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Sample records for adolescents study protocol

  1. Early signaling, referral, and treatment of adolescent chronic pain: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voerman Jessica S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic pain is prevalent among young people and negatively influences their quality of life. Furthermore, chronic pain in adolescence may persist into adulthood. Therefore, it is important early on to promote the self-management skills of adolescents with chronic pain by improving signaling, referral, and treatment of these youngsters. In this study protocol we describe the designs of two complementary studies: a signaling study and an intervention study. Methods and design The signaling study evaluates the Pain Barometer, a self-assessed signaling instrument for chronic pain in adolescents. To evaluate the feasibility of the Pain Barometer, the experiences of youth-health care nurses will be evaluated in semi-structured interviews. Also, we will explore the frequencies of referral per health-care provider. The intervention study evaluates Move It Now, a guided self-help intervention via the Internet for teenagers with chronic pain. This intervention uses cognitive behavioural techniques, including relaxation exercises and positive thinking. The objective of the intervention is to improve the ability of adolescents to cope with pain. The efficacy of Move It Now will be examined in a randomized controlled trial, in which 60 adolescents will be randomly assigned to an experimental condition or a waiting list control condition. Discussion If the Pain Barometer is proven to be feasible and Move It Now appears to be efficacious, a health care pathway can be created to provide the best tailored treatment promptly to adolescents with chronic pain. Move It Now can be easily implemented throughout the Netherlands, as the intervention is Internet based. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR1926

  2. Peer mentorship to promote effective pain management in adolescents: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Loran P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This protocol is for a study of a new program to improve outcomes in children suffering from chronic pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia, recurrent headache, or recurrent abdominal pain. Although teaching active pain self-management skills through cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT or a complementary program such as hypnotherapy or yoga has been shown to improve pain and functioning, children with low expectations of skill-building programs may lack motivation to comply with therapists' recommendations. This study will develop and test a new manualized peer-mentorship program which will provide modeling and reinforcement by peers to other adolescents with chronic pain (the mentored participants. The mentorship program will encourage mentored participants to engage in therapies that promote the learning of pain self-management skills and to support the mentored participants' practice of these skills. The study will examine the feasibility of this intervention for both mentors and mentored participants, and will assess the preliminary effectiveness of this program on mentored participants' pain and functional disability. Methods This protocol will recruit adolescents ages 12-17 with chronic pain and randomly assign them to either peer mentorship or a treatment-as-usual control group. Mentored participants will be matched with peer mentors of similar age (ages 14-18 who have actively participated in various treatment modalities through the UCLA Pediatric Pain Program and have learned to function successfully with a chronic pain disorder. The mentors will present information to mentored participants in a supervised and monitored telephone interaction for 2 months to encourage participation in skill-building programs. The control group will receive usual care but without the mentorship intervention. Mentored and control subjects' pain and functioning will be assessed at 2 months (end of intervention for mentored participants and

  3. Evaluating a selective prevention programme for binge drinking among young adolescents: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

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    Wiers Reinout

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In comparison to other Europe countries, Dutch adolescents are at the top in drinking frequency and binge drinking. A total of 75% of the Dutch 12 to 16 year olds who drink alcohol also engage in binge drinking. A prevention programme called Preventure was developed in Canada to prevent adolescents from binge drinking. This article describes a study that aims to assess the effects of this selective school-based prevention programme in the Netherlands. Methods A randomized controlled trial is being conducted among 13 to 15-year-old adolescents in secondary schools. Schools were randomly assigned to the intervention and control conditions. The intervention condition consisted of two 90 minute group sessions, carried out at the participants' schools and provided by a qualified counsellor and a co-facilitator. The intervention targeted young adolescents who demonstrated personality risk for alcohol abuse. The group sessions were adapted to four personality profiles. The control condition received no further intervention above the standard substance use education sessions provided in the Dutch national curriculum. The primary outcomes will be the percentage reduction in binge drinking, weekly drinking and drinking-related problems after three specified time periods. A screening survey collected data by means of an Internet questionnaire. Students have completed, or will complete, a post-treatment survey after 2, 6, and 12 months, also by means of an online questionnaire. Discussion This study protocol presents the design and current implementation of a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a selective alcohol prevention programme. We expect that a significantly lower number of adolescents will binge drink, drink weekly, and have drinking-related problems in the intervention condition compared to the control condition, as a result of this intervention. Trial registration This trial is registered in the Dutch

  4. Does Interpersonal Psychotherapy improve clinical care for adolescents with depression attending a rural child and adolescent mental health service? Study protocol for a cluster randomised feasibility trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villanueva Elmer V

    2007-10-01

    -class correlation coefficient will be calculated and used to inform sample size calculations for subsequent large-scale trials. Qualitative data regarding process implementation will be collected quarterly from focus groups with participating clinicians over 18 months, plus phone interviews with participating adolescents and parent/guardians at 12 weeks and 24 weeks of treatment. The focus group qualitative data will be analysed using a Fourth Generation Evaluation methodology that includes a constant comparative cyclic analysis method. Discussion This study protocol will be informative for researchers and clinicians interested in considering, designing and/or conducting cluster randomised trials within community practice such as mental health services. Trial Registration Australian Clinical Trials Registry ACTRNO12607000324415

  5. Peer mentorship to promote effective pain management in adolescents: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes Loran P; Tsao Jennie CI; Allen Laura B; Zeltzer Lonnie K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background This protocol is for a study of a new program to improve outcomes in children suffering from chronic pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia, recurrent headache, or recurrent abdominal pain. Although teaching active pain self-management skills through cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or a complementary program such as hypnotherapy or yoga has been shown to improve pain and functioning, children with low expectations of skill-building programs may lack motivation to comply w...

  6. A new perspective on adolescent athletes’ transition into upper secondary school: A longitudinal mixed methods study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V. Ryba

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of combining elite sport and education into a dual career pathway remains to be a source of concern for many high-performance athletes. Previous research findings suggest that committed participation in both domains is highly demanding and success in one pursuit often comes at the expense of the other. There are emergent studies, however, that argue for the beneficial and complementary nature of dual career pathways. Consequently, we emphasize the importance of understanding the processes underlying differences in the development of athletes’ life trajectories. This article presents a study protocol to explore new methodological and analytical approaches that may extend current understandings of the ways psychological and sociocultural processes are interconnected in the construction of adolescent athletes’ identities, motivation, well-being, and career aspirations in the transitory social world.

  7. Parent-focused treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa: a study protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Elizabeth K; Le Grange, Daniel; Court, Andrew; Yeo, Michele SM; Campbell, Stephanie; Allan, Erica; Crosby, Ross D.; Loeb, Katharine L.; Sawyer, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Background Family-based treatment is an efficacious outpatient intervention for medically stable adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Previous research suggests family-based treatment may be more effective for some families when parents and adolescents attend separate therapy sessions compared to conjoint sessions. Our service developed a novel separated model of family-based treatment, parent-focused treatment, and is undertaking a randomised controlled trial to compare parent-focused treatmen...

  8. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis;

    2013-01-01

    Background During cancer treatment children have reduced contact with their social network of friends, and have limited participation in education, sports, and leisure activities. During and following cancer treatment, children describe school related problems, reduced physical fitness...... intervention includes an educational program aimed at the child with cancer, the child’s schoolteachers and classmates, and the child’s parents. Children with cancer will each have two ambassadors assigned from their class. The ambassadors visit the child with cancer at the hospital at alternating 2-week......, and one year after the cessation of treatment. The study is powered to quantify the impact of the combined educational, physical, and social intervention programs. Discussion RESPECT is the first population-based study to examine the effect of early rehabilitation for children with cancer, and to use...

  9. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helle Østergaard; Dam, Ole Henrik; Hageman, Ida

    2012-01-01

    yields a Global Seasonal Score and a prevalence of SAD. Outcomes from the two groups will be compared. Moreover, outcomes from subgroups of the visually impaired population will be compared. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study is approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency. Results will be published in...... persons with severe visual impairments or blindness and to compare the results to a control group without visual impairments. Moreover, the authors wish to investigate whether SAD is correlated to the degree of impairment or to the diagnosis. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 2781 persons with visual impairments...

  10. Lifestyle modification and metformin as long-term treatment options for obese adolescents: study protocol

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    Watson Margaret

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a serious health concern affecting over 155 million children in developed countries worldwide. Childhood obesity is associated with significantly increased risk for development of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and psychosocial functioning problems (i.e., depression and decreased quality of life. The two major strategies for management of obesity and associated metabolic abnormalities are lifestyle modification and pharmacologic therapy. This paper will provide the background rationale and methods of the REACH childhood obesity treatment program. Methods/design The REACH study is a 2-year multidisciplinary, family-based, childhood obesity treatment program. Seventy-two obese adolescents (aged 10-16 years and their parents are being recruited to participate in this randomized placebo controlled trial. Participants are randomized to receive either metformin or placebo, and are then randomized to a moderate or a vigorous intensity supervised exercise program for the first 12-weeks. After the 12-week exercise program, participants engage in weekly exercise sessions with an exercise facilitator at a local community center. Participants engage in treatment sessions with a dietitian and social worker monthly for the first year, and then every three months for the second year. The primary outcome measure is change in body mass index and the secondary outcome measures are changes in body composition, risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, changes in diet, physical activity, and psychosocial well-being (e.g., quality of life. It is hypothesized that participants who take metformin and engage in vigorous intensity exercise will show the greatest improvements in body mass index. In addition, it is hypothesized that participants who adhere to the REACH program will show improvements in body composition, physical activity, diet, psychosocial functioning and risk factor profiles for type 2

  11. A smartphone intervention for adolescent obesity: study protocol for a randomised controlled non-inferiority trial

    OpenAIRE

    O'Malley, G.; Clarke, M.; Burls, A; Murphy, S.; Murphy, N.; Perry, I. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background There are few evidence-based mobile health solutions for treating adolescent obesity. The primary aim of this parallel non-inferiority trial is to assess the effectiveness of an experimental smartphone application in reducing obesity at 12 months, compared to the Temple Street W82GO Healthy Lifestyles intervention. Methods/design The primary outcome measure is change in body mass index standardised deviation score at 12 months. The secondary aim is to compare the effect o...

  12. Acupuncture for adolescents with mild-to-moderate myopia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yan; Gao, Yun-xian; Sun, Qi; Bu, Qian; Shi, Jing; Zhang, Ya-ni; Xu, Qin; Ji, Yan; Tong, Min; Jiang, Guang-li

    2014-01-01

    Background Myopia is a public health problem worldwide and its incidence increases with age. The use of acupuncture to treat myopia is a common practice in China, however, the use of acupuncture to treat myopia is disputed in other parts of the world. This study aims to determine the safety of acupuncture to treat myopia and its efficacy over six months. Methods/Design A randomized, parallel, single-center, assessor- and statistician-blinded, controlled clinical trial will be performed. A tot...

  13. The Impact of Protocol Assignment for Older Adolescents with Hodgkin Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Pieters, Richard S.; Wagner, Henry; Baker, Stephen; Morano, Karen; Ulin, Kenneth; Cicchetti, Maria Giulia; Bishop-Jodoin, Maryann; FitzGerald, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treatment has evolved to reduce or avoid radiotherapy (RT) dose and volume and minimize the potential for late effects. Some older adolescents are treated on adult protocols. The purpose of this study is to examine the protocol assignment of older adolescents and its impact on radiation dose to relevant thoracic structures. Materials and Methods: Cooperative group data were reviewed and 12 adolescents were randomly selected from a pediatric HL ...

  14. The impact of protocol assignment for older adolescents with Hodgkin Lymphoma

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    Richard S Pieters

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL treatment has evolved to reduce or avoid radiotherapy (RT dose and volume and minimize the potential for late effects. Some older adolescents are treated on adult protocols. The purpose of this study is to examine the protocol assignment of older adolescents and its impact on radiation dose to relevant thoracic structures.Material and Methods: Cooperative group data were reviewed and 12 adolescents were randomly selected from a pediatric HL protocol. Treatment plans were generated per one pediatric and two adult protocols. Dose volume histograms for heart, lung and breast allowed comparison of radiation dose to these sites across these 3 protocols.Results: A total of 15.2% of adolescents were treated on adult HL protocols and received significantly higher radiation dosage to heart and lung compared to pediatric HL protocols. Adolescents treated on either pediatric or adult protocols received similar RT dose to breast.Conclusions: Older adolescents treated on adult HL protocols received higher RT dose to thoracic structures except breast. Level of nodal involvement may impact overall RT dose to breast. The impact of varying field design and RT dose on survival, local, and late effects needs further study for this vulnerable age group.

  15. A randomised controlled trial of a community-based healthy lifestyle program for overweight and obese adolescents: the Loozit® study protocol

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    Shah Smita

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need to develop sustainable and clinically effective weight management interventions that are suitable for delivery in community settings where the vast majority of overweight and obese adolescents should be treated. This study aims to evaluate the effect of additional therapeutic contact as an adjunct to the Loozit® group program – a community-based, lifestyle intervention for overweight and lower grade obesity in adolescents. The additional therapeutic contact is provided via telephone coaching and either mobile phone Short Message Service or electronic mail, or both. Methods and design The study design is a two-arm randomised controlled trial that aims to recruit 168 overweight and obese 13–16 year olds (Body Mass Index z-score 1.0 to 2.5 in Sydney, Australia. Adolescents with secondary causes of obesity or significant medical illness are excluded. Participants are recruited via schools, media coverage, health professionals and several community organisations. Study arm one receives the Loozit® group weight management program (G. Study arm two receives the same Loozit® group weight management program plus additional therapeutic contact (G+ATC. The 'G' intervention consists of two phases. Phase 1 involves seven weekly group sessions held separately for adolescents and their parents. This is followed by phase 2 that involves a further seven group sessions held regularly, for adolescents only, until two years follow-up. Additional therapeutic contact is provided to adolescents in the 'G+ATC' study arm approximately once per fortnight during phase 2 only. Outcome measurements are assessed at 2, 12 and 24 months post-baseline and include: BMI z-score, waist z-score, metabolic profile indicators, physical activity, sedentary behaviour, eating patterns, and psychosocial well-being. Discussion The Loozit® study is the first randomised controlled trial of a community-based adolescent weight management

  16. Built environment and physical activity in New Zealand adolescents: A protocol for a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Hinckson, Erica A.; Duncan, Scott; Oliver, Melody; Mavoa, Suzanne; Cerin, Ester; Badland, Hannah; Stewart, Tom; Ivory, Vivienne; McPhee, Julia; Schofield, Grant

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Built-environment interventions have the potential to provide population-wide effects and the means for a sustained effect on behaviour change. Population-wide effects for adult physical activity have been shown with selected built environment attributes; however, the association between the built environment and adolescent health behaviours is less clear. This New Zealand study is part of an international project across 10 countries (International Physical Activity and the Envir...

  17. Study protocol: determinants of participation and quality of life of adolescents with cerebral palsy: a longitudinal study (SPARCLE2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colver, Allan F; Dickinson, Heather O; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children and adults with impairments such as cerebral palsy have lower participation in life situations than able-bodied people. Less is known about their subjective perception of their lives, called their quality of life.During adolescence, rapid physical and psychological changes oc...

  18. Study protocol: Determinants of participation and quality of life of adolescents with cerebral palsy: a longitudinal study (SPARCLE2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colver Allan F

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children and adults with impairments such as cerebral palsy have lower participation in life situations than able-bodied people. Less is known about their subjective perception of their lives, called their quality of life. During adolescence, rapid physical and psychological changes occur; although these may be more difficult for disabled than for able-bodied adolescents, little research has examined the lives of disabled adolescents. In 2003-4 a European Union funded project, SPARCLE, visited 818 children aged 8-12 years with cerebral palsy, sampled from population-based registers in nine European regions. The quality of life reported by these disabled children was similar to that of the general population but their participation was lower; levels of participation varied between countries even for children with similar severity of cerebral palsy. We are currently following up these children, now aged 13-17 years, to identify (i to what extent contemporaneous factors (pain, impairment, psychological health and parental stress predict their participation and quality of life, (ii what factors modify how participation and quality of life at age 8-12 years are associated with participation and quality of life in adolescence, and (iii whether differences between European countries in participation and quality of life can be explained by variations in environmental factors. Methods/Design Trained researchers will visit families to administer questionnaires to capture the adolescents' type and severity of impairment, socio-demographic characteristics, participation, quality of life, psychological health, pain, environmental access and parental stress. We will use multivariable models (linear, logistic or ordinal to assess how adolescent participation, quality of life, psychological health, pain, environmental access and parental stress, vary with impairment and socio-demographic characteristics and, where possible, how these

  19. Effectiveness of depression and anxiety prevention in adolescents with high familial risk: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasing, S.P.A.; Creemers, D.H.M.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Depression and anxiety disorders during adolescence can have detrimental consequences. Both disorders are related to negative outcome in various areas during adolescence and are also predictive of depression and anxiety disorders later in life. Especially parental psychopathology and bei

  20. Adolescent depressive disorders and family based interventions in the family options multicenter evaluation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Andrew J.; Bertino, Melanie D.; Skewes, Joanna; Shand, Lyndel; Borojevic, Nina; Knight, Tess; Lubman, Dan I; Toumbourou, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is increasing community and government recognition of the magnitude and impact of adolescent depression. Family based interventions have significant potential to address known risk factors for adolescent depression and could be an effective way of engaging adolescents in treatment. The evidence for family based treatments of adolescent depression is not well developed. The objective of this clinical trial is to determine whether a family based intervention can reduce rates of...

  1. A randomised controlled trial of a theory-based intervention to improve sun protective behaviour in adolescents ('you can still be HOT in the shade': study protocol

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    Hawkes Anna L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most skin cancers are preventable by encouraging consistent use of sun protective behaviour. In Australia, adolescents have high levels of knowledge and awareness of the risks of skin cancer but exhibit significantly lower sun protection behaviours than adults. There is limited research aimed at understanding why people do or do not engage in sun protective behaviour, and an associated absence of theory-based interventions to improve sun safe behaviour. This paper presents the study protocol for a school-based intervention which aims to improve the sun safe behaviour of adolescents. Methods/design Approximately 400 adolescents (aged 12-17 years will be recruited through Queensland, Australia public and private schools and randomized to the intervention (n = 200 or 'wait-list' control group (n = 200. The intervention focuses on encouraging supportive sun protective attitudes and beliefs, fostering perceptions of normative support for sun protection behaviour, and increasing perceptions of control/self-efficacy over using sun protection. It will be delivered during three × one hour sessions over a three week period from a trained facilitator during class time. Data will be collected one week pre-intervention (Time 1, and at one week (Time 2 and four weeks (Time 3 post-intervention. Primary outcomes are intentions to sun protect and sun protection behaviour. Secondary outcomes include attitudes toward performing sun protective behaviours (i.e., attitudes, perceptions of normative support to sun protect (i.e., subjective norms, group norms, and image norms, and perceived control over performing sun protective behaviours (i.e., perceived behavioural control. Discussion The study will provide valuable information about the effectiveness of the intervention in improving the sun protective behaviour of adolescents.

  2. Studying Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Linda M.

    2006-01-01

    Young people in their teens constitute the largest age group in the world, in a special stage recognized across the globe as the link in the life cycle between childhood and adulthood. Longitudinal studies in both developed and developing countries and better measurements of adolescent behavior are producing new insights. The physical and psychosocial changes that occur during puberty make manifest generational and early-childhood risks to development, in the form of individual differences in...

  3. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for binge eating disorder in adolescents: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hilbert, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Background Binge eating disorder is a prevalent adolescent disorder, associated with increased eating disorder and general psychopathology as well as an increased risk for overweight and obesity. As opposed to binge eating disorder in adults, there is a lack of validated psychological treatments for this condition in adolescents. The goal of this research project is therefore to determine the efficacy of age-adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescents with binge eating disorder – the ...

  4. Markedly improved outcomes and acceptable toxicity in adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia following treatment with a pediatric protocol: a phase II study by the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The superiority of the pediatric protocol for adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has already been demonstrated, however, its efficacy in young adults remains unclear. The ALL202-U protocol was conducted to examine the efficacy and feasibility of a pediatric protocol in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with BCR–ABL-negative ALL. Patients aged 15–24 years (n=139) were treated with the same protocol used for pediatric B-ALL. The primary objective of this study was to assess the disease-free survival (DFS) rate and its secondary aims were to assess toxicity, the complete remission (CR) rate and the overall survival (OS) rate. The CR rate was 94%. The 5-year DFS and OS rates were 67% (95% confidence interval (CI) 58–75%) and 73% (95% CI 64–80%), respectively. Severe adverse events were observed at a frequency that was similar to or lower than that in children treated with the same protocol. Only insufficient maintenance therapy significantly worsened the DFS (hazard ratio 5.60, P<0.001). These results indicate that this protocol may be a feasible and highly effective treatment for AYA with BCR–ABL-negative ALL

  5. Following young people with perinatal HIV infection from adolescence into adulthood: the protocol for PHACS AMP Up, a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Patel, Kunjal; Alperen, Julie; Kacanek, Deborah; Ellis, Angela; Berman, Claire; Allison, Susannah M; Hazra, Rohan; Barr, Emily; Cantos, Krystal; Siminski, Suzanne; Massagli, Michael; Bauermeister, Jose; Siddiqui, Danish Q; Puga, Ana; Van Dyke, Russell; Seage, George R

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The first generation of adolescents born with HIV infection has reached young adulthood due to advances in treatment. It is important to continue follow-up of these individuals to assess their long-term medical, behavioural and mental health and ability to successfully transition to adulthood while coping with a chronic, potentially stigmatising condition. To accomplish this, and to maintain their interest in long-term research participation, we need to accommodate the changing lifestyles and interests of young adult study participants while ensuring valid data collection. We report the protocol for Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) Adolescent Master Protocol (AMP) Up, a prospective cohort study enrolling young adult participants for long-term follow-up. Methods and analysis AMP Up is recruiting 850 young men and women 18 years of age and older—600 perinatally HIV-infected and a comparison group of 250 perinatally HIV-exposed, uninfected—at 14 clinical research sites in the USA and Puerto Rico. Recruitment began in April 2014 and is ongoing, with 305 participants currently enrolled. Planned follow-up is ≥6 years. Data are collected with a flexible hybrid of online and in-person methods. Outcomes include: transition to adult clinical care and retention in care; end-organ diseases; malignancies; metabolic complications; sexually transmitted infections; reproductive health; mental health and neurocognitive functioning; adherence to antiretroviral treatment; sexual behaviour and substance use; hearing and language impairments; and employment and educational achievement. Ethics and dissemination The study received ethical approval from the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health's institutional review board (IRB), and from the IRBs of each clinical research site. All participants provide written informed consent; for cognitively impaired individuals with legally authorised representatives, legal guardian permission and participant assent

  6. Effects of a 10-Minutes Peer Education Protocol to Reduce Binge Drinking among Adolescents during Holidays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planken, Martijn J. E.; Boer, Henk

    2010-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate a standard ten-minute peer education protocol to reduce binge drinking among Dutch adolescents at campsites during summer holidays. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated the effects of the peer education protocol as applied by trained peer educators. We collected data by telephone interviews fourteen…

  7. The MOBI-Kids study protocol: challenges in assessing childhood and adolescent exposure to electromagnetic fields from wireless telecommunication technologies and possible association with brain tumor risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegal eSadetzki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase in mobile phone use in young people has generated concern about possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF, extremely low frequency (ELF electromagnetic fields (EMF. MOBI-Kids, a multinational case-control study, investigates the potential effects of childhood and adolescent exposure to EMF from mobile communications technologies on brain tumor risk in 14 countries. The study, which aims to include approximately 1,000 brain tumor cases aged 10-24 years and two individually matched controls for each case, follows a common protocol and builds upon the methodological experience of the INTERPHONE study. The design and conduct of a study on EMF exposure and brain tumor risk in young people in a large number of countries is complex and poses methodological challenges. This manuscript discusses the design of MOBI-Kids and describes the challenges and approaches chosen to address them, including: 1 the choice of controls operated for suspected appendicitis, to reduce potential selection bias related to low response rates among population controls; 2 investigating a young study population spanning a relatively wide age-range. 3 conducting a large, multinational epidemiological study, while adhering to increasingly stricter ethics requirements; 4 investigating a rare and potentially fatal disease; and 5 assessing exposure to EMF from communication technologies. Our experience thus far developing and implementing the study protocol indicates that MOBI-Kids is feasible and will generate results that will contribute to the understanding of potential brain tumor risks associated with use of mobile phones and other wireless communications technologies among young people.

  8. The MOBI-Kids Study Protocol: Challenges in Assessing Childhood and Adolescent Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Wireless Telecommunication Technologies and Possible Association with Brain Tumor Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadetzki, Siegal; Langer, Chelsea Eastman; Bruchim, Revital; Kundi, Michael; Merletti, Franco; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Maslanyj, Myron; Sim, Malcolm R.; Taki, Masao; Wiart, Joe; Armstrong, Bruce; Milne, Elizabeth; Benke, Geza; Schattner, Rosa; Hutter, Hans-Peter; Woehrer, Adelheid; Krewski, Daniel; Mohipp, Charmaine; Momoli, Franco; Ritvo, Paul; Spinelli, John; Lacour, Brigitte; Delmas, Dominique; Remen, Thomas; Radon, Katja; Weinmann, Tobias; Klostermann, Swaantje; Heinrich, Sabine; Petridou, Eleni; Bouka, Evdoxia; Panagopoulou, Paraskevi; Dikshit, Rajesh; Nagrani, Rajini; Even-Nir, Hadas; Chetrit, Angela; Maule, Milena; Migliore, Enrica; Filippini, Graziella; Miligi, Lucia; Mattioli, Stefano; Yamaguchi, Naohito; Kojimahara, Noriko; Ha, Mina; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Mannetje, Andrea ’t; Eng, Amanda; Woodward, Alistair; Carretero, Gema; Alguacil, Juan; Aragones, Nuria; Suare-Varela, Maria Morales; Goedhart, Geertje; Schouten-van Meeteren, A. Antoinette Y. N.; Reedijk, A. Ardine M. J.; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in mobile phone use in young people has generated concern about possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). MOBI-Kids, a multinational case–control study, investigates the potential effects of childhood and adolescent exposure to EMF from mobile communications technologies on brain tumor risk in 14 countries. The study, which aims to include approximately 1,000 brain tumor cases aged 10–24 years and two individually matched controls for each case, follows a common protocol and builds upon the methodological experience of the INTERPHONE study. The design and conduct of a study on EMF exposure and brain tumor risk in young people in a large number of countries is complex and poses methodological challenges. This manuscript discusses the design of MOBI-Kids and describes the challenges and approaches chosen to address them, including: (1) the choice of controls operated for suspected appendicitis, to reduce potential selection bias related to low response rates among population controls; (2) investigating a young study population spanning a relatively wide age range; (3) conducting a large, multinational epidemiological study, while adhering to increasingly stricter ethics requirements; (4) investigating a rare and potentially fatal disease; and (5) assessing exposure to EMF from communication technologies. Our experience in thus far developing and implementing the study protocol indicates that MOBI-Kids is feasible and will generate results that will contribute to the understanding of potential brain tumor risks associated with use of mobile phones and other wireless communications technologies among young people. PMID:25295243

  9. Study protocol of the German 'Registry for the Detection of Late Sequelae after Radiotherapy in Childhood and Adolescence' (RiSK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Late effects after radiotherapy in childhood and adolescence have mainly been characterized retrospectively with small patient numbers. However, these analyses are limited due to little information regarding organ dose levels in many cases. To overcome this limitation, the German Group of Paediatric Radiation Oncology (APRO) established the „Registry for the evaluation of late side effects after radiation in childhood and adolescence” (RiSK). The study protocol and the documentation forms are given in this publication. Radiation parameters including detailed organ doses as well as toxicity evaluations are collected prospectively from centres all over Germany. Standardized documentation forms are used. These forms are given in an English and German version as additional files to this publication. Documentation is planned for all children who receive radiotherapy in one of the therapy trials of the 'German Society of Paediatric Oncology and Haematology (GPOH)'. The study started in a pilot phase in June 2001 in few centres. Since 2004 documentation has been performed all over Germany and is still on-going. To our knowledge, 'RiSK' is the only multi-centre study that evaluates radiation associated side effects prospectively with detailed information about organ dose levels. With ongoing recruitment and prolongation of follow-up powerful data will be obtained in a few years. A broad use and international cooperation are welcome

  10. Validation of the distress thermometer for use among adolescents and young adults with cancer in Australia: a multicenter study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson P

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pandora Patterson,1,2 Fiona EJ McDonald,1,2 Antoinette Anazodo,3 Daniel SJ Costa,4 Claire E Wakefield,5,6 Kate White,2 Kate Thompson,7 Michael P Osborn8 1Research, Evaluation and Social Policy, CanTeen Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Cancer Nursing Research Unit, Sydney Nursing School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Sydney Youth Cancer Service, Sydney Children's Hospital and Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia; 4Psycho-oncology Co-operative Research group, School of Psychology, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5School of Women's and Children's Health, UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia; 6Behavioural Sciences Unit, Kids Cancer Centre, Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia; 7Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 8Youth Cancer Service SA/NT, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA, Australia Background: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs diagnosed with cancer commonly experience elevated levels of distress. Routinely administered distress screening tools can be effective in identifying individuals in need of referral to psychosocial services. The distress thermometer and problem checklist are widely used screening tools that have been validated among some cancer populations, but which have not to date been validated for use among AYAs with cancer. The primary aim of this study is to validate the distress thermometer and a modified problem checklist for use with AYA cancer patients, aged 15–25 years. Specifically, we aim to 1 determine appropriate cutoffs for clinical referral on the distress thermometer; 2 investigate the content validity of the modified problem checklist; and 3 assess the clinical utility of the tool from the perspectives of both patients and health care professionals. The secondary aims of the study are to 4 establish prevalence and predictors of distress in AYA cancer patients and 5 examine the

  11. Effectiveness of adolescent suicide prevention e-learning modules that aim to improve knowledge and self-confidence of gatekeepers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoncheh, Rezvan; Kerkhof, Ad JFM; Koot, Hans M

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing e-learning modules can be an effective strategy for enhancing gatekeepers’ knowledge, self-confidence and skills in adolescent suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an online training program called Mental Health Online which consists of eight short e-learning modules, each capturing an important aspect of the process of recognition, guidance and referral of suicidal adolescents (12–20 years). The primary outcomes of this study are par...

  12. A randomised controlled trial of a community-based healthy lifestyle program for overweight and obese adolescents: the Loozit® study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Smita; Kohn Michael R; Hill Andrew J; Lee Anthea; Stevenson Kate; Steinbeck Katharine S; O'Connor Janice; Shrewsbury Vanessa A; Torvaldsen Siranda; Baur Louise A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a need to develop sustainable and clinically effective weight management interventions that are suitable for delivery in community settings where the vast majority of overweight and obese adolescents should be treated. This study aims to evaluate the effect of additional therapeutic contact as an adjunct to the Loozit® group program – a community-based, lifestyle intervention for overweight and lower grade obesity in adolescents. The additional therapeutic contact...

  13. Evaluating a selective prevention program for substance use and comorbid behavioral problems in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Substance use and abuse is a growing problem among adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (ID). Substance use patterns in general population are similar to patterns among non-disabled peers, but substance use has more negative consequences for adolescents with mild to borderline ID, and they are at an increased risk for developing a substance use disorder. Nevertheless, effective and evidence based prevention programs for this groups are lacking. The study de...

  14. Effects of exercise intensity and nutrition advice on myocardial function in obese children and adolescents: a multicentre randomised controlled trial study protocol.

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Katrin A; Coombes, Jeff S.; Green, DJ; Gomersall, SR; Keating, SE; Tjønna, Arnt Erik; Hollekim-Strand, Siri Marte; Hosseini, Mansoureh Sadat; Rø, Torstein Baade; Haram, M; Huuse, EM; Davies, PS; Cain, PA; Leong, GM; Ingul, Charlotte Bjørk

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of paediatric obesity is increasing, and with it, lifestyle-related diseases in children and adolescents. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has recently been explored as an alternate to traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in adults with chronic disease and has been shown to induce a rapid reversal of subclinical disease markers in obese children and adolescents. The primary aim of this study is to compare the effects of HIIT with MICT on...

  15. Improving adolescent mental health and resilience through a resilience-based intervention in schools: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Freund, Megan; Campbell, Elizabeth; Wolfenden, Luke; Hodder, Rebecca K.; Wiggers, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Research investigating the effectiveness of universal interventions to reduce the risk of mental health problems remains limited. Schools are a promising setting within which adolescents can receive interventions aimed at promoting their mental health. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a resilience-based prevention-focused intervention in reducing the risk of mental health problems among adolescents attending secondary school in socio-economically disadvantage...

  16. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT girls) randomized controlled trial for adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools: rationale, study protocol, and baseline results

    OpenAIRE

    Okely Anthony D; Plotnikoff Ronald C; Collins Clare E; Dewar Deborah; Morgan Philip J; Lubans David R; Batterham Marijka J; Finn Tara; Callister Robin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolesc...

  17. Effects of exercise intensity and nutrition advice on myocardial function in obese children and adolescents: a multicentre randomised controlled trial study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Katrin A; Coombes, Jeff S; Green, Daniel J.; Gomersall, Sjaan R; Keating, Shelley E.; Tjonna, Arnt Erik; Hollekim-Strand, Siri Marte; Hosseini, Mansoureh Sadat; Ro, Torstein Baade; Haram, Margrete; Huuse, Else Marie; Davies, Peter S. W.; Cain, Peter A; Leong, Gary M; Ingul, Charlotte B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of paediatric obesity is increasing, and with it, lifestyle-related diseases in children and adolescents. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has recently been explored as an alternate to traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in adults with chronic disease and has been shown to induce a rapid reversal of subclinical disease markers in obese children and adolescents. The primary aim of this study is to compare the effects of HIIT with MICT on...

  18. Effects of exercise intensity and nutrition advice on myocardial function in obese children and adolescents: a multicentre randomised controlled trial study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Katrin A; Coombes, Jeff S; Green, Daniel J; Gomersall, Sjaan R; Keating, Shelley E; Tjonna, Arnt Erik; Hollekim-Strand, Siri Marte; Hosseini, Mansoureh Sadat; Ro, Torstein Baade; Haram, Margrete; Huuse, Else Marie; Davies, Peter S W; Cain, Peter A; Leong, Gary M; Ingul, Charlotte B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of paediatric obesity is increasing, and with it, lifestyle-related diseases in children and adolescents. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has recently been explored as an alternate to traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in adults with chronic disease and has been shown to induce a rapid reversal of subclinical disease markers in obese children and adolescents. The primary aim of this study is to compare the effects of HIIT with MICT on myocardial function in obese children and adolescents. Methods and analysis Multicentre randomised controlled trial of 100 obese children and adolescents in the cities of Trondheim (Norway) and Brisbane (Australia). The trial will examine the efficacy of HIIT to improve cardiometabolic outcomes in obese children and adolescents. Participants will be randomised to (1) HIIT and nutrition advice, (2) MICT and nutrition advice or (3) nutrition advice. Participants will partake in supervised exercise training and/or nutrition sessions for 3 months. Measurements for study end points will occur at baseline, 3 months (postintervention) and 12 months (follow-up). The primary end point is myocardial function (peak systolic tissue velocity). Secondary end points include vascular function (flow-mediated dilation assessment), quantity of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, myocardial structure and function, body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, autonomic function, blood biochemistry, physical activity and nutrition. Lean, healthy children and adolescents will complete measurements for all study end points at one time point for comparative cross-sectional analyses. Ethics and dissemination This randomised controlled trial will generate substantial information regarding the effects of exercise intensity on paediatric obesity, specifically the cardiometabolic health of this at-risk population. It is expected that communication of results will allow for the development of

  19. The DOMUS study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordly, Mie; Benthien, Kirstine Skov; Von Der Maase, Hans;

    2014-01-01

    is a controlled randomized clinical trial with a balanced parallel-group randomization (1:1). The planned sample size is 340 in- and outpatients treated at the Department of Oncology at Copenhagen University Hospital. Patients are randomly assigned either to: a) standard care plus SPC enriched with a...... cancer can be a powerful tool to improve patients' quality of life and support family/caregivers during the disease trajectory. The present study offers a model for achieving optimal delivery of palliative care in the patient's preferred place of care and attempt to clarify challenges. TRIAL REGISTRATION...

  20. Development of a treatment protocol for Puerto Rican adolescents with suicidal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarté-Vélez, Yovanska; Torres-Dávila, Paloma; Spirito, Anthony; Polanco, Norka; Bernal, Guillermo

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents in Puerto Rico are at an increased risk for suicide attempts, though evidence-based treatments specifically for this group have not been tested. The current study was designed to develop and pilot test a culturally sensitive, manualized outpatient treatment for Puerto Rican adolescents who have experienced a suicidal crisis. The study was divided into phases. Phase 1 consisted of developing a socio-cognitive behavioral treatment for suicidal behavior. Phase 2 tested the treatment protocol in an open trial with 11 (6 male and 5 female) Puerto Rican adolescents. Active treatment had an approximate duration of 3-6 months. An initial assessment, process measures, and posttreatment assessment were completed with each participant to measure treatment feasibility as well as suicidality, symptoms, and risk factors. Participants were very satisfied with treatment and reported relevant clinical benefits. The retention rate was 73% (8 out of 11). For those who completed the treatment protocol, the goal of reducing further suicide risk was achieved; 2 showed reliable clinical changes in suicidal ideation, while 6 maintained low levels during treatment. All treatment completers had either a partial or total remission of their pretreatment diagnosis and half had reliable improvements in at least 1 risk factor. A theory-driven treatment protocol was developed according to patient's needs, but further research is needed to continue its development and to explore its efficacy. PMID:26928136

  1. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT girls randomized controlled trial for adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools: rationale, study protocol, and baseline results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okely Anthony D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools. Methods/Design The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls intervention will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. NEAT Girls is a 12-month multi-component school-based intervention developed in reference to Social Cognitive Theory and includes enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity (PA sessions, PA and nutrition handbooks, parent newsletters, pedometers for self-monitoring and text messaging for social support. The following variables were assessed at baseline and will be completed again at 12- and 24-months: adiposity, objectively measured PA, muscular fitness, time spent in sedentary behaviors, dietary intake, PA and nutrition social-cognitive mediators, physical self-perception and global self-esteem. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA and nutrition behavior change will be explored. Discussion NEAT Girls is an innovative intervention targeting low-active girls using evidence-based behavior change strategies and nutrition and PA messages and has the potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain and reduce the decline in physical activity and poor dietary habits associated with low socio-economic status. Few studies have reported the long-term effects of school-based obesity prevention programs and the current study has the potential to make an

  2. NEURAPRO-E study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markulev, Connie; McGorry, Patrick D; Nelson, Barnaby;

    2016-01-01

    response to omega-3 PUFA treatment in the UHR group. CONCLUSION: This is the protocol of the NeuraproE study. Utilizing a large sample, results from this study will be important in informing indicated prevention strategies for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, which may be the strongest avenue...... polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), coupled with the falling transition rate in ultra high-risk (UHR) samples, mean that further study of such benign, potentially neuroprotective interventions is clinically and ethically required. Employing a multicentre approach, enabling a large sample size, this study will...

  3. Developing a Tablet-Based Self-Persuasion Intervention Promoting Adolescent HPV Vaccination: Protocol for a Three-Stage Mixed-Methods Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tiro, Jasmin A; Lee, Simon Craddock; Marks, Emily G.; Persaud, Donna; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Street, Richard L.; Wiebe, Deborah J.; Farrell, David; Bishop, Wendy Pechero; Fuller, Sobha; Baldwin, Austin S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers are a significant burden on the US health care system that can be prevented through adolescent HPV vaccination. Despite guidelines recommending vaccination, coverage among US adolescents is suboptimal particularly among underserved patients (uninsured, low income, racial, and ethnic minorities) seen in safety-net health care settings. Many parents are ambivalent about the vaccine and delay making a decision or talking with a provider about...

  4. Effect of a program of short bouts of exercise on bone health in adolescents involved in different sports: the PRO-BONE study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Barker, Alan R; Williams, Craig A.; Karen M. Knapp; Metcalf, Brad S.; Gracia-Marco, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease associated with high morbidity, mortality and increased economic costs. Early prevention during adolescence appears to be one of the most beneficial practices. Exercise is an effective approach for developing bone mass during puberty, but some sports may have a positive or negative impact on bone mass accrual. Plyometric jump training has been suggested as a type of exercise that can augment bone, but its effects on adolescent bone mass have not b...

  5. Universal protocol for alopecia areata clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesinkovska, Natasha A; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2013-12-01

    Within the area of alopecia areata research, there is an obvious need for well-designed clinical trials of therapeutic agents. The National Alopecia Areata Foundation (NAAF) has created an initiative for the development of a unified protocol with guidelines for clinical studies. The NAAF universal protocol represents a joint effort of clinicians and investigators with experience in treating alopecia areata. This protocol will serve as a tremendous resource to facilitate future clinical studies. PMID:24326554

  6. Relapse and Recurrence Prevention in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Anne D.; Rohde, Paul; Kennard, Betsy D.; Robins, Michele

    2005-01-01

    Relapse and recurrence in adolescent depression are important problems. Much less is known about relapse prevention compared to the acute treatment of depression in adolescents. Based on previous research, theoretical predictions, and clinical experience, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) protocol was designed to determine…

  7. Security Protocol Design: A Case Study Using Key Distribution Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Dojen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays security protocols are a key component in providing security services for fixed and mobile networks. These services include data confidentiality, radio link encryption, message integrity, mobile subscriber authentication, electronic payment, certified e-mail, contract signing and nonrepudiation. This paper is concerned with design of effective security protocols. Security protocols are introduced and some common attacks against security protocols are discussed. The vulnerabilities that lead to theattacks are analyzed and guidelines for effective security protocol design are proposed. The presented guidelines are applied to the Andrew Secure RPC protocol and its adapted versions. It is demonstrated that compliance with the guidelines successfully avoidsfreshness and parallel session attacks.

  8. Prospective observational study protocol to investigate long-term adverse effects of methylphenidate in children and adolescents with ADHD: the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Drugs Use Chronic Effects (ADDUCE) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, S K; Carucci, S; Garas, P; Häge, A; Banaschewski, T; Buitelaar, J K; Dittmann, R W; Falissard, B; Hollis, C; Kovshoff, H; Liddle, E; McCarthy, S; Nagy, P; Neubert, A; Rosenthal, E; Sonuga-Barke, E; Wong, I; Zuddas, A; Coghill, D C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Methylphenidate is the most frequently used medication for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Europe. Following concerns about its safety, the European Commission called for research into the long-term effects of methylphenidate on children and adolescents with ADHD. The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Drugs Use Chronic Effects (ADDUCE) research programme was designed to address this call. At the heart of this programme is a 2-year longitudinal naturalistic pharmacovigilance study being conducted in 27 European sites. Methods and analysis 3 cohorts of children and adolescents (aged 6–17) living in the UK, Germany, Italy and Hungary are being recruited: Group 1 (Medicated ADHD): 800 ADHD medication-naive children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD about to start methylphenidate treatment for the first time. Group 2 (Unmedicated ADHD): 400 children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD who have never been treated with ADHD medication and have no intention of beginning medication. Group 3 (Non-ADHD): 400 children and adolescents without ADHD who are siblings of individuals in either group 1 or 2. All participants will be assessed 5 times during their 2-year follow-up period for growth and development, psychiatric, neurological and cardiovascular health. The primary outcome measure will be the height velocity SD score. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval for the study has been granted by the East of Scotland Research Ethics Service. Following this approval, patient information leaflets and consent forms were translated as necessary and submissions made by lead sites in each of the other 3 countries to their own ethics committees. Following ethical approval in each country, local ethical permissions at each site were sought and obtained as needed. The study's website (http://www.adhd-adduce.org/page/view/2/Home) provides information for researchers, participants and the general

  9. Activities and participation of children and adolescents after mild traumatic brain injury and the effectiveness of an early intervention (Brains Ahead!): study protocol for a cohort study with a nested randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Renaud, M. Irene; Lambregts, Suzanne A. M.; de Kloet, Arend J.; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E.; van de Port, Ingrid G. L.; van Heugten, Caroline M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Approximately 20 % of children and adolescents who have sustained mild traumatic brain injuries may experience long-term consequences, including cognitive problems, post-traumatic stress symptoms and reduced load-bearing capacity. The underestimation and belated recognition of these long-term consequences may lead to chronic and disruptive problems, such as participation problems in school and in social relationships. The aim of this study is to examine the level of activities and ...

  10. Statistical principles for prospective study protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Robin; Langberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    In the design of scientific studies it is essential to decide on which scientific questions one aims to answer, just as it is important to decide on the correct statistical methods to use to answer these questions. The correct use of statistical methods is crucial in all aspects of research to...... "statistically significant" or not. In the present paper we outline the considerations and suggestions on how to build a trial protocol, with an emphasis on having a rigorous protocol stage, always leading to a full article manuscript, independent of statistical findings. We conclude that authors, who find...... (rigorous) protocol writing too troublesome, will realize that they have already written the first half of the final paper if they follow these recommendations; authors simply need to change the protocols future tense into past tense. Thus, the aim of this clinical commentary is to describe and explain the...

  11. Fatigue In Teenagers on the interNET - The FITNET Trial. A randomized clinical trial of web-based cognitive behavioural therapy for adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome: study protocol. [ISRCTN59878666

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimpen Jan LL

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS is increasingly recognized as a cause of disability and inactivity in adolescents in the Netherlands. CFS is characterized by unexplained fatigue lasting more than 6 months. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT has proven to be effective. However, CBT availability for adolescents with CFS is limited and requires special therapeutic skills not always readily available. An alternative to the face-to-face CBT is FITNET, a web-based therapeutic program designed specifically for adolescents diagnosed with CFS, and their parents. This new CBT approach appeals to the modern youth, who grow up with internet as their main source of information. A web-based program offers the opportunity to lower thresholds for the acceptance and realization of healthcare. This treatment can be activated at any chosen time. The communication between patient and therapist can elapse asynchronously. If effective, this web-based program would greatly increase the therapeutic accessibility. Methods/Design A randomized clinical trial is currently conducted. One-hundred-forty adolescents aged 12-18 years diagnosed with CFS will be recruited and randomized to one of two groups: FITNET or usual care. After 6 months, the usual care group will have access to the FITNET program. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, post intervention, and at 6 months follow-up. Primary outcome measures are school presence, fatigue severity, and physical functioning. Discussion The FITNET study is the first randomized clinical trial which evaluates the effect of web-based CBT versus usual care in adolescents with CFS. The intervention is based on a theoretical existing model of CBT for patients with CFS. The results of this study will provide information about the possibility and efficacy of web-based CBT for adolescents with CFS and will reveal predictors of efficacy. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN59878666 and ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00893438

  12. Study on the safety and efficacy of miltefosine for the treatment of children and adolescents with post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in Bangladesh, and an association of serum vitamin E and exposure to arsenic with post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: an open clinical trial and case–control study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, D; Hasnain, M G; Hossain, M S; Ghosh, D; Ghosh, P; Hossain, H; Baker, J; Nath, R; Haque, R; Matlashewski, G; Hamano, S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a dermatological complication that occurs primarily among treated visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients, and sporadically in a few without a history of VL. It mostly affects children and adolescents but is also common in adults. The conventional treatment with 120 intramuscular injections of sodium stibogluconate (SSG) is phasing out. Miltefosine (MF) is the only eventual alternative to SSG; however, its efficacy and safety profiles for treatment of children and adolescents with PKDL are lacking. In addition, risk factors for PKDL are poorly investigated. Host genetic, nutritional and environmental factors could be potential risk factors. As such, here we propose to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MF for 12 weeks at an allometric dose for children and adolescents with PKDL, and also to explore potential risk factors for PKDL. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional survey will look for suspected participants with PKDL among treated VL children and adolescents, a subsequent open clinical trial with MF at allometric dose, with a follow-up at 12 months. A case–control study will be carried out for PKDL risk factors. Assuming 95% cure rate, 95% CI and α=0.05, a sample size of 73 children with PKDL is needed. Considering an attrition rate of 10%, the final sample size is 80 children in each group. Descriptive and analytical analyses will be performed. Primary outcome is safety and cure rate of 12 weeks of treatment with MF. Ethics and dissemination International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) Ethical Review Committee (ERC) approved the protocol (PR#013045). Written informed consent will be taken from all participants and their guardians (in case of minor). A Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) of ICDDR,B ERC will monitor all study activities to ensure the safety of the participants. Trial registration number NCT02193022; Pre-results. PMID:27188804

  13. The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder - study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA - net trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitag Christine M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group-based social skills training (SST has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD. To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manualised SOSTA–FRA program will result in improved social responsiveness (measured by the parent rated social responsiveness scale, SRS compared to treatment as usual (TAU. It is further expected, that parent and self reported anxiety and depressive symptoms will decline and pro-social behaviour will increase in the treatment group. A neurophysiological study in the Frankfurt HFASD subgroup will be performed pre- and post treatment to assess changes in neural function induced by SST versus TAU. Methods/design The SOSTA – net trial is designed as a prospective, randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with two parallel groups. The primary outcome is change in SRS score directly after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up. Several secondary outcome measures are also obtained. The target sample consists of 220 individuals with ASD, included at the six study centres. Discussion This study is currently one of the largest trials on SST in children and adolescents with HFASD worldwide. Compared to recent randomised controlled studies, our study shows several advantages with regard to in- and exclusion criteria, study methods, and the therapeutic approach chosen, which can be easily implemented in non-university-based clinical settings. Trial registration ISRCTN94863788 – SOSTA – net: Group-based social skills training in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder.

  14. A cluster randomised trial of a school-based intervention to prevent decline in adolescent physical activity levels: study protocol for the ‘Physical Activity 4 Everyone’ trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sutherland Rachel; Campbell Elizabeth; Lubans David R; Morgan Philip J; Okely Anthony D; Nathan Nicole; Wolfenden Luke; Jones Jannah; Davies Lynda; Gillham Karen; Wiggers John

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Adolescence is an established period of physical activity decline. Multi-component school-based interventions have the potential to slow the decline in adolescents’ physical activity; however, few interventions have been conducted in schools located in low-income or disadvantaged communities. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a multi-component school-based intervention in reducing the decline in physical activity among students attending secondary schools loca...

  15. A Study of MAC Protocols for WBANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Ullah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN. A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires the low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC protocol is required to satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements, including low-power consumption. In this paper, we first outline the WBAN requirements that are important for the design of a low-power MAC protocol. Then we study low-power MAC protocols proposed/investigated for a WBAN with emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. We also review different power-efficient mechanisms for a WBAN. In addition, useful suggestions are given to help the MAC designers to develop a low-power MAC protocol that will satisfy the stringent requirements.

  16. A study of MAC protocols for WBANs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sana; Shen, Bin; Islam, S M Riazul; Khan, Pervez; Saleem, Shahnaz; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2010-01-01

    The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires the low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements, including low-power consumption. In this paper, we first outline the WBAN requirements that are important for the design of a low-power MAC protocol. Then we study low-power MAC protocols proposed/investigated for a WBAN with emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. We also review different power-efficient mechanisms for a WBAN. In addition, useful suggestions are given to help the MAC designers to develop a low-power MAC protocol that will satisfy the stringent requirements. PMID:22315531

  17. A school-based intervention incorporating smartphone technology to improve health-related fitness among adolescents: rationale and study protocol for the NEAT and ATLAS 2.0 cluster randomised controlled trial and dissemination study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J; Peralta, Louisa R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Okely, Anthony D; Salmon, Jo; Eather, Narelle; Dewar, Deborah L; Kennedy, Sarah; Lonsdale, Chris; Hilland, Toni A; Estabrooks, Paul; Finn, Tara L; Pollock, Emma; Morgan, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical inactivity has been described as a global pandemic. Interventions aimed at developing skills in lifelong physical activities may provide the foundation for an active lifestyle into adulthood. In general, school-based physical activity interventions targeting adolescents have produced modest results and few have been designed to be ‘scaled-up’ and disseminated. This study aims to: (1) assess the effectiveness of two physical activity promotion programmes (ie, NEAT and ATLAS) that have been modified for scalability; and (2) evaluate the dissemination of these programmes throughout government funded secondary schools. Methods and analysis The study will be conducted in two phases. In the first phase (cluster randomised controlled trial), 16 schools will be randomly allocated to the intervention or a usual care control condition. In the second phase, the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (Re-AIM) framework will be used to guide the design and evaluation of programme dissemination throughout New South Wales (NSW), Australia. In both phases, teachers will be trained to deliver the NEAT and ATLAS programmes, which will include: (1) interactive student seminars; (2) structured physical activity programmes; (3) lunch-time fitness sessions; and (4) web-based smartphone apps. In the cluster RCT, study outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 6 months (primary end point) and 12-months. Muscular fitness will be the primary outcome and secondary outcomes will include: objectively measured body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility, resistance training skill competency, physical activity, self-reported recreational screen-time, sleep, sugar-sweetened beverage and junk food snack consumption, self-esteem and well-being. Ethics and dissemination This study has received approval from the University of Newcastle (H-2014-0312) and the NSW Department of Education (SERAP: 2012121) human research ethics committees. This

  18. Statistical principles for prospective study protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Robin; Langberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    In the design of scientific studies it is essential to decide on which scientific questions one aims to answer, just as it is important to decide on the correct statistical methods to use to answer these questions. The correct use of statistical methods is crucial in all aspects of research to......, risk differences, and other quantities that convey information. One of the goals in biomedical research is to develop parsimonious models - meaning as simple as possible. This approach is valid if the subsequent research report (the article) is written independent of whether the results are...... "statistically significant" or not. In the present paper we outline the considerations and suggestions on how to build a trial protocol, with an emphasis on having a rigorous protocol stage, always leading to a full article manuscript, independent of statistical findings. We conclude that authors, who find...

  19. Self Fault-Tolerance of Protocols: A Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The prerequisite for the existing protocols' correctness is that protocols can be normally operated under the normal conditions, rather than dealing with abnormal conditions.In other words, protocols with the fault-tolerance can not be provided when some fault occurs. This paper discusses the self fault-tolerance of protocols. It describes some concepts and methods for achieving self fault tolerance of protocols. Meanwhile, it provides a case study, investigates a typical protocol that does not satisfy the self fault-tolerance, and gives a new redesign version of this existing protocol using the proposed approach.

  20. Exercise for Adolescents with Depressive Disorders: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Dopp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Adolescence is associated with increased depressive symptoms and decreased aerobic exercise, yet the relationship between exercise and clinical depression among adolescents requires further examination. This study assessed the feasibility of a 12-week intervention designed to increase exercise for adolescents with depressive disorders: Will a teenager with depression exercise? Methods. Participants were 13 adolescents with depression reporting low levels of aerobic exercise. They completed a 12-week intervention (15 supervised exercise sessions and 21 independent sessions. Exercise was measured through the aerobic exercise Questionnaire, actigraphy, and heart-rate monitoring. Depression was measured with the Children’s Depression Rating Scale, Revised, and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Self-Report. Results. All participants who started the intervention completed the protocol, attending all supervised exercise sessions. Actigraphy verified 81% adherence to the protocol’s independent sessions. Analysis of secondary outcomes showed a significant increase in exercise levels and a significant decrease in depression severity. Initially, ten participants were overweight or obese, and three were healthy weight. After 12 weeks of exercise, the number of participants in the healthy-weight category doubled. Conclusions. Adolescents suffering from depression can complete a rigorous protocol requiring structured increases in aerobic exercise. Participants showed significant increases in exercise, and significant decreases in depressive symptoms.

  1. Assessing the efficacy of the healthy eating and lifestyle programme (HELP compared with enhanced standard care of the obese adolescent in the community: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie Deborah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The childhood obesity epidemic is one of the foremost UK health priorities. Childhood obesity tracks into adult life and places individuals at considerable risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, liver disease and other morbidities. There is widespread need for paediatric lifestyle programmes as change may be easier to accomplish in childhood than later in life. Study Design/Method The study will evaluate the management of adolescent obesity by conducting a Medical Research Council complex intervention phase III efficacy randomised clinical trial of the Healthy Eating Lifestyle Programme within primary care. The study tests a community delivered multi-component intervention designed for adolescents developed from best practice as identified by National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. The hospital based pilot reduced body mass index and improved health-related quality of life. Subjects will be individually randomised to receiving either the Healthy Eating Lifestyle Programme (12 fortnightly family sessions or enhanced standard care. Baseline and follow up assessments will be undertaken blind to allocation status. A health economic evaluation is also being conducted. 200 obese young people (13-17 years, body mass index > 98th centile for age and sex will be recruited from primary care within the greater London area. The primary hypothesis is that a motivational and solution-focused family-based weight management programme delivered over 6 months is more efficacious in reducing body mass index in obese adolescents identified in the community than enhanced standard care. The primary outcome will be body mass index at the end of the intervention, adjusted for baseline body mass index, age and sex. The secondary hypothesis is that the Healthy Eating Lifestyle Programme is more efficacious in improving quality of life and psychological function and reducing waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors in

  2. A cluster randomised trial of a school-based intervention to prevent decline in adolescent physical activity levels: study protocol for the ‘Physical Activity 4 Everyone’ trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutherland Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is an established period of physical activity decline. Multi-component school-based interventions have the potential to slow the decline in adolescents’ physical activity; however, few interventions have been conducted in schools located in low-income or disadvantaged communities. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a multi-component school-based intervention in reducing the decline in physical activity among students attending secondary schools located in disadvantaged communities. Methods/Design The cluster randomised trial will be conducted with 10 secondary schools located in selected regions of New South Wales, Australia. The schools will be selected from areas that have a level of socio-economic status that is below the state average. Five schools will be allocated to receive an intervention based on the Health Promoting Schools framework, and will be supported by a part-time physical activity consultant placed in intervention schools who will implement a range of intervention adoption strategies. Study measures will be taken at baseline when students are in Year 7 (12–13 years and again after 12- and 24-months. The primary outcome, minutes of moderate- to-vigorous- intensity physical activity per day and percentage of time in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA, will be objectively assessed using accelerometers (Actigraph GT3x+. Group allocation and intervention delivery will commence after baseline data collection. The intervention will continue during school terms through to 24-month follow-up. Discussion The study will provide evidence regarding the effectiveness of a multi-component school-based intervention that includes an in-school physical activity consultant targeting the physical activity levels of adolescents in disadvantaged Australian secondary schools. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000382875.

  3. A Study of Voice over Internet Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Gerami

    2010-01-01

    Voice over Internet Protocol, is an application that enables data packet networks to transport real time voice traffic. VOIP uses the Internet as the transmission network. This paper describes VoIP and its requirements. The paper further discusses various VoIP protocol, security and its market.

  4. [The research protocol III. Study population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Gómez, Jesús; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    The study population is defined as a set of cases, determined, limited, and accessible, that will constitute the subjects for the selection of the sample, and must fulfill several characteristics and distinct criteria. The objectives of this manuscript are focused on specifying each one of the elements required to make the selection of the participants of a research project, during the elaboration of the protocol, including the concepts of study population, sample, selection criteria and sampling methods. After delineating the study population, the researcher must specify the criteria that each participant has to comply. The criteria that include the specific characteristics are denominated selection or eligibility criteria. These criteria are inclusion, exclusion and elimination, and will delineate the eligible population. The sampling methods are divided in two large groups: 1) probabilistic or random sampling and 2) non-probabilistic sampling. The difference lies in the employment of statistical methods to select the subjects. In every research, it is necessary to establish at the beginning the specific number of participants to be included to achieve the objectives of the study. This number is the sample size, and can be calculated or estimated with mathematical formulas and statistic software. PMID:27174763

  5. Mentalization-based treatment in groups for adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) or subthreshold BPD versus treatment as usual (M-GAB): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Emma; Bo, Sune; Gondan, Matthias; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Pedersen, Liselotte; Pedersen, Jesper; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based outpatient psychotherapeutic programs are first line treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Early and effective treatment of BPD is crucial to the prevention of its individual, psychosocial, and economic consequences. However, in spite of recent advantages in diagnosing adolescent BPD, there is a lack of cost effective evidence-based treatment programs for adolescents. Mentalization-Based Treatment is an evidence-based program for BPD, originally develo...

  6. The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder - study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA - net trial

    OpenAIRE

    Freitag Christine M; Cholemkery Hannah; Elsuni Leyla; Kroeger Anne K; Bender Stephan; Kunz Cornelia Ursula; Kieser Meinhard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Group-based social skills training (SST) has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manu...

  7. Characterisation of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields in the Spanish INMA birth cohort: Study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Gallastegi (Mara); M. Guxens (Mònica ); A. Jiménez-Zabala (Ana); I. Calvente (Irene); M. Fernández (Marta); L. Birks (Laura); B. Struchen (Benjamin); M. Vrijheid (Martine); M. Estarlich (Marisa); M.F. Fernandez (Mariana); M. Torrent (Maties); F. Ballester (Ferran); J.J. Aurrekoetxea (Juan José); J. Ibarluzea (Jesús); D. Guerra (David); J. González (Julián); M. Röösli (Martin); L. Santa-Marina (Loreto)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Analysis of the association between exposure to electromagnetic fields of non-ionising radiation (EMF-NIR) and health in children and adolescents is hindered by the limited availability of data, mainly due to the difficulties on the exposure assessment. This study protocol de

  8. Mac protocols for wireless sensor network (wsn): a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data communication between nodes is carried out under Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol which is defined at data link layer. The MAC protocols are responsible to communicate and coordinate between nodes according to the defined standards in WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks). The design of a MAC protocol should also address the issues of energy efficiency and transmission efficiency. There are number of MAC protocols that exist in the literature proposed for WSN. In this paper, nine MAC protocols which includes S-MAC, T-MAC, Wise-MAC, Mu-MAC, Z-MAC, A-MAC, D-MAC, B-MAC and B-MAC+ for WSN have been explored, studied and analyzed. These nine protocols are classified in contention based and hybrid (combination of contention and schedule based) MAC protocols. The goal of this comparative study is to provide a basis for MAC protocols and to highlight different mechanisms used with respect to parameters for the evaluation of energy and transmission efficiency in WSN. This study also aims to give reader a better understanding of the concepts, processes and flow of information used in these MAC protocols for WSN. A comparison with respect to energy reservation scheme, idle listening avoidance, latency, fairness, data synchronization, and throughput maximization has been presented. It was analyzed that contention based MAC protocols are less energy efficient as compared to hybrid MAC protocols. From the analysis of contention based MAC protocols in term of energy consumption, it was being observed that protocols based on preamble sampling consume lesser energy than protocols based on static or dynamic sleep schedule. (author)

  9. Fears in Czech Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalcáková, Radka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kyjonková, Hana; Bouša, Ondrej; Jelínek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates developmental patterns of fear in adolescence. It is based on longitudinal data collected as a part of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) project. A total of 186 Czech adolescents (43% girls) were assessed repeatedly at the age of 11, 13, and 15 years. The free-response method was…

  10. Interactive verification of Markov chains: Two distributed protocol case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Hölzl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic model checkers like PRISM only check probabilistic systems of a fixed size. To guarantee the desired properties for an arbitrary size, mathematical analysis is necessary. We show for two case studies how this can be done in the interactive proof assistant Isabelle/HOL. The first case study is a detailed description of how we verified properties of the ZeroConf protocol, a decentral address allocation protocol. The second case study shows the more involved verification of anonymity properties of the Crowds protocol, an anonymizing protocol.

  11. Study Application of RADIUS Protocol on Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Fang; YANG Huan-yu; LI Hong

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents how to apply the RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service)protocol ,which is generally applied to dial-up network, to the authentication & charge of Broad Band accessing control system on Ethernet. It is provided that the Broad Band accessing control system included a self-designed communication protocol is used in communicating between an terminal user and Network Access Server .The interface module on the servers side and the Radius system is also given in this article.

  12. ADOLESCENT GYNAECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakriti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT/BACKGROUND Adolescence, meaning “To grow up,” is a transitional stage of physical, sexual and mental human development occurring between puberty and legal adulthood. The Government of India in National Youth Policy defines adolescents as individuals between 13 to 19 yrs. of age. AIMS To study the magnitude of different adolescent gynecological problems in patients attending OPD of GRMC, Gwalior, MP. SETTINGS AND DESIGN Prospective study in patients attending gynecological OPD of GRMC, Gwalior, MP. SAMPLE SIZE: 75 METHODS AND MATERIALS Seventy five adolescent girls in the age group of 13-19 yrs. attending gynecological OPD of GRMC, Gwalior, from November 2013 to October 2014 were included in the study. Detailed history, general examinations and investigations were done to evaluate their health. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Was done using Microsoft Excel. RESULTS Incidence of gynecological problem in our study was 3.33%. Different gynecological problems were menstrual disorders (60%, leucorrhoea (10.66%, infections (8%, ovarian cyst (5.33%, sexual assault (2.66%, teenage pregnancy (10.66% and infertility (2.66%. Majority of girls with menstrual disorders suffered from puberty menorrhagia (55.55%. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding was diagnosed in 96% of girls suffering from puberty menorrhagia. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease was exclusively seen in married adolescent girls. Vaginal atresia and imperforate hymen were causes of primary amenorrhoea. PCOD was commonest cause of secondary amenorrhoea amongst adolescents. CONCLUSION Menstrual abnormalities are the most common problems of adolescent girls. Setting up adolescent clinics is desirable.

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Effects of a Special Extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08 on Hyperactivity and Inattention in Male Children and Adolescents: BACHI Study Protocol (ANZCTRN12612000827831

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Kean

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical diagnoses of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and the use of prescription medications for its treatment have increased in recent years. Current treatments may involve the administration of amphetamine-type substances, a treatment path many parents are apprehensive to take. Therefore, alternative pharmacological treatments are required. Few nutritional or pharmacological alternatives that reduce ADHD associated symptoms (hyperactivity and inattention have been subjected to rigorous clinical trials. Bacopa monnieri is a perennial creeping herb. CDRI 08 is a special extract of Bacopa monnieri which has been subjected to hundreds of scientific studies and has been shown in human randomized controlled trials (RCTs to improve memory, attention, and mood. It is hypothesised that chronic administration of CDRI 08 will improve attention, concentration and behaviour in children with high levels of hyperactivity and/or inattention. This paper reports the protocol for the first 16-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel groups trial examining the efficacy and safety of CDRI 08 in male children aged 6–14 years with high levels of inattention and hyperactivity. The primary outcome variable will be the level of hyperactivity and inattention measured by the Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS. Secondary outcome variables include cognition, mood, sleep, and EEG. Trial registration: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12612000827831.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of a randomized controlled trial investigating predictors of recovery following psychological treatment in adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar depression: study protocol for Magnetic Resonance-Improving Mood with Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Therapies (MR-IMPACT)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorders (MDD) are a debilitating and pervasive group of mental illnesses afflicting many millions of people resulting in the loss of 110 million working days and more than 2,500 suicides per annum. Adolescent MDD patients attending NHS clinics show high rates of recurrence into adult life. A meta-analysis of recent research shows that psychological treatments are not as efficacious as previously thought. Modest treatment outcomes of approximately 65% of cases res...

  15. A Study of MAC Protocols for WBANs

    OpenAIRE

    Sana Ullah; Bin Shen; S. M. Riazul Islam; Pervez Khan; Shahnaz Saleem; Kyung Sup Kwak

    2009-01-01

    The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires the low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to s...

  16. Studying Media Access andControl Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Alalelddin Fuad Yousif

    2010-01-01

    This thesis project’s goal is to enable undergraduate students to gain insight into media access and control protocols based upon carrying out laboratory experiments. The educational goal is to de-mystifying radio and other link and physical layer communication technologies as the students can follow packets from the higher layers down through the physical layer and back up again. The thesis fills the gap between the existing documentation for the Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) re...

  17. A Cross-Cultural Study of Adolescent Procrastination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Robert M.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Chong, Wan Har; Krawchuk, Lindsey L.; Huan, Vivien S.; Wong, Isabella Y. F.; Yeo, Lay See

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we explore academic procrastination and associated motivation variables in 612 adolescents from Canada and Singapore. Few studies have explored adolescent procrastination and no previous studies have investigated adolescent procrastination using a cross-cultural framework. Singaporean adolescents reported higher levels of…

  18. Extraction protocols for orthodontic treatment: A retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukkarasu, Vaishnevi N.; Ramachandra, Srinivas Sulugodu; Dicksit, Daniel D.; Gundavarapu, Kalyan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Various extraction protocols have been followed for successful orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extraction protocols in patients who had previously undergone orthodontic treatment and also who had reported for continuing orthodontic treatment from other clinics. Materials and Methods: One hundred thirty eight patients who registered for orthodontic treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry were divided into 10 extraction protocols based on the Orthodontic treatment protocol given by Janson et al. and were evaluated for statistical significance. Results: The descriptive statistics of the study revealed a total of 40 (29%) patients in protocol 1, 43 (31.2%) in protocol 2, 18 (13%) in protocol 3, 16 (11.6%) in protocol 5, and 12 (8.7%) in Type 3 category of protocol 9. The Type 3 category in protocol 9 was statistically significant compared to other studies. Midline shift and collapse of the arch form were noticed in these individuals. Conclusion: Extraction of permanent teeth such as canine and lateral incisors without rational reasons could have devastating consequences on the entire occlusion. The percentage of cases wherein extraction of permanent teeth in the crowded region was adopted as a treatment option instead of orthodontic treatment is still prevalent in dental practice. The shortage of orthodontists in Malaysia, the long waiting period, and lack of subjective need for orthodontic treatment at an earlier age group were the reasons for the patient's to choose extraction of the mal-aligned teeth such as the maxillary canine or maxillary lateral incisors. PMID:27041899

  19. An Exploratory Study of Adolescent Pimping Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Pamela M.; Coyle, Karin K.; Johnson, Anisha; Denner, Jill

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, public attention to the problem of commercially sexually exploited children (CSEC) has grown. This exploratory qualitative study examines adolescent pimping relationships, including how urban youth perceive these types of relationships. Study data stem from interviews with three young adult informants with first-hand knowledge of adolescent pimping, as well as three gender-specific focus group discussions with a convenience sample of 26 urban high school students who have ...

  20. Interactive verification of Markov chains: Two distributed protocol case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Hölzl; Tobias Nipkow

    2012-01-01

    Probabilistic model checkers like PRISM only check probabilistic systems of a fixed size. To guarantee the desired properties for an arbitrary size, mathematical analysis is necessary. We show for two case studies how this can be done in the interactive proof assistant Isabelle/HOL. The first case study is a detailed description of how we verified properties of the ZeroConf protocol, a decentral address allocation protocol. The second case study shows the more involved verification of anonymi...

  1. [Study of food characteristics of Uruguayan adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Alfonsina; Pereyra, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the diet of Uruguayan adolescents and demographic aspects that influence it. The data come from the National Survey of Adolescents and Youth in 2008 which worked with 2,943 cases, representative sample of all adolescents in Uruguay. The characteristics of feeding studied were: consumption of fruits and vegetables, soft drinks, fast food, added salt to meals served at the table and meal times shared with a parent. These variables were also studied in aggregate to determine a pattern of eating behavior. It was found that 89% of adolescents did not meet the recommendation of 5 servings of fruits and vegetables a day, 50% consumed daily soft drinks, fast foods ingested 24% 2 or more times per week and 13% added salt at all preparations. We also found that 31% did not share mealtimes with parents daily. By adding the variables studied, we observed that 58% were inadequately fed, and is higher among older adolescents (p consumption of soft drinks, fast food and adding salt to served meals, which defined it as inadequate. This was mainly observed in older adolescents, better economic situation and residents within the country.. PMID:26817381

  2. STUDY FOR ADOLESCENT PROBLEM AND PSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Astha; MRS Monika; Gitika; Abhishek,

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is defined as the age group of 10-19 years. Adolescents suffer from psychosocial problems at one time or other during their development. Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization majority of young couple are employed and get less time to look after their children. Psychosocial problem and drug abuse are quite prevalent in this age group. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of psychosocial, emotional, behavioral problems, sexual orientation, drug abuse in...

  3. Childhood Psychopathology Predicts Adolescence-Onset Offending: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Nicole; Verhulst, Frank; van Marle, Hjalmar; van der Ende, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Moffitt, Caspi, Harrington, and Milne (2002) found in a follow-up study that many of the supposedly adolescence-limited offenders had committed offenses past adolescence. This finding raises the question of whether adulthood starts later or whether there are two distinct delinquency types, adolescence limited and adolescence onset, each with its…

  4. Songs of Despair: A Case Study of Adolescent Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Allen D.

    This report outlines the extent of the problem of adolescent suicide in the United States, noting that suicide is the third leading cause of death among adolescents in this country and that the rate of suicide by adolescents is expected to continue to increase in the future. It examines one adolescent suicide, using the case study method, to…

  5. Characterisation of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields in the Spanish INMA birth cohort: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Gallastegi, Mara; Guxens, Mònica; Jiménez-Zabala, Ana; Calvente, Irene; Fernández, Marta; Birks, Laura; Struchen, Benjamin; Vrijheid, Martine; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernandez, Mariana; Torrent, Maties; Ballester, Ferran; Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Guerra, David

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Analysis of the association between exposure to electromagnetic fields of non-ionising radiation (EMF-NIR) and health in children and adolescents is hindered by the limited availability of data, mainly due to the difficulties on the exposure assessment. This study protocol describes the methodologies used for characterising exposure of children to EMF-NIR in the INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente- Environment and Childhood) Project, a prospective cohort study. Methods/Des...

  6. SIMULATION STUDY AND IMPLEMENTATION ON ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Yadav

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc networks are characterized by a lack of infrastructure, and by a random and quickly changing network topology; thus the need for a robust dynamic routing protocol that can accommodate such an environment. Consequently, many routing algorithms have come in toexistence to satisfy the needs of communications in such networks. This article presents a simulation study and comparison the performance between two categories of routing protocols, table-driven (Proactive and on-demand (Reactive routing protocols, this two categories were illustrated by using two different examples ofrouting protocols, first example is DSDV (Destination Sequenced Distance-Vector from the Proactive family and the second example isAODV (Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector and DSR (Dynamic Source Routing Protocol from the Reactive family. Both protocols weresimulated by using NS-2 (network simulator-2 package. Both routing protocols were compared in terms of average throughput (packets delivery ratio while varying data rate, TCP types ,maximumpackets in queue and number of packet drop while varying data rate by using the Trace file. For the same queue length DSDV performsbetter than AODV. AODV is preferred due to its more efficient use of bandwidth.

  7. Clinical Strategies for Integrating Medication Interventions Into Behavioral Treatment for Adolescent ADHD: The Medication Integration Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Hogue, Aaron; Bobek, Molly; Tau, Gregory Z.; Levin, Frances R.

    2014-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent among adolescents enrolled in behavioral health services but remains undertreated in this age group. Also the first-line treatment for adolescent ADHD, stimulant medication, is underutilized in routine practice. This article briefly describes three behavioral interventions designed to promote stronger integration of medication interventions into treatment planning for adolescent ADHD: family ADHD psychoeducation, family-based...

  8. [Functional Neuroimaging Pilot Study of Borderline Personality Disorder in Adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Amélie; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Labelle, Réal; Luck, David

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is being increasingly recognized by clinicians working with adolescents, and the reliability and validity of the diagnosis have been established in the adolescent population. Adolescence is known to be a period of high risk for BPD development as most patients identify the onset of their symptoms to be in the adolescent period. As with other mental health disorders, personality disorder, are thought to result from the interaction between biological and environmental factors. Functional neuroimaging studies are reporting an increasing amount of data on abnormal neuronal functions in BPD adult patients. However, no functional neuroimaging studies have been conducted in adolescents with BPD.Objectives This pilot project aims to evaluate the feasibility of a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study coupled with clinical and psychological measures in adolescent girls with a diagnosis of BPD. It also aims to identify neuronal regions of interest (ROI) for the study of BPD in adolescent girls.Method Six female adolescents meeting DSM-IV criteria for BPD and 6 female adolescents without psychiatric disorder were recruited. Both groups were evaluated for BPD symptoms, depressive symptoms, impulsivity, affective lability, and other potential psychiatric comorbidities. We used fMRI to compare patterns of regional brain activation between these two groups as they viewed 20 positive, 20 negative and 20 neutral emotion-inducing pictures, which were presented in random order.Results Participants were recruited over a period of 22 months. The protocol was well tolerated by participants. Mean age of the BPD group and control group was 15.8 ± 0.9 years-old and 15.5 ± 1.2 years-old respectively. Psychiatric comorbidity and use of medication was common among participants in the BPD group. This group showed higher impulsivity and affective lability scores. For the fMRI task, BPD patients demonstrated greater differences in activation

  9. THE RELIABILITY OF ADOLESCENT THERMOREGULATORY RESPONSES DURING A HEAT ACCLIMATION PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Williams

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the between trial variation of thermoregulatory measures during a heat acclimation protocol. Eight 14-16 y old boys completed three bouts of 20-min cycling at 45 % peak VO2 in a hot environment (35.1 ± 1.2 °C and 46. 4 ± 1.0 % relative humidity on two occasions separated by a minimum of 24 h. Reliability was assessed through analysis of within-subject variation, the change in the mean, and retest correlation for measurements of aural temperature (Tau, mean skin temperature (Tsk, heart rate (HR and oxygen uptake (VO2. Between trial differences were low for Tau, Tskbout1, Tskbout2and3 and HR with coefficients of variation 0.6 %, 1.5 %, 0.5 % and 4.0 %, respectively. The results demonstrate good reliability that will allow future investigators to precisely determine the extent of heat acclimation protocols in relation to the measurement error

  10. Experienced Carers Helping Others (ECHO): protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial to examine a psycho-educational intervention for adolescents with anorexia nervosa and their carers

    OpenAIRE

    Rhind, Charlotte; Hibbs, Rebecca; Goddard, Elizabeth; Schmidt, Ulrike; Micali, Nadia; Gowers, Simon; Beecham, Jennifer; Macdonald, Pamela; Todd, Gillian; Tchanturia, Kate; Treasure, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Experienced Carers Helping Others (ECHO) is an intervention for carers of people with eating disorders. This paper describes the theoretical background and protocol of a pilot multicentre randomised controlled trial that will explore the use of two variants of ECHO for improving outcomes for adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) referred for outpatient care. Adolescent patients and their carers (typically parents and close others in a supportive role) will be recruited from 38 eating disorde...

  11. Efficacy of three treatment protocols for adolescents with social anxiety disorder: a 5-year follow-up assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Lopez, Luis-Joaquin; Olivares, Jose; Beidel, Deborah; Albano, Anne-Marie; Turner, Samuel; Rosa, Ana I

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have reported long-term follow-up data in adults and even fewer in adolescents. The purpose of this work is to report on the longest follow-up assessment in the literature on treatments for adolescents with social phobia. A 5-year follow-up assessment was conducted with subjects who originally received either Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents (CBGT-A), Social Effectiveness Therapy for Adolescents--Spanish version (SET-Asv), or Intervención en Adolescentes con Fobia Social--Treatment for Adolescents with Social Phobia (IAFS) in a controlled clinical trial. Twenty-three subjects completing the treatment conditions were available for the 5-year follow-up. Results demonstrate that subjects treated either with CBGT-A, SET-Asv and IAFS continued to maintain their gains after treatments were terminated. Either the CBGT-A, SET-Asv and IAFS can provide lasting effects to the majority of adolescents with social anxiety. Issues that may contribute to future research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:16464703

  12. Depression screening and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents: a systematic review protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Thombs Brett D; Roseman Michelle; Kloda Lorie A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Depression is an important cause of disability among children and adolescents. Depression screening is one possible method for managing depression, and screening programs have been initiated in some school and medical settings. However, in 2005, the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care and the United Kingdom National Institute of Clinical Excellence did not recommend depression screening among children and adolescents. By contrast, in 2009, the United States Preve...

  13. Studies on Algorithms for Self-Stabilizing Communication Protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Layuan; LI Chunlin

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the algorithms forself-stabilizing communication protocols are studied. First someconcepts and a formal method for describing the proposed algorithms aredescribed, then an improved algorithm for achieving global states ispresented. Thestudy shows that the improved algorithm can be applied to obtain the globalstates in the case of a loss of cooperation of the different processesin the protocol, which can be used as a recovery point that will be usedby the following recovery procedure. Thus, the improved algorithm can beused to self-stabilize a communication protocol. Meanwhile,a recovery algorithm for self-stabilizing communicationprotocols is presented. After a failure is detected, all processes caneventuallyknow the error. The recovery algorithm uses the contextual information exchanged during the progress of the protocol and recorded on the stablememory. The proof of correctness and analysis of complexity for these algorithms have been made. The availability and efficiency of the algorithms have been verified by illustrating the example protocols.Finally, some conclusions and remarks are given.

  14. Supporting adolescent girls to stay in school, reduce child marriage and reduce entry into sex work as HIV risk prevention in north Karnataka, India: protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Beattie, TS; Bhattacharjee, P.; Isac, S.; Davey, C; Javalkar, P; S Nair; Thalinja, R; Sudhakar, G.; Collumbien, M.; Blanchard, JF; Watts, C; Moses, S; Heise, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Low caste adolescent girls living in rural northern Karnataka are at increased risk of school drop-out, child marriage, and entry into sex-work, which enhances their vulnerability to HIV, early pregnancy and adverse maternal and child health outcomes. This protocol describes the evaluation of Samata, a comprehensive, multi-level intervention designed to address these structural drivers of HIV risk and vulnerability. Methods/Design The Samata study is a cluster randomised controlled...

  15. A parathyroid adenoma case study: Protocol review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Technetium-99m (99mTc) Sestamibi as opposed to Thallous-201 Chloride and 99mTc Sodium Pertechnetate subtraction, has become the radiopharmaceutical of choice for detection of parathyroid adenomas. A 17-year-old female patient presented to the department for a parathyroid 99mTc Sestamibi scan to evaluate possible parathyroid adenoma/s. She was initially admitted with increasing serum Calcium levels, polyuria, abdominal pain and general malaise. The patient was injected with 900MBq of 99mTc Sestamibi, and a pinhole dynamic at a distance of 10 cm from the neck was acquired followed by a 5-minute static image at 7 cm. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) was then performed on a dual-head gamma camera followed by an anterior and posterior 10-minute static image. At 3 and 5 hours post injection the 10-minute static image was repeated. This study was reported as normal with uniform uptake and washout of the tracer over the 5-hour period. An ultrasound study was performed, and it showed a lesion believed to be a parathyroid adenoma measuring 2.2 x 0.8 x 0.4 cm in size in the right upper lobe of the thyroid. A subsequent thyroid scan was performed to confirm that it was non-functioning thyroid tissue. The patient was injected with 250MBq of 99mTc Sodium Pertechnetate and scanned with a pinhole collimator at a distance of 7 cm. When the 99mTc Sestamibi and 99mTc Sodium Pertechnetate scan were viewed together, it was clear that there was excess 99mTc Sestamibi distribution on the right upper lobe of the thyroid, which washed out over time. This corresponded to the ultrasound findings and was confirmed at surgery to be a parathyroid adenoma. A 99mTc Sodium Pertechnetate scan and an ultrasound are now also routinely performed on patients presenting for 99mTc Sestamibi parathyroid scans

  16. Social gradients in child and adolescent antisocial behavior: a systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowska Patrycja J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between social position and physical health is well-established across a range of studies. The evidence base regarding social position and mental health is less well developed, particularly regarding the development of antisocial behavior. Some evidence demonstrates a social gradient in behavioral problems, with children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds experiencing more behavioral difficulties than children from high-socioeconomic families. Antisocial behavior is a heterogeneous concept that encompasses behaviors as diverse as physical fighting, vandalism, stealing, status violation and disobedience to adults. Whether all forms of antisocial behavior show identical social gradients is unclear from previous published research. The mechanisms underlying social gradients in antisocial behavior, such as neighborhood characteristics and family processes, have not been fully elucidated. This review will synthesize findings on the social gradient in antisocial behavior, considering variation across the range of antisocial behaviors and evidence regarding the mechanisms that might underlie the identified gradients. Methods In this review, an extensive manual and electronic literature search will be conducted for papers published from 1960 to 2011. The review will include empirical and quantitative studies of children and adolescents ( Discussion This systematic review has been proposed in order to synthesize cross-disciplinary evidence of the social gradient in antisocial behavior and mechanisms underlying this effect. The results of the review will inform social policies aiming to reduce social inequalities and levels of antisocial behavior, and identify gaps in the present literature to guide further research.

  17. STUDY OF PEER PRESSURE AND SOCIAL MATURITY AMONG LATE ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sakshi; Rakesh Behman; Raj Kumar; Dharmender Kumar Nehra; Naresh Kuma

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adolescents are the energy of today and the bright hope of the future. Peer pressure plays a vital role in the lives and social adjustment of adolescents as it is a time of experimentation with new identities, attitudes and experiences. The purpose of the present study was to provide an examination of the peer pressure and social maturity in late adolescence. Material and methods: It is a cross sectional study, in which Two Hundred (200) adolescents were select...

  18. Design and evaluation protocol of "FATaintPHAT", a computer-tailored intervention to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van de Looij-Jansen Petra M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer tailoring may be a promising technique for prevention of overweight in adolescents. However, very few well-developed, evidence-based computer-tailored interventions are available for this target group. We developed and evaluated a computer-tailored intervention for adolescents targeting energy balance-related behaviours: i.e. consumption of snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit, vegetables, and fibre, physical activity, and sedentary behaviours. This paper describes the planned development of a school-based computer-tailored intervention aimed at improving energy balance-related behaviours in order to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents, and the protocol for evaluating this intervention. Methods/design Intervention development: Informed by the Precaution Adoption Process Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the computer-tailored intervention provided feedback on personal behaviour and suggestions on how to modify it. The intervention (VETisnietVET translated as 'FATaintPHAT' has been developed for use in the first year of secondary school during eight lessons. Evaluation design: The intervention will be evaluated in a cluster-randomised trial including 20 schools with a 4-months and a 2-years follow-up. Outcome measures are BMI, waist circumference, energy balance-related behaviours, and potential determinants of these behaviours. Process measures are appreciation of and satisfaction with the program, exposure to the program's content, and implementation facilitators and barriers measured among students and teachers. Discussion This project resulted in a theory and evidence-based intervention that can be implemented in a school setting. A large-scale randomised controlled trial with a short and long-term follow-up will provide sound statements about the effectiveness of this computer-tailored intervention in adolescents. Trial Registration ISRCTN15743786

  19. Evaluation of the correlation between type 1 diabetes and cognitive function in children and adolescents, and comparison of this correlation with structural changes in the central nervous system: a study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabbasi, Ata; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Ebrahimi Qavam, Soqra; Larijani, Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM) affects nearly 15 million children worldwide and failure to achieve and maintain good glycaemic control in this group can lead to diabetes-related complications. Children with T1DM can experience impairment in cognitive function such as memory, attention and executive function. This study is designed to evaluate the correlation between diabetes and cognitive dysfunction as well as to clarify whether this correlation can be linked to neurological structural changes in 6–11-year-old children with diabetes. Methods and analysis 310 eligible children with diabetes will be divided into two groups based on glycaemic control according to their HbA1c index. The control group will include 150 children aged 6–11 without diabetes. The following parameters will be measured and investigated: duration of the disease since diagnosis, required daily insulin dose, frequency of insulin administration, hospital admissions due to diabetes, hypoglycaemic episodes during the last year, and episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis. The following components of cognitive function will be evaluated: memory, attention, executive function, decision-making and academic performance. Cognitive function and subsequent subtests will be assessed using Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) tools. Brain structural indices such as intracranial vault (ICV), as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), ventricle, hippocampus, total intracranial, total brain, grey matter and white matter volume will be measured using MRI. ANOVA, correlational tests (Spearman) and regression models will be used to evaluate the hypothesis. Ethics and dissemination This study is approved by the ethics committee of the Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute (EMRI) of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) under reference number 00300. Our findings are to be published in a peer-reviewed journal and disseminated both electronically and in print. PMID

  20. Breakfast habits among European adolescents : The healthy lifestyle in Europe by nutrition in adolescence (HELENA) study

    OpenAIRE

    Hallström, Lena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study the associations of individual and socioenvironmental factors with breakfast habits among adolescents on a European level. Methods: The HELENA-study (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) is a multi-centre cross-sectional, school-based study including 3528 adolescents (aged 12.5-17.49 years) from 10 European cities in Europe. Data was collected during the 2006-2007 academic year. Breakfast habits were assessed by a ...

  1. Adolescent fertility study in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangman, D

    1980-01-01

    1598 unmarried rural and urban adolescents between 15 and 20 years of age who worked in factories or attended school were interviewed to ascertain their knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding a wide range of issues relating to reproduction. The "school" group were better educated, better off financially, had greater access to information from radio, television, and newspapers, and had higher professional goals than the factory group. Both groups were knowledgeable about family planning and government policy, although the factory group equated it with birth control only. Most believed marriages should be based on love, that ideal family size was 2-3 children, and age of marriage 20-24 years. The school group highly disapproved of premarital intercourse and valued virginity, while only 65% of the factory group agreed. Condoms were more used by the factory group, but a large number of both groups did not know or use contraception. Less than 25% felt that abortion should be permitted except in cases of rape, with 22% of the school group and 33% of the factory group approving of legalizing abortion. Over 50% approved of sex education in the schools. 24% of the school group and 39% of the other group reported having friends with venereal disease, and slightly over 10% of both groups reported having friends who were narcotics addicts. PMID:12278544

  2. STUDY FOR ADOLESCENT PROBLEM AND PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is defined as the age group of 10-19 years. Adolescents suffer from psychosocial problems at one time or other during their development. Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization majority of young couple are employed and get less time to look after their children. Psychosocial problem and drug abuse are quite prevalent in this age group. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of psychosocial, emotional, behavioral problems, sexual orientation, drug abuse in adolescents (less than 18 years and compare with college students (18-22years of age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The permission was taken from the head of the schools and colleges. A questionnaire was made and was distributed and information was collected. Sample 610 collected from school and 700 from college. RESULT: 580 and 669 students from schools and colleges respectively answered data correctly. 18% of school and 15% of college students have witnessed domestic violence in their families. Anxiety and stress was more in school going children than college (might be due to exams i.e.75%: 50% and 46%:41% respectively. Depression rate was almost equal among school and college i.e. 30%. Behavior of our children is influenced by their co-students, on assessing peer pressure it was found that 26-29%(1/3rd from school and college age group submit to peer pressure. In drug abuse alcohol intake was 12% and 19% in school and college group while prevalence of smoking was 4% and 12% respectively. Total number of students who were active in sexual activity was found to be 7.5% in schools and 14.6% in colleges. CONCLUSION: Adolescents constitute 1/5th of our population and prevalence of psychosocial problems along with drug abuse is increasing. With effective counseling by parents and teachers, sex education, stress reduction and improving familial environment, we can ensure a better future and improved adolescent health.

  3. Parental socioeconomic position and development of overweight in adolescence: longitudinal study of Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Rasmussen, Mette;

    2010-01-01

    An inverse social gradient in overweight among adolescents has been shown in developed countries, but few studies have examined whether weight gain and the development of overweight differs among adolescents from different socioeconomic groups in a longitudinal study. The objective was to identif...... the possible association between parental socioeconomic position, weight change and the risk of developing overweight among adolescents between the ages 15 to 21....

  4. Development of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico National Protocol for the Management of Victims of Sexual Violence: Adults/Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Rose Marie; Kulbok, Pamela; Lawson, Sarah; Matos, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Sexual violence is a public health problem in Puerto Rico (PR), with an incidence of 7.4 cases for every 10,000 people during 2005-2006 (Departamento de Salud Secretaría Auxiliar de Salud Familiar y Servicios Integrados, 2007). Findings from the literature review indicated that the traditional model of care provided to the victims of sexual violence in the Emergency Department is incomplete; furthermore, it may cause revictimization because of the attitudes, behaviors, and practices of the community service providers, resulting in additional trauma. Emerging evidence demonstrates that Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs are providing effective quality care. In PR, SANEs do not intervene in sexual assault cases; nevertheless, the Department of Health of PR has recognized the importance of SANE intervention. Consequently, there is a need for current evidence-based protocols and standards of care to describe the procedures, roles, and responsibilities for the provision of quality care to victims. This project involves the implementation of the Stufflebeam's Context-Input-Process-Product Model in the creation of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico National Protocol for the Management of Victims of Sexual Violence: Adults/Adolescents. PMID:24158134

  5. Trends in child and adolescent obesity prevalence according to socioeconomic position: protocol for a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Alexandra; Backholer, Kathryn; Wong, Evelyn; Palermo, Claire; Keating, Catherine; Peeters, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is a significant public health issue and is socially patterned, with greater prevalence of obesity observed in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Recent evidence suggests that the prevalence of childhood obesity is levelling off in some countries. However, this may not be the case across all socioeconomic strata. The aim of this review is to examine whether trends in child and adolescent obesity prevalence since 1990 differ according to socioeconomic position ...

  6. Borderline personality disorder: study in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, A; Berelowitz, M; Vereker, M

    1996-04-01

    The study of the presentation, symptomatology and family characteristics of an exclusively adolescent sample of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) was undertaken. Twenty-four cases of borderline personality disorder, 20 females, 4 males, identified using chart review and meeting the criteria of the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines (DIB) and DSM III-R, were matched with psychiatric controls. Adolescents with borderline personality disorder were found to have high rates of affective symptomatology with Axis I diagnosis of major depressive disorder MDD (DSM-III-R), and high rates of interpersonal psychopathology, i.e., manipulation, devaluation, and a pervasive sense of boredom. The latter seem to be characteristic as for adults with borderline personality disorder. The families were particularly angry and volatile. PMID:9117533

  7. A Study of Self-Esteem and Romanticism among Pregnant Adolescents, Adolescent Mothers, and a Control Group in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Hellen, Cheryl; And Others

    In the United States over one million adolescent girls will become pregnant each year. Adolescent pregnancy often leads to truncated educational attainment and subsequently results in a prolonged cycle of poverty and dependence. This study investigated feelings of self-esteem and romanticism among pregnant adolescents (N=276), adolescent mothers…

  8. A Study of Dysmenorrhea During Menstruation in Adolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal Anil; Agarwal Anju

    2010-01-01

    Research question: What is the prevalence of dysmenorrhea severity and its associated symptoms among adolescent girls? Objectives: (1) To study the prevalence of dysmenorrhea in high school adolescent girls of Gwalior. (2) To study the evidence of severity of the problem with associated symptoms and general health status. Study design: An explorative survey technique with a correlational approach. Setting and Participants: Nine hundred and seventy adolescent girls of age 15 to 20 years, study...

  9. Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mandic, Sandra; Williams, John; Moore, Antoni; Hopkins, Debbie; Flaherty, Charlotte; Wilson, Gordon; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Spence, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Active transport to school (ATS) is a convenient way to increase physical activity and undertake an environmentally sustainable travel practice. The Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study examines ATS in adolescents in Dunedin, New Zealand, using ecological models for active transport that account for individual, social, environmental and policy factors. The study objectives are to: (1) understand the reasons behind adolescents and their parents' choice of...

  10. A comparative study of protocols for secure quantum communication under noisy environment: single-qubit-based protocols versus entangled-state-based protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vishal; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban; Banerjee, Subhashish

    2016-07-01

    The effect of noise on various protocols of secure quantum communication has been studied. Specifically, we have investigated the effect of amplitude damping, phase damping, squeezed generalized amplitude damping, Pauli type as well as various collective noise models on the protocols of quantum key distribution, quantum key agreement, quantum secure direct quantum communication and quantum dialogue. From each type of protocol of secure quantum communication, we have chosen two protocols for our comparative study: one based on single-qubit states and the other one on entangled states. The comparative study reported here has revealed that single-qubit-based schemes are generally found to perform better in the presence of amplitude damping, phase damping, squeezed generalized amplitude damping noises, while entanglement-based protocols turn out to be preferable in the presence of collective noises. It is also observed that the effect of noise depends upon the number of rounds of quantum communication involved in a scheme of quantum communication. Further, it is observed that squeezing, a completely quantum mechanical resource present in the squeezed generalized amplitude channel, can be used in a beneficial way as it may yield higher fidelity compared to the corresponding zero squeezing case.

  11. Clinical features of adolescents with deliberate self-harm: A case control study in Lisbon, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo F Guerreiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Diogo F Guerreiro, Ema L Neves, Rita Navarro, Raquel Mendes, Ana Prioste, Diana Ribeiro, Tiago Lila, António Neves, Mónica Salgado, Nazaré Santos, Daniel SampaioYouth Suicide Study Group (NES, The Hospital Santa Maria, Psychiatry Department, Lisbon Faculty of Medicine, PortugalAbstract: Deliberate self-harm (DSH among adolescents is a high-risk condition for suicide. The aim of the present study is to describe the characteristic clinical features of adolescents with DSH according to our local context (Lisbon, Portugal, using easily available information from clinical settings. A case control study was constructed from a sample of 100 adolescents (aged 12 to 21 years. The sample was divided into two groups: adolescents with and without DSH. Case files were examined and data was completed by clinical interviews. Demographic, psychosocial, and psychopathological data were assessed and compared. Ninety-eight subjects completed the protocol. The DSH group was associated with the following: suicidal ideation or suicidal behavior as consultation motive, emergency room referral, previous follow-up attempts, suicidal ideation, psychosocial difficulties, or lack of therapeutic goals. There was a nonsignificant trend towards diagnosis of depression in the DSH group. These results reflect our clinical practice with adolescents and add data about teenagers who self-harm to the literature. Prevention and early recognition of DSH (and frequently associated depression in adolescents are essential and could be life-saving measures. An integrated approach, which takes into account psychosocial difficulties, family dysfunction, and negative expectations, seems to be of great importance.Keywords: deliberate self-harm, suicide, adolescents, suicide risk, case control

  12. Chiropractic manipulation in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoline Michael R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS remains the most common deforming orthopedic condition in children. Increasingly, both adults and children are seeking complementary and alternative therapy, including chiropractic treatment, for a wide variety of health concerns. The scientific evidence supporting the use chiropractic intervention is inadequate. The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot study and explore issues of safety, patient recruitment and compliance, treatment standardization, sham treatment refinement, inter-professional cooperation, quality assurance, and outcome measure selection. Methods Six patients participated in this 6-month study, 5 of whom were female. One female was braced. The mean age of these patients was 14 years, and the mean Cobb angle was 22.2 degrees. The study design was a randomized controlled clinical trial with two independent and blinded observers. Three patients were treated by standard medical care (observation or brace treatment, two were treated with standard medical care plus chiropractic manipulation, and one was treated with standard medical care plus sham manipulation. The primary outcome measure was Cobb, and the psychosocial measure was Scoliosis Quality of Life Index. Results Orthopedic surgeons and chiropractors were easily recruited and worked cooperatively throughout the trial. Patient recruitment and compliance was good. Chiropractic treatments were safely employed, and research protocols were successful. Conclusion Overall, our pilot study showed the viability for a larger randomized trial. This pilot confirms the strength of existing protocols with amendments for use in a full randomized controlled trial. Trial registration This trial has been assigned an international standard randomized controlled trial number by Current Controlled Trials, Ltd. http://www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn/. The number is ISRCTN41221647.

  13. STUDY OF PEER PRESSURE AND SOCIAL MATURITY AMONG LATE ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are the energy of today and the bright hope of the future. Peer pressure plays a vital role in the lives and social adjustment of adolescents as it is a time of experimentation with new identities, attitudes and experiences. The purpose of the present study was to provide an examination of the peer pressure and social maturity in late adolescence. Material and methods: It is a cross sectional study, in which Two Hundred (200 adolescents were selected by purposive sampling. Assessment was done by using Peer Pressure Scale and Social Maturity Scale.

  14. Effectiveness of the universal prevention program 'Healthy School and Drugs': Study protocol of a randomized clustered trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malmberg Monique

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use is highly prevalent among Dutch adolescents. The Healthy School and Drugs program is a nationally implemented school-based prevention program aimed at reducing early and excessive substance use among adolescents. Although the program's effectiveness was tested in a quasi-experimental design before, many program changes were made afterwards. The present study, therefore, aims to test the effects of this widely used, renewed universal prevention program. Methods/Design A randomized clustered trial will be conducted among 3,784 adolescents of 23 secondary schools in The Netherlands. The trial has three conditions; two intervention conditions (i.e., e-learning and integral and a control condition. The e-learning condition consists of three digital learning modules (i.e., about alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana that are sequentially offered over the course of three school years (i.e., grade 1, grade 2, and grade 3. The integral condition consists of parental participation in a parental meeting on substance use, regulation of substance use, and monitoring and counseling of students' substance use at school, over and above the three digital modules. The control condition is characterized as business as usual. Participating schools were randomly assigned to either an intervention or control condition. Participants filled out a digital questionnaire at baseline and will fill out the same questionnaire three more times at follow-up measurements (8, 20, and 32 months after baseline. Outcome variables included in the questionnaire are the percentage of binge drinking (more than five drinks per occasion, the average weekly number of drinks, and the percentage of adolescents who ever drunk a glass of alcohol and the percentage of adolescents who ever smoked a cigarette or a joint respectively for tobacco and marijuana. Discussion This study protocol describes the design of a randomized clustered trial that evaluates the

  15. Acupressure therapy for insomnia in adolescents: a polysomnographic study

    OpenAIRE

    Carotenuto M; Gallai B; Parisi L; Roccella M; Esposito M.

    2013-01-01

    Marco Carotenuto,1 Beatrice Gallai,2 Lucia Parisi,3 Michele Roccella,3 Maria Esposito11Sleep Clinic for Developmental Age, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Second University of Naples, Naples, 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, 3Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, ItalyBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of acupressure therapy in a sample of adolescents with ins...

  16. Dietary habits during adolescence - results of the Belgian Adolux Study

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Dominique; Saint-Remy, Annie; JeanJean, Michel

    2001-01-01

    STUDY: To analyse the usual dietary habits of Belgian adolescents from a high cardiovascular risk population. METHODS: A food frequency questionnaire (57 items) was administered to the whole sample. Complementary questions specified some types of food (eg fat content). A subgroup of 234 adolescents gave detailed information on portion size (picture book and food samples). SETTING: Twenty-four secondary schools in the Belgian province of Luxembourg. SUBJECTS: A total of 1,526 adolesce...

  17. Outcome of children and adolescents with Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma treated with a modified NHL-BFM-90 protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓非

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of a modified NHL-BFM-90 protocol in childhood and adolescence with Burkitt lymphoma(BL)and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma(DLBCL).Methods A total of 138 de novo patients with BL and DLBCL were enrolled.All patients were stratified into low(R1),intermediate(R2)and high risk(R3)groups based on the stage,chemotherapy

  18. Biomass to energy : GHG reduction quantification protocols and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the growing concerns over greenhouses gases and their contribution to climate change, it is necessary to find ways of reducing environmental impacts by diversifying energy sources to include non-fossil fuel energy sources. Among the fastest growing green energy sources is energy from waste facilities that use biomass that would otherwise be landfilled or stockpiled. The quantification of greenhouse gas reductions through the use of biomass to energy systems can be calculated using various protocols and methodologies. This paper described each of these methodologies and presented a case study comparing some of these quantification methodologies. A summary and comparison of biomass to energy greenhouse gas reduction protocols in use or under development by the United Nations, the European Union, the Province of Alberta and Environment Canada was presented. It was concluded that regulatory, environmental pressures, and public policy will continue to impact the practices associated with biomass processing or landfill operations, such as composting, or in the case of landfills, gas collection systems, thus reducing the amount of potential credit available for biomass to energy facility offset projects. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  19. Protocol of study and pursuit of the radioinduced burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of localized overexposures based on local experience and international criteria is being carried out within the framework of a cooperation agreement between the Buenos Aires Burned Hospital and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority. This protocol was designed considering separately acute and chronic reactions, including the following aspects: patient reception: clinical findings, laboratory tests, photographic recording, and multidisciplinary evaluation; dose reconstruction: evaluation of the dose distribution by biophysical and biological procedures; extension and depth estimation: telethermography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, radioisotopic procedures, capillaroscopy and percutaneous oxymetry; therapeutic strategies: pain treatment, prevention of infections, systemic administration of pentoxiphyllin and alpha-tocopherol, local application of trolamine and antioxidants, prevention and treatment of radioinduced fibrosis. When it is indicated, surgical treatment includes partial or total excision followed by covering by graft or flap. The application of tissue-engineering techniques will be considered. Study of individual radiosensitivity: evaluation of apoptosis in peripheral lymphocytes and clonogenic assays in dermal fibroblasts 'in vitro' irradiated. (author)

  20. Study and Improvement of WTLS Protocol in WAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Kai; LIU Ying; XIAO Guozhen

    2001-01-01

    Wireless application protocol (WAP)is a set of protocol designed for mobile terminal toconnect to Internet and is likely to become world stan-dard. Wireless transport layer security (WTLS) incor-porates the security features in WAP. In this paper,the analysis of the performance of WTLS is made.Two improvement schemes on WTLS are given: oneis that the client stores the certificate of servers; theother is that a new WTLS protocol is proposed basedon the designed authentication scheme.

  1. A Comparative Study of Various Routing Protocols in VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Rakesh; Dave, Mayank

    2011-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) is a subclass of Mobile ad hoc networks which provides a distinguished approach for Intelligent Transport System (ITS). The survey of routing protocols in VANET is important and necessary for smart ITS. This paper discusses the advantages / disadvantages and the applications of various routing protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks. It explores the motivation behind the designed, and traces the evolution of these routing protocols. F inally the paper conclud...

  2. A Comparative Study of Various Routing Protocols in VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh Kumar; Mayank Dave

    2011-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) is a subclass of Mobile ad hoc networks which provides a distinguished approach for Intelligent Transport System (ITS). The survey of routing protocols in VANET is important and necessary for smart ITS. This paper discusses the advantages / disadvantages and the applications of various routing protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks. It explores the motivation behind the designed, and traces the evolution of these routing protocols. Finally the paper conclude...

  3. Comparison Study of Transmission Control Protocol and User Datagram Protocol Behavior over Multi-Protocol Label Switching Networks in Case of Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha A.A Radaei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In only a few years, Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS has evolved from an exotic technology to a mainstream tool used by service providers to create revenue-generating services. MPLS provides a high reliable Label Switched Path (LSP. MPLS failures may degrade the reliability of the MPLS networks. Approach: For that reason, many studies have been conducted to keep the high reliability and survivability of the MPLS networks. Unlike User Datagram Protocol (UDP, Transmission Control Protocol does not perform well in case of like-failure of MPLS networks because of its inability to distinguish packet loss due to link-failure. After the recovery time, TCP takes longer time than UDP to continue as it was before the failure. Results: In terms of packet loss, TCP performs better than UDP. However, the receiving rate of the TCP traffic is much worse than UDP traffic. A need for a mechanism to improve the behavior of TCP after a link failure is needed. This study focused on comparing the behavior of different types TCP as well as UDP traffic over MPLS networks in case of link, node or congestion failures. Conclusion: Although extensions of RSVP-TE protocol support fast recovery mechanism of MPLS networks, the behavior of TCP will be affected during recovery time much more than with UDP.

  4. Adapting an evidence-based model to retain adolescent study participants in longitudinal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Erin; Demby, Hilary; Jenner, Lynne Woodward; Gregory, Alethia; Broussard, Marsha

    2016-02-01

    Maintaining contact with and collecting outcome data from adolescent study participants can present a significant challenge for researchers conducting longitudinal studies. Establishing an organized and effective protocol for participant follow-up is crucial to reduce attrition and maintain high retention rates. This paper describes our methods in using and adapting the evidence-based Engagement, Verification, Maintenance, and Confirmation (EVMC) model to follow up with adolescents 6 and 12 months after implementation of a health program. It extends previous research by focusing on two key modifications to the model: (1) the central role of cell phones and texting to maintain contact with study participants throughout the EVMC process and, (2) use of responsive two-way communication between staff and participants and flexible administration modes and methods in the confirmation phase to ensure that busy teens not only respond to contacts, but also complete data collection. These strategies have resulted in high overall retention rates (87-91%) with adolescent study participants at each follow-up data collection point without the utilization of other, more involved tracking measures. The methods and findings presented may be valuable for other researchers with limited resources planning for or engaged in collecting follow-up outcome data from adolescents enrolled in longitudinal studies. PMID:26539953

  5. A Comparative Study of Various Routing Protocols in VANET

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) is a subclass of Mobile ad hoc networks which provides a distinguished approach for Intelligent Transport System (ITS). The survey of routing protocols in VANET is important and necessary for smart ITS. This paper discusses the advantages / disadvantages and the applications of various routing protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks. It explores the motivation behind the designed, and traces the evolution of these routing protocols. F inally the paper concludes by a tabular comparison of the various routing protocols for VANET.

  6. Measurement and Design Issues in the Study of Adolescent Sexual Behavior and the Evaluation of Adolescent Sexual Health Behavior Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael; Palacios, Rebecca; Penhollow, Tina M.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the quality of research and commentary concerning adolescent sexuality and evaluation of both comprehensive sexuality education and abstinence education programs, this article aims to help readers (1) select appropriate measures to study adolescent sexual behavior, (2) develop appropriate study designs to evaluate adolescent sexual…

  7. The bakery protocol : a comparitive case-study in formal verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, W.O.D.; Korver, H.P.

    1995-01-01

    A Comparative Case-Study in Formal Verification Groote and the second author verified (a version of) the Bakery Protocol in $muCRL$. Their process-algebraic verification is rather complex compared to the protocol. Now the question is: How do other verification techniques perform on this protocol? In

  8. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: A Comparative Study of QoS Routing Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Gangwar, Sanjeev; Kumar, Krishan

    2012-01-01

    This Article presents a thorough overview of QoS routing metrics, resources and factors affecting performance of QoS routing protocols. The relative strength, weakness, and applicability of existing QoS routing protocols are also studied and compared. QoS routing protocols are classified according to the QoS metrics used type of QoS guarantee assured.

  9. Recommended Protocol for Round Robin Studies in Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Shawn; Brown, Christopher U.; Slotwinski, John

    2016-01-01

    One way to improve confidence and encourage proliferation of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies and parts is by generating more high quality data describing the performance of AM processes and parts. Many in the AM community see round robin studies as a way to generate large data sets while distributing the cost among the participants, thereby reducing the cost to individual users. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has conducted and participated in several of these AM round robin studies. While the results of these studies are interesting and informative, many of the lessons learned in conducting these studies concern the logistics and methods of the study and unique issues presented by AM. Existing standards for conducting interlaboratory studies of measurement methods, along with NIST’s experience, form the basis for recommended protocols for conducting AM round robin studies. The role of round robin studies in AM qualification, some of the limitations of round robin studies, and the potential benefit of less formal collaborative experiments where multiple factors, AM machine being only one, are varied simultaneously are also discussed. PMID:27274602

  10. Drug Taking Beliefs of Australian Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypiec, Grace; Owens, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    In this study adolescents offered their insights and perspectives of factors associated with adolescent illicit drug taking intentions. The factors explored were identified using a cross-disciplinary approach involving the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and criminological theories, and these formed the framework for data analysis. Interviews…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescent Precursors to Running Away

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Bersani, Bianca E.

    2008-01-01

    Although previous research has examined correlates of running away among samples of currently homeless and runaway adolescents, little is known about what factors will predict the likelihood that a housed adolescent with no prior history of running away will leave home. As such, the current study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to…

  12. The characteristics of serious suicide attempters in Japanese adolescents- comparison study between adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawashima Yoshitaka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is the leading cause of death among Japanese adolescents, and they may commit suicide differently from adults. However, there are few studies in medical-based data concerning adolescent patients seriously attempting suicide. We aimed to explore the characteristics of serious suicide attempts in Japanese adolescents, comparing them with those in adults. Methods We investigated adolescents who seriously attempted suicide and were treated at the Critical Care Medical Center (CCMC of Nippon Medical School Hospital between 2000 and 2010, and we compared them with adult suicide attempters treated during 2009. We retrospectively studied medical records and collected clinical data and socio-demographic factors, including age, sex, psychiatric symptoms or diagnosis, methods of suicide attempt, motives for suicide attempt, previous deliberate self-harm, previous psychiatric history, parent loss experience, and previous psychiatric history in the family. Results Adolescent attempters were 15 males and 44 females, 13 to 18 years old (mean 16.39. Adult attempters were 37 males and 65 females, 19 to 79 years old (mean 39.45. In comparison to adult attempters, adolescent attempters were more frequently diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, had more school problems and parent loss experience, but they had less financial problems. Gender differences between adolescents and adults were examined, and male adolescent attempters were found to be more frequently diagnosed with schizophrenia and had less financial problems than their adult counterparts, while female adolescent attempters were more frequently diagnosed with BPD, had more school problems and parent loss, but they had less previous psychiatric history than their adult counterparts. Conclusions Our findings indicated that adolescent attempters were more frequently diagnosed with BPD and had more school problems and parent loss experience but had less financial

  13. Proposed motor development assessment protocol for epidemiological studies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, P L; Missiuna, C; Echeverria, D; Knox, S S

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to the implementation of a large-scale epidemiological study of child development. It addresses specifically how one might assess gross motor development longitudinally in a large population-based study of children, and recommends a three-phase process. Phase I, applied at key ages with the entire population, involves the use of parent-report screening tools that ask about specific age-appropriate motor skills, as well as any parental concerns about "quantity" or "quality" of their child's motor function and about any loss of motor function. In phase II, children who "fail" the screening phase (at any stage) are evaluated with specified developmental motor assessments. Those who "pass" revert to the screening stream, while those who "fail" continue to phase III. In this third component of the study, children are referred to experts in child development formally engaged in the study (including developmental paediatricians, paediatric neurologists and developmental therapists). These experts will use protocol-based evaluations to ascertain whether a child has a problem in development, what the problem might be from a diagnostic perspective, how "severe" the problem is, and what management services are or should be provided. It is argued that this is an efficient approach to the study of a population that would enable investigators to detect specific relatively common developmental motor disorders (in particular, cerebral palsy and developmental coordination disorder). PMID:19098137

  14. [Social representation of sexual violence and its relationship with the adherence to the chemoprophylaxis protocol of HIV in young women and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procópio, Ericka Viviane Pontes; Feliciano, Camila Guerra; Silva, Kalina Vanderlei Paiva da; Katz, Cintia Regina Tornisiello

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this study was to understand the social representations of sexual violence and its relationship with adherence to the chemoprophylaxis protocol of HIV in young women and adolescents. Qualitative research was conducted based on the theory of social representations through recorded interviews with 13 female subjects aged between 12 and 23. It was observed that the social representations about sexual violence exerted a considerable influence on adherence to chemoprophylaxis treatment in the group. The individuals surveyed elaborated images in which the concern caused to the family, discomfort caused by the effects of drugs, change of routine, fear of getting sick, being stigmatized, anxiety and anger, appeared as constant elements, which can lead to the abandonment of treatment. Considering the influence of these representations on treatment, there is a need for greater attention of the health services in relation to these possibilities, and for resources to ensure care based on these different needs. In addition to investing in research into new drugs, it is necessary to invest in qualitative research, providing input for more appropriate care for patients. PMID:24897495

  15. RPL Routing Protocol a case study: Precision agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Y.; Chanet, J.P.; K. M. Hou

    2012-01-01

    International audience The routing protocol for low power and lossy network (RPL) was designed in the ROLL working group at IETF since the year of 2008. Until the latest version of draft 19 released, this protocol algorithms and its four application scenario, such as home automation, industrial control, urban environment and building automation, have been nearly grounded. However, it is still very difficult to find effective approaches to simulate and evaluate RPL's behavior and other exte...

  16. Prospective community study of family stress and anxiety in (pre)adolescents: the TRAILS study

    OpenAIRE

    Van Oort, Floor; Verhulst, Frank; Ormel, Johan Hans; Huizink, Anja

    2009-01-01

    textabstractFor prevention of anxiety in children and adolescents, it is important to know whether family stress is a predictor of anxiety. We studied this in 1,875 adolescents from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) who were followed up for 2 years, from age 10-12 to 12-14 years. Adolescents reported anxiety and depression symptoms at both assessments, and parents reported family stress (family dysfunction and parenting stress) at the first assessment. Family dysfunct...

  17. Prospective community study of family stress and anxiety in (pre)adolescents: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, F.V.A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    For prevention of anxiety in children and adolescents, it is important to know whether family stress is a predictor of anxiety. We studied this in 1,875 adolescents from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) who were followed up for 2 years, from age 10-12 to 12-14 years. Adoles

  18. Prospective community study of family stress and anxiety in (pre)adolescents : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, Floor V. A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Huizink, Anja C.

    2010-01-01

    For prevention of anxiety in children and adolescents, it is important to know whether family stress is a predictor of anxiety. We studied this in 1,875 adolescents from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) who were followed up for 2 years, from age 10-12 to 12-14 years. Adoles

  19. STUDY OF ANEMIA IN ADOLESCENT SCHOOL GIRLS OF BHOPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kakkar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common form of malnutrition, early intervention during adolescence (girls can prevent high morbidity and mortality of these future mothers. Objectives: To study prevalence & factors contributing to anaemia among adolescent school girls. Material and Methods: Area or region addressed – Iron deficiency anemia in adolescent girls. Present study was conducted among 317 adolescent (10-19Yrs government schoolgirls of Bhopal city from June2005-July2006. Three study groups were selected from three different girls’ school by random sampling method. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS. Result & Conclusion: Overall prevalence was 58.4% among adolescent schoolgirls. Prevalence of anemia was dependent on the knowledge about prevention of anemia, literacy level, food habits, birth order & also frequency of Iron rich source viz. green leafy vegetable & non vegetarian diet. While there was no significant relation of anemia with duration of menstrual flow but there was significant (P<0.05 difference in number of anaemic cases with age at menarche i.e. with higher age at menarche; there was more chances of anemia. Level of anemia was higher (p<0.05 in early adolescent (10 -13 Years age group (81% as compared to middle (58.3% and late adolescent (17-19 years age group girls (48.7%.

  20. STUDY OF VANET ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR END TO END DELAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunilkumar M. Bhagat

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Less than a century since the automobile was made affordable enough for the general public, hundreds of millions of vehicles now travel along highways and streets around the world. Innovations in safety, comfort, and convenience have made vast improvements in automobiles during that time, and now new technologies promise to change the face of vehicular travel once again. Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET is network which provides the communication between vehicle to vehicle for p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o travelers with new features and applications that have never previously been possible. This paper focuses on vehicle to vehicle (V2V communications in VANET. Lot of research is going on for determining route between source and destination vehicles for routing the information with good packet delivery ratio. In this paper we provide a simulation and study of VANET Routing Protocols for end-to-end delay in V2V communication.

  1. Protocol: optimisation of a grafting protocol for oilseed rape (Brassica napus) for studying long-distance signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Ostendorp, Anna; Pahlow, Steffen; Deke, Jennifer; Thieß, Melanie; Kehr, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Background Grafting is a well-established technique for studying long-distance transport and signalling processes in higher plants. While oilseed rape has been the subject of comprehensive analyses of xylem and phloem sap to identify macromolecules potentially involved in long-distance information transfer, there is currently no standardised grafting method for this species published. Results We developed a straightforward collar-free grafting protocol for Brassica napus plants with high repr...

  2. Dating Violence: Study with Adolescents from Heredia (Costa Rica)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Avelino Fernández-Fuertes; María Begoña Orgaz-Baz; Mariana De Lima-Silva; Manuel Arturo Fallas-Vargas; José Antonio García-Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Most of human aggressive behavior occurs in the context of a romantic relationship. Adolescents are not an exception: research show a significant prevalence of dating violence, revealing the need for further study, especially in Latin America, given the lack of research on this topic. This study aims at strengthening knowledge about aggressive behavior in adolescent dating relationships in Costa Rica, taking into account different aggressive behaviors, not only physical or sexual abuse; diffe...

  3. Determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among children and adolescents: a review of the literature. Part I: Quantitative studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Krølner, Rikke; Klepp, Knut-Inge;

    2006-01-01

    and review process was conducted according to a four-step protocol resulting in information on country, population, design, methodology, theoretical basis, instrument used for measuring intake, statistical analysis, included independent variables, and effect sizes. RESULTS: Ninety-eight papers were......BACKGROUND: In order to more effectively promote fruit and vegetable intake among children and adolescents, insight into determinants of intake is necessary. We conducted a review of the literature for potential determinants of fruit and vegetable intake in children and adolescents. METHODS: Papers...... included. A large number of potential determinants have been studied among children and adolescents. However, for many presumed determinants convincing evidence is lacking, mostly because of paucity of studies. The determinants best supported by evidence are: age, gender, socio-economic position...

  4. Comparative Study on Various Authentication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswari, S Raja; Seenivasagam, V

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices with low cost, low power, and short-ranged wireless communication. The sensors can communicate with each other to form a network. In WSNs, broadcast transmission is widely used along with the maximum usage of wireless networks and their applications. Hence, it has become crucial to authenticate broadcast messages. Key management is also an active research topic in WSNs. Several key management schemes have been introduced, and their benefits are not recognized in a specific WSN application. Security services are vital for ensuring the integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of the critical information. Therefore, the authentication mechanisms are required to support these security services and to be resilient to distinct attacks. Various authentication protocols such as key management protocols, lightweight authentication protocols, and broadcast authentication protocols are compared and analyzed for all secure transmission applications. The major goal of this survey is to compare and find out the appropriate protocol for further research. Moreover, the comparisons between various authentication techniques are also illustrated. PMID:26881272

  5. Protocol for fir tree sampling for provenance studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Thomas; Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    Isotopic (stable and radiogenic) as well as trace element fingerprinting methods used for tracing the geographical origin, rely on databases, that need to contain data sets representative of the measurands of the individual samples for a specific geographic entity. Through this work, we want to assess different sampling strategies for obtaining representative sample of fir trees (Abies sp.). Motivation for this work is the protection of the local Austrian Christmas tree market from wrongly tagged trees of non-Austrian origin. In particular, we studied three typical Christmas trees the most common species sold as Christmas tree, namely Abies nordmanniana (Nordmann Fir), from the same locality in lower Austria. For the initial tests we applied the elemental fingerprinting method, to study the suitability of the different parts of the tree applying ICP-MS analysis after complete acid digestion in a high pressure asher system (HPA-S).Needle samples from each year of life of the tree and stem wood from three different heights were analyzed for their trace element content to prove the repeatability and to find the best sampling protocol. For the analysis of the needles, the natural wax coating had to be removed in order to get reproducible results. For the analysis of stem wood only the bark was removed. As expected the data of all three trees allowed the differentiation of the individual needle ages, but interestingly enough also between the three sampling heights of the needs. Both needles and wood proved to be suitable for successful fingerprinting, but importantly, provided that sample of the same type and ages are compared. The same samples for the three trees will also be used for isotopic analysis studies to better understand the influence of age and sampling height on the representativeness of fir tree samples. Based on elemental fingerprinting alone, a successful discrimination between local (Austrian) and foreign (Danish, Irish) Christmas trees was possible.

  6. Design and evaluation protocol of "FATaintPHAT", a computer-tailored intervention to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.P.M. Ezendam (Nicole); A. Oenema (Anke); P.M. van de Looij-Jansen (Petra); J. Brug (Hans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractComputer tailoring may be a promising technique for prevention of overweight in adolescents. However, very few well-developed, evidence-based computer-tailored interventions are available for this target group. We developed and evaluated a computer-tailored intervention for adolescents t

  7. A Comparision Study of Common Routing Protocols Used In Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim Alhadidi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze and compare performance of both reactive and proactive Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs routing protocols using different environments. Wireless networks are divided into two types: infrastructure and ad hoc network. In wireless ad hoc networks each node can be a sender, router and receiver, so these types of network are less structure compared to infrastructure network. Therefore wireless ad hoc networks need special routing protocols to overcome the limitations of wireless ad hoc networks. Wireless ad hoc networks routing protocols can be categorized into two types: reactive (on demand routing protocols and proactive routing protocols. In proactive routing protocols the nodes periodically send control messages across the network to build routing table. Different routing protocols have been simulated using GloMoSim (Global Mobile Information system simulation library and PARSEC compiler. Five multi-hop wireless ad hoc network routing protocols have been simulated to cover a range of design choices: Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP, Fisheye State Routing (FSR, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV and Location Aided Routing (LAR. The protocols are evaluated in different environments to investigate performance metrics. Performance metric includes the following aspects: packets deliver ratio, end-to-end delay and end-to-end throughput.

  8. Adolescent Eating Disorders: Treatment and Response in a Naturalistic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Boisseau, Christina L.; Satir, Dana A.

    2010-01-01

    This naturalistic study investigated the treatment and outcome of adolescents with eating disorders (EDs) in the community. Clinicians from a practice-research network provided data on ED symptoms, global functioning, comorbidity, treatment, and outcome for 120 adolescents with EDs. ED “not otherwise specified” was the most common ED diagnosed. After an average of 8 months of treatment, about one third of patients had recovered, with patients with anorexia nervosa showing the most improvement...

  9. Recovery from adolescent onset anorexia nervosa : a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Anorexia Nervosa is a psychiatric illness with peak onset in ages 14-17. Most cases recover within a few years, but the illness can have a fatal outcome or long duration. Multifactor causes of anorexia nervosa include genetics, personality, family, and socio-cultural factors. This study measures mortality, recovery from anorexia nervosa, and psychosocial outcome of patients with adolescent onset anorexia nervosa that were treated in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in northern Sweden from 1980...

  10. Attachment and the Body in Suicidal Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, John; Briggs, Stephen; Behringer, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    There is a relative dearth of studies in the field of adolescent attachment despite the potential impact of such developmental changes on the organization of attachment systems. This omission is even more acute among clinical populations, although adolescence is notable for dramatic increases in specific psychopathologies, e.g. eating disorders, delinquency, and suicide and self-harm. This article attempts to address the shortfall using a mixed quantitative/qualitative research design. First,...

  11. The effectiveness and safety of treatments used for polycystic ovarian syndrome management in adolescents: a systematic review and network meta-analysis protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Al Khalifah, Reem A; Flórez, Iván D.; Dennis, Brittany; Neupane, Binod; Thabane, Lehana; Bassilious, Ereny

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrine disease that is seen among adolescent women. Currently, there is limited evidence to support treatment options leading to considerable variation in practice among healthcare specialists. The objective of this study is to review and synthesize all the available evidence on treatment options for PCOS among adolescent women. Methods/design We will conduct a systematic review of all randomized controlled trials evalu...

  12. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of a school based cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) intervention to prevent depression in high risk adolescents (PROMISE).

    OpenAIRE

    Sayal Kapil; Lewis Glynn; Anderson Rob; Araya Ricardo; Montgomery Alan A; Stallard Paul; Buck Rhiannon; Millings Abigail; Taylor John A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Depression in adolescents is a significant problem that impairs everyday functioning and increases the risk of severe mental health disorders in adulthood. Relatively few adolescents with depression are identified and referred for treatment indicating the need to investigate alternative preventive approaches. Study Design A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a school based prevention programme on symptoms of depression in "high ri...

  13. Cortical thickness in adolescent marijuana and alcohol users: A three-year prospective study from adolescence to young adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Jacobus; Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Alejandro D. Meruelo; Norma Castro; Ty Brumback; Giedd, Jay N.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2015-01-01

    Studies suggest marijuana impacts gray and white matter neural tissue development, however few prospective studies have determined the relationship between cortical thickness and cannabis use spanning adolescence to young adulthood. This study aimed to understand how heavy marijuana use influences cortical thickness trajectories across adolescence. Subjects were adolescents with heavy marijuana use and concomitant alcohol use (MJ + ALC, n = 30) and controls (CON, n = 38) with limited substanc...

  14. Pilot study of a paediatric emergency department oral rehydration protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, R.; Busuttil, M; Stuart, P

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain if the use of a paediatric oral rehydration protocol in the emergency department changed rates of admission, total time spent in hospital, total time spent in the emergency department, or number of unscheduled returns to the emergency department.

  15. A case study on the communication of older adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lauren; Spencer, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Alison

    2011-11-01

    This study compared the communication of two older male adolescents (aged 17 and 19 years) with each other (peer interaction) and with a teacher (non-peer interaction) in three different types of activity (casual conversation, providing/listening to a recount and collaborative problem-solving). Conversation analysis, selected analyses from the perspective of systemic functional linguistics and social psychology (communication accommodation theory) were applied in data analysis. Peer interaction showed fewer questions, fewer challenging moves and the absence of divergent accommodation strategies. In the non-peer interaction, the teacher's higher number of turns, questions and interruptions appeared to influence the opportunity for adolescent contribution to the interactions. Some aspects of language use by each adolescent - mean turn length, use of one-word utterances and sarcasm - were consistent across communication partner and activity. The methodology is suggested to provide a suitable procedure for use in similar research with older adolescents who have traumatic brain injury. PMID:22106894

  16. Fate of clinical research studies after ethical approval--follow-up of study protocols until publication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Blümle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many clinical studies are ultimately not fully published in peer-reviewed journals. Underreporting of clinical research is wasteful and can result in biased estimates of treatment effect or harm, leading to recommendations that are inappropriate or even dangerous. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of clinical studies approved 2000-2002 by the Research Ethics Committee of the University of Freiburg, Germany. Published full articles were searched in electronic databases and investigators contacted. Data on study characteristics were extracted from protocols and corresponding publications. We characterized the cohort, quantified its publication outcome and compared protocols and publications for selected aspects. RESULTS: Of 917 approved studies, 807 were started and 110 were not, either locally or as a whole. Of the started studies, 576 (71% were completed according to protocol, 128 (16% discontinued and 42 (5% are still ongoing; for 61 (8% there was no information about their course. We identified 782 full publications corresponding to 419 of the 807 initiated studies; the publication proportion was 52% (95% CI: 0.48-0.55. Study design was not significantly associated with subsequent publication. Multicentre status, international collaboration, large sample size and commercial or non-commercial funding were positively associated with subsequent publication. Commercial funding was mentioned in 203 (48% protocols and in 205 (49% of the publications. In most published studies (339; 81% this information corresponded between protocol and publication. Most studies were published in English (367; 88%; some in German (25; 6% or both languages (27; 6%. The local investigators were listed as (co-authors in the publications corresponding to 259 (62% studies. CONCLUSION: Half of the clinical research conducted at a large German university medical centre remains unpublished; future research is built on an incomplete database. Research resources are

  17. Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Sandra; Williams, John; Moore, Antoni; Hopkins, Debbie; Flaherty, Charlotte; Wilson, Gordon; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Active transport to school (ATS) is a convenient way to increase physical activity and undertake an environmentally sustainable travel practice. The Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study examines ATS in adolescents in Dunedin, New Zealand, using ecological models for active transport that account for individual, social, environmental and policy factors. The study objectives are to: (1) understand the reasons behind adolescents and their parents' choice of transport mode to school; (2) examine the interaction between the transport choices, built environment, physical activity and weight status in adolescents; and (3) identify policies that promote or hinder ATS in adolescents. Methods and analysis The study will use a mixed-method approach incorporating both quantitative (surveys, anthropometry, accelerometers, Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis, mapping) and qualitative methods (focus groups, interviews) to gather data from students, parents, teachers and school principals. The core data will include accelerometer-measured physical activity, anthropometry, GIS measures of the built environment and the use of maps indicating route to school (students)/work (parents) and perceived safe/unsafe areas along the route. To provide comprehensive data for understanding how to change the infrastructure to support ATS, the study will also examine complementary variables such as individual, family and social factors, including student and parental perceptions of walking and cycling to school, parental perceptions of different modes of transport to school, perceptions of the neighbourhood environment, route to school (students)/work (parents), perceptions of driving, use of information communication technology, reasons for choosing a particular school and student and parental physical activity habits, screen time and weight status. The study has achieved a 100% school recruitment rate (12 secondary schools). Ethics and

  18. Active gaming in Dutch adolescents: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simons Monique

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate levels of physical activity are part of a healthy lifestyle and in this way linked to better health outcomes. For children and adolescents, the physical activity guideline recommends at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity every day. However, many adolescents are not physically active enough and they spend a lot of their time on sedentary activities (such as video games. A new generation of video games that require body movements to play them, so-called "active games", could serve to increase physical activity in adolescents. The activity level while playing these games is comparable to light-to-moderate intensity physical activity. The current study aims to increase our understanding of 1 the demographic characteristics of adolescents who play active games regularly (≥ 1 hour per week and non-regularly ( Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a Dutch internet panel, questioning adolescents in conjunction with one of their parents. A random sample of 320 households (with stratification on gender of the parent and the adolescent, the age of the adolescent and the region of the household was selected that owned a console or application for active video games and that had a child aged 12 through 16 years. 201 child–parent couples (63% response completed an internet survey with questions about demographics, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and gaming behaviour. The questionnaire also contained questions designed to assess whether and how active gaming replaces other activities. Besides descriptive analyses, independent t-test, Pearson’s chi-square and Mann–Whitney test (when data were not normally distributed were used for comparisons between regular and non-regular active gamers. Results Eleven percent of the adolescents with an active game in their household never used the game. There were no significant differences in gender, education level (of adolescent and

  19. Nutrition and Lifestyle in European Adolescents: The HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study123

    OpenAIRE

    Luis A. Moreno; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; González-Gross, Marcela; DeHenauw, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period, because major physical and psychologic changes occur during a very short period of time. Changes in dietary habits may induce different types of nutritional disorders and are likely to track into adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the key findings related to nutritional status in European adolescents participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. We performed a cross-sectional study in...

  20. Hypertension Improvement Project (HIP: study protocol and implementation challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollak Kathryn I

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertension affects 29% of the adult U.S. population and is a leading cause of heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure. Despite numerous effective treatments, only 53% of people with hypertension are at goal blood pressure. The chronic care model suggests that blood pressure control can be achieved by improving how patients and physicians address patient self-care. Methods and design This paper describes the protocol of a nested 2 × 2 randomized controlled trial to test the separate and combined effects on systolic blood pressure of a behavioral intervention for patients and a quality improvement-type intervention for physicians. Primary care practices were randomly assigned to the physician intervention or to the physician control condition. Physician randomization occurred at the clinic level. The physician intervention included training and performance monitoring. The training comprised 2 internet-based modules detailing both the JNC-7 hypertension guidelines and lifestyle modifications for hypertension. Performance data were collected for 18 months, and feedback was provided to physicians every 3 months. Patient participants in both intervention and control clinics were individually randomized to the patient intervention or to usual care. The patient intervention consisted of a 6-month behavioral intervention conducted by trained interventionists in 20 group sessions, followed by 12 monthly phone contacts by community health advisors. Follow-up measurements were performed at 6 and 18 months. The primary outcome was the mean change in systolic blood pressure at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were diastolic blood pressure and the proportion of patients with adequate blood pressure control at 6 and 18 months. Discussion Overall, 8 practices (4 per treatment group, 32 physicians (4 per practice; 16 per treatment group, and 574 patients (289 control and 285 intervention were enrolled. Baseline characteristics of patients and

  1. Acupressure therapy for insomnia in adolescents: a polysomnographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carotenuto M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marco Carotenuto,1 Beatrice Gallai,2 Lucia Parisi,3 Michele Roccella,3 Maria Esposito11Sleep Clinic for Developmental Age, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Second University of Naples, Naples, 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, 3Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, ItalyBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of acupressure therapy in a sample of adolescents with insomnia using a standard polysomnographic evaluation.Methods: For this study, 25 adolescents affected by psychophysiological insomnia (mean age 15.04 ± 1.18 years, 12 boys were enrolled. A device known as the Sea-Band® was used by the patients in order to improve their symptoms related to difficulty in falling asleep. All subjects enrolled underwent two sets of consecutive overnight polysomnographic studies in the Sleep Laboratory of the Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, comprising two studies at baseline (before treatment and another two studies at the end of 6 months of treatment.Results: At the end of 6 months of treatment, there was a significant increase in all macrostructural parameters of sleep duration, and a reduction in sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, and stage 2 sleep. Moreover, the study group showed a significant increase in percent sleep efficiency (P < 0.001 and in slow wave sleep representation.Conclusion: Acupressure is a noninvasive, safe, and effective method for the management of insomnia in adolescents, with good compliance and no adverse effects.Keywords: insomnia, adolescence, acupressure, polysomnography

  2. Adolescent Intimacy: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbedour, Salman; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Compared perceptions of intimacy in friendships among Israeli Jewish (IJ) and Israeli Bedouin (IB) adolescents. Results from 288 IJ and 327 IB junior and senior high school students show that intimacy was perceived to reflect a balance between closeness and individuality in close friendships. Closeness and individuality appear to govern all close…

  3. A Comparative Study of Key Management Protocols for WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Verma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased employment of WSN (Wireless Sensor Network in real life applications and their hostile and remote locations accelerate demand of security in WSN. Publicly accessible wireless communication channel also makes WSN vulnerable to numerous security attacks. Scarcity of resources acquaints new sort of challenges and difficulties during implementation of effective security mechanisms. In this paper, we evaluate and compare performance of three different security mechanisms (ECRKS, CKP and AP scheme. ECRKS (Energy-efficient, Connected, Resilient Key pre-distribution Scheme is based upon multi hop communication architecture specifically designed for homogeneous WSN. Clustering based protocols, AP (Asymmetric pre-distribution scheme and CKP (Clustering based Key management Protocol are proposed for heterogeneous WSN. All the above mentioned schemes are simulated in MATLAB to evaluate their effectiveness and suitability for WSN. Simulation result shows that CKP outperforms other two schemes in terms of transmission distance, memory burden, energy dissipation and resilience.

  4. Adapting Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adolescents Exposed to Interpersonal Trauma: A Case Study With Two Teens

    OpenAIRE

    DePrince, Anne P.; Shirk, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence indicates that interpersonal trauma increases risk for adolescent and adult depression. Findings from 4 clinical trials for adolescent depression show poorer response to standard cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) among depressed adolescents with a trauma history than youth without such a history. This paper reports on the development of a modified CBT (mCBT) protocol that has been adapted for treating depressed adolescents who have been exposed to traumatic int...

  5. Devising of analyses protocols for biofilm growth studies

    OpenAIRE

    Conde Martín de la Vega, José

    2008-01-01

    The laboratory LEGI is involved in a project dealing with biofilter modelling. Experimental investigations have already been performed on a laboratory scale pilot. To complete these experiments, a deeper knowledge of the biofilm composition and structure is needed. In particular, an understanding of the evolution of the respective fractions of bacteria cells and EPS in the biofilm for different hydrodynamic conditions is required. The subject consists of devising the experimental protocol to ...

  6. Partner randomized controlled trial: study protocol and coaching intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbutt Jane M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children with asthma live with frequent symptoms and activity limitations, and visits for urgent care are common. Many pediatricians do not regularly meet with families to monitor asthma control, identify concerns or problems with management, or provide self-management education. Effective interventions to improve asthma care such as small group training and care redesign have been difficult to disseminate into office practice. Methods and design This paper describes the protocol for a randomized controlled trial (RCT to evaluate a 12-month telephone-coaching program designed to support primary care management of children with persistent asthma and subsequently to improve asthma control and disease-related quality of life and reduce urgent care events for asthma care. Randomization occurred at the practice level with eligible families within a practice having access to the coaching program or to usual care. The coaching intervention was based on the transtheoretical model of behavior change. Targeted behaviors included 1 effective use of controller medications, 2 effective use of rescue medications and 3 monitoring to ensure optimal control. Trained lay coaches provided parents with education and support for asthma care, tailoring the information provided and frequency of contact to the parent's readiness to change their child's day-to-day asthma management. Coaching calls varied in frequency from weekly to monthly. For each participating family, follow-up measurements were obtained at 12- and 24-months after enrollment in the study during a telephone interview. The primary outcomes were the mean change in 1 the child's asthma control score, 2 the parent's quality of life score, and 3 the number of urgent care events assessed at 12 and 24 months. Secondary outcomes reflected adherence to guideline recommendations by the primary care pediatricians and included the proportion of children prescribed controller medications

  7. Separation-Individuation of Late Adolescents : A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Sevda; Gelbal, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the change in separation-individuation between late adolescents in the first, second, third and fourth year of higher education. The study sample used for this longitudinal study consisted of 148 students attending class studies, computer education and science education departments of Kirikkale University.…

  8. Pilot studies for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project - Site selection, sampling protocols, analytical methods, and quality control protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.B.; Woodruff, L.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Cannon, W.F.; Garrett, R.G.; Kilburn, J.E.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada sampled and chemically analyzed soils along two transects across Canada and the USA in preparation for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America. This effort was a pilot study to test and refine sampling protocols, analytical methods, quality control protocols, and field logistics for the continental survey. A total of 220 sample sites were selected at approximately 40-km intervals along the two transects. The ideal sampling protocol at each site called for a sample from a depth of 0-5 cm and a composite of each of the O, A, and C horizons. The Quality control (QC) of the analyses was monitored at three levels: the laboratory performing the analysis, the USGS QC officer, and the principal investigator for the study. This level of review resulted in an average of one QC sample for every 20 field samples, which proved to be minimally adequate for such a large-scale survey. Additional QC samples should be added to monitor within-batch quality to the extent that no more than 10 samples are analyzed between a QC sample. Only Cr (77%), Y (82%), and Sb (80%) fell outside the acceptable limits of accuracy (% recovery between 85 and 115%) because of likely residence in mineral phases resistant to the acid digestion. A separate sample of 0-5-cm material was collected at each site for determination of organic compounds. A subset of 73 of these samples was analyzed for a suite of 19 organochlorine pesticides by gas chromatography. Only three of these samples had detectable pesticide concentrations. A separate sample of A-horizon soil was collected for microbial characterization by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), soil enzyme assays, and determination of selected human and agricultural pathogens. Collection, preservation and analysis of samples for both organic compounds and microbial characterization add a great degree of complication to the sampling and preservation protocols and a

  9. Pilot studies for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project - Site selection, sampling protocols, analytical methods, and quality control protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada sampled and chemically analyzed soils along two transects across Canada and the USA in preparation for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America. This effort was a pilot study to test and refine sampling protocols, analytical methods, quality control protocols, and field logistics for the continental survey. A total of 220 sample sites were selected at approximately 40-km intervals along the two transects. The ideal sampling protocol at each site called for a sample from a depth of 0-5 cm and a composite of each of the O, A, and C horizons. The 3, HClO4, and HF. Separate methods were used for Hg, Se, total C, and carbonate-C on this same size fraction. Only Ag, In, and Te had a large percentage of concentrations below the detection limit. Quality control (QC) of the analyses was monitored at three levels: the laboratory performing the analysis, the USGS QC officer, and the principal investigator for the study. This level of review resulted in an average of one QC sample for every 20 field samples, which proved to be minimally adequate for such a large-scale survey. Additional QC samples should be added to monitor within-batch quality to the extent that no more than 10 samples are analyzed between a QC sample. Only Cr (77%), Y (82%), and Sb (80%) fell outside the acceptable limits of accuracy (% recovery between 85 and 115%) because of likely residence in mineral phases resistant to the acid digestion. A separate sample of 0-5-cm material was collected at each site for determination of organic compounds. A subset of 73 of these samples was analyzed for a suite of 19 organochlorine pesticides by gas chromatography. Only three of these samples had detectable pesticide concentrations. A separate sample of A-horizon soil was collected for microbial characterization by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), soil enzyme assays, and determination of selected human and agricultural

  10. A Complete Study on Unipath Routing Protocols in MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Ganesh Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc network is a cluster of wireless mobile nodes making a network with dynamically changing topology without using any permanent access point as a base station. To create connectivity among nodes more than single hop is needed due to low transmission range. Increasing of mobile nodes enhances this overhead. Many standards have been developed for transmission and to find effective routes from a source to some destination. In this paper, we have analyzed the main protocols and issues of routing in MANETs.

  11. Simulation study for Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using DMAC Protocol

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    Vikas Sejwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of deafness problem in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs using directional antennas. Directional antennas arebeneficial for wireless ad hoc networks consisting of a collection of wireless hosts. A suitable Medium Access Control (MAC protocol must be designed to best utilize directional antennas. Deafness is caused whentwo nodes are in ongoing transmission and a third node (Deaf Node wants to communicate with one of that node. But it get no response because transmission of two nodes are in process. Though directional antennas offer better spatial reuse, but this problem can have a serious impact on network performance. A New DMAC (Directional Medium Access Control protocol uses flags in DNAV (Directional Network Allocation Vector tables to maintain information regarding the transmissionbetween the nodes in the network and their neighbor’s location. Two performance matrices have been used to show the impact of New DMAC algorithm on Deafness problem using simulator. These are RTS Failure Ratio and RTS Retransmission due to timeout

  12. Internet addiction among Iranian adolescents: a nationwide study.

    OpenAIRE

    Khodabakhsh Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Problematic use of the Internet by children and adolescents is a newly emerging disorder that has alerted health authorities throughout the world. In Iran, despite the very high speed rate of Internet spread, there is not enough data on the rate of Internet addiction among the adolescents. This study is the first nationwide study that addresses this issue. Overall 4500 students of high school or pre-college schools were recruited from 13/31 provinces of Iran by a cluster sampling method and 4...

  13. Adolescent's perspective on reproductive health: a study from Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To determine the existing knowledge, attitude and behavior about reproductive and sexual health in adolescents of Karachi and seek their opinion about reproductive health education. Study type, settings and duration: A cross sectional study was conducted on adolescents (17-19 years) of both gender studying in colleges of Karachi during 2010. Subject sand Methods: Using stratified sampling procedure, a cross sectional study was carried out. After informed consent and ensuring confidentiality an anonymous quantitative questionnaire was completed to ascertain the knowledge of adolescents on reproductive health. Results: A total of 912 adolescents (470 males and 442 females) of 12 public and private sector colleges of Karachi participated in the study. Acquaintance to reproductive health was present in 75% males and 71% females and most participants confirmed discussing reproductive health issues with friends. About 81% males and 91 % females affirmed for a need for enhanced reproductive health education and awareness while over 50% of the respondents were of the opinion that the right age for reproductive health education was 16 to 18 years. Confining sexual activity to one partner and avoiding exposure to blood and needles for the prevention of AIDS was known to 38% males and 44% females but the prevention of sexually transmitted infections using condoms, was known to only 1/3 rd of the respondents. Although 70% of the respondents of both genders knew that pregnancy can be avoided but only 20% knew about contraceptives. Conclusions: Most adolescents' knew about the reproductive cycle but were not well aware of how to avoid exposures to sexually transmitted infections and pregnancies. Policy message: Reproductive health education is insufficient in adolescents should be gender specific and socio culturally sensitive. (author)

  14. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  15. Interpersonal Psychotherapy with Pregnant Adolescents: Two Pilot Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa; Gur, Merav; Shanok, Arielle; Weissman, Myrna

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the feasibility, acceptability and helpfulness of group Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT-PA) for depression in pregnant adolescents. Method: Two open clinical trials were conducted of IPT-PA delivered in group format in a New York City public school for pregnant girls. Study 1 tests IPT-PA for management of…

  16. Twenty four year time trends in fats and cholesterol intake by adolescents. Warsaw Adolescents Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charzewska Jadwiga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine time trends (1982–2006 in total fat intake and changes in fatty acid structure intake in adolescents from Warsaw in view of increasing prevalence of obesity. Data come from four successive surveys randomly selected samples of adolescents (aged 11–15 years old, from Warsaw region. In total 9747 pupils have been examined, with response rate varying from 55% to 87% depending on year. Surveys were done always in the spring season of the year. Food intake was assessed by using 24 hours recall method of consumption by the pupils all products, including enriched, dishes and beverages as well as diet supplements, in the last 24 hours preceding the examination. The content of energy and nutrients was calculated by means of own computer softwares (DIET 2 and 4, taking into account successive revisions of the tables of food composition and nutritional values, as well as current Polish DRI. A significant decreasing trend was found in intake of total fat, of saturated fatty acids (SFA and cholesterol. The percentage of energy from total fat, also decreased both in boys (to 35,1% and girls (to 33,7%, what failed to reach the desired level below 30% of energy from fat which is recommended. Also significant decrease of SFA consumption was not satisfactory enough to approach the values <10% of energy recommended as was from 13% to 15%. Decreasing trends in fat intake was not in accordance with the trend in obesity prevalence in the adolescents as average BMI is going up. To stabilize the health-oriented changes especially in the diets of adolescents, further activity is desired from professionals working with prevention of adolescents obesity.

  17. Study on Security Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Dhivya Devi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The extremely undefendable to attacks which is being composed of hundreds and thousands of tiny sensory nodes with less energy, memory and power is the existence of wireless sensor network. The area covered by WSN application has raised the level of security to the adoption and consumption of sensor networks without any interrupts throughout the wide area of occurrence. Sensor networks are interacting with very sensitive data and deployed in hostile unattended environments, where the security issues should be concentrated to attain their potential. This paper lights a torch on security of WSN and different attacks in it and mainly focuses on the effect of Denial of Service (DoS attacks, which is caused by a flood attack where there is a composition of many illegitimate nodes sits inside the network can produce traffic and dampen the security of WSN. On behalf of the security aspects, this paper also has concentrating on the anatomy of security protocols.

  18. Study protocol: Intensive care anxiety and emotional recovery (Icare) - A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, M.; Aitken, L. M.; Cooke, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Survivors of intensive care units (ICUs) commonly present with symptoms of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during recovery. A number of factors have been identified as predictors of these adverse emotional outcomes, but the role of state anxiety during critical illness in the development of these emotional problems remains unknown. Purpose The Intensive Care Anxiety and Emotional Recovery (ICARe) study protocol proposes the development of a s...

  19. Prospective community study of family stress and anxiety in (pre)adolescents: the TRAILS study

    OpenAIRE

    Oort, Floor V. A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    International audience For prevention of anxiety in children and adolescents, it is important to know whether family stress is a predictor of anxiety. We studied this in 1,875 adolescents from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) who were followed up for 2 years, from age 10–12 to 12–14 years. Adolescents reported anxiety and depression symptoms at both assessments, and parents reported family stress (family dysfunction and parenting stress) at the first assessment. F...

  20. Bulk transfer protocols on satellite link - Study within the OSI reference model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valet, I.

    Since satellite systems, such as TELECOM1 in France, are available for data transmission, new protocols need to be designed to fit the requirements of satellite communication systems and to offer specific facilities to the users. The main features of these new transmission protocols, as they have been specified by NADIR studies, are described. Next, the reasons for choosing to study these protocols within the OSI Reference Model are explained. A detailed study about introducing the protocol mechanisms described above in the OSI Reference model layers is then presented. Different approaches are presented, and the solutions studied are appraised in terms of efficiency, and of conformity to the OSI Reference Model. Finally, the experiments planned by NADIR are mentionned.

  1. Brief Behavioral Sleep Intervention for Adolescents: An Effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavonen, E Juulia; Huurre, Taina; Tilli, Maija; Kiviruusu, Olli; Partonen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among adolescents, but there are no brief interventions to treat them. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief semistructured, individually delivered sleep intervention to ameliorate adolescents' sleeping difficulties and lengthen sleep duration. All students aged 16-18 years in a high school were screened for sleeping difficulties and 36 students with the highest sleep problem scores were invited to the intervention. Postintervention improvements were observed on self-reported and actiwatch-registered sleep duration, self-reported sleep quality and sleep latency, perceived stress and anxiety (all p values 0.05). A brief individual sleep intervention can be effective in lengthening sleep duration and improving subjective sleep quality and well-being among adolescents. PMID:26378797

  2. Research Knowledge among the Participants in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Silva, Susan; Curry, John; Reinecke, Mark; Pathak, Sanjeev; Waslick, Bruce; Hughes, Carroll W.; Prentice, Ernest D.; May, Diane E.; March, John S.

    2007-01-01

    A study examined the extent to which parents and adolescents participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) understood the study. The results concluded that most were well-informed, and also parents were overall better informed than adolescents.

  3. Advantages of a Warfarin Protocol for Long-term Care Pharmacists: a Retrospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sargent, Randall; Brocklebank, Cynthia; Tam-Tham, Helen; Williamson, Tyler; Quail, Patrick; Turner, Diana; Drummond, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Background Warfarin is an anticoagulant prescribed to 12% of long-term care residents to reduce the risk of thrombo-embolism. This study used indicators to compare warfarin management by pharmacists to usual care. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study comparing a pharmacist-managed warfarin protocol with usual care of qualified warfarin recipients at long-term care facilities (two protocol, one control) in Calgary, Alberta. We compared the proportion of international normalized ratio ...

  4. A STUDY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL AND CLINICAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH ADOLESCENT SUICIDE ATTEMPTS

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, C.T. Sudir; Chandrasekaran, R.

    2000-01-01

    There is a good deal of research showing that suicide attempts increase markedly during adolescence. This study aims at studying the demographic and clinical variables of adolescent suicide attempters and comparing certain potential risk factors between adolescent and adult suicide attempters. It was found that adolescents in our study sample differ significantly from adults in the levels of depression, hopelessness, lethality of attempt and stressful life events. These findings are important...

  5. Recommended protocols based on a survey of current practice in genotoxicity testing laboratories: study evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillinger, R L; Nestmann, E R; Sigal, E A; Swierenga, S H

    1991-02-01

    The approach used in the survey of current methodologies used in mammalian cell genotoxicity testing (unscheduled DNA synthesis, mutation, cell transformation and cytogenetics testing) is discussed. The recommended protocols, described in the preceding papers, were developed using responses to detailed questionnaires. This summary outlines general observations related to the survey methodology and to the protocols themselves. Also discussed are the qualities of an effective survey; the evolution of a survey and of a protocol; and the contributions and limitations of this study. PMID:1996127

  6. Predicting implementation from organizational readiness for change: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly P Adam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is widespread interest in measuring organizational readiness to implement evidence-based practices in clinical care. However, there are a number of challenges to validating organizational measures, including inferential bias arising from the halo effect and method bias - two threats to validity that, while well-documented by organizational scholars, are often ignored in health services research. We describe a protocol to comprehensively assess the psychometric properties of a previously developed survey, the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment. Objectives Our objective is to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the psychometric properties of the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment incorporating methods specifically to address threats from halo effect and method bias. Methods and Design We will conduct three sets of analyses using longitudinal, secondary data from four partner projects, each testing interventions to improve the implementation of an evidence-based clinical practice. Partner projects field the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment at baseline (n = 208 respondents; 53 facilities, and prospectively assesses the degree to which the evidence-based practice is implemented. We will conduct predictive and concurrent validities using hierarchical linear modeling and multivariate regression, respectively. For predictive validity, the outcome is the change from baseline to follow-up in the use of the evidence-based practice. We will use intra-class correlations derived from hierarchical linear models to assess inter-rater reliability. Two partner projects will also field measures of job satisfaction for convergent and discriminant validity analyses, and will field Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment measures at follow-up for concurrent validity (n = 158 respondents; 33 facilities. Convergent and discriminant validities will test associations between organizational readiness and

  7. Parental influences on adolescent physical activity: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Guadalupe X

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is increasing among adolescents in the U.S., especially among girls. Despite growing evidence that parents are an important influence on adolescent health, few longitudinal studies have explored the causal relationship between parental influence and physical activity. This study examines how the relationships between parental influences and adolescent physical activity differ by gender and tests whether these relationships are mediated by adolescents' self-esteem and depression. Methods Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample includes 13,246 youth, grades 7 to 12, interviewed in 1995 and again 1 year later. Logit models were used to evaluate parental influences on achieving five or more bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week [MVPA] and whether the relationship between parental influence and MVPA was mediated by adolescents' level of self-esteem and depression. Results Family cohesion, parent-child communication and parental engagement positively predicted MVPA for both genders one year later (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for females, 1.09 [1.05–1.12], 1.13 [1.07–1.19], 1.25 [1.17–1.33] and males, 1.08 [1.04–1.11], 1.14 [1.07–1.23], 1.23 [1.14–1.33], respectively; however, parental monitoring did not (odds ratio and confidence intervals for females and males, 1.02 [.97–1.07]. For both females and males, self-esteem mediated the relationship between parental influence and physical activity. Depressive symptoms were only a mediator among males. Females reported higher levels of parent-child communication and lower family cohesion compared with males. There were no gender differences in levels of parental monitoring and engagement. Females had significantly lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of depressive symptoms than males. Conclusion Strategies to promote physical activity among adolescents should focus on

  8. Pilot studies for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project - Site selection, sampling protocols, analytical methods, and quality control protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David B., E-mail: dsmith@usgs.gov [US Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center, MS 973, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Woodruff, Laurel G. [US Geological Survey, St. Paul, MN 55112 (United States); O' Leary, Richard M. [US Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center, MS 973, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Cannon, William F. [US Geological Survey, 954 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Garrett, Robert G. [Geological Survey of Canada, 601 Booth Street, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0E8 (Canada); Kilburn, James E. [US Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center, MS 973, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Goldhaber, Martin B. [US Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center, MS 964, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada sampled and chemically analyzed soils along two transects across Canada and the USA in preparation for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America. This effort was a pilot study to test and refine sampling protocols, analytical methods, quality control protocols, and field logistics for the continental survey. A total of 220 sample sites were selected at approximately 40-km intervals along the two transects. The ideal sampling protocol at each site called for a sample from a depth of 0-5 cm and a composite of each of the O, A, and C horizons. The <2-mm fraction of each sample was analyzed for Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S, Ti, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, In, La, Li, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sn, Sr, Te, Th, Tl, U, V, W, Y, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following a near-total digestion in a mixture of HCl, HNO{sub 3}, HClO{sub 4}, and HF. Separate methods were used for Hg, Se, total C, and carbonate-C on this same size fraction. Only Ag, In, and Te had a large percentage of concentrations below the detection limit. Quality control (QC) of the analyses was monitored at three levels: the laboratory performing the analysis, the USGS QC officer, and the principal investigator for the study. This level of review resulted in an average of one QC sample for every 20 field samples, which proved to be minimally adequate for such a large-scale survey. Additional QC samples should be added to monitor within-batch quality to the extent that no more than 10 samples are analyzed between a QC sample. Only Cr (77%), Y (82%), and Sb (80%) fell outside the acceptable limits of accuracy (% recovery between 85 and 115%) because of likely residence in mineral phases resistant to the acid digestion. A separate sample of 0-5-cm material was collected at each site for determination of organic

  9. Prospective Assessment of Cannabis Withdrawal in Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milin, Robert; Manion, Ian; Dare, Glenda; Walker, Selena

    2008-01-01

    A study to identify and assess the withdrawal symptoms in adolescents afflicted with cannabis dependence is conducted. Results conclude that withdrawal symptoms of cannabis were present in adolescents seeking treatment for this substance abuse.

  10. Treatment Compliance of Adolescents after Attempted Suicide: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Craig D.; Cortell, Ranon; Wagner, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates compliance with mental health treatments among suicidal adolescents. Results show that child psychopathology and parental attitudes toward treatment plays an important part in increasing compliance with mental health treatment for adolescent suicide attempters.

  11. Heterogeneity in development of adolescent anxiety disorder symptoms in an 8-year longitudinal community study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, Stefanie A.; Hale, William W.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Frijns, Tom; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we prospectively examined developmental trajectories of five anxiety disorder symptom dimensions (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, school anxiety, separation anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder) from early to late adolescence in a community sample of 239 adolesc

  12. Impact of Educational Status of Parents on Nutritional Status of Adolescent Girls: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit K Singh, Gagan Garg, Sanjeev Davey, Santosh Kumar Raghav, Khursheed Muzammil, Jai Vir Singh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This study found strong association between the nutritional status of adolescent girls and education of parents. Illiteracy of their parent is the main factor of malnutrition among adolescents.

  13. Self-Concept of Pregnant Adolescents: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkes, Barbara Halpren; Crocitto, John A.

    1987-01-01

    Used case study approach to assess self-concepts of pregnant adolescents regarding life history, personality traits, and development. Results revealed common themes of historic background and personality traits: no intact families, lack of trust in family members, history of drug and alcohol abuse, permissive sexual attitudes and early sexual…

  14. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  15. Childhood and adolescence roots of resilience: Brno Longitudinal Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Iva; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin

    Edmonton: University of Alberta, 2012. s. 327-327. [International Society for the Study of Behavioural Development 2012: biennial meeting. 08.07.2012-12.07.2012, Edmonton] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : resilience * childhood * adolescence Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  16. Adolescent Ethnolinguistic Stability and Change: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Mary Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Most sociolinguistic studies rely on apparent time, cross-sectional methods to analyze language change. On the basis of apparent time data, sociolinguists have hypothesized that cultural processes of lifespan change create predictable cycles of linguistic behavior in which adolescents lead in the use of vernacular variants and advance sound change…

  17. A study of dysmenorrhea during menstruation in adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Anil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the prevalence of dysmenorrhea severity and its associated symptoms among adolescent girls? Objectives: (1 To study the prevalence of dysmenorrhea in high school adolescent girls of Gwalior. (2 To study the evidence of severity of the problem with associated symptoms and general health status. Study design: An explorative survey technique with a correlational approach. Setting and Participants: Nine hundred and seventy adolescent girls of age 15 to 20 years, studying in the higher secondary schools (Pre-University Colleges of Gwalior. Statistical analysis: Percentages, Chi-square test, and Test-Retest Method. Results: The prevalence of dysmenorrhea in adolescent girls was found to be 79.67%. Most of them, 37.96%, suffered regularly from dysmenorrhea severity. The three most common symptoms present on both days, that is,day before and first day of menstruation were lethargy and tiredness (first, depression (second and inability to concentrate in work (third, whereas the ranking of these symptoms on the day after the stoppage of menstruation showed depression as the first common symptoms. Negative correlation had found between dysmenorrhea and the General Health Status as measured by the Body surface area.

  18. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms : An adolescent population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonvanie, Irma J.; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A. M.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship. I

  19. Adolescents' experiences of being food-hypersensitive: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilde-Larsson Bodil

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experiencing or being at risk of adverse reactions to certain food items is a common health issue, especially among children and adolescents. Research has shown that living with the risk of food reactions and always having to take measures to avoid certain food in one's diet has a negative impact on quality of life. The aim of this study was to illuminate adolescents' experiences of being food hypersensitive. Methods Three focus group interviews and six individual interviews were carried out with all together 17 adolescents, 14–18 years of age, who had exclusion diets at school due to food hypersensitivity. The interviews were taped and transcribed verbatim and a qualitative content analysis was carried out. Results Five categories with subcategories, and one pervading theme, emerged. The categories were: Perceiving oneself as being particular, Feeling constrained, Experiencing others' ignorance, Keeping control, and Feeling it's okay. A pervading theme was conceptualised as Striving to normalise the experience of being food-hypersensitive. The adolescents regarded themselves as competent and courageous, but also described how they avoided the extra attention it implied to ask for special food considerations taken into account. Their self-conceptions were probably essential for their management of and attitude toward the hypersensitivity condition. They felt deprived, and those at risk of severe food reactions experienced insecurity and fear. Feelings of being disregarded were expressed, as well as facing unreliability and a lack of understanding from others. The continual work of constant vigilance and decision-making was described as time-consuming and frustrating. However, the adolescents also experienced considerate and supportive surroundings and were at pains to tone down the negative experiences and consequences of being food-hypersensitive. Conclusion Food avoidance by itself, and not only the somatic food reactions

  20. MENSTRUAL HYGIENE PRACTICES AMONG ADOLESCENT GIRLS: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekkalale Chikkalingaiah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Menstruation has often been dealt with secrecy in many cultures. Such perceptions coupled with poor and inadequate sanitary facilities have often kept girls from not attending schools especially during periods of menstruation. There is gross lack of information on menstrual management among adolescent girls; most of these girls seek information about menstruation from their peers who do not know better. Adolescence being a time of tremendous opportunity, and at the same time also a time of heightened vulnerabilities, it is imperative to empower adolescent girls with adequate information and skills on crucial issues like menstrual hygiene and its management. AIM: To know the knowledge and menstrual hygiene practices of adolescent girls. MATERIAL & METHODS: Across sectional study was conducted among 210 adolescent girls in a rural field practice area of Rajarajeswari Medical College & Hospital. Data on socio-economic variables and menstrual characteristics were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. RESULTS: 87.6% of the girls were aware about menstruation prior to the attainment of menarche. Mothers were the first informants in about 56.5% girls. Overall 51.5% adolescent girls were using sanitary napkins as menstrual absorbent, while 45.6% were using used cloths. Regarding practices, for cleaning of used cloths 88.9% girls used both soap and water. Regarding restrictions practiced, 97.6% girls practiced different restrictions during menstruation. CONCLUSION: There is a need to educate the girls about menstruation, its importance and hygiene maintenance; so as to enable them to lead a healthy reproductive life in future.

  1. Prospective community study of family stress and anxiety in (pre)adolescents: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.V. van Oort; F.C. Verhulst; J. Ormel; A.C. Huizink

    2010-01-01

    For prevention of anxiety in children and adolescents, it is important to know whether family stress is a predictor of anxiety. We studied this in 1,875 adolescents from the Tracking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) who were followed up for 2 years, from age 10-12 to 12-14 years. Adoles

  2. Peer Contagion of Depressogenic Attributional Styles among Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Elizabeth A.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal associations between adolescents' and their friend's depressive symptoms and depressogenic attributional style. Participants included 398 adolescents in grades six through eight at the outset of the study. Adolescents completed peer nominations to identify reciprocated and unreciprocated best friendships as well as…

  3. Clinical features of adolescents with deliberate self-harm: A case control study in Lisbon, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo F Guerreiro; Neves, Ema L; Navarro, Rita; Mendes, Raquel; Prioste, Ana; Ribeiro, Diana; Lila, Tiago; Neves, António; Salgado, Mónica; Santos, Nazaré; Sampaio, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm (DSH) among adolescents is a high-risk condition for suicide. The aim of the present study is to describe the characteristic clinical features of adolescents with DSH according to our local context (Lisbon, Portugal), using easily available information from clinical settings. A case control study was constructed from a sample of 100 adolescents (aged 12 to 21 years). The sample was divided into two groups: adolescents with and without DSH. Case files were examined and dat...

  4. Determinants of Internet Addiction among Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Artemis Tsitsika; Elena Critselis; Amalia Louizou; Mari Janikian; Aliki Freskou; Evgenia Marangou; Georgios Kormas; Kafetzis, Dimitrios A

    2011-01-01

    Internet Addiction (IA) is associated with adverse psychosocial development and mental disorders. The study aims were to evaluate the psychosocial profiles and psychiatric comorbidities associated with IA among adolescents. A case-control study was conducted among 129 adolescents in the outpatient setting of the Adolescent Health Unit of the Second University Department of Pediatrics in Athens, Greece. The case group consisted of 86 adolescents with IA as evaluated following psychiatric inter...

  5. A Longitudinal Adoption Study of Substance Use Behavior in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huibregtse, Brooke M; Corley, Robin P; Wadsworth, Sally J; Vandever, Joanna M; DeFries, John C; Stallings, Michael C

    2016-08-01

    Although cross-sectional twin studies have assessed the genetic and environmental etiologies of substance use during adolescence and early adulthood, comparisons of results across different samples, measures, and cohorts are problematic. While several longitudinal twin studies have investigated these issues, few corroborating adoption studies have been conducted. The current study is the first to estimate the magnitude of genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana) from ages 14 to 18 years, using a prospective longitudinal adoption design. Adoptive and control sibling correlations provided substantial evidence for early genetic effects on cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use/no use. Shared environmental effects were relatively modest, except for alcohol use, which showed increases in late adolescence (age 17 to 18 years). Sibling similarity for quantity/frequency of use also support additive genetic influences across adolescence, with some shared environmental influences for all three substances. To test the stability of these influences across time, a series of independent pathway models were run to explore common and age-specific influences. For all substances, there were minimal age-specific additive genetic and shared environmental influences on quantity/frequency of use. Further, there was a trend toward increasing genetic influences on cigarette and alcohol use across ages. Genetic influences on marijuana were important early, but did not contribute substantially at age 17 and 18 years. Overall, the findings indicate that genetic influences make important contributions to the frequency/quantity of substance use in adolescence, and suggest that new genetic influences may emerge in late adolescence for cigarette and alcohol use. PMID:27161024

  6. Association of Socioeconomic Status with Anthropometric Measures and Blood Pressure in a Representative Sample of Iranian Children and Adoles-cents: The CASPIAN-IV Study

    OpenAIRE

    Heshmat, Ramin; Shafiee, Gita; Kelishadi, Roya; Omid Reza TABATABAIE; Djalalinia, Shirin; Motlagh, Mohammad-Esmaeil; Zahedi, Hoda; Noori, Atefeh; Ardalan, Gelayol; Arefirad, Tahereh; Asayesh, Hamid; Bagher LARI­JANI; Mostafa QORBANI

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of Socioeconomic Status (SES) with anthropometric measures and BP in Iranian children and adolescents.Methods: This nationwide study was conducted in 2011-2012 among 14,880 students, aged 6-18 years, selected by multistage, cluster-sampling method from rural and urban areas of 30 provinces of Iran. Anthropometric indexes and BP were measured by standard protocols and with calibrated instruments. SES was estimated based on famil...

  7. The Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morley D

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available David Morley, Sarah Dummett, Laura Kelly, Jill Dawson, Ray Fitzpatrick, Crispin JenkinsonNuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UKBackground: With an ageing population and increasing demands on health and social care services, there is growing importance attached to the management of long-term conditions, including maximizing the cost-effectiveness of treatments. In line with this, there is increasing emphasis on the need to keep people both active and participating in daily life. Consequently, it is essential that well developed and validated instruments that can meaningfully assess levels of participation and activity are widely available. Current measures, however, are largely focused on disability and rehabilitation, and there is no measure of activity or participation for generic use that fully meets the standards set by regulatory bodies such as the US Food and Drug Administration. Here we detail a protocol for the development and validation of a new patient-reported outcome measure (PROM for assessment of participation and activity in people experiencing a variety of health conditions, ie, the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire (Ox-PAQ. The stages incorporated in its development are entirely in line with current regulations and represent best practice in the development of PROMs.Methods: Development of the Ox-PAQ is theoretically grounded in the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. The project incorporates a new strategy of engaging with stakeholders from the outset in an attempt to identify those characteristics of PROMs considered most important to a range of potential users. Items will be generated through interviews with patients from a range of conditions. Pretesting of the instrument will be via cognitive interviews and focus groups. A postal survey will be conducted, with data subject to factor and Rasch analysis in order to

  8. Simulation Based: Study and Analysis of Routing Protocol in Vehicular Ad-hoc Network Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali D. Khairnar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET consists of vehicles which communicate with each other and exchange data via wireless communication links available between the vehicles which are in communication ranges of vehicles to improve the road safety in city. The communication between vehicles is used to provide road safety, comfort and entertainment. The performance of communication depends on how better routing takes place in the network. Routing data between the source and destination vehicle depends on the routing protocols being used in vehicular ad-hoc network. In this simulation based study we investigated about different ad hoc routing protocols for vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET. The main goal of our study was to identify which ad hoc routing protocol has better performance in highly mobile environment of vehicular ad-hoc network. We have measured the performance of routing protocols using 802.11p in vehicular ad-hoc network in which we considered the scenario of city (i.e. Route between Nerul and Vashi where we have take 1200 different types of vehicles and checked their performance. Routing protocols are selected after the literature review. The selected protocols are then evaluated through simulation under 802.11p in terms of performance metrics (i.e PDR & E2E delay

  9. Dietary Intake among Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country: An Outcome from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Study (the MyHeARTs Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Hazreen Abdul Majid; Liyana Ramli; Sim Pei Ying; Tin Tin Su; Muhammad Yazid Jalaludin; Nabilla Al-Sadat Abdul Mohsein

    2016-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is essential for healthy growth during adolescence. This study aims to investigate the baseline nutritional intake of Malaysian adolescents by gender, body mass index, and places of residence, both urban and rural. A cohort study was conducted consisting of 794 adolescents (aged 13-years) attending 15 public secondary schools from the Central (Kuala Lumpur and Selangor) and Northern (Perak) Regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Qualified dietitians conducted a 7-day historical ass...

  10. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial to assess the feasibility of an open label intervention to improve hydroxyurea adherence in youth with sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldone, Arlene; Findley, Sally; Bakken, Suzanne; Matiz, L. Adriana; Rosenthal, Susan L.; Jia, Haomiao; Matos, Sergio; Manwani, Deepa; Green, Nancy S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Community health workers (CHW) are increasingly recognized as a strategy to improve health outcomes for the underserved with chronic diseases but has not been formally explored in adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). SCD primarily affects African American, Hispanic and other traditionally underserved populations. Hydroxyurea (HU), an oral, once-daily medication, is the only approved therapeutic drug for sickle cell disease and markedly reduces symptoms, morbidity and mortality and improves quality of life largely by increasing hemoglobin F blood levels. This paper presents the rationale, study design and protocol for an open label randomized controlled trial to improve parent-youth partnerships in self-management and medication adherence to HU in adolescents with SCD. Methods/Design A CHW intervention augmented by text messaging was designed for adolescents with SCD ages 10–18 years and their parents to improve daily HU adherence. Thirty adolescent parent dyads will be randomized with 2:1 intervention group allocation. Intervention dyads will establish a relationship with a culturally aligned CHW to identify barriers to HU use, identify cues to build a habit, and develop a dyad partnership to improve daily HU adherence and achieve their individualized “personal best” hemoglobin F target. Intervention feasibility, acceptability and efficacy will be assessed via a 2-site trial. Outcomes of interest are HU adherence, dyad self-management communication, quality of life, and resource use. Discussion Despite known benefits, poor HU adherence is common. If feasible and acceptable, the proposed intervention may improve health of underserved adolescents with SCD by enhancing long-term HU adherence. PMID:27327779

  11. Adolescent (Mis)Perceptions about Nicotine Addiction: Results from a Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditis, Maria; Lee, Joann; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite evidence that adolescents become addicted to nicotine even after limited use, adolescents believe they can experiment with or smoke cigarettes for a few years and easily quit. The goal of this study was to examine adolescents' understanding of the definition and process of nicotine addiction using a mixed-methods approach. Method:…

  12. Personality and Parenting Processes Associated with Problem Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents in Santiago, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Cristina B.; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Andrade, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Considerable research in the United States has established that adolescent antisocial, aggressive, and attention problem behaviors negatively influence adolescents' ability to become productive members of society. However, little is known about the development of these problems among adolescents in other countries. This study contributes to our…

  13. Prospective Predictors of Body Dissatisfaction in Adolescent Girls and Boys: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Susan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated prospective risk factors for increases in body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls and boys in the Eating Among Teens Project. At the time of first assessment (Time 1), participants were a cohort of early adolescent girls (N = 440) and boys (N = 366) and a cohort of middle adolescent girls (N = 946) and boys (N = 764).…

  14. Impact of Comorbid Anxiety in an Effectiveness Study of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Davies, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of comorbid anxiety on treatment for adolescent depression in an effectiveness study of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A). Method: A randomized clinical trial was conducted from April 1, 1999, through July 31, 2002. Sixty-three depressed adolescents, ages 12 to 18, received either IPT-A…

  15. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Children and Adolescents With Dystrophinopathies : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Bart; Takken, Tim; Blank, A. Christian; van Moorsel, Huib; van der Pol, W. Ludo; de Groot, Janke F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine exercise response during cardiopulmonary exercise testing in children and adolescents with dystrophinopathies. Methods: Exercise response on the cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) was compared with a standard care test protocol. Results: Nine boys (aged 10.8 +/- 4.7 years) wi

  16. Aerobic Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO[subscript 2peak] (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level II and 336 typically developing…

  17. Current trends in study of xenophobia in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Malantseva O.D.

    2012-01-01

    Xenophobia is one of the most topical problems of the modern world which attains special significance in view of its extension among adolescents. The article regards the results of the latest studies of xenophobia in works of foreign scholars, as well as mechanisms of its emergence and the ways of preventing it. In the course of analysis of the latest findings of foreign investigators three main directions in study of xenophobia were singled out: investigations at the level of individual psyc...

  18. Body Weight Concerns among Urban Adolescent Girls: A Microlevel Study

    OpenAIRE

    Susmita Mukhopadhyay; Nandini Ganguly; Shailendra Kumar Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Growing consciousness about ideal body image leads to dietary modifications and consequent eating disorders among girls in developing countries like India. The present study aims to (i) assess the prevalence of body weight consciousness and related behaviours among a group of adolescent girls; (ii) assess the sociodemographic correlates of weight related behaviours; and (iii) compare weight related behaviours of the girls of two religious groups residing in Howrah. The study is the outcome of...

  19. Ostracism among Gifted Adolescents: A Preliminary Study in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Uzeyir Ogurlu

    2015-01-01

    Ostracism has an influence on psychological and social functioning. The aim of this study is to examine ostracism among gifted students, with regard to gender and grade levels. Also, the relationship between ostracism and intelligence level was investigated. The study was conducted in a gifted education center, with 94 gifted students who were attending middle school (grades 5-8). The Ostracism Experience Scale for Adolescents and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Revised Form were e...

  20. Adolescent girls' views on cosmetic surgery: a focus group study

    OpenAIRE

    Ashikali, E.-M.; Dittmar, H.; Ayers, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent girls’ views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15 to 18 (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1) Dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) Acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) Feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery, and (4) Cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosm...

  1. Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality) : A longitudinal, multi-domain study on sexual development of Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitz, Ellen; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan; Dalenberg, Wieke; Dubas, Judith; van Aken, Marcel; Overbeek, Geertjan; ter Bogt, Tom; van der Eijnden, Regina; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Timmerman, Greetje; Kunnen, Elske; van Geert, Paul; Dekovic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    This study gives an overview of Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality), a four-wave longitudinal study of 1297 Dutch adolescents. First, the sample, measures and four sub-projects are described. Second, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to exa

  2. Adolescent risk factors for purging in young women: findings from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen, Eric M; Rose, Jennifer; Kenney, Lindsay; Rosselli-Navarra, Francine; Weissman, Ruth Striegel

    2014-01-01

    Background There exists a dearth of prospective adolescent eating disorder studies with samples that are large enough to detect small or medium sized effects for risk factors, that are generalizable to the broader population, and that follow adolescents long enough to fully capture the period of development when the risk of eating disorder symptoms occurring is highest. As a result, the purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial risk factors for purging for weight control in a national...

  3. The Interplay between Peer Rejection and Acceptance in Preadolescence and Early Adolescence, Serotonin Transporter Gene, and Antisocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelius; Veenstra, Rene´

    2014-01-01

    Gene-environment studies on adolescents' peer contexts are important for understanding the interplay between biological and social antecedents of adolescent psychopathology. To this end, this study examined the roles of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and preadolescent and early adolescent peer rejection and acceptance, as well as the…

  4. A Pilot Study on the effects of Music Therapy on Frontotemporal Dementia - developing a research protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Wigram, Tony; Ottesen, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    protocols. As an example of a non-pharmacologic treatment procedure music therapy was investigated. With the focus to develop a research protocol for a future larger population study a pilot study was carried out. In two case studies a combination of data collection methods were examined with the overall......-Related Quality of Life (ADRQL), the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), and the Neuro-Psychiatric Inventory (NPI), and related to case descriptions and video analyses. Results: Recommendations for a mixed method research protocol focused on measuring the effect of music therapy with persons with......, and pharmacological treatment of the psychiatric symptoms is difficult, requiring specialist proficiency in the field. Pilot study: As there is not yet sufficient research that examines the effects of non-pharmacologic treatment with this group there is a need to develop valid and reliable research...

  5. HIV status disclosure to perinatally-infected adolescents in Zimbabwe: a qualitative study of adolescent and healthcare worker perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khameer K Kidia

    Full Text Available Due to the scale up of antiretroviral therapy, increasing numbers of HIV-infected children are living into adolescence. As these children grow and surpass the immediate threat of death, the issue of informing them of their HIV status arises. This study aimed to understand how perinatally-infected adolescents learn about their HIV-status as well as to examine their preferences for the disclosure process.In-depth interviews were conducted with 31 (14 male, 17 female perinatally-infected adolescents aged 16-20 at an HIV clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe, and focused on adolescents' experiences of disclosure. In addition, 15 (1 male, 14 female healthcare workers participated in two focus groups that were centred on healthcare workers' practices surrounding disclosure in the clinic. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants. A coding frame was developed and major themes were extracted using grounded theory methods.Healthcare workers encouraged caregivers to initiate disclosure in the home environment. However, many adolescents preferred disclosure to take place in the presence of healthcare workers at the clinic because it gave them access to accurate information as well as an environment that made test results seem more credible. Adolescents learned more specific information about living with an HIV-positive status and the meaning of that status from shared experiences among peers at the clinic.HIV-status disclosure to adolescents is distinct from disclosure to younger children and requires tailored, age-appropriate guidelines. Disclosure to this age group in a healthcare setting may help overcome some of the barriers associated with caregivers disclosing in the home environment and make the HIV status seem more credible to an adolescent. The study also highlights the value of peer support among adolescents, which could help reduce the burden of psychosocial care on caregivers and healthcare workers.

  6. The adolescent outcomes of adoption: a 16-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, D M; Lynskey, M; Horwood, L J

    1995-05-01

    The childhood history and adolescent adjustment of children placed in adoptive, biological two parent and single parent families were examined in a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand children studied to the age of 16 years. This study suggested that children who entered adoptive families were advantaged throughout childhood in a number of areas including childhood experiences, standards of health care, family material conditions, family stability and mother/child interaction. However, the environmental advantages experienced by children who entered adoptive families were not directly reflected in the pattern of adolescent adjustment of this group. In particular, children placed in adoptive families had rates of externalising behaviours (including conduct disorders, juvenile offending and substance use behaviours) that were significantly higher than children reared in biological two parent families but somewhat lower than those of children who entered single parent families at birth. PMID:7650085

  7. Older Persons’ Transitions in Care (OPTIC: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummings Greta G

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in health status, triggered by events such as infections, falls, and geriatric syndromes, are common among nursing home (NH residents and necessitate transitions between NHs and Emergency Departments (EDs. During transitions, residents frequently experience care that is delayed, unnecessary, not evidence-based, potentially unsafe, and fragmented. Furthermore, a high proportion of residents and their family caregivers report substantial unmet needs during transitions. This study is part of a program of research whose overall aim is to improve quality of care for frail older adults who reside in NHs. The purpose of this study is to identify successful transitions from multiple perspectives and to identify organizational and individual factors related to transition success, in order to inform improvements in care for frail elderly NH residents during transitions to and from acute care. Specific objectives are to: 1. define successful and unsuccessful elements of transitions from multiple perspectives; 2. develop and test a practical tool to assess transition success; 3. assess transition processes in a discrete set of transfers in two study sites over a one year period; 4. assess the influence of organizational factors in key practice locations, e.g., NHs, emergency medical services (EMS, and EDs, on transition success; and 5. identify opportunities for evidence-informed management and quality improvement decisions related to the management of NH – ED transitions. Methods/Design This is a mixed-methods observational study incorporating an integrated knowledge translation (IKT approach. It uses data from multiple levels (facility, care unit, individual and sources (healthcare providers, residents, health records, and administrative databases. Discussion Key to study success is operationalizing the IKT approach by using a partnership model in which the OPTIC governance structure provides for team decision-makers and

  8. Sarcopenia and its determinants among Iranian elderly (SARIR: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi Rezvan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elderly populations increase in world because of improved health status in communities, so health and independency of seniors has become and will be one of the main priorities of public health systems. Ageing have been associated with changes in body composition, including loss of muscle mass, loss of bone mass and increase fat mass. Involuntary age related loss of muscle mass, sarcopenia,has been linked to functional impairment and physical disability. Several definitions for sarcopenia have been presented based on the method of measuring body composition, but an internationally accepted definition doesn’t presently exist yet. In 2010, the European working group on sarcopenia developed a new definition for sarcopenia according to measure muscle mass and muscle function. Several studies have been done about sarcopenia in world, but to our knowledge this study is the first in Iran which is one of the largest countries of the Middle East that faces a fast growing elderly population. The aim of this study is to evaluate sarcopenia and related risk factors in Iran according new definition of sarcopenia. Methods This study will be conducted in two phase among elderly men and women over 55 years in the 6th district of TehranThe first phase will be a population-based cross-sectional study to determine the frequency of sarcopenia in the study population, and to conduct case finding for the second phase. The second phase will be a case–control study to comparison the metabolic and inflammatory factors in sarcopenic and non sarcopenic groups. The association between sarcopenia and major dietary pattern will be evaluated using factor analysis. Conclusion This study is the first study that evaluates sarcopenia and its risk factor in Iranian elderlies. We discuss details of how we collect the data and appropriate instruments to measure muscle mass, muscle power and muscle strength, and suitable cut- off to define sarcopenia in

  9. Like Circles on the Water: A Study of Adolescent Identity. Linkoping Studies in Education and Psychology, No. 62.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Lena

    This thesis explores the subject of identity development during late adolescence by analyzing research from three studies: "Self-concept and questions of life: Identity development during late adolescence" (Adamson and Lyxell, 1996); "Adolescent identity--a qualitative approach: Self-concept, existential questions and adult contacts" (Adamson and…

  10. Social Media in Adolescent Health Literacy Education: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, Carrie KW; Bridges, Susan M; Srinivasan, Divya Parthasarathy; Cheng, Brenda SS

    2015-01-01

    Background While health literacy has gained notice on a global stage, the initial focus on seeking associations with medical conditions may have overlooked its impact across generations. Adolescent health literacy, specifically in dentistry, is an underexplored area despite the significance of this formative stage on an individual’s approach to healthy lifestyles and behaviors. Objective The aim is to conduct a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of three major social media outlets - Twitter...

  11. Adolescents Family Models : A Cross-Cultural Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Boris

    2009-01-01

    This study explores and compares the family models of adolescents across ten cultures using a typological and multilevel approach. Thereby, it aims to empirically contribute to Kagitcibasi s (2007) theory of family change. This theory postulates the existence of three ideal-typical family models across cultures: a family model of independence prevailing in Western societies, a family model of (total) interdependence prevailing in non-industrialized agrarian cultures, and as a synthesis of the...

  12. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Lindfors Pirjo L; Kaltiala-Heino Riittakerttu; Rimpelä Arja H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, an...

  13. Virtualization of network environment and study of dynamic routing protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Tremolosa Rovira, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] The main purpose of this thesis has been to build a Virtual Network Laboratory Environment. This concept has been performed with a virtual environment generator called VNUML developed by “Universidad Politecnica de Madrid”. All the component of this labs like VNUML, Quagga and the tools to test it like Wireshark has been studied before. In fact, we've learnt how to install Ubuntu in an USB pen-drive and all the study environment has been developed using this USB. During the thesis, w...

  14. Manualized social skills group training for children and adolescents with higher functioning autism spectrum disorder: protocol of a naturalistic multicenter, randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Choque Olsson, Nora; Tammimies, Kristiina; Bölte, Sven

    2015-01-01

    AbstractAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social communication and interaction, and the presence of stereotyped, repetitive and restricted behavior, interests, and activities. Despite prior studies showing moderate efficacy of social skills group training (SSGT) for children and adolescents with ASD, its effectiveness remains unclear. To investigate the efficacy and effectiveness of SSGT, we have initiated a large randomiz...

  15. An Empirical Study on variants of TCP over AODV routing protocol in MANET

    CERN Document Server

    Morshed, Md Monzur; Islam, Md Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    The cardinal concept of TCP development was to carry data within the network where network congestion plays a vital role to cause packet loss. On the other hand, there are several other reasons to lose packets in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks due to fading, interfaces, multi-path routing, malicious node, and black hole. Along with throughput, fairness of TCP protocols is important to establish a good communication. In this paper, an empirical study has been done by simulation and analysis of TCP variations under AODV routing protocol. In our simulation, we studied multiple variations of TCP, such as Reno, New-Reno, Vegas, and Tahoe. The simulation work has been done in NS2 environment. Based on the analysis simulation result of we carried out our observations with respect to the behavior of AODV routing protocol for different TCP packets under several QoS metrics such as drop, throughput, delay, and jitter.

  16. Journey to vaccination: a protocol for a multinational qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Wheelock, Ana; Miraldo, Marisa; Parand, Anam; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the past two decades, childhood vaccination coverage has increased dramatically, averting an estimated 2–3 million deaths per year. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains inconsistently recorded and substandard. Although structural barriers are known to limit coverage, social and psychological factors can also affect vaccine uptake. Previous qualitative studies have explored beliefs, attitudes and preferences associated with seasonal influenza (flu) vaccination uptake, y...

  17. Adolescent boys with asthma – a pilot study on embodied gendered habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westergren T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Westergren,1 Ulla-Britt Lilleaas21Faculty of Health and Sport Science, Department of Health and Nursing Science, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway; 2Faculty of Humanities and Education, Centre for Gender and Equality, University of Agder, Kristiansand, NorwayPurpose: Asthma is a common chronic disease with gender differences in terms of severity and quality of life. This study aimed to understand the gendered practices of male asthmatic adolescents in terms of living with and managing their chronic disease. The study applied a sociological perspective to identify the gender-related practices of participants and their possible consequences for health and disease.Patients and methods: The study used a combined ethnomethodology and grounded theory design, which was interpreted using Bourdieu's theory of practice. We aimed to discover how participants interpreted their social worlds to create a sense of meaning in their everyday lives. The study was based on multistage focus group interviews with five adolescent participants at a specialist center for asthmatic children and youths. We took necessary precautions to protect the participants, according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. The study protocol was approved by the Regional Committee for Medical Research Ethics and the hospital's research department.Results: The core concept for asthmatic male adolescents was being men. They were focused on being nonasthmatic, and exhibited ambivalence towards the principles of the health services. Physical activity supported their aim of being men and being nonasthmatic, as well as supported their treatment goals. Being fearless, unconcerned, “cool,” and dependent also supported the aim of being men and being nonasthmatic, but not the health service principle of regular medication. Occasionally, the participants were asthmatic when they were not able to or gained no advantages from being nonasthmatic. Their practice of being men

  18. Adolescent boys and girls with behavioral disorders in residential homes: A camera-glasses study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wettstein

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Children and adolescents with behavioral disorders are often referred to residential homes. These homes cater and treat socially disadvantaged adolescents with a history of deviant behavior. This study investigated the environment of eight adolescents in these residential homes and four non-aggressive adolescents living with their families. The daily activities were recorded by using camera-glasses attached to the subject. These activities took place in school, leisure time, family and residential homes. Other additional methods were used to investigate the perception and experience of these adolescents. The results of this study indicate that the adolescents in residential homes have a smaller living space in contrast to the non-aggressive adolescents. They also have less close relationships and fewer interactions with their peers. Moreover they have more conflicts and show more often aggressive behavior and they are more often victims of aggression.

  19. Leadership and adolescent girls: a qualitative study of leadership development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A; Kennedy, Cara L

    2008-12-01

    This research investigated youth leadership experiences of adolescent girls who participated in a comprehensive feminist-based leadership program. This qualitative study utilized a grounded theory approach to understand changes that occurred in 10 female adolescent participants. The words of the participants revealed that initially they viewed leadership in traditional terms and were hesitant to identify themselves as leaders or to see themselves included within their concepts of leadership. Following the program their view of leadership expanded and diversified in a manner that allowed for inclusion of themselves within it. They spoke with greater strength and confidence and felt better positioned and inspired to act as leaders. Participants identified having examples of women leaders, adopting multiple concepts of leadership, and participating in an environment of mutual respect and trust as factors that contributed to their expanded conceptualization. PMID:18931906

  20. Web-based screening and brief intervention for poly-drug use among teenagers: study protocol of a multicentre two-arm randomized controlled trial

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    Arnaud Nicolas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mid to late adolescence is characterised by a vulnerability to problematic substance use since the consumption of alcohol and illicit drugs is frequently initiated and increased in this life period. While the detrimental long- and short-term effects of problematic consumption patterns in adolescence pose a major public health concern, current prevention programs targeting alcohol- and other substance-using adolescents are scarce. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief intervention aimed at reducing problematic alcohol use and promoting abstinence from illegal drugs in adolescents with risky substance use aged 16 to 18 years old in four EU-countries. Methods/design To determine the effectiveness of our web-BI, we apply a two-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT study design, with baseline assessment at study entry and a three month follow-up assessment. Adolescents aged 16 to 18 years from Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany, and Sweden will be randomly assigned to either the fully electronically delivered brief intervention group (N = 400 or an assessment only control group (N = 400 depending on their screening for risky substance use (using the CRAFFT. Recruitment, informed consent, randomization, intervention and follow-up will be implemented online. Primary outcomes are reductions in frequency and quantity of use of alcohol and drugs other than alcohol over a 30 day period, as well as consumption per typical occasion. Secondary outcomes concern changes in substance use related cognitions including the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, implementation intentions, and stages of change. Moreover the study addresses a number of moderator variables, including age of first use, general psychopathology and quality of parent–child relationship. Discussion The trial is expected to contribute to the growing literature on theory- and web-based brief interventions

  1. The Dynamic Interplay among Maternal Empathy, Quality of Mother-Adolescent Relationship, and Adolescent Antisocial Behaviors: New Insights from a Six-Wave Longitudinal Multi-Informant Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Crocetti

    Full Text Available Adolescents' behavior is often a matter of concern, given their increased likelihood of enacting antisocial behaviors, which cause disruptions in the social order and are potentially harmful for the adolescents themselves and for the people around them. In this six-wave longitudinal study we sought to examine the interplay among maternal empathy, multiple indicators of mother-adolescent relationship quality (i.e., balanced relatedness, conflict, and support, and adolescent antisocial behaviors rated both by adolescents and their mothers. Participants for the current study were 497 Dutch adolescents (56.9% males followed from age 13 to 18, and their mothers. A series of cross-lagged panel models revealed reciprocal associations between maternal empathy and mother-adolescent relationship quality and between mother-adolescent relationship quality and adolescent antisocial behaviors. Interestingly, we also found some indirect effects of adolescent antisocial behaviors on maternal empathy mediated by mother-adolescent relationship quality. Overall, this study further highlights a process of reciprocal influences within mother-adolescent dyads.

  2. HIV infection in male adolescents: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquette, Stella Regina; Rodrigues, Adriana de Oliveira; Bortolotti, Livia Rocha

    2015-07-01

    `The gradual reduction in the incidence of AIDS among men who have sex with men has not occurred in the youngest age group; on the contrary, it is growing. This paper examines the vulnerabilities of adolescent males at risk of HIV infection. This is a qualitative study conducted through interviews with HIV positive young men undergoing treatment, whose diagnosis was made during adolescence. The interviews were recorded and transcribed in full. They were analyzed by intensive reading, classified by issues, and interpreted from a hermeneutic-dialectic perspective in dialogue with the literature. We interviewed 16 young men whose diagnosis occurred between the ages of 11 and 19 and for all of them the method of HIV transmission was sexual; 12 of the men were homosexual and 4 were heterosexual. It was evident that vulnerable situations included disbelief in the possibility of contamination, subjection to sex, homophobia and commercial sexual exploitation. This study demonstrates the importance of the formulation of public policies on sexual and reproductive health, which include adolescents and young men. These policies should embody the perspective of masculinity in all its widest aspects, as well as actions in favor of sexual diversity. PMID:26132259

  3. Study protocol for the Fukushima health management survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accidents that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 have resulted in long-term, ongoing anxiety among the residents of Fukushima, Japan. Soon after the disaster, Fukushima Prefecture launched the Fukushima Health Management Survey to investigate long-term low-dose radiation exposure caused by the accident. Fukushima Medical University took the lead in planning and implementing this survey. The primary purposes of this survey are to monitor the long-term health of residents, promote their future well-being, and confirm whether long-term low-dose radiation exposure has health effects. This report describes the rationale and implementation of the Fukushima Health Management Survey. This cohort study enrolled all people living in Fukushima Prefecture after the earthquake and comprises a basic survey and 4 detailed surveys. The basic survey is to estimate levels of external radiation exposure among all 2.05 million residents. It should be noted that internal radiation levels were estimated by Fukushima Prefecture using whole-body counters. The detailed surveys comprise a thyroid ultrasound examination for all Fukushima children aged 18 years or younger, a comprehensive health check for all residents from the evacuation zones, an assessment of mental health and lifestyles of all residents from the evacuation zones, and recording of all pregnancies and births among all women in the prefecture who were pregnant on 11 March. All data have been entered into a database and will be used to support the residents and analyze the health effects of radiation. The low response rate (<30%) to the basic survey complicates the estimation of health effects. There have been no cases of malignancy to date among 38 114 children who received thyroid ultrasound examinations. The importance of mental health care was revealed by the mental health and lifestyle survey and the pregnancy and birth survey. This long

  4. FIRE (facilitating implementation of research evidence: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seers Kate

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research evidence underpins best practice, but is not always used in healthcare. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS framework suggests that the nature of evidence, the context in which it is used, and whether those trying to use evidence are helped (or facilitated affect the use of evidence. Urinary incontinence has a major effect on quality of life of older people, has a high prevalence, and is a key priority within European health and social care policy. Improving continence care has the potential to improve the quality of life for older people and reduce the costs associated with providing incontinence aids. Objectives This study aims to advance understanding about the contribution facilitation can make to implementing research findings into practice via: extending current knowledge of facilitation as a process for translating research evidence into practice; evaluating the feasibility, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of two different models of facilitation in promoting the uptake of research evidence on continence management; assessing the impact of contextual factors on the processes and outcomes of implementation; and implementing a pro-active knowledge transfer and dissemination strategy to diffuse study findings to a wide policy and practice community. Setting and sample Four European countries, each with six long-term nursing care sites (total 24 sites for people aged 60 years and over with documented urinary incontinence Methods and design Pragmatic randomised controlled trial with three arms (standard dissemination and two different programmes of facilitation, with embedded process and economic evaluation. The primary outcome is compliance with the continence recommendations. Secondary outcomes include proportion of residents with incontinence, incidence of incontinence-related dermatitis, urinary tract infections, and quality of life. Outcomes are assessed at baseline

  5. Auricular point acupressure for chronic pain: a feasibility study of a 4-week treatment protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chao Hsing; Chien, Lung-Chang; Huang, Li Chun; Suen, Lorna Kwai-Ping

    2014-01-01

    This 1-group, 4-week observational study aimed to (1) assess the feasibility of recruiting, retention, and completion of a 4-week auricular point acupressure (APA) treatment protocol for chronic pain in adult patients and (2) assess the effects of APA in pain reduction (pain severity and pain interference) among these patients. The participants received a 4-week APA treatment protocol in weekly cycles. Each weekly cycle included 5 days with APA seeds taped onto the ear and 2 days without. Each participant was called every day to monitor adherence to the treatment protocol (the actual times the participant pressed the seeds each day and the duration of applied pressure), to answer analgesic use, and to answer the pain intensity questionnaire. Thirty participants were initially enrolled in this study, but 5 did not continue. The retention rate was 83% (n = 25). Approximately 60% of the participants (n = 15) adhered to the 4-week APA and completed all data assessments. At baseline assessment, only 40% of all participants (n = 12 of 30) were confident that APA would reduce and eliminate pain; nonetheless, all participants reported fewer episodes of pain occurrences and pain intensity with the APA treatment. For the participants who completed the 4-week APA protocol (n = 15), 96% (n = 14) decreased analgesic medication intake and 88% (n = 13) felt "much better" after the APA treatment. Participants reported an average reduction of 63% in the worst pain intensity at day 7. By the end of the 4-week APA protocol, an even greater reduction in pain intensity was reported (66%, n = 10, at day 28). The participants who did not complete the treatment protocol reported an average pain reduction of 29%, which fluctuated to 22% before they dropped out. Auricular point acupressure is feasible for patients with chronic pain. The preliminary findings of this feasibility study show a reduction in pain intensity and improvement in physical function, which demonstrate the potential for

  6. Advantages of a Warfarin Protocol for Long-term Care Pharmacists: a Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Randall; Brocklebank, Cynthia; Tam-Tham, Helen; Williamson, Tyler; Quail, Patrick; Turner, Diana; Drummond, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Background Warfarin is an anticoagulant prescribed to 12% of long-term care residents to reduce the risk of thrombo-embolism. This study used indicators to compare warfarin management by pharmacists to usual care. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study comparing a pharmacist-managed warfarin protocol with usual care of qualified warfarin recipients at long-term care facilities (two protocol, one control) in Calgary, Alberta. We compared the proportion of international normalized ratio (INR) tests in the range 2.0 to 3.0, time in range, number of tests, and frequency of bleeding at protocol and control sites. Our primary outcome, time in INR therapeutic range, is an indicator for assuring care quality. A cross-sectional survey at these sites compared health professionals’ perceptions of workload and effectiveness of warfarin management. Results Of the 197 residents’ charts reviewed in the study period, those on protocol had 45.0 INR tests while those on usual care had 52.7 tests (p = .034, 95% CI for the difference: 0.6 to 14.6 INR tests). No significant difference was found for time in therapeutic range, number of tests in range, or major bleeding events. Of 178 health professionals surveyed, those from protocol facilities were more satisfied with warfarin management (p = .013). Workload and safety were perceived similarly at all sites. Interpretation Our results suggest that a pharmacist-managed warfarin protocol is as effective as usual care and has advantages pertaining to work satisfaction, knowledge of drug interactions, consistent documentation, and fewer INR tests. Further research on teamwork and coagulation management in long-term care facilities is recommended. PMID:27403212

  7. Emotion processing and social participation following stroke: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Clare L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF defines participation as a person’s performance in life situations, including the size of social networks, and satisfaction with social contacts. Stroke survivors are known to experience a reduction in the number of their social networks and contacts, which cannot be explained solely in terms of activity limitations caused by physical impairment. Problems of emotional processing, including impaired mood, emotion regulation and emotion perception, are known to occur following stroke and can detrimentally influence many aspects of social interaction and participation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether emotion processing impairments predict stroke survivors’ restricted social participation, independent of problems with activity limitation. Methods/design We aim to recruit 125 patients admitted to NHS Grampian with a confirmed diagnosis of stroke. All participants will be assessed on measures of emotion processing, social participation and activity limitation at approximately one month post stroke and again at approximately one year post stroke in order to assess change over time. Discussion It is important to develop a greater understanding of the emotional factors which may underlie key social deficits in stroke recovery in an ageing population where stroke is one of the leading causes of severe, complex disability. This research may enable us to identify those who are risk of participation restriction and target them in the acute stroke phase of stroke so that adverse outcome is avoided and rehabilitation potential is fulfilled.

  8. Ultrasound study of ovarian pain in pre adolescent and adolescent girls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the role of ultrasound in the study of acute ovarian pain in pre adolescent and adolescent girls. B-mode ultrasound was employed to study 40 ovarian lesions in 37 girls between the age of 6 and 17 years complaining of acute pelvic pain of ovarian origin. Thirteen of the lesions were also assessed by color Doppler ultrasound. We found 25 cases of hemorrhagic cysts, 8 of simple cyst and 7 of ovarian torsion. Surgical and pathological correlation was established in 17 cases (7 cases hemorrhagic cyst, 3 of simple cysts and 7 of ovarian torsion). The remaining lesions are being followed by clinical and ultrasonographic monitoring. Simple and hemorrhagic cysts presenting the so called hematocrit effect are easily diagnosed by B-mode ultrasound. The ultrasonographic features of torsion and certain hemorrhagic cysts are similar on occasion, and surgery and histologic assessment are necessary for the definitive diagnosis. Doppler ultrasound provides no additional information to aid in the diagnosis of these lesions. (Author) 28 refs

  9. Physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescents: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Stephanie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The frequency of mental illness amongst adolescents and its potential long-term consequences make it an important topic to research in relation to risk and protective factors. Research on the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescents is limited. There is a particular lack of evidence from longitudinal studies. This study examines the relationship between depression and physical activity using the Research with East London Adolescents: Community Health Survey (RELACHS. Methods This was a prospective cohort study. Participants were recruited from three Local Education Authority boroughs in East London in 2001 from year 7 (aged 11-12 and year 9 (aged 13-14 and were followed-up in 2003. All pupils in the 28 schools that took part were eligible for the study. Of the total 3,322 pupils eligible for the survey the overall response rate was 84% (2,789 pupils. A total of 2,093 (75% pupils were also followed-up in 2003. The sample was multiethnic (73% of respondents were non-white and deprived. Just under half of the sample was male (49%. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between physical activity and depressive symptoms both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results After adjustments, there was evidence for a cross-sectional association between physical activity and depressive symptoms for both boys and girls at baseline, with a decrease in the odds of depressive symptoms of about 8% for each additional hour of exercise undertaken per week (boys: odds ratio (OR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.99; girls: OR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.00. There was no evidence for an association between a change in physical activity from baseline to follow-up and depressive symptoms at follow-up. Conclusions This study provides some evidence for an association between level of physical activity and

  10. The Bipolar Interactive Psychoeducation (BIPED study: trial design and protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Ian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bipolar disorders affect between 3–5% of the population and are associated with considerable lifelong impairment. Since much of the morbidity associated with bipolar disorder is caused by recurrent depressive symptoms, which are often only poorly responsive to antidepressants, there is a need to develop alternative, non-pharmacological interventions. Psychoeducational interventions have emerged as promising long-term therapeutic options for bipolar disorder. Methods/design The study is an exploratory, individually randomised controlled trial. The intervention known as 'Beating Bipolar' is a psychoeducational programme which is delivered via a novel web-based system. We will recruit 100 patients with a diagnosis of DSM-IV bipolar disorder (including type I and type II currently in clinical remission. The primary outcome is quality of life. This will be compared for those patients who have participated in the psychoeducational programme with those who received treatment as usual. Quality of life will be assessed immediately following the intervention as well as 10 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes include current depressive and manic symptoms, number of episodes of depression and mania/hypomania experienced during the follow-up period, global functioning, functional impairment and insight. An assessment of costs and a process evaluation will also be conducted which will explore the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention as well as potential barriers to effectiveness. Discussion Bipolar disorder is common, under-recognised and often poorly managed. It is a chronic, life-long, relapsing condition which has an enormous impact on the individual and the economy. This trial will be the first to explore the effectiveness of a novel web-based psychoeducational intervention for patients with bipolar disorder which has potential to be easily rolled out to patients. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials

  11. STUDY & ANALYSIS OF SECURED E-COMMERCE TRANSACTIONS INFORMATION PROTOCOLS-PURCHASING ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepu Soni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Commerce is the very rapid growing field in today’s scenario. It is used for Purchasing Order i.e. for buying and selling electronic goods and all other type of things. And there is need for development of a number of e-commerce protocols, which ensure integrity, confidentiality, atomicity and fair exchange.The protocol uses a smart card for ensuring mutual authentication, dispute resolution and fair exchange and reduces reliance on a trusted third party. Also study and analysis of the security in e-transactions may avoid some of the frauds on internet transactionsfor purchasing and buying orders.

  12. STUDY ON NEIGHBORHOOD DISCOVERY PROTOCOL IN COMMUNICATION NETWORKSGRANULAR SLUDGE BY BATCH TESTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时成阁; 胡家骏

    2001-01-01

    One algorithm and one method for PNNI(Private Network to Network Interface) routing were presented. The algorithm is OIL (Older Is Leader) algorithms for Peer Group selection, and the method is the DOO (Distributed object-oriented) method for HDOS (Hierarchy Distributed-Object System), PNNI systems and IP(Internet Protocol) networks. Based on the specifications from ATM forum, and the creative ideas from Distributed System realization, this paper studies and analyzes the private ATM network environment. The OIL algorithm and the DOO method are both for PNNI routing protocol. Through the PNNI simulation, the availability and robustness are proved for the above two improvements.

  13. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  14. Cumulative Vulnerability: A Case Study on intrafamilial violence, Drug Addiction and Adolescent Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Paula Orchiucci; Passarini, Gislaine Martins Ricardo; Ferreira, Loraine Seixas; Paixão, Rui Alexandre Paquete; Tardivo, Leila Salomão de La Plata Cury; Barrientos, Dora Mariela Salcedo

    2014-12-01

    A pregnant adolescent's vulnerability increases when she is a victim of intrafamilial violence and drug addiction, which cause physical and biopsychosocial damage to the mother and her baby. Objective Present and analyze the case of an adolescent who is addicted to drugs, pregnant and the victim of lifelong intrafamilial violence. Method A case study based on a semi-structured interview conducted in the Obstetrics Emergency Unit at the Teaching Hospital of the University of São Paulo. The data were interpreted and analyzed using Content Analysis. Results intrafamilial violence experienced at the beginning of the adolescent's early relationships seriously affected her emotional maturity, triggering the development of psychopathologies and leaving her more susceptible to the use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs. The adolescent is repeating her history with her daughter, reproducing the cycle of violence. Conclusion Adolescent pregnancy combined with intrafamilial violence and drug addiction and multiplies the adolescent's psychosocial vulnerability increased the adolescent's vulnerability. PMID:25830736

  15. Adolescents' presentation of food in social media: An explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Christopher; E Chaplin, John; Hillman, Thomas; Berg, Christina

    2016-04-01

    The study aimed to explore how adolescents communicate food images in a widely used social media image-sharing application. We examined how and in what context food was presented and the type of food items that were frequently portrayed by following a youth related hashtag on Instagram. The hashtag #14år ("14 years") was used to find adolescent users on Instagram: these users public photo streams were then searched for food items they had shared with others. Food items were identified and categorized based on type of food and how the food items were presented. Most of the adolescent users (85%) shared images containing food items. A majority of the images (67.7%) depicted foods high in calories but low in nutrients. Almost half of these images were arranged as a still life with food brand names clearly exposed. Many of these images were influenced by major food marketing campaigns. Fruits and vegetables occurred in 21.8% of all images. This food group was frequently portrayed zoomed in with focus solely on the food, with a hashtag or caption expressing palatability. These images were often presented in the style of a cook book. Food was thus presented in varied ways. Adolescents themselves produced images copying food advertisements. This has clear health promotion implications since it becomes more challenging to monitor and tackle young people's exposure to marketing of unhealthy foods in these popular online networks because images are part of a lifestyle that the young people want to promote. Shared images contain personal recommendations, which mean that they may have a more powerful effect than commercial advertising. PMID:26792765

  16. Inappropriate eating behavior: a longitudinal study with female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the inappropriate eating behaviors (IEB of female adolescents over a one-year period. Methods: 290 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old participated in the three research stages (T1: first four months, T2: second four months and T3: third four months. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was applied to assess the IEB. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI in the three study periods. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data, adjusted for the scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Brazil Economic Classification Criteria. Results: Girls at T1 showed a higher frequency of IEB compared to T2 (p=0.001 and T3 (p=0.001. The findings also indicated higher values for BMI in T3 in relation to T1 (p=0.04. The other comparisons did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: IEB scores of female adolescents declined over one year.

  17. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of a school based cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT intervention to prevent depression in high risk adolescents (PROMISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal Kapil

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression in adolescents is a significant problem that impairs everyday functioning and increases the risk of severe mental health disorders in adulthood. Relatively few adolescents with depression are identified and referred for treatment indicating the need to investigate alternative preventive approaches. Study Design A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a school based prevention programme on symptoms of depression in "high risk" adolescents (aged 12-16. The unit of allocation is year groups (n = 28 which are assigned to one of three conditions: an active intervention based upon cognitive behaviour therapy, attention control or treatment as usual. Assessments will be undertaken at screening, baseline, 6 months and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is change on the Short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures will assess changes in negative thoughts, self esteem, anxiety, school connectedness, peer attachment, alcohol and substance misuse, bullying and self harm. Discussion As of August 2010, all 28 year groups (n = 5023 had been recruited and the assigned interventions delivered. Final 12 month assessments are scheduled to be completed by March 2011. Trial Registration ISRCTN19083628

  18. Digital protocol for reference-based guided surgery and immediate loading: a prospective clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Tahmaseb; R. de Clerck; I. Aartman; D. Wismeijer

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of a computer-aided three-dimensional planning protocol in combination with previously inserted reference mini-implants and CAD/CAM technology to restore completely edentulous patients. The study evaluated implant and superstructure survival in a prospective clin

  19. Adolescent-parent interactions and attitudes around screen time and sugary drink consumption: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howlett Sarah A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how adolescents and their parents interact and talk about some of the key lifestyle behaviors that are associated with overweight and obesity, such as screen time (ST and sugary drink (SD consumption. This qualitative study aimed to explore adolescents' and parents' perceptions, attitudes, and interactions in regards to these topics. Methods Using an exploratory approach, semi-structured focus groups were conducted separately with adolescents and (unrelated parents. Participants were recruited from low and middle socio-economic areas in the Sydney metropolitan area and a regional area of New South Wales, Australia. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis for each of the four content areas (adolescent-ST, adolescent-SD consumption, parents' views on adolescents' ST and parents' views on adolescents' SD consumption. Results Nine focus groups, with a total of 63 participants, were conducted. Broad themes spanned all groups: patterns of behavior; attitudes and concerns; adolescent-parent interactions; strategies for behavior change; and awareness of ST guidelines. While parents and adolescents described similar patterns of behaviour in relation to adolescents' SD consumption and ST, there were marked differences in their attitudes to these two behaviours which were also evident in the adolescent-parent interactions in the home that they described. Parents felt able to limit adolescents' access to SDs, but felt unable to control their adolescents' screen time. Conclusion This study offers unique insights regarding topics rarely explored with parents or adolescents, yet which are part of everyday family life, are known to be linked to risk of weight gain, and are potentially amenable to change.

  20. Health awareness and behavior among adolescent students in a rural school: a cross sectional observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Varshil Mehta; Anusha Bhat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to many health issues. Studies in Indian literature have documented low health awareness and many health related issues in adolescents. The aim and objective of the study was to evaluate health awareness and behavior among adolescents studying in a rural school in Maharashtra, India. Methods: A cross-sectional, quantitative, observational questionnaire-based survey was conducted among high school students between 15 to 19 years of age stu...

  1. Spinal pain and nutrition in adolescents - an exploratory cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Oddy Wendy H; Straker Leon M; Perry Mark C; O'Sullivan Peter B; Smith Anne J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Spinal pain is an important health issue for adolescents resulting in functional limitations for many and increasing the risk of spinal pain in adulthood. Whilst human and animal studies suggest nutrition could influence spinal pain, this has not been investigated in adolescents. The objective of this exploratory cross sectional study was to evaluate associations between diet and adolescent spinal pain. Methods This study surveyed the spinal pain (neck and back) and nutrit...

  2. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN DYNAMIC WINDOW SECURED IMPLICIT GEOGRAPHIC FORWARDING ROUTING PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Idris Umar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An Ideal WSNs should operate with the least possible energy required in order to increase the lifetime of the sensor nodes and at the same time, ensure network connectivity. But the Inherent power limitation makes power-awareness a critical requirement for WSN, this calls for the need to manage energy in sensor nodes. Also In order to ensure successful transmission of data from sensor node source to destination, it becomes necessary to maintain network availability. The network must be resilient to individual node failure which can happen due to zero power posses by the node and due to security attacks posed on the node and the network. Dynamic Window Secured Implicit Geographic Forwarding (DWSIGF routing protocol has proven to be robust, efficient and resistant to some security attack which causes failure in network availability. However the extent to which energy is consumed in sensor nodes which deploys DWSIGF as its routing protocol has never been mentioned. In this research, we performed a comparative study on energy consumption in DWSIGF routing protocol. Using the first order radio model, we determined the energy consumed in a network. The protocol (DWSIGF is matched up against its counterpart SIGF as the traffic is increased. Observation shows that DWSIGF due to the variable timing assigned to the CTS collection window, CTS signal fails to reach destination as collection window time expires, thus the need for retransmission. This in turn consumes more energy than the counterpart SIGF which has a fixed CTS collection time. The simulation work was done using Matlab 7.0. Energy consumed in the random variant of both protocols (DWSIGF and SIGF was also observed to be higher than the priority variant of the protocols.

  3. Laboratory-Based Studies of Eating among Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Haynos, Ann F; Kotler, Lisa A; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of pediatric overweight has increased dramatically over the past three decades, likely due to changes in food intake as well as physical activity. Therefore, information examining eating patterns among children and adolescents is needed to illuminate which aspects of eating behavior require modification to prevent and treat pediatric overweight. Because child self-report and parent-report of children's eating habits are often inconsistent and limited by recall and other biases, laboratory-based studies in which food intake is observed and monitored have increased in number. Such studies offer objective and controlled methods of measuring and describing eating behaviors. However, to our knowledge, no publication exists that consolidates, reviews, and provides critical commentary on the literature to date in pediatric samples. In this paper, we review the literature of studies utilizing laboratory methods to examine eating behavior in samples ranging from birth through adolescence. Our review includes all relevant articles retrieved from the PubMed, Medline and PsychInfo search engines. Specifically, we examine meal-feeding studies conducted during the various developmental stages (infancy, preschool, middle childhood, and adolescence), with a focus on methodology. Included in our review are feeding studies related to dietary regulation, exposure and preference, as well as paradigms examining disordered eating patterns and their relationship to body composition. We have structured this review so that both consistent and inconsistent findings are presented by age group, and innovative methods of assessment are discussed in more detail. Following each section, we summarize findings and draw potential conclusions from the available data. We then discuss clinical implications of the research data and suggest directions for the next generation of studies of feeding behavior in children. PMID:19030122

  4. Determinants of Internet Addiction among Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

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    Artemis Tsitsika

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet Addiction (IA is associated with adverse psychosocial development and mental disorders. The study aims were to evaluate the psychosocial profiles and psychiatric comorbidities associated with IA among adolescents. A case-control study was conducted among 129 adolescents in the outpatient setting of the Adolescent Health Unit of the Second University Department of Pediatrics in Athens, Greece. The case group consisted of 86 adolescents with IA as evaluated following psychiatric interview with two independent examiners. The control group consisted of 43 adolescents without IA, frequency matched for age and gender with case group participants. The study findings indicated that adolescents with IA were significantly more likely to have divorced parents (p = 0.012 and/or dysfunctional familial relationships (p < 0.0001. The proportion of adolescents with poor academic performance (p < 0.0001 and unexcused school absences (p = 0.004 was greater among those with IA. Moreover, approximately two-thirds of the adolescents with IA were engaged in high-risk behaviors (p < 0.0001. Finally, adolescents with IA were 3.89 times more likely to present with comorbid psychiatric conditions (CI 95%: 1.19–12.70, including depression (10.5 vs. 0%; p = 0.022. Adolescent IA is associated with deterred familial functions, poor academic performance, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and an augmented likelihood for depression.

  5. Assessment of self-awareness among rural adolescents: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Bilas Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adolescence is a period of biological, cognitive and social transition of such magnitude and rapidity that it is no surprise to find that it is associated with the onset or exacerbation of a number of health-related problems. It is the level of self-awareness among adolescents, which enables them to see where their thoughts and emotions take them. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the extent of awareness regarding adolescent changes/problems among school going adolescents. Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study and was carried out in Block Beri, District, Jhajjar (Haryana. Materials and Methods: A sample of 320 adolescent students of 9 th -12 th classes (80 from each school were selected from four randomly chosen large Government senior secondary schools with strength of more than 250 students (two girls and two boys/co-ed senior secondary schools. Data were collected on predesigned, pre-tested and semi-structured schedules by conducting in-depth interviews of selected study adolescents by the investigator. Statistical Analysis Used: Percentages, proportions, Chi-square test, Chi-square test with Yate′s correction and t-test. Results: Out of 320, 212 (66.3% study adolescents were aware of at least one adolescent change(s whereas, when probed and further asked to enumerate the changes taking place in them, 272/320 (85% adolescents could narrate at least one such change. Out of those 272, 24 (8.82% (95% CI 6.0-12.79 adolescents either did not consider these changes as normal or they did not know whether the changes were normal or abnormal. Conclusions: Adolescents greatly lack correct information related to their bodies′ physiological, psychological and sexual changes. There is an urgent need for regular adolescent friendly information, education and communication activities covering different aspects of adolescent knowledge needs/problems.

  6. [Genome-wide association study for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Yoji; Kou, Ikuyo; Scoliosis, Japan; Matsumoto, Morio; Watanabe, Kota; Ikegawa, Shiro

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis(AIS)is a polygenic disease. Genome-wide association studies(GWASs)have been performed for a lot of polygenic diseases. For AIS, we conducted GWAS and identified the first AIS locus near LBX1. After the discovery, we have extended our study by increasing the numbers of subjects and SNPs. In total, our Japanese GWAS has identified four susceptibility genes. GWASs for AIS have also been performed in the USA and China, which identified one and three susceptibility genes, respectively. Here we review GWASs in Japan and abroad and functional analysis to clarify the pathomechanism of AIS. PMID:27013625

  7. Adolescent girls' views on cosmetic surgery: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga; Ayers, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent girls' views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15-18 years (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1) dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery and (4) cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosmetic surgery varies according to the reasons for having it and that the media play an important role by normalising surgery and under-representing the risks associated with it. PMID:24591119

  8. Efficacy of family mediation and the role of family violence: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Cleak, Helen; Schofield, Margot; Bickerdike, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Family law reforms in Australia require separated parents in dispute to attempt mandatory family dispute resolution (FDR) in community-based family services before court attendance. However, there are concerns about such services when clients present with a history of high conflict and family violence. This study protocol describes a longitudinal study of couples presenting for family mediation services. The study aims to describe the profile of family mediation clients, including ...

  9. A Pilot Study Involving the Effect of Two Different Complex Training Protocols on Lower Body Power

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Chad E.; Lyons Brian; Hannon James C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Complex training (CT) involves the coupling of two exercises ostensibly to enhance the effect of the second exercise. Typically, the first exercise is a strength exercise and the second exercise is a power exercise involving similar muscles. In most cases, CT is designed to enhance power. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, this study was designed to determine if lower body power could be enhanced using complex training protocols. Second, this study investigated whether the...

  10. Interpersonal relationships, coping strategies and Problematic Internet Use in adolescence: an Italian study

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Milani

    2009-01-01

    In a few years the Internet has become one of the most relevant means of socialization and entertainment for Italian adolescents. Studies have established a correlation between poor interpersonal relationship, poor cognitive coping strategies and Problematic Internet Use. The aim of the research was to study the characteristics and correlates of Problematic Internet Use in an Italian sample of adolescents. 98 Italian adolescents aged 14-19 were administered checklists assessing Problematic In...

  11. Predictors of sexual risk behaviour among adolescents from welfare institutions in Malaysia: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Farid, Nik Daliana Nik; Rus, Sulaiman Che'; Dahlui, Maznah; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Background In welfare institutions, it is essential to address the health-related needs of adolescent populations who often engage in sexual activities. This study examines the association between individual and interpersonal factors concerning sexual risk behaviour (SRB) among adolescents in welfare institutions in Malaysia. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study of 1082 adolescents in 22 welfare institutions located across Peninsular Malaysia in 2009. Using supervised self-a...

  12. Association of lifestyle habits and academic achievement in Norwegian adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Stea, Tonje H; Torstveit, Monica K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: While healthy lifestyle habits are generally assumed to be important for high academic achievement, there has been little research on this topic among adolescents. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the associations between several lifestyle habits and academic achievement in adolescent girls and boys. Methods: The study included 2,432 Norwegian adolescents, 15–17 years old. A self-report questionnaire was used to assess dietary-, physical activity-, smokin...

  13. Patterns of sedentary behavior and compliance with public health recommendations in Spanish adolescents: the AFINOS study.

    OpenAIRE

    David Martínez Gómez; Veiga, Oscar L; Belén Zapatera; Verónica Cabanas-Sánchez; Sonia Gomez-Martinez; David Martinez-Hernández; Ascensión Marcos

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the present study were: (i) describe patterns of sedentary behavior in Spanish adolescents; and (ii) determine the proportion of adolescents that do not meet the public health recommendations for sedentary behavior. This study comprised 1,724 Spanish adolescents (882 girls), aged 13 to 16 years. Patterns of sedentary behavior (TV viewing, use of computer games, console games and surfing the Internet) were assessed using the HELENA sedentary behavior questionnaire. The total propor...

  14. Bridging the gap between comprehensive extraction protocols in plant metabolomics studies and method validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; Van der Auwera, Anastasia; Foubert, Kenn; Voorspoels, Stefan; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    It is vital to pay much attention to the design of extraction methods developed for plant metabolomics, as any non-extracted or converted metabolites will greatly affect the overall quality of the metabolomics study. Method validation is however often omitted in plant metabolome studies, as the well-established methodologies for classical targeted analyses such as recovery optimization cannot be strictly applied. The aim of the present study is to thoroughly evaluate state-of-the-art comprehensive extraction protocols for plant metabolomics with liquid chromatography-photodiode array-accurate mass mass spectrometry (LC-PDA-amMS) by bridging the gap with method validation. Validation of an extraction protocol in untargeted plant metabolomics should ideally be accomplished by validating the protocol for all possible outcomes, i.e. for all secondary metabolites potentially present in the plant. In an effort to approach this ideal validation scenario, two plant matrices were selected based on their wide versatility of phytochemicals: meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) for its polyphenols content, and spicy paprika powder (from the genus Capsicum) for its apolar phytochemicals content (carotenoids, phytosterols, capsaicinoids). These matrices were extracted with comprehensive extraction protocols adapted from literature and analysed with a generic LC-PDA-amMS characterization platform that was previously validated for broad range phytochemical analysis. The performance of the comprehensive sample preparation protocols was assessed based on extraction efficiency, repeatability and intermediate precision and on ionization suppression/enhancement evaluation. The manuscript elaborates on the finding that none of the extraction methods allowed to exhaustively extract the metabolites. Furthermore, it is shown that depending on the extraction conditions enzymatic degradation mechanisms can occur. Investigation of the fractions obtained with the different extraction methods

  15. Adolescents Aspiration and Their Parental Relations: A Study among Rural School Going Adolescents in a Block of Darjeeling District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents’ future aspirations and expectations are important precursor of adult attainment. Objectives: To document rural adolescents’ understanding of their aspirations and the problems they face for achieving them. The relationship of adolescents with their family and how they feel about themselves have also been determined. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among school-going adolescents of Fashidewa block of Darjeeling district from July to October, 2007. A total of 420 students comprised the study population. Results - Among them, 41.4%, responded that they want to pursue a professional career in future. Poverty was found to be the commonest obstacle. The commonest problem-solving method was having discussions with friends. The study revealed that 56.4% of the adolescents communicated their problem and about 27.6% of them had conflict with their parents in last one year. Conclusion: Interventions at the community level like youth clubs for safe social interaction and literacy classes, training of peer educators to teach life-skills, forums for parents and teachers to discuss their own concerns and those of the adolescents may help to design programmes that will contribute to greater financial independence and employment opportunities for adolescents

  16. Cortical thickness in adolescent marijuana and alcohol users: A three-year prospective study from adolescence to young adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jacobus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest marijuana impacts gray and white matter neural tissue development, however few prospective studies have determined the relationship between cortical thickness and cannabis use spanning adolescence to young adulthood. This study aimed to understand how heavy marijuana use influences cortical thickness trajectories across adolescence. Subjects were adolescents with heavy marijuana use and concomitant alcohol use (MJ + ALC, n = 30 and controls (CON, n = 38 with limited substance use histories. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and comprehensive substance use assessment at three independent time points. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to look at main effects of group, time, and Group × Time interactions on cortical thickness. MJ + ALC showed thicker cortical estimates across the brain (23 regions, particularly in frontal and parietal lobes (ps < .05. More cumulative marijuana use was associated with increased thickness estimates by 3-year follow-up (ps < .05. Heavy marijuana use during adolescence and into young adulthood may be associated with altered neural tissue development and interference with neuromaturation that can have neurobehavioral consequences. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will help understand ongoing neural changes that are associated with development of problematic use into adulthood, as well as potential for neural recovery with cessation of use.

  17. Writing Homer, Reading Riordan: Intertextual Study in Contemporary Adolescent Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Amy

    2011-01-01

    When readers of contemporary adolescent literature are encouraged to participate in conversations about what is considered canonical literature, the literary value of adolescent reading expands past narrowly defined borders. Several recent adolescent novels provide access to the classics and may generate interest among middle school students in…

  18. Association of physical activity with cognition, metacognition and academic performance in children and adolescents: a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Bueno, Celia; Pesce, Caterina; Cavero-Redondo, Iván; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Pardo-Guijarro, María Jesús; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Schools provide a relevant context for improving children's and adolescents’ physical and mental health by increasing physical activity during school hours and/or beyond. The interest in the relationship between physical activity programmes and cognition during development has recently increased, with evidence suggesting a positive association. We present a protocol of systematic reviews and meta-analysis of intervention studies that, by determining the effects of chronic physica...

  19. [Eating disorders in early adolescence--study from the section on young adolescent nutrition in Jerusalem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, N; Halevy, A

    2000-04-01

    Young adolescents were assessed with regard to cognitive, socio-cultural and behavioral components of eating disturbances. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to 5th-8th grade pupils, 280 girls and 251 boys, to assess eating habits, body image, self-confidence, environmental-cultural influences, risk behaviors and socio-economic state. Girls scored consistently higher on all weight-control behaviors. Discontent with own body, and attitudes and behaviors associated with eating disorders, were reported by under-studied populations such as boys and younger girls. Both frequency and severity of weight-control behaviors were associated with "social age." Highly significant differences between scores of 6th and 7th graders indicate that they may be at a time of increased susceptibility. Measuring the influence of the mass media gave inconsistent results. PMID:10883175

  20. The CAP study, evaluation of integrated universal and selective prevention strategies for youth alcohol misuse: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Nicola C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse amongst young people is a serious concern. The need for effective prevention is clear, yet there appear to be few evidenced-based programs that prevent alcohol misuse and none that target both high and low-risk youth. The CAP study addresses this gap by evaluating the efficacy of an integrated approach to alcohol misuse prevention, which combines the effective universal internet-based Climate Schools program with the effective selective personality-targeted Preventure program. This article describes the development and protocol of the CAP study which aims to prevent alcohol misuse and related harms in Australian adolescents. Methods/Design A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT is being conducted with Year 8 students aged 13 to 14-years-old from 27 secondary schools in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Blocked randomisation was used to assign schools to one of four groups; Climate Schools only, Preventure only, CAP (Climate Schools and Preventure, or Control (alcohol, drug and health education as usual. The primary outcomes of the trial will be the uptake and harmful use of alcohol and alcohol related harms. Secondary outcomes will include alcohol and cannabis related knowledge, cannabis related harms, intentions to use, and mental health symptomatology. All participants will complete assessments on five occasions; baseline; immediately post intervention, and at 12, 24 and 36 months post baseline. Discussion This study protocol presents the design and current implementation of a cluster RCT to evaluate the efficacy of the CAP study; an integrated universal and selective approach to prevent alcohol use and related harms among adolescents. Compared to students who receive the stand-alone universal Climate Schools program or alcohol and drug education as usual (Controls, we expect the students who receive the CAP intervention to have significantly less uptake of alcohol use, a reduction in average

  1. Stream Control Transmission Protocol as a Transport for SIP: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe De Marco

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The dominant signalling protocol both in future wireless and wired networks will be the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP, as pointed out in the 3G IP-based mobile networks specifications, entailing a fully Internet integrated network. The use of SIP in the IP Multimedia Subsytem (IMS of Release 5 involves the development of servers capable to handle a large number of call requests. The signaling traffic associated to such requests could explode, if an intelligent congestion control were not introduced. Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP was born to support transport of SS7 signaling messages. However, many of the SCTP features are also useful for transport of SIP messages, as: congestion control mechanism, good separation among independent messages, multihoming. Indeed, adoption of SCTP as transport of SIP signaling might prove useful in some situations where usual transport protocols, like TCP and UDP, suffer performance degradation. In this paper, we analyse the general framework wherein SIP operates and we discuss the benefits of using SCTP as a transport for SIP, toward fair sharing of network resources. This study is carried on in the context of the implementation of an high-performance SIP Proxy Server. We also present some preliminar results of an implementation of SIP over SCTP/UDP in a real LAN environment.

  2. A Study of Medium Access Control Protocols for Wireless Body Area Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ullah, Sana; Islam, S M Riazul; Khan, Pervez; Saleem, Shahnaz; Kwak, Kyung Sup; 10.3390/s100100128

    2010-01-01

    The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements, including low-power consumption. In this paper, we first outline the WBAN requirements that are important for the design of a low-power MAC protocol. Then we study low-power MAC protocols proposed/investigated for a WBAN with emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. We also review different power-efficient mechanisms for a WBAN. In addition, useful suggestions are given to help the MAC designers to develop a low-power MAC protocol that will satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements.

  3. Reduction in gastrointestinal bleeding by development and implementation of a protocol for stress ulcer prophylaxis: a before-after study

    OpenAIRE

    Ikemura, Mai; Nakasako, Shinji; Seo, Ryutaro; Atsumi, Takahiro; Ariyoshi, Koichi; Hashida, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Background The implementation of a protocol has been associated with improvements in the processes of care in clinical settings. Although stress ulcer prophylaxis is recommended for critically ill patients at high risk, there is currently no consensus on its use. Therefore, we herein developed a protocol for stress ulcer prophylaxis, and evaluated therapeutic outcomes in a before-after study. Methods The protocol was developed by considering the effectiveness, disadvantages (including adverse...

  4. Disinfection Contact Time study plan (100-N Area tracer protocol). Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Hanford, Inc. will prepare an Engineering Tracer Study Protocol for the determination of contact time for the disinfection process at Group A Non-transient Non-community water treatment plant for the 100-N Water Plant at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Included in this report are the results of a study that determine the actual detention time within the plant clearwell, and thus the disinfection contact time at several clearwell effluent flow rates

  5. Anorexia in the Adolescence - case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida de Paiva, Maria O

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders lead to special biological and psychological states. The result of the total lack of food is treated in a distinct way by anorexia. Nutritionists have thus had difficulty in coming to an agreement on the best therapy to prevent such disorders. First it is essential to understand which treatment aims are and then to attempt to know how the several treatment models used nowadays can reach those aims. Someone who suffers from eating disorders, together with an inner deformation, suffers from too much sensitiveness. In order to solve these problems, one needs a change in the relationship with oneself, with the others and with the world. This study presents a teenager’s case study – Anorexia. Is, in fact, a problem that society faces and can’t ignore. Many youngsters have already died and others are following their steps. But there are also those ones that succeeded in overcoming the problem and now are reporting their stories.

  6. Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

  7. Study Habits and Academic Achievement of Kashmiri & Ladakhi Adolescent Girls: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, N. A.; Puja, Javeed Ahamd; Bhat, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to study the Study Habits and Academic Achievement of Adolescents girls in Jammu and Kashmir. 400 sample subjects were selected randomly from two ethnic groups' viz. Kashmiri and Ladakhi. The investigators used Palsane & Sharma's study habits inventory (PSSHI) to collect data from the field. Certain…

  8. Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Pedersen, Nadia; Ramstad, Erica;

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the harmful effects of methylphenidate treatment for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in non-randomised studies.......This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the harmful effects of methylphenidate treatment for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in non-randomised studies....

  9. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindfors Pirjo L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey. The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%; and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%. Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying

  10. Adolescent-parent interactions and attitudes around screen time and sugary drink consumption: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Howlett Sarah A; King Lesley A; Shrewsbury Vanessa A; Hattersley Libby A; Hardy Louise L; Baur Louise A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Little is known about how adolescents and their parents interact and talk about some of the key lifestyle behaviors that are associated with overweight and obesity, such as screen time (ST) and sugary drink (SD) consumption. This qualitative study aimed to explore adolescents' and parents' perceptions, attitudes, and interactions in regards to these topics. Methods Using an exploratory approach, semi-structured focus groups were conducted separately with adolescents and (u...

  11. Fluid intake in Spanish children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Miguel Fenández-Alvira; Iris Iglesia; Cíntia Ferreira-Pego; Nancy Babio; Jordi Salas-Salvadó; Luis A. Moreno

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Some studies demonstrated that dehydration process is prevalent among young populations and subsequently, a cause of concern. However, the evaluation of the fluid consumption pattern of children and adolescent populations has not been widely assessed. Objective: To evaluate the total fluid intake from different types of beverages in Spanish children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 238 children and adolescents aged 3-17 years were randomly recruited from all Spanish regions....

  12. Nutritional Status of Adolescent Girls in Rural Area of Kolar District -A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sarithareddy; A.V. Deepa; H.R. Shivaramakrishna

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the nutritional status of adolescent girls in selected villages of the Kolar district. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of two months. 230 adolescent girls of age 10–19 years were selected randomly. Data was collected by interviewing the adolescent girls using predesigned and pre tested Proforma. Various statistical applications like percentiles, mean, standard deviation and proportions were used for analysis of the data. Resu...

  13. Sleep complaints in adolescent depression: one year naturalistic follow-up study

    OpenAIRE

    Urrila, Anna S; Karlsson, Linnea; Kiviruusu, Olli; Pankakoski, Maiju; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Strandholm, Thea; Marttunen, Mauri; ,

    2014-01-01

    Background Sleep complaints are highly prevalent in adolescents suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The aims of this study were to describe the longitudinal course of sleep complaints, and to assess the association between sleep complaints and clinical outcome in a sample of adolescents with MDD during naturalistic follow-up. Methods A sample of adolescent outpatients (n = 166; age 13–19 years, 17.5% boys) diagnosed with MDD was followed-up during one year in naturalistic settings...

  14. Role of parenting styles in adolescent substance use: results from a Swedish longitudinal cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, J.; Sundell, K; Öjehagen, A; Håkansson, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adolescent substance use is an area of concern because early substance use is associated with a higher risk of adverse outcomes. Parenting style, defined as the general style of parenting, as well as substance-specific parenting practices may influence children's substance use behaviour. The present study aims to probe the impact of parenting style on adolescent substance use. Method A cohort of 1268 adolescents (48% girls), aged 12–13 years at baseline, from 21 junior high schools ...

  15. Video Game Playing Effects on Obesity in an Adolescent with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Strahan, Brandy E.; Elder, Jennifer H.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has tripled in the past two decades, and adolescents with disabilities, specifically autism spectrum disorders (ASD), may be at greater risk for obesity due to the behavioral, physical, and psychosocial complications related to their disorder. This case study reports the effects of video game playing on an obese adolescent with ASD and illustrates the use of a multiple baseline single subject design. Over 12 weeks, the participant played inactive (6 weeks) and active video ...

  16. Adolescent-parent interactions and communication preferences regarding body weight and weight management: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Howlett Sarah A; Hattersley Libby A; King Lesley A; Shrewsbury Vanessa A; Hardy Louise L; Baur Louise A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aimed to canvass the nature of adolescent-parent interactions about weight, particularly overweight, and to explore ideas of how to foster supportive discussions regarding weight, both in the home and with family doctors. Methods A market research company was contracted to recruit and conduct a series of separate focus groups with adolescents and unrelated parents of adolescents from low-middle socio-economic areas in Sydney and a regional centre, Australia. Gro...

  17. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Salazar-Pousada; Dalton Arroyo; Luis Hidalgo; Pérez-López, Faustino R.; Peter Chedraui

    2010-01-01

    Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS), respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adult...

  18. Exploring the risk factors contributing to suicide attempt among adolescents: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Bazrafshan, Mohammad-Rafi; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Molazem, Zahra; Mani, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Background: Since suicide attempt among adolescents is a major challenge and the reasons why this age group attempt suicide are complex, the aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors that contribute to suicide attempt among adolescents. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative content analysis, 14 adolescents (12–19 years old) who were admitted in two hospitals in Shiraz, Iran, were interviewed. Participants who tried attempt suicide with medication were selected by purposive sa...

  19. Mental Health and Community Violence Among Adolescents in Indonesia (School-Based Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Utama, Budhi

    2014-01-01

    Research consistently reported that adolescents experienced high levels of exposure to community violence in the their life. There is a trend that adolescents in several cities in Indonesia exposed to violence in the community. The community violence among adolescents also affects their mental health problems. However, there are limited number of studies looking at the prevalence and association between exposure to community violence and mental health in developing countries such as Indonesia...

  20. Sleep Promotion Program for Improving Sleep Behaviors in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    John, Bindu; Bellipady, Sumanth Shetty; Bhat, Shrinivasa Undaru

    2016-01-01

    Aims. The purpose of this pilot trial was to determine the efficacy of sleep promotion program to adapt it for the use of adolescents studying in various schools of Mangalore, India, and evaluate the feasibility issues before conducting a randomized controlled trial in a larger sample of adolescents. Methods. A randomized controlled trial design with stratified random sampling method was used. Fifty-eight adolescents were selected (mean age: 14.02 ± 2.15 years; intervention group, n=34; contr...

  1. Nutrition and lifestyle in european adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luis A; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Ruiz, Jonatan R; González-Gross, Marcela; DeHenauw, Stefaan

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is a critical period, because major physical and psychologic changes occur during a very short period of time. Changes in dietary habits may induce different types of nutritional disorders and are likely to track into adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the key findings related to nutritional status in European adolescents participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. We performed a cross-sectional study in 3528 (1845 females) adolescents aged 12.5–17.5 y. Birth weight was negatively associated with abdominal fat mass in adolescents and serum leptin concentrations (in female adolescents), providing additional evidence for a programming effect of birth weight on energy homeostasis control. Breakfast consumption was associated with lower body fat content and healthier cardiovascular profile. Adolescents eat half of the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables and less than two-thirds of the recommended amount of milk and milk products but consume more meat and meat products, fats, and sweets than recommended. For beverage consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweetened milk, low-fat milk, and fruit juice provided the highest amount of energy. Although the intakes of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and salt were high, the intake of polyunsaturated FAs was low. Adolescents spent, on average, 9 h/d of their waking time (66–71% and 70–73% of the registered time in boys and girls, respectively) in sedentary activities. Factors associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior included the following: 1) age; 2) media availability in the bedroom; 3) sleeping time; 4) breakfast consumption; and 5) season. Sedentary time was also associated with cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral content. In European adolescents, deficient concentrations were identified for plasma folate (15%), vitamin D (15%), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (5%), β-carotene (25%), and vitamin E (5%). Scientists and public

  2. Current trends in study of xenophobia in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malantseva O.D.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Xenophobia is one of the most topical problems of the modern world which attains special significance in view of its extension among adolescents. The article regards the results of the latest studies of xenophobia in works of foreign scholars, as well as mechanisms of its emergence and the ways of preventing it. In the course of analysis of the latest findings of foreign investigators three main directions in study of xenophobia were singled out: investigations at the level of individual psychological processes; investigations at the level of group processes; investigations at the level of cultural, public processes. The directions of xenophobia studies mentioned above make it possible to determine the main forms of xenophobia prophylaxis among adolescents; development of socio-cultural competence, enlargement of capabilities and choice of various forms of inter-racial and inter-national cooperation; inclusion of conciliation techniques for resolution of individual and intergroup conflicts into educational process at school sites; discussion and analysis of different views on the events taking place in the contemporary world.

  3. The precautionary principle as a provisional instrument in environmental policy: The Montreal Protocol case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • I examine whether a policy invoked under the Precautionary Principle can move beyond provisional status. • I review the certainty of conclusions based upon the Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project. • There is high certainty that anthropogenic ozone depletion has health consequences in polar regions. • Current research focuses on long term projections of risk that perpetuates high uncertainty. • Establishment of a community to generate Assessments acts to perpetuate the period of uncertainty. - Abstract: Environmental studies identify possible threats to the health of the public or the environment when the scientific certainty of risk is low, but the potential cost is high. Governments may respond by invoking the Precautionary Principle, holding that scientific certainty is not required to take actions that reduce possible risk. EU guidelines suggest that precautionary measures remain provisional until sufficient scientific certainty is generated. Here I study the Scientific Assessments produced for the Montreal Protocol, and the scientific community that generates them, and ask whether a long-standing program of scientific investigation and monitoring can generate sufficient scientific certainty to move beyond dependence on the Precautionary Principle. When the Montreal Protocol was ratified, many scientists strongly suspected that anthropogenic substances like chlorofluorocarbons were depleting stratospheric ozone. Although the risk was uncertain, the perceived cost to public health of ozone depletion was high. A quarter century after formulating the Montreal Protocol, science can define the conditions for ozone depletion with great certainty, but uncertainty remains in determining the scale and distribution of the attributable increase in damaging ultra-violet (UV) radiation. Organisations, such as NASA, and scientists that contribute to the Scientific Assessments comprise the community in which the scientific consensus of risk is

  4. Gravidez na adolescência: estudo comparativo Adolescent pregnancy: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Viviana Lopez Alegria

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se uma população de 349 mulheres que deram à luz no período de 01/05/86 a 31/07/86, num Serviço de Obstetrícia da Grande São Paulo. Os resultados revelam que o grupo de gestantes adolescentes (22,2% teve uma assistência pré-natal deficiente, já que a grande maioria (70,6% teve a primeira consulta no segundo trimestre, tendo em média duas consultas. Durante a gestação, este grupo apresentou menor incidência de patologias com tratamento ambulatorial (39,3% e hospitalar (7,9%, em comparação com as gestantes adultas (44,4% e 14,7%, respectivamente. Em relação ao tipo de parto, as adolescentes apresentaram maior proporção de partos operatórios, sendo 25,7% por fórceps e 22,9% cesárea, contra 14,7% e 19,7% nas gestantes adultas, respectivamente. Verificou-se nas gestantes adolescentes maior proporção de intercorrências intraparto (12,9% contra 8,2% nas gestantes adultas, predominando neste período a hemorragia e a toxemia. Quanto as intercorrências no puerpério, estas se verificaram em 15,7% das gestantes adolescentes e era 11,8% das adultas, sendo a anemia pós-parto, a toxemia e a infecção puerperal as patologias mais comuns.A population of 349 women who gave birth, in an Obstetric Clinic in Greater S. Paulo, Brazil, during the period from 01/05/86 to 31/07/86 were studied. The results show that the group of pregnant adolescents (22.2% received inadequate prenatal assistance, as the large majority of them (70.6% started consultations during the second trimester of their pregnancy, and had an average of two consultations. During pregnancy this group presented a lower incidence of pathological disorders leading to out-patient and hospital treatment (39.3% and 7.9%, respectively than did the adult pregnant women (44.4% and 14.7%, respectively. With regard to the type of delivery, the adolescents underwent a larger proportion of surgical deliveries, 25.7% of forceps births and 22.9% of cesarian sections, as

  5. Parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being: a longitudinal study in a Chinese context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T

    1999-02-01

    In this longitudinal study, the relationships between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being were examined in a sample of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents (N = 378). The results indicated that global parenting styles and specific parenting behaviors are concurrently related to hopelessness, life satisfaction, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 1 and Time 2. Longitudinal and prospective analyses (Time 1 predictors of Time 2 criterion variables) suggested that the relations between parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are bidirectional in nature. The results indicated that the strengths of association between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are stronger in female than in male adolescents. Relative to maternal parenting characteristics, paternal parenting was found to exert a stronger influence on adolescent psychological well-being. PMID:10063611

  6. An Internationally Comparative Study of Immigration and Adolescent Emotional and Behavioral Problems : Effects of Generation and Gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Walsh, Sophie D; Huijts, Tim; Maes, Marlies; Madsen, Katrine Rich; Cavallo, Franco; Molcho, Michal

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although the potential consequences of immigration for adolescent problem behaviors have been addressed in many former studies, internationally comparative research is scarce. This study investigated the impact of immigration on four indicators of adolescents' emotional and behavioral probl

  7. School-Based Stress Management Training for Adolescents: Longitudinal Results from an Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Petra; Meier, Manuela; Kummel, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based universal preventive stress management training program for early and middle adolescents in comparison with a no-treatment control group. The study examined the intervention effects of age (early versus middle adolescents) and gender on perceived stress, interpersonal coping, and…

  8. A One Year Study of Mode Deactivation Therapy: Adolescent Residential Patients with Conduct and Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Christopher J.; Siv, Alexander M.

    2011-01-01

    This case study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) implementation in a child and adolescent residential treatment unit and provide preliminary effectiveness data on MDT versus treatment as usual (TAU). This case study compared the efficacy of two treatment methodologies for adolescent males in residential treatment…

  9. Effectiveness Study of a CBT-Based Adolescent Coping with Depression Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvik, Margit; Idsoe, Thormod; Bru, Edvin

    2014-01-01

    Even though the efficacy of group-based cognitive behavioural interventions is well established both for adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorders as well as for adolescents with depressive symptoms, in order to prevent further development, there has been a call for effectiveness studies in real world settings. This study investigated…

  10. Pilot Study of Community-Based Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents with Social Phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Susan; Garland, E. Jane

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for adolescents with social phobia, simplified both in terms of time and labor intensity from a previously studied program (Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children and Adolescents) to be more appropriate for a community outpatient psychiatric…

  11. Bupropion SR in Adolescents with Comorbid ADHD and Nicotine Dependence: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Wang, Wei

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Bupropion SR has been shown to be effective for the treatment of nicotine dependence in adults. This open-label pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility and preliminary tolerability of bupropion SR in adolescents with nicotine dependence. Method: Sixteen adolescents aged 12 to 19 years were enrolled in the study. Eleven of…

  12. Neurobiology of Decision Making in Depressed Adolescents: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shad, Mujeeb U.; Bidesi, Anup P.; Chen, Li-Ann; Ernst, Monique; Rao, Uma

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Despite evidence that impaired reward- and risk-related behavior during adolescence can have potentially serious short- and long-term consequences, few studies have investigated the impact of depression on reward-related selection in adolescents. This study examined the relationship between reward-related behavior and prefrontal…

  13. Prediction of Postpartum Social Support and Symptoms of Depression in Pregnant Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logsdon, M. Cynthia; Cross, Rene; Williams, Beverly; Simpson, Theresa

    2004-01-01

    Many pregnant adolescents remain in school, creating unique challenges for professionals to meet their educational and health needs. In this descriptive pilot study of pregnant adolescents (n = 26), 68% demonstrated symptoms of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). In addition, there was an…

  14. Proposed computerized protocol for epidemiological study of patients undergoing microsurgery of the larynx

    OpenAIRE

    Catani, Guilherme Simas do Amaral; Carvalho, Bettina; Ido Filho, Jorge Massaaki; Macedo Filho, Evaldo Dacheux de; Pinto, José Simão de Paula; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Stahlke Junior, Henrique Jorge, 1942-

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The merging of medicine with information technology facilitates the retrieval of stored data, aiding the conduct of research with greater scientific rigor. Studies in the field of otorhinolaryngology, specifically in the area of laryngology and voice, are of fundamental importance, since 70% of the economically active need their voice to work. Objective: To create a computerized protocol of the diseases of the larynx, apply and validate it, and use it to evaluate patient...

  15. Multi-centred mixed-methods PEPFAR HIV care & support public health evaluation: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Fayers Peter; Namisango Eve; Mwangi-Powell Faith; Powell Richard A; Downing Julia; Moreland Scott; McCrone Paul; Penfold Suzanne; Simms Victoria; Harding Richard; Curtis Siân; Higginson Irene J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background A public health response is essential to meet the multidimensional needs of patients and families affected by HIV disease in sub-Saharan Africa. In order to appraise curret provision of HIV care and support in East Africa, and to provide evidence-based direction to future care programming, and Public Health Evaluation was commissioned by the PEPFAR programme of the US Government. Methods/Design This paper described the 2-Phase international mixed methods study protocol uti...

  16. [Heidelberger study on psychoanalytic therapy of children and adolescents: methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrig, H

    1999-11-01

    In the representative studies published so far on the outcome of analytic child psychotherapy (Dührssen 1964; Fonagy and Target 1996) no techniques of treatment were mentioned. The following paper describes in detail the technique of treatment on which the Heidelberg Study "On the Therapeutic Outcome in Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy" is based, as it developed from 1975 to 1993 at the Heidelberg Institute for Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy. Starting from Piaget's findings that the cognitive faculties of a child up to the age of 11 completely differ from those of an adult and taking into consideration the cerebral information processing and "the intellect pervadet sensory" (Schopenhauer) it is demonstrated that children take their intrapsychic and interpersonal conflicts into analytic play therapy or into role play on analogous levels. Protected by a safe distance from being aware of their conflicts they will on the analogous levels understand, work through, partially solve their conflicts and make use of it in reality without conscious recognition. The term "analogous level" is defined and the manifold possibilities of therapeutic intervention on this level are demonstrated. The efficacy of therapeutic treatment on analogous levels is discussed. PMID:10616294

  17. Effectiveness of the universal prevention program 'Healthy School and Drugs': Study protocol of a randomized clustered trial

    OpenAIRE

    Malmberg Monique; Overbeek Geertjan; Kleinjan Marloes; Vermulst Ad; Monshouwer Karin; Lammers Jeroen; Vollebergh Wilma AM; Engels Rutger CME

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Substance use is highly prevalent among Dutch adolescents. The Healthy School and Drugs program is a nationally implemented school-based prevention program aimed at reducing early and excessive substance use among adolescents. Although the program's effectiveness was tested in a quasi-experimental design before, many program changes were made afterwards. The present study, therefore, aims to test the effects of this widely used, renewed universal prevention program. Method...

  18. Protocol for the adolescent hayfever trial: cluster randomised controlled trial of an educational intervention for healthcare professionals for the management of school-age children with hayfever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Aziz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seasonal allergic rhinitis (hayfever is common and can contribute to a considerable reduction in the quality of life of adolescents. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of standardised allergy training for healthcare professionals in improving disease-specific quality of life in adolescents with hayfever. Methods/Design Adolescents with a history of hayfever registered in general practices in Scotland and England were invited to participate in a cluster randomised controlled trial. The unit of randomisation is general practices. The educational intervention for healthcare professionals consists of a short standardised educational course, which focuses on the management of allergic rhinitis. Patients in the intervention arm of this cluster randomised controlled trial will have a clinic appointment with their healthcare professional who has attended the training course. Patients in the control arm will have a clinic appointment with their healthcare professional and will receive usual care. The primary outcome measure is the change in the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire with Standardised Activities (RQLQ(S score between baseline and six weeks post-intervention in the patient intervention and control groups. Secondary outcome measures relate to healthcare professionals' understanding and confidence in managing allergic rhinitis, changes in clinical practice, numbers of consultations for hayfever and adolescent exam performance. A minimum of 11 practices in each arm of the trial (10 patients per cluster will provide at least 80% power to demonstrate a minimal clinically important difference of 0.5 in RQLQ(S score at a significance level of 5% based on an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC of 0.02. Discussion At the time of submission, 24 general practices have been recruited (12 in each arm of the trial and the interventions have been delivered. Follow-up data collection is complete. 230 children

  19. Breakfast habits among European adolescents and their association with sociodemographic factors: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study

    OpenAIRE

    Hallströma, Lena; Gómez Martínez, Sonia; Sjöström, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe breakfast habits at food group level in European adolescents and to investigate the associations between these habits and sociodemographic factors. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Secondary schools from nine European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study. Breakfast habits were assessed twice using a computer-based 24 h dietary recall. Adolescents who consumed breakfast on at least one recall day were clas...

  20. Inhibition control impairments in adolescent smokers: electrophysiological evidence from a Go/NoGo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Junsen; Yuan, Kai; Feng, Dan; Cheng, Jiadong; Li, Yangding; Cai, Chenxi; Bi, Yanzhi; Sha, Shi; Shen, Xiaomin; Zhang, Ben; Xue, Ting; Qin, Wei; Yu, Dahua; Lu, Xiaoqi; Tian, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Smoking during adolescence may promote nicotine dependence later on in life. Therefore, it is extremely important to study the neural mechanisms of adolescent smokers. As inhibition control is emphasized in several contemporary theoretical models of addiction, in the current study, we focused on the electrophysiological evidence of inhibition control deficits in adolescent smokers. By using relatively homogenous groups of adolescent smokers (n = 18) and matched nonsmokers (n = 18), we employed event-related potentials (ERP) to investigate the N200 and P300 amplitude and latency differences during a Go/NoGo task between the adolescent smokers and nonsmokers. Relative to nonsmokers, more NoGo response errors, reduced NoGo P300 amplitude, and longer P300 latency were observed in adolescent smokers. Correlation analysis revealed that the NoGo P300 amplitudes were significantly correlated with NoGo errors in both adolescent smokers and nonsmokers. Our findings provided direct electrophysiological evidence for inhibitory control impairments in adolescent smokers. It is hoped that our results may enhance understanding of the pathology of inhibitory control in adolescent smokers. PMID:26093534

  1. Ostracism among Gifted Adolescents: A Preliminary Study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzeyir Ogurlu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ostracism has an influence on psychological and social functioning. The aim of this study is to examine ostracism among gifted students, with regard to gender and grade levels. Also, the relationship between ostracism and intelligence level was investigated. The study was conducted in a gifted education center, with 94 gifted students who were attending middle school (grades 5-8. The Ostracism Experience Scale for Adolescents and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Revised Form were employed as data collection tools. According to the findings obtained from the study, it is concluded that ostracism did not differ in terms of gender among gifted students. Besides, being socially excluded may be higher in 8th grades than 6th and 7th grades. Also in the study, a positive correlation was found between intelligence level and ostracism. Discussion and suggestions were also provided based on the results.

  2. A follow-up study of heroin addicts (VEdeTTE2: study design and protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampis Fabio

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Italy, a large cohort study (VEdeTTE1 was conducted between 1998–2001 to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments in reducing mortality and increasing treatment retention among heroin addicts. The follow-up of this cohort (VEdeTTE2 was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments on long-term outcomes, such as rehabilitation and social re-integration. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol of the VEdeTTE2 study, and to present the results of the pilot study carried out to assess the feasibility of the study and to improve study procedures. Methods The source population for the VEdeTTE2 study was the VEdeTTE1 cohort, from which a sample of 2,200 patients, traced two or more years after enrolment in the cohort, were asked to participate. An interview investigates drug use; overdose; family and social re-integration. Illegal activity are investigated separately in a questionnaire completed by the patient. Patients are also asked to provide a hair sample to test for heroin and cocaine use. Information on treatments and HIV, HBV and HCV morbidity are obtained from clinical records. A pilot phase was planned and carried out on 60 patients. Results The results of the pilot phase pointed out the validity of the procedures designed to limit attrition: the number of traced subjects was satisfactory (88%. Moreover, the pilot phase was very useful in identifying possible causes of delays and attrition, and flaws in the instruments. Improvements to the procedures and the instruments were subsequently implemented. Sensitivity of the biological test was quite good for heroin (78% but lower for cocaine (42.3%, highlighting the need to obtain a hair sample from all patients. Conclusion In drug addiction research, studies investigating health status and social re-integration of subjects at long-term follow-up are lacking. The VEdeTTE2 study aims to investigate these outcomes at long-term follow-up. Results of the

  3. The longitudinal urban cohort ageing study (LUCAS: study protocol and participation in the first decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapp Ulrike

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present concept, study protocol and selected baseline data of the Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study (LUCAS in Germany. LUCAS is a long-running cohort study of community-dwelling seniors complemented by specific studies of geriatric patients or diseases. Aims were to (1 Describe individual ageing trajectories in a metropolitan setting, documenting changes in functional status, the onset of frailty, disability and need of care; (2 Find determinants of healthy ageing; (3 Assess long-term effects of specific health promotion interventions; (4 Produce results for health care planning for fit, pre-frail, frail and disabled elderly persons; (5 Set up a framework for embedded studies to investigate various hypotheses in specific subgroups of elderly. Methods/Design In 2000, twenty-one general practitioners (GPs were recruited in the Hamburg metropolitan area; they generated lists of all their patients 60 years and older. Persons not terminally ill, without daily need of assistance or professional care were eligible. Of these, n = 3,326 (48 % agreed to participate and completed a small (baseline and an extensive health questionnaire (wave 1. In 2007/2008, a re-recruitment took place including 2,012 participants: 743 men, 1,269 women (647 deaths, 197 losses, 470 declined further participation. In 2009/2010 n = 1,627 returned the questionnaire (90 deaths, 47 losses, 248 declined further participation resulting in a good participation rate over ten years with limited and quantified dropouts. Presently, follow-up data from 2007/2008 (wave 2 and 2009/2010 (wave 3 are available. Data wave 4 is due in 2011/2012, and the project will be continued until 2013. Information on survival and need of nursing care was collected continuously and cross-checked against official records. We used Fisher’s exact test and t-tests. The study served repeatedly to evaluate health promotion interventions and concepts. Discussion LUCAS

  4. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF DEPRESSION IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS

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    Preeti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Depressive disorders in adolescents are a major cause of concern. As these disorders are subject to high recurrences in adulthood. The risk factors have to be identified and prompt treatment should be initiated. 15% have depression and 56% have depressive symptoms. The causes ranged from financ ial, broken homes, or death in the family, chronic illness. Symptoms of depression were unhappiness, restlessness, agitation, anger, dis interest in a pleasurable job. In the schools failure, in academics, in 47% girls lead to depression, partiality, abuse , was also contributing factors. Several studies, in particular, a study from Delhi showed depression to be the 3rd leading cause of death. Our study showed 6% , 12% had problems at home, 73% had clear idea about future plans. The problem should be identified and a team of psychiatrics, psychologists, pediatrician should bring down the problem.

  5. Does a competitive voucher program for adolescents improve the quality of reproductive health care? A simulated patient study in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorter Anna C

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how sexual and reproductive (SRH health can be made accessible and appropriate to adolescents. This study evaluates the impact and sustainability of a competitive voucher program on the quality of SRH care for poor and underserved female adolescents and the usefulness of the simulated patient (SP method for such evaluation. Methods 28,711 vouchers were distributed to adolescents in disadvantaged areas of Managua that gave free-of-charge access to SRH care in 4 public, 10 non-governmental and 5 private clinics. Providers received training and guidelines, treatment protocols, and financial incentives for each adolescent attended. All clinics were visited by female adolescent SPs requesting contraception. SPs were sent one week before, during (with voucher and one month after the intervention. After each consultation they were interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. Twenty-one criteria were scored and grouped into four categories. Clinics' scores were compared using non-parametric statistical methods (paired design: before-during and before-after. Also the influence of doctors' characteristics was tested using non-parametric statistical methods. Results Some aspects of service quality improved during the voucher program. Before the program started 8 of the 16 SPs returned 'empty handed', although all were eligible contraceptive users. During the program 16/17 left with a contraceptive method (p = 0.01. Furthermore, more SPs were involved in the contraceptive method choice (13/17 vs.5/16, p = 0.02. Shared decision-making on contraceptive method as well as condom promotion had significantly increased after the program ended. Female doctors had best scores before- during and after the intervention. The improvements were more pronounced among male doctors and doctors older than 40, though these improvements did not sustain after the program ended. Conclusion This study illustrates provider

  6. Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS: rationale, design, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waslick Bruce D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To present the design, methods, and rationale of the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS, a recently completed federally-funded, multi-site, randomized placebo-controlled trial that examined the relative efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT, sertraline (SRT, and their combination (COMB against pill placebo (PBO for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder (SAD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD and social phobia (SoP in children and adolescents. Methods Following a brief review of the acute outcomes of the CAMS trial, as well as the psychosocial and pharmacologic treatment literature for pediatric anxiety disorders, the design and methods of the CAMS trial are described. Results CAMS was a six-year, six-site, randomized controlled trial. Four hundred eighty-eight (N = 488 children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of SAD, GAD, or SoP were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: CBT, SRT, COMB, or PBO. Assessments of anxiety symptoms, safety, and functional outcomes, as well as putative mediators and moderators of treatment response were completed in a multi-measure, multi-informant fashion. Manual-based therapies, trained clinicians and independent evaluators were used to ensure treatment and assessment fidelity. A multi-layered administrative structure with representation from all sites facilitated cross-site coordination of the entire trial, study protocols and quality assurance. Conclusions CAMS offers a model for clinical trials methods applicable to psychosocial and psychopharmacological comparative treatment trials by using state-of-the-art methods and rigorous cross-site quality controls. CAMS also provided a large-scale examination of the relative and combined efficacy and safety of the best evidenced-based psychosocial (CBT and pharmacologic (SSRI treatments to date for the most commonly occurring pediatric anxiety disorders. Primary and secondary results

  7. Sexuality in Adolescents: have we Explored Enough! A Cross-sectional Study to Explore Adolescent Health in a City Slum in Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Yogesh

    2014-01-01

    Context: Adolescent health is a relatively new focus area of India’s National health program. However, little evidence is available for the existing problems especially in adolescent slum population. A study was planned to explore the problems of adolescent pertaining to sexuality, physical health, tobacco and alcohol use in slums of Urban Meerut, and create evidence base for informed planning and decision making by the local health authorities. Aims: To study the adolescent health in the slums of Meerut City, India. Settings and Design: Entire slums of Urban Meerut, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Study was done in the slums of Meerut city, in Northern India. WHO 30 cluster sampling technique was used. Thirty slums were selected from the list of all the slums of Meerut, 210 adolescents were selected with 7 adolescents from each slum. Statistical Analysis: Proportions and Chi-square test. Results: More than one third of the (36.7%) adolescents reported to have a current health problem, however only half of these sought medical help for treatment. Tweleve percent of adolescents reported history of alcohol or tobacoo use. Nine percent adolescents complained of stressful atmosphere at home. About 10% adolescents in the surveyed population gave history of sexual activity, but only one third of them had used condom during their last sexual intercourse. Conclusion: This study reflects the high morbidity and poor treatment seeking behaviour among adolescents in urban slums. A significant proportion of adolescents indulge in high risk sexual behavior, tobacco and alcohol use. There were significant gender differences with regards to treatment seeking behaviour, sexual behaviour, tobacco and alcohol use. The gender nuances must be taken into account while planning interventions for this section of population. PMID:25302222

  8. Adolescent Career Development in Urban-Residing Aboriginal Families in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sheila K.; Young, Richard A.; Stevens, Alison; Spence, Wayne; Deyell, Stewart; Easterbrook, Adam; Brokenleg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how urban-residing Aboriginal adolescent-parent dyads (n = 11) jointly constructed and acted on goals and strategies with their social supports (n = 17) to facilitate the adolescents' career development. A modified protocol following the qualitative action-project method was used. A discrete joint…

  9. Identifying target groups for the prevention of depression in early adolescence : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monshouwer, K.; Smit, F.; Ruiter, M.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, F.; Vollebergh, W.; Oldehinkel, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Depression in adolescence is associated with long-term adverse consequences. The aim of the present study is to identify target groups at increased risk of developing depression in early adolescence, such that prevention is associated with the largest health benefit at population-level f

  10. Pilot Study: Fluvoxamine Treatment for Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothelf, Doron; Rubinstein, Maly; Shemesh, Eyal; Miller, Orit; Farbstein, Ilana; Klein, Anat; Weizman, Abraham; Apter, Alan; Yaniv, Isaac

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and benefit of fluvoxamine for the treatment of major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with cancer. Method: The study was conducted from 2001 to 2004 at a pediatric hematology-oncology center. Fifteen children and adolescents with cancer were treated with…

  11. Adolescent Students' Reading during Writing Behaviors and Relationships with Text Quality: An Eyetracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Scott F.; Quinlan, Thomas; Harbaugh, Allen G.

    2010-01-01

    This study employed eyetracking technology to investigate adolescent students' reading processes as they composed and to explore relationships between these reading processes and text quality. A sample of 32 adolescent students composed narrative and expository texts while eyetracking equipment recorded their eye movements. Eye movements upon a…

  12. The relationship between early sexual debut and psychosocial outcomes: a longitudinal study of Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Udell; T. Sandfort; E. Reitz; H. Bos; M. Dekovic

    2010-01-01

    In a longitudinal dataset of 470 Dutch adolescents, the current study examined the ways in which early sexual initiation was related to subsequent attachment, self-perception, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. For male adolescents, analyses revealed general attachment to mother and

  13. Educational Computer Use in Leisure Contexts: A Phenomenological Study of Adolescents' Experiences at Internet Cafes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilesiz, Sebnem

    2009-01-01

    Computer use is a widespread leisure activity for adolescents. Leisure contexts, such as Internet cafes, constitute specific social environments for computer use and may hold significant educational potential. This article reports a phenomenological study of adolescents' experiences of educational computer use at Internet cafes in Turkey. The…

  14. Adolescents' Exposure to Sexually Explicit Internet Material and Sexual Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, within a social comparison framework, the causal relationship between adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) and their sexual satisfaction. In addition, we tested which adolescents were most susceptible to a potential influence of SEIM on sexual satisfaction. Between May 2006 and…

  15. Adolescent Gambling Behaviour and Attitudes: A Prevalence Study and Correlates in an Australian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alun C.; Dowling, Nicki; Thomas, Shane A.; Bond, Lyndal; Patton, George

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that a range of risk factors are associated with adolescent problem gambling. Using a representative sample of 2,788 eighth grade students in Victoria, Australia, the primary aim of this study was to examine the degree to which these risk factors are associated with different levels of adolescent gambling…

  16. A Study of Self-Esteem in Adopted Non-adopted Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Robbie J.; Lynn, Betty Jane

    This study tested the hypothesis that adopted adolescents have lower self-esteem than do non-adopted adolescents. Male and female students (N=159) between the ages of 18 and 22 were conveniently sampled from college undergraduate populations. Forty-four of the participants reported adoptive status. Each participant completed the Coopersmith…

  17. Maturation of EEG Power Spectra in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragg, Lucy; Kovacevic, Natasa; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Poulsen, Catherine; Martinu, Kristina; Leonard, Gabriel; Paus, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the fine-grained development of the EEG power spectra in early adolescence, and the extent to which it is reflected in changes in peak frequency. It also sought to determine whether sex differences in the EEG power spectra reflect differential patterns of maturation. A group of 56 adolescents were tested at age 10 years and…

  18. Study of Delinquent, Diverted, and High-Risk Adolescent Girls: Implications for Mental Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffolo, Mary C.; Sarri, Rosemary; Goodkind, Sara

    2004-01-01

    This study examines risk and protective factors for delinquent, diverted, and high-risk adolescent girls to inform the development of effective mental health prevention and intervention programs. Delinquent, diverted, and high-risk adolescent girls (N = 159) involved or at risk of involvement with the juvenile justice system, who were receiving…

  19. A Prospective Study of Risk Factors for the Development of Depression and Disordered Eating in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that females display higher levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating than males from adolescence onward. This study examined whether different risk factors and their interaction with sex (moderator effect) prospectively predicted depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescents. A total of 415 female…

  20. The Initiation of Dating in Adolescence: The Effect of Parental Divorce. The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Katya; Mills, Melinda; Veenstra, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of parental divorce on the time it took adolescents to initiate their first romantic relationships. Individual differences in temperament and pubertal development and the age of the adolescent at the time of divorce were also taken into account. Hypotheses were tested using event history analysis with a sample of…

  1. School-Related Stress and Depression in Adolescents with and without Learning Disabilities: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurer, D. Paige; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined school-related stress and depression in adolescents with and without learning disabilities. A total of 87 students (38 learning-disabled and 49 nondisabled) from secondary schools in Calgary completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and on school-related stress. Results indicated that the adolescents with LD reported…

  2. Relationships between Substance Use and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relationships between depressive symptoms and use of alcohol, cigarettes, and illicit substances among adolescents, addressing methodological limitations and potential confounding in the extant literature. The sample comprised adolescents who were surveyed in Grades 6 (n = 916), 9 (n = 804), and 11 (n = 791).…

  3. Glutamatergic Effects of Divalproex in Adolescents with Mania: A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawn, Jeffrey R.; Patel, Nick C.; Chu, Wen-Jang; Lee, Jing-Huei; Adler, Caleb M.; Kim, Mi Jung; Bryan, Holly S.; Alfieri, David C.; Welge, Jeffrey A.; Blom, Thomas J.; Nandagopal, Jayasree J.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; DelBello, Melissa P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ([superscript 1]H MRS) to evaluate the in vivo effects of extended-release divalproex sodium on the glutamatergic system in adolescents with bipolar disorder, and to identify baseline neurochemical predictors of clinical remission. Method: Adolescents with bipolar disorder who were…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Narrative Development in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleave, Patricia; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Czutrin, Rachael; Smith, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome longitudinally. Narratives were collected from 32 children and adolescents with Down syndrome three times over a 1-year period. Both micro- and macrolevel analyses were conducted. Significant growth over the 1-year period was seen in semantic complexity…

  5. A Qualitative Study of Parental Modeling and Social Support for Physical Activity in Underserved Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marcie S.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Griffin, Sarah; Evans, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    This study obtained qualitative data to assess how parental role modeling and parental social support influence physical activity in underserved (minority, low-income) adolescents. Fifty-two adolescents (22 males, 30 females; ages 10-14 years, 85% African-American) participated in a focus group (6-10 per group, same gender). Focus groups were…

  6. Alcohol Use and Social Adjustment in Adolescence : A Longitudinal, Multilevel Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Sentse, Miranda; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2012-01-01

    The study examined to what extent alcohol use among Dutch adolescents (1,421 adolescents, aged 12-16) was related to sociability and whether the social context affects this association. Data were based on self-reports and peer reports during 2005 and 2006. The results indicated that in contrast to p

  7. Impact of Childhood Trauma on Treatment Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Nguyen, Lananh J.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Reid, Mark W.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The impact of childhood trauma was examined in 427 adolescents (54% girls, 74% Caucasian, mean = 14.6, SD = 1.5) with major depressive disorder participating in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: TADS compared the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), their combination (COMB),…

  8. A longitudinal case-control study on goals in adolescents with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulkers, Esther; Janse, Moniek; Brinksma, Aeltsje; Roodbol, Petrie F.; Kamps, Willem A.; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Fleer, Joke

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether: (1) the goals of adolescents with cancer at 3months post-diagnosis (T1) and healthy peers differed in terms of content, valuation, and abstraction level, (2) the content, valuation and abstraction level of the goals of the adolescents with cancer differed betw

  9. A longitudinal case–control study on goals in adolescents with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulkers, Esther; Janse, Moniek; Brinksma, Aeltsje; Roodbol, Petrie F.; Kamps, Willem A.; Tissing, Wim J.E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Fleer, Joke

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether: (1) the goals of adolescents with cancer at 3 months post-diagnosis (T1) and healthy peers differed in terms of content, valuation, and abstraction level, (2) the content, valuation and abstraction level of the goals of the adolescents with cancer differed bet

  10. The Development of Prosocial Behavior in Adolescents: A Mixed Methods Study from NOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Nate; Sibthorp, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Learning transfer and prosocial behavior (PSB) are critical components of many outdoor education programs for adolescents. This study examined the effects of a theoretically grounded treatment curriculum designed to foster the transfer of learning of general and contextual PSB (also called expedition behavior) among adolescents enrolled on 14-day…

  11. Conservative Treatment Protocol for Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour: a Follow-up Study of 3 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülsün Yildirim

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The keratocystic odontogenic tumour is classified as a developmental cyst derived from the enamel organ or from the dental lamina. The treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumour of the jaw remains controversial. The aim of this study was to report the outcome of our conservative treatment protocol for keratocystic odontogenic tumour.Methods: Three patients with different complaints referred to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, Selçuk University. Initial biopsy was carried out in all patients and keratocystic odontogenic tumours was diagnosed subsequent to histopathological examination. The patients with keratocystic odontogenic tumours were treated by enucleation followed by open packing. This conservative treatment protocol was selected because of existing young aged patients. The average follow-up duration of the cases was 2 years.Results: Out of 3 cases, 2 lesions were present in mandible and 1 lesion in maxilla. There was no evidence of recurrence during follow-up. All the cases were monitored continuously with panoramic radiographs, computed tomography and clinical evaluations.Conclusions: This conservative treatment protocol for keratocystic odontogenic tumours, based on enucleation followed by open packing would be a possible choice with a view of offering low recurrence rate and low morbidity rate particularly in young patients.

  12. On shaky ground - A study of security vulnerabilities in control protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent introduction of information technologies such as Ethernet R into nuclear industry control devices has resulted in significantly less isolation from the outside world. This raises the question of whether these systems could be attacked by malware, network hackers or professional criminals to cause disruption to critical operations in a manner similar to the impacts now felt in the business world. To help answer this question, a study was undertaken to test a representative control protocol to determine if it had vulnerabilities that could be exploited. A framework was created in which a test could express a large number of test cases in very compact formal language. This in turn, allowed for the economical automation of both the generation of selectively malformed protocol traffic and the measurement of device under test's (DUT) behavior in response to this traffic. Approximately 5000 protocol conformance tests were run against two major brands of industrial controller. More than 60 categories of errors were discovered, the majority of which were in the form of incorrect error responses to malformed traffic. Several malformed packets however, caused the device to respond or communicate in inappropriate ways. These would be relatively simple for an attacker to inject into a system and could result in the plant operator losing complete view or control of the control device. Based on this relatively small set of devices, we believe that the nuclear industry urgently needs to adopt better security robustness testing of control devices as standard practice. (authors)

  13. Proposed computerized protocol for epidemiological study of patients undergoing microsurgery of the larynx

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    Catani, Guilherme Simas do Amaral

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The merging of medicine with information technology facilitates the retrieval of stored data, aiding the conduct of research with greater scientific rigor. Studies in the field of otorhinolaryngology, specifically in the area of laryngology and voice, are of fundamental importance, since 70% of the economically active need their voice to work. Objective: To create a computerized protocol of the diseases of the larynx, apply and validate it, and use it to evaluate patients undergoing laryngoscopic microsurgery of the larynx. Method: We created a database of ENT diseases through a literature review of textbooks and scientific articles. Next, we computerized the data and incorporated it into the SINPE©, creating a master protocol (ENT diseases and a specific protocol (laryngeal diseases. Data were collected prospectively from patients undergoing laryngeal microsurgery in the ENT Hospital of Paraná. The collected data were analyzed with graphs through the SINPE© Analyzer module. Results: We evaluated 245 patients aged 9-79 years, and determined that 36.61% (93 patients underwent surgery for the presence of polyps on the vocal folds, 12.6% (32 underwent surgery for papillomatosis, and 11.83% (29 underwent surgery for intracordal cysts. Conclusions: The creation of an electronic database of clinical ENT diseases was feasible. We were also able to implement and validate the protocol. The database may be released to physicians involved in clinical data collection and retrieval of information to conduct scientific research in an organized manner. The most common laryngeal disorders identified were polyps, papilloma, and intracordal cysts.

  14. Proposed computerized protocol for epidemiological study of patients undergoing microsurgery of the larynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Guilherme Simas do Amaral; Carvalho, Bettina; Filho, Jorge Massaaki Ido; Filho, Evaldo Dacheux de Macedo; Pinto, José Simão de Paula; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Stahlke, Henrique Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The merging of medicine with information technology facilitates the retrieval of stored data, aiding the conduct of research with greater scientific rigor. Studies in the field of otorhinolaryngology, specifically in the area of laryngology and voice, are of fundamental importance, since 70% of the economically active need their voice to work. Objective: To create a computerized protocol of the diseases of the larynx, apply and validate it, and use it to evaluate patients undergoing laryngoscopic microsurgery of the larynx. Method: We created a database of ENT diseases through a literature review of textbooks and scientific articles. Next, we computerized the data and incorporated it into the SINPE©, creating a master protocol (ENT diseases) and a specific protocol (laryngeal diseases). Data were collected prospectively from patients undergoing laryngeal microsurgery in the ENT Hospital of Paraná. The collected data were analyzed with graphs through the SINPE© Analyzer module. Results: We evaluated 245 patients aged 9–79 years, and determined that 36.61% (93 patients) underwent surgery for the presence of polyps on the vocal folds, 12.6% (32) underwent surgery for papillomatosis, and 11.83% (29) underwent surgery for intracordal cysts. Conclusions: The creation of an electronic database of clinical ENT diseases was feasible. We were also able to implement and validate the protocol. The database may be released to physicians involved in clinical data collection and retrieval of information to conduct scientific research in an organized manner. The most common laryngeal disorders identified were polyps, papilloma, and intracordal cysts. PMID:25991956

  15. Efficiency of different protocols for enamel clean-up after bracket debonding: an in vitro study

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    Lara Carvalho Freitas Sigilião

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the efficiency of six protocols for cleaning-up tooth enamel after bracket debonding.Methods:A total of 60 premolars were divided into six groups, according to the tools used for clean-up: 12-blade bur at low speed (G12L, 12-blade bur at high speed (G12H, 30-blade bur at low speed (G30L, DU10CO ORTHO polisher (GDU, Renew System (GR and Diagloss polisher (GD. Mean roughness (Ra and mean roughness depth (Rz of enamel surface were analyzed with a profilometer. Paired t-test was used to assess Ra and Rz before and after enamel clean-up. ANOVA/Tukey tests were used for intergroup comparison. The duration of removal procedures was recorded. The association between time and variation in enamel roughness (∆Ra, ∆Rz were evaluated by Pearson's correlation test. Enamel topography was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM.Results:In Groups G12L and G12H, original enamel roughness did not change significantly. In Groups G30L, GDU, GR and GD, a smoother surface (p < 0.05 was found after clean-up. In Groups G30L and GD, the protocols used were more time-consuming than those used in the other groups. Negative and moderate correlation was observed between time and (∆Ra, ∆Rz; Ra and (∆Ra, ∆Rz; Rz (r = - 0.445, r = - 0.475, p < 0.01.Conclusion:All enamel clean-up protocols were efficient because they did not result in increased surface roughness. The longer the time spent performing the protocol, the lower the surface roughness.

  16. Automated extraction protocol for quantification of SARS-Coronavirus RNA in serum: an evaluation study

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    Lui Wing-bong

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously developed a test for the diagnosis and prognostic assessment of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS based on the detection of the SARS-coronavirus RNA in serum by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of automating the serum RNA extraction procedure in order to increase the throughput of the assay. Methods An automated nucleic acid extraction platform using the MagNA Pure LC instrument (Roche Diagnostics was evaluated. We developed a modified protocol in compliance with the recommended biosafety guidelines from the World Health Organization based on the use of the MagNA Pure total nucleic acid large volume isolation kit for the extraction of SARS-coronavirus RNA. The modified protocol was compared with a column-based extraction kit (QIAamp viral RNA mini kit, Qiagen for quantitative performance, analytical sensitivity and precision. Results The newly developed automated protocol was shown to be free from carry-over contamination and have comparable performance with other standard protocols and kits designed for the MagNA Pure LC instrument. However, the automated method was found to be less sensitive, less precise and led to consistently lower serum SARS-coronavirus concentrations when compared with the column-based extraction method. Conclusion As the diagnostic efficiency and prognostic value of the serum SARS-CoV RNA RT-PCR test is critically associated with the analytical sensitivity and quantitative performance contributed both by the RNA extraction and RT-PCR components of the test, we recommend the use of the column-based manual RNA extraction method.

  17. STUDY OF INFECTIOUS AND NON INFECTIOUS PROBLEMS IN ADOLESCENTS OF URBAN CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In adolescents there is a unique set of health problems due to more social contact, less immunity, increase in requirement for nutrition, pubertal growth spurt, behavior problems, so the present study is undertaken to find out infectious and non-infectious problems in the adolescents. AIM & OBJECTIVES: To know the extent of infectious and non-infectious problems in adolescents and also to compare among different socioeconomic groups. METHODS: Adolescents belonging to different socioeconomic groups selected. Three schools and one slum in urban area chosen of adolescents aging between 11-19yrs, there weight, height, blood pressure, clinical examination of face, eye, ear, lips, teeth, gum, nails, tongue, glands, subcutaneous tissue, Musculoskeletal system, CVS, RS, GIT, CNS and previous health record checked. OBSERVATIONS: Study group comprised of 437 adolescents aging between 11-19yrs consisting of 299 girls and 138 boys, In the present study, good habit of personal hygiene was observed in 12.4% of slum adolescents, 46.8% in lower middle class group (OFH+VVH and 62.2% in upper middle class, 37.9% adolescents had falling hair. 34.5% adolescents had Dandruff. Pediculosis and hirsutism were present in 6.4% and 0.9% adolescents respectively, Acne was present in 33.9% of adolescents, 7.3% had white patches, Pyoderma and scabies 2% and 1% of adolescents respectively, 19.4% had Dental pain. It was also observed that Caries in 15.7%, Gum bleeding in 6.6%, Gingivitis in 4.1% and Malocclusion in 3.4% were present, 14.6% adolescents had Sinusitis, 8.6% had Tonsillitis and Rhinitis in 8% and Ear discharge in 0.9% was observed, 15% had Refractive error, 1.3% had Pterigium, 1.1% had Conjunctivitis, 0.7% had Stye and 0.6% had Squint, 6.8% adolescents had Asthma and 0.4% had Tuberculosis. Epilepsy, RHD, CHD, Hyperthyroidism and Goiter was observed in 0.2% adolescents. DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION: Socio economic status plays an important role in infectious

  18. Why standard brain-computer interface (BCI) training protocols should be changed: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeunet, Camille; Jahanpour, Emilie; Lotte, Fabien

    2016-06-01

    Objective. While promising, electroencephaloraphy based brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) are barely used due to their lack of reliability: 15% to 30% of users are unable to control a BCI. Standard training protocols may be partly responsible as they do not satisfy recommendations from psychology. Our main objective was to determine in practice to what extent standard training protocols impact users’ motor imagery based BCI (MI-BCI) control performance. Approach. We performed two experiments. The first consisted in evaluating the efficiency of a standard BCI training protocol for the acquisition of non-BCI related skills in a BCI-free context, which enabled us to rule out the possible impact of BCIs on the training outcome. Thus, participants (N = 54) were asked to perform simple motor tasks. The second experiment was aimed at measuring the correlations between motor tasks and MI-BCI performance. The ten best and ten worst performers of the first study were recruited for an MI-BCI experiment during which they had to learn to perform two MI tasks. We also assessed users’ spatial ability and pre-training μ rhythm amplitude, as both have been related to MI-BCI performance in the literature. Main results. Around 17% of the participants were unable to learn to perform the motor tasks, which is close to the BCI illiteracy rate. This suggests that standard training protocols are suboptimal for skill teaching. No correlation was found between motor tasks and MI-BCI performance. However, spatial ability played an important role in MI-BCI performance. In addition, once the spatial ability covariable had been controlled for, using an ANCOVA, it appeared that participants who faced difficulty during the first experiment improved during the second while the others did not. Significance. These studies suggest that (1) standard MI-BCI training protocols are suboptimal for skill teaching, (2) spatial ability is confirmed as impacting on MI-BCI performance, and (3) when faced

  19. A prospective study of screen time in adolescence and depression symptoms in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Singhammer, John; Froberg, Karsten;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between screen time in adolescence and depressive symptoms in young adulthood in a population-based cohort study of Danish adolescents. METHODS: Data were from a cohort of adolescents who were followed-up in young adulthood for a...... period of up to 12years (1997-2010, mean 8.8years, n=435). Information on television viewing, computer use, total screen time and other determinants of depression were obtained in adolescence. Depressive symptoms were obtained in young adulthood using the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and classified...... as mild, moderate or severe depression. Mixed regression models were used to examine the associations, with adjustment for major confounders. RESULTS: In multivariable adjusted analyses, each additional hour/day spent watching television or screen viewing in adolescence was associated with 1.36 (95...

  20. Dietary Intake among Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country: An Outcome from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Study (the MyHeARTs Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazreen Abdul Majid

    Full Text Available Optimal nutrition is essential for healthy growth during adolescence. This study aims to investigate the baseline nutritional intake of Malaysian adolescents by gender, body mass index, and places of residence, both urban and rural. A cohort study was conducted consisting of 794 adolescents (aged 13-years attending 15 public secondary schools from the Central (Kuala Lumpur and Selangor and Northern (Perak Regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Qualified dietitians conducted a 7-day historical assessment of habitual food intakes. Facilitated by flipcharts and household measurement tools, detailed information on portion sizes and meal contents were recorded. Nutritionist Pro™ Diet Analysis software was also used to analyze the dietary records.The mean age of the adolescents was 12.86 ± 0.33 y; the mean energy intake was 1659.0 ± 329.6 kcal/d. Males had significantly (P < .001 higher energy intake than females (1774.0 ± 369.8 vs 1595.2 ± 320.6 kcal/d; adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and cholesterol (P < .001 compared to adolescents in urban schools (1706.1 ± 377.7 kcal/d and 244.1 ± 100.2 mg/d, respectively. Obese adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and sugar (1987.6 ± 374.0 kcal/d and 48.9 ± 23.0 g/d (p-value <0.001.The dietary intake of normal weight versus obese adolescents differs by the location of their school. Thus, the implementation of a structured and tailored intervention is recommended to help minimize this nutritional inequality.

  1. Dietary Intake among Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country: An Outcome from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Study (the MyHeARTs Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Majid, Hazreen; Ramli, Liyana; Ying, Sim Pei; Su, Tin Tin; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Abdul Mohsein, Nabilla Al-Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is essential for healthy growth during adolescence. This study aims to investigate the baseline nutritional intake of Malaysian adolescents by gender, body mass index, and places of residence, both urban and rural. A cohort study was conducted consisting of 794 adolescents (aged 13-years) attending 15 public secondary schools from the Central (Kuala Lumpur and Selangor) and Northern (Perak) Regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Qualified dietitians conducted a 7-day historical assessment of habitual food intakes. Facilitated by flipcharts and household measurement tools, detailed information on portion sizes and meal contents were recorded. Nutritionist Pro™ Diet Analysis software was also used to analyze the dietary records.The mean age of the adolescents was 12.86 ± 0.33 y; the mean energy intake was 1659.0 ± 329.6 kcal/d. Males had significantly (P < .001) higher energy intake than females (1774.0 ± 369.8 vs 1595.2 ± 320.6 kcal/d); adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and cholesterol (P < .001) compared to adolescents in urban schools (1706.1 ± 377.7 kcal/d and 244.1 ± 100.2 mg/d, respectively). Obese adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and sugar (1987.6 ± 374.0 kcal/d and 48.9 ± 23.0 g/d) (p-value <0.001).The dietary intake of normal weight versus obese adolescents differs by the location of their school. Thus, the implementation of a structured and tailored intervention is recommended to help minimize this nutritional inequality. PMID:27187889

  2. Research on Protocol Migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪芸; 顾冠群; 等

    1996-01-01

    This paper elaborates the concept and model of protocol migration in network interconnection.Migration strategies and principles are discussed and several cases are studied in detail which show the basic procedure and techniques used in protocol migration.

  3. Dietary Intake among Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country: An Outcome from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Study (the MyHeARTs Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Majid, Hazreen; Ying, Sim Pei; Su, Tin Tin; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid

    2016-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is essential for healthy growth during adolescence. This study aims to investigate the baseline nutritional intake of Malaysian adolescents by gender, body mass index, and places of residence, both urban and rural. A cohort study was conducted consisting of 794 adolescents (aged 13-years) attending 15 public secondary schools from the Central (Kuala Lumpur and Selangor) and Northern (Perak) Regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Qualified dietitians conducted a 7-day historical assessment of habitual food intakes. Facilitated by flipcharts and household measurement tools, detailed information on portion sizes and meal contents were recorded. Nutritionist Pro™ Diet Analysis software was also used to analyze the dietary records.The mean age of the adolescents was 12.86 ± 0.33 y; the mean energy intake was 1659.0 ± 329.6 kcal/d. Males had significantly (P Obese adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and sugar (1987.6 ± 374.0 kcal/d and 48.9 ± 23.0 g/d) (p-value obese adolescents differs by the location of their school. Thus, the implementation of a structured and tailored intervention is recommended to help minimize this nutritional inequality. PMID:27187889

  4. A Study of Psychosocial Risk Status and Knowledge of Reproductive Health in Adolescents in Raipur City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is the period of physical and psychological development from the onset of puberty to maturity. The World Health Organization defines an adolescent as a person between ages 10 and 19 years. A dramatic shift in thinking from concrete to abstract gives adolescents a whole new set of mental tools, to analyze situations logically in terms of cause and effect, appreciate hypothetical situations, evaluate alternatives, introspection, decision making and cognitive abilities. Adolescents experience intense physical, psychological changes as they make transition from childhood to adulthood. This period of transition is the most vulnerable time. Adolescents are at risk of developing behavioral problems like school failure and drop outs, substance abuse, delinquency and violence, sexually transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancies, domestic violence, stress and depression and risk-taking behaviour. It is the responsibility of the society to utilize this period constructively through education, counseling, mass media, awareness programmes and address the reproductive health needs of adolescents. The present study analyzes the psychosocial risk status and knowledge of reproductive health in adolescents in Raipur city. The study recommends implementation of provisions by government to provide continuous education and economic security for adolescents. Programmes like age-appropriate reproductive health curriculum should be introduced in schools and colleges with counseling facilities at school and primary health care levels.

  5. A Qualitative Study of Mexican American Adolescents and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornos, Laura B.; Mika, Virginia Seguin; Bayles, Bryan; Serrano, Alberto C.; Jimenez, Roberto L.; Villarreal, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Depressive disorders are present in a high percentage of Mexican American adolescents. Among the US Mexican American population, suicide is the fourth leading cause of death among 10- to 19-year-olds. Little research, however, has focused on Mexican American adolescents' knowledge and views about depression and seeking help for depression. Results…

  6. Psychosocial Discomfort and Exercise Frequency: An Epidemiological Study of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Tucker, Larry A.

    1994-01-01

    Examined extent to which adolescents (n=1,297) who reported different levels of physical exercise varied with respect to psychosocial discomfort. Results indicated that those who exercised infrequently suffered more from loneliness, shyness, and hopelessness than did adolescents who exercised more frequently. Controlled potential confounding…

  7. The Complex Impact of Closeness: Studying Arab Adolescents in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Michal; Essa, Rania

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between language and identity in the Israeli conflictual situation, exploring the perceptions of Israeli Arab adolescents in two different contexts: a mixed city and a homogeneous Arab town. Adolescents in the mixed city, although more exposed to Hebrew and to Jewish culture, develop a stronger sense of "Arab"…

  8. Self-determined motivation towards physical activity in adolescents treated for obesity: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theuwis Lotte

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the Self-Determination Theory (SDT framework, the first major study aim was to investigate the SDT tenets in an obese adolescent population by examining the factor structure of the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2 and by investigating associations between physical activity (PA and motivation in obese adolescents. The second aim was to study differences in motivation according to adolescents' educational level, since lower educated obese adolescent are a sub-risk group for lower PA levels among the obese adolescents. The third aim was to investigate whether attending a residential obesity treatment program could lead to an increase in autonomous motivation towards PA and to see if the treatment effect on motivation was different in low versus high educated youth. Methods For the first study aim, the sample comprised 177 obese adolescents at the start of a 10-month multidisciplinary residential obesity treatment program (BMI = 35.9 ± 6.0 kg/m2, 15.1 ± 1.5 years, 62% girls. A subsample of 65 adolescents (stratified by educational level were divided into low (n = 34 versus high educated (n = 31 as part of the second and third study aim. Motivation was assessed using the BREQ-2 and PA using the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results Exploratory factor analysis showed sufficient validations with the original factor for 17 out of 19 BREQ-2 items. Significant positive correlations were found between PA and the composite score of relative autonomy (r = 0.31, p Conclusions The BREQ-2 can be used in an obese adolescent population. Higher levels of autonomous motivation towards PA were related to higher PA levels. Adolescents had increases in both autonomous and controlled forms of motivation during treatment. Special attention for lower educated adolescents during treatment is needed, as they have a lower autonomous motivation at the start of treatment and an increase in introjected

  9. A sample preparation protocol for 1H nuclear magnetic resonance studies of water-soluble metabolites in blood and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheedy, John R; Ebeling, Peter R; Gooley, Paul R; McConville, Malcolm J

    2010-03-15

    We describe a general protocol for preparing protein-containing biofluids for (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomic studies. In this protocol, untreated samples are diluted in deuterated solvents to precipitate proteins and recover metabolites quantitated relative to standard reference compounds such as 3-trimethylsilylpropionic acid (TSP) and 2,2-dimethyl-2-silapentane-5-sulfonic acid (DSS). The efficacy of this protocol was tested using a bovine serum albumin/metabolite mix and human serum samples. This sample preparation method can be readily applied to any protein-containing biofluid for (1)H NMR studies. PMID:19941831

  10. Cardiovascular Health in Anxiety or Mood Problems Study (CHAMPS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tully, Phillip J; Turnbull, Deborah A; Horowitz, John D; Beltrame, John F.; Selkow, Terina; Baune, Bernhard T; Markwick, Elizabeth; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Baumeister, Harald; Cosh, Suzanne; Gary A Wittert

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous psychological and pharmacological interventions have primarily focused on depression disorders in populations with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and the efficacy of anxiety disorder interventions is only more recently being explored. Transdiagnostic interventions address common emotional processes and the full range of anxiety and depression disorders often observed in populations with CVDs. The aim of CHAMPS is to evaluate the feasibility of a unified protocol (UP) for t...

  11. Neighborhood income inequality, social capital and emotional distress among adolescents: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsdottir, Arndis; Gardarsdottir, Ragna B; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2016-08-01

    Theory holds that income inequality may harm adolescent mental health by reducing social capital within neighborhood communities. However, research on this topic has been very limited. We use multilevel data on 102 public schools and 5958 adolescents in Iceland (15 and 16 years old) to examine whether income inequality within neighborhoods is associated with emotional distress in adolescents. Moreover, we test whether indicators of social capital, including social trust and embeddedness in neighborhood social networks, mediate this contextual effect. The findings show that neighborhood income inequality positively influences emotional distress of individual adolescents, net of their personal household situations and social relations. However, although the indicators of social capital negatively influence emotional distress, they do not mediate the contextual effect of neighborhood income inequality. The study illustrates the role of economic disparities in adolescent mental health, but calls for more research on the underlying social and social-psychological mechanisms. PMID:27337213

  12. The management of autonomy in adolescent diabetes: a case study of triadic medical interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, Mara

    2009-03-01

    The transfer of responsibility for diabetes management from parent to child has been seen as a central challenge for the clinical care of adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. Research is needed to better understand how clinicians, patients, and families handle the delicate balance between parental involvement and adolescent responsibility for diabetes management. The aim of this study is to investigate the interactional processes by which an adolescent's autonomy is facilitated and constrained in a clinical interaction between a nurse practitioner (NP), a 13-year-old diabetes patient, and the patient's mother. Integrating psychological perspectives on adolescent autonomy and responsibility with conversation analytic approaches to participation, I examine participation frameworks and shifting alignments to illuminate the negotiation of adolescent autonomy within a single clinical encounter. The analysis demonstrates that the patient's autonomy is emphasized while identifying problems, yet restricted when considering solutions. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:19228827

  13. Impact of antipsychotic medication on physical activity and physical fitness in adolescents: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Probst, Michel; Daenen, Anne; Damme, Tine Van; De Hert, Marc; Rosenbaum, Simon; Bruyninckx, David

    2016-08-30

    Antipsychotics are used increasingly in adolescents for a range of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether physical activity levels and physical fitness of adolescent inpatients treated with antipsychotic medication, differs from either (i) antipsychotic naïve adolescents with mental health problems and, (ii) healthy controls. All participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents, the Positive-and-Negative-Affect-Schedule and performed the Eurofit test battery. Adolescents with mental health problems (irrespective of antipsychotic medication) were significantly (Prunning speed and cardiovascular endurance compared to healthy controls (n=15, 8♂, 15.9±1.3 years). Adolescents treated with antipsychotic medication (n=15, 8♂, 15.5±1.3 years) were less physically active and had an impaired whole body balance compared with antipsychotic naïve adolescents (n=15, 8♂, 15.7±1.4 years). Given the overwhelming deleterious impact of physical inactivity and low physical fitness on physical and mental health outcomes, interventions specifically targeting physical activity and physical fitness among adolescents experiencing mental illness, both treated with, and not treated with antipsychotic medication are warranted as a priority. Antipsychotic medication should be considered as a risk factor for physical inactivity and poor physical fitness. PMID:27288738

  14. Adolescent-parent interactions and communication preferences regarding body weight and weight management: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howlett Sarah A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to canvass the nature of adolescent-parent interactions about weight, particularly overweight, and to explore ideas of how to foster supportive discussions regarding weight, both in the home and with family doctors. Methods A market research company was contracted to recruit and conduct a series of separate focus groups with adolescents and unrelated parents of adolescents from low-middle socio-economic areas in Sydney and a regional centre, Australia. Group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed, and then a qualitative content analysis of the data was performed. Results Nine focus groups were conducted; two were held with girls (n = 13, three with boys (n = 18, and four with parents (20 mothers, 12 fathers. Adolescent and parent descriptions of weight-related interactions could be classified into three distinct approaches: indirect/cautious (i.e. focus on eating or physical activity behaviors without discussing weight specifically; direct/open (i.e. body weight was discussed; and never/rarely discussing the subject. Indirect approaches were described most frequently by both adolescents and parents and were generally preferred over direct approaches. Parents and adolescents were circumspect but generally supportive of the potential role for family doctors to monitor and discuss adolescent weight status. Conclusions These findings have implications for developing acceptable messages for adolescent and family overweight prevention and treatment interventions.

  15. The Bakery Protocol: A Comparative Case-Study in Formal Verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, D.; Korver, H.

    2008-01-01

    Groote and the second author verified (a version of) the Bakery Protocol in μCRL. Their process-algebraic verification is rather complex compared to the protocol. Now the question is: How do other verification techniques perform on this protocol? In this paper we present a new correctness proof by u

  16. Recruitment of heterosexual couples in public health research: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouget Enrique R

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health research involving social or kin groups (such as sexual partners or family members, rather than samples of unrelated individuals, has become more widespread in response to social ecological approaches to disease treatment and prevention. This approach requires the development of innovative sampling, recruitment and screening methodologies tailored to the study of related individuals. Methods In this paper, we describe a set of sampling, recruitment and screening protocols developed to enlist urban, drug-using, heterosexual couples into a public health research study. This population is especially hard to reach because they are engaged in illegal and/or stigmatized behaviors. The protocols were designed to integrate adaptive sampling, street- and referral-based recruitment, and screening procedures to verify study eligibility and relationship status. Discussion Recruitment of heterosexual couples through one partner, preferably the female, can be an effective enlistment technique. Verification of relationship status is an important component of dyadic research. Comparison of parallel questionnaires administered to each member of a dyad can aid in the assessment of relationship status. However, multiple independent sources of information should be used to verify relationship status when available. Adaptive sampling techniques were effective in reaching drug-using heterosexual couples in an urban setting, and the application of these methods to other groups of related individuals in clinical and public health research may prove to be useful. However, care must be taken to consider potential sources of sampling bias when interpreting and generalizing study results.

  17. Comparison between stress myocardial perfusion SPECT recorded with cadmium-zinc-telluride and Anger cameras in various study protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of stress myocardial perfusion SPECT could be enhanced by new cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) cameras, although differences compared to the results with conventional Anger cameras remain poorly known for most study protocols. This study was aimed at comparing the results of CZT and Anger SPECT according to various study protocols while taking into account the influence of obesity. The study population, which was from three different institutions equipped with identical CZT cameras, comprised 276 patients referred for study using protocols involving 201Tl (n = 120) or 99mTc-sestamibi injected at low dose at stress (99mTc-Low; stress/rest 1-day protocol; n = 110) or at high dose at stress (99mTc-High; rest/stress 1-day or 2-day protocol; n = 46). Each Anger SPECT scan was followed by a high-speed CZT SPECT scan (2 to 4 min). Agreement rates between CZT and Anger SPECT were good irrespective of the study protocol (for abnormal SPECT, 201Tl 92 %, 99mTc-Low 86 %, 99mTc-High 98 %), although quality scores were much higher for CZT SPECT with all study protocols. Overall correlations were high for the extent of myocardial infarction (r = 0.80) and a little lower for ischaemic areas (r = 0.72), the latter being larger on Anger SPECT (p 201Tl or 99mTc-Low group and in whom stress myocardial counts were particularly low with Anger SPECT (228 ± 101 kcounts) and dramatically enhanced with CZT SPECT (+279 ± 251 %). Concordance between the results of CZT and Anger SPECT is good regardless of study protocol and especially when excluding obese patients who have low-count Anger SPECT and for whom myocardial counts are dramatically enhanced on CZT SPECT. (orig.)

  18. Comparison between stress myocardial perfusion SPECT recorded with cadmium-zinc-telluride and Anger cameras in various study protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verger, Antoine; Karcher, Gilles [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); INSERM U947, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Djaballah, Wassila [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); INSERM U947, Nancy (France); Fourquet, Nicolas [Clinique Pasteur, Toulouse (France); Rouzet, Francois; Le Guludec, Dominique [AP-HP, Hopital Bichat, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); INSERM U 773 Inserm and Denis Diderot University, Paris (France); Koehl, Gregoire; Roch, Veronique [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Imbert, Laetitia [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Centre Alexis Vautrin, Department of Radiotherapy, Vandoeuvre (France); Poussier, Sylvain [INSERM U947, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Fay, Renaud [INSERM, Centre d' Investigation Clinique CIC-P 9501, Nancy (France); Marie, Pierre-Yves [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); INSERM U961, Nancy (France); Hopital de Brabois, CHU-Nancy, Medecine Nucleaire, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2013-03-15

    The results of stress myocardial perfusion SPECT could be enhanced by new cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) cameras, although differences compared to the results with conventional Anger cameras remain poorly known for most study protocols. This study was aimed at comparing the results of CZT and Anger SPECT according to various study protocols while taking into account the influence of obesity. The study population, which was from three different institutions equipped with identical CZT cameras, comprised 276 patients referred for study using protocols involving {sup 201}Tl (n = 120) or {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi injected at low dose at stress ({sup 99m}Tc-Low; stress/rest 1-day protocol; n = 110) or at high dose at stress ({sup 99m}Tc-High; rest/stress 1-day or 2-day protocol; n = 46). Each Anger SPECT scan was followed by a high-speed CZT SPECT scan (2 to 4 min). Agreement rates between CZT and Anger SPECT were good irrespective of the study protocol (for abnormal SPECT, {sup 201}Tl 92 %, {sup 99m}Tc-Low 86 %, {sup 99m}Tc-High 98 %), although quality scores were much higher for CZT SPECT with all study protocols. Overall correlations were high for the extent of myocardial infarction (r = 0.80) and a little lower for ischaemic areas (r = 0.72), the latter being larger on Anger SPECT (p < 0.001). This larger extent was mainly observed in 50 obese patients who were in the {sup 201}Tl or {sup 99m}Tc-Low group and in whom stress myocardial counts were particularly low with Anger SPECT (228 {+-} 101 kcounts) and dramatically enhanced with CZT SPECT (+279 {+-} 251 %). Concordance between the results of CZT and Anger SPECT is good regardless of study protocol and especially when excluding obese patients who have low-count Anger SPECT and for whom myocardial counts are dramatically enhanced on CZT SPECT. (orig.)

  19. Family-oriented multilevel study on the psychological functioning of adolescent children having a mother with cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Huizinga, Gea; Visser, Annemieke; van der Graaf, W. T.; Hoekstra, H J; Stewart, R. E.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to identify the predictive power of adolescents', parents', and illness characteristics on the functioning of adolescents when a mother has cancer. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-one adolescents, 128 mothers with cancer, and 96 spouses completed standardized questionnaires 1-5 years after diagnosis. Stress response symptoms (SRS), internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed in adolescents. Parents' SRS, trait anxiety, marital satisfaction, and parent-ad...

  20. TO WHAT EXTENT CAN ADOLESCENT SUICIDE ATTEMPTS BE ATTRIBUTED TO VIOLENCE EXPOSURE? A POPULATION-BASED STUDY FROM WESTERN CANADA

    OpenAIRE

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Chen, Weihong

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents in Canada and globally. The purpose of our study was to calculate what proportion of adolescent suicide attempts could be prevented in the absence of verbal, physical and sexual violence. Using the province-wide 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (N=29,315) we calculated population-attributable fractions for each type of violence, as well as exposure to any violence, separately by gender, among adolescents age 12–19. W...

  1. Validation study of the Dinamap ProCare 200 upper arm blood pressure monitor in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Guk Lee

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To validate the Dinamap ProCare 200 blood pressure (BP monitor against a mercury sphygmomanometer in children 7 to 18 years old in accordance with the 2010 International Protocol of European Society of Hypertension (ESH-IP2 and the British Hypertension Society (BHS protocol. Methods : Forty-five children were recruited for the study. A validation procedure was performed following the protocol based on the ESHIP2 and BHS protocols for children and adolescents. Each subject underwent 7 sequential BP measurements alternatively with a mercury sphygmomanometer and the test device by trained nurses. The results were analyzed according to the validation criteria of ESH-IP2. Results : The mean (¡?#?D ;difference in the absolute BP values between test device and mercury sphygmomanometer readings was 1.85¡?#?.65; mmHg for systolic BP (SBP and 4.41¡?#?.53; mmHg for diastolic BP (DBP. These results fulfilled the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation criterion of a mean¡?#?D b;elow 5¡?#? mm;Hg for both SBP and DBP. The percentages of test device-observer mercury sphygmomanometer BP differences within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg were 96%, 100%, and 100% for SBP, and 69%, 92%, and 100% for DBP, respectively, in the part 1 analysis; both SBP and DBP passed the part 1 criteria. In the part 2 analysis, SBP passed the criteria but DBP failed. Conclusion : Although the Dinamap ProCare 200 BP monitor failed an adapted ESH-IP2, SBP passed. When comparing BP readings measured by oscillometers and mercury sphygmomanometers, one has to consider the differences between them, particularly in DBP, because DBP can be underestimated.

  2. Religiosity and mental health of pre-adolescents with psychiatric problems and their parents : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jagt-Jelsma, W.; de Vries-Schot, M. R.; de Jong, Rint; Hartman, C. A.; Verhulst, F. C.; Klip, H.; van Deurzen, P. A. M.; Buitelaar, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the association between the religiosity of parents and pre-adolescents, and pre-adolescents' psychiatric problems. Method: In a clinic-referred cohort of 543 pre-adolescents at least once referred to a mental health outpatient clinic mental health problems were as

  3. Religiosity and mental health of pre-adolescents with psychiatric problems and their parents: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt-Jelsma, W. van der; Vries-Schot, M.R. de; Jong, R. de; Hartman, C.A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Klip, H.; Deurzen, P.A. van; Buitelaar, J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study investigated the association between the religiosity of parents and pre-adolescents, and pre-adolescents' psychiatric problems. METHOD: In a clinic-referred cohort of 543 pre-adolescents at least once referred to a mental health outpatient clinic mental health problems were as

  4. The Impact of Host Family Relations and Length of Stay on Adolescent Identity Expression during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Averil Marie

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationships between host family success, social integration, length of stay and acquisition of adolescent language by students on extended international homestay programmes. Degree of adolescent language acquisition and integration is measured by use of two hallmarks of adolescent language: markers of approximation…

  5. Adolescents' Internalizing and Aggressive Behaviors and Perceptions of Parents' Psychological Control: A Panel Study Examining Direction of Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Arne K.; Galambos, Nancy L.; Jansson, S. Mikael

    2007-01-01

    This panel study investigated the directionality of relations between adolescents' perceptions of their parents' psychological control and adolescents' self-reported internalizing and aggressive (physical and relational) behaviors. Data were collected from a random, community sample of 530 adolescents ages 12-19 years old at time 1, and again 2…

  6. Model versus Military Pilot: A Mixed-Methods Study of Adolescents' Attitudes toward Women in Varied Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Elizabeth A.; Sherman, Aurora M.

    2016-01-01

    Using an experimental methodology, the present study investigated adolescents' attitudes toward media images of women in non-appearance-focused (CEO and military pilot) and appearance-focused occupations (model and actor). One hundred adolescent girls and 76 adolescent boys provided ratings of likability, competence, and similarity to self after…

  7. Protocol for three-Dimensional magnetic resonance study of inner ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To create a protocol for the study of the labyrinthine structures of the inner ear using fast MR sequences. We studied the petrous apex in 50 healthy volunteers at 1.5 T using T2-weighted fast MR for three-dimensional analysis. We sought the series of images of the inner ear that fulfilled the following objectives: 1) representing all the structures in the inner ear and neural complex of the internal auditory canal (IAC) in several spatial planes; 2) if possible, defining each structure totally in a single image; 3) attempting to save time; 4) making the workstation tasks simple and uniform in all the patients in order to apply general guidelines for every case, and 5) providing images similar to those known so that the existing radiological semiology could be applied. We chose a radiological series consisting of 7 images: 1) an oblique coronal plane of the cochlea; 2) an axial plane at the level of the cochlea, vesicular nerve, lateral semicircular canal and IAC; 3) a para sagittal plane through the vestibular nerve, superior and posterior semicircular canals and their common branch; 4) a para sagittal plane of the cochlea representing all the spirals; 5) a para sagittal plane of the IAC; 6) an axial plane showing the neural structures within the IAC, and 7) an axial plane at the level of the cochlear aqueduct. The protocol defined in the present report is useful for the three-dimensional MR study of the membranous labyrinth. (Author) 22 refs

  8. The "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" randomized controlled trial for girls: study design, protocol, and baseline results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Ana Carolina Barco; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the study design, protocol, and baseline results of the "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" program. The intervention is being evaluated through a randomized controlled trial in 10 public schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data on the following variables were collected and assessed at baseline and will be reevaluated at 7 and 12 months: body mass index, waist circumference, dietary intake, nutrition, physical activity, social cognitive mediators, physical activity level, sedentary behaviors, self-rated physical status, and overall self-esteem. According to the baseline results, 32.4% and 23.4% of girls were overweight in the intervention and control groups, respectively, and in both groups a higher percentage failed to meet daily recommendations for moderate and vigorous physical activity and maximum screen time (TV, computer, mobile devices). There were no significant differences between the groups for most of the variables, except age (p = 0.000) and waist circumference (p = 0.014). The study showed a gap in the Brazilian literature on protocols for randomized controlled trials to prevent obesity among youth. The current study may thus be an important initial contribution to the field. PMID:26248094

  9. Recollections of learning-disabled adolescents of their schooling experiences : A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande Sunil

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little is known about the actual impact of the schooling experience on adolescents with specific learning disability (SpLD. Aims: To analyze the recollections of adolescents with SpLD who were undergoing education in regular mainstream schools. Settings And Design: Prospective interview-based study conducted in our clinic. Materials And Methods: Adolescents′ responses to a semi-structured interview were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and interpreted by content analysis. The number of participants was determined by ′saturation sampling,′ resulting in a total of 30 adolescents. Results: Twelve (40% adolescents had ′overall′ neutral recollections, 9 (30% had ′overall′ positive recollections and 9 (30% had ′overall′ negative recollections about having SpLD during their schooling. Fourteen (46.7% adolescents stated ′getting provisions′ as good features, whereas 7 (23.3% stated ′feeling different from classmates′ and 6 (20% stated ′being teased by classmates about their disability′ as bad features of having SpLD. Nineteen (63.3% adolescents remembered classroom teachers being supportive, while 7 (23.3% remembered being insulted by them. Of the 21 adolescents who had undergone remedial education, only 10 (47.6% acknowledged that it had benefited them. Twenty-one (70% adolescents stated that availing provisions helped in getting better marks in examinations. Ten (33.3% adolescents had negative recollections about their parents′ behavior in relation to their disability. Twenty (66.7% adolescents wanted changes in their school to help students with SpLD. Conclusion: Improving the knowledge of classroom teachers, classmates and family members about SpLD and about the rationale of provisions will help reduce the unpleasant experiences students with SpLD undergo during their schooling years.

  10. iPeer2Peer program: a pilot feasibility study in adolescents with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola Kohut, Sara; Stinson, Jennifer N; Ruskin, Danielle; Forgeron, Paula; Harris, Lauren; van Wyk, Margaret; Luca, Stephanie; Campbell, Fiona

    2016-05-01

    Adolescents with chronic pain are often socially isolated, having never met others with chronic pain, and often feel misunderstood by healthy peers. Adolescence is a sensitive period for developing one's sense of self and autonomy, which often occurs in the context of peer relationships. This developmental process is disrupted in adolescents when their chronic pain interferes with their social interactions. Peer mentoring is proposed as a developmentally timely intervention. The aim of this study is to develop and test the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of the iPeer2Peer program. The iPeer2Peer program is a tailored peer mentorship program that provides modeling and reinforcement by peers (trained young adults with chronic pain aged 18-25 years who have learned to successfully manage their pain). This program aimed to enhance self-management of chronic pain in adolescents through 10 Skype video calls over the course of 8 weeks. A pilot randomized controlled trial design using waitlist controls was used in an adolescent chronic pain sample. Twenty-eight adolescents aged 14.8 ± 1.6 years (93% female) completed the trial (intervention: n = 12; control n = 16). Three adolescents completed the intervention after completing their participation in the control arm. The iPeer2Peer program was feasible and acceptable, provided the adolescents were given more time to complete all 10 calls. When compared with controls, adolescents who completed the iPeer2Peer program had significant improvement in self-management skills and their coping efforts were more successful. The iPeer2Peer program is a promising peer mentoring intervention that complements standard care for adolescents with chronic pain. PMID:26808145

  11. Personality Subtypes in Adolescent and Adult Children of Alcoholics: A two part study

    OpenAIRE

    Hinrichs, Jonathan; DeFife, Jared; Westen, Drew

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted two studies to identify and validate potential personality subtypes in adolescent and adult children of alcoholics. As part of a broader NIMH-funded study, randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists provided personality data on adolescent (n = 229) or adult (n = 359) children of alcoholics using a Q-sort procedure (SWAP-II-A for adolescents and SWAP-II for adults), which were subjected to a cluster-analytic procedure, Q-factor analysis. Q-factor analysis yielded f...

  12. EFFECT OF CONVENTIONAL TENS VERSUS SPINAL MOBILIZATION IN PRIMARY DYSMENORRHEA IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Manisha Mistry; Vishnu Vardhan; Tushar Palekar; Rasika Panse

    2015-01-01

    Background: Primary dysmenorrhea is a common disabilitating factor in most of the adolescent girls. It is a major cause of inability to concentrate on their work or studies, class or school absenteeism, inability to perform in their academic activities. This study conducted to assess the effect of non-invasive treatments for pain relief during dysmenorrhea. Aim and Objectives: To study the effect of Conventional TENS and Spinal mobilization on pain in Primary Dysmenorrhea in adolescent gi...

  13. Adolescent school absenteeism and service use in a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Haugland, Siren; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Bøe, Tormod; Hysing, Mari

    2015-01-01

    Background School absenteeism is linked to a range of health concerns, health risk behaviors and school dropout. It is therefore important to evaluate the extent to which adolescents with absenteeism are in contact with health care and other services. The aim of the current study was to investigate service use of Norwegian adolescents with moderate and high absenteeism in comparison to students with lower rates of absence. Methods The study employs data from a population-based study from 2012...

  14. Peer sexual harassment in adolescent girls: A cross-national study (Spain-Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Ortega; Virginia Sánchez; Javier Ortega-Rivera; Annalaura Nocentini; Ersilia Menesini

    2010-01-01

    International studies have concluded that sexual harassment among adolescents is more frequent than expected. However, estimations of sexual harassment vary according to different studies. Some of these differences can be explained in terms of the different dimensions and explicative models used. This descriptive study tried to contribute to this area of investigation testing different models of sexual harassment in a sample of 318 female adolescents (mean age 17.05 years old) ...

  15. CYBER BULLYING, CYBER VICTIMIZATION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS: A STUDY IN ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAHİN, Mustafa; AYDIN, Betul; Serkan Volkan SARI

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between cyber bullying, cyber victimization and psychological symptoms was investigated in adolescents. The sample of the study consisted of 300 high school student adolescents who attend different types of high schools in Trabzon in 2009-2010 academic years. In the study, demographic data form, The Scale of Cyber bullying and Brief Symptom Inventory were used as data collection instruments. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficients, One-Way ANOVA and independent samp...

  16. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Janikian, Mari; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Tzavela, Eleni C; Olafsson, Kjartan; Wójcik, Szymon; Macarie, George Florian; Tzavara, Chara; Richardson, Clive

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N=13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8±0.7) of 14-17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addictive behavior (IAB) and related psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in the participating countries. In the study, we distinguish two problematic groups: adolescents with IAB, characterized by a loss of control over their Internet use, and adolescents "at risk for IAB," showing fewer or weaker symptoms of IAB. The two groups combined form a group of adolescents with dysfunctional Internet behavior (DIB). About 1% of adolescents exhibited IAB and an additional 12.7% were at risk for IAB; thus, in total, 13.9% displayed DIB. The prevalence of DIB was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.2% vs. 12.7%, psocial networking, gaming) at least 6 days/week was associated with greater probability of displaying DIB. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that DIB was more frequent among adolescents with a lower educational level of the parents, earlier age at first use of the Internet, and greater use of social networking sites and gaming sites. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing (i.e., behavioral) and internalizing (i.e., emotional) problems were associated with the presence of DIB. PMID:24853789

  17. Emotional, behavioural problems and cigarette smoking in adolescence: findings of a Greek cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotsika Vasiliki

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several studies have reported findings concerning the association between smoking and emotional/behavioural problems, little research has investigated this association after controlling for confounding factors which have been found to be significantly correlated with both cigarette smoking and emotional/behavioural problems and may have a strong effect on the relationship between adolescents' mental health and smoking. The present study attempted to assess the association between adolescents' smoking status and their emotional/behavioural problems after controlling for a number of possible confounders (i.e. age, gender, parental smoking status, exposure to family smoking, family socioeconomic status, adolescents' leisure time in a Greek nation-wide school-based sample. Methods Participants completed a questionnaire which retrieved information about age, gender, family socioeconomic status, smoking status, parental smoking, adolescents' leisure time and emotional/behavioural problems. Data were modelled using multiple logistic regression analysis with adolescents' smoking status as the dependent variable. Results A total of 1194 (i.e. 63% response rate of self-reported questionnaires (40.1% boys, 59.9% girls; 12-18 years old were returned. Data from 1030 participants with full data were analyzed. Cigarette smoking was strongly associated with higher levels of emotional/behavioural problems (p Conclusions This study supports the association between smoking and emotional/behavioural problems among adolescents. Addressing adolescents' needs regarding their emotional/behavioural health could be helpful in the development of effective anti-smoking strategies in school environment and elsewhere.

  18. Ecological Factors and Adolescent Marijuana Use: Results of a Prospective Study in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Delva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Despite the growing evidence that ecological factors contribute to substance use, the relationship of ecological factors and illicit drugs such as marijuana use is not well understood, particularly among adolescents in Latin America. Guided by social disorganization and social stress theories, we prospectively examined the association of disaggregated neighborhood characteristics with marijuana use among adolescents in Santiago, Chile, and tested if these relationships varied by sex. Methods: Data for this study are from 725 community-dwelling adolescents participating in the Santiago Longitudinal Study, a study of substance using behaviors among urban adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Adolescents completed a two-hour interviewer administered questionnaire with questions about drug use and factors related to drug using behaviors. Results: As the neighborhood levels of drug availability at baseline increased, but not crime or noxious environment, adolescents had higher odds of occasions of marijuana use at follow up, approximately 2 years later (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.16–1.66, even after controlling for the study’s covariates. No interactions by sex were significant. Discussion: The findings suggest that “poverty”, “crime”, and “drug problems” may not be synonyms and thus can be understood discretely. As Latin American countries re-examine their drug policies, especially those concerning decriminalizing marijuana use, the findings suggest that attempts to reduce adolescent marijuana use in disadvantaged neighborhoods may do best if efforts are concentrated on specific features of the “substance abuse environment”.

  19. Dosimetry study comparing NCS report-2 versus IAEA TRS-398 protocol for high energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a dosimetry study is presented in which the results of absorbed dose determined at reference condition according to the IAEA TRS-398 protocol and the NCS report-2 are compared. The IAEA TRS-398 protocol for absorbed dose calibration is based on ionization chamber having absorbed dose to water calibration factor Ndw, while the NCS-2 dosimetry report for absorbed dose calibration is based on an ionization chamber having air- kerma calibration factor Nk. This study shows that the absorbed dose which is calculated with The IAEA TRS-398 formalisms is higher than that calculated with NCS report-2 formalisms within range from 0.4 to 0.9% in cobalt-60 beam as sensed by different ionization chambers, and from 0.2 to 1.1% for different higher energy photon beams of 6, 8 and 18 MV. The chambers used are PTW 30001, 30004, and NE-2571; which have calibration factors Nk and Ndw traceable to the BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures)

  20. Synchrotron radiation X-ray micro-fluorescence: Protocol to study mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Karla Mayra; Bönecker, Marcelo; Perez, Carlos Alberto; Mantesso, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    The micro-X-ray fluorescence by synchrotron radiation (μ-XRF) is a method to determine the composition of tissues without destroying the samples. However, this technique has never been used for the analysis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). This study compared different protocols for fixing, storing, preserving, and establishing the correct numbers of dental derived MSC submitted to μ-XRF analysis. Stem cells were obtained from human dental tissue. After cell expansion, and MACS isolation, the samples were fixed and the following quantities of cells 1 × 10(4) to 1 × 10(7) were divided in two groups: G1: fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde diluted in phosphate-buffered saline solution, and G2: fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde diluted in MilliQ water. The G1 cells showed precipitation of chemical components from the solution resulting in the formation of salt crystals while G2 cells were clear and almost transparent in the sample holder. With regards to cells concentration, the best results occurred when four droplets of 1 × 10(7) cells were analyzed. This work shows that to identify and study the distribution of trace elements in MSC by μ-XRF, the best protocol is fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde diluted with MilliQ water at 4°C and a concentration of four incremental droplets of 1 × 10(7) cells. PMID:26749077

  1. Adolescents' perceptions of health from disadvantaged urban communities: findings from the WAVE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmari, Kristin; Blum, Robert; Sonenstein, Freya; Marshall, Beth; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Venables, Emily; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Lou, Chaohua; Gao, Ershang; Acharya, Rajib; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Sangowawa, Adesola

    2014-03-01

    The Well-being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) is a global study of young people living in disadvantaged urban communities from Baltimore, MD, Johannesburg, South Africa, Shanghai, China, New Delhi, India and Ibadan, Nigeria. WAVE was launched in the summer of 2011 to: 1) explore adolescents' perceived health and their top health challenges; and 2) describe the factors that adolescents perceive to be related to their health and health care utilization. Researchers in each site conducted in-depth interviews among adolescents; community mapping and focus groups among adolescents; a Photovoice methodology, in which adolescents were trained in photography and took photos of the meaning of 'health' in their communities; and key informant interviews among adults who work with young people. A total 529 participants from across the sites were included in the analysis. Findings from the study showed that gender played a large role with regards to what adolescents considered as their top health challenges. Among females, sexual and reproductive health problems were primary health challenges, whereas among males, tobacco, drug, and alcohol consumption was of highest concern, which often resulted into acts of violence. Personal safety was also a top concern among males and females from Baltimore and Johannesburg, and among females in New Delhi and Ibadan. Factors perceived to influence health the most were the physical environment, which was characterized by inadequate sanitation and over-crowded buildings, and the social environment, which varied in influence by gender and site. Regardless of the study site, adolescents did not consider physical health as a top priority and very few felt the need to seek health care services. This study highlights the need to focus on underlying structural and social factors for promoting health and well-being among adolescents in disadvantaged urban environments. PMID:24581070

  2. Simulation Studies On An Energy Efficient Multipath Routing Protocol Using Directional Antennas For Manets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Chilukuri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the development of an energy efficient multipath routing protocol with directional antenna for MANET as an optimization task as well as a multidisciplinary entity. A comprehensive analysis to link all the multi-disciplinary viewpoints involved in the development of desired multipath routing protocol with requisite technical details is presented in this paper. A simple and elegant mathematical formulation for the analysis of relative improvement of the performance metrics of ad-hocnetworks with omnidirectional and directional antenna is presented. Through extensive numerical simulations, the multi-dimensional desirable performance attributes of wireless link such as improvedrange, improved RSS, reduced RF transmit power and consequent reduced consumption of battery power have been analyzed keeping the directional gain of the antenna as a variable parameter. Development or modification of a protocol with concurrent focus on multipath routing with optimization of the batteryenergy is a significant step to increase the life time of MANET without recharging. Selection of the energy efficient path amongst several alternative ones is of paramount significance in the evaluation of overall performance of MANET system. A formulation to compute the required Battery Energy taking into account the data pertaining to the power efficiency of the associated transceiver design as well as the specified link performance parameters is also discussed. Through a case study involving the specifications of a typical transceiver operating in the 2.4 GHz band, the desirable impact of higher gain of a directional antenna in the reduction of RF transmitter power is illustrated. The consequential reduced battery power consumption while still retaining the specified performance parameters of the adhoc network like range and Received Signal Strength (RSS is also demonstrated. This paper also addresses the importance of alignment of beam peaks of directional

  3. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2008-01-01

    The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and…

  4. Active gaming in Dutch adolescents: a descriptive study

    OpenAIRE

    Simons Monique; Bernaards Claire; Slinger Jantine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Adequate levels of physical activity are part of a healthy lifestyle and in this way linked to better health outcomes. For children and adolescents, the physical activity guideline recommends at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity every day. However, many adolescents are not physically active enough and they spend a lot of their time on sedentary activities (such as video games). A new generation of video games that require body movements to play the...

  5. The GOALS Study: The association between physical activity, cognitive performance, and academic achievement in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Van Dijk, M. L., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, 26 April). The GOALS Study: The association between physical activity, cognitive performance, and academic achievement in adolescents. Presentation at the Learning & Cognition meeting, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  6. Chronic pain in adolescence and internalizing mental health disorders: a nationally representative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Groenewald, Cornelius B; Beals-Erickson, Sarah E; Gebert, J Thomas; Palermo, Tonya M

    2016-06-01

    Chronic pain in childhood and adolescence has been shown to heighten the risk for depressive and anxiety disorders in specific samples in adulthood; however, little is known about the association between a wider variety of chronic pains and internalizing mental health disorders. Using nationally representative data, the objectives of this study were to establish prevalence rates of internalizing mental health disorders (anxiety and depressive disorders) among cohorts with or without adolescent chronic pain, and to examine whether chronic pain in adolescence is associated with lifetime history of internalizing mental health disorders reported in adulthood. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) was used (N = 14,790). Individuals who had chronic pain in adolescence subsequently reported higher rates of lifetime anxiety disorders (21.1% vs 12.4%) and depressive disorders (24.5% vs 14.1%) in adulthood as compared with individuals without a history of adolescent chronic pain. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that chronic pain in adolescence was associated with an increased likelihood of lifetime history of anxiety disorders (odds ratio: 1.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.63, P = 0.005) and depressive disorders (odds ratio: 1.38; confidence interval: 1.16-1.64, P < 0.001) reported in adulthood. Future research is needed to examine neurobiological and psychological mechanisms underlying these comorbidities. PMID:26901806

  7. The Link between Mother and Adolescent Substance Use: Intergenerational Findings from the British Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Maggs, Jennifer L; Greene, Kaylin M; Morgan, Nicole R; Schulenberg, John E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify mother, family, and individual factors associated with adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use using mother and child self-reports. Adolescents aged 12-15 (N=276) and their mothers who were participants in the British Cohort Study (BCS; born 1970) were both surveyed when mothers were 34 years old. Predictors included mother's substance use as well as characteristics of the child (gender, age, conduct problems) and family (social class, two-parent family, parent-adolescent conflict). Outcome variables were adolescent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Child characteristics were predictive, with older children more likely to engage in all behaviors. After controlling for other predictors, mothers' current drinking frequency and problems (i.e., CAGE 1+) predicted adolescent ever and sometimes/regular drinking; mothers' marijuana use was a marginally significant predictor of adolescent marijuana use. Results suggest that mothers' substance use is an important component of adolescent use, even after accounting for characteristics of the child and the intergenerational family context. PMID:24489608

  8. Adolescents from low-income sectors: the challenge of studying in a time of digital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Joaquín

    2014-10-01

    This paper is about practices and perceptions regarding the study of adolescents from low-income sectors in the City of Buenos Aires. The methodology consisted of 26 in-depth interviews with low-income adolescents and participant observations in twenty cybercafés of the South Area of the City of Buenos Aires. Among the findings, these students highlight that ICTs allow them to handle information in a more agile and entertaining way, more consistent with their daily uses. However, doing research on school content is what students do the least, since adolescents use technology mainly for communicative, social and recreational ends. These adolescents recognise some disadvantages in using ICTs to study: the unreliable information, the difficulty to distinguish which topics related to school content are more appropriate and the disruptive and continuous use of social networks. In this sense, these adolescents tend to have more problems in benefitting from ICTs for academic purposes than other adolescents. While communication and recreational skills tend to be similar, the evaluation of different sources of information and the skill to make complex searches online are usually more strongly developed in adolescents of middle and high-income households. In conclusion, we think it is necessary to take these problems into consideration in the social sciences research of the area and besides when implementing digital literacy programs. PMID:25364088

  9. Sex, studies or strife? What to integrate in adolescent health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Gracy; Patel, Vikram; Ramakrishna, Jayashree

    2003-05-01

    If health services for adolescents are to be successfully integrated into the existing health care system, they will need to reach out to meet the needs that adolescents themselves perceive as salient. This paper describes a study aiming to elicit the needs of adolescents in higher secondary schools in Goa, India, in 1999-2000. The objective was to generate information which could guide the development of adolescent-friendly health services by integrating the health needs identified by adolescents themselves. The study began with free-listing, followed by focus group discussions and in-depth interviews to elicit areas of concern. Then, a survey of 811 students with a self-report questionnaire was carried out. The findings demonstrate that there is clearly an unmet need for information about sexual and reproductive health, but also a large, unmet need for psychosocial support for health issues ranging from violence in schools to poor relationships with parents, stress-related health complaints and educational difficulties, which are often perceived by adolescents to be of primary importance. Integrating these issues into programmes is likely to be an essential element in developing health services and programmes which can reach out to the majority of adolescents in school settings in India. PMID:12800709

  10. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jennifer L; Mothi, Suraj Sarvode; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2016-03-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common and severe disorder that typically onsets in adolescence, but often goes unrecognized. Despite BDD's severity and early onset, treatment outcome research on adolescent BDD is scarce. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the gold-standard psychosocial treatment for BDD in adults and has shown promise in adolescents. The current study examined the development and testing of a new CBT for adolescents with BDD. We tested feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcome in a sample of 13 adolescents (mean age 15.23years, range: 13-17) with primary BDD. Treatment was delivered in 12-22 weekly individual sessions. Standardized clinician ratings and self-report measures were used to assess BDD and related symptoms pre- and posttreatment and at 3- and 6-months follow-up. At posttreatment, BDD and related symptoms (e.g., insight, mood) were significantly improved. Scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for BDD indicated a 50% (intent-to-treat) and 68% (completer) improvement in BDD symptoms. Seventy-five percent of adolescents who started treatment and 100% of completers were considered treatment responders. Treatment gains were maintained at follow-up. High patient satisfaction ratings and patient feedback indicated that treatment was acceptable. This represents the largest study of a psychosocial treatment for adolescent BDD. PMID:26956653

  11. Protocol for studying extinction of conditioned fear in naturally cycling female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Lisa Y; Cover, Kara K; Landau, Aaron J; Milad, Mohammed R; Lebron-Milad, Kelimer

    2015-01-01

    Extinction of conditioned fear has been extensively studied in male rodents. Recently, there have been an increasing number of studies indicating that neural mechanisms for certain behavioral tasks and response behaviors are different in females and males. Using females in research studies can represent a challenge because of the variation of gonadal hormones during their estrous cycle. This protocol describes well-established procedures that are useful in investigating the role of estrogen in fear extinction memory consolidation in female rats. Phase of the estrous cycle and exogenous estrogen administration prior to extinction training can influence extinction recall 24 hr later. The vaginal swabbing technique for estrous phase identification described here aids the examination and manipulation of naturally cycling gonadal hormones. The use of this basic rodent model may further delineate the mechanisms by which estrogen can modulate fear extinction memory in females. PMID:25741747

  12. Study of psychosocial problems among adolescent students in Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Bhosale

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Psychosocial health problems are highly prevalent and one of the hidden public health problems amongst the children and adolescents. Early diagnosis by primary care physicians and prompt referral to the specialist is very important for controlling it. Objectives: To screen all school going children for the risk of psychosocial problems, identify risk factors and refer at risk children to the psychiatrist for counseling. Material and Methods: A Cross sectional study in urban and rural field practice area of a teaching hospital in Pune. A screening tool-the youth report of pediatric symptom checklist (Y-PSC was used .Statistical analysis by Chi square test and Multivariate logistic regression was used as the test for significance. Results: Out of the total 2154 children, 328 (15.2% were found to be at risk of psychosocial problems. Statistically significant difference was observed as per type of management, medium of education, location of the school, age group, class of the student, total members in the family and socioeconomic status. No significant difference was observed as per gender or the type of the family. However after the application of multinomial logistic regression, significant statistical difference was observed only for the type of management running the schools with significantly more number of proportions of psychological disorders seen in students studying in government run schools. Conclusions: Our study clearly brings out the role of management in psychosocial impairment. The psychosocial impairment is about 15.2% with more impairment seen amongst government schools.

  13. Body Weight Concerns among Urban Adolescent Girls: A Microlevel Study

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    Susmita Mukhopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing consciousness about ideal body image leads to dietary modifications and consequent eating disorders among girls in developing countries like India. The present study aims to (i assess the prevalence of body weight consciousness and related behaviours among a group of adolescent girls; (ii assess the sociodemographic correlates of weight related behaviours; and (iii compare weight related behaviours of the girls of two religious groups residing in Howrah. The study is the outcome of a cross-sectional school based survey involving 280 (159 Hindu and 121 Muslim girls from standards 8 to 11. Significant differences exist between two religious groups with respect to their family size, socioeconomic profile, and media exposures (in terms of watching television. Consciousness about body weight among girls shows significant difference with respect to religion, family size (χ2=64.77, father’s occupation (χ2=60.28, level of education of both the parents, and media exposure (P<0.05. Consciousness about body weight drives them to adopt several behavioural measures like calorie restriction, food avoidance, and dieting. Sociodemographic correlates of all these behaviours have been analyzed. The study documents that concern over body image and weight loss is quite important among these urban girls.

  14. Cannabis Use in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Review of Findings from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Carolyn; Patton, George C

    2016-06-01

    The Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VAHCS) is a long-term Australian cohort study that has documented cannabis use in young Australians from the mid-teens to the mid-30s. The study findings have described the natural history of early cannabis use, remission, and escalation and the social and mental health consequences of different patterns of use. The adverse consequences of cannabis use are most clear-cut in heavy early adolescent users. These consequences include educational failure, persisting mental health problems, and progression to other substance use. For later onset and occasional users, the risks are lower and appear to entail modest elevations in risk for other drug use compared with never users. With growing evidence of health consequences, there is a strong case for actions around early heavy adolescent users. Prevention of early use, identification and treatment of early heavy users, and harm reduction through diversion of early heavy users away from the custodial justice system into health care are all priority responses. PMID:27254840

  15. "Let's talk about sex": a qualitative study of Rwandan adolescents' views on sex and HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ilo Van Nuil

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This qualitative study explored the views and experiences of adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV in Kigali, Rwanda, regarding sex, love, marriage, children and hope for the future. DESIGN: The study enrolled 42 adolescents who had received combination antiretroviral therapy for at least 12 months, and a selection of their primary caregivers. Study methods included 3 multiple day workshops consisting of role-playing and focus group discussions (FGDs with adolescents, 8 in-depth interviews with adolescents, and one FGD with caregivers. RESULTS: The adolescents reported experiencing similar sexual needs and dilemmas as most other adolescents, but with an added layer of complexity due to fears related to HIV transmission and/or rejection by partners. They desired more advice from their parents/caregivers on these topics. Although they struggled with aspects of sex, love, marriage and having children, most agreed that they would find love, be married and have children in the future. The two most discussed HIV-related anxieties were how and when to disclose to a (potential sex/marriage partner and whether to have children. However, most adolescents felt that they had a right to love and be loved, and were aware of prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT options in Rwanda. Adolescents generally spoke about their future role in society in a positive manner. CONCLUSION: Strengthening the life skills of HIV-positive adolescents, especially around HIV disclosure and reduction of HIV transmission, as well as the support skills of parents/caregivers, may not only reduce onward HIV transmission but also improve quality of life by reducing anxiety.

  16. Social correlates of cigarette smoking among Icelandic adolescents: A population-based cross-sectional study

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    Allegrante John P

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that between 80 and 90 percent of adult smokers report having started smoking before 18 years of age. Several studies have revealed that multiple social factors influence the likelihood of smoking during adolescence, the period during which the onset of smoking usually occurs. To better understand the social mechanisms that influence adolescent smoking, we analyzed the relationship and relative importance of a broad spectrum of social variables in adolescent smoking in Iceland, a Nordic country with high per-capita income. Methods We used cross-sectional data from 7,430 14- to 16 year-old students (approximately 81% of all Icelanders in these age cohorts in the 2006 Youth in Iceland study. The Youth in Iceland studies are designed to investigate the role of several cognitive, behavioral, and social factors in the lives of adolescents, and the data collected are used to inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of substance use prevention programs that are being developed by Icelandic social scientists, policy makers, and practitioners. Results Our analysis revealed that friends' smoking behavior and attitude toward smoking were strongly associated with adolescent smoking and other tobacco use, as well as alcohol consumption during the previous 30 days. Main protective factors were parent's perceived attitude toward smoking, the quantity of time spent with parents, absence of serious verbal conflict between parents and adolescents, and participation in physical activity. Family structure was related to adolescent smoking to a small extent, but other background factors were not. Conclusion We conclude that multiple social factors are related to adolescent smoking. Parents and other primary preventive agents need to be informed about the complicated nature of the adolescent social world in order to maximize their impact.

  17. [Perceptions of cannabis effects a qualitative study among adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrol, H; Roura, C; Kallmeyer, A

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare perceptions of cannabis use effects and risks of tolerance effect, withdrawal syndrome, dependence and repercussions on school, social, and familial functioning among adolescent cannabis users and non users. Subjects were 210 adolescents (121 boys, 89 girls; mean age=16.3 1.3) from the department of Pyrénées-Orientales, France. Subjects completed a questionnaire assessing the frequency of cannabis use, the method of using cannabis, and including open-ended questions (What are the different methods of cannabis use? What are their pleasant and unpleasant or negative effects? What are their risks? Do you think that cannabis effects decrease in intensity when you are used to it? When someone is used to cannabis and stop using it (or has no more of it), does she experience craving for cannabis and withdrawal symptoms? What do you think of cannabis use?). Among the subjects, 118 (56.2%) were cannabis users and 92 (43.8%) were non-users. Among users, 27% used cannabis once a Month or less than once a Month, 21%, more than once a Month; 24%, more than once a weeks; 6%, every day; 20%, more than once a day. The methods of using cannabis were joints (76%), bong (40%), pipe (23%), and ingestion (18%). Knowledge of methods of using cannabis was higher in users than non-users: joint (87% vs 64%, ppipe (38% vs 7%, pjoints. The effects of bong class cannabis as a hard drug. Physical negative effects or risk were reported by 35% of users versus 30% of non-users (p=0.44). Bong users described specific physical risks such as respiratory problems and fainting. No subjects reported the risk of road accidents. Most users and non-users considered that cannabis use causes dependence (60% vs 74%, p=0.03), tolerance (68% vs 60%, p=0.23), and withdrawal symptoms (76% vs 52%, p<0.001). A minority of users and non-users reported that cannabis use causes a deterioration in school functioning (42% vs 20%, p=0.69), in social activities (23% vs 14%, p=0

  18. A multi-parametric protocol to study exercise intolerance in McArdle's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Giulia; Bertolucci, Federica; Logerfo, Annalisa; Simoncini, Costanza; Papi, Riccardo; Franzoni, Ferdinando; Dell'Osso, Giacomo; Servadio, Adele; Masoni, Maria Chiara; Siciliano, Gabriele

    2015-12-01

    McArdle's disease is the most common metabolic myopathy of muscle carbohydrate metabolism, due to deficiency of myophosphorylase and alteration of glycogen breakdown in muscle. The clinical manifestations usually begin in young adulthood, with exercise intolerance, exercise-induced muscle cramps, pain and recurrent episodes of myoglobinuria. Many patients experience the second wind phenomenon, characterized by an improved tolerance for aerobic exercise approximately after eight minutes of motor activity, secondary to the increased availability of blood glucose and free fatty acids associated to an enhanced glucose uptake by muscle cells. In this study, we aimed to test a multi-parametric protocol in order to detect the impairment of muscular metabolism and motor performance in patients with McArdle's disease. We enrolled 5 patients and 5 age-matched healthy subjects, that were evaluated by: (01) monitoring of physical activity with an electronic armband; (02) testing of cardiopulmonary, metabolic and respiratory responses to exercise with a cardiopulmonary exercise test and analyzing muscle fatigue during exercise test by surface electromyography (04) evaluating blood lactate and oxidative stress biomarkers at rest and during exercise. The patients were tested at baseline and after three days of carbohydrate-rich diet integrated with tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate and creatine. The multiparametric protocol proved to be useful to detect the oxidative capacity impairment and the second wind phenomenon of patients. We did not observe any significant differences of muscle metabolic response during the exercise test after three days of carbohydrate-rich diet. PMID:27199539

  19. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF 97 CASES TO ARRIVE AT TREATMENT PROTOCOLS FOR FLOATING KNEE

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    Prasad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Floating knee is an injury in which fractures are present both above and below isolating it. It’s a high velocity injury 1 f requently associated with multiple fractures and injuries to other organs . ² The management i.e. , timing of surgery , no of incisions and the type of implants is still a gray area as several protocols have been advocated. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This study comprises of 97 cases and was conducted in the two tertiary care hospitals of Hyderabad , during a period of 6 yrs i.e. , between 2007 - 2013. The average of the patients is 28.2 years and the Male to Female ratio is 6:1 , there were 68 open fractur es. Each case is individually assessed and managed. Different implants are used to fix these fractures depending upon the situation and fracture type. RESULTS : All the cases are evaluated after fracture union based on criteria Karlstrom and Olerud. Sixty f ive patients had union of femoral and tibial fractures with 90 degrees of knee flexion falling into the category of excellent and good results. Complications encountered were Infection , Knee - stiffness , nonunion , malunion , injury to nerves. CONCLUSIONS : The re is no fixed protocol in the number of incisions , choice of fixation device , and timing of surgery in the management of floating knee injuries. Each case should be dealt with basing on its merits. The management should be tailor - made for that particular case.

  20. Multi-centred mixed-methods PEPFAR HIV care & support public health evaluation: study protocol

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    Fayers Peter

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A public health response is essential to meet the multidimensional needs of patients and families affected by HIV disease in sub-Saharan Africa. In order to appraise curret provision of HIV care and support in East Africa, and to provide evidence-based direction to future care programming, and Public Health Evaluation was commissioned by the PEPFAR programme of the US Government. Methods/Design This paper described the 2-Phase international mixed methods study protocol utilising longitudinal outcome measurement, surveys, patient and family qualitative interviews and focus groups, staff qualitative interviews, health economics and document analysis. Aim 1 To describe the nature and scope of HIV care and support in two African countries, including the types of facilities available, clients seen, and availability of specific components of care [Study Phase 1]. Aim 2 To determine patient health outcomes over time and principle cost drivers [Study Phase 2]. The study objectives are as follows. 1 To undertake a cross-sectional survey of service configuration and activity by sampling 10% of the facilities being funded by PEPFAR to provide HIV care and support in Kenya and Uganda (Phase 1 in order to describe care currently provided, including pharmacy drug reviews to determine availability and supply of essential drugs in HIV management. 2 To conduct patient focus group discussions at each of these (Phase 1 to determine care received. 3 To undertake a longitudinal prospective study of 1200 patients who are newly diagnosed with HIV or patients with HIV who present with a new problem attending PEPFAR care and support services. Data collection includes self-reported quality of life, core palliative outcomes and components of care received (Phase 2. 4 To conduct qualitative interviews with staff, patients and carers in order to explore and understand service issues and care provision in more depth (Phase 2. 5 To undertake document

  1. A qualitative study of the views of adolescents on their caries risk and prevention behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Hall-Scullin, Emma; Goldthorpe, Joanna; Milsom, Keith; Tickle, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes and beliefs of adolescents towards dental caries and their use or non-use of caries prevention regimens. Methods Adolescents aged 16 years from four state-funded secondary schools in North West of England (n = 19). Purposive sampling strategically selected participants with characteristics to inform the study aims (gender, ethnicity, and caries status). Semi-structured interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a f...

  2. Fluid intake patterns: an epidemiological study among children and adolescents in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Feferbaum Rubens; de Abreu Luiz; Leone Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Energy from liquids is one of the most important factors that could impact on the high prevalence of children and adolescents obesity around the world. There are few data on the liquid consumption in Brazil. The aim of this study is to evaluate the volume and quality of liquids consumed by Brazilian children and adolescents and to determine the proportion of their daily energy intake composed of liquids. Methods A multicenter study was conducted in five Brazilian cities; t...

  3. Clinical features of adolescents with deliberate self-harm: A case control study in Lisbon, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo F Guerreiro; Neves, Ema L; Rita Navarro; et al, ...

    2009-01-01

    Diogo F Guerreiro, Ema L Neves, Rita Navarro, Raquel Mendes, Ana Prioste, Diana Ribeiro, Tiago Lila, António Neves, Mónica Salgado, Nazaré Santos, Daniel SampaioYouth Suicide Study Group (NES), The Hospital Santa Maria, Psychiatry Department, Lisbon Faculty of Medicine, PortugalAbstract: Deliberate self-harm (DSH) among adolescents is a high-risk condition for suicide. The aim of the present study is to describe the characteristic clinical features of adolesce...

  4. Iranian Female Adolescent's Views on Unhealthy Snacks Consumption: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    R Majdzadeh; A Rashidian; Bazargan, M.; N. Omidvar; Karimi-Shahanjarini, A; Shojaeizadeh, D.

    2010-01-01

    "nBackground: Given the increasing prevalence of obesity among Iranian adolescents and the role of consumption of un­healthy snacks in this issue, interventions that focus on factors influencing food choice are needed.  This study was designed to delineate factors associated with unhealthy snack use among female Iranian adolescents."nMethods: The theory of Planned Behavior served as the framework of the study.  Qualitative data were collected via nine fo­cus group discussion...

  5. The prevalence of triggers in paediatric migraine: a questionnaire study in 102 children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Neut, Dorothée; Fily, Antoine; Cuvellier, Jean-Christophe; Vallée, Louis

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence and characterization of migraine triggers have not been rigorously studied in children and adolescents. Using a questionnaire, we retrospectively studied the prevalence of 15 predefined trigger factors in a clinic-based population. In 102 children and adolescents fulfilling the Second Edition of The International Headache Classification criteria for paediatric migraine, at least one migraine trigger was reported by the patient and/or was the parents’ interpretation in 100% of p...

  6. Factors Affecting Unhappiness at School among Japanese Adolescents: An Epidemiological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Morioka, Hisayoshi; Itani, Osamu; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Iwasa, Hajime; Ikeda, Maki; Yamamoto, Ryuichiro; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kanda, Hideyuki; Nakagome, Sachi; Ohida,Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Background Unhappiness at school is one of the main reasons for truancy among adolescents. In order to assess this problem more thoroughly in the context of Japanese adolescents, the present study examined the associations between feelings of unhappiness at school and lifestyle habits, school life realities, and mental health status. Method This study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. A self-administered questionnaire was provided to students enrolled in randomly selected junior and s...

  7. Prevalence of psychopathology and pathways to care in adolescents with intellectual disabilities: A population study.

    OpenAIRE

    Hassiotis, A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) and mental health problems are a distinct group with particular difficulties, which need to be addressed. Despite the many studies available on the prevalence of mental health problems in children with intellectual disabilities, very few studies have investigated the prevalence of such disorders in adolescents with ID. Furthermore, there is little information about service provision for this specific age group. Aim: To investigate the ...

  8. BMI changes in children and adolescents attending a specialized childhood obesity center: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Maggio, Albane Bertha; Saunders, Catherine Tamsin; Gal-Duding, Claudine; Beghetti, Maurice; Martin, Xavier; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie; Chamay-weber, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidisciplinary group therapies for obese children and adolescents are effective but difficult to implement. There is a crucial need to evaluate simpler management programs that target the obese child and his family. This study aimed to determine changes in body mass indexes (BMI) after individual family-based obesity intervention with a pediatrician in a specialized obesity center for child and adolescent. Methods This cohort study included 283 patients (3.3 to 17.1 years, mean ...

  9. Orofacial Pathologic Lesions in Children and Adolescents: A Clinicopathological Study in Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafari Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Ahmadi Sheshdeh, Zahra; Kamali, Fereshteh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Oral and maxillofacial lesions vary regarding their clinical presentation in different populations. Until now, oral and maxillofacial lesions in Iranian children and adolescents have not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the type and distribution of biopsied oral lesions among children and adolescents in Southern Iran. Methods: All the patients referred to the pathology department of Shiraz Faculty of Dentistry from 1991-2009 were enrolled in this retrospective, ...

  10. Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time during Childhood, Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Porcel, Francisco B.; Konstabel, K.; Pasquali, E; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Hurtig-Wennl??f, A.; M??estu, J.; L??f, M.; Harro, J; Bellocco, R.; Labayen, Idoia; Veidebaum, T; Sj??str??m, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background To know how moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time change across lifespan periods is needed for designing successful lifestyle interventions. We aimed to study changes in objectively measured (accelerometry) MVPA and sedentary time from childhood to adolescence and from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods Estonian and Swedish participants from the European Youth Heart Study aged 9 and 15 years at baseline (N = 2312) were asked to participat...

  11. Early determinants of physical activity in adolescence: prospective birth cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Hallal, P. C.; Wells, J. C.; Reichert, F. F.; Anselmi, L; Victora, C G

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of early social, anthropometric, and behavioural variables on physical activity in adolescence. DESIGN: Prospective birth cohort study. SETTING: Pelotas, southern Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 4453 adolescents aged 10-12 years participating in the Pelotas 1993 birth cohort study (follow-up rate 87.5%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sedentary lifestyle (< 300 minutes of physical activity per week) and median physical activity score (minutes per week). RESULTS: The prevalence...

  12. A study of anemia among adolescent girls in eastern part of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Piush Kanodia; Mukesh Bhatta; Rupa Rajbhandari Singh; Bhatta, Nisha K.; Gauri Shankar Shah

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Anemia is a global health problem. About 40% of the world's population suffers from anemia and adolescence is one of the most vulnerable age group. Hence the objective of the study was to determine prevalence and distribution of anemia among adolescent girls in eastern part of Nepal.Materials & Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in a Government School of Dharan over a period of one year. There were total 433 participants, whose clinical and demo...

  13. Adolescent Perceptions of Parenting Styles in Sweden, Italy and Greece: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Giulia Olivari; Elisabeth Hertfelt Wahn; Katerina Maridaki-Kassotaki; Katerina Antonopoulou; Emanuela Confalonieri

    2015-01-01

    Comparative research on parenting styles among Nordic and Mediterranean countries is still missing, despite the increasing number of studies on parenting styles in adolescence. This study explores similarities and differences in adolescents’ retrospective perceptions of parenting styles, for both parents, in Sweden, Italy and Greece, using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. In particular, it examines the relation between parental role, adolescent gender, country of origin, SES...

  14. A cognitive-behavioural program for adolescents with chronic pain - A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Merlijn, Vivian; Hunfeld, Joke; Wouden, Hans; Hazebroek-Kampschreur, Alice; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette; Koes, Bart; Passchier, Jan

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this pilot study is to evaluate the feasibility of a cognitive-behavioural training program for adolescents with chronic pain irrespective of pain localisation. A secondary aim was to give an impression of the effect of the program on pain and quality of life. Eight adolescents (14-18 years) with chronic non-organic pain recruited from the general population (and their parents) participated in this pilot study. The intervention included five group meetings alternate...

  15. Optimization of the scan protocols for CT-based material extraction in small animal PET/CT studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ching-Ching [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Tzu Chi College of Technology, 880, Sec 2, Chien-Kuo Rd., Hualien, Taiwan (China); Yu, Jhih-An [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Sec. 2, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yang, Bang-Hung [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Sec. 2, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Tung-Hsin, E-mail: tung@ym.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Sec. 2, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-11

    We investigated the effects of scan protocols on CT-based material extraction to minimize radiation dose while maintaining sufficient image information in small animal studies. The phantom simulation experiments were performed with the high dose (HD), medium dose (MD) and low dose (LD) protocols at 50, 70 and 80 kV{sub p} with varying mA s. The reconstructed CT images were segmented based on Hounsfield unit (HU)-physical density (ρ) calibration curves and the dual-energy CT-based (DECT) method. Compared to the (HU;ρ) method performed on CT images acquired with the 80 kV{sub p} HD protocol, a 2-fold improvement in segmentation accuracy and a 7.5-fold reduction in radiation dose were observed when the DECT method was performed on CT images acquired with the 50/80 kV{sub p} LD protocol, showing the possibility to reduce radiation dose while achieving high segmentation accuracy.

  16. STUDY OF DEPRESSION AMONG ADOLESCENT STUDENTS OF RURAL MAHARASHTRA AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Shelke Umesh S, Kunkulol Rahul R, Phalke Vaishali D, Narwane Sandeep P, Patel Prashant C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder that appears in adolescents. It has an adverse effect on physical as well as mental health. Many adolescents remain undiagnosed due to no accessibility to clinics. Objectives: To study demographic factors and their association with depression among adolescents of rural Maharashtra. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 300 students (30 of either sex from 8th to 12th class). 6 item KADS (Kutcher Adolescent Depression ...

  17. Cognitive Risk and Protective Factors for Suicidal Ideation: A Two Year Longitudinal Study in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Taylor A; Connolly, Samantha L; Hamilton, Jessica L; Stange, Jonathan P; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-08-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period associated with heightened risk for both the onset and escalation of suicidal ideation (SI). Given that SI is a potent predictor of suicidal behavior, it is important to develop models of vulnerability for and protection against SI, particularly among young adolescents. This study examined the relative impact of several cognitive vulnerabilities, as well as protective factors, for SI among young adolescents over a 2-year interval encompassing their transition to mid-adolescence. At baseline, 324 adolescents (M = 12.39 years; SD = 0.63; 52.5 % female) completed measures of depressive symptoms, self-referent information processing biases, negative inferential style, and responses to negative affect. Further, the adolescents and their mothers were administered a diagnostic interview to assess current and past depressive disorders and SI. Over follow-up, adolescents and their mothers were administered the diagnostic interview every 12 months and adolescents completed a self-report measure inquiring about SI every 6 months to assess interviewer-rated and self-reported SI. Logistic regressions indicated that preferential endorsement of negative adjectives as self-referent (only among girls), rumination in response to negative affect, and a negative inferential style prospectively predicted SI. Additionally, young adolescents' tendency to respond to negative affect with distraction and problem-solving buffered against their risk for exhibiting SI. When these factors were entered simultaneously, preferential endorsement of negative adjectives as self-referent and the use of distraction and problem-solving skills remained the only significant prospective predictors of SI. No previous studies have examined these variables as predictors of SI, thereby highlighting their potential utility in improving the predictive validity of extant models of suicide risk and resilience. PMID:26597963

  18. Personal values and involvement in problem behaviors among Bahamian early adolescents: a cross-sectional study

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    Li Xiaoming

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies, particularly in developing countries, have explored the relationship between adolescents and parental values with adolescent problem behaviors. The objectives of the study are to (1 describe adolescents' personal values, their problem behaviors, and the relationships thereof according to gender and (2 examine the relationship between parental values, adolescent values, and adolescents' problem behaviors among sixth-grade students and one of their parents. Methods The data used in these analyses were from the baseline assessment of a school-based HIV risk reduction intervention being conducted and evaluated among sixth grade students and one of their parents across 9 elementary schools in The Bahamas. Personal values were measured by the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ. Seven reported problem behaviors were queried from the students, which included physical fight with a friend, drank alcohol, beer, or wine, smoked a cigarette, pushed or carried any drugs, carried a gun, knife, screwdriver or cutlass to use as a weapon, had sex and used marijuana or other illicit drugs over the past 6 months. Multilevel modeling for binary data was performed to estimate the associations between adolescent and parental values and adolescent problem behaviors. Results Among 785 students, 47% of the students reported at least one problem behavior. More boys (54% reported having one or more problem behaviors than girls (41%, p Conclusion In designing interventions for reducing adolescents' problem behaviors, it may be important to understand the values associated with specific problem behaviors. Further exploration regarding lack of association between adolescent and parental values and problem behaviors is needed.

  19. Qualitative Iranian study of parents' roles in adolescent girls' physical activity habit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyyed Vahide; Anoosheh, Monireh; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ehsani, Mohammad

    2013-06-01

    Parents are likely to be key influences on children's physical activity behaviors, although it is not clear how. This study was designed to explore parents' roles in Iranian adolescent girls' physical activity habit development. A qualitative study was conducted by means of semistructured one-to-one interviews with 25 participants, including 16 adolescent girls (10-19 years of age), seven mothers, and two fathers. Content analysis was applied. Two main themes emerged as parental role in adolescent girls' physical activity behavior: developing interest in physical activity (making children familiar with physical activity, discovering talents, and role modeling) and providing support to adolescents for physical activity (material and immaterial). This study provided a better understanding of how Iranian parents influence their children's physical activity behavior. This will enable nurses to design more effective family-based interventions. PMID:23302074

  20. Behavior assessments of pregnant adolescents using TFA Systems (tm)

    OpenAIRE

    Bundy, Patricia Pulliam

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess the thoughts, feelings, and actions of pregnant teens at significant decision-making times: time of intercourse, confirmation of pregnancy, and six weeks post delivery. Factors associated with adolescent pregnancy and patterns of behavior were analyzed. Examination of the extant literature on adolescent pregnancy yielded insight into parental, socio-economic, and partner factors. The interview protocol emanated from the literature anal...

  1. Quality of life of Portuguese and Spanish adolescents. A comparative study between natives and immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Nunes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse differences in quality of life (QOL between Spanish and Portuguese immigrant and native adolescents. In total, 475 native and immigrant adolescents (52% boys from Algarve (Portugal and Huelva (Spain, aged between 12 and 17 years old, were assessed with the KIDSCREEN-52. QOL dimensions were not related to most academic variables, with the exception of number of school failures, Financial Resources and Social Support from Peers. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was used to examine statistical differences in adolescents QOL. Age differences in QOL levels were not found. Girls reported worse QOL levels on Physical Wellbeing than boys (F = 10.32, p = .001, η2 =.02. Immigrant Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Mood (F = 17.57, p = .000, η2 =.11, and native Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Social Acceptance (F = 4.87, p = .002, η2=.033. Immigrant and native adolescents had similar levels of perceived QOL. Overall, it seems that in both countries, the living contexts for immigrant and native adolescents are fairly homogeneous.

  2. Quality of life of Portuguese and Spanish adolescents. A comparative study between natives and immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cristina; Hernando, Ángel; Lemos, Ida; Ayala-Nunes, Lara; Oliva, Cristina Romero; Coronado, Cecilia Montilla

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse differences in quality of life (QOL) between Spanish and Portuguese immigrant and native adolescents. In total, 475 native and immigrant adolescents (52% boys) from Algarve (Portugal) and Huelva (Spain), aged between 12 and 17 years old, were assessed with the KIDSCREEN-52. QOL dimensions were not related to most academic variables, with the exception of number of school failures, Financial Resources and Social Support from Peers. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to examine statistical differences in adolescents QOL. Age differences in QOL levels were not found. Girls reported worse QOL levels on Physical Wellbeing than boys (F = 10.32, p = .001, η2 =.02). Immigrant Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Mood (F = 17.57, p = .000, η2 =.11), and native Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Social Acceptance (F = 4.87, p = .002, η2=.033). Immigrant and native adolescents had similar levels of perceived QOL. Overall, it seems that in both countries, the living contexts for immigrant and native adolescents are fairly homogeneous. PMID:27076012

  3. Comparing patterns of sexual risk among adolescent and young women in a mixed-method study in Tanzania: implications for adolescent participation in HIV prevention trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E Tolley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the disproportionate impact of HIV on women, and adolescents in particular, those below age 18 years are underrepresented in HIV prevention trials due to ethical, safety and logistical concerns. This study examined and compared the sexual risk contexts of adolescent women aged 15–17 to young adult women aged 18–21 to determine whether adolescents exhibited similar risk profiles and the implications for their inclusion in future trials. Methods: We conducted a two-phase, mixed-method study to assess the opportunities and challenges of recruiting and retaining adolescents (aged 15–17 versus young women (18–21 in Tanzania. Phase I, community formative research (CFR, used serial in-depth interviews with 11 adolescent and 12 young adult women from a range of sexual risk contexts in preparation for a mock clinical trial (MCT. For Phase II, 135 HIV-negative, non-pregnant adolescents and young women were enrolled into a six-month MCT to assess and compare differences in sexual and reproductive health (SRH outcomes, including risky sexual behaviour, incident pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs, reproductive tract infections (RTIs and HIV. Results: In both research phases, adolescents appeared to be at similar, if not higher, risk than their young adult counterparts. Adolescents reported earlier sexual debut, and similar numbers of lifetime partners, pregnancy and STI/RTI rates, yet had lower perceived risk. Married women in the CFR appeared at particular risk but were less represented in the MCT. In addition, adolescents were less likely than their older counterparts to have accessed HIV testing, obtained gynaecological exams or used protective technologies. Conclusions: Adolescent women under 18 are at risk of multiple negative SRH outcomes and they underuse preventive services. Their access to new technologies such as vaginal microbicides or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP may similarly be compromised unless

  4. A Study on the Distributed Antenna Based Heterogeneous Cognitive Wireless Network Synchronous MAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Fen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces distributed antennas into a cognitive radio network and presents a heterogeneous network. The best contribution of this paper is that it designs a synchronous cognitive MAC protocol (DAHCWNS-MAC protocol: distributed antenna based heterogeneous cognitive wireless network synchronous MAC protocol. The novel protocol aims at combining the advantages of cognitive radio and distributed antennas to fully utilize the licensed spectrum, broaden the communication range, and improve throughput. This paper carries out the mathematical modeling and performance simulation to demonstrate its superiority in improving the network throughput at the cost of increasing antenna hardware costs.

  5. Medical device design for adolescent adherence and developmental goals: a case study of a cystic fibrosis physiotherapy device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang AR

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra R Lang,1 Jennifer L Martin,2 Sarah Sharples,1 John A Crowe3 1Human Factors Research Group, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 2Mindtech Healthcare Technology Cooperative (Htc, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institute of Mental Health, Nottingham, UK; 3Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, UK Purpose: This study investigates the psychosocial aspects of adolescent medical device use and the impact on adolescent adherence and goals for the transitional years between child and adulthood. Patients and methods: Interviews were carried out with 20 adolescents with cystic fibrosis, investigating adolescent medical device use and experiences in relation to their personal and social lives and development through the adolescent years. The qualitative dataset was thematically examined using a content analysis method. Results: The results show that adolescent users of medical technologies want their independence and capabilities to be respected. Adolescent adherence to medical device use was associated with short- and long-term motivations, where older adolescents were able to comprehend the longer-term benefits of use against short-term inconvenience more acutely than younger adolescents. It was suggested that medical devices could provide a tool for communication with families and clinicians and could support adolescents as they take responsibility for managing their condition. Themes of “fitting into teenage life” and “use in the community” were associated with adolescents' needs to form their own identity and have autonomy. Conclusion: This study shows that adolescent needs regarding medical device use are complex. It provides evidence to suggest that devices designed inclusively for adolescents may lead to improved adherence and also facilitate transition through the adolescent years and achievement of adolescent goals. Keywords: young people, teenagers

  6. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Salazar-Pousada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10 and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS, respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P<.05. Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06–4.0, P=.03 and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43–6.55, P=.004 related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged.

  7. Periodontal status among adolescents in Georgia. A pathfinder study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liran Levin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the present pathfinder study was to screen and map the periodontal status of Georgian population in accordance with the guidelines of the World Health Organization for population based surveys. Methods. During 2012, a pathfinder study was conducted to collect this data. For the periodontal portion of the study, 15-year-old school children were examined in the capital city of Tbilisi as well as in two other large cities and 4 smaller villages. All participants were examined by a trained dental team in a classroom using a dental mirror and a periodontal probe. Periodontal examination included plaque scores, calculus scores, probing depth measurements and bleeding on probing. These measurements were recorded for the Ramfjord index teeth. Results. A total of 397 15-year-old participants were examined in this pathfinder study. There were 240 females (60.45% and 157 males (39.55%. Of the total participants 196 (49.37% were urban adolescents while 201 (50.63% were from rural communities. Mean probing depth was 3.34 ± 0.57 mm with a range of 1 to 10 mm; a relatively high proportion (34.26% of these subjects presented with at least one site with pockets of 5 mm or deeper. Males presented with greater plaque, calculus and probing depths than females. When urban and rural populations were compared, urban participants presented with more plaque, probing depths and bleeding on probing. Greater pocket depths were found to be related to the presence of plaque calculus and bleeding on probing. Conclusions. Overall, rather high incidences of periodontal pockets ≥ 5 mm were detected in this population. This data should serve to prepare further more detailed epidemiological studies that will serve to plan and implement prevent and treat strategies for periodontal diseases in Georgia and also help make manpower decisions.

  8. Effects of parenting quality on adolescents' personality resemblance to their parents. The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Komdeur, Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the development of resemblance between 741 adolescents and their biological parents, across six NEO-PI-R personality traits known to be important in psychological problems: anger-hostility, impulsiveness, vulnerability, assertiveness, excitement-seeking, and self-discipline. We modelled the association between perceived parental warmth and rejection at age eleven and personality resemblance to parents at about age sixteen. Parenting experienced during early adolescence was related to the degree and direction in which adolescents resembled their parents five years later in life. Rejection, especially from fathers, significantly predicted a smaller resemblance to both the parents. Girls were more strongly affected by parental quality than boys, and there was some indication that adolescents responded in opposite ways to parenting from mothers and fathers. This study is a first step in uncovering the complex interplay between parenting, gender, and the current generation's ability to develop personality traits independent from the previous generation. PMID:27400032

  9. Diagnosis of depression among adolescents – a clinical validation study of key questions and questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirpal Manjit K

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the study is to improve general practitioners' diagnoses of adolescent depression. Major depression is ranked fourth in the worldwide disability impact. Method/Design Validation of 1 three key questions, 2 SCL-dep6, 3 SCL-10, 4 9 other SCL questions and 5 WHO-5 in a clinical study among adolescents. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI is to be used as the gold standard interview. The project is a GP multicenter study to be conducted in both Norway and Denmark. Inclusion criteria are age (14–16 and fluency in the Norwegian and Danish language. A number of GPs will be recruited from both countries and at least 162 adolescents will be enrolled in the study from the patient lists of the GPs in each country, giving a total of at least 323 adolescent participants. Discussion The proportion of adolescents suffering from depressive disorders also seems to be increasing worldwide. Early interventions are known to reduce this illness. The earlier depression can be identified in adolescents, the greater the advantage. Therefore, we hope to find a suitable questionnaire that could be recommended for GPs.

  10. Motivational and control mechanisms underlying adolescent cannabis use disorders: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Cousijn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis use disorders (CUDs are the most prevalent substance use disorders among adolescents in treatment. Yet, little is known about the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying adolescent CUDs. Studies in adult cannabis users suggest a significant role for cognitive control and cannabis-oriented motivational processes, such as attentional bias, approach bias, and craving in CUDs. The current 6-month prospective study investigated the relationships between attentional bias, approach bias, craving, cognitive control, and cannabis use in adolescent patients in treatment for a primary or secondary CUD. Moreover, we investigated if these motivational processes and cognitive control could predict treatment progression after 6 months. Adolescents with a CUD had an attentional but no approach bias towards cannabis. In contrast to adult findings on the role of attentional bias, approach bias and cognitive control, only cannabis craving significantly correlated with current cannabis use and predicted cannabis use-related problems and abstinence from cannabis 6 months later. These findings identify craving as a predictor of treatment outcome, thereby supporting an important role for craving in the course of adolescent cannabis use and dependence. This prospective study is among the first to investigate neuropsychological mechanisms underlying adolescent CUDs, warranting future longitudinal studies.

  11. Correlates of physical activity in adolescence: a study from a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behjat Shokrvash

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity is important for adolescent health. The current study aimed to explore factors that predict physical activity among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of physical activity among a sample of adolescents in Tabriz, Iran. Information on physical activity was collected using a modified version of the Adolescent Physical Activity and Recall Questionnaire (APARQ. In addition, a self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic characteristics, perceived family support, and self-efficacy. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between physical activity and independent variables including gender and psychosocial predictors. Results: In all, 402 students were studied. The mean age of adolescents was 12.93 (SD=0.49 years; 51.5% were female. The mean time of moderate and vigorous physical activity for all adolescents was 44.64 (SD=23.24 Metabolic Equivalent (MET min per day. This figure for female adolescents was 38.77 (SD=19.94 MET min per day and for males it was 50.87 (SD=24.88 (P<0.001. The results obtained from multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that female gender (OR=2.59, 95% CI=1.46–4.57, P=0.001 and poor family support (OR=1.10, 95% CI=1.03–1.20, P=0.038 were the most significant contributing factors to low level physical activity in adolescents. Other variables studied did not show any significant results. Conclusion: The findings from the current study indicated that female adolescents were at risk of lower level of physical activity. In addition, it was found that the lack of family support represented an increased risk for low-level physical activity. It seems that family support should be an integrated part of any health education/promotion programs for improving physical activity among young adolescents in general and for female adolescents in particular.

  12. Optimal protocol for teleconsultation with a cellular phone for dentoalveolar trauma: an in-vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dental trauma is frequently unpredictable. The initial assessment and urgent treatment are essential for dentists to save the patient's teeth. Mobile-phone-assisted teleconsultation and telediagnosis for dental trauma could be an aid when a dentist is not available. In the present in-vitro study, we evaluated the success rate and time to transfer images under various conditions. We analyzed the image quality of cameras built into mobile phones based on their resolution, autofocus, white-balance, and anti-movement functions. The image quality of most built-in cameras was acceptable to perform the initial assessment, with the autofocus function being essential to obtain high-quality images. The transmission failure rate increased markedly when the image size exceeded 500 kB and the additional text messaging did not improve the success rate or the transmission time. Our optimal protocol could be useful for emergency programs running on the mobile phones.

  13. Optimal protocol for teleconsultation with a cellular phone for dentoalveolar trauma: an in-vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Se; Lee, Hae Na; Jeong, Jin Sun; Kwon, Jung Hoon; Lee, Grace H; Kim, Kee Dong [College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Dental trauma is frequently unpredictable. The initial assessment and urgent treatment are essential for dentists to save the patient's teeth. Mobile-phone-assisted teleconsultation and telediagnosis for dental trauma could be an aid when a dentist is not available. In the present in-vitro study, we evaluated the success rate and time to transfer images under various conditions. We analyzed the image quality of cameras built into mobile phones based on their resolution, autofocus, white-balance, and anti-movement functions. The image quality of most built-in cameras was acceptable to perform the initial assessment, with the autofocus function being essential to obtain high-quality images. The transmission failure rate increased markedly when the image size exceeded 500 kB and the additional text messaging did not improve the success rate or the transmission time. Our optimal protocol could be useful for emergency programs running on the mobile phones.

  14. The Outcome of Adolescent-Onset Anorexia Nervosa: A Study of 144 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Solenn Kermarrec; Bernard Kabuth; Anne-Christine Rat; Michel Vidailhet; Colette Vidailhet

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the long-term outcome of adolescents with anorexia nervosa and attempt to define prognostic factors for outcome. Methods: Transversal, descriptive epidemiological study with a strict methodology: minimum interval of 4 years since first admission, evaluation using clearly defined diagnostic criteria (EAT-40 self-evaluation, HSCL, global patient-driven self-evaluation and hetero evaluation: clinical interview and LECE). The 198 subjects are former adolescent anorexics tr...

  15. Exploring Stress and Coping Among Urban African American Adolescents: The Shifting the Lens Study

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Chandra, DrPH; Ameena Batada, DrPH

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Stress can have a significant effect on an adolescent's long-term physical and mental well-being. An understanding of the role of unmanaged stress during early adolescence is critical for the prevention of chronic diseases such as depression. The purpose of the Shifting the Lens study was to explore perceptions of stress, sources of social support, and use of coping strategies among urban African American ninth graders. Methods A youth-driven, mixed-method approach was used ...

  16. Qualitative study exploring healthy eating practices and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sedibe, Heather M; Kahn, Kathleen; Edin, Kerstin; Gitau, Tabitha; Ivarsson, Anneli; Norris, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dietary behaviours and physical activity are modifiable risk factors to address increasing levels of obesity among children and adolescents, and consequently to reduce later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. This paper explores perceptions, attitudes, barriers, and facilitators related to healthy eating and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted in the rural Agincourt subdistrict, covered by a health and socio...

  17. Study of prevalence of depression in adolescent students of a public school

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Bansal; Sunil Goyal; Kalpana Srivastava

    2009-01-01

    Background: Three to nine per cent of teenagers meet the criteria for depression at any one time, and at the end of adolescence, as many as 20% of teenagers report a lifetime prevalence of depression. Usual care by primary care physicians fails to recognize 30-50% of depressed patients. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional one-time observational study using simple screening instruments for detecting early symptoms of depression in adolescents. Two psychological instruments were used: GHQ-1...

  18. The Relationship Between Early Sexual Debut and Psychosocial Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study of Dutch Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Udell, W.; Sandfort, T; Reitz, E.; Bos, H.; Dekovic, M.

    2010-01-01

    In a longitudinal dataset of 470 Dutch adolescents, the current study examined the ways in which early sexual initiation was related to subsequent attachment, self-perception, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. For male adolescents, analyses revealed general attachment to mother and externalizing problems at Wave 1 to predict to early transition at Wave 2. However, there was no differential change in these psychosocial factors over time for early initiators of sexual intercou...

  19. Influences on eating: a qualitative study of adolescents in a periurban area in Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Banna, Jinan C; Buchthal, Opal Vanessa; Delormier, Treena; Hilary M Creed-Kanashiro; Penny, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Peruvian adolescents are at high nutritional risk, facing issues such as overweight and obesity, anemia, and pregnancy during a period of development. Research seeking to understand contextual factors that influence eating habits to inform the development of public health interventions is lacking in this population. This study aimed to understand socio-cultural influences on eating among adolescents in periurban Lima, Peru using qualitative methods. Methods Semi-structured intervie...

  20. A Double-Blind Randomized Pilot Study Comparing Quetiapine and Divalproex for Adolescent Mania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbello, Melissa P.; Kowatch, Robert A.; Adler, Caleb M.; Stanford, Kevin E.; Welge, Jeffrey A.; Barzman, Drew H.; Nelson, Erik; Strakowski, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the comparative efficacy of quetiapine and divalproex for the treatment of adolescent mania. Method: Fifty adolescents (ages 12-18 years) with bipolar I disorder, manic or mixed episode, were randomized to quetiapine (400-600 mg/day) or divalproex (serum level 80-120 [micro]g/mL) for 28 days for this double-blind study,…

  1. Severe hypertensive syndrome – descriptive study with adolescents attended at a maternity school

    OpenAIRE

    Andreia Gregório Lima; Isabella Beatriz Barbosa Oliveira; Maria Lúcia Neto de Menezes; Rachel Caroline Alves Leite

    2012-01-01

    This is an exploratory and descriptive study with the objective of analyzing the clinical and obstetric data related to the severe hypertensive disorders in adolescents assisted at a maternity school of Recife. The population was consisted of 186 pregnant adolescents with severe preeclampsia and/or eclampsia between 2003 and 2008. The age ranged between 15 and 19 years; they were black, single and had low education. Most of them were primiparas but the pregnancy recurrence was configured at 1...

  2. Sexual risk behavior and pregnancy in detained adolescent females: a study in Dutch detention centers

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen Lucres MC; Vermeiren Robert; Cohen-Kettenis Peggy T; Hamerlynck Sannie MJJ; Bezemer Pieter D; Doreleijers Theo AH

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of teenage pregnancy in the histories of detained adolescent females and to examine the relationship between teenage pregnancy on the one hand and mental health and sexuality related characteristics on the other. Methods Of 256 admitted detained adolescent females aged 12–18 years, a representative sample (N = 212, 83%) was examined in the first month of detention. Instruments included a semi-structured i...

  3. Factors associated with low fitness in adolescents – A mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Charlton, Richard; Gravenor, Michael B; Rees, Anwen; Knox, Gareth; Hill, Rebecca; Rahman, Muhammad A.; Jones, Kerina; Christian, Danielle; Julien S Baker; Stratton, Gareth; Brophy, Sinead

    2014-01-01

    Background Fitness and physical activity are important for cardiovascular and mental health but activity and fitness levels are declining especially in adolescents and among girls. This study examines clustering of factors associated with low fitness in adolescents in order to best target public health interventions for young people. Methods 1147 children were assessed for fitness, had blood samples, anthropometric measures and all data were linked with routine electronic data to examine educ...

  4. Culture and gender issues in adolescence: evidence from studies on emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Singh-Manoux, A

    2000-01-01

    The effect of gender on the emotional processes of social sharing and mental rumination was examined in two intercultural studies (N = 555 & 251) on adolescents with a focus on the way in which gender differences operate in different cultures. Adolescents came from three cultures, Indian, immigrant Indian and the English culture. Female respondents were found to initiate sharing more, share feelings more and realise the relational benefits of sharing more. Females also reported higher emotion...

  5. A Study of the Correlation between Computer Games and Adolescent Behavioral Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Solmaz; Khezri-Moghadam, Noshiravan; Javanmard, Zeinab; Sarmadi-Ansar, Hassan; Aminaee, Mehran; Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Majid; Zivari-Rahman, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Background Today, due to developing communicative technologies, computer games and other audio-visual media as social phenomena, are very attractive and have a great effect on children and adolescents. The increasing popularity of these games among children and adolescents results in the public uncertainties about plausible harmful effects of these games. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between computer games and behavioral problems on male guidance school students. Methods Th...

  6. An analytical cross-sectional study of peer pressure on adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Anisha Khan; Manisha Jain; Chhaya Budhwani

    2015-01-01

    Background: Friendships constitute an integral part of adolescent growth and development. As the teens explore their identity towards functional independence, teen peer relationship acquires an important role. Contrary to prevailing beliefs, peer pressure can have both a positive and negative impact on youths. Methods: A school based cross sectional study carried out on adolescents falling between the age group of 11 to 19 years using a pre-designed written questionnaire. The data obtained...

  7. Exploring the Associations between Sleep Problems and Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain in Adolescents: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Lee; Wilson, Sue; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of musculoskeletal chronic pain in adolescents is estimated to be approximately 4% to 40%. The development of musculoskeletal pain during teenage years could have a marked impact on physical, psychological and social well-being. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether sleep problems during adolescence are associated with musculoskeletal pain, particularly chronic regional pain and chronic widespread pain. METHODS: Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Children, the r...

  8. Is soft drink consumption associated with body composition?: A cross-sectional study in Spanish adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    S. Gómez-Martínez; Martín, A.; Romeo, J.; M. Castillo; Mesena, M.; J. C. Baraza; Jiménez-Pavón, D.; Redondo, C; S. Zamora; Marcos, A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Published data about the association between the consumption of sweetened soft-drinks (SSD) and obesity in childhood are controversial and still inconsistent. In addition, data are lacking in the Spanish population. The purpose of this study was therefore, to explore the cross-sectional association between body composition-related parameters and SSD consumption in Spanish adolescents. Subjects and methods: A representative sample of 1,523 adolescents (768 boys and 755 girls), with...

  9. A Comparative Study of the Taste Choice of Adolescents in Terms of Gender and BMI

    OpenAIRE

    Saime Kucukkmurler

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the attitudes and choices of taste of adolescents, the conditions that affect these choices, and its variations with respect to BMI and gender. METHODS: 385 adolescents between the ages of 11 and 14, in Ankara, Turkey, participated in the research. In order to determine taste choices and attitudes towards taste, a Likert-type questionnaire was applied. Independent Samples t-test and correlational analysis were conducted. RESULTS: Boys prefe...

  10. Explaining gender differences in non-fatal suicidal behaviour among adolescents: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Roos Jeanette; Steen Rainer; Haffner Johann; Parzer Peter; Kaess Michael; Klett Martin; Brunner Romuald; Resch Franz

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background While suicide is the second leading cause of death among young people in most industrial countries, non-fatal suicidal behaviour is also a very important public health concern among adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in prevalence and emotional and behavioural correlates of suicidal behaviour in a representative school-based sample of adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional design was used to assess suicidal behaviour and various areas ...

  11. Development of eating behavior: the way from infancy to adolescence. Review of foreign studies

    OpenAIRE

    Durneva M.U.

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining development of eating behavior in different age groups are reviewed. Determinants of disordered eating attitudes from infancy to adolescent are particularly examined. Family environment and social context are general factors. Knowledge, attitudes and food preferences are individual factors. Eating habits in infancy, early childhood and preschool period related to parent’s eating attitudes; peers and social context are dominant in school period and adolescents. The most effec...

  12. Socioeconomic position and overweight among adolescents: data from birth cohort studies in Brazil and the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes Ana; Barros Fernando C.; Golding Jean; Victora Cesar G; Matijasevich Alicia; Araujo Cora L; Smith George

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Developed and developing countries are facing rapid increases in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The patterns of overweight/obesity differ by age, sex, rural or urban residence and socioeconomic position (SEP) and vary between and within countries. Methods We investigated patterns of SEP – overweight status association among adolescents from the UK (ALSPAC) and Brazil (the 1982 and 1993 Pelotas birth cohort studies). All analyses were performed separ...

  13. Alcohol use in adolescence : A longitudinal study of its effect on cognitive functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Boelema, Sarai

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the adolescent brain is particularly vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol because significant maturation of brain structure and corresponding cognitive control function takes place over the course of adolescence. However, research on this subject has remained inconclusive thus far due to numerous methodological pitfalls. Therefore, there is a need for a large longitudinal study on the precursors and outcomes of alcohol use related to cognitive and behavio...

  14. A cross-sectional study of factors associated with adolescent sexual activity

    OpenAIRE

    Shashikumar, R.; R C Das; Prabhu, H. R. A.; K Srivastava; Bhat, P.S.; Prakash, J.; Seema, P.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Adolescents constitute about 20% of our population and increasingly more of them are initiating sexual activity at an early age. Several behaviors associated with adolescence like masturbation, expression of masculinity/femininity, lifestyle habits like attending late night parties, and consumption of alcohol have been variously implicated in initiating sexual activities. Sexual abuse can also lead to premature sexualization. In view of few worthwhile studies from India that have dea...

  15. An Internet-Based Intervention to Promote Alcohol-Related Attitudinal and Behavioral Change Among Adolescents: Protocol of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko-Ling; Chow, Chun-Bong; Lam, Tai-Hing; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Wong, Margaret Fung-Yee

    2016-01-01

    Background Underage drinking is a prevalent risk behavior and common public health problem. Research shows that alcohol abuse not only affects the quality of life of drinkers themselves. The problems resulting from underage drinking pose substantial costs to society as well. The proposed study will address underage drinking with the use of an Internet campaign, which is a cost-effective way of tackling the problem. Objective The aims of this study are to test the effectiveness of an online quiz competition in changing adolescents’ alcohol-related attitudes and behavior and to explore the feasibility of using Internet viral marketing to reach a significant number of adolescents. Methods The study will constitute a cluster randomized controlled trial for 20 secondary schools (6720 Grade 7-9 students). Schools will be randomized to intervention or control arm with equal likelihood. Students in intervention schools will be invited to take part in the Internet campaign, whereas those in control schools will receive relevant promotional leaflets. Results Alcohol-related attitude and behavior will be the primary outcome measures. The results of the proposed study will provide evidence on the efficacy of an Internet intervention in modifying adolescents’ attitudes and behavior and guide further investigation into the prevention of and intervention in such risk behaviors as underage drinking. The project was funded July 2015, enrollment started September 2015, and results are expected July 2017. Conclusions With the Internet increasingly being recognized as a practical and cost-effective platform for health information delivery, the proposed Internet-based intervention is expected to be more effective in altering adolescents’ alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors than traditional health promotion. ClinicalTrial ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02450344; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02450344 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6heB2zMBD) PMID:27252072

  16. The role of national policies intended to regulate adolescent smoking in explaining the prevalence of daily smoking: a study of adolescents from 27 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Christina W; Kreiner, Svend; Rasmussen, Mette;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: This study seeks to examine whether contextual factors influence adolescents' daily smoking. A focus was placed on three modifiable policies operating at a national level, non-smoking policy at educational facilities, price and minimum age for buying tobacco. DESIGN: This study is based on a...... bans in schools were associated with lower odds ratios of daily smoking, which was the one positive association in the study. The study found no association between cigarette prices and adolescent daily smoking prevalence, and also the somewhat unexpected finding that having an age limit for allowing...... voluntary bans. If this association is causal, introducing mandatory bans may reduce adolescent smoking prevalence. The findings that price was unrelated to smoking prevalence undermine findings elsewhere that adolescent smokers are more price-sensitive than adult smokers, but longitudinal studies are...

  17. Concrete release protocol case studies for decommissioning work at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.5, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment'' contains provisions pertinent to releasing potentially radioactive materials from DOE facilities for reuse or recycle. A process of authorized release for materials recovered from radiation areas is permitted under Order 5400.5 and the proposed rule in Title 10, Part 834, of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 834). A generic disposition protocol to facilitate release of concrete under these provisions has been developed. This report analyzes the application of that generic protocol to site-specific cases at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The potential radiological doses and costs for several concrete disposition alternatives for the sewage treatment plant (STP) at the Central Facilities Area (CFA) of INEEL were evaluated in this analysis. Five disposition alternatives were analyzed for the concrete: (A) decontaminate, crush, and reuse; (B) crush and reuse without decontamination; (C) decontaminate, demolish, and dispose of at a nonradiological landfill; (D) demolish and dispose of at a nonradiological landfill without decontamination; and (E) demolish and dispose of at a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) facility. The analysis was performed for disposition of concrete from four INEEL structures: (1) trickle filter, (2) primary clarifier, (3) secondary clarifier, and (4) CFA-691 pumphouse for a generic case (based on default parameters from the disposition protocol) and an INEEL-specific case (based on INEEL-specific parameters). The results of the analysis indicated that Alternatives B and D would incur the lowest cost and result in a dose less than 1 mrem/yr (except for the trickle filter, the dose for which was estimated at 1.9 mrem/yr) for nonradiological workers. The analysis indicated that the main contributor to the radiological dose would be cobalt-60 contamination in the concrete. A characterization conducted

  18. The Development of Protocol Materials. Acquiring Teacher Competencies: Reports and Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B. Othanel; Orlosky, Donald E.

    The development of protocol materials from the standpoint of the developer is discussed in this article. Emphasis is placed on the selection of concepts, analysis of concepts, utility of concepts, and issues about the development and use of protocol materials. A three-item bibliography is included. (MJM)

  19. A Bounded Retransmission Protocol for Large Data Packets: A Case Study in Computer Checked Algebraic Verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote, J.F.; Pol, J. van de

    2008-01-01

    This note describes a protocol for the transmission of data packets that are too large to be transferred in their entirety. Therefore, the protocol splits the data packets and broadcasts it in parts. It is assumed that in case of failure of transmission through data channels, only a limited number o

  20. A cognitive-behavioural program for adolescents with chronic pain-a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlijn, Vivian P B M; Hunfeld, Joke A M; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Hazebroek-Kampschreur, Alice A J M; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette W A; Koes, Bart W; Passchier, Jan

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this pilot study is to evaluate the feasibility of a cognitive-behavioural training program for adolescents with chronic pain irrespective of pain localisation. A secondary aim was to give an impression of the effect of the program on pain and quality of life. Eight adolescents (14-18 years) with chronic non-organic pain recruited from the general population (and their parents) participated in this pilot study. The intervention included five group meetings alternated with four telephone contacts (during the self-management weeks) over a period of 9 weeks. The training aimed to change pain behaviour through pain education, relaxation strategies, problem-solving techniques, assertiveness training, cognitive restructuring and by stimulating the adolescent's physical activity level. The training further addresses the social context of pain by inviting parents to attend two meetings for the parents only, and by asking the adolescents to bring a peer to one of the meetings. Adolescents and their parents were positive about the program. Adolescents felt they were more in control of their pain and parents valued the support they experienced in helping their children to master the pain. The training was considered to be feasible in daily life. Further, the preliminary data showed an effect on pain and quality of life in the expected direction. The results underline the need for a definitive study with a larger sample size and a random controlled design. PMID:16257616

  1. Zinc status and its association with the health of adolescents: a review of studies in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Kawade

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc is important in adolescence because of its role in growth and sexual maturation. Adolescents from developing countries such as India may be at high risk of zinc deficiency because of unwholesome food habits and poor bioavailability of zinc from plant-based diets. Objectives: (1 to study zinc status and its association with profile of other micronutrients, (2 to construct a simple tool in the form of Adolescent Micronutrient Quality Index (AMQI to assess quality of diets of the girls and (3 to examine the effect of zinc supplement on health of adolescent girls. Methods: Girls (10–16 years from two secondary schools of Pune, Maharashtra state, in Western India were enrolled in a cross-sectional study (n = 630. Data were collected on dietary intake, cognitive performance, taste acuity, haemoglobin, erythrocyte zinc and plasma levels of zinc, vitamin C, β-carotene and retinol. AMQI was developed using age–sex-specific Indian dietary guidelines and healthy foods and habits described in the recent US dietary guidelines. Zinc-rich recipes were developed considering habitual diets of the girls and vegetarian sources of zinc. An intervention trial (n = 180 was conducted to assess the effect of zinc-rich dietary supplements and ayurvedic zinc (Jasad supplementation. Results: Prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies was high in these girls. Poor cognitive performance was seen in half of the girls, and salt taste perception was affected in 45%. AMQI was correlated with nutrient intakes and blood micronutrient levels (p < 0.01, indicating the potential of AMQI to measure micronutrient quality of diets of adolescent girls. Results of the intervention trial indicated that supplementation of zinc-rich recipes vis-a-vis ayurvedic Jasad zinc has the potential to improve plasma zinc status, cognitive performance and taste acuity in adolescent girls. Conclusion: Review of the studies on Indian adolescent girls demonstrates the necessity of

  2. Mining treatment termination data in an adolescent mental health service: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabito, D M

    2001-01-01

    This study utilizes available clinical information from client records to explore patterns of termination from mental health treatment among adolescents at an urban outpatient mental health center. The analysis focuses on how and why adolescents terminate from treatment and identifies variables associated with "acknowledged" and "unacknowledged" terminations. Findings indicate that termination was acknowledged infrequently, often a brief process that occurred almost as frequently by telephone as in the context of treatment. Contrary to "practice wisdom" concerning treatment termination, adolescents who "dropped out" without a "clinical process" reported considerably more engagement in treatment than those who acknowledged the termination of treatment. Recommendations for a more "open door" policy and a more flexible practice with adolescents are discussed. PMID:11837364

  3. Neurophysiological Mechanisms of Auditory Information Processing in Adolescence: A Study on Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, Sarolta; Töllner, Thomas; Trinkl, Monika; Landes, Iris; Bartling, Jürgen; Grossheinrich, Nicola; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Greimel, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    To date, little is known about sex differences in the neurophysiological correlates underlying auditory information processing. In the present study, auditory evoked potentials were evoked in typically developing male (n = 15) and female (n = 14) adolescents (13-18 years) during an auditory oddball task. Girls compared to boys displayed lower N100 and P300 amplitudes to targets. Larger N100 amplitudes in adolescent boys might indicate higher neural sensitivity to changes of incoming auditory information. The P300 findings point toward sex differences in auditory working memory and might suggest that adolescent boys might allocate more attentional resources when processing relevant auditory stimuli than adolescent girls. PMID:27379950

  4. Think-Aloud Protocols in Research on Essay Rating: An Empirical Study of Their Veridicality and Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2011-01-01

    Think-aloud protocols (TAPs) are frequently used in research on essay rating processes. However, there are very few empirical studies of the completeness of TAP data and the effects of this technique on rater performance (i.e., rating processes and outcomes). This study aims to start to address this research gap. As part of a larger study on rater…

  5. Study of effective dose of various protocols in equipment cone beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, M. R.; Maia, A. F. [Universidade Federale de Sergipe, Departamento de Fisica, Cidade Universitaria Prof. Jose Aloisio de Campos, Marechal Rondon s/n, Jardim Rosa Elze, 49-100000 Sao Cristovao, Sergipe (Brazil); Batista, W. O. [Instituto Federal da Bahia, Rua Emidio dos Santos s/n, Barbalho, Salvador, 40301015 Bahia (Brazil); Caldas, L. V. E.; Lara, P. A., E-mail: mrs2206@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Currently the cone beam computed tomography is widely used in various procedures of dental radiology. Although the doses values associated with the procedures of cone beam CT are low compared to typical values associated with dental radiology procedure in multi slices CT. However can be high compared to typical values of other techniques commonly used in dental radiology. The present scenario is a very wide range of designs of equipment and, consequently, lack of uniformity in all parameters associated with x-ray generation and geometry. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate and calculate the absorbed dose in organs and tissues relevant and estimate effective dose for different protocols with different geometries of exposure in five cone beam CT equipment. For this, a female Alderson anthropomorphic phantom, manufactured by Radiology Support Devices was used. The phantom was irradiated with 26 dosimeters LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD-100), inserted in organs and tissues along the layers forming the head and neck of the phantom. The equipment used, in this present assessment, was: i-CAT Classical, Kodak 9000 3D, Gendex GXCB 500, Sirona Orthophos X G 3D and Planmeca Pro Max 3D. The effective doses were be determined by the ICRP 103 weighting factors. The values were between 7.0 and 111.5 micro Sv, confirming the broad dose range expected due to the diversity of equipment and protocols used in each equipment. The values of effective dose per Fov size were: between 7 and 51.2 micro Sv for located Fov; between 17.6 and 52.0 micro Sv for medium Fov; and between 11.5 and 43.1 micro Sv to large Fov (maxillofacial). In obtaining the effective dose the measurements highlighted a relevance contribution of dose absorbed by the remaining organs (36%), Salivary glands (30%), thyroid (12%) and bone marrow (12%). (Author)

  6. Study of effective dose of various protocols in equipment cone beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently the cone beam computed tomography is widely used in various procedures of dental radiology. Although the doses values associated with the procedures of cone beam CT are low compared to typical values associated with dental radiology procedure in multi slices CT. However can be high compared to typical values of other techniques commonly used in dental radiology. The present scenario is a very wide range of designs of equipment and, consequently, lack of uniformity in all parameters associated with x-ray generation and geometry. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate and calculate the absorbed dose in organs and tissues relevant and estimate effective dose for different protocols with different geometries of exposure in five cone beam CT equipment. For this, a female Alderson anthropomorphic phantom, manufactured by Radiology Support Devices was used. The phantom was irradiated with 26 dosimeters LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD-100), inserted in organs and tissues along the layers forming the head and neck of the phantom. The equipment used, in this present assessment, was: i-CAT Classical, Kodak 9000 3D, Gendex GXCB 500, Sirona Orthophos X G 3D and Planmeca Pro Max 3D. The effective doses were be determined by the ICRP 103 weighting factors. The values were between 7.0 and 111.5 micro Sv, confirming the broad dose range expected due to the diversity of equipment and protocols used in each equipment. The values of effective dose per Fov size were: between 7 and 51.2 micro Sv for located Fov; between 17.6 and 52.0 micro Sv for medium Fov; and between 11.5 and 43.1 micro Sv to large Fov (maxillofacial). In obtaining the effective dose the measurements highlighted a relevance contribution of dose absorbed by the remaining organs (36%), Salivary glands (30%), thyroid (12%) and bone marrow (12%). (Author)

  7. Protocol for: Sheffield Obesity Trial (SHOT: A randomised controlled trial of exercise therapy and mental health outcomes in obese adolescents [ISRCNT83888112

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Neil P

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While obesity is known to have many physiological consequences, the psychopathology of this condition has not featured prominently in the literature. Cross-sectional studies have indicated that obese children have increased odds of experiencing poor quality of life and mental health. However, very limited trial evidence has examined the efficacy of exercise therapy for enhancing mental health outcomes in obese children, and the Sheffield Obesity Trial (SHOT will provide evidence of the efficacy of supervised exercise therapy in obese young people aged 11–16 years versus usual care and an attention-control intervention. Method/design SHOT is a randomised controlled trial where obese young people are randomised to receive; (1 exercise therapy, (2 attention-control intervention (involving body-conditioning exercises and games that do not involve aerobic activity, or (3 usual care. The exercise therapy and attention-control sessions will take place three times per week for eight weeks and a six-week home programme will follow this. Ninety adolescents aged between 11–16 years referred from a children's hospital for evaluation of obesity or via community advertisements will need to complete the study. Participants will be recruited according to the following criteria: (1 clinically obese and aged 11–16 years (Body Mass Index Centile > 98th UK standard (2 no medical condition that would restrict ability to be active three times per week for eight weeks and (3 not diagnosed with insulin dependent diabetes or receiving oral steroids. Assessments of outcomes will take place at baseline, as well as four (intervention midpoint and eight weeks (end of intervention from baseline. Participants will be reassessed on outcome measures five and seven months from baseline. The primary endpoint is physical self-perceptions. Secondary outcomes include physical activity, self-perceptions, depression, affect, aerobic fitness and BMI.

  8. Frontal preparatory neural oscillations associated with cognitive control: A developmental study comparing young adults and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kai; Ghuman, Avniel S; Manoach, Dara S; Jones, Stephanie R; Luna, Beatriz

    2016-08-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest that age-related changes in the frontal cortex may underlie developmental improvements in cognitive control. In the present study we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to identify frontal oscillatory neurodynamics that support age-related improvements in cognitive control during adolescence. We characterized the differences in neural oscillations in adolescents and adults during the preparation to suppress a prepotent saccade (antisaccade trials-AS) compared to preparing to generate a more automatic saccade (prosaccade trials-PS). We found that for adults, AS were associated with increased beta-band (16-38Hz) power in the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), enhanced alpha- to low beta-band (10-18Hz) power in the frontal eye field (FEF) that predicted performance, and increased cross-frequency alpha-beta (10-26Hz) amplitude coupling between the DLPFC and the FEF. Developmental comparisons between adults and adolescents revealed similar engagement of DLPFC beta-band power but weaker FEF alpha-band power, and lower cross-frequency coupling between the DLPFC and the FEF in adolescents. These results suggest that lateral prefrontal neural activity associated with cognitive control is adult-like by adolescence; the development of cognitive control from adolescence to adulthood is instead associated with increases in frontal connectivity and strengthening of inhibition signaling for suppressing task-incompatible processes. PMID:27173759

  9. The Impact on Family Functioning of Social Media Use by Depressed Adolescents: A Qualitative Analysis of the Family Options Study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew J. Lewis; Knight, Tess; Germanov, Galit; Benstead, Michelle Lisa; Joseph, Claire Ingrid; Poole, Lucinda

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent depression is a prevalent mental health problem, which can have a major impact on family cohesion. In such circumstances, excessive use of the Internet by adolescents may exacerbate family conflict and lack of cohesion. The current study aims to explore these patterns within an intervention study for depressed adolescents. Method The current study draws upon data collected from parents within the family options randomized controlled trial that examined family ...

  10. The impact on family functioning of social media use by depressed adolescents: a qualitative analysis of the Family Options Study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew James Lewis; Tess eKnight; Galit eGermanov; Michelle Lisa Benstead; Claire Ingrid Joseph; Lucinda ePoole

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescent depression is a prevalent mental health problem, which can have a major impact on family cohesion. In such circumstances, excessive use of the Internet by adolescents may exacerbate family conflict and lack of cohesion. The current study aims to explore these patterns within an intervention study for depressed adolescents.Method: The current study draws upon data collected within the Family Options randomized controlled trial that examined family-based interventions for...

  11. Body Mass Index, Dietary Habits and Physical Exercise among School going Adolescent: A Cross Sectional Study in Ahmedabad

    OpenAIRE

    Tejas A Shah, Rajshree J Bhatt, Mitesh Patel, Pritesh G Patel

    2013-01-01

    Background: The high prevalence of obesity in adolescence is serious public health concern. Longitudinal studies confirm that health consequences of obesity during adolescence track into adulthood and it can be reduced by successfully decreasing body fat among adolescents. Objectives: “The objectives of the study were to assess Body Mass Index of study participants and also to explore their lifestyle like physical exercise, television viewing etc.” Methodology: A cross- sectional stud...

  12. A study protocol of a randomised controlled trial to investigate if a community based strength training programme improves work task performance in young adults with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Nicholas F

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle strength is important for young people with Down syndrome as they make the transition to adulthood, because their workplace activities typically emphasise physical rather than cognitive skills. Muscle strength is reduced up to 50% in people with Down syndrome compared to their peers without disability. Progressive resistance training improves muscle strength and endurance in people with Down syndrome. However, there is no evidence on whether it has an effect on work task performance or physical activity levels. The aim of this study is to investigate if a student-led community-based progressive resistance training programme can improve these outcomes in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome. Methods A randomised controlled trial will compare progressive resistance training with a control group undertaking a social programme. Seventy adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome aged 14-22 years and mild to moderate intellectual disability will be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group using a concealed method. The intervention group will complete a 10-week, twice a week, student-led progressive resistance training programme at a local community gymnasium. The student mentors will be undergraduate physiotherapy students. The control group will complete an arts/social programme with a student mentor once a week for 90 minutes also for 10 weeks to control for the social aspect of the intervention. Work task performance (box stacking, pail carry, muscle strength (1 repetition maximum for chest and leg press and physical activity (frequency, duration, intensity over 7-days will be assessed at baseline (Week 0, following the intervention (Week 11, and at 3 months post intervention (Week 24 by an assessor blind to group allocation. Data will be analysed using ANCOVA with baseline measures as covariates. Discussion This paper outlines the study protocol for a randomised controlled trial on the

  13. A short-term inhalation study protocol: designed for testing of toxicity and fate of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma-Hock, Lan; Hofmann, Thomas; Landsiedel, Robert; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2014-01-01

    The Short-Term Inhalation Toxicity Study Design described here was specifically developed for the testing of nanoparticles. It consists of a 5-day inhalation exposure with a subsequent 3-week exposure-free period. The protocol has been optimized for the detection of toxic effects in the respiratory tract by incorporation of additional endpoints like collection of bronchoalveolar lavage and measurement of biomarkers indicative for pro-inflammatory and inflammatory changes. Analytical determination of the test compound concentrations in the lung and other organs can be included in the study design for the determination of organ burden and fate of the tested nanomaterial. Over 20 nanomaterials have been tested with this method. In case of those compounds, where data of 90-day inhalation studies were available, the qualitative effects were comparable in both study types. Likewise, the No Observed Adverse Effect Levels were similar between the two study types, showing that the short-term design is suitable for a first risk assessment. PMID:25103811

  14. Causes and consequences of cerebral small vessel disease. The RUN DMC study: a prospective cohort study. Study rationale and protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Vlugt Maureen J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD is a frequent finding on CT and MRI scans of elderly people and is related to vascular risk factors and cognitive and motor impairment, ultimately leading to dementia or parkinsonism in some. In general, the relations are weak, and not all subjects with SVD become demented or get parkinsonism. This might be explained by the diversity of underlying pathology of both white matter lesions (WML and the normal appearing white matter (NAWM. Both cannot be properly appreciated with conventional MRI. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI provides alternative information on microstructural white matter integrity. The association between SVD, its microstructural integrity, and incident dementia and parkinsonism has never been investigated. Methods/Design The RUN DMC study is a prospective cohort study on the risk factors and cognitive and motor consequences of brain changes among 503 non-demented elderly, aged between 50-85 years, with cerebral SVD. First follow up is being prepared for July 2011. Participants alive will be included and invited to the research centre to undergo a structured questionnaire on demographics and vascular risk factors, and a cognitive, and motor, assessment, followed by a MRI protocol including conventional MRI, DTI and resting state fMRI. Discussion The follow up of the RUN DMC study has the potential to further unravel the causes and possibly better predict the consequences of changes in white matter integrity in elderly with SVD by using relatively new imaging techniques. When proven, these changes might function as a surrogate endpoint for cognitive and motor function in future therapeutic trials. Our data could furthermore provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of cognitive and motor disturbances in elderly with SVD. The execution and completion of the follow up of our study might ultimately unravel the role of SVD on the microstructural integrity of the white

  15. Heart rate as an indicator for exercise prescription for normal, overweight, and obese adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kamilla Bolonha Gomes; Anselmo José Perez; Luciana Carletti; Adilson Marques

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the relationship between heart rate (HR) predicted and VO2max using a CPET (cardiopulmonary exercise testing) among normal weight, overweight, and obese adolescents. The sample comprised 299 adolescents (142 boys), from Vitória (ES, Brazil), aged 10-14 years (12.6±1.4). Adolescents were classified into normal weight (n=236), overweight (n=34), and obese (n=29). Adolescents were subjected to a CPET ramp protocol on a treadmill. It was observed that the ...

  16. Prevalence of atopic dermatitis, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and hand and contact dermatitis in adolescents. The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study on Atopic Diseases and Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Lauritsen, J M; Bindslev-Jensen, C;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases are common in children and adolescents. However, epidemiological knowledge is sparse for hand eczema and allergic contact dermatitis in this age group. Furthermore, no population-based studies have evaluated the prevalence of atopic diseases and hand and contact...... dermatitis in the same group of adolescents. OBJECTIVES: To assess prevalence measures of atopic dermatitis (AD), asthma, allergic rhinitis and hand and contact dermatitis in adolescents in Odense municipality, Denmark. METHODS: The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study among 1501 eighth grade...... associated. A considerable number of adolescents still suffers from AD, and a considerable sex difference was noted for hand eczema and allergic contact dermatitis. Nickel allergy and perfume allergy were the major contact allergies. In the future this cohort of eighth grade school children will be followed...

  17. The study design and methodology for the ARCHER study - adolescent rural cohort study of hormones, health, education, environments and relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinbeck Katharine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is characterized by marked psychosocial, behavioural and biological changes and represents a critical life transition through which adult health and well-being are established. Substantial research confirms the role of psycho-social and environmental influences on this transition, but objective research examining the role of puberty hormones, testosterone in males and oestradiol in females (as biomarkers of puberty on adolescent events is lacking. Neither has the tempo of puberty, the time from onset to completion of puberty within an individual been studied, nor the interaction between age of onset and tempo. This study has been designed to provide evidence on the relationship between reproductive hormones and the tempo of their rise to adult levels, and adolescent behaviour, health and wellbeing. Methods/Design The ARCHER study is a multidisciplinary, prospective, longitudinal cohort study in 400 adolescents to be conducted in two centres in regional Australia in the State of New South Wales. The overall aim is to determine how changes over time in puberty hormones independently affect the study endpoints which describe universal and risk behaviours, mental health and physical status in adolescents. Recruitment will commence in school grades 5, 6 and 7 (10–12 years of age. Data collection includes participant and parent questionnaires, anthropometry, blood and urine collection and geocoding. Data analysis will include testing the reliability and validity of the chosen measures of puberty for subsequent statistical modeling to assess the impact over time of tempo and onset of puberty (and their interaction and mean-level repeated measures analyses to explore for significant upward and downward shifts on target outcomes as a function of main effects. Discussion The strengths of this study include enrollment starting in the earliest stages of puberty, the use of frequent urine samples in addition to annual

  18. Risk indicators of anxiety throughout adolescence : The trails study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, F. V. A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F. C.; Huizink, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim was to identify risk indicators from preadolescence (age period 10-12) that significantly predict unfavorable deviations from normal anxiety development throughout adolescence (age period 10-17 years). Methods: Anxiety symptoms were assessed in a community sample of 2,220 boys an

  19. Walking Behaviours among Adolescent Girls in Scotland: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Joanna; Inchley, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The wide ranging physical and mental health benefits of physical activity during adolescence are well established and walking has been identified as one of only two forms of physical activity not to show a significant decrease in participation levels across the primary/secondary years. The aim of this paper is to explore the broader…

  20. Kinaesthetic acuity in adolescent boys : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.; Geuze, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    The Kinaesthetic Sensitivity Test (KST) was used to measure the development of kinaesthetic acuity in adolescent boys. Thirty boys were tested longitudinally, at intervals of 6 months, between the ages of 11 1/2 and 14 years. A second group of 20 boys was tested at the ages of 14 and 16 1/2 years. T