers and fathers. This study is a first step in uncovering the complex interplay between parenting, gender, and the current generation's ability to develop personality traits independent from the previous generation.

  3. Effects of parenting quality on adolescents' personality resemblance to their parents. The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Komdeur, Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the development of resemblance between 741 adolescents and their biological parents, across six NEO-PI-R personality traits known to be important in psychological problems: anger-hostility, impulsiveness, vulnerability, assertiveness, excitement-seeking, and self-discipline. We modelled the association between perceived parental warmth and rejection at age eleven and personality resemblance to parents at about age sixteen. Parenting experienced during early adolescence was related to the degree and direction in which adolescents resembled their parents five years later in life. Rejection, especially from fathers, significantly predicted a smaller resemblance to both the parents. Girls were more strongly affected by parental quality than boys, and there was some indication that adolescents responded in opposite ways to parenting from mothers and fathers. This study is a first step in uncovering the complex interplay between parenting, gender, and the current generation's ability to develop personality traits independent from the previous generation. PMID:27400032

  4. Social inequality in breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequency among adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Pagh Pedersen, Trine; Holstein, Bjørn Evald;

    Abstract Purpose: Regular meal habits facilitate healthy dietary habits and especially low breakfast frequency shows associations with risk of overweight among adolescents. Studies on social inequality in meal frequencies among children and adolescents are limited, and especially studies of lunch...... measured by frequency questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted adjusted by age, gender and family structure. Results: Analyses showed that adolescents from low family social class had significantly higher odds of low breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequency than adolescents from...... high family social class (breakfast: odds ratio (OR) = 2.22, lunch: OR = 1.56, evening meal: OR = 1.80). For all three meal types the odds of low frequency increased gradually by decreasing social class. There were no significant interactions with gender. Conclusion: The results indicate social...

  5. Causes and consequences of cerebral small vessel disease. The RUN DMC study: a prospective cohort study. Study rationale and protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Vlugt Maureen J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD is a frequent finding on CT and MRI scans of elderly people and is related to vascular risk factors and cognitive and motor impairment, ultimately leading to dementia or parkinsonism in some. In general, the relations are weak, and not all subjects with SVD become demented or get parkinsonism. This might be explained by the diversity of underlying pathology of both white matter lesions (WML and the normal appearing white matter (NAWM. Both cannot be properly appreciated with conventional MRI. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI provides alternative information on microstructural white matter integrity. The association between SVD, its microstructural integrity, and incident dementia and parkinsonism has never been investigated. Methods/Design The RUN DMC study is a prospective cohort study on the risk factors and cognitive and motor consequences of brain changes among 503 non-demented elderly, aged between 50-85 years, with cerebral SVD. First follow up is being prepared for July 2011. Participants alive will be included and invited to the research centre to undergo a structured questionnaire on demographics and vascular risk factors, and a cognitive, and motor, assessment, followed by a MRI protocol including conventional MRI, DTI and resting state fMRI. Discussion The follow up of the RUN DMC study has the potential to further unravel the causes and possibly better predict the consequences of changes in white matter integrity in elderly with SVD by using relatively new imaging techniques. When proven, these changes might function as a surrogate endpoint for cognitive and motor function in future therapeutic trials. Our data could furthermore provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of cognitive and motor disturbances in elderly with SVD. The execution and completion of the follow up of our study might ultimately unravel the role of SVD on the microstructural integrity of the white

  6. Protocol for: Sheffield Obesity Trial (SHOT: A randomised controlled trial of exercise therapy and mental health outcomes in obese adolescents [ISRCNT83888112

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Neil P

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While obesity is known to have many physiological consequences, the psychopathology of this condition has not featured prominently in the literature. Cross-sectional studies have indicated that obese children have increased odds of experiencing poor quality of life and mental health. However, very limited trial evidence has examined the efficacy of exercise therapy for enhancing mental health outcomes in obese children, and the Sheffield Obesity Trial (SHOT will provide evidence of the efficacy of supervised exercise therapy in obese young people aged 11–16 years versus usual care and an attention-control intervention. Method/design SHOT is a randomised controlled trial where obese young people are randomised to receive; (1 exercise therapy, (2 attention-control intervention (involving body-conditioning exercises and games that do not involve aerobic activity, or (3 usual care. The exercise therapy and attention-control sessions will take place three times per week for eight weeks and a six-week home programme will follow this. Ninety adolescents aged between 11–16 years referred from a children's hospital for evaluation of obesity or via community advertisements will need to complete the study. Participants will be recruited according to the following criteria: (1 clinically obese and aged 11–16 years (Body Mass Index Centile > 98th UK standard (2 no medical condition that would restrict ability to be active three times per week for eight weeks and (3 not diagnosed with insulin dependent diabetes or receiving oral steroids. Assessments of outcomes will take place at baseline, as well as four (intervention midpoint and eight weeks (end of intervention from baseline. Participants will be reassessed on outcome measures five and seven months from baseline. The primary endpoint is physical self-perceptions. Secondary outcomes include physical activity, self-perceptions, depression, affect, aerobic fitness and BMI.

  7. Diagnosis of depression among adolescents – a clinical validation study of key questions and questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirpal Manjit K

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the study is to improve general practitioners' diagnoses of adolescent depression. Major depression is ranked fourth in the worldwide disability impact. Method/Design Validation of 1 three key questions, 2 SCL-dep6, 3 SCL-10, 4 9 other SCL questions and 5 WHO-5 in a clinical study among adolescents. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI is to be used as the gold standard interview. The project is a GP multicenter study to be conducted in both Norway and Denmark. Inclusion criteria are age (14–16 and fluency in the Norwegian and Danish language. A number of GPs will be recruited from both countries and at least 162 adolescents will be enrolled in the study from the patient lists of the GPs in each country, giving a total of at least 323 adolescent participants. Discussion The proportion of adolescents suffering from depressive disorders also seems to be increasing worldwide. Early interventions are known to reduce this illness. The earlier depression can be identified in adolescents, the greater the advantage. Therefore, we hope to find a suitable questionnaire that could be recommended for GPs.

  8. Correlates of physical activity in adolescence: a study from a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behjat Shokrvash

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity is important for adolescent health. The current study aimed to explore factors that predict physical activity among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of physical activity among a sample of adolescents in Tabriz, Iran. Information on physical activity was collected using a modified version of the Adolescent Physical Activity and Recall Questionnaire (APARQ. In addition, a self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic characteristics, perceived family support, and self-efficacy. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between physical activity and independent variables including gender and psychosocial predictors. Results: In all, 402 students were studied. The mean age of adolescents was 12.93 (SD=0.49 years; 51.5% were female. The mean time of moderate and vigorous physical activity for all adolescents was 44.64 (SD=23.24 Metabolic Equivalent (MET min per day. This figure for female adolescents was 38.77 (SD=19.94 MET min per day and for males it was 50.87 (SD=24.88 (P<0.001. The results obtained from multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that female gender (OR=2.59, 95% CI=1.46–4.57, P=0.001 and poor family support (OR=1.10, 95% CI=1.03–1.20, P=0.038 were the most significant contributing factors to low level physical activity in adolescents. Other variables studied did not show any significant results. Conclusion: The findings from the current study indicated that female adolescents were at risk of lower level of physical activity. In addition, it was found that the lack of family support represented an increased risk for low-level physical activity. It seems that family support should be an integrated part of any health education/promotion programs for improving physical activity among young adolescents in general and for female adolescents in particular.

  9. A Protocol for the Longitudinal Study of Psychological Resilience in the Australian Defence Force

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    Monique F. Crane

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades there has been increasing attention directed at the analysis of psychological resilience. The number of modern-day veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan has sparked great interest in identifying mechanisms that can either erode or facilitate psychological resilience. In November 2009, the Australian Defence Force (ADF in collaboration with the Australian Centre for Post-traumatic Mental Health (ACPMH launched a longitudinal study of psychological resilience dubbed LASER (Longitudinal ADF Study Examining Resilience. The study is anticipated to inform psychological resilience training and mental health policy within the ADF. The purpose of the present paper is four-fold. First, this paper will outline the operational definition of psychological resilience used by the ADF. Second, we describe previous findings on psychological resilience while examining how these findings are limited by cross-sectional design. Third, this paper will review previous resilience methodology and discuss the merits of a longitudinal methodology. Fourth, this paper will describe the LASER study protocol, key challenges and implemented solutions.

  10. Exploring Stress and Coping Among Urban African American Adolescents: The Shifting the Lens Study

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Chandra, DrPH; Ameena Batada, DrPH

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Stress can have a significant effect on an adolescent's long-term physical and mental well-being. An understanding of the role of unmanaged stress during early adolescence is critical for the prevention of chronic diseases such as depression. The purpose of the Shifting the Lens study was to explore perceptions of stress, sources of social support, and use of coping strategies among urban African American ninth graders. Methods A youth-driven, mixed-method approach was used ...

  11. Study of prevalence of depression in adolescent students of a public school

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Bansal; Sunil Goyal; Kalpana Srivastava

    2009-01-01

    Background: Three to nine per cent of teenagers meet the criteria for depression at any one time, and at the end of adolescence, as many as 20% of teenagers report a lifetime prevalence of depression. Usual care by primary care physicians fails to recognize 30-50% of depressed patients. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional one-time observational study using simple screening instruments for detecting early symptoms of depression in adolescents. Two psychological instruments were used: GHQ-1...

  12. Development of eating behavior: the way from infancy to adolescence. Review of foreign studies

    OpenAIRE

    Durneva M.U.

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining development of eating behavior in different age groups are reviewed. Determinants of disordered eating attitudes from infancy to adolescent are particularly examined. Family environment and social context are general factors. Knowledge, attitudes and food preferences are individual factors. Eating habits in infancy, early childhood and preschool period related to parent’s eating attitudes; peers and social context are dominant in school period and adolescents. The most effec...

  13. A Boxing-Oriented Exercise Intervention for Obese Adolescent Males: Findings from a Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah P. Shultz, Lee Stoner, Danielle M. Lambrick, Andrew M. Lane

    2014-01-01

    In New Zealand, obese Māori and Pasifika adolescents are at risk of numerous cardio-metabolic conditions with raising physical activity levels being proposed as a useful intervention. The present study used a mixed method design to explore the effects of a non-contact boxing-oriented training programme designed in terms of improvements to cardio-metabolic variables. Traditional recruitment strategies (media, referrals) were employed, with limited success leading to 3 adolescent boys (14-15 y)...

  14. Severe hypertensive syndrome – descriptive study with adolescents attended at a maternity school

    OpenAIRE

    Andreia Gregório Lima; Isabella Beatriz Barbosa Oliveira; Maria Lúcia Neto de Menezes; Rachel Caroline Alves Leite

    2012-01-01

    This is an exploratory and descriptive study with the objective of analyzing the clinical and obstetric data related to the severe hypertensive disorders in adolescents assisted at a maternity school of Recife. The population was consisted of 186 pregnant adolescents with severe preeclampsia and/or eclampsia between 2003 and 2008. The age ranged between 15 and 19 years; they were black, single and had low education. Most of them were primiparas but the pregnancy recurrence was configured at 1...

  15. Sexual risk behavior and pregnancy in detained adolescent females: a study in Dutch detention centers

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen Lucres MC; Vermeiren Robert; Cohen-Kettenis Peggy T; Hamerlynck Sannie MJJ; Bezemer Pieter D; Doreleijers Theo AH

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of teenage pregnancy in the histories of detained adolescent females and to examine the relationship between teenage pregnancy on the one hand and mental health and sexuality related characteristics on the other. Methods Of 256 admitted detained adolescent females aged 12–18 years, a representative sample (N = 212, 83%) was examined in the first month of detention. Instruments included a semi-structured i...

  16. Factors associated with low fitness in adolescents – A mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Charlton, Richard; Gravenor, Michael B; Rees, Anwen; Knox, Gareth; Hill, Rebecca; Rahman, Muhammad A.; Jones, Kerina; Christian, Danielle; Julien S Baker; Stratton, Gareth; Brophy, Sinead

    2014-01-01

    Background Fitness and physical activity are important for cardiovascular and mental health but activity and fitness levels are declining especially in adolescents and among girls. This study examines clustering of factors associated with low fitness in adolescents in order to best target public health interventions for young people. Methods 1147 children were assessed for fitness, had blood samples, anthropometric measures and all data were linked with routine electronic data to examine educ...

  17. A Study of the Correlation between Computer Games and Adolescent Behavioral Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Solmaz; Khezri-Moghadam, Noshiravan; Javanmard, Zeinab; Sarmadi-Ansar, Hassan; Aminaee, Mehran; Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Majid; Zivari-Rahman, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Background Today, due to developing communicative technologies, computer games and other audio-visual media as social phenomena, are very attractive and have a great effect on children and adolescents. The increasing popularity of these games among children and adolescents results in the public uncertainties about plausible harmful effects of these games. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between computer games and behavioral problems on male guidance school students. Methods Th...

  18. Alcohol use in adolescence : A longitudinal study of its effect on cognitive functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Boelema, Sarai

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the adolescent brain is particularly vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol because significant maturation of brain structure and corresponding cognitive control function takes place over the course of adolescence. However, research on this subject has remained inconclusive thus far due to numerous methodological pitfalls. Therefore, there is a need for a large longitudinal study on the precursors and outcomes of alcohol use related to cognitive and behavio...

  19. Influences on eating: a qualitative study of adolescents in a periurban area in Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Banna, Jinan C; Buchthal, Opal Vanessa; Delormier, Treena; Hilary M Creed-Kanashiro; Penny, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Peruvian adolescents are at high nutritional risk, facing issues such as overweight and obesity, anemia, and pregnancy during a period of development. Research seeking to understand contextual factors that influence eating habits to inform the development of public health interventions is lacking in this population. This study aimed to understand socio-cultural influences on eating among adolescents in periurban Lima, Peru using qualitative methods. Methods Semi-structured intervie...

  20. The Relationship Between Early Sexual Debut and Psychosocial Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study of Dutch Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Udell, W.; Sandfort, T; Reitz, E.; Bos, H.; Dekovic, M.

    2010-01-01

    In a longitudinal dataset of 470 Dutch adolescents, the current study examined the ways in which early sexual initiation was related to subsequent attachment, self-perception, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. For male adolescents, analyses revealed general attachment to mother and externalizing problems at Wave 1 to predict to early transition at Wave 2. However, there was no differential change in these psychosocial factors over time for early initiators of sexual intercou...

  1. An analytical cross-sectional study of peer pressure on adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Anisha Khan; Manisha Jain; Chhaya Budhwani

    2015-01-01

    Background: Friendships constitute an integral part of adolescent growth and development. As the teens explore their identity towards functional independence, teen peer relationship acquires an important role. Contrary to prevailing beliefs, peer pressure can have both a positive and negative impact on youths. Methods: A school based cross sectional study carried out on adolescents falling between the age group of 11 to 19 years using a pre-designed written questionnaire. The data obtained...

  2. A Comparative Study of the Taste Choice of Adolescents in Terms of Gender and BMI

    OpenAIRE

    Saime Kucukkmurler

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the attitudes and choices of taste of adolescents, the conditions that affect these choices, and its variations with respect to BMI and gender. METHODS: 385 adolescents between the ages of 11 and 14, in Ankara, Turkey, participated in the research. In order to determine taste choices and attitudes towards taste, a Likert-type questionnaire was applied. Independent Samples t-test and correlational analysis were conducted. RESULTS: Boys prefe...

  3. A cross-sectional study of factors associated with adolescent sexual activity

    OpenAIRE

    Shashikumar, R.; R C Das; Prabhu, H. R. A.; K Srivastava; Bhat, P.S.; Prakash, J.; Seema, P.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Adolescents constitute about 20% of our population and increasingly more of them are initiating sexual activity at an early age. Several behaviors associated with adolescence like masturbation, expression of masculinity/femininity, lifestyle habits like attending late night parties, and consumption of alcohol have been variously implicated in initiating sexual activities. Sexual abuse can also lead to premature sexualization. In view of few worthwhile studies from India that have dea...

  4. A study protocol of a randomised controlled trial to investigate if a community based strength training programme improves work task performance in young adults with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Nicholas F

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle strength is important for young people with Down syndrome as they make the transition to adulthood, because their workplace activities typically emphasise physical rather than cognitive skills. Muscle strength is reduced up to 50% in people with Down syndrome compared to their peers without disability. Progressive resistance training improves muscle strength and endurance in people with Down syndrome. However, there is no evidence on whether it has an effect on work task performance or physical activity levels. The aim of this study is to investigate if a student-led community-based progressive resistance training programme can improve these outcomes in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome. Methods A randomised controlled trial will compare progressive resistance training with a control group undertaking a social programme. Seventy adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome aged 14-22 years and mild to moderate intellectual disability will be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group using a concealed method. The intervention group will complete a 10-week, twice a week, student-led progressive resistance training programme at a local community gymnasium. The student mentors will be undergraduate physiotherapy students. The control group will complete an arts/social programme with a student mentor once a week for 90 minutes also for 10 weeks to control for the social aspect of the intervention. Work task performance (box stacking, pail carry, muscle strength (1 repetition maximum for chest and leg press and physical activity (frequency, duration, intensity over 7-days will be assessed at baseline (Week 0, following the intervention (Week 11, and at 3 months post intervention (Week 24 by an assessor blind to group allocation. Data will be analysed using ANCOVA with baseline measures as covariates. Discussion This paper outlines the study protocol for a randomised controlled trial on the

  5. The role of national policies intended to regulate adolescent smoking in explaining the prevalence of daily smoking: a study of adolescents from 27 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Christina W; Kreiner, Svend; Rasmussen, Mette;

    2008-01-01

    bans in schools were associated with lower odds ratios of daily smoking, which was the one positive association in the study. The study found no association between cigarette prices and adolescent daily smoking prevalence, and also the somewhat unexpected finding that having an age limit for allowing......AIMS: This study seeks to examine whether contextual factors influence adolescents' daily smoking. A focus was placed on three modifiable policies operating at a national level, non-smoking policy at educational facilities, price and minimum age for buying tobacco. DESIGN: This study is based...... voluntary bans. If this association is causal, introducing mandatory bans may reduce adolescent smoking prevalence. The findings that price was unrelated to smoking prevalence undermine findings elsewhere that adolescent smokers are more price-sensitive than adult smokers, but longitudinal studies...

  6. The Impact of a Surgical Protocol for Enhanced Recovery on Living Donor Right Hepatectomy: A Single-Center Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Hoon; Kim, Young Kyu; Lee, Seung Duk; Lee, Eung Chang; Park, Sang Jae

    2016-04-01

    The concept of surgery for enhanced recovery (SFER) program has never been an issue in the context of living donor right hepatectomy (LDRH), much less its effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes after the establishment of an SFER protocol for LDRH in a single center.A single-center cohort study was performed in 500 consecutive living donors who underwent right hepatectomy from January 2005 to June 2014 by analyzing the outcomes before and after an established SFER protocol that evolved with continuous refinements in surgical technique and management over 300 LDRHs, being in place on September 2011. Donor characteristics, operative outcomes, and postoperative complications divided into 2 groups (group 1, stepwise adjustment; group 2, complete adherence to the protocol) were compared.Donor characteristics were comparable in the 2 groups. Overall complication rate was 10.0% with no mortality. In group 2, operative time, hospital stay, and overall complication rate decreased significantly, and the morbidity was 1% and confined in grade I complication without reoperation, perioperative blood transfusion, or readmission. All donors in this series recovered fully and returned to the previous functional lifestyle.An SFER protocol on LDRH can be established by the gradual implementation of various refinements of surgical technique, and the recent outcomes achieved after the establishment of an SFER protocol could provide a current guidance on LDRH toward the ultimate goal of zero morbidity. PMID:27057855

  7. Histomorphometric assessment of bone necrosis produced by two cryosurgery protocols using liquid nitrogen: an experimental study on rat femurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Wildson Gurgel Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of liquid nitrogen cryosurgery on the femoral diaphysis of rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The femoral diaphyses of 42 Wistar rats were exposed to three local and sequential applications of liquid nitrogen for 1 or 2 min, intercalated with periods of 5 min of passive thawing. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 2, 4 and 12 weeks and the specimens obtained were processed and analyzed histomorphometrically. RESULTS: The depth and extent of peak bone necrosis were 124.509 µm and 2087.094 µm for the 1-min protocol, respectively, and 436.424 µm and 12046.426 µm for the 2-min protocol. Peak necrosis was observed in the second experimental week with both cryotherapy protocols. CONCLUSIONS: The present results indicate that the 2-min protocol produced more marked bone necrosis than the 1-min protocol. Although our results cannot be entirely extrapolated to clinical practice, they contribute to the understanding of the behavior of bone tissue submitted to different cycles of liquid nitrogen freezing and may serve as a basis for new studies.

  8. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Janikian, Mari; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Tzavela, Eleni C; Olafsson, Kjartan; Wójcik, Szymon; Macarie, George Florian; Tzavara, Chara; Richardson, Clive

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N=13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8±0.7) of 14-17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addictive behavior (IAB) and related psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in the participating countries. In the study, we distinguish two problematic groups: adolescents with IAB, characterized by a loss of control over their Internet use, and adolescents "at risk for IAB," showing fewer or weaker symptoms of IAB. The two groups combined form a group of adolescents with dysfunctional Internet behavior (DIB). About 1% of adolescents exhibited IAB and an additional 12.7% were at risk for IAB; thus, in total, 13.9% displayed DIB. The prevalence of DIB was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.2% vs. 12.7%, pInternet, and greater use of social networking sites and gaming sites. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing (i.e., behavioral) and internalizing (i.e., emotional) problems were associated with the presence of DIB.

  9. A cognitive-behavioural program for adolescents with chronic pain-a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlijn, Vivian P B M; Hunfeld, Joke A M; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Hazebroek-Kampschreur, Alice A J M; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette W A; Koes, Bart W; Passchier, Jan

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this pilot study is to evaluate the feasibility of a cognitive-behavioural training program for adolescents with chronic pain irrespective of pain localisation. A secondary aim was to give an impression of the effect of the program on pain and quality of life. Eight adolescents (14-18 years) with chronic non-organic pain recruited from the general population (and their parents) participated in this pilot study. The intervention included five group meetings alternated with four telephone contacts (during the self-management weeks) over a period of 9 weeks. The training aimed to change pain behaviour through pain education, relaxation strategies, problem-solving techniques, assertiveness training, cognitive restructuring and by stimulating the adolescent's physical activity level. The training further addresses the social context of pain by inviting parents to attend two meetings for the parents only, and by asking the adolescents to bring a peer to one of the meetings. Adolescents and their parents were positive about the program. Adolescents felt they were more in control of their pain and parents valued the support they experienced in helping their children to master the pain. The training was considered to be feasible in daily life. Further, the preliminary data showed an effect on pain and quality of life in the expected direction. The results underline the need for a definitive study with a larger sample size and a random controlled design. PMID:16257616

  10. Analysis of efficiency of the double- centrifugation protocol to prepare platelet rich plasma (PRP – an experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Reis MESSORA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective:The purpose of this study was to evaluatethe concentrations of platelets obtained from platelet rich plasma (PRP prepared according to the double-centrifugation protocol. Material and methods: Eight adult male rabbits (White New Zealand weighing 2.8 to 4 kg were used.After general anesthesia, 10 ml of blood were drawn from each animal via cardiac puncture. Each blood sample was centrifuged according to the protocol of Sonnleitner et al.(2000.The peripheral blood (total from each animal and the PRP samples platelets were counted manually. Data were submitted to statistical analysis.The normality of the data was confirmed and the Student’s t test was applied (p < 0.05.Results: PRP samples presented an average platele count significantly higher than that of peripheral blood.Conclusion Within the limits of this study, it was concluded that the double centrifugation protocol was adequate to prepare PRP .

  11. Predictors of stress in adolescents: an exploratory study of pregnant and of parenting females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasley, K; Langfield, P A; Kreutzer, J A

    1993-07-01

    A study of 152 adolescents enrolled in school-based programs for pregnant and parenting youth in Colorado in 1987-88 found no differences in overall stress levels between these two groups; however, salient predictors of stressful life events for pregnant teens were not the same as those for teen mothers. The mean age of study subjects was 16.5 years (range 14-19 years); most were living with a parent rather than the child's father. The dependent variable, level of stress, was measured through use of an abbreviated Life Events Questionnaire. Independent variables were assessed through administration of the Inventory of Social Supportive Behaviors, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences scale. Of the 5 sources of stress measured (family, accidents, autonomy, deviance, relocation, and distress), only stress related to accidents differed significantly between pregnant and parenting adolescents. For pregnant adolescents, self-esteem was the only significant predictor of the overall level of stress; among parents, the only significant predictor was objective social support. Among adolescents, self-esteem was associated with more frequent use of social support and coping strategies. For parenting adolescents, self-esteem was correlated with the frequency of use of social support, satisfaction resulting from such use, and frequent use of coping strategies. Overall, the independent variables of social support, self-esteem, coping, and age were stronger predictors of stress in pregnant than in parenting adolescent females. This finding suggests that parenting teens may have successfully negotiated the multiple transitions involved in this new stage of the life-cycle. An important implication of this study is the need to design separate counseling components of school-based programs for pregnant versus parenting adolescents rather than to use a single curriculum. PMID:12318583

  12. Zinc status and its association with the health of adolescents: a review of studies in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Kawade

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc is important in adolescence because of its role in growth and sexual maturation. Adolescents from developing countries such as India may be at high risk of zinc deficiency because of unwholesome food habits and poor bioavailability of zinc from plant-based diets. Objectives: (1 to study zinc status and its association with profile of other micronutrients, (2 to construct a simple tool in the form of Adolescent Micronutrient Quality Index (AMQI to assess quality of diets of the girls and (3 to examine the effect of zinc supplement on health of adolescent girls. Methods: Girls (10–16 years from two secondary schools of Pune, Maharashtra state, in Western India were enrolled in a cross-sectional study (n = 630. Data were collected on dietary intake, cognitive performance, taste acuity, haemoglobin, erythrocyte zinc and plasma levels of zinc, vitamin C, β-carotene and retinol. AMQI was developed using age–sex-specific Indian dietary guidelines and healthy foods and habits described in the recent US dietary guidelines. Zinc-rich recipes were developed considering habitual diets of the girls and vegetarian sources of zinc. An intervention trial (n = 180 was conducted to assess the effect of zinc-rich dietary supplements and ayurvedic zinc (Jasad supplementation. Results: Prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies was high in these girls. Poor cognitive performance was seen in half of the girls, and salt taste perception was affected in 45%. AMQI was correlated with nutrient intakes and blood micronutrient levels (p < 0.01, indicating the potential of AMQI to measure micronutrient quality of diets of adolescent girls. Results of the intervention trial indicated that supplementation of zinc-rich recipes vis-a-vis ayurvedic Jasad zinc has the potential to improve plasma zinc status, cognitive performance and taste acuity in adolescent girls. Conclusion: Review of the studies on Indian adolescent girls demonstrates the necessity of

  13. Adolescent self-organization predicts midlife memory in a prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Man K; Jones, Peter B; Barnett, Jennifer H; Gaysina, Darya; Kuh, Diana; Croudace, Tim J; Richards, Marcus

    2013-12-01

    Childhood and adolescent mental health have a lasting impact on adult life chances, with strong implications for subsequent health, including cognitive aging. Using the British 1946 birth cohort, the authors tested associations between adolescent conduct problems, emotional problems and aspects of self-organization, and verbal memory at 43 years and rate of decline in verbal memory from 43 to 60-64 years. After controlling for childhood intelligence, adolescent self-organization was positively associated with verbal memory at 43 years, mainly through educational attainment, although not with rate of memory decline. Associations between adolescent conduct and emotional problems and future memory were of negligible magnitude. It has been suggested that interventions to improve self-organization may save a wide range of societal costs; this study also suggests that this might also benefit cognitive function in later life. PMID:24364401

  14. Neurophysiological Mechanisms of Auditory Information Processing in Adolescence: A Study on Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, Sarolta; Töllner, Thomas; Trinkl, Monika; Landes, Iris; Bartling, Jürgen; Grossheinrich, Nicola; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Greimel, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    To date, little is known about sex differences in the neurophysiological correlates underlying auditory information processing. In the present study, auditory evoked potentials were evoked in typically developing male (n = 15) and female (n = 14) adolescents (13-18 years) during an auditory oddball task. Girls compared to boys displayed lower N100 and P300 amplitudes to targets. Larger N100 amplitudes in adolescent boys might indicate higher neural sensitivity to changes of incoming auditory information. The P300 findings point toward sex differences in auditory working memory and might suggest that adolescent boys might allocate more attentional resources when processing relevant auditory stimuli than adolescent girls. PMID:27379950

  15. Does Problem Behavior Elicit Poor Parenting?: A Prospective Study of Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, David; Tristan, Jennifer; Wade, Emily; Stice, Eric

    2006-03-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that perceived parenting would show reciprocal relations with adolescents' problem behavior using longitudinal data from 496 adolescent girls. Results provided support for the assertion that female problem behavior has an adverse effect on parenting; elevated externalizing symptoms and substance abuse symptoms predicted future decreases in perceived parental support and control. There was less support for the assertion that parenting deficits foster adolescent problem behaviors; initially low parental control predicted future increases in substance abuse, but not externalizing symptoms, and low parental support did not predict future increases in externalizing or substance abuse symptoms. Results suggest that problem behavior is a more consistent predictor of parenting than parenting is of problem behavior, at least for girls during middle adolescence. PMID:16528407

  16. Cultural Socialization in Families with Adopted Korean Adolescents: A Mixed-Method, Multi-Informant Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Oh Myo; Reichwald, Reed; Lee, Richard M

    2012-11-01

    Transracial, transnational families understand and transmit cultural socialization messages in ways that differ from same-race families. This study explored the ways in which transracial, transnational adoptive families discuss race and ethnicity and how these family discussions compared to self-reports from adoptive parents and adolescents regarding the level of parental engagement in cultural socialization. Of the thirty families with at least one adolescent-aged child (60% female, average age 17.8 years) who was adopted from South Korea, nine families acknowledged racial and ethnic differences, six families rejected racial and ethnic differences, and fifteen families held a discrepancy of views. Parents also reported significantly greater engagement in cultural socialization than adolescents' reports of parental engagement. However, only adolescent self-reports of parental engagement in cultural socialization matched the qualitative coding of family conversations. PMID:24235782

  17. Cottonwood data collection protocol : Great Sand Dunes National Park : Elk/Bison grazing ecology study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol/SOP is from USGS to estimate percent consumption of cottonwood saplings, seedlings, and resprouts and recruitment rates of cottonwood subjected to...

  18. Protocol adaptations to conduct Systematic Literature Reviews in Software Engineering: a chronological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Sepúlveda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Systematic literature reviews (SLR have reached a considerable level of adoption in Software Engineering (SE, how-ever protocol adaptations for its implementation remain tangentially addressed. This work provides a chronological framework for the use and adaptation of the SLR protocol, including its current status. A systematic literature search was performed, reviewing a set of twelve articles being selected in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria between 2004 and 2013, using digital data sources recognized by the SE community. A chronological framework is provided that includes the current state of the protocol adaptations to conduct SLR in SE. The results indicate areas where the quantity and quality of investigations needs to be increased and the identi- fication of the main proposals providing adaptations for the protocol conducting SLR in SE.

  19. The Study of MSADQ/CDMA Protocol in Voice/Data Integration Packet Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new packet medium access protocol, namely, minislot signalingaccess based on distributed queues(MSADQ/CDMA), is proposed in voice and data intergration CDMA networks. The MSADQ protocol is based on distributed queues and collision resolution algorithm. Through proper management of the PN codes, the number of random competition collision reduces greatly, the multiple access interference (MAI) decreases. It has several special access signaling channels to carry the voice and data access request. Each slot is devided into several control minislots (CMSs), in which the Data Terminals (DT) or Voice Terminals (VT) transmit their request. According to the voice and data traffic character, the signaling access structure is proposed. The code assign rules and queue managing rules are also proposed to ensure the QoS requirement of each traffic. Comparisions with other three protocol are developed by simulation, which shows that MSADQ/CDMA protocol occupies less PN codes, but still has very good performance.

  20. Formal security analysis of registration protocols for interactive systems: a methodology and a case of study

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz, Jesus; Rodriguez, Francisco B

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present and formally analyze CHAT-SRP (CHAos based Tickets-Secure Registration Protocol), a protocol to provide interactive and collaborative platforms with a cryptographically robust solution to classical security issues. Namely, we focus on the secrecy and authenticity properties while keeping a high usability. Indeed, most interactive platforms currently base their security properties almost exclusively on the correct implementation and configuration of the systems. In this sense, users are forced to blindly trust the system administrators and developers. Moreover, as far as we know, there is a lack of formal methodologies for the verification of security properties for interactive applications. We propose here a methodology to fill this gap, i.e., to analyse both the security of the proposed protocol and the pertinence of the underlying premises. In this concern, we propose the definition and formal evaluation of a protocol for the distribution of digital identities. Once distributed, thes...

  1. Study of Flat - Reactive On-Demand Routing Protocol (DSR & AODV): A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Atul D.Atalkar; Prof. Prashant S.Wankhede

    2014-01-01

    Mobile Ad-Hoc Network is a collection of mobile node, which communicates with each other to share information among them. Each node acts as a router itself. They are freely to move and change their position within a network and arrange themselves share all resources with each other. But to share information a routing protocol is needed. Routing protocol plays an important role in network design and provides the simplicity, decision rights to network, which will increase the perfor...

  2. The Impact on Family Functioning of Social Media Use by Depressed Adolescents: A Qualitative Analysis of the Family Options Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Andrew J; Knight, Tess; Germanov, Galit; Benstead, Michelle Lisa; Joseph, Claire Ingrid; Poole, Lucinda

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent depression is a prevalent mental health problem, which can have a major impact on family cohesion. In such circumstances, excessive use of the Internet by adolescents may exacerbate family conflict and lack of cohesion. The current study aims to explore these patterns within an intervention study for depressed adolescents. Method The current study draws upon data collected from parents within the family options randomized controlled trial that examined family ...

  3. The impact on family functioning of social media use by depressed adolescents: a qualitative analysis of the Family Options Study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew James Lewis; Tess eKnight; Galit eGermanov; Michelle Lisa Benstead; Claire Ingrid Joseph; Lucinda ePoole

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescent depression is a prevalent mental health problem, which can have a major impact on family cohesion. In such circumstances, excessive use of the Internet by adolescents may exacerbate family conflict and lack of cohesion. The current study aims to explore these patterns within an intervention study for depressed adolescents.Method: The current study draws upon data collected within the Family Options randomized controlled trial that examined family-based interventions for...

  4. Body Mass Index, Dietary Habits and Physical Exercise among School going Adolescent: A Cross Sectional Study in Ahmedabad

    OpenAIRE

    Tejas A Shah, Rajshree J Bhatt, Mitesh Patel, Pritesh G Patel

    2013-01-01

    Background: The high prevalence of obesity in adolescence is serious public health concern. Longitudinal studies confirm that health consequences of obesity during adolescence track into adulthood and it can be reduced by successfully decreasing body fat among adolescents. Objectives: “The objectives of the study were to assess Body Mass Index of study participants and also to explore their lifestyle like physical exercise, television viewing etc.” Methodology: A cross- sectional stud...

  5. Acupuncture Antiarrhythmic Effects on Drug Refractory Persistent Atrial Fibrillation: Study Protocol for a Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimin Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common form of arrhythmia. Several trials have suggested that acupuncture may prevent AF. However, the efficacy of acupuncture for AF prevention has not been well investigated. Therefore, we designed a prospective, two-parallel-armed, participant and assessor blinded, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial to investigate acupuncture in persistent AF (ACU-AF. Methods. A total of 80 participants will be randomly assigned to active acupuncture or sham acupuncture groups in a 1 : 1 ratio. Both groups will take the same antiarrhythmic medication during the study period. Patients will receive 10 sessions of acupuncture treatment once a week for 10 weeks. The primary endpoint is AF recurrence rate. Secondary endpoints are left atrium (LA and left atrial appendage (LAA changes in function and volume, and inflammatory biomarker changes. Ethics. This study protocol was approved by the institutional review boards (IRBs of Kyung Hee University Hospital (number 1335-04. This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov NCT02110537.

  6. A randomized controlled trial examining Iyengar yoga for young adults with rheumatoid arthritis: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sternlieb Beth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, disabling disease that can compromise mobility, daily functioning, and health-related quality of life, especially in older adolescents and young adults. In this project, we will compare a standardized Iyengar yoga program for young people with rheumatoid arthritis to a standard care wait-list control condition. Methods/Design Seventy rheumatoid arthritis patients aged 16-35 years will be randomized into either the 6-week Iyengar yoga program (12 - 1.5 hour sessions twice weekly or the 6-week wait-list control condition. A 20% attrition rate is anticipated. The wait-list group will receive the yoga program following completion of the first arm of the study. We will collect data quantitatively, using questionnaires and markers of disease activity, and qualitatively using semi-structured interviews. Assessments include standardized measures of general and arthritis-specific function, pain, mood, and health-related quality of life, as well as qualitative interviews, blood pressure/resting heart rate measurements, a medical exam and the assessment of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Data will be collected three times: before treatment, post-treatment, and two months following the treatment. Discussion Results from this study will provide critical data on non-pharmacologic methods for enhancing function in rheumatoid arthritis patients. In particular, results will shed light on the feasibility and potential efficacy of a novel intervention for rheumatoid arthritis symptoms, paving the way for a larger clinical trial. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01096823

  7. A study protocol to evaluate the relationship between outdoor air pollution and pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selemane Ismael

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study protocol is designed to assess the relationship between outdoor air pollution and low birth weight and preterm births outcomes performing a semi-ecological analysis. Semi-ecological design studies are widely used to assess effects of air pollution in humans. In this type of analysis, health outcomes and covariates are measured in individuals and exposure assignments are usually based on air quality monitor stations. Therefore, estimating individual exposures are one of the major challenges when investigating these relationships with a semi-ecologic design. Methods/Design Semi-ecologic study consisting of a retrospective cohort study with ecologic assignment of exposure is applied. Health outcomes and covariates are collected at Primary Health Care Center. Data from pregnant registry, clinical record and specific questionnaire administered orally to the mothers of children born in period 2007-2010 in Portuguese Alentejo Litoral region, are collected by the research team. Outdoor air pollution data are collected with a lichen diversity biomonitoring program, and individual pregnancy exposures are assessed with spatial geostatistical simulation, which provides the basis for uncertainty analysis of individual exposures. Awareness of outdoor air pollution uncertainty will improve validity of individual exposures assignments for further statistical analysis with multivariate regression models. Discussion Exposure misclassification is an issue of concern in semi-ecological design. In this study, personal exposures are assigned to each pregnant using geocoded addresses data. A stochastic simulation method is applied to lichen diversity values index measured at biomonitoring survey locations, in order to assess spatial uncertainty of lichen diversity value index at each geocoded address. These methods assume a model for spatial autocorrelation of exposure and provide a distribution of exposures in each study location

  8. Heart rate as an indicator for exercise prescription for normal, overweight, and obese adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kamilla Bolonha Gomes; Anselmo José Perez; Luciana Carletti; Adilson Marques

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the relationship between heart rate (HR) predicted and VO2max using a CPET (cardiopulmonary exercise testing) among normal weight, overweight, and obese adolescents. The sample comprised 299 adolescents (142 boys), from Vitória (ES, Brazil), aged 10-14 years (12.6±1.4). Adolescents were classified into normal weight (n=236), overweight (n=34), and obese (n=29). Adolescents were subjected to a CPET ramp protocol on a treadmill. It was observed that the ...

  9. A Prospective Study of Adolescent Suicidal Behavior Following Hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cheryl A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Identifies specific predictors of suicidal behavior in 100 adolescents during a 6-month follow-up period after psychiatric hospitalization. Eighteen percent reported suicidal behavior during the follow-up period, and this behavior was associated with suicidal thoughts, family dysfunction, and dysthymia. It was not associated with initial…

  10. Active gaming in Dutch adolescents: a descriptive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; Bernaards, C.; Slinger, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Adequate levels of physical activity are part of a healthy lifestyle and in this way linked to better health outcomes. For children and adolescents, the physical activity guideline recommends at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity every day. However, many adolescen

  11. Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Safety Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, Graham; Kratochvil, Christopher; Vitiello, Benedetto; Silva, Susan; Mayes, Taryn; McNulty, Steven; Weller, Elizabeth; Waslick, Bruce; Casat, Charles; Walkup, John; Pathak, Sanjeev; Rohde, Paul; Posner, Kelly; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare the rates of physical, psychiatric, and suicide-related events in adolescents with MDD treated with fluoxetine alone (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), combination treatment (COMB), or placebo (PBO). Method: Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs) collected by spontaneous report, as well as systematic…

  12. Risk indicators of anxiety throughout adolescence: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.V.A. van Oort; K. Greaves-Lord; J. Ormel; F.C. Verhulst; A.C. Huizink

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim was to identify risk indicators from preadolescence (age period 10-12) that significantly predict unfavorable deviations from normal anxiety development throughout adolescence (age period 10-17 years). Methods: Anxiety symptoms were assessed in a community sample of 2,220 boys an

  13. Contributions of Anthropology to the Study of Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Alice; Hewlett, Bonnie L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence researchers can turn to anthropology to learn the methods of ethnography and cultural comparisons, and they can mine its large database of information on cultures worldwide. But anthropology's single most important contribution is the concept of culture, the mosaic of a group's learned and shared, or at least understood, beliefs,…

  14. Kinaesthetic acuity in adolescent boys : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.; Geuze, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    The Kinaesthetic Sensitivity Test (KST) was used to measure the development of kinaesthetic acuity in adolescent boys. Thirty boys were tested longitudinally, at intervals of 6 months, between the ages of 11 1/2 and 14 years. A second group of 20 boys was tested at the ages of 14 and 16 1/2 years. T

  15. Psychiatric Diagnostic Interviews for Children and Adolescents: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angold, Adrian; Erkanli, Alaattin; Copeland, William; Goodman, Robert; Fisher, Prudence W.; Costello, E. Jane

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare examples of three styles of psychiatric interviews for youth: the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) ("respondent-based"), the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA) ("interviewer-based"), and the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) ("expert judgment"). Method: Roughly equal numbers of…

  16. Risk indicators of anxiety throughout adolescence : The trails study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, F. V. A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F. C.; Huizink, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim was to identify risk indicators from preadolescence (age period 10-12) that significantly predict unfavorable deviations from normal anxiety development throughout adolescence (age period 10-17 years). Methods: Anxiety symptoms were assessed in a community sample of 2,220 boys an

  17. Family Planning for Inner-City Adolescent Males: Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Janet; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes a pilot family planning program in an inner-city pediatric practice. Male adolescents were more likely to accept contraceptives if the provider first raised the topic of birth control to them. Identified a desire for anonymity/confidentiality and embarrassment or discomfort as the key reasons for not seeking contraceptives. Emphasizes…

  18. Wean Earlier and Automatically with New technology (the WEAN study: a protocol of a multicentre, pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessard Martin R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weaning is the process during which mechanical ventilation is withdrawn and the work of breathing is transferred from the ventilator back to the patient. Prolonged weaning is associated with development of ventilator-related complications and longer stays in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Computerized or Automated Weaning is a novel weaning strategy that continuously measures and adapts ventilator support (by frequently measuring and averaging three breathing parameters and automatically conducts Spontaneous Breathing Trials to ascertain whether patients can resume autonomous breathing. Automated Weaning holds promise as a strategy to reduce the time spent on the ventilator, decrease ICU length of stay, and improve clinically important outcomes. Methods/Design A pilot weaning randomized controlled trial (RCT is underway in the ICUs of 8 Canadian hospitals. We will randomize 90 critically ill adults requiring invasive ventilation for at least 24 hours and identified at an early stage of the weaning process to either Automated Weaning (SmartCare™ or Protocolized Weaning. The results of a National Weaning Survey informed the design of the Protocolized Weaning arm. Both weaning protocols are operationalized in Pressure Support mode, include opportunities for Spontaneous Breathing Trials, and share a common sedation protocol, oxygen titration parameters, and extubation and reintubation criteria. The primary outcome of the WEAN study is to evaluate compliance with the proposed weaning and sedation protocols. A key secondary outcome of the pilot RCT is to evaluate clinician acceptance of the weaning and sedation protocols. Prior to initiating the WEAN Study, we conducted a run-in phase, involving two patients per centre (randomizing the first participant to either weaning strategy and assigning the second patient to the alternate strategy to ensure that participating centres could implement the weaning and sedation protocols and

  19. The study design and methodology for the ARCHER study - adolescent rural cohort study of hormones, health, education, environments and relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinbeck Katharine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is characterized by marked psychosocial, behavioural and biological changes and represents a critical life transition through which adult health and well-being are established. Substantial research confirms the role of psycho-social and environmental influences on this transition, but objective research examining the role of puberty hormones, testosterone in males and oestradiol in females (as biomarkers of puberty on adolescent events is lacking. Neither has the tempo of puberty, the time from onset to completion of puberty within an individual been studied, nor the interaction between age of onset and tempo. This study has been designed to provide evidence on the relationship between reproductive hormones and the tempo of their rise to adult levels, and adolescent behaviour, health and wellbeing. Methods/Design The ARCHER study is a multidisciplinary, prospective, longitudinal cohort study in 400 adolescents to be conducted in two centres in regional Australia in the State of New South Wales. The overall aim is to determine how changes over time in puberty hormones independently affect the study endpoints which describe universal and risk behaviours, mental health and physical status in adolescents. Recruitment will commence in school grades 5, 6 and 7 (10–12 years of age. Data collection includes participant and parent questionnaires, anthropometry, blood and urine collection and geocoding. Data analysis will include testing the reliability and validity of the chosen measures of puberty for subsequent statistical modeling to assess the impact over time of tempo and onset of puberty (and their interaction and mean-level repeated measures analyses to explore for significant upward and downward shifts on target outcomes as a function of main effects. Discussion The strengths of this study include enrollment starting in the earliest stages of puberty, the use of frequent urine samples in addition to annual

  20. A study on the normal heart volume of Korean adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac volume mensuration by the roentgenological method was carried out in healthy 220 Korean adolescent, 116 males and 104 females. Predicted heart volume (PHV) and relative heart volume (RHV) were obtained from the following formulae: PHV = K X Broad diameter X Long diameter X Greatest horizontal depth RHV = PHV (total volume in ml)/body surface area (meter squared) The constant, K, represents the product of an ellipsoid area factor and a correction factor for magnification of the cardiac image. Therefore, K value used in this study is 0.42 for 200 cm and 150 cm of the focal-film distance in posterior-anterior and lateral views, respectively. The broad diameter was measured from the junction of the right atrium and the diaphragm to the junction of the pulmonary artery and left atrial appendage. The long diameter was taken from the junction of the superior vena cava and right atrium to the cardiac apex. The greatest horizontal depth of the heart was measured on lateral view. Body surface area was obtained by use of the Du Bolis nomogram. The results were as follows: 1. Predicted roentgenological heart volumes at 16 years to 20 years of age was 449 ± 11.1 ml in makes and 418 ± 7.7 ml in females. It increased with advantage age and height, but was not significantly influenced by changes in body weight in both sexes. 2. Relative heart volume at 16 years to 20 years was 275 ± 5.6 ml/m2 in males, 327 ± 4.1 ml/m2 in females. It increased with advantage age and height, but was not significantly influenced by changes in body weight in both sexes. 3. Roentgenological mensuration was a simple and reliable method in determining the cardiac volume.