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Sample records for adolescents screening positive

  1. Positively Adolescent!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Believes that music teachers should reassess their views toward adolescent behavior in the music classroom by learning to see their behavior in a positive light. Describes teaching strategies that build on four adolescent behaviors: (1) desire for peer acceptance; (2) abundant energy; (3) love of fun; and (4) limited time-managing skills. (CMK)

  2. The Positive Psychology of Youth and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Grant Jewell

    2003-01-01

    Introduces this theme issue that explores the nature of adolescence and the positive psychology movement that focuses on positive aspects of adolescent development. Articles in this collection provide a window into the exploration of youth strengths. (SLD)

  3. Screening of the spine in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartun, Ellen; Degerfalk, Anna; Kentsdotter, Linn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence on the reliability of clinical tests used for the spinal screening of children and adolescents is currently lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-rater reliability and measurement error of clinical tests commonly used when screening young spines....... METHODS: Two experienced chiropractors independently assessed 111 adolescents aged 12-14 years who were recruited from a primary school in Denmark. A standardised examination protocol was used to test inter-rater reliability including tests for scoliosis, hypermobility, general mobility, inter......, the LoA were quite wide compared with the range of assessments. CONCLUSION: Some clinical tests showed good, and some tests poor, reliability when applied in a spinal screening of adolescents. The results could probably be improved by additional training and further test standardization...

  4. Screening for Primary Hypertension in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Screening for Primary Hypertension in Children and Adolescents The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) ... on Screening for Primary Hypertension in Children and Adolescents . This final recommendation statement applies to children and ...

  5. Contraception in HIV-positive female adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Ananworanich Jintanat; Lakhonphon Sudrak; Kancheva Landolt Nadia T

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Sexual behavior of HIV-positive youths, whether infected perinatally, through risky behavior or other ways, is not substantially different from that of HIV-uninfected peers. Because of highly active antiretroviral therapy, increasing number of children, infected perinatally, are surviving into adolescence and are becoming sexually active and need reproductive health services. The objective of this article is to review the methods of contraception appropriate for HIV-positive adolesce...

  6. Adolescent home food environments and socioeconomic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Abbie; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie; Savige, Gayle; Worsley, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Many adolescents have diets that are less than optimal, particularly adolescents of low socioeconomic position (SEP). The determinants of SEP differences in adolescent dietary intake are poorly understood. This study examined the home food environments of adolescents and specifically investigated whether low SEP adolescents have less supportive home meal environments, fewer eating rules and poorer home availability of fruit and vegetables than adolescents of high SEP. A cross-sectional, self-reported survey was administered to 3,264 adolescents in years 7 and 9, from 37 secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Adolescent perceptions of the home meal environment, eating rules and home food availability were described and compared across SEP, which was measured using maternal education. Maternal education was linked to various aspects of the home meal environment, as well as home food availability, but not to eating rules. Low SEP adolescents were more likely to report that they were always allowed to watch television during meal times, and that unhealthy foods were always or usually available at home. In contrast, high SEP adolescents were more likely to report that vegetables were always served at dinner, that the evening meal was never an unpleasant time and always or usually a time for family connectedness, and that fruit was always or usually available at home. This study highlights aspects of the home food environment that might explain SEP variation in adolescent diets. Feasible ways of increasing home availability of healthy foods, and encouraging home meal environments to be supportive of healthy eating should be explored, particularly in households of low SEP adolescents.

  7. Are adolescents being screened for sexually transmitted diseases?

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen, Jonathan M.; Lane, Margo A; McCright, Jacque

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To determine the proportion of sexually experiencedAfrican American adolescents who report having been screened for sexually transmitted diseases and to determine the proportion who report having been screened for these diseases among adolescents who have had a preventive primary health care visit in the past 2 years. Methods A telephone survey of a population-based sample of African American adolescents aged 12 to17 years residing in a low-income neighborhood in San Francisco with...

  8. Adolescent suicide risk screening: the effect of communication about type of follow-up on adolescents' screening responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cheryl A; Hill, Ryan M; Wynne, Henry A; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study examined the effect of communication about type of screening follow-up (in-person follow-up vs. no in-person follow-up) on adolescents' responses to a self-report suicide risk screen. Participants were 245 adolescents (131 girls, 114 boys; ages 13-17; 80% White, 21.6% Black, 9.8% American Indian, 2.9% Asian) seeking medical emergency services. They were randomized to a screening follow-up condition. Screening measures assessed primary risk factors for suicidal behavior, including suicidal thoughts, depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and aggressive/delinquent behavior. There was no main effect of follow-up condition on adolescents' screening scores; however, significant interactions between follow-up condition and public assistance status were evident. Adolescents whose families received public assistance were less likely to report aggressive-delinquent behavior if assigned to in-person follow-up. Adolescents whose families did not receive public assistance reported significantly higher levels of suicidal ideation if assigned to in-person follow-up. Findings suggest that response biases impact some adolescents' responses to suicide risk screenings. Because national policy strongly recommends suicide risk screening in emergency settings, and because screening scores are used to make critical decisions regarding risk management and treatment recommendations, findings indicate the importance of improving the reliability and validity of suicide risk screening for adolescents.

  9. Prevalence of excessive screen time and associated factors in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucena, Joana Marcela Sales; Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Cavalcante, Thaísa Leite Mafaldo; da Silva, Vanessa Araújo; de Farias, José Cazuza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of excessive screen time and to analyze associated factors among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional school-based epidemiological study with 2874 high school adolescents with age 14-19 years (57.8% female) from public and private schools in the city of João Pessoa, PB, Northeast Brazil. Excessive screen time was defined as watching television and playing video games or using the computer for more than 2 h/day. The associated factors analyzed were: sociodemographic (gender, age, economic class, and skin color), physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents. Results: The prevalence of excessive screen time was 79.5% (95%CI 78.1-81.1) and it was higher in males (84.3%) compared to females (76.1%; p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, adolescent males, those aged 14-15 year old and the highest economic class had higher chances of exposure to excessive screen time. The level of physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents were not associated with excessive screen time. Conclusions: The prevalence of excessive screen time was high and varied according to sociodemographic characteristics of adolescents. It is necessary to develop interventions to reduce the excessive screen time among adolescents, particularly in subgroups with higher exposure. PMID:26298661

  10. Prevalence of excessive screen time and associated factors in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Marcela Sales de Lucena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of excessive screen time and to analyze associated factors among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional school-based epidemiological study with 2874 high school adolescents with age 14-19 years (57.8% female from public and private schools in the city of João Pessoa, PB, Northeast Brazil. Excessive screen time was defined as watching television and playing video games or using the computer for more than 2 h/day. The associated factors analyzed were: sociodemographic (gender, age, economic class, and skin color, physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents. Results: The prevalence of excessive screen time was 79.5% (95%CI 78.1-81.1 and it was higher in males (84.3% compared to females (76.1%; p<0.001. In multivariate analysis, adolescent males, those aged 14-15 year old and the highest economic class had higher chances of exposure to excessive screen time. The level of physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents were not associated with excessive screen time. Conclusions: The prevalence of excessive screen time was high and varied according to sociodemographic characteristics of adolescents. It is necessary to develop interventions to reduce the excessive screen time among adolescents, particularly in subgroups with higher exposure.

  11. Contraception in HIV-positive female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananworanich Jintanat

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sexual behavior of HIV-positive youths, whether infected perinatally, through risky behavior or other ways, is not substantially different from that of HIV-uninfected peers. Because of highly active antiretroviral therapy, increasing number of children, infected perinatally, are surviving into adolescence and are becoming sexually active and need reproductive health services. The objective of this article is to review the methods of contraception appropriate for HIV-positive adolescents with a special focus on hormonal contraceptives. Delaying the start of sexual life and the use of two methods thereafter, one of which is the male condom and the other a highly effective contraceptive method such as hormonal contraception or an intrauterine device, is currently the most effective option for those who desire simultaneous protection from both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Health care providers should be aware of the possible pharmacokinetic interactions between hormonal contraception and antiretrovirals. There is an urgent need for more information regarding metabolic outcomes of hormonal contraceptives, especially the effect of injectable progestins on bone metabolism, in HIV-positive adolescent girls.

  12. Should Screening for Depression among Children and Adolescents Be Demedicalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Allan V.; Wakefield, Jerome C.

    2009-01-01

    The criteria for diagnosing depressive disorders fails to place the symptoms of intense sadness in the context of major losses in life, and separating normal sadness from depressive disorder among adolescents is especially difficult. Suggested modifications to the screening of suicidal ideation among adolescents are also presented.

  13. Identifying Relationships between High-Risk Sexual Behaviors and Screening Positive for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in School-Wide Screening Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jennifer; Darling-Fisher, Cindy; Hawkins, Nicole M.; Fraker, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background: This article describes a school-wide sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening to identify adolescent high-risk sexual behaviors, STI history/incidence, and presence of chlamydia and gonorrhea, and examines relationships between high-risk behaviors and screening positive for chlamydia and gonorrhea in an alternative high school…

  14. Improving Screening Cut-Off Scores for DSM-5 Adolescent Anxiety Disorder Symptom Dimensions with the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Hale III

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently most adolescent anxiety disorder screening instruments make their determination of running a high risk for an anxiety disorder on the basis of a cut-off score measured by a single screening which can lead to false positives. Therefore, the goal of this study is to examine whether a repeated administration of the SCARED screening instrument for DSM-5 anxiety disorder symptoms could help in the detection of true positives while also avoiding false positives. Participants were 923 early adolescents from the general community. The adolescents’ ages at the first annual screening ranged from 10 to 15 with an average of 12.5 years. In a prospective five-year longitudinal design, the adolescents completed the SCARED screening instrument for anxiety disorder symptoms on a yearly basis. To detect true positives and avoid false positives, the data were analyzed with Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC cut-off score analyses. ROC cut-off score analyses revealed that the sensitivity and specificity of high risk were greatly improved for repeated screenings above those of a single screening. The findings of this study demonstrate that a screening instrument (such as the SCARED should be administered not just once but several times in order to better determine true positives and avoid false positives.

  15. The neglected role of positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kirsten E

    2012-08-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by elevated stress, heightened risky behaviors, and increases in psychopathology. Emotion dysregulation is a hypothesized contributor to negative outcomes and to the onset of psychopathology during adolescence. However, the dysregulation of negative emotion has been the focus of research while the literature on positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology is limited. This review highlights both the development of normative and dysregulated positive emotion during adolescence. First, the literature on normative adolescent emotional development and on negative emotional regulation is briefly reviewed, followed by a discussion of current theories of positive emotion, which are grounded in the adult literature. From a developmental perspective, the dimension of approach motivation within positive emotion is emphasized throughout and frames the review. This conceptualization guides organization of literatures on normative experiences of positive emotion in adolescence and the role of dysregulated positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology, specifically adolescent depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, externalizing disorders and eating disorders. Last, future directions in the study of adolescent positive emotion and its regulation and the implications of highlighting approach motivation in normative and dysregulated positive emotion in adolescence are detailed.

  16. Chlamydia screening and positivity in juvenile detention centers, United States, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterwhite, Catherine Lindsey; Newman, Daniel; Collins, Dayne; Torrone, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 2.9 million new chlamydia infections occur in the United States each year. Among women, chlamydia can lead to serious adverse outcomes, including pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Chlamydia prevalence is highest among females aged 15-19 years. Despite long-standing recommendations directed at young, sexually active females, screening remains sub-optimal. Juvenile detention centers (JDCs) are uniquely situated to screen and treat high-risk adolescents. From 2009-2011, performance measure data on chlamydia screening coverage (proportion of eligible females screened) and positivity (proportion of females tested who were positive) were available from 126 geographically-dispersed JDCs in the United States. These facilities reported screening 55.2% of females entering the facilities (149,923), with a facility-specific median of 66.4% (range: 0-100%). Almost half (44.4%) of facilities had screening coverage levels of 75-100%. This screening resulted in the detection of 12,305 chlamydial infections, for an overall positivity of 14.7% (facility-specific median = 14.9%, range: 0-36.9%). In linear regression analysis, chlamydia positivity was inversely associated with screening coverage: as coverage increased, positivity decreased. The burden of chlamydia in JDCs is substantial; facilities should continue to deliver recommended chlamydia screening and treatment to females and identify mechanisms to increase coverage.

  17. Diabetes complication screening in 937 children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaghue, K C; Fairchild, J M; Chan, A; Hing, S J; Howard, N J; Silink, M

    1999-01-01

    Results are presented of diabetes complication screening in children and adolescents aged 6-20 years. Their diabetes duration was 0.02-18.4 yr and median HbA1c over the preceding 36 months was 8.4% [IQR 7.8-9.3]. Gradable retinal photographs were obtained in 937: 110 less than 11 years ( or = 20 micrograms/min) was found in 4%. Significant individual risk factors for both complications were higher blood pressure, cholesterol, HbA1c, pubertal staging, older age and longer diabetes duration. Using multiple logistic regression, significant risk factors for retinopathy were longer duration and older age and in addition higher HbA1c. Diabetes complication screening detected early subclinical disease in children and adolescents who may benefit from lowering blood pressure and improving metabolic control. Screening should commence after five years of duration in young children, and after two years of duration in adolescents.

  18. Prevalence of excessive screen time and associated factors in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of excessive screen time and to analyze associated factors among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional school-based epidemiological study with 2874 high school adolescents with age 14-19 years (57.8% female) from public and private schools in the city of João Pessoa, PB, Northeast Brazil. Excessive screen time was defined as watching television and playing video games or using the computer for more than 2 h/day. The associated factors analyze...

  19. Self-reported screen time and cardiometabolic risk in obese Dutch adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teatske M Altenburg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether the association between sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk exists among obese adolescents. We examined the association between screen time (TV and computer time and cardiometabolic risk in obese Dutch adolescents. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For the current cross-sectional study, baseline data of 125 Dutch overweight and obese adolescents (12-18 years participating in the Go4it study were included. Self-reported screen time (Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults and clustered and individual cardiometabolic risk (i.e. body composition, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, low-density (LDL-C, high-density (HDL-C and total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides, glucose and insulin were assessed in all participants. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the association between screen time and cardiometabolic risk, adjusting for age, gender, pubertal stage, ethnicity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. We found no significant relationship between self-reported total screen time and clustered cardiometabolic risk or individual risk factors in overweight and obese adolescents. Unexpectedly, self-reported computer time, but not TV time, was slightly but significantly inversely associated with TC (B = -0.002; CI = [-0.003;-0.000] and LDL-C (B = -0.002; CI = [-0.001;0.000]. CONCLUSIONS: In obese adolescents we could not confirm the hypothesised positive association between screen time and cardiometabolic risk. Future studies should consider computer use as a separate class of screen behaviour, thereby also discriminating between active video gaming and other computer activities.

  20. Descriptive epidemiology of screen and non-screen sedentary time in adolescents: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridley Kate

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much attention has been paid to adolescents' screen time, however very few studies have examined non-screen sedentary time (NSST. This study aimed to (1 describe the magnitude and composition of screen sedentary time (SST and NSST in Australian adolescents, (2 describe the socio-demographic correlates of SST and NSST, and (3 determine whether screen time is an adequate surrogate for total sedentary behaviour in this population. Methods 2200 9-16 year old Australians provided detailed use of time data for four days. Non-screen sedentary time (NSST included time spent participating in activities expected to elicit Results Adolescents spent a mean (SD of 345 (105 minutes/day in NSST, which constituted 60% of total sedentary time. School activities contributed 42% of NSST, socialising 19%, self-care (mainly eating 16%, and passive transport 15%. Screen time and NSST showed opposite patterns in relation to key socio-demographic characteristics, including sex, age, weight status, household income, parental education and day type. Because screen time was negatively correlated with NSST (r = -0.58, and exhibited a moderate correlation (r = 0.53 with total sedentary time, screen time was only a moderately effective surrogate for total sedentary time. Conclusions To capture a complete picture of young people's sedentary time, studies should endeavour to measure both screen time and NSST.

  1. Depressed adolescents' positive and negative use of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovic, Ana; Gmelin, Theresa; Stein, Bradley D; Miller, Elizabeth

    2017-02-01

    This qualitative study examined descriptions of social media use among 23 adolescents (18 female, 5 male) who were diagnosed with depression to explore how social media use may influence and be influenced by psychological distress. Adolescents described both positive and negative use of social media. Positive use included searching for positive content (i.e. for entertainment, humor, content creation) or for social connection. Negative use included sharing risky behaviors, cyberbullying, and for making self-denigrating comparisons with others. Adolescents described three types of use in further detail including "oversharing" (sharing updates at a high frequency or too much personal information), "stressed posting" (sharing negative updates with a social network), and encountering "triggering posts." In the context of treatment, these adolescents shifted their social media use patterns from what they perceived as negative to more positive use. Implications for clinicians counseling depressed adolescents on social media use are discussed.

  2. Improving validated depression screen among adolescent population in primary care practice using electronic health records (EHR).

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent depression, has been identified as one of the important risk factors for adolescent safety. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends screening the adolescent population for depression with a validated screening tool at least once a year. Given the time constraints in primary care, many physicians tend to rely more on clinical questioning to screen depression.This has the potential to miss many adolescents who may have mild to moderate depression which may prove detriment...

  3. Socioeconomic position and participation in colorectal cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B L; Jørgensen, Torben; Brasso, K

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with faecal occult blood test (FOBT) has the potential to reduce the incidence and mortality of CRC. Screening uptake is known to be inferior in people with low socioeconomic position (SEP) when compared with those with high position; however, the results of most...

  4. To screen or not to screen for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis? A review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurloo, J.A.; Verkerk, P.H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Over the years, there has been much debate about the desirability and efficacy of screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To analyse the current evidence from a public health point of view a renewed evaluation of the literature was performed. Study design: Literature review. Metho

  5. Parent Personality and Positive Parenting as Predictors of Positive Adolescent Personality Development over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Jochem, Rachel; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the degree to which parent positive personality characteristics in terms of conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability predict similar adolescent personality traits over time, as well as the role played by positive parenting in this process. Mothers and fathers of 451 White adolescents (52% female, mean age = 13.59…

  6. The cumulative risk of false-positive screening results across screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, M., E-mail: Marta.Roman@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Department of Women and Children’s Health, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Skaane, P., E-mail: PERSK@ous-hf.no [Department of Radiology, Oslo University Hospital Ullevaal, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Hofvind, S., E-mail: Solveig.Hofvind@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We found variation in early performance measures across screening centres. • Radiologists’ performance may play a key role in the variability. • Potential to improve the effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs. • Continuous surveillance of screening centres and radiologists is essential. - Abstract: Background: Recall for assessment in mammographic screening entails an inevitable number of false-positive screening results. This study aimed to investigate the variation in the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result and the positive predictive value across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Methods: We studied 618,636 women aged 50–69 years who underwent 2,090,575 screening exams (1996–2010. Recall rate, positive predictive value, rate of screen-detected cancer, and the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result, without and with invasive procedures across the screening centres were calculated. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of a false positive screening result and to compute the cumulative false-positive risk for up to ten biennial screening examinations. Results: The cumulative risk of a false-positive screening exam varied from 10.7% (95% CI: 9.4–12.0%) to 41.5% (95% CI: 34.1–48.9%) across screening centres, with a highest to lowest ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 3.7–4.0). The highest to lowest ratio for the cumulative risk of undergoing an invasive procedure with a benign outcome was 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0–4.6). The positive predictive value of recall varied between 12.0% (95% CI: 11.0–12.9%) and 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3–21.5%), with a highest to lowest ratio of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5–1.9). Conclusions: A substantial variation in the performance measures across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program was identified, despite of similar administration, procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Differences in the

  7. False-positive Human Papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    Based on data from randomised controlled trials (RCT) on primary cervical screening, it has been reported that the problem of more frequent false-positive tests in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA screening compared to cytology could be overcome. However, these reports predominantly operated...

  8. Are adolescents being screened for sexually transmitted diseases? A study of low income African American adolescents in San Francisco

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen, J.; M.; Lane; McCright, J

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the proportion of sexually experienced African American adolescents who report having been screened for sexually transmitted diseased (STDs), and to determine the proportion who report having been screened for STDs among those adolescents who have had a preventive primary healthcare visit in the past 2 years.

  9. Adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on parent-adolescent positivity and negativity: Implications for genotype-environment correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Knopik, Valerie S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spotts, Erica L; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David

    2016-02-01

    We examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and nonpassive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. The findings indicated that nonpassive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father-adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than in families with younger adolescents, and that passive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed.

  10. Amphetamine Positive Urine Toxicology Screen Secondary to Atomoxetine

    OpenAIRE

    Fenderson, Joshua L.; Stratton, Amy N; Domingo, Jennifer S.; Matthews, Gerald O.; Tan, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the first case of atomoxetine leading to false-positive urine drug screen. An otherwise healthy 27-year-old female with a history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with atomoxetine had an acute onset tonic-clonic seizure. On arrival to the hospital, a urine toxicological drug screen with immunochemical cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) was performed. Results were positive for amphetamines; however, the presence of these substan...

  11. Parental socioeconomic position and development of overweight in adolescence: longitudinal study of Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Rasmussen, Mette;

    2010-01-01

    An inverse social gradient in overweight among adolescents has been shown in developed countries, but few studies have examined whether weight gain and the development of overweight differs among adolescents from different socioeconomic groups in a longitudinal study. The objective was to identify...... the possible association between parental socioeconomic position, weight change and the risk of developing overweight among adolescents between the ages 15 to 21....

  12. Triage of HPV positive women in cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Schiffman, Mark; Palmer, Timothy; Arbyn, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Despite HPV vaccines, screening will remain central for decades to control cervical cancer. Recently, HPV testing alone or with cytology was introduced as an alternative to cytology screening. However, most HPV infections are harmless and additional tests are required to identify women with progressing infections or precancer. With three options for primary screening, and without clear strategies for triage of screen-positive women, there is great confusion about the best approach. Also, increasing HPV vaccination coverage will lead to lower disease prevalence, and force new screening approaches. Currently recommended triage strategies for primary HPV screening include HPV genotyping for HPV16 and HPV18 and cytology. Other alternatives that are currently evaluated include p16/Ki-67 dual stain cytology, host methylation, and viral methylation testing. Clinical management of women with cervical cancer screening results is moving to use risk thresholds rather than individual test results. Specific risk thresholds have been defined for return to primary screening, repeat testing, referral to colposcopy, and immediate treatment. Choice of test algorithms is based on comparison of absolute risk estimates from triage tests with established clinical thresholds. Importantly, triage tests need to be evaluated together with the primary screening test and the downstream clinical management. An optimal integrated screening and triage strategy should reassure the vast majority of women that they are at very low risk of cervical cancer, send the women at highest risk to colposcopy at the right time, when disease can be colposcopically detected, and minimize the intermediate risk group that requires continued surveillance.

  13. Beyond Screen Time: Assessing Recreational Sedentary Behavior among Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine W. Bauer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most studies of sedentary behavior have focused on television use or screen time. This study aims to examine adolescent girls' participation in a variety of recreational sedentary behaviors (e.g., talking on the phone and hanging around, and their association with physical activity (PA, dietary behaviors, and body mass index. Data were from a sample of 283 adolescent girls. Recreational sedentary behavior, PA, and dietary behaviors were self-reported, and girls' height and weight were measured. Over 95% of girls engaged in at least one recreational sedentary behavior during the recall period. Watching television and hanging around were the most common behaviors. Watching television, using the Internet, and hanging around were associated with less PA; watching television, hanging around, and talking on the phone were associated with less healthful dietary behaviors. No associations were found with body mass index. Interventions may benefit from capitalizing on and intervening upon girls' common recreational sedentary behaviors.

  14. Obesity Related Indices for Screening of Obesity in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Sohani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a fast growing problem in the developing countries like India and is now known to be associated with increased health risk. Realizing the fact that the obesity in adolescent age group does not receive the deserved attention in the prevention and control programme, the present study was undertaken on 585 adolescent subjects studying in one college and three schools. Aims and Objectives: 1. To study the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescent population. 2. To find the association of body mass index (BMI with important parameters like skin fold thickness, waist circumference and waist to hip ratio. Methods: It was a cross sectional observational study. The study population was school and college going adolescents in the age group of 11-19 years. The estimated sample size for present study is 585 students. The subjects were screened by body mass index, skin fold thickness, waist circumference and waist to hip ratio. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 19.14% and 4.44% respectively. It was found that there was strong association between the waist circumference with overweight and obesity. Similarly a strong association between waist to hip ratio with overweight and obesity has been found. Also it was found that there was a strong association between skin fold thickness with overweight and obesity. Skin-fold thickness has more sensitivity as compared to waist circumference and waist to hip ratio. Waist to hip ratio has got maximum specificity amongst all but when both sensitivity and specificity criteria are considered together waist circumference stands out. Conclusion: It was found that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 19.14% and 4.44% respectively. Skin-fold thickness has more sensitivity as compared waist circumference and waist to hip ratio. Waist to hip ratio has got maximum specificity. When sensitivity and specificity criteria are considered together waist circumference can be

  15. The Impact of Economic Pressure on Parent Positivity, Parenting, and Adolescent Positivity into Emerging Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Neppl, Tricia K.; Jeon, Shinyoung; Schofield, Thomas J.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2015-01-01

    The current study describes how positivity can be incorporated into the Family Stress Model to explain resilience to disrupted family processes in the face of economic distress. Prospective, longitudinal data came from 451 mothers, fathers, and youth participating from their adolescence through early adulthood. Assessments included observational and self-report measures. Information regarding economic pressure, parental positivity, and parenting were collected during early adolescence, positi...

  16. Preventive cancer screening practices in HIV-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momplaisir, Florence; Mounzer, Karam; Long, Judith A

    2014-01-01

    As patients with HIV age, they are at risk of developing non-AIDS defining malignancies. We performed a questionnaire study to evaluate colorectal and breast cancer screening among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients seeking care from either an integrated (HIV/primary care), nonintegrated (specialized HIV), or general internal medicine clinic between August 2010 and July 2011. We performed a logistic regression to determine the odds of cancer screening. A total of 813 surveys were collected, and 762 were included in the analysis. As much as 401 were from HIV-positive patients. Patients with HIV were less likely to be current with their colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) (54.4% versus 65.0%, p=0.009); mammography rates were 24.3% versus 62.3% if done during the past year (pscreening in HIV-positive patients compared to negative controls was not statistically significant (OR 0.8; 95% CI 0.5-1.3); however, HIV-positive women remained significantly less likely to be current with breast cancer screening (BCS) whether their mammogram was completed within 1 year (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.1-0.2) or within 5 years (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.0-0.2). Integrated care was not associated with improved screening; however, having frequent visits to a primary care physician (PCP) increased the likelihood of getting screened. BCS was lower in HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative women. Frequent visits to a PCPs improved cancer screening.

  17. Screening for personality disorder in incarcerated adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongerslev, Mickey Toftkjær; Moran, Paul; Bo, Sune

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Personality disorder (PD) is associated with significant functional impairment and an elevated risk of violent and suicidal behaviour. The prevalence of PD in populations of young offenders is likely to be high. However, because the assessment of PD is time-consuming, it is ......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Personality disorder (PD) is associated with significant functional impairment and an elevated risk of violent and suicidal behaviour. The prevalence of PD in populations of young offenders is likely to be high. However, because the assessment of PD is time......-consuming, it is not routinely assessed in this population. A brief screen for the identification of young people who might warrant further detailed assessment of PD could be particularly valuable for clinicians and researchers working in juvenile justice settings. METHOD: We adapted a rapid screen for the identification of PD......, and usefulness of the screen in secure institutions for adolescent male offenders. It can be used in juvenile offender institutions with limited resources, as a brief, acceptable, staff-administered routine screen to identify individuals in need of further assessment of PD or by researchers conducting...

  18. Screening for personality disorder in incarcerated adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Kongerslev, Mickey; Moran, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Background: Personality disorder (PD) is associated with significant functional impairment and an elevated risk of violent and suicidal behaviour. The prevalence of PD in populations of young offenders is likely to be high. However, because the assessment of PD is time-consuming, it is not routin......Background: Personality disorder (PD) is associated with significant functional impairment and an elevated risk of violent and suicidal behaviour. The prevalence of PD in populations of young offenders is likely to be high. However, because the assessment of PD is time......-consuming, it is not routinely assessed in this population. A brief screen for the identification of young people who might warrant further detailed assessment of PD could be particularly valuable for clinicians and researchers working in juvenile justice settings. Method: We adapted a rapid screen for the identification of PD......, and usefulness of the screen in secure institutions for adolescent male offenders. It can be used in juvenile offender institutions with limited resources, as a brief, acceptable, staff-administered routine screen to identify individuals in need of further assessment of PD or by researchers conducting...

  19. Adolescent consent for vaccination: a position paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Abigail; Ford, Carol A; Kahn, Jessica A; Kharbanda, Elyse Olshen; Middleman, Amy B

    2013-10-01

    Vaccines currently recommended for adolescents by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices have the potential to improve the health of youth by preventing conditions such as: tetanus, pertussis, meningococcal disease, influenza, and genital warts, as well as later adult outcomes such as cervical and other human papillomavirus-related cancers. Adolescent vaccine coverage lags behind that for younger age groups. A requirement to obtain parental consent for vaccination can present a significant barrier to improving adolescent vaccine uptake across all health care settings in which adolescents access care. The ability of minors to consent to vaccination can influence whether adolescents receive indicated vaccines during adolescent health care visits when parents are absent and when adolescents are seen for confidential services. State laws govern consent for the delivery of health care to minors. All states have some laws that allow minors to consent to health care based either on their status or on the services they are seeking. Some of these laws would allow them to consent to vaccination. It is the Position of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine that, within ethical and legal guidelines, it will be important to develop strategies that maximize opportunities for minors to receive vaccinations when parents are not physically present, including opportunities for them to give their own consent.

  20. Does Positive Youth Development Predict Adolescent Attitudes about Sexuality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Erin N.; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome…

  1. Maternal responses to adolescent positive affect are associated with adolescents' reward neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sarah; Yap, Marie B H; Yücel, Murat; Sheeber, Lisa; Simmons, Julian G; Pantelis, Christos; Allen, Nicholas B

    2009-09-01

    The development of reward-based learning and decision-making, and the neural circuitry underlying these processes, appears to be influenced negatively by adverse child-rearing environments characterized by abuse and other forms of maltreatment. No research to-date has investigated whether normative variations in the child-rearing environment have effects on adolescent brain structure. We examined whether normative variations in maternal responses to adolescents' positive affective behavior were associated with morphometric measures of the adolescents' affective neural circuitry, namely the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Healthy adolescents (N = 113) participated in laboratory-based interaction tasks with their mothers, and underwent high-resolution (3T) structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The mother-adolescent interactions included a pleasant event-planning interaction (EPI) and a conflictual problem-solving interaction (PSI). Adolescents, whose mothers displayed more punishing responses to their positive affective behavior during both tasks, and only during the PSI, had larger left dorsal ACC and bilateral OFC volumes, respectively. In addition, boys whose mothers evidenced this pattern of behavior during the EPI had larger right amygdala volumes. These results suggest that normative variations in maternal responses to affective behavior are associated with the structural characteristics of adolescents' affective neural circuitry, which may have implications for the development of their social, cognitive and affective functioning.

  2. Amphetamine Positive Urine Toxicology Screen Secondary to Atomoxetine

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    Joshua L. Fenderson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report the first case of atomoxetine leading to false-positive urine drug screen. An otherwise healthy 27-year-old female with a history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD treated with atomoxetine had an acute onset tonic-clonic seizure. On arrival to the hospital, a urine toxicological drug screen with immunochemical cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA was performed. Results were positive for amphetamines; however, the presence of these substances could not be confirmed with urine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. She denied any illicit drug use, herbal medications, or supplements, and her other prescription medications have not been previously known to cause a false-positive result for amphetamines. While stimulant treatments for ADHD could certainly result in a positive result on urine screen for amphetamines, there have been no reports of false-positive results for amphetamines secondary to patients using atomoxetine. We implicate atomoxetine, and/or its metabolites, as a compound or compounds which may interfere with urine drug immunoassays leading to false-positive results for amphetamines CEDIA assays.

  3. Amphetamine positive urine toxicology screen secondary to atomoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenderson, Joshua L; Stratton, Amy N; Domingo, Jennifer S; Matthews, Gerald O; Tan, Christopher D

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the first case of atomoxetine leading to false-positive urine drug screen. An otherwise healthy 27-year-old female with a history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with atomoxetine had an acute onset tonic-clonic seizure. On arrival to the hospital, a urine toxicological drug screen with immunochemical cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) was performed. Results were positive for amphetamines; however, the presence of these substances could not be confirmed with urine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). She denied any illicit drug use, herbal medications, or supplements, and her other prescription medications have not been previously known to cause a false-positive result for amphetamines. While stimulant treatments for ADHD could certainly result in a positive result on urine screen for amphetamines, there have been no reports of false-positive results for amphetamines secondary to patients using atomoxetine. We implicate atomoxetine, and/or its metabolites, as a compound or compounds which may interfere with urine drug immunoassays leading to false-positive results for amphetamines CEDIA assays.

  4. Does positive youth development predict adolescent attitudes about sexuality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Erin N; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome for youth. PYD philosophy and theory, bioecological theory (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998), and identity development theory (Erikson, 1983, 1968; Marcia, 1980, 1993) provided the foundation for this study and were used to make the connections between PYD, adolescent sexuality (including attitudes and behavior), and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship. Both self-esteem and sexual experience were significant predictors of attitudes regarding sex, but overall, parents contributed the most influence on the outcome variable. (It should be noted, however, that parental influence was the only factor that was a significant predictor.) Only one of the two involvements in activities variables was a significant predictor of attitudes regarding sex.

  5. Cognitive abilities in early adolescence: an outlook from positive psychology

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    Norma Contini de González

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to refer to social abilities in early adolescence. Personal success and social success seem to be more related to interpersonal abilities than with those cognitive abilities expressed in synthetic measures of IQ. Social abilities are also one of the major sources of self esteem and personal well-being. The concepts of social intelligence, social abilities, social competence, assertiveness and adaptative behaviour are differentiated. Social abilities are characterized. The different types of social abilities founded are described and the theories which explain those types of abilities are referred. Possible interaction between social abilities, personality and psychosocial adjustment are analyzed. Positive Psychology is defined. It is explained why the Social Abilities are part of child and adolescent’s psychological capital. It is also treated why is important to study those aspects recently mentioned in early adolescence. Opportune diagnosis of those types of adolescent resources –or their dysfunctions like aggressiveness or isolation- would allow tracing a lay out intervention programs which promote protective abilities for its development which also would help the permanence in the scholar system as a way of social inclusion. Finally, it is explained how social abilities work as a salugenic resource in early adolescence within the frame of Positive Psychology. 

  6. Preliminary Blood Pressure Screening in a Representative Sample of Extremely Obese Kuwaiti Adolescents

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    Rima Abdul Razzak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between blood pressure (BP and obesity has been found in young adults, but no data are available for adolescents in Kuwait. 257 adolescent (11–19 years participants were categorized into two groups according to their BMI; 48 nonobese (21 males: 43.7% and 27 females: 56.3% with mean age of years and 209 obese (128 males: 61.25% and 81 females: 38.75% with mean age of years. The mean BMI was  kg/m2 for the nonobese group and  kg/m3 for the obese group. Most BP measures based on a single screening were significantly higher in the obese group. The prevalence of elevated BP was significantly higher in the obese subjects (nonobese: 13%; obese: 63%; . In the obese group, there was a significant positive correlation between total sample BMI and all BP measures except the pulse pressure. There was a similar rate of elevated blood pressure between males and females (64% versus 60%; . For both isolated systolic elevated BP and isolated diastolic elevated BP, the prevalences were comparable between the males (systolic: 42%; diastolic: 5% and females (systolic: 34%; diastolic: 14%. Only systolic BP was positively correlated with BMI in obese adolescent males (Spearman ; , with a significant correlation between BMI with diastolic (Spearman ; and mean BP (Spearman ; in females.

  7. Screening for "substance abuse" among school-based youth in Mexico using the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument (POSIT) for Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, William W; O'Brien, Megan S; McDouall, Jorge; Toussova, Olga; Floyd, Leah J; Vazquez, Marco

    2004-01-01

    Indices of classification accuracy of the Substance Use/Abuse scale of a Spanish-language version of the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) were evaluated among school-based youth in Mexico. Participants were 1203 youth attending one middle school (N = 619) and one high school (N = 584) in the third largest city of Coahuila, a northern border state in Mexico in May 1998. More than 94% of youth enrolled in the participating middle school and 89% of youth enrolled in the participating high school completed the International Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health. Indices of classification accuracy of the POSIT Substance Use/Abuse scale were evaluated against a "drug abuse" problem severity criterion that combined youth meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence disorders with youth having used other illicit drugs five or more times in their lifetime. The present study findings suggest that using a cut score of one or two on the POSIT Substance Use/Abuse scale generally yields optimal classification accuracy indices that vary somewhat by gender and school subgroups. Further, classification accuracy indices of the POSIT Substance Use/Abuse scale are slightly better when used among high school males due, in part, to the higher base rate of serious involvement among this group compared to others.

  8. Management of mental health disorders and central nervous system sequelae in HIV-positive children and adolescents

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    R Nassen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV-positive children and adolescents are at increased risk of both central nervous system (CNS sequelae and mental disorders owing to a number of factors, including the impact of HIV infection on the brain, social determinants of health (e.g. poverty and orphanhood and psychosocial stressors related to living with HIV. Every effort should be made to identify perinatally HIV-infected children and initiate them on antiretroviral therapy early in life. HIV clinicians should ideally screen for mental health and neurocognitive problems, as part of the routine monitoring of children attending antiretroviral clinics. This guideline is intended as a reference tool for HIV clinicians to support the early identification, screening and management of mental health disorders and/or CNS impairment in children and adolescents. This guideline covers mental disorders (section 1 and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (section 2 among children and adolescents.  

  9. A prospective study of screen time in adolescence and depression symptoms in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Singhammer, John; Froberg, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between screen time in adolescence and depressive symptoms in young adulthood in a population-based cohort study of Danish adolescents. METHODS: Data were from a cohort of adolescents who were followed-up in young adulthood...... for a period of up to 12years (1997-2010, mean 8.8years, n=435). Information on television viewing, computer use, total screen time and other determinants of depression were obtained in adolescence. Depressive symptoms were obtained in young adulthood using the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and classified...... as mild, moderate or severe depression. Mixed regression models were used to examine the associations, with adjustment for major confounders. RESULTS: In multivariable adjusted analyses, each additional hour/day spent watching television or screen viewing in adolescence was associated with 1.36 (95% CI 0...

  10. Screening for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Nonpregnant Adolescents and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Nonpregnant Adolescents and Adults The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on ...

  11. ERICA: use of screens and consumption of meals and snacks by Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Juliana Souza; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Brunken, Gisela Soares; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; dos Santos, Marize Melo; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the length of exposure to screens and the prevalence of consumption of meals and snacks by Brazilian adolescents in front of screens. METHODS We evaluated 74,589 12 to 17-year old adolescents from 1,247 schools in 124 Brazilian municipalities. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Its segment regarding nutrition contained questions about using TV, computers, and video game systems, having meals while watching TV, and consuming snacks in front of screens. Consumption of meals and snacks in front of screens was analyzed according to the following variables: geographical region, gender, age range, type of school (public or private), and school shift. The prevalences and their respective 95% confidence intervals were estimated under a complex sampling design. RESULTS A great deal of the adolescents (73.5%, 95%CI 72.3-74.7) reported spending two or more hours a day in front of screens. That habit was more frequent among male adolescents, private school students, morning shift students, and students from Brazil's South region. More than half of the adolescents (56.6%, 95%CI 55.4-57.8) reported almost always or always having meals in front of TV, and 39.6% (95%CI 38.8-40.5) of them said they consumed snacks in front of screens exactly as often. Both situations were the most prevalent ones among the girls, who attended public schools and were from Brazil's Midwest region. CONCLUSIONS Length of exposure to screens and consumption of meals and snacks almost always or always in front of screens are high among Brazilian adolescents. It is necessary to develop strategies aiming to reduce the length of screen use, considering the media reality that children and adolescents have been experiencing from earlier and earlier ages. That context must therefore be analyzed in an indissociable way.

  12. Parental socioeconomic position and development of overweight in adolescence: longitudinal study of Danish adolescents

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    Morgen Camilla

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An inverse social gradient in overweight among adolescents has been shown in developed countries, but few studies have examined whether weight gain and the development of overweight differs among adolescents from different socioeconomic groups in a longitudinal study. The objective was to identify the possible association between parental socioeconomic position, weight change and the risk of developing overweight among adolescents between the ages 15 to 21. Methods Prospective cohort study conducted in Denmark with baseline examination in 1996 and follow-up questionnaire in 2003 with a mean follow-up time of 6.4 years. A sample of 1,656 adolescents participated in both baseline (mean age 14.8 and follow-up (mean age 21.3. Of these, 1,402 had a body mass index (BMI = weight/height2kg/m2 corresponding to a value below 25 at baseline when adjusted for age and gender according to guidelines from International Obesity Taskforce, and were at risk of developing overweight during the study period. The exposure was parental occupational status. The main outcome measures were change in BMI and development of overweight (from BMI = 25. Results Average BMI increased from 21.3 to 22.7 for girls and from 20.6 to 23.6 in boys during follow-up. An inverse social gradient in overweight was seen for girls at baseline and follow-up and for boys at follow-up. In the full population there was a tendency to an inverse social gradient in the overall increase in BMI for girls, but not for boys. A total of 13.4% developed overweight during the follow-up period. Girls of lower parental socioeconomic position had a higher risk of developing overweight (OR's between 4.72; CI 1.31 to 17.04 and 2.03; CI 1.10-3.74 when compared to girls of high parental socioeconomic position. A tendency for an inverse social gradient in the development of overweight for boys was seen, but it did not meet the significance criteria Conclusions The levels of overweight and

  13. Adolescent-parent interactions and attitudes around screen time and sugary drink consumption: a qualitative study

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    Howlett Sarah A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how adolescents and their parents interact and talk about some of the key lifestyle behaviors that are associated with overweight and obesity, such as screen time (ST and sugary drink (SD consumption. This qualitative study aimed to explore adolescents' and parents' perceptions, attitudes, and interactions in regards to these topics. Methods Using an exploratory approach, semi-structured focus groups were conducted separately with adolescents and (unrelated parents. Participants were recruited from low and middle socio-economic areas in the Sydney metropolitan area and a regional area of New South Wales, Australia. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis for each of the four content areas (adolescent-ST, adolescent-SD consumption, parents' views on adolescents' ST and parents' views on adolescents' SD consumption. Results Nine focus groups, with a total of 63 participants, were conducted. Broad themes spanned all groups: patterns of behavior; attitudes and concerns; adolescent-parent interactions; strategies for behavior change; and awareness of ST guidelines. While parents and adolescents described similar patterns of behaviour in relation to adolescents' SD consumption and ST, there were marked differences in their attitudes to these two behaviours which were also evident in the adolescent-parent interactions in the home that they described. Parents felt able to limit adolescents' access to SDs, but felt unable to control their adolescents' screen time. Conclusion This study offers unique insights regarding topics rarely explored with parents or adolescents, yet which are part of everyday family life, are known to be linked to risk of weight gain, and are potentially amenable to change.

  14. School screening and point prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in 4000 Norwegian children aged 12 years

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    Brox Jens

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is discussed. The aim of the present study was to describe the point prevalence of AIS and to evaluate the effectiveness of school screening in 12-year- old children. Methods Community nurses and physical therapists in the Southern Health region of Norway including about 12000 school children aged 12 years were invited to participate. All participating community nurses and physical therapists fulfilled an educational course to improve their knowledge about AIS and learn the screening procedure including the Adam Forward Bending Test and measurement of gibbus using a scoliometer. Results Sub-regions including 4000 school children participated. The prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis defined as a positive Adam Forward Bending Test, gibbus > 7° and primary major curve on radiographs > 10°, was 0.55%. Five children (0.13% had a major curve > 20°. Bracing was not indicated in any child; all children were post menarche; four had Risser sign of 4, and one with Risser 1 did not have curve progression > 5° at later follow-up. In one of these 5 children however, the major curve progressed to 45° within 7 months after screening and the girl was operated. Conclusion The point prevalence of AIS in 12- year old children is in agreement or slightly lower than previous studies. The screening model employed demonstrates acceptable sensitivity and specificity and low referral rates. Screening at the age of 12 years only was not effective for detecting patients with indication for brace treatment.

  15. Positive and negative reinforcement underlying risk behavior in early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Laura; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Daughters, Stacey B; Wang, Frances; Cassidy, Jude; Mayes, Linda C; Lejuez, C W

    2010-09-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the combined influence of positive reinforcement processes using a behavioral task measuring risk taking propensity (RTP) and negative reinforcement processes using a behavioral task measuring deficits in distress tolerance (DT) on a range of risk taking behaviors among early adolescents. Participants included a community sample of 230 early adolescents (aged 9-13) who completed two behavioral tasks assessing reinforcement processes as well as reported on past year risk behavior involvement as assessed by items from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System at a baseline and a 1-year follow-up assessment. Data indicated that at the Wave 2 assessment, RTP was positively related to number of risk-taking behaviors in the past year but only for those with low DT, with this finding persisting after controlling for the significant influence of male gender and higher sensation seeking. Results of the present study highlight the importance of considering both positive and negative reinforcement processes in combination when investigating vulnerability factors for early risk behavior engagement in youth.

  16. Sexually transmitted infections in adolescents: advances in epidemiology, screening, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlan, Elise D; Holland-Hall, Cynthia

    2010-08-01

    Adolescents are especially vulnerable to acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Recent national surveillance data and data from population-level studies demonstrate a high prevalence of bacterial and viral STIs in adolescents and striking racial/ethnic disparities. The long-term health consequences of these infections impact heavily on women's reproductive health. Intriguing findings are emerging, suggesting that individual behaviors contribute minimally to risk for STI, and demonstrating the importance of sexual networks for the transmission of STIs. Exciting developments in gonorrhea and chlamydia testing are making routine screening easier for the busy clinician and are acceptable to adolescents. New testing modalities are being used to screen adolescents in nontraditional venues. Recent developments in vaccination against human papillomavirus and new cytological screening recommendations are changing clinical approaches to STI prevention.

  17. Risk of breast cancer after false-positive test results in screening mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Risør, Louise Madeleine; Thorsted, Brian Larsen

    2012-01-01

    Screening for disease in healthy people inevitably leads to some false-positive tests in disease-free individuals. Normally, women with false-positive screening tests for breast cancer are referred back to routine screening. However, the long-term outcome for women with false-positive tests is un...

  18. RAPD-based screening of genomic libraries for positional cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioh, W; Tharreau, D; Lebrun, M H

    1997-12-15

    RAPD markers are frequently used for positional cloning. However, RAPD markers often contain repeated sequences which prevent genomic library screening by hybridisation. We have developed a simple RAPD analysis of genomic libraries based on the identification of cosmid pools and clones amplifying the RAPD marker of interest. Our method does not require the cloning or characterisation of the RAPD marker as it relies on the analysis of cosmid pools or clones using a simple RAPD protocol. We applied this strategy using four RAPD markers composed of single copy or repeated sequences linked to avirulence genes of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea . Cosmids containing these RAPD markers were easily and rapidly identified allowing the construction of physical contigs at these loci.

  19. The influence of friends and psychosocial factors on physical activity and screen time behavior in adolescents: a mixed-methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jeanette M; Sirard, John R; Deutsch, Nancy L; Weltman, Arthur

    2016-08-01

    (1) Determine the association between adolescent moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time with their nominated friends' behaviors and (2) explore potential mechanisms of friends' social influences on MVPA and screen time. Participants consisted of 152 adolescents (mean age: 14.5 years, 53 % female, 50 % high school, 80 % Caucasian). MVPA was measured with an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer. Demographic and psychosocial variables were assessed via questionnaires. Participants nominated up to 5 friends who completed MVPA and screen time questionnaires. A subset of adolescents (n = 108) participated in focus groups that examined potential mechanism of friends' influence on MVPA and screen time. Multiple regression analysis examined the association of demographic, psychological, and nominated friend variables with participants' MVPA and screen time. NVivo 10.0 was used to analyze qualitative data. Greater levels of friends' MVPA was associated with greater levels of MVPA in both males (p associated with greater levels of screen time in males (p = .04) while psychosocial variables, such as increased screen time enjoyment, were associated with increased screen time in females (p = .01). School level was not associated with either MVPA or screen time. Focus group data indicated that friends positively influenced participants' MVPA through engaging in activity with participants, verbal encouragement, and modeling of MVPA. All participants preferred to be active with friends rather than alone, however, females preferred activity with a close friend while males preferred to be active with a group. Enjoyment of MVPA was the most cited reason for engaging in MVPA with friends. The majority of participants reported friends not having an influence on screen time. Adolescents with active friends are more likely to be physically active and spend less time engaging in screen-based behaviors. Interventions to increase MVPA in youth could be designed to

  20. Cognitive screening for children and adolescents: general limits or ceiling effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornholt, Laurel J; Ajersch, Susan; Fisher, Ian H; Markham, Roslyn H; Ouvrier, Robert A

    2010-05-01

    Cognitive screening tools designed for children can also be used with adolescents. However, early studies suggest that scores can approach a maximum at about age 10 or 11 years. The initial hypothesis was this apparent ''ceiling effect'' is due to limits in the materials, where items can be insufficiently challenging for some adolescents. The alternative hypothesis is that general cognitive screening has a true limit by early adolescence. Participants (N = 85) were 10 to 15-year-old girls and boys, with a database (N = 1249) of 4 to 12-year-old children. The School-Years Screening Test for the Evaluation of Mental Status (SYSTEMS) cognitive screening was extended by more difficult items. Results show that scores increase rapidly for young children and tend toward a maximum in early adolescence. This characteristic asymptotic curve explained a substantial proportion of the variance. We can conclude that, although specific functions continue to develop, there is an upper limit in early adolescence for such general cognitive functioning. The findings support cognitive screening across a broad age range and suggest worthwhile research and clinical applications.

  1. Positioning of pedicle screws in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using electromyography

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    Bruno Moreira Gavassi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the occurrence of poor positioning of pedicle screws inserted with the aid of intraoperative electromyographic stimulation in the treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS.METHODS: This is a prospective observational study including all patients undergoing surgical treatment for AIS, between March and December 2013 at a single institution. All procedures were monitored by electromyography of the inserted pedicle screws. The position of the screws was evaluated by assessment of postoperative CT and classified according to the specific AIS classification system.RESULTS: Sixteen patients were included in the study, totalizing 281 instrumented pedicles (17.5 per patient. No patient had any neurological deficit or complaint after surgery. In the axial plane, 195 screws were found in ideal position (69.4% while in the sagittal plane, 226 screws were found in ideal position (80.4%. Considering both the axial and the sagittal planes, it was observed that 59.1% (166/281 of the screws did not violate any cortical wall.CONCLUSION: The use of pedicle screws proved to be a safe technique without causing neurological damage in AIS surgeries, even with the occurrence of poor positioning of some implants.

  2. Adequate sleep among adolescents is positively associated with health status and health-related behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng Yi-Jong

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amount of sleep is an important indicator of health and well-being in children and adolescents. Adequate sleep (AS: adequate sleep is defined as 6–8 hours per night regularly is a critical factor in adolescent health and health-related behaviors. The present study was based on a health promotion project previously conducted on adolescents in Tao-Yuan County, Taiwan. The aim was to examine the relationship between AS during schooldays and excessive body weight, frequency of visiting doctors and health-related behaviors among Taiwanese adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study design, categorical and multivariate data analyses were used. The hypotheses investigated were: high frequency of AS is positively associated with lack of obesity and less frequent visits to doctors; and high frequency AS is positively associated with health-related behavior. Results A total of 656 boys (53.2% and girls (46.8%, ranging in age from 13–18 years were studied between January and June 2004. Three hundred and fifty seven subjects (54% reported that they slept less than the suggested 6–8 hours on schooldays. A significant negative association was found between low sleep and of the following health-related behaviors: (1 life appreciation; (2 taking responsibility for health; (3 adopting healthy diet; (4 effective stress management; (5 regular exercise; and (6 total AHP score. High frequency AS was associated with low frequencies of obesity after potential confounding factors were controlled. Junior high school adolescents reported significantly higher frequencies of AS than high school participants. Gender, family structure, home location and frequency of television watching or computer use were not significantly associated with AS. Conclusion These findings support the proposition that AS is associated with good health status and high-frequency adoption of health-related behavior. Furthermore, these findings suggest that inadequate

  3. Positive predictive value for polyps detected at screening CT colonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickhardt, Perry J.; Wise, Steven M.; Kim, David H. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2010-07-15

    To determine the positive predictive value (PPV) for polyps detected at CT colonography (CTC). Assessment of 739 colorectal lesions {>=}6 mm detected prospectively at CTC screening in 479 patients was performed. By-polyp PPV was analyzed according to small (6-9 mm) versus large ({>=}10 mm) size; morphology (sessile/pedunculated/flat); diagnostic confidence level (3 = most confident, 1 = least confident); and histology. By-patient PPV was analyzed at various polyp size thresholds. By-polyp PPV for CTC-detected lesions {>=}6 mm, 6-9 mm, and {>=}10 mm was 91.6% (677/739), 90.1% (410/451), and 92.7% (267/288), respectively (p = 0.4). By-polyp PPV according to sessile, pedunculated, flat, and mass-like morphology was 92.5% (441/477), 96.5% (139/144), 77.7% (73/94), and 97.6% (40/41), respectively (p < 0.0001 for flat versus polypoid morphology). By-polyp PPV according to diagnostic confidence level was 94.7% (554/585) for highest (= level 3), 83.5% (106/127) for intermediate (= level 2), and 63.0% (17/27) for lowest (= level 1) confidence (p < 0.0001 for levels-2/3 versus level-1). By-patient PPV at 6-mm, 8-mm, 10-mm, and 30-mm polyp size thresholds was 92.3% (442/479), 93.0% (306/329), 93.1% (228/245), and 97.4% (38/39), respectively. The overall per-polyp and per-patient PPV for lesions {>=}6 mm was 92% for CTC screening. Increased diagnostic confidence and polypoid (non-flat) morphology correlated with a higher PPV, whereas small versus large polyp size had very little effect. (orig.)

  4. Combinatorial arrays and parallel screening for positive electrode discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, A. D.; Vitins, G.; Guerin, S.; Hayden, B. E.; Russell, A. E.; Owen, John R.

    Combinatorial techniques have been applied to the preparation and screening of positive electrode candidates for lithium batteries. This work describes the automated parallel synthesis of 64-electrode arrays using a Packard Multiprobe II liquid handling system. A cell was constructed with a single lithium reference-counter electrode and 64, three-millimeter-diameter working electrodes containing Li xMn 2O 4 active material, PVdF-HFP binder and carbon black as a conducting additive. Eight duplicate electrodes, each of eight respective compositions, were deposited on the array and the mass fraction of carbon was varied in steps from 1 to 25%. The results showed a rapid increase in capacity at the percolation limit of 3% for most cells. Some groups of nominally identical cells showed random variations in capacity, especially at low carbon loadings. The overall result is a demonstration of advantages of the combinatorial concept, which were time-saving and an improved statistical significance of the results compared with on-off experiments.

  5. The Sensitivity of Adolescent School-Based Hearing Screens Is Significantly Improved by Adding High Frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, Deepa L; Zalewski, Thomas R; Beiler, Jessica S; Czarnecki, Beth; Barr, Ashley L; King, Tonya S; Paul, Ian M

    2016-12-01

    High frequency hearing loss (HFHL), often related to hazardous noise, affects one in six U.S. adolescents. Yet, only 20 states include school-based hearing screens for adolescents. Only six states test multiple high frequencies. Study objectives were to (1) compare the sensitivity of state school-based hearing screens for adolescents to gold standard sound-treated booth testing and (2) consider the effect of adding multiple high frequencies and two-step screening on sensitivity/specificity. Of 134 eleventh-grade participants (2013-2014), 43 of the 134 (32%) did not pass sound-treated booth testing, and 27 of the 43 (63%) had HFHL. Sensitivity/specificity of the most common protocol (1,000, 2,000, 4,000 Hz at 20 dB HL) for these hearing losses was 25.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = [13.5, 41.2]) and 85.7% (95% CI [76.8, 92.2]), respectively. A protocol including 500, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, 6,000 Hz at 20 dB HL significantly improved sensitivity to 76.7% (95% CI [61.4, 88.2]), p < .001. Two-step screening maintained specificity (84.6%, 95% CI [75.5, 91.3]). Adolescent school-based hearing screen sensitivity improves with high frequencies.

  6. Comparison of cumulative false-positive risk of screening mammography in the United States and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp Jacobsen, Katja; Abraham, Linn; Buist, Diana S M

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the United States (US), about one-half of women screened with annual mammography have at least one false-positive test after ten screens. The estimate for European women screened ten times biennially is much lower. We evaluate to what extent screening interval, mammogram type......, and statistical methods, can explain the reported differences. METHODS: We included all screens from women first screened at age 50-69 years in the US Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) (n=99,455) between 1996-2010, and from two population-based mammography screening programs in Denmark (n=230,452 and n...

  7. "Media Time = Family Time": Positive Media Use in Families with Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Fraser, Ashley M.; Fellows, Kaylene; Day, Randal D.

    2014-01-01

    Media use in families has generally been examined from a narrow viewpoint, focusing on monitoring or co-viewing. The current research provides an expanded view of positive media use in families with adolescents by examining associations between diverse positive media use and family and adolescents outcomes. In addition, we used qualitative methods…

  8. Early sexual intercourse: Prospective associations with adolescents physical activity and screen time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avelar e Silva, R.N. (Raquel Nogueira); A.I. Wijtzes (Anne); Van De Bongardt, D. (Daphne); P.M. van de Looij-Jansen (Petra); R. Bannink (Rienke); H. Raat (Hein)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To assess the prospective associations of physical activity behaviors and screen time with early sexual intercourse initiation (i.e., before 15 years) in a large sample of adolescents. Methods: We used two waves of data from the Rotterdam Youth Monitor, a longitudinal study c

  9. Early sexual intercourse : Prospective associations with adolescents physical activity and screen time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nogueira Avelar e Silva, R.; Wijtzes, A.; van de Bongardt, D.; van de Looij-Jansen, P.; Bannink, R.; Raat, H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prospective associations of physical activity behaviors and screen time with early sexual intercourse initiation (i.e., before 15 years) in a large sample of adolescents. Methods: We used two waves of data from the Rotterdam Youth Monitor, a longitudinal study conducted in

  10. Screen time and physical activity during adolescence: longitudinal effects on obesity in young adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon-Larsen Penny

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The joint impact of sedentary behavior and physical activity on obesity has not been assessed in a large cohort followed from adolescence to adulthood. Methods Nationally representative longitudinal data from Waves II (1995; mean age: 15.9 and III (2001; mean age: 21.4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 9,155 were collected. Sex-stratified multivariate logistic regression analysis assessed the odds of obesity associated with Wave II MVPA and screen time, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and change in MVPA and screen time from Wave II to III. Obesity was defined using body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 International Obesity Task Force cut-points at Wave II and adult cut-points at Wave III (BMI ≥ 30. Results In males, adjusted odds of prevalent obesity was strongly predicted by MVPA bouts [OR (95% CI: OR6 vs. 1 MVPA bouts = 0.50 (0.40, 0.62; OR4 vs. 40 hrs screen time = 0.83 (0.69, 1.00]. In females, greater MVPA bouts and lower screen time correlated with lower prevalent obesity [OR (95% CI: OR6 vs. 1 MVPA bouts = 0.67 (0.49, 0.91; OR4 vs. 40 hrs screen time = 0.67 (0.53, 0.85]. Longitudinally, adolescent screen time hours had a stronger influence on incident obesity in females [OR (95% CI: OR4 vs. 40 hrs = 0.58 (0.43, 0.80] than males [OR (95% CI: OR4 vs. 40 hrs = 0.78 (0.61, 0.99]. Longitudinal activity patterns were not predictive of incident obesity. Conclusion Reducing screen time during adolescence and into adulthood may be a promising strategy for reducing obesity incidence, especially in females.

  11. Identity Styles, Positive Youth Development, and Civic Engagement in Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Erentaite, Rasa; Žukauskiene, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Identity formation is a core developmental task of adolescence. Adolescents can rely on different social-cognitive styles to seek, process, and encode self-relevant information: information-oriented, normative, and diffuse-avoidant identity styles. The reliance on different styles might impact adole

  12. [Risk-taking in adolescence. Screening and counseling strategies for primary care professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynard, Anne; Haller, Dagmar M; Navarro, Carol; Narring, Françoise

    2008-06-11

    Meeting adolescents' health needs in primary care implies knowledge of developmental, psycho-social and physical specificities of this age group. Primary care physicians need appropriate communication skills and knowledge of specific adolescent health issues such as the role of families, the need for confidential services and networking with schools, social services and other key individuals in young people's lives. Primary care physicians rarely receive training in adolescent health and are usually interested in practical screening or counselling strategies. HEADSSS is a useful mnemonic to guide the psychosocial interview of an adolescent. It can be used in daily practice to help the physician to focus not only on "risk taking", but also on the personal strengths and protective factors that allow young people to develop harmoniously.

  13. Predicting the risk of a false-positive test for women following a mammography screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Olsen, Anne Helene; Schwartz, Walter

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study was to provide a simple estimate of the cumulative risk of a false-positive test for women participating in mammography screening. To test the method, we used data from two well-established, organized mammography screening programmes offering biennial...... be calculated in a simple way relatively early after the start of a mammography screening programme....

  14. Screen time and sleep among school-aged children and adolescents: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Lauren; Guan, Stanford

    2015-06-01

    We systematically examined and updated the scientific literature on the association between screen time (e.g., television, computers, video games, and mobile devices) and sleep outcomes among school-aged children and adolescents. We reviewed 67 studies published from 1999 to early 2014. We found that screen time is adversely associated with sleep outcomes (primarily shortened duration and delayed timing) in 90% of studies. Some of the results varied by type of screen exposure, age of participant, gender, and day of the week. While the evidence regarding the association between screen time and sleep is consistent, we discuss limitations of the current studies: 1) causal association not confirmed; 2) measurement error (of both screen time exposure and sleep measures); 3) limited data on simultaneous use of multiple screens, characteristics and content of screens used. Youth should be advised to limit or reduce screen time exposure, especially before or during bedtime hours to minimize any harmful effects of screen time on sleep and well-being. Future research should better account for the methodological limitations of the extant studies, and seek to better understand the magnitude and mechanisms of the association. These steps will help the development and implementation of policies or interventions related to screen time among youth.

  15. Screening diagnostics of antivital experiences and propensity toward impulsive, autoagressive behavior in adolescents (preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bannikov G.S.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of methods for revealing antivital experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior in educational institutions is one of the key steps in developing strategies for the primary prevention of suicidal behavior in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to develop an effective screening diagnostic package aimed at identifying antivital experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior. The survey methods we used were: Beck Hopelessness Scale, Russell Loneliness Scale, A.G. Shmelev Suicide Risk Questionnaire, PDQ-IV Borderline disorder and Narcissism scales. At the first stage we examined 750 minors aged 12-18 and identified risk group (85 people – 11.4%, which included adolescents with high levels of both individual scales, and their combination. At the second stage we examined 10 adolescents at risk. In 7 of them (70% were identified antivital, suicidal thoughts of passive or compulsive nature, signs of subjective and objective socio- psychological maladjustment. Our preliminary conclusion is that high levels of hopelessness and loneliness in adolescents are stable predictors of mental and emotional distress and psychosocial maladjustment in the period of psychological crises and decompensation of character accentuation of borderline and narcissistic types. These scales can be recommended for primary screening of antivital (depressive experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior in adolescents.

  16. Parenting, Community, and Religious Predictors of Positive and Negative Developmental Outcomes among Muslim Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Steven Eric; Hamzah, Azimi; Ismail, Ismi Arif; Suandi, Turiman; Hamzah, Siti Raba'ah; Dahalan, Dzuhailmi; Idris, Fazilah

    2014-01-01

    Despite existing research on the contribution of social context and religiosity to adolescent behavioral outcomes, few studies have attempted to explore this topic among Muslim adolescents in non-Western settings, looking at both positive and negative outcomes. In response to this gap, the current study explored the effects of three dimensions of…

  17. Using a Positive Psychology and Family Framework to Understand Mexican American Adolescents' College-Going Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier C.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Sparrow, Gregory Scott; Gonzalez, Stacey Lee

    2017-01-01

    Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Mexican American adolescents' academic experiences. We used a quantitative, predictive design to explore how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, subjective happiness, hope, and family importance influenced 131 Mexican American adolescents' college-going beliefs. We used…

  18. Predictors of Psychological Distress and Positive Resources among Palestinian Adolescents: Trauma, Child, and Mothering Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qouta, Samir; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Montgomery, Edith; El Sarraj, Eyad

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to examine how traumatic and stressful events, responses to violence, child characteristics, and mothering quality, as measured in middle childhood predict psychological distress and positive resources in adolescence. Method: The participants were 65 Palestinian adolescents (17 [plus or minus] 0.85 years; 52% girls), who had…

  19. Effects of Positive Affect on Risk Perceptions in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Affective influences may play a key role in adolescent risk taking, but have rarely been studied. Using an audiovisual method of affect induction, two experimental studies examined the effect of positive affect on risk perceptions in adolescence and young adulthood. Outcomes were risk perceptions regarding drinking alcohol, smoking a cigarette,…

  20. An Adolescent Version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Mark; Thurber, Steven; Hodgson, Joele M.

    2002-01-01

    Item content of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) was modified to make it more appropriate for young persons. The resulting test was found to have lower internal consistency than the adult MAST, but the elimination of five items with comparatively poor psychometric properties yielded an acceptable alpha coefficient. (Contains 10…

  1. Positive and negative qualities of South African adolescents' parent and peer relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, Elmien; de Jager, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Parent and peer relationships are important social resources for adolescents. South African research on adolescents' relationships, however, underemphasises these relationships as potential positive resources. Studies also tend to use samples from urban populations, while rural and semi-rural adolescent populations are neglected. This study focused on White and Coloured adolescents living in one South African semi-rural community and their ratings of positive and negative relationship qualities in relationships with parents and peers. Using the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI), we found that mothers, best friends and romantic partners were relatively equal sources of social support. Mothers' high ratings for support, conflict and punishment may point to mothers bearing the primary responsibility for child care. Fathers' low support ratings raise concern as father involvement is important for adolescents' well-being. White participants overall rated their relationship higher for support and lower for negative qualities than the Coloured participants.

  2. Association between Screen Viewing Duration and Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality, and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness among Adolescents in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Yim Wah Mak; Cynthia Sau Ting Wu; Donna Wing Shun Hui; Siu Ping Lam; Hei Yin Tse; Wing Yan Yu; Ho Ting Wong

    2014-01-01

    Screen viewing is considered to have adverse impacts on the sleep of adolescents. Although there has been a considerable amount of research on the association between screen viewing and sleep, most studies have focused on specific types of screen viewing devices such as televisions and computers. The present study investigated the duration with which currently prevalent screen viewing devices (including televisions, personal computers, mobile phones, and portable video devices) are viewed in ...

  3. Epidemiological comparisons of problems and positive qualities reported by adolescents in 24 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, Leslie; Achenbach, Thomas M; Ivanova, Masha Y

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared ratings of behavioral and emotional problems and positive qualities on the Youth Self-Report (T. M. Achenbach & L. A. Rescorla, 2001) by adolescents in general population samples from 24 countries (N = 27,206). For problem scales, country effect sizes (ESs.......5). Results indicate considerable consistency across 24 countries in adolescents' self-reported problems but less consistency for positive qualities....

  4. Osteoarthritic changes and condylar positioning of the temporomandibular joint in Korean children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Bong-Hae; Jung, Yun-Hoa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the prevalence of osteoarthritic changes and condylar positioning of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in Korean children and adolescents with or without temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Materials and Methods A total of 101 asymptomatic and 181 symptomatic children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years old were included in the study. Osteoarthritic changes such as flattening, sclerosis, osteophytes, or erosion, and the parasagittal positioning of the condyle were asses...

  5. Lack of utility of risk score and gynecological examination for screening for sexually transmitted infections in sexually active adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Côrtes Rejane LM

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections constitute the main health risk among adolescents. In developing countries the diagnosis and treatment of cervical infections is based on the syndromic approach. In this study we estimated the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among female adolescents from a Health Sector of the city of Goiânia, Brazil, and validated cervicitis diagnosis using World Health Organization/Ministry of Health risk score and gynecological examination. Methods A cross-sectional community-based sample of 914 15- to 19-year-old female teenagers was randomly selected and referred to the local Family Health Program. Of these, 472 (51.6% were sexually active and gynecological examinations were carried out for 427. Endocervical samples were collected to perform the polymerase chain reaction for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Performance of risk score, the presence of mucopurulent discharge, friability, ectopia and pain during cervical maneuver were compared with the presence of C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae or both. Results The prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was 14.5% and 2.1%, respectively. The risk score had a specificity of 31.9% (95% confidence interval, 21.2 to 44.2 and a positive predictive value of 20.8% (95% confidence interval, 13.5 to 29.7. Friability was the component of the gynecological examination that presented the best performance with a sensitivity of 43.5%, specificity of 81.0%, and 30.6% of positive predictive value. Conclusion The prevalence of infection by C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was high among these sexually active adolescents. The syndromic approach is clearly inadequate for screening and treating these infections in this population. Therefore, the implantation of other strategies to control these infections among adolescents is urgently required.

  6. Forming Positive Identities to Enhance Mathematics Learning among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhize, Duduzile Rosemary

    2017-01-01

    Learners' participation in mathematics decreases during their transition from primary to high school. This is despite adolescents' cognitive growth equipping them with enhanced cognitive ability; to learn mathematics. Hence low participation in mathematics does not result from cognitive deficiency. Rather, lack of motivation to learn mathematics…

  7. Association between Screen Viewing Duration and Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality, and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness among Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yim Wah Mak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Screen viewing is considered to have adverse impacts on the sleep of adolescents. Although there has been a considerable amount of research on the association between screen viewing and sleep, most studies have focused on specific types of screen viewing devices such as televisions and computers. The present study investigated the duration with which currently prevalent screen viewing devices (including televisions, personal computers, mobile phones, and portable video devices are viewed in relation to sleep duration, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness among Hong Kong adolescents (N = 762. Television and computer viewing remain prevalent, but were not correlated with sleep variables. Mobile phone viewing was correlated with all sleep variables, while portable video device viewing was shown to be correlated only with daytime sleepiness. The results demonstrated a trend of increase in the prevalence and types of screen viewing and their effects on the sleep patterns of adolescents.

  8. Association between screen viewing duration and sleep duration, sleep quality, and excessive daytime sleepiness among adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Yim Wah; Wu, Cynthia Sau Ting; Hui, Donna Wing Shun; Lam, Siu Ping; Tse, Hei Yin; Yu, Wing Yan; Wong, Ho Ting

    2014-10-28

    Screen viewing is considered to have adverse impacts on the sleep of adolescents. Although there has been a considerable amount of research on the association between screen viewing and sleep, most studies have focused on specific types of screen viewing devices such as televisions and computers. The present study investigated the duration with which currently prevalent screen viewing devices (including televisions, personal computers, mobile phones, and portable video devices) are viewed in relation to sleep duration, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness among Hong Kong adolescents (N = 762). Television and computer viewing remain prevalent, but were not correlated with sleep variables. Mobile phone viewing was correlated with all sleep variables, while portable video device viewing was shown to be correlated only with daytime sleepiness. The results demonstrated a trend of increase in the prevalence and types of screen viewing and their effects on the sleep patterns of adolescents.

  9. An Algorithm of Calculating the Position in a Self-Capacitance Touch Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Peng, Haiyan; Qian, Xiaoli; Ren, Can; Wang, Wentao; Li, Jianjun

    Touch screens have been widely used in many kinds of electronic products. For many capacitive touch sensing devices, they always suffer from a variety of electronic signal noises. So when a finger touches the screen, it is difficult to calculate the exact touch position on the screen. We proposed an algorithm of calculating the position in a self-capacitance touch screen to alleviate noise interference. We determined the touch region by calculating the differences between current data and reference data in every channel. In the touch region we divided it into different ranges to calculate the touch point. The simulation results show that the algorithm that we proposed can alleviate noise interference effectively and obtain the exact positioning on touch screen accurately.

  10. Evaluating mental health difficulties and associated outcomes among HIV-positive adolescents in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Dorothy E; Turner, Elizabeth L; Shayo, Aisa M; Mmbaga, Blandina; Cunningham, Coleen K; O'Donnell, Karen

    2016-07-01

    AIDS-related mortality among HIV-positive adolescents has risen by 50% despite the scale up of antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART maladherence likely plays a role in the increase of AIDS-related deaths among adolescents and has shown to be associated with psychosocial and mental health difficulties. Addressing the specific mental health needs of HIV-positive adolescents is critical to ending the HIV epidemic. This cross-sectional study prospectively enrolled HIV-positive adolescents (12-24 years) in Moshi, Tanzania. A structured questionnaire was administered that included questions about home, school, adherence, and measures of stigma (Berger Stigma Scale) and mental health. Mental health measures included depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), emotional/behavioral difficulties (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), and traumatic experiences/post-traumatic stress symptoms (The University of California Los Angeles-post-traumatic stress disorder-Reaction Index). Mental health difficulties were prevalent among HIV-positive adolescents and were associated with incomplete adherence and stigma. Resources are needed to reduce HIV stigma and address mental health among HIV-positive adolescents in low-resource settings. This will improve not only mental health, but may also improve ART adherence and virologic suppression, improving overall health of the individual and reducing the risk of HIV transmission to others.

  11. Long-term psychosocial consequences of false-positive screening mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Cancer screening programs have the potential of intended beneficial effects, but they also inevitably have unintended harmful effects. In the case of screening mammography, the most frequent harm is a false-positive result. Prior efforts to measure their psychosocial consequences have been limited...

  12. Broadly defined risk mental states during adolescence: disorganization mediates positive schizotypal expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbané, Martin; Badoud, Deborah; Balanzin, Dario; Eliez, Stephan

    2013-06-01

    While schizotypal features are common during adolescence, they can also signal increased risk for the onset of schizophreniform disorders. Most studies with adolescents find that hallucination and delusion-like symptoms (positive schizotypal features) best predict future psychopathology. Still, the developmental process of positive schizotypy remains elusive, specifically with regards to 1) its relationships to negative and disorganization schizotypal dimensions; 2) its associations to maladaptive functioning during adolescence. This longitudinal study aimed to further characterize these relationships, thereby delineating "early and broadly defined psychosis risk mental states" (Keshavan et al., 2011). The current study presents the 3-year course of schizotypal trait expression in 34 clinical adolescents aged 12 to 18 years consulting for non-psychotic difficulties. Schizotypal expression was assessed twice using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, accompanied by an examination of internalizing/externalizing problems using the Achenbach scales. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted to assess the expression and course of schizotypal dimensions; mediation analyses were further employed to highlight the developmental interactions promoting the maintenance of positive schizotypal expression. The results reveal that positive schizotypy, and more specifically unusual perceptual experiences, significantly declined during the study interval. Disorganization features were found to mediate the relationships between the negative and positive dimensions of schizotypy within and across evaluations. Somatic complaints and attentional difficulties further strengthened the expression of positive schizotypy during the study interval. These results suggest that the relationship between disorganization features and positive schizotypy may play a central role in establishing risk for psychosis during adolescence.

  13. Bullying behaviour in schools, socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity: a cross-sectional study in late adolescents in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magklara Konstantina

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying is quite prevalent in the school setting and has been associated with the socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity of the pupils. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between bullying and socioeconomic status in a sample of Greek adolescents and to examine whether this is confounded by the presence of psychiatric morbidity, including sub-threshold forms of illness. Methods 5,614 adolescents aged 16-18 years old and attending 25 senior high schools were screened and a stratified random sample of 2,427 were selected for a detailed interview. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed with a fully structured psychiatric interview, the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R, while bullying was assessed with the revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. The following socio-economic variables were assessed: parental educational level and employment status, financial difficulties of the family and adolescents' school performance. The associations were investigated using multinomial logit models. Results 26.4% of the pupils were involved in bullying-related behaviours at least once monthly either as victims, perpetrators or both, while more frequent involvement (at least once weekly was reported by 4.1%. Psychiatric morbidity was associated with all types of bullying-related behaviours. No socioeconomic associations were reported for victimization. A lower school performance and unemployment of the father were significantly more likely among perpetrators, while economic inactivity of the mother was more likely in pupils who were both victims and perpetrators. These results were largely confirmed when we focused on high frequency behaviours only. In addition, being overweight increased the risk of frequent victimization. Conclusions The prevalence of bullying among Greek pupils is substantial. Perpetration was associated with some dimensions of adolescents' socioeconomic status, while victimization

  14. Cognitive abilities in early adolescence: an outlook from positive psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Norma Contini de González

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to refer to social abilities in early adolescence. Personal success and social success seem to be more related to interpersonal abilities than with those cognitive abilities expressed in synthetic measures of IQ. Social abilities are also one of the major sources of self esteem and personal well-being. The concepts of social intelligence, social abilities, social competence, assertiveness and adaptative behaviour are differentiated. Social abilities are characterized. ...

  15. Positive Drug Screen for Benzodiazepine Due to a Chinese Herbal Product

    OpenAIRE

    Eachus, Patricia L.

    1996-01-01

    A female athlete tested positive for benzodiazepine on a random drug screen. She denied taking any illicit or prescription drugs. The positive screen was found to be caused by undeclared addiction of diazepam to a Chinese herbal product, “Miracle Herb.” Some foreign vitamins, health care products, or herbal tea may contain banned or dangerous additives unknown to the consumer. These additives may include ingredients such as benzodiazepine, mefenamic acid, or corticosteroids. Possible physical...

  16. Psychological effects of false-positive results in expanded newborn screening in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jun Tu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: As more families participate expanded newborn screening for metabolic disorders in China, the overall number of false positives increases. Our goal was to assess the potential impact on parental stress, perceptions of the child's health, and family relationships. METHODS: Parents of 49 infants with false-positive screening results for metabolic disorders in the expanded newborn screening panel were compared with parents of 42 children with normal screening results. Parents first completed structured interview using likert scales, closed and open questions. Parents also completed the parenting stress index. RESULTS: A total of 88 mothers and 41 fathers were interviewed. More mothers in the false-positive group reported that their children required extra parental care (21%, compared with 5% of mothers in the normal-screened group (P<0.001. 39% of mothers in the false-positive group reported that they worry about their child's future development, compared with 10% of mothers in the normal-screened group (P<0.001. Fathers in the false-positive group did not differ from fathers in the normal-screened group in reporting worry about their child's extra care requirements, and their child's future development. Children with false-positive results compared with children with normal results were triple as likely to experience hospitalization (27%vs 9%, respectively; P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The results showing false-positive screening results may affect parental stress and the parent-child relationship. Parental stress and anxiety can be reduced with improved education and communication to parents about false-positive results.

  17. Risk of breast cancer after false-positive results in mammographic screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roman, Marta; Castells, Xavier; Hofvind, Solveig;

    2016-01-01

    risk (RR) of screen-detected cancer for women with false-positive versus negative results. We analyzed information from 1,935,093 women 50–69 years who underwent 6,094,515 screening exams. During an average 5.8 years of follow-up, 230,609 (11.9%) women received a false-positive result and 27,849 (1...

  18. Position of immunological techniques in screening in clinical toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Steve

    2004-01-01

    There is a continuing increase in the use of immunological techniques in the field of clinical toxicology. This is primarily due to the rapidity by which analytical results are now required, and can be obtained, following the testing of individuals for drug use. There has recently been an increase in the repertoire of assays now available to testing laboratories (e.g., buprenorphine and heroin metabolite assays), with the techniques themselves becoming increasingly more specific for the drugs and/or metabolites being monitored (e.g., methadone metabolite assays). The near patient testing (NPT), or point-of-care testing (POCT), devices are now several generations forward from their inception, with some tests now approaching the sensitivity and specificity of automated laboratory-based methods. This review has been collated from the literature to illustrate some of the possible reasons for the move towards the increasing use of immunological techniques, and to highlight some of the advantages and disadvantages associated with such drug screening methods. In particular, it has been shown that it is important to determine, monitor and review the knowledge and training of the individual using the technique. In addition, quality control and quality assessment are paramount to ensure the validity of any drug testing being performed. It has also been shown that it is vital to maintain and develop the relationships between the staff performing the testing, the laboratory (if the testing is performed using NPT devices), and the clinicians utilising the results obtained from drug testing. Without these links, interpretive errors could arise which could adversely affect the diagnosis and management of patients.

  19. Obesity, overweight, screen time and physical activity in Mexican adolescents Obesidad, sobrepeso, tiempo frente a la pantalla y actividad física en adolescentes mexicanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Morales-Ruán

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether screen time and physical activity is related to overweight or obesity in adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional design. Adolescents aged 10 to 19 were included in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. The dependent variable was overweight or obesity; the independent variable was screen time. A logistic regression model was created to estimate the relationship of overweight and obesity to various factors, including screen time, physical activity, study vs. no study, age, sex, indigenous ethnicity, alcohol consumption and tobacco use. RESULTS: A total of 18 784 adolescents were included. A positive relation between screen time and overweight and obesity was found. CONCLUSIONS: Screen time is associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican adolescents.OBJETIVO: Determinar si el tiempo que los adolescentes permanecen frente a pantalla y realizan actividad física se asocia con el sobrepeso o la obesidad. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Diseño transversal. Se incluyeron adolescentes de 10 a 19 años de edad, de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. La variable dependiente fue el sobrepeso u obesidad y la independiente el tiempo frente a la pantalla. Se ajustó un modelo de regresión logística para estimar la relación entre el sobrepeso u obesidad con el tiempo frente a la pantalla, actividad física, edad, sexo, condición de estudiante, indigenismo, tabaquismo y consumo de alcohol. RESULTADOS: Se estudió a 18 784 adolescentes. Se encontró una asociación positiva entre el tiempo frente a pantalla y el sobrepeso u obesidad. CONCLUSIONES: El tiempo que los adolescentes mexicanos pasan frente a pantalla está asociado con el sobrepeso u obesidad.

  20. Alcohol, Sex, and Screens: Modeling Media Influence on Adolescent Alcohol and Sex Co-Occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Ellithorpe, Morgan E; Hennessy, Michael; Khurana, Atika; Jamieson, Patrick; Weitz, Ilana

    2017-02-26

    Alcohol use and sexual behavior are important risk behaviors in adolescent development, and combining the two is common. The reasoned action approach (RAA) is used to predict adolescents' intention to combine alcohol use and sexual behavior based on exposure to alcohol and sex combinations in popular entertainment media. We conducted a content analysis of mainstream (n = 29) and Black-oriented movies (n = 34) from 2014 and 2013-2014, respectively, and 56 television shows (2014-2015 season). Content analysis ratings featuring character portrayals of both alcohol and sex within the same five-minute segment were used to create exposure measures that were linked to online survey data collected from 1,990 adolescents ages 14 to 17 years old (50.3% Black, 49.7% White; 48.1% female). Structural equation modeling (SEM) and group analysis by race were used to test whether attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioral control mediated the effects of media exposure on intention to combine alcohol and sex. Results suggest that for both White and Black adolescents, exposure to media portrayals of alcohol and sex combinations is positively associated with adolescents' attitudes and norms. These relationships were stronger among White adolescents. Intention was predicted by attitude, norms, and control, but only the attitude-intention relationship was different by race group (stronger for Whites).

  1. Sports Dietitians Australia position statement: sports nutrition for the adolescent athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbrow, Ben; McCormack, Joanna; Burke, Louise M; Cox, Gregory R; Fallon, Kieran; Hislop, Matthew; Logan, Ruth; Marino, Nello; Sawyer, Susan M; Shaw, Greg; Star, Anita; Vidgen, Helen; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-10-01

    It is the position of Sports Dietitians Australia (SDA) that adolescent athletes have unique nutritional requirements as a consequence of undertaking daily training and competition in addition to the demands of growth and development. As such, SDA established an expert multidisciplinary panel to undertake an independent review of the relevant scientific evidence and consulted with its professional members to develop sports nutrition recommendations for active and competitive adolescent athletes. The position of SDA is that dietary education and recommendations for these adolescent athletes should reinforce eating for long term health. More specifically, the adolescent athlete should be encouraged to moderate eating patterns to reflect daily exercise demands and provide a regular spread of high quality carbohydrate and protein sources over the day, especially in the period immediately after training. SDA recommends that consideration also be given to the dietary calcium, Vitamin D and iron intake of adolescent athletes due to the elevated risk of deficiency of these nutrients. To maintain optimal hydration, adolescent athletes should have access to fluids that are clean, cool and supplied in sufficient quantities before, during and after participation in sport. Finally, it is the position of SDA that nutrient needs should be met by core foods rather than supplements, as the recommendation of dietary supplements to developing athletes over-emphasizes their ability to manipulate performance in comparison with other training and dietary strategies.

  2. Positive Psychology and Adolescent Mental Health: False Promise or True Breakthrough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    The emerging field of positive psychology has pledged to improve the mental health of American adolescents. Yet, without a principle-based conceptual foundation to guide its study of optimal youth functioning, positive psychology will ultimately fail to keep its promise. This paper suggests that the principles of Mind, Thought and Consciousness…

  3. Participation behaviour following a false positive test in the Copenhagen mammography screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sune Bangsbøll; Vejborg, Ilse; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is an ongoing debate concerning possible disadvantages of mammography screening, one being the consequence of receiving a false positive test-result. It is argued that receiving a false positive answer may have short- and/or long-term adverse psychological effects on women......, but results from different studies are conflicting. We tested if there was a difference in continued participation behaviour between the group of women who have been subject to a false positive result and those who have not. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study used the registers from the first six invitation...... rounds of the mammography screening programme in Copenhagen (1991-2003). We estimated the relative risk of not participating in the subsequent screening round for women with a false positive test using women with a negative test as baseline. As outcome measure odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence...

  4. Trait positive affect is associated with hippocampal volume and change in caudate volume across adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Meg; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Byrne, Michelle L; Schwartz, Orli; Simmons, Julian G; Allen, Nicholas B

    2015-03-01

    Trait positive affect (PA) in childhood confers both risk and resilience to psychological and behavioral difficulties in adolescence, although explanations for this association are lacking. Neurodevelopment in key areas associated with positive affect is ongoing throughout adolescence, and is likely to be related to the increased incidence of disorders of positive affect during this period of development. The aim of this study was to prospectively explore the relationship between trait indices of PA and brain development in subcortical reward regions during early to mid-adolescence in a community sample of adolescents. A total of 89 (46 male, 43 female) adolescents participated in magnetic resonance imaging assessments during both early and mid-adolescence (mean age at baseline = 12.6 years, SD = 0.45; mean follow-up period = 3.78 years, SD = 0.21) and also completed self-report measures of trait positive and negative affect (at baseline). To examine the specificity of these effects, the relation between negative affect and brain development was also examined. The degree of volume reduction in the right caudate over time was predicted by PA. Independent of time, larger hippocampal volumes were associated with higher PA, and negative affect was associated with smaller left amygdala volume. The moderating effect of negative affect on the development of the left caudate varied as a function of lifetime psychiatric history. These findings suggest that early to mid-adolescence is an important period whereby neurodevelopmental processes may underlie key phenotypes conferring both risk and resilience for emotional and behavioral difficulties later in life.

  5. Changes in negative urgency, positive urgency, and sensation seeking across adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Andrew K; Stevens, Angela K; Ellingson, Jarrod M; King, Kevin M; Jackson, Kristina M

    2016-02-01

    The development and potential co-development of traits related to impulsivity and sensation seeking across adolescence has garnered substantial attention within the extant literature. Some prior research suggests that facets show distinct patterns of change across adolescence and that intraindividual changes in these traits may be unrelated. However, the extant literature is somewhat hampered by measurement issues and inconsistent findings. Using an accelerated longitudinal design in a sample of adolescents (n = 1018; ages 11-16), changes in negative urgency, positive urgency, and sensation seeking were examined. The three facets showed similar trajectories across time (i.e., increasing during early adolescence before leveling off). Across all facets, there was strong evidence of correlated change, suggesting these traits are, developmentally, strongly related phenomena.

  6. The ligase chain reaction as a primary screening tool for the detection of culture positive tuberculosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The ligase chain reaction Mycobacterium tuberculosis assay uses ligase chain reaction technology to detect tuberculous DNA sequences in clinical specimens. A study was undertaken to determine its sensitivity and specificity as a primary screening tool for the detection of culture positive tuberculosis. METHODS: The study was conducted on 2420 clinical specimens (sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, pleural fluid, urine) submitted for primary screening for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to a regional medical microbiology laboratory. Specimens were tested in parallel with smear, ligase chain reaction, and culture. RESULTS: Thirty nine patients had specimens testing positive by the ligase chain reaction assay. Thirty two patients had newly diagnosed tuberculosis, one had a tuberculosis relapse, three had tuberculosis (on antituberculous therapy when tested), and three had healed tuberculosis. In the newly diagnosed group specimens were smear positive in 21 cases (66%), ligase chain reaction positive in 30 cases (94%), and culture positive in 32 cases (100%). Using a positive culture to diagnose active tuberculosis, the ligase chain reaction assay had a sensitivity of 93.9%, a specificity of 99.8%, a positive predictive value of 83.8%, and a negative predictive value of 99.9%. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the largest clinical trial to date to report the efficacy of the ligase chain reaction as a primary screening tool to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The authors conclude that ligase chain reaction is a useful primary screening test for tuberculosis, offering speed and discrimination in the early stages of diagnosis and complementing traditional smear and culture techniques.

  7. Positive parenting predicts the development of adolescent brain structure: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G; Dennison, Meg; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Schwartz, Orli; Yap, Marie B H; Sheeber, Lisa; Allen, Nicholas B

    2014-04-01

    Little work has been conducted that examines the effects of positive environmental experiences on brain development to date. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the effects of positive (warm and supportive) maternal behavior on structural brain development during adolescence, using longitudinal structural MRI. Participants were 188 (92 female) adolescents, who were part of a longitudinal adolescent development study that involved mother-adolescent interactions and MRI scans at approximately 12 years old, and follow-up MRI scans approximately 4 years later. FreeSurfer software was used to estimate the volume of limbic-striatal regions (amygdala, hippocampus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens) and the thickness of prefrontal regions (anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices) across both time points. Higher frequency of positive maternal behavior during the interactions predicted attenuated volumetric growth in the right amygdala, and accelerated cortical thinning in the right anterior cingulate (males only) and left and right orbitofrontal cortices, between baseline and follow up. These results have implications for understanding the biological mediators of risk and protective factors for mental disorders that have onset during adolescence.

  8. Positive parenting predicts the development of adolescent brain structure: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Whittle

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Little work has been conducted that examines the effects of positive environmental experiences on brain development to date. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the effects of positive (warm and supportive maternal behavior on structural brain development during adolescence, using longitudinal structural MRI. Participants were 188 (92 female adolescents, who were part of a longitudinal adolescent development study that involved mother–adolescent interactions and MRI scans at approximately 12 years old, and follow-up MRI scans approximately 4 years later. FreeSurfer software was used to estimate the volume of limbic-striatal regions (amygdala, hippocampus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens and the thickness of prefrontal regions (anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices across both time points. Higher frequency of positive maternal behavior during the interactions predicted attenuated volumetric growth in the right amygdala, and accelerated cortical thinning in the right anterior cingulate (males only and left and right orbitofrontal cortices, between baseline and follow up. These results have implications for understanding the biological mediators of risk and protective factors for mental disorders that have onset during adolescence.

  9. The Choice of Screening Instrument Matters: The Case of Problematic Cannabis Use Screening in Spanish Population of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Salvany, Antónia; Barrio Anta, Gregorio; Sánchez Mañez, Amparo; Llorens Aleixandre, Noelia; Brime Beteta, Begoña; Vicente, Julián

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of problem cannabis use screening instruments administration within wide school surveys, their psychometric properties, overlaps, and relationships with other variables. Students from 7 Spanish regions, aged 14–18, who attended secondary schools were sampled by two-stage cluster sampling (net sample 14,589). Standardized, anonymous questionnaire including DSM-IV cannabis abuse criteria, Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST), and Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) was self-completed with paper and pencil in the selected classrooms. Data was analysed using classical psychometric theory, bivariate tests, and multinomial logistic regression analysis. Not responding to instruments' items (10.5–12.3%) was associated with reporting less frequent cannabis use. The instruments overlapped partially, with 16.1% of positives being positive on all three. SDS was more likely to identify younger users with lower frequency of use who thought habitual cannabis use posed a considerable problem. CAST positivity was associated with frequent cannabis use and related problems. It is feasible to use short psychometric scales in wide school surveys, but one must carefully choose the screening instrument, as different instruments identify different groups of users. These may correspond to different types of problematic cannabis use; however, measurement bias seems to play a role too. PMID:25969832

  10. A comparison of the impact of screen-positive results obtained from ultrasound and biochemical screening for Down syndrome in the first trimester : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinans, M.J.; Kooij, L.; Muller, M.A.; Bilardo, K.M.; van Lith, J.M.; Tymstra, T.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the experiences of women who received a screen-positive test result for Down syndrome after nuchal translucency screening or after biochemical screening in the first trimester of pregnancy in the Netherlands. METHOD: Semi-quantitative questionnaires were sent to 40 women with a

  11. Socioeconomic position, macroeconomic environment and overweight among adolescents in 35 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Damsgaard, M Rasmussen, MT; Holstein, Bjørn;

    2009-01-01

    Objective It is important to understand levels and social inequalities in childhood overweight within and between countries. This study examined prevalence and social inequality in adolescent overweight in 35 countries, and associations with macroeconomic factors. Design International cross...... associated with prevalence and socioeconomic inequality in overweight among the 23-high income and 10-middle income countries, with a positive relationship among the high income countries and a negative association among the middle income countries. Conclusion The direction and magnitude of social inequality...... in adolescent overweight shows large international variation, with negative social gradients in most countries, but positive social gradients, especially for boys, in some Central European countries. Macroeconomic factors are associated with the heterogeneity in prevalence and social inequality of adolescent...

  12. To tweet, or not to tweet: gender differences and potential positive and negative health outcomes of adolescents' social internet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujazon-Zazik, Melissa; Park, M Jane

    2010-03-01

    Adolescents and young adults are avid Internet users. Online social media, such as social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace), blogs, status updating sites (e.g., Twitter) and chat rooms, have become integral parts of adolescents' and young adults' lives. Adolescents are even beginning to enter the world of online dating with several websites dedicated to "teenage online dating." This paper reviews recent peer-reviewed literature and national data on 1) adolescents use of online social media, 2) gender differences in online social media and 3) potential positive and negative health outcomes from adolescents' online social media use. We also examine parental monitoring of adolescents' online activities. Given that parental supervision is a key protective factor against adolescent risk-taking behavior, it is reasonable to hypothesize that unmonitored Internet use may place adolescents' at significant risk, such as cyberbullying, unwanted exposure to pornography, and potentially revealing personal information to sexual predators.

  13. Parental knowledge reduces long term anxiety induced by false-positive test results after newborn screening for cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij-van Langen, A.M.M.; Pal, S.M. van der; Reijntjens, A.J.T.; Loeber, J.G.; Dompeling, E.; Dankert-Roelse, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: False-positive screening results in newborn screening for cystic fibrosis may lead to parental stress, family relationship problems and a changed perception of the child's health. Aim of the study: To evaluate whether parental anxiety induced by a false positive screening result disappea

  14. Frequency of false positive amphetamine screens due to bupropion using the Syva EMIT II immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Erica R; Scott, Mitchell G; Tang, Schirin; Mullins, Michael E

    2011-06-01

    Bupropion is a commonly prescribed, monocyclic antidepressant often used as an aid for smoking cessation. Several case reports have described false positive amphetamine urine drug screens (UDS) associated with bupropion. We sought to determine whether false positive amphetamine UDS due to the use of bupropion would be a frequent occurrence. We conducted an IRB-approved, retrospective chart review of all emergency department patients who underwent UDS between 1 January 2006 and 31 July 2007. All urine samples were screened using Syva EMIT II Plus immunoassay reagents. All positive screens underwent confirmation by gas chromatography (GC). We reviewed the records of patients with positive amphetamine UDS. We documented prescription use of bupropion, other antidepressants, stimulants, antipsychotics, and anti-hypertensives. We recorded evidence of polysubstance abuse (PSA) as patients who had had a documented diagnosis or laboratory evidence of abuse of at least two substances (drugs or ethanol). Of 10,011 urine drug screens, 362 (3.6%) were positive for amphetamine. GC confirmed amphetamines in 234 (65%), but failed to confirm in 128 (35%). Among the 234 confirmed, records reflected use of bupropion in three (1.3%), other antidepressants in 38 (16%), antipsychotics in 17 (8%), and amphetamine in 50 (21%). Records indicated evidence of PSA in 55 (24%). Among the 128 which failed to confirm, records reflected prescription use of bupropion in 53 (41%). None whose drug screen failed to confirm had evidence of PSA. Therapeutic use of bupropion appears to be the most frequent cause of false positive urine drug screens for amphetamines in our population.

  15. BAP Position Statement: Off-label prescribing of psychotropic medication to children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aditya N; Arango, Celso; Coghill, David; Gringras, Paul; Nutt, David J; Pratt, Peter; Young, Allan H; Hollis, Chris

    2016-05-01

    The off-label use of medicines for children and adolescents remains a common and important issue for prescribing practice across child and adolescent psychiatry, paediatrics and primary care. This editorial focusses on psychotropic drug treatment, which plays an essential part in the comprehensive management of a range of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders. Despite a growing evidence base for drug treatment in child and adolescent psychiatric disorders, much psychotropic medication continues to be prescribed off-label (i.e. outside the limits of the marketing authorisation or product license). The reasons for and implications of off-label prescribing, including the potential clinical benefits/risks and medico-legal implications, are often poorly understood by both patients and prescribers. An important unintended consequence of the uncertainties and confusion surrounding the status of off-label prescribing for children and adolescents may be that effective drug treatments are being withheld or underused. This BAP Position Statement aims to clarify these issues, challenge some of the myths surrounding off-label prescribing for children and adolescents and offer practical guidance for prescribers.

  16. Screen media usage, sleep time and academic performance in adolescents: clustering a self-organizing maps analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiró-Velert, Carmen; Valencia-Peris, Alexandra; González, Luis M; García-Massó, Xavier; Serra-Añó, Pilar; Devís-Devís, José

    2014-01-01

    Screen media usage, sleep time and socio-demographic features are related to adolescents' academic performance, but interrelations are little explored. This paper describes these interrelations and behavioral profiles clustered in low and high academic performance. A nationally representative sample of 3,095 Spanish adolescents, aged 12 to 18, was surveyed on 15 variables linked to the purpose of the study. A Self-Organizing Maps analysis established non-linear interrelationships among these variables and identified behavior patterns in subsequent cluster analyses. Topological interrelationships established from the 15 emerging maps indicated that boys used more passive videogames and computers for playing than girls, who tended to use mobile phones to communicate with others. Adolescents with the highest academic performance were the youngest. They slept more and spent less time using sedentary screen media when compared to those with the lowest performance, and they also showed topological relationships with higher socioeconomic status adolescents. Cluster 1 grouped boys who spent more than 5.5 hours daily using sedentary screen media. Their academic performance was low and they slept an average of 8 hours daily. Cluster 2 gathered girls with an excellent academic performance, who slept nearly 9 hours per day, and devoted less time daily to sedentary screen media. Academic performance was directly related to sleep time and socioeconomic status, but inversely related to overall sedentary screen media usage. Profiles from the two clusters were strongly differentiated by gender, age, sedentary screen media usage, sleep time and academic achievement. Girls with the highest academic results had a medium socioeconomic status in Cluster 2. Findings may contribute to establishing recommendations about the timing and duration of screen media usage in adolescents and appropriate sleep time needed to successfully meet the demands of school academics and to improve

  17. Adolescent Diet and Time Use Clusters and Associations with Overweight and Obesity and Socioeconomic Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, Katia; Golley, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Risk factors for adolescent overweight and obesity include low levels of physical activity, high levels of sedentary behavior, low fruit and vegetable intake, and low socioeconomic position (SEP). To date, the vast majority of research investigating associations between lifestyle behaviors and weight status analyze dietary and time use factors…

  18. Trajectories of Positive and Negative Behaviors from Early- to Middle-Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin-Bizan, Selva; Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Fay, Kristen; Schmid, Kristina; McPherran, Caitlin; Lerner, Jacqueline V.; Lerner, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Although the positive youth development (PYD) model initially assumed inverse links between indicators of PYD and of risk/problem behaviors, empirical work in adolescence has suggested that more complex associations exist between trajectories of the two domains of functioning. To clarify the PYD model, this study assessed intraindividual change in…

  19. Adolescent Sexuality and Positive Well-Being: A Group-Norms Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrangalova, Zhana; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    2011-01-01

    The link between adolescent sexual activity and psychological well-being is a controversial issue in developmental psychology. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between three aspects of teenage sexuality (genital sexual experience, age of sexual onset, and number of sex partners) and positive well-being (hedonic, eudaimonic,…

  20. Social Media Use and Social Connectedness in Adolescents: The Positives and the Potential Pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kelly A.; Ryan, Tracii; Gray, DeLeon L.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Waters, Lea

    2014-01-01

    As social media use is rising among adolescents, the issue of whether this use leads to positive or negative outcomes warrants greater understanding. This article critically reviews the literature related to this important topic. Specifically, we examine how social media use affects social connectedness in terms of three elements of adolescent…

  1. Investigating the Relationship among Internet Addiction, Positive and Negative Affects, and Life Satisfaction in Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telef, Bülent Baki

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between Internet addiction and the areas of life satisfaction and positive or negative affects in Turkish adolescents. The research sample comprised 358 students studying in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades at four different middle schools in Canakkale city centre during the 2012-2013 academic year, of…

  2. Using weight-for-age percentiles to screen for overweight and obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamliel, Adir; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Siegel, Robert M; Fogelman, Yacov; Dubnov-Raz, Gal

    2015-12-01

    There are relatively low rates of screening for overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in primary care. A simplified method for such screening is needed. The study objective was to examine if weight-for-age percentiles are sufficiently sensitive in identifying overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. We used data from two distinct sources: four consecutive cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from the years 2005 to 2012, using participants aged 2-17.9 years for whom data on age, sex, weight, and height were available (n=12,884), and primary care clinic measurements (n=15,152). Primary outcomes were the threshold values of weight-for-age percentiles which best discriminated between normal weight, overweight, and obesity status. Receiver operating characteristic analyses demonstrated that weight-for-age percentiles well discriminated between normal weight and overweight and between non-obese and obese individuals (area under curve=0.956 and 0.977, respectively, both pobesity and overweight, respectively. These cutoffs had high sensitivity and negative predictive value in identifying obese participants (94.3% and 98.6%, respectively, for the 90th percentile) and in identifying overweight participants (93.2% and 95.9%, respectively, for the 75th percentile). The sensitivities and specificities were nearly identical across race and sex, and in the validation data from NHANES 2011 to 2012 and primary care. We conclude that weight-for-age percentiles can discriminate between normal weight, overweight and obese children, and adolescents. The 75th and 90th weight-for-age percentiles correspond well with the BMI cutoffs for pediatric overweight and obesity, respectively.

  3. Cervical Screening within HIV Care: Findings from an HIV-Positive Cohort in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Heather; Thorne, Claire; Semenenko, Igor; Malyuta, Ruslan; Tereschenko, Rostislav; Adeyanova, Irina; Kulakovskaya, Elena; Ostrovskaya, Lyudmila; Kvasha, Liliana; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Townsend, Claire L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction HIV-positive women have an increased risk of invasive cervical cancer but cytologic screening is effective in reducing incidence. Little is known about cervical screening coverage or the prevalence of abnormal cytology among HIV-positive women in Ukraine, which has the most severe HIV epidemic in Europe. Methods Poisson regression models were fitted to data from 1120 women enrolled at three sites of the Ukraine Cohort Study of HIV-infected Childbearing Women to investigate factors associated with receiving cervical screening as part of HIV care. All women had been diagnosed as HIV-positive before or during their most recent pregnancy. Prevalence of cervical abnormalities (high/low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions) among women who had been screened was estimated, and associated factors explored. Results Overall, 30% (337/1120) of women had received a cervical screening test as part of HIV care at study enrolment (median 10 months postpartum), a third (115/334) of whom had been tested >12 months previously. In adjusted analyses, women diagnosed as HIV-positive during (vs before) their most recent pregnancy were significantly less likely to have a screening test reported, on adjusting for other potential risk factors (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) 0.62, 95% CI 0.51–0.75 p<0.01 for 1st/2nd trimester diagnosis and APR 0.42, 95% CI 0.28–0.63 p<0.01 for 3rd trimester/intrapartum diagnosis). Among those with a cervical screening result reported at any time (including follow-up), 21% (68/325) had a finding of cervical abnormality. In adjusted analyses, Herpes simplex virus 2 seropositivity and a recent diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis were associated with an increased risk of abnormal cervical cytology (APR 1.83 95% CI 1.07–3.11 and APR 3.49 95% CI 2.11–5.76 respectively). Conclusions In this high risk population, cervical screening coverage as part of HIV care was low and could be improved by an organised cervical screening programme for HIV-positive

  4. Cervical screening within HIV care: findings from an HIV-positive cohort in Ukraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Bailey

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HIV-positive women have an increased risk of invasive cervical cancer but cytologic screening is effective in reducing incidence. Little is known about cervical screening coverage or the prevalence of abnormal cytology among HIV-positive women in Ukraine, which has the most severe HIV epidemic in Europe. METHODS: Poisson regression models were fitted to data from 1120 women enrolled at three sites of the Ukraine Cohort Study of HIV-infected Childbearing Women to investigate factors associated with receiving cervical screening as part of HIV care. All women had been diagnosed as HIV-positive before or during their most recent pregnancy. Prevalence of cervical abnormalities (high/low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions among women who had been screened was estimated, and associated factors explored. RESULTS: Overall, 30% (337/1120 of women had received a cervical screening test as part of HIV care at study enrolment (median 10 months postpartum, a third (115/334 of whom had been tested >12 months previously. In adjusted analyses, women diagnosed as HIV-positive during (vs before their most recent pregnancy were significantly less likely to have a screening test reported, on adjusting for other potential risk factors (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR 0.62, 95% CI 0.51-0.75 p<0.01 for 1(st/2(nd trimester diagnosis and APR 0.42, 95% CI 0.28-0.63 p<0.01 for 3(rd trimester/intrapartum diagnosis. Among those with a cervical screening result reported at any time (including follow-up, 21% (68/325 had a finding of cervical abnormality. In adjusted analyses, Herpes simplex virus 2 seropositivity and a recent diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis were associated with an increased risk of abnormal cervical cytology (APR 1.83 95% CI 1.07-3.11 and APR 3.49 95% CI 2.11-5.76 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this high risk population, cervical screening coverage as part of HIV care was low and could be improved by an organised cervical screening programme

  5. Consequences of a false-positive mammography result: drug consumption before and after screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Bæksted, Christina; Vejborg, Ilse; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-05-01

    Background Previous research showed women experiencing false-positive mammograms to have greater anxiety about breast cancer than women with normal mammograms. To elucidate psychological effects of false-positive mammograms, we studied impact on drug intake. Methods We calculated the ratio of drug use for women with false-positive versus women with normal mammograms, before and after the event, using population-based registers, 1997-2006. The ratio of the ratios (RRR) assessed the impact. Results Before the test, 40.3% of women from the false-positive group versus 36.2% from the normal group used anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs. There was no difference in use of beta blockers. Hormone therapy was used more frequently by the false-positive, 36.6% versus 28.7%. The proportion of women using anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs increased with 19% from the before to the after period in the false-positive group, and with 16% in the normal group, resulting in an RRR of 1.02 (95% CI 0.92-1.14). RRR was 1.03 for beta blockers, 0.97 for hormone therapy. Conclusion(s) Drugs used to mitigate mood disorders were used more frequently by women with false-positive than by women with normal mammograms already before the screening event, while the changes from before to after screening were similar for both groups. The results point to the importance of control for potential selection in studies of screening effects.

  6. Video game genre preference, physical activity and screen-time in adolescent boys from low-income communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Hayden T; Smith, Jordan J; Morgan, Philip J; Babic, Mark J; Lubans, David R

    2014-12-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between the types of video games played by adolescent boys and their participation in physical activity and recreational screen-time. Participants were 320 boys (mean age = 12.7, ±0.5 years) from 14 secondary schools located in low-income areas of New South Wales, Australia. Outcomes included height, weight, physical activity (accelerometers), total screen-time, and video game genre preference. Significant differences in both weekday and weekend screen-time were found between video game genre groups. In addition, significant differences in overall activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were found between genre groups on weekdays. Between-group differences in physical activity on weekends were not statistically significant. This cross-sectional study has demonstrated that video game genre preference is associated with physical activity and screen-time in adolescent boys from low-income communities.

  7. Doxylamine toxicity: seizure, rhabdomyolysis and false positive urine drug screen for methadone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Husnain; Som, Sumit; Khan, Nazia; Faltas, Wael

    2009-01-01

    The present report highlights the possible adverse effects of doxylamine, a common over the counter sleep aid. Doxylamine is an antihistamine that at toxic doses can cause anticholinergic effects, including seizures, rhabdomyolysis and death. The following case describes a patient with doxylamine toxicity who presented with seizure and confusion. Our patient was managed symptomatically, and remained otherwise stable throughout his hospitalisation. This case is atypical in terms of a delayed rhabdomyolysis and a false positive urine drug screen test for methadone. There is evidence that doxylamine at toxic levels can lead to false positives for methadone and phencyclidine testing using immunoassay-based urine drug screen kits. Urine drug screen testing on patients who are hospitalised is typically performed using immunoassays. However, in certain cases confirmatory secondary testing may be required. Doxylamine is prone to abuse and knowledge of the clinical presentation of its toxicity and the management of acute overdose can be life-saving.

  8. SELF-CONCEPT INDICATORS ON ADOLESCENTS: SELF-REPORT OF CONCERNS AND POSITIVE ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Aiming to analyze self-concept indicators among adolescents, 343 students from public and private schools in the city of São Paulo, aged 11 and 18, answered questions about concerns related to the school, general concerns and their most positive aspect. Overall, it was observed that they are skillful to indicate positive aspects of their behavior, with specific responses varying according to gender, age and type of school. Youths concerns are mostly related to the school environment...

  9. Frequency of False Positive Amphetamine Screens due to Bupropion Using the Syva Emit II Immunoassay

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Erica R; Scott, Mitchell G.; Tang, Schirin; Mullins, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Bupropion is a commonly prescribed, monocyclic antidepressant often used as an aid for smoking cessation. Several case reports have described false positive amphetamine urine drug screens (UDS) associated with bupropion. We sought to determine whether false positive amphetamine UDS due to the use of bupropion would be a frequent occurrence. We conducted an IRB-approved, retrospective chart review of all emergency department patients who underwent UDS between 1 January 2006 and 31 July 2007. A...

  10. Positive diagnostic values and histological detection ratios from the Rotterdam cervical cancer screening programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. Kreuger; H. Beerman (Henk); H.G. Nijs (Huub); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: In organized screening programmes for cervical cancer, pre-cancerous lesions are detected by cervical smears. However, during follow-up after a positive smear these pre-cancerous lesions are not always found. The purpose of the study is to analys

  11. Contribution of personal and environmental factors on positive psychological functioning in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Daniela; Scalas, L Francesca; Meleddu, Mauro

    2015-08-01

    This study examined self-esteem as mediator in the relations of personal (extraversion, neuroticism) and environmental (maternal, paternal, peer-relationships) variables with domains of positive psychological functioning (PPF) in adolescence (Satisfaction with life, Mastery, Vigor, Social Interest, Social Cheerfulness). We compared one-sided and multidimensional models using a sample of 1193 high school students (592 males and 601 females). We examined variations in adolescent PPF as a function of parenting styles via independent examination of maternal and paternal bonding. Results supported the multidimensional models, which indicated direct effects of personality traits, maternal care and peer relationships, as well as indirect effects, mediated by self-esteem, of all predictors on most PPF dimensions. Overall, our study provided a broader picture of personal and environmental predictors on different dimensions of PPF, which supported the mediating role of self-esteem and emphasized the importance of considering multidimensional models to characterize PPF in adolescents.

  12. Comparison of colorectal cancer screening and diagnoses in HIV-positive and HIV-negative veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, J L; Rentsch, C T; Rimland, D

    2014-01-01

    Non-AIDS defining malignancies, including colorectal cancer (CRC), are emerging as significant problems in HIV-infected people. Some data suggest that HIV-positive patients have higher incidence of CRC at younger ages than those who are HIV-negative. This investigation examined CRC rates and screening types and trends between 943 HIV-infected cases and their age, race, and gender matched HIV-negative controls (n = 943) from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2008 at the Atlanta VA Medical Center. The most common screening type among these patients was fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), but colonoscopies were more common in the controls (16.4% for cases, 27.5% for controls; p screening for CRC during the four years of follow-up even though average age was 55 years. Fifty-one percent of cases had at least one screening test during follow-up compared to 48% of the controls; 7.6% of the cases had a screening each of the four years compared to only 2.4% of the controls (p HIV-positive patients were diagnosed with CRC during the study period compared to no CRC diagnoses among controls (p = 0.0015), though there was no difference in the diagnosis of colon polyps (4.6% vs. 5.1%, p = 0.5911). These data also suggest a discrepancy in CRC incidence between race and age groups: 80% of HIV-positive cases diagnosed with CRC during the study were black and two were less than 50 years of age. Future studies will need to address whether different recommendations are needed for screening based on HIV status, younger age, or race.

  13. Willingness and acceptability of cervical cancer screening among HIV positive Nigerian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezechi Oliver C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proven benefit of integrating cervical cancer screening programme into HIV care has led to its adoption as a standard of care. However this is not operational in most HIV clinics in Nigeria. Of the various reasons given for non-implementation, none is backed by scientific evidence. This study was conducted to assess the willingness and acceptability of cervical cancer screening among HIV positive Nigerian women. Methods A cross sectional study of HIV positive women attending a large HIV treatment centre in Lagos, Nigeria. Respondents were identified using stratified sampling method. A pretested questionnaire was used to obtain information by trained research assistants. Obtained information were coded and managed using SPSS for windows version 19. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine independent predictor for acceptance of cervical cancer screening. Results Of the 1517 respondents that returned completed questionnaires, 853 (56.2% were aware of cervical cancer. Though previous cervical cancer screening was low at 9.4%, 79.8% (1210 accepted to take the test. Cost of the test (35.2% and religious denial (14.0% were the most common reasons given for refusal to take the test. After controlling for confounding variables in a multivariate logistic regression model, having a tertiary education (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.03-1.84, no living child (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.0, recent HIV diagnosis (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.0 and being aware of cervical cancer (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.2-2.0 retained independent association with acceptance to screen for cervical cancer. Conclusions The study shows that HIV positive women in our environment are willing to screen for cervical cancer and that the integration of reproductive health service into existing HIV programmes will strengthen rather than disrupt the services.

  14. Is the association between screen-based behaviour and health complaints among adolescents moderated by physical activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brindova, Daniela; Veselska, Zuzana Dankulincova; Klein, Daniel; Hamrik, Zdenek; Sigmundova, Dagmar; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the association between screen-based (SB) behaviour and selected health complaints in adolescents and whether physical activity (PA) moderates this association. METHODS: Data from the cross-sectional Health Behaviour of School-aged Children study colle

  15. Screen Time, How Much Is Too Much? The Social and Emotional Costs of Technology on the Adolescent Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeese, Katherine Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Screen time no longer means just the amount of time one spends in front of the television. Now it is an aggregate amount of time spent on smartphones, computers as well as multitasking with different devices. How much are the glowing rectangles taking away from adolescent social and emotional health? How is it changing how students learn and how…

  16. Cervical cancer screening adherence among HIV-positive female smokers from a comprehensive HIV clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Faith E; Vidrine, Damon J; Tami-Maury, Irene; Danysh, Heather E; King, Rachel Marks; Buchberg, Meredith; Arduino, Roberto C; Gritz, Ellen R

    2014-03-01

    HIV-positive women are at elevated risk for developing cervical cancer. While emerging research suggests that gynecologic health care is underutilized by HIV-positive women, factors associated with adherence to Pap testing, especially among HIV-positive female smokers are not well known. We utilized baseline data from a smoking cessation trial and electronic medical records to assess Pap smear screening prevalence and the associated characteristics among the HIV-positive female participants (n = 138). 46 % of the women had at least 1 Pap test in the year following study enrollment. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age, African American race, hazardous drinking, increased number of cigarettes smoked per day, and smoking risk perception were associated with non-adherence to Pap smear screening. Cervical cancer screening was severely underutilized by women in this study. Findings underscore the importance of identifying predictors of non-adherence and addressing multiple risk factors and behavioral patterns among HIV-positive women who smoke.

  17. Copy-number variation and false positive prenatal aneuploidy screening results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Matthew W; Simmons, LaVone E; Kitzman, Jacob O; Coe, Bradley P; Henson, Jessica M; Daza, Riza M; Eichler, Evan E; Shendure, Jay; Gammill, Hilary S

    2015-04-23

    Investigations of noninvasive prenatal screening for aneuploidy by analysis of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) have shown high sensitivity and specificity in both high-risk and low-risk cohorts. However, the overall low incidence of aneuploidy limits the positive predictive value of these tests. Currently, the causes of false positive results are poorly understood. We investigated four pregnancies with discordant prenatal test results and found in two cases that maternal duplications on chromosome 18 were the likely cause of the discordant results. Modeling based on population-level copy-number variation supports the possibility that some false positive results of noninvasive prenatal screening may be attributable to large maternal copy-number variants. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).

  18. Screening for personality disorder in incarcerated adolescent boys: preliminary validation of an adolescent version of the standardised assessment of personality – abbreviated scale (SAPAS-AV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongerslev Mickey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personality disorder (PD is associated with significant functional impairment and an elevated risk of violent and suicidal behaviour. The prevalence of PD in populations of young offenders is likely to be high. However, because the assessment of PD is time-consuming, it is not routinely assessed in this population. A brief screen for the identification of young people who might warrant further detailed assessment of PD could be particularly valuable for clinicians and researchers working in juvenile justice settings. Method We adapted a rapid screen for the identification of PD in adults (Standardised Assessment of Personality – Abbreviated Scale; SAPAS for use with adolescents and then carried out a study of the reliability and validity of the adapted instrument in a sample of 80 adolescent boys in secure institutions. Participants were administered the screen and shortly after an established diagnostic interview for DSM-IV PDs. Nine days later the screen was readministered. Results A score of 3 or more on the screening interview correctly identified the presence of DSM-IV PD in 86% of participants, yielding a sensitivity and specificity of 0.87 and 0.86 respectively. Internal consistency was modest but comparable to the original instrument. 9-days test-retest reliability for the total score was excellent. Convergent validity correlations with the total number of PD criteria were large. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence of the validity, reliability, and usefulness of the screen in secure institutions for adolescent male offenders. It can be used in juvenile offender institutions with limited resources, as a brief, acceptable, staff-administered routine screen to identify individuals in need of further assessment of PD or by researchers conducting epidemiological surveys.

  19. Positive Psychology and Disaster Mental Health: Strategies for Working with Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernberg, Eric M; Hambrick, Erin P; Cho, Bridget; Hendrickson, Michelle L

    2016-12-01

    Positive psychology concepts and principles can be incorporated into preparedness, crisis response, and recovery phases of disaster mental health efforts to address the needs of children, adolescents, and families. This article articulates general developmental considerations for applying positive psychology in disaster mental health contexts and discusses how 5 essential elements of immediate and midterm mass trauma intervention identified by Hobfoll et al. (2007) may be infused in applications of positive psychology for children and adolescents. Specific strategies for working with children, adolescents, and their families in home, community, and school contexts are drawn in part from disaster mental health resources developed jointly by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network and National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, including the Psychological First Aid Field Operations Guide (Brymer et al., 2006), the Skills for Psychological Recovery Field Operations Guide (Berkowitz et al., 2010), and the Psychological First Aid for Schools Field Operations Manual (Brymer et al., 2012). Two case examples illustrate the use of positive psychology principles.

  20. Pregnancy screening of adolescents and women before radiologic testing: does radiology need a national guideline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Kimberly

    2007-08-01

    Ionizing radiation has known teratogenic and cancer risks to fetuses. Policies for radiation exposure of pregnant patients during imaging tests in radiology departments vary widely and may or may not be in fully written form. No national guideline exists for how individual radiologists or radiology departments should protect fetuses from ionizing radiation exposure. With the rapid increase in the use of radiologic testing in general, particularly computed tomography, more adolescents and women undergo computed tomographic imaging and may unintentionally expose their fetuses. A national discussion within radiology organizations is needed to understand the advantages and disadvantages in the development of a national guideline for screening women of childbearing age for pregnancy before any procedures using ionizing radiation are performed. Given the increased public concern and increased use of radiologic testing, such a national guideline would improve consumer satisfaction and safety.

  1. Accuracy study of the main screening tools for temporomandibular disorder in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santis, Tatiana Oliveira; Motta, Lara Jansiski; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; de Godoy, Camila Haddad Leal; Alfaya, Thays Almeida; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the degree of sensitivity and specificity of the screening questionnaire recommended by the American Academy of Orofacial Pain (AAOP) and the patient-history index proposed by Helkimo (modified by Fonseca) and correlate the findings with a clinical exam. All participants answered the questionnaires and were submitted to a clinical exam by a dentist who had undergone calibration training. Both the AAOP questionnaire and Helkimo index achieved low degrees of sensitivity for the detection of temporomandibular disorder (TMD), but exhibited a high degree of specificity. With regard to concordance, the AAOP questionnaire and Helkimo index both achieved low levels of agreement with the clinical exam. The different instruments available in the literature for the assessment of TMD and examined herein exhibit low sensitivity and high specificity when administered to children and adolescents stemming from difficulties in comprehension due to the age group studied and the language used in the self-explanatory questions.

  2. False-positive interferences of common urine drug screen immunoassays: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitman, Alec; Park, Hyung-Doo; Fitzgerald, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    Urine drug screen (UDS) immunoassays are a quick and inexpensive method for determining the presence of drugs of abuse. Many cross-reactivities exist with other analytes, potentially causing a false-positive result in an initial drug screen. Knowledge of these potential interferents is important in determining a course of action for patient care. We present an inclusive review of analytes causing false-positive interferences with drugs-of-abuse UDS immunoassays, which covers the literature from the year 2000 to present. English language articles were searched via the SciFinder platform with the strings 'false positive [drug] urine' yielding 173 articles. These articles were then carefully analyzed and condensed to 62 that included data on causes of false-positive results. The discussion is separated into six sections by drug class with a corresponding table of cross-reacting compounds for quick reference. False-positive results were described for amphetamines, opiates, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, tricyclic antidepressants, phencyclidine, lysergic acid diethylamide and barbiturates. These false-positive results support the generally accepted practice that immunoassay positive results are considered presumptive until confirmed by a second independent chemical technique.

  3. A Cross-sectional Investigation of Cancer-Screening Intentions, Sources of Information, and Understanding of Cancer in Japanese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisaki, Koshu; Ueda, Seiji; Ueji, Masaru; Monobe, Hirofumi; Yako-Suketomo, Hiroko; Eto, Takashi; Watanabe, Masaki; Mori, Ryoichi

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the cancer-screening intention, sources of cancer information, and cancer understanding among Japanese adolescents. A cross-sectional nationwide survey involving a self-administered questionnaire was conducted. Response rates of the target schools were 46.4 % (n = 103) for junior high schools and 55.8 % (n = 116) for high schools. From these, we analyzed the data of 2960 junior high school students (1520 males, 1440 females) and 3703 high school students (1546 males, 2157 females) to examine the association between cancer-screening intention and sources of cancer-related information and understanding. A significant association between cancer-screening intention and sources of cancer information and cancer understanding was observed. The screening intention group identified more sources of cancer information than the no-screening intention group did. Understanding about cancer was reported by a higher proportion of students in the screening intention group compared with the no-screening intention group. Recognition that healthy people must take part in cancer screening was significantly associated with screening intention in both junior high (odds ratio (OR), 1.859; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.582-2.185; P source of cancer-related information, although the association was not significant. The present survey indicated that those in of our sample who intended to undergo future cancer screening (67.8 %) had more sources of information and understanding regarding cancer. Thus, schools should enrich health education curricula with more information and understanding about cancer to promote cancer-screening intention among Japanese adolescents.

  4. Examination of adolescents' screen time and physical fitness as independent correlates of weight status and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich-French, Sarah C; Power, Thomas G; Daratha, Kenn B; Bindler, Ruth C; Steele, Michael M

    2010-09-01

    Physical fitness performance is an important health correlate yet is often unrelated to sedentary behaviour in early adolescence. In this study, we examined the association of sedentary behaviour (i.e. screen time) with weight-related health markers and blood pressure, after controlling for cardiorespiratory fitness performance. American middle school students (N = 153, 56% females) aged 11-15 years (mean 12.6 years, s = 0.5) completed assessments of cardiorespiratory fitness performance, screen time, weight status (BMI percentile, waist-to-height ratio), and blood pressure. Multivariate analysis of covariance, controlling for cardiorespiratory fitness performance, found those who met the daily recommendation of 2 h or less of screen time (n = 36, 23.5%) had significantly lower BMI (p fitness and sedentary behaviours to maximize early adolescent health because these behaviours are likely to have unique and independent effects on youth health markers.

  5. Modelling the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Rebecca A; Miglioretti, Diana L; Smith, Robert A

    2010-10-01

    The goal of a screening test is to reduce morbidity and mortality through the early detection of disease; but the benefits of screening must be weighed against potential harms, such as false-positive (FP) results, which may lead to increased healthcare costs, patient anxiety, and other adverse outcomes associated with diagnostic follow-up procedures. Accurate estimation of the cumulative risk of an FP test after multiple screening rounds is important for program evaluation and goal setting, as well as informing individuals undergoing screening what they should expect from testing over time. Estimation of the cumulative FP risk is complicated by the existence of censoring and possible dependence of the censoring time on the event history. Current statistical methods for estimating the cumulative FP risk from censored data follow two distinct approaches, either conditioning on the number of screening tests observed or marginalizing over this random variable. We review these current methods, identify their limitations and possibly unrealistic assumptions, and propose simple extensions to address some of these limitations. We discuss areas where additional extensions may be useful. We illustrate methods for estimating the cumulative FP recall risk of screening mammography and investigate the appropriateness of modelling assumptions using 13 years of data collected by the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC). In the BCSC data we found evidence of violations of modelling assumptions of both classes of statistical methods. The estimated risk of an FP recall after 10 screening mammograms varied between 58% and 77% depending on the approach used, with an estimate of 63% based on what we feel are the most reasonable modelling assumptions.

  6. Profiles of problematic behaviors across adolescence: covariations with indicators of positive youth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeit, Miriam R; Johnson, Sara K; Champine, Robey B; Greenman, Kathleen N; Lerner, Jacqueline V; Lerner, Richard M

    2014-06-01

    Previous analyses of data from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development (PYD) have examined concurrent trajectories of positive development and risk/problem behaviors among adolescents, finding complex and not necessarily inverse relationships among them. In this article, we expand on prior research by employing a person-centered approach to modeling risk behaviors, assessing development from approximately 6th grade through 12th grade among 4,391 adolescents (59.9% female). Latent profiles involving the problematic behaviors of delinquency, depressive symptoms, substance use, sexual activity, disordered eating behaviors, and bullying were then assessed for concurrent relationships with the Five Cs of PYD: Competence, Confidence, Character, Caring, and Connection. We found six latent profiles, based primarily on mental health, aggression, and alcohol use, with significant differences in Confidence levels among many of the profiles, as well as some differences in the four other Cs. We discuss directions for future research and implications for application to youth policies and programs.

  7. False-positive methadone urine drug screen in a patient treated with quetiapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasić, Davor; Uglesić, Boran; Zuljan-Cvitanović, Marija; Supe-Domić, Daniela; Uglesić, Lovro

    2012-06-01

    We present a case of T.M. admitted to University Department of Psychiatry, Split University Hospital Center, in Croatia, because of the acute psychotic reaction (F23.9). The patient's urine tested positive for methadone without a history of methadone ingestion. Urine drug screen was performed with the COBAS Integra Methadone II test kit (kinetic interaction of microparticles in solution /KIMS/ methodology) by Roche. Drugs that have been shown to cross-react with methadone feature a tricyclic structure with a sulfur and nitrogen atom in the middle ring, which is common for both quetiapine and methadone. Therefore, it is plausible that this structural similarity between quetiapine and methadone could underlie the cross-reactivity on methadone drug screen. Besides quetiapine, a number of routinely prescribed medications have been associated with triggering false-positive urine drug screen results. Verification of the test results with a different screening test or additional analytical tests should be performed to avoid adverse consequences for the patients.

  8. Prevalence of depression and validation of the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the Children's Depression Inventory-Short amongst HIV-positive adolescents in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria H Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a remarkable dearth of evidence on mental illness in adolescents living with HIV/AIDS, particularly in the African setting. Furthermore, there are few studies in sub-Saharan Africa validating the psychometric properties of diagnostic and screening tools for depression amongst adolescents. The primary aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of depression amongst a sample of HIV-positive adolescents in Malawi. The secondary aim was to develop culturally adapted Chichewa versions of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II and Children's Depression Inventory-II-Short (CDI-II-S and conduct a psychometric evaluation of these measures by evaluating their performance against a structured depression assessment using the Children's Rating Scale, Revised (CDRS-R. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: We enrolled 562 adolescents, 12–18 years of age from two large public HIV clinics in central and southern Malawi. Participants completed two self-reports, the BDI-II and CDI-II-S, followed by administration of the CDRS-R by trained clinicians. Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values for various BDI-II and CDI-II-S cut-off scores were calculated with receiver operating characteristics analysis. The area under the curve (AUC was also calculated. Internal consistency was measured by standardized Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and correlation between self-reports and CDRS-R by Spearman's correlation. Results: Prevalence of depression as measured by the CDRS-R was 18.9%. Suicidal ideation was expressed by 7.1% (40 using the BDI-II. The AUC for the BDI-II was 0.82 (95% CI 0.78–0.89 and for the CDI-II-S was 0.75 (95% CI 0.70–0.80. A score of ≥13 in BDI-II achieved sensitivity of >80%, and a score of ≥17 had a specificity of >80%. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.80 (BDI-II and 0.66 (CDI-II-S. The correlation between the BDI-II and CDRS-R was 0.42 (p<0.001 and between the CDI

  9. When Parents' Affection Depends on Child's Achievement: Parental Conditional Positive Regard, Self-Aggrandizement, Shame and Coping in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assor, Avi; Tal, Karen

    2012-01-01

    We examined the idea that adolescents' perceptions of their mothers as using parental conditional positive regard (PCPR) to promote academic achievement are associated with maladaptive self feelings and coping. A study of 153 adolescents supported the hypothesis that PCPR predicts self-aggrandizement following success and self devaluation and…

  10. The Mediation Effect of School Satisfaction in the Relationship between Teacher Support, Positive Affect and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telef, Bülent Baki; Arslan, Gökmen; Mert, Abdullah; Kalafat, Sezai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationships among teacher support, positive emotions, school satisfaction and life satisfaction in adolescences. The study had the participation of 344 adolescents from different socio-economic levels studying in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades of three public middle schools in the province of…

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in a Non-Clinical Sample of Children and Adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Arwa; El Keshky, Mogeda; Hadwin, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    This paper examined the reliability, convergent validity and factor structure of the self-report Screen for Child Anxiety Disorders (SCARED; Birmaher et al. in J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:545-553, 1997) in a large community sample of children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire showed moderate to high internal consistency and satisfactory test-retest reliability over a 2 week period. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between reported anxiety symptoms with parent report behavioural difficulties. The five factor structure model of the SCARED also had a good model fit in this population. The results showed that self-report anxiety symptoms decreased with age (for boys and not girls) and were higher in adolescent girls. The results suggest that the SCARED could be useful in this population to identify individuals who are at risk of developing anxiety disorders in childhood with a view to implementing prevention and intervention methods to ensure positive developmental outcome over time.

  12. Health inequality in adolescence. Does stratification occur by familial social background, family affluence, or personal social position?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Rimpelä

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two new sets of stratification indicators – family's material affluence and adolescent's personal social position- were compared with traditional indicators of familial social position based on parental occupation and education for their ability to detect health inequality among adolescents. Methods Survey data were collected in the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey in 2003 from nationally representative samples of 12-, 14- and 16-year-old Finns (number of respondents 5394, response rate 71%. Indicators of the familial social position were father's socio-economic status, parents' education, parents' labour market position. Indicators of material affluence were number of cars, vacation travels, and computers in the family, own room and amount of weekly spending money. Adolescent's personal social position was measured as school performance. Measures of health were long-standing illness, overweight, use of mental health services, poor self-rated health and number of weekly health complaints. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was applied to study the associations between stratification indicators and health variables. Results All three groups of indicators of social stratification showed inequality in health, but the strongest associations were observed with the adolescent's personal social position. Health inequality was only partly identifiable by the traditional indicators of familial social position. The direction of the inequality was as expected when using the traditional indicators or personal social position: adolescents from higher social positions were healthier than those from lower positions. The indicators of family's material affluence showed mainly weak or no association with health and some of the indicators were inversely associated, although weakly. Conclusion In addition to traditional indicators describing the socio-structural influences on the distribution of health among adolescents, indicators of

  13. Investigating the Relationship among Internet Addiction, Positive and Negative Affects, and Life Satisfaction in Turkish Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Telef, Bülent Baki

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between Internet addiction and the areas of life satisfaction and positive or negative affects in Turkish adolescents. The research sample comprised 358 students studying in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades at four different middle schools in Canakkale city centre during the 2012–2013 academic year, of which 189 (52.8%) were females and 169 (48.2%) were males. Of the participants, 131 (37%) were sixth graders, 90 (25%) were seventh graders and 137...

  14. Positive drug screen for benzodiazepine due to a chinese herbal product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eachus, P L

    1996-04-01

    A female athlete tested positive for benzodiazepine on a random drug screen. She denied taking any illicit or prescription drugs. The positive screen was found to be caused by undeclared addiction of diazepam to a Chinese herbal product, "Miracle Herb." Some foreign vitamins, health care products, or herbal tea may contain banned or dangerous additives unknown to the consumer. These additives may include ingredients such as benzodiazepine, mefenamic acid, or corticosteroids. Possible physical harm may result when using products containing these undeclared additives. Team physicians and athletic trainers should educate athletes about the purchase and use of vitamins, herbal teas, and substances that are perceived to be performance-enhancing products, especially those manufactured outside the United States.

  15. Adolescents' recognition of potential positive and negative outcomes in risky dating situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Sarah W; Sullivan, Terri N; Corona, Rosalie; Taylor, Katherine A

    2013-10-01

    Risky adolescent behavior represents a significant public health concern, with potential detrimental consequences for youth and society in general. Problem behavior theory suggests that engaging in one type of problem behavior increases the likelihood of other problem behaviors. As a result, understanding how youth perceive common dating risk situations that may place them at risk not only for dating violence but also for a variety of other problem behaviors could inform prevention programming. Using qualitative interviews with 43 urban, predominantly African American adolescents, we assessed risk perceptions via youths' identification of potential positive and negative outcomes associated with dating situations that may place teens at risk for negative outcomes including violence and risk behaviors. Six themes each of potential positive and negative outcomes emerged, including positive themes related to interpersonal skills, relationship connections, having fun, and improving image, and negative themes related to victimization, control, jealousy, conflict, consequences, and reputation. This research has important implications for youth prevention programs, especially those focused on helping adolescents develop healthy relationships.

  16. Total spine and posterior fossa MRI screening in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (177 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Etemadifar

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: MRI screening for idiopathic scoliosis is controversial. Considering our clinical experiences, the results of MRI in all patients with idiopathic scoliosis were evaluated. Methods: In a prospective clinical study, all neurologically normal patients with idiopathic scoliosis screened by posterior fossa and total spine MRI. Results: After excluding 9 patients for mild neurological findings, in other 177 patients (132 female, 45 male, the average age and curve angle was 15±2 years and 59±17º (30 to 135º, respectively. Convexity was to right in 146 and to left in 31 cases. MRI was positive in 12 cases (6.8%. In 5 cases (2.8%, neurosurgical intervention was necessary prior to scoliosis surgery. There was no relation between age, sex, presence of pain or curve angle and positive MRI findings (P>0.05. Left convexity was significantly related to positive MRI findings (P=0.013. In males with left convex curves, the probability of positive MRI findings was 8.8 folds other patients. Conclusion: Considering our results and other reported articles, it seems that routine MRI screening of all patients presenting as idiopathic scoliosis is necessary for detection of underlying pathologies. Key words: Idiopathic Scoliosis, MRI, Spine Syrinx, Chiari

  17. The effects of positive and negative parenting practices on adolescent mental health outcomes in a multicultural sample of rural youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Bacallao, Martica L; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R

    2015-06-01

    The quality of parent-child relationships has a significant impact on adolescent developmental outcomes, especially mental health. Given the lack of research on rural adolescent mental health in general and rural parent-child relationships in particular, the current longitudinal study explores how rural adolescents' (N = 2,617) perceptions of parenting practices effect their mental health (i.e., anxiety, depression, aggression, self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction) over a 1 year period. Regression models showed that current parenting practices (i.e., in Year 2) were strongly associated with current adolescent mental health outcomes. Negative current parenting, manifesting in parent-adolescent conflict, was related to higher adolescent anxiety, depression, and aggression and lower self-esteem, and school satisfaction. Past parent-adolescent conflict (i.e., in Year 1) also positively predicted adolescent aggression in the present. Current positive parenting (i.e., parent support, parent-child future orientation, and parent education support) was significantly associated with less depression and higher self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction. Past parent education support was also related to current adolescent future optimism. Implications for practice and limitations were discussed.

  18. Validation of cervical cancer screening methods in HIV positive women from Johannesburg South Africa.

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    Cynthia Firnhaber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-infected women are at increased risk for developing cervical cancer. Women living in resource-limited countries are especially at risk due to poor access to cervical cancer screening and treatment. We evaluated three cervical cancer screening methods to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and above (CIN 2+ in HIV-infected women in South Africa; Pap smear, visual inspection with 5% acetic acid (VIA and human papillomavirus detection (HPV. METHODS: HIV-infected women aged 18-65 were recruited in Johannesburg. A cross-sectional study evaluating three screening methods for the detection of the histologically-defined gold standard CIN-2 + was performed. Women were screened for cervical abnormalities with the Digene HC2 assay (HPV, Pap smear and VIA. VIA was performed by clinic nurses, digital photographs taken and then later reviewed by specialist physicians. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive valves for CIN-2 + were calculated using maximum likelihood estimators. RESULTS: 1,202 HIV-infected women participated, with a median age of 38 years and CD4 counts of 394 cells/mm(3. One third of women had a high grade lesion on cytology. VIA and HPV were positive in 45% and 61% of women respectively. Estimated sensitivity/specificity for HPV, Pap smear and VIA for CIN 2+ was 92%/51.4%, 75.8%/83.4% and 65.4/68.5% (nurse reading, respectively. Sensitivities were similar, and specificities appeared significantly lower for the HPV test, cytology and VIA among women with CD4 counts ≤200 cells/mm(3 as compared to CD4 counts >350 cells/mm(3. CONCLUSIONS: Although HPV was the most sensitive screening method for detecting CIN 2+, it was less specific than conventional cytology and VIA with digital imaging review. Screening programs may need to be individualized in context of the resources and capacity in each area.

  19. Improvement in screening for sexually transmitted infections in HIV-positive patients following implementation of a nurse-led clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn, E; Barrett, S; Kelsey, J; Lockyer, S; Welz, T; Poulton, M

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess changes in the uptake of sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening resulting from implementation of a specific STI clinic for HIV-positive patients. An audit of STI screening in HIV-positive patients was undertaken before and after the establishment of the clinic. Significant increases in the number of patients having a sexual health discussion and annual health screen were seen. High rates of positive results were found in all patient groups. National guidelines recommend regular STI screening for all HIV-positive patients. A specific clinic for HIV-positive patients is feasible and acceptable and may result in an increase in uptake of STI screening.

  20. Positive youth development among African American adolescents: examining single parents as a factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Shani R; Lewis, Rhonda K; Carmack, Chakema

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few decades researchers have begun to examine the importance of understanding positive youth development and the many contexts in which youth find themselves. The social contexts in which adolescent development occurs are varied and complex, particularly the development among African American youth. African American youth are faced with a number of challenges including living in single-parent homes, high teen pregnancy rates, and poor neighborhoods, yet many of these youth continue to thrive. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between family structure (single-parenting) and adolescent outcomes such as educational aspirations and sexual activity among African American adolescent youth aged 12-17. Approximately 462 African American youth were surveyed. A number of positive results emerged; for instance, there was a negative correlation between family structure and educational aspirations. The number of parents in the home did not interfere with youth wanting to complete high school and go on to college (r = - .218, r² = .04, p < .05). The results also showed that as educational aspirations increased, the number of sexual partners decreased (r = - .141, meaning that the more adolescents reported a desire to complete high school, they were less likely to report having sexual intercourse. These positive results should be promoted among African American youth so that those faced with these challenges will note that others have overcome and accomplished their goals. In this population educational aspirations were important. Limitations and future research are discussed.

  1. Vitamin D in Health and Disease in Adolescents: When to Screen, Whom to Treat, and How to Treat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Neville H; Carey, Dennis E

    2016-01-01

    The existing guidelines on screening and treatment are confusing because different guidelines target different populations. The IOM and AAP guidelines target generally healthy populations, whereas the Endocrine Society and other subspecialty guidelines target individuals with specific medical conditions associated with increased bone fragility. These distinctions have not always been well articulated. For healthy adolescents, the AAP does not recommend universal screening or screening of obese or dark-skinned individuals. Increased dietary intake of vitamin D is recommended, and vitamin D supplementation can be considered if the RDA cannot be met. For adolescents with chronic medical illnesses associated with increased fracture risk, screening for vitamin D deficiency should be performed by obtaining a serum 25-OHD level. Those found to be deficient (25-OHD level vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 higher than the daily requirement (as discussed in the section on vitamin D and chronic disease), followed by a maintenance dose. A repeat 25-OHD level should be obtained after the therapeutic course is completed. Some experts advocate for achievement of 25-OHD levels greater than 30 ng/mL in conditions associated with increased bone fragility, and several pediatric subspecialty organizations have made recommendations specific to the diseases they treat. In such instances, the recommendations of the pediatric subspecialty organizations should take precedence over the AAP recommendations for adolescents with chronic illnesses associated with increased bone fragility because the AAP recommendations were primarily targeted at a healthy population.

  2. Recommendations for promoting the health and well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adolescents: a position paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Adolescent health care providers frequently care for patients who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered (LGBT), or who may be struggling with or questioning their sexual orientation or gender identity. Whereas these youth have the same health concerns as their non-LGBT peers, LGBT teens may face additional challenges because of the complexity of the coming-out process, as well as societal discrimination and bias against sexual and gender minorities. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine encourages adolescent providers and researchers to incorporate the impact of these developmental processes (and understand the impacts of concurrent potential discrimination) when caring for LGBT adolescents. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine also encourages providers to help positively influence policy related to LGBT adolescents in schools, the foster care system, and the juvenile justice system, and within the family structure. Consistent with other medical organizations, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine rejects the mistaken notion that LGBT orientations are mental disorders, and opposes the use of any type of reparative therapy for LGBT adolescents.

  3. Case Reports of Aripiprazole Causing False-Positive Urine Amphetamine Drug Screens in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Justin; Shah, Pooja; Faley, Brian; Siegel, Mark E

    2015-12-01

    Urine drug screens (UDSs) are used to identify the presence of certain medications. One limitation of UDSs is the potential for false-positive results caused by cross-reactivity with other substances. Amphetamines have an extensive list of cross-reacting medications. The literature contains reports of false-positive amphetamine UDSs with multiple antidepressants and antipsychotics. We present 2 cases of presumed false-positive UDSs for amphetamines after ingestion of aripiprazole. Case 1 was a 16-month-old girl who accidently ingested 15 to 45 mg of aripiprazole. She was lethargic and ataxic at home with 1 episode of vomiting containing no identifiable tablets. She remained sluggish with periods of irritability and was admitted for observation. UDS on 2 consecutive days came back positive for amphetamines. Case 2 was of a 20-month-old girl who was brought into the hospital after accidental ingestion of an unknown quantity of her father's medications which included aripiprazole. UDS on the first day of admission came back positive only for amphetamines. Confirmatory testing with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) on the blood and urine samples were also performed for both patients on presentation to detect amphetamines and were subsequently negative. Both patients returned to baseline and were discharged from the hospital. To our knowledge, these cases represent the first reports of false-positive amphetamine urine drug tests with aripiprazole. In both cases, aripiprazole was the drug with the highest likelihood of causing the positive amphetamine screen. The implications of these false-positives include the possibility of unnecessary treatment and monitoring of patients.

  4. Effect of upright position on tonsillar level in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ryan K.L.; Leung, Joyce H.Y.; Chu, Winnie C.W. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, Shatin (China); Griffith, James F. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, Shatin (China); The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Shatin, Hong Kong, SAR (China); Lam, T.P.; Ng, Bobby K.W.; Cheng, Jack C.Y. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Shatin (China)

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an upright position on cerebellar tonsillar level in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Twenty-five patients with clinically diagnosed AIS and 18 normal controls were examined in both supine and upright positions using 0.25T MRI. The position of the inferior cerebellar tonsil tip relative to a reference line connecting the basion to the opisthion (BO line) was measured in millimetres. None of the 18 normal control subjects had cerebellar tonsillar descent below the BO line in either supine or the upright position. Forty-eight percent of AIS patients had tonsillar descent in the upright position, compared to 28 % in the supine position. In the upright position, cerebellar tonsillar position was lower in AIS patients than in normal subjects (mean -0.7 ± 1.5 vs. +2.1 ± 1.7, p < 0.00001). AIS patients also had a large degree of tonsillar excursion between upright and supine positions compared to normal subjects (mean -1.9 ± 2.3 vs. -0.1 ± 0.2, p < 0.00001). When considering the theoretical likelihood that a low tonsillar position may affect spinal cord function, one should bear in mind that tonsillar descent in AIS is significantly greater in the upright position. (orig.)

  5. Can scapular and humeral head position predict shoulder pain in adolescent swimmers and non-swimmers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Leanda; Straker, Leon; Smith, Anne

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether scapular and humeral head position can predict the development of shoulder pain in swimmers, whether those predictors were applicable to non-swimmers and the annual rate of shoulder pain in adolescent swimmers and non-swimmers. Forty-six adolescent swimmers and 43 adolescent non-swimmers were examined prospectively with a questionnaire and anthropometric measures. The questionnaire examined demographic and training variables. Anthropometric measures examined the distances between the T7 spinous process and the inferior scapula (Inferior Kibler) and T3 spinous process and the medial spine of the scapula (Superior Kibler), humeral head position in relation to the acromion using palpation, BMI and chest width. Shoulder pain was re-assessed 12 months later by questionnaire. Shoulder pain in swimmers was best predicted by a larger BMI (OR = 1.48, P = 0.049), a smaller Inferior Kibler distance in abduction (e.g. OR = 0.90, P = 0.009) and a smaller horizontal distance between the anterior humeral head and the anterior acromion (OR = 0.76, P = 0.035). These variables were not significantly predictive of shoulder pain in non-swimmers. Annual prevalence of shoulder pain was 23.9% in swimmers and 30.8% in non-swimmers (χ(2) = 0.50, P = 0.478).

  6. Impact of Cell-Free Fetal DNA Screening on Patients’ Choice of Invasive Procedures after a Positive California Prenatal Screen Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forum T. Shah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, maternal serum analyte levels paired with sonographic fetal nuchal translucency measurement was the most accurate prenatal screen available for Trisomies 18 and 21, (91% and 94% detection and false positive rates of 0.31% and 4.5% respectively. Women with positive California Prenatal Screening Program (CPSP results have the option of diagnostic testing to determine definitively if the fetus has a chromosomal abnormality. Cell-free fetal (cff- DNA screening for Trisomies 13, 18, and 21 was first offered in 2012, allowing women with positive screens to choose additional screening before diagnostic testing. Cff-DNA sensitivity rates are as high as 99.9% and 99.1%, with false positive rates of 0.4% and 0.1%, for Trisomies 18 and 21, respectively. A retrospective chart review was performed in 2012 on 500 CPSP referrals at the University of California, San Diego Thornton Hospital. Data were collected prior to and after the introduction of cff-DNA. There was a significant increase in the number of participants who chose to pursue additional testing and a decrease in the number of invasive procedures performed after cff-DNA screening was available. We conclude that as fetal aneuploidy screening improves, the number of invasive procedures will continue to decrease.

  7. Patterns of Socioeconomic Inequality in Adolescent Health Differ According to the Measure of Socioeconomic Position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgar, Frank J.; McKinnon, Britt; Torsheim, Torbjorn

    2016-01-01

    in adolescents and their implications for health surveillance and policy. We examined health inequalities in 1371 adolescents in seven European countries using four measures of SEP: youth-reported material assets and subjective social status and parent-reported material assets and household income. For each SEP...... variable. Moreover, health inequalities defined by subjective social status did not change after differences in assets and income were statistically controlled. Although material assets yielded similar health inequalities as household income, the results suggest that subjective and objective SEP relate......Socioeconomic differences in health are ubiquitous across age groups, cultures, and health domains. However, variation in the size and pattern of health inequalities appears to relate to the measure of socioeconomic position (SEP) applied. Little attention has been paid to these differences...

  8. A positive detecting code and its decoding algorithm for DNA library screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Hiroaki; Jimbo, Masakazu

    2009-01-01

    The study of gene functions requires high-quality DNA libraries. However, a large number of tests and screenings are necessary for compiling such libraries. We describe an algorithm for extracting as much information as possible from pooling experiments for library screening. Collections of clones are called pools, and a pooling experiment is a group test for detecting all positive clones. The probability of positiveness for each clone is estimated according to the outcomes of the pooling experiments. Clones with high chance of positiveness are subjected to confirmatory testing. In this paper, we introduce a new positive clone detecting algorithm, called the Bayesian network pool result decoder (BNPD). The performance of BNPD is compared, by simulation, with that of the Markov chain pool result decoder (MCPD) proposed by Knill et al. in 1996. Moreover, the combinatorial properties of pooling designs suitable for the proposed algorithm are discussed in conjunction with combinatorial designs and d-disjunct matrices. We also show the advantage of utilizing packing designs or BIB designs for the BNPD algorithm.

  9. PAS-positive lymphocyte vacuoles can be used as diagnostic screening test for Pompe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemans, Marloes L C; Stigter, Rolinda L; van Capelle, Carine I; van der Beek, Nadine A M E; Winkel, Leon P F; van Vliet, Laura; Hop, Wim C J; Reuser, Arnold J J; Beishuizen, Auke; van der Ploeg, Ans T

    2010-04-01

    Screening of blood films for the presence of periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive lymphocyte vacuoles is sometimes used to support the diagnosis of Pompe disease, but the actual diagnostic value is still unknown. We collected peripheral blood films from 65 untreated Pompe patients and 51 controls. Lymphocyte vacuolization was quantified using three methods: percentage vacuolated lymphocytes, percentage PAS-positive lymphocytes, and a PAS score depending on staining intensity. Diagnostic accuracy of the tests was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. All three methods fully discerned classic infantile patients from controls. The mean values of patients with milder forms of Pompe disease were significantly higher than those of controls, but full separation was not obtained. The area under the ROC curve was 0.98 for the percentage vacuolated lymphocytes (optimal cutoff value 3; sensitivity 91%, specificity 96%) and 0.99 for the percentage PAS-positive lymphocytes and PAS score (optimal cutoff value 9; sensitivity 100%, specificity 98%). Our data indicate that PAS-stained blood films can be used as a reliable screening tool to support a diagnosis of Pompe disease. The percentage of PAS-positive lymphocytes is convenient for use in clinical practice but should always be interpreted in combination with other clinical and laboratory parameters.

  10. A semiparametric censoring bias model for estimating the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening test under dependent censoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Rebecca A; Miglioretti, Diana L

    2013-03-01

    False-positive test results are among the most common harms of screening tests and may lead to more invasive and expensive diagnostic testing procedures. Estimating the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening test result after repeat screening rounds is, therefore, important for evaluating potential screening regimens. Existing estimators of the cumulative false-positive risk are limited by strong assumptions about censoring mechanisms and parametric assumptions about variation in risk across screening rounds. To address these limitations, we propose a semiparametric censoring bias model for cumulative false-positive risk that allows for dependent censoring without specifying a fixed functional form for variation in risk across screening rounds. Simulation studies demonstrated that the censoring bias model performs similarly to existing models under independent censoring and can largely eliminate bias under dependent censoring. We used the existing and newly proposed models to estimate the cumulative false-positive risk and variation in risk as a function of baseline age and family history of breast cancer after 10 years of annual screening mammography using data from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium. Ignoring potential dependent censoring in this context leads to underestimation of the cumulative risk of false-positive results. Models that provide accurate estimates under dependent censoring are critical for providing appropriate information for evaluating screening tests.

  11. The Quebec Association of Gastroenterology Position Paper on Colorectal Cancer Screening - 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AN Barkun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of death and the third most common cancer in Canada. Evidence suggests that screening can reduce mortality rates and the cost effectiveness of a program compares favourably with initiatives for breast and cervical cancer. The objectives of the Association des gastro-entérologues du Québec Task Force were to determine the need for a policy on screening for colorectal cancer in Quebec, to evaluate the testing methods available and to propose one or more of these alternatives as part of a formal screening program, if indicated. Fecal occult blood testing (FOBT, endoscopy (including sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy, barium enema and virtual colonoscopy were considered. Although most clinical efficacy data are available for FOBT and sigmoidoscopy, there are limitations to programs based on these strategies. FOBT has a high false positive rate and a low detection yield, and even a combination of these strategies will miss 24% of cancers. Colonoscopy is the best strategy to both detect and remove polyps and to diagnose colorectal cancer, with double contrast barium enema also being a sensitive detection method. The Task Force recommended the establishment, in Quebec, of a screening program with five- to 10-yearly double contrast barium enema or 10-yearly colonoscopy for individuals aged 50 years or older at low risk. The program should include outcome monitoring, public and professional education to increase awareness and promote compliance, and central coordination with other provincial programs. The program should be evaluated; specific billing codes for screening for colorectal cancer would help facilitate this. Formal feasibility, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness studies in Quebec are now warranted.

  12. An actor-based model of social network influence on adolescent body size, screen time, and playing sports.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Shoham

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that obesity may be "contagious" between individuals in social networks. Social contagion (influence, however, may not be identifiable using traditional statistical approaches because they cannot distinguish contagion from homophily (the propensity for individuals to select friends who are similar to themselves or from shared environmental influences. In this paper, we apply the stochastic actor-based model (SABM framework developed by Snijders and colleagues to data on adolescent body mass index (BMI, screen time, and playing active sports. Our primary hypothesis was that social influences on adolescent body size and related behaviors are independent of friend selection. Employing the SABM, we simultaneously modeled network dynamics (friendship selection based on homophily and structural characteristics of the network and social influence. We focused on the 2 largest schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health and held the school environment constant by examining the 2 school networks separately (N = 624 and 1151. Results show support in both schools for homophily on BMI, but also for social influence on BMI. There was no evidence of homophily on screen time in either school, while only one of the schools showed homophily on playing active sports. There was, however, evidence of social influence on screen time in one of the schools, and playing active sports in both schools. These results suggest that both homophily and social influence are important in understanding patterns of adolescent obesity. Intervention efforts should take into consideration peers' influence on one another, rather than treating "high risk" adolescents in isolation.

  13. The acute effects of nicotine on positive and negative affect in adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassel, Jon D; Evatt, Daniel P; Greenstein, Justin E; Wardle, Margaret C; Yates, Marisa C; Veilleux, Jennifer C

    2007-08-01

    Although adolescent cigarette smoking remains a critical public health concern, little is known about the reinforcing mechanisms governing smoking in this vulnerable population. To assess predictions derived from both positive and negative reinforcement models of drug use, the authors measured the acute effects of nicotine, as administered via tobacco cigarettes, on both positive and negative affect in a group of 15- to 18-year-old smokers. A matched group of nonsmokers served as a comparison group. Findings revealed that whereas adolescents who smoked a cigarette experienced reductions in both positive and negative affect, the observed reductions in negative affect were moderated by nicotine content of the cigarette (high yield vs. denicotinized), level of nicotine dependence, level of baseline craving, and smoking expectancies pertinent to negative affect regulation. Nonsmokers experienced no change in affect over the 10-min assessment period, and no interaction effects were observed for positive affect. Overall, the findings conform to a negative reinforcement model of nicotine effects and strongly suggest that, even among young light smokers, nicotine dependence and resultant withdrawal symptomatology may serve as motivating factors governing smoking behavior.

  14. Towards an integration of positive and sickness paradigms in the prevention of eating disorders in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa C. Góngora

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders problems are highly relevant in adolescence and require intervention through the implementation of prevention and promotion health programs. A Few primary prevention programmers to fight eating disorders have reached satisfactory results. The most successful results have been obtained with approaches that promote media literacy, the use of cognitive dissonance and the enhancement of self-esteem. Since many of the programs based on the disease model have failed to prevent such difficulties, the prevention of eating disorders may be improved by taking the contributions of positive psychology. Studies have shown that interventions based on this paradigm are effective to increase the feeling of happiness and subjective well-being. Unlike the traditional approach that works with the identification of risk and protective factors, positive psychology emphasizes the identification and promotion of healthy factors. Positive interventions assume that strengthening the positive, the dysfunctional or negative will be diminished. The integration of both contributions will enrich the approach to promote healthy behavior in adolescents.

  15. The Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS) for Adolescents and Young Adults: Scale Development and Refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenchick, Lauren A; Eickhoff, Jens; Christakis, Dimitri A; Brown, Richard L; Zhang, Chong; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan A

    2014-06-01

    Problematic Internet use (PIU) is a growing health concern among adolescents and young adults. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to develop and refine a theoretically-grounded and psychometrically-validated assessment instrument for PIU specifically tailored to adolescents and young adults. An item pool was developed using concept mapping and a review of the literature, and administered to 714 students from two universities between 18 and 25 years of age. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used in a development subsample (n=500) to construct the scale. A cross-validation sample (n=214) was used to confirm the scale's reliability. The Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS) is an 18-item scale with three subscales: Social Impairment, Emotional Impairment, and Risky/Impulsive Internet Use. Based on its strong theoretical foundation and promising psychometric performance, the PRIUSS may be a valuable tool for screening and prevention efforts in this population.

  16. Real-time screening tests for functional alignment of the trunk and lower extremities in adolescent – a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina; Wedderkopp, Niels; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    mechanisms resulting in ACL injuries (Hewett, 2010). Prevention may therefore depend on identifying these potentially injury risk factors. Screening tools must thus include patterns of typical movements in sport and leisure time activities, consisting of high-load and multi-directional tests, focusing...... on functional alignment of the trunk and lower extremities. Methods An electronic database search was performed accessing Pub- Med and Embase from 2000 to 2011. Eligible studies assessing functional alignment screening of trunk and lower extremities in children or adolescents (10-18 years old) were included...

  17. Positive Youth Development, Life Satisfaction and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents in Intact and Non-Intact Families in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tan Lei Shek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether Chinese adolescents living in intact and non-intact families differed in their positive development, life satisfaction, and risk behavior. A total of 3,328 Secondary 1 students responded to measures of positive youth development (such as resilience and psychosocial competencies, life satisfaction, and risk behavior (substance abuse, delinquency, Internet addiction, consumption of pornographic materials, self-harm, and behavioral intention to engage in problem behavior. Findings revealed that adolescents growing up in intact families reported higher levels of positive developmental outcomes and life satisfaction as compared with adolescents from non-intact families. Adolescents in non-intact families also reported higher levels of risk behaviors than those growing up in intact families.

  18. Effects of an Integrated Science and Societal Implication Intervention on Promoting Adolescents' Positive Thinking and Emotional Perceptions in Learning Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zuway R.; Lin, Huann-Shyang; Lawrenz, Frances P.

    2012-02-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of integrating science and societal implication on adolescents' positive thinking and emotional perceptions about learning science. Twenty-five eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (9 boys and 16 girls) volunteered to participate in a 12-week intervention and formed the experimental group. Fifty-seven eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (30 boys and 27 girls) volunteered to participate in the assessments and were used as the comparison group. Additionally, 15 experimental students were recruited to be observed and interviewed. Paired t-tests, correlations, and analyses of covariance assessed the similarity and differences between groups. The findings were that the experimental group significantly outperformed its counterpart on positive thinking and emotional perceptions, and all participants' positive thinking scores were significantly related to their emotional perceptions about learning science. Recommendations for integrating science and societal implication for adolescents are provided.

  19. Prenatal ultrasound screening: false positive soft markers may alter maternal representations and mother-infant interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Viaux-Savelon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In up to 5% of pregnancies, ultrasound screening detects a "soft marker" (SM that places the foetus at risk for a severe abnormality. In most cases, prenatal diagnostic work-up rules out a severe defect. We aimed to study the effects of false positive SM on maternal emotional status, maternal representations of the infant, and mother-infant interaction. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Utilizing an extreme-case prospective case control design, we selected from a group of 244 women undergoing ultrasound, 19 pregnant women whose foetus had a positive SM screening and a reassuring diagnostic work up, and 19 controls without SM matched for age and education. In the third trimester of pregnancy, within one week after delivery, and 2 months postpartum, we assessed anxiety, depression, and maternal representations. Mother-infant interactions were videotaped during feeding within one week after delivery and again at 2 months postpartum and coded blindly using the Coding Interactive Behavior (CIB scales. Anxiety and depression scores were significantly higher at all assessment points in the SM group. Maternal representations were also different between SM and control groups at all study time. Perturbations to early mother-infant interactions were observed in the SM group. These dyads showed greater dysregulation, lower maternal sensitivity, higher maternal intrusive behaviour and higher infant avoidance. Multivariate analysis showed that maternal representation and depression at third trimester predicted mother-infant interaction. CONCLUSION: False positive ultrasound screenings for SM are not benign and negatively affect the developing maternal-infant attachment. Medical efforts should be directed to minimize as much as possible such false diagnoses, and to limit their psychological adverse consequences.

  20. Global Appraisal of Individual Needs Short Screener (GSS): psychometric properties and performance as a screening measure in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonell, Michael G; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Voss, William D; Morgan, Amanda H; Ries, Richard K

    2009-01-01

    Psychiatric and substance use disorders, separately or combined, are frequent in adolescence. Brief, psychometrically sound screening tools are needed to identify those at-risk. The Global Appraisal of Individual Needs-Short Screener (GAIN-SS) is a brief, inexpensive screener that was derived from the well researched full GAIN interview. However, its validity has not been independently investigated based on independent validated screening instruments in an adolescent clinical population. In this project, the internal consistency, validity, and optimal screening cutoff scores were examined in 95 adolescents, most of whom were receiving treatment, and suffered from internalizing (52%; n = 49), externalizing (66%, n = 63), and co-occurring substance use disorders (55%, n = 56). Results indicated adequate internal consistency and overall and subscale construct validity. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses revealed that the GSS substance use disorder subscale had adequate sensitivity (88%) and specificity (89%). Psychiatric disorder subscales performed less well. The discussion focuses on the strengths and potential weaknesses of use of the GSS and its potential utility in other populations.

  1. Systematic Review of Screening Instruments for Psychosocial Problems in Children and Adolescents With Long-Term Physical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabrew, Hiran; McDowell, Heather; Given, Katherine; Murrell, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Children and adolescents with long-term physical conditions (LTPCs) are at greater risk of developing psychosocial problems. Screening for such problems may be undertaken using validated psychometric instruments to facilitate early intervention. A systematic review was undertaken to identify clinically utilized and psychometrically validated instruments for identifying depression, anxiety, behavior problems, substance use problems, family problems, and multiple problems in children and adolescents with LTPCs. Comprehensive searches of articles published in English between 1994 and 2014 were completed via Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases, and by examining reference lists of identified articles and previous related reviews. Forty-four potential screening instruments were identified, described, and evaluated against predetermined clinical and psychometric criteria. Despite limitations in the evidence regarding their clinical and psychometric validity in this population, a handful of instruments, available at varying cost, in multiple languages and formats, were identified to support targeted, but not universal, screening for psychosocial problems in children and adolescents with LTPCs.

  2. Is a Perceived Activity-Friendly Environment Associated with More Physical Activity and Fewer Screen-Based Activities in Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Dankulincova Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Bucksch, Jens; Nalecz, Hanna; Sigmundova, Dagmar; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to explore if perception of an activity-friendly environment is associated with more physical activity and fewer screen-based activities among adolescents. Methods: We collected self-reported data in 2014 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study from four European countries (n = 13,800, mean age = 14.4, 49.4% boys). We explored the association of perceived environment (e.g., “There are other children nearby home to go out and play with”) with physical activity and screen-based activities using a binary logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, family affluence and country. Results: An environment perceived as activity-friendly was associated with higher odds that adolescents meet recommendations for physical activity (odds ratio (OR) for one standard deviation (SD) change = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–1.18) and lower odds for excessive screen-based activities (OR for 1 SD better = 0.93, 95% CI 0.88–0.98). Conclusions: Investment into an activity-friendly environment may support the promotion of active life styles in adolescence. PMID:28054953

  3. Is a Perceived Activity-Friendly Environment Associated with More Physical Activity and Fewer Screen-Based Activities in Adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Kopcakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to explore if perception of an activity-friendly environment is associated with more physical activity and fewer screen-based activities among adolescents. Methods: We collected self-reported data in 2014 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study from four European countries (n = 13,800, mean age = 14.4, 49.4% boys. We explored the association of perceived environment (e.g., “There are other children nearby home to go out and play with” with physical activity and screen-based activities using a binary logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, family affluence and country. Results: An environment perceived as activity-friendly was associated with higher odds that adolescents meet recommendations for physical activity (odds ratio (OR for one standard deviation (SD change = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.05–1.18 and lower odds for excessive screen-based activities (OR for 1 SD better = 0.93, 95% CI 0.88–0.98. Conclusions: Investment into an activity-friendly environment may support the promotion of active life styles in adolescence.

  4. Psychosexual development among HIV-positive adolescents in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aka Dago-Akribi, Hortense; Cacou Adjoua, Marie-Chantal

    2004-05-01

    Some 84,000 children with HIV/AIDS live in Côte d'Ivoire, where very little therapeutic or psychological help is available to them. The Yopougon Child Programme of the "Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida" was launched in Abidjan in October 2000. It provides services for HIV-infected children and psychological consultations for children and their parents. This paper is about the psychosexual development of the HIV-positive adolescents in the Programme, 11 girls and 8 boys aged 13-17, their problems with HIV-related physiological and psychosexual changes, and relationships with their parents. The information was gathered in individual therapy sessions, group discussions and family support sessions. Bodily development was of major importance to these adolescents, particularly among those who had not yet developed secondary sexual characteristics and were shorter and weighed less than their peers. Those who had not achieved puberty were unable to participate in traditional rituals and worried whether they could ever marry or have children. In most cases, adolescents with HIV have been infected by a sexually transmitted virus without having had sexual relations themselves. They need support dealing with their sexual development and sexual feelings, along with medical care, in a context in which HIV infection is a secret, impossible to talk about with their peers.

  5. Analysis of Positive Human Immunodeifciency Virus (1+2) Antibodies in Preliminar y Screening:A Report of 394 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Fang; LIU Yan-yan; MA Cai-yun; WU Zhi-qi; XU Hua-guo; JIANG Li

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To comprehend the characteristics of patients with positive human immunodeifciency virus (HIV) (1+2) antibodies in the preliminary screening so as to provide basis for local HIV screening and prevention. Methods:Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect serum HIV (1 +2) antibodies in the preliminary screening, after which the positive serum was sent to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) confirmatory laboratory to be confirmed with western blotting method. Clinical data of patients with positive HIV antibodies in the preliminary screening in the outpatients and inpatients from 2006 to 2013 were collected and analyzed. Results:A total of 394 patients with positive serum HIV antibodies were screened initially, in which 214 were confirmed positive HIV, 13 were not certain and another 167 were negative. Patients with positive serum HIV antibodies in the preliminary screening were increased from 9 cases in 2006 to 94 cases in 2013, in which those conifrmed with positive HIV increased from 5 to 49. Patients with positive serum HIV antibodies in the preliminary screening and those conifrmed increased annually. In addition, patients confirmed with positive serum HIV antibodies were mainly males and aged 20 ~ 49 years, distributing in Departments of Infections, Respiratory, Dermatology, Hematology and Emergency, whereas those confirmed with negative HIV were mainly females and aged >20 years, distributing in Departments of Hematology, Maternity and Emergency as well as Reproductive Center. Conclusion: HIV infection is in low level with characteristics of annually increasing infection rate, male-orientated and wide-spread distribution in variuos departments, etc., knowing which will help guide the clinical practices and carry out the local HIV screening and prevention by relevant departments.

  6. Measuring health-related quality of life of HIV-positive adolescents in resource-constrained settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Masquillier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Access to antiretroviral treatment among adolescents living with HIV (ALH is increasing. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL is relevant for monitoring the impact of the disease on both well-being and treatment outcomes. However, adequate screening tools to assess HRQOL in low-resource settings are scarce. This study aims to fill this research gap, by 1 assessing the psychometric properties and reliability of an Eastern African English version of a European HRQOL scale for adolescents (KIDSCREEN and 2 determining which version of the KIDSCREEN (52-, 27- and 10-item version is most suitable for low-resource settings. METHODS: The KIDSCREEN was translated into Eastern African English, Luganda (Uganda and Dholuo (Kenya according to standard procedures. The reconciled version was administered in 2011 to ALH aged 13-17 in Kenya (n = 283 and Uganda (n = 299. All three KIDSCREEN versions were fitted to the data with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. After comparison, the most suitable version was adapted based on the CFA outcomes utilizing the results of previous formative research. In order to develop a general HRQOL factor, a second-order measurement model was fitted to the data. RESULTS: The CFA results showed that without adjustments, the KIDSCREEN cannot be used for measuring the HRQOL of HIV-positive adolescents. After comparison, the most suitable version for low-resource settings--the 27-item version--was adapted further. The introduction of a negative wording factor was required for the Dholuo model. The Dholuo (CFI: 0.93; RMSEA: 0.039 and the Luganda model (CFI: 0.90; RMSEA: 0.052 showed a good fit. All cronbach's alphas of the factors were 0.70 or above. The alpha value of the Dholuo and Lugandan HRQOL second-order factor was respectively 0.84 and 0.87. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that the adapted KIDSCREEN-27 is an adequate tool for measuring HRQOL in low-resource settings with high HIV prevalence.

  7. Cervical cytology screening among low-income, minority adolescents in New York City following the 2009 ACOG guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Jennifer; Hofstetter, Annika M.; Soren, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In December 2009, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommended cervical cancer screening begin at age 21 for young women. In this study, we examine receipt of first lifetime Papanicolaou (Pap) test and predictors of over-screening among adolescents within a large urban ambulatory care network. Methods We compared the proportion of first lifetime Pap test of adolescents aged 13-20 years between June 2007-November 2009 (n=7700) and December 2009-June 2012 (n=9637) using electronic health records. We employed multivariable regression models to identify demographic and health care factors associated with receiving a first lifetime Pap test at age <21 years in the post-guideline period (over-screening). Results The proportion of Pap tests declined from 19.3% to 4.2% (p <0.001) between the two periods. Multivariable logistic regression results showed receiving care from gynecology/obstetrics/family planning clinics compared to pediatric clinics, having more clinic encounters, and older age were associated with over-screening in the post-guideline period. Conclusions We found that guideline adherence differed by clinic type, insurance status, and health care encounters. In the quickly evolving field of cervical cancer control, it is important to monitor practice trends as they relate to shifts in population-based guidelines, especially in high-risk populations. PMID:24650625

  8. Screening for Sleep Reduction in Adolescents through Self-Report: Development and Validation of the Sleep Reduction Screening Questionnaire (SRSQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maanen, Annette; Dewald-Kaufmann, Julia F.; Oort, Frans J.; de Bruin, Eduard J.; Smits, Marcel G.; Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Kerkhof, Gerard A.; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sleep reduction, resulting from insufficient or poor sleep, is a common phenomenon in adolescents. Due to its severe negative psychological and behavioral daytime consequences, it is important to have a short reliable and valid measure to assess symptoms of sleep reduction. Objective: This study aims to validate the Sleep Reduction…

  9. Modifying the Functional Movement Screen Deep Squat Test: The Effect of Foot and Arm Positional Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillian, Danny J; Rynders, Zach G; Trudeau, Tyler R

    2016-04-01

    The functional movement screen (FMS) was developed as an evaluation tool for assessing the fundamental movement patterns believed to be prerequisites for functional activity. However, some of the FMS component movements, such as the deep overhead squat test (DST), likely represent novel motor challenges on which poor performance might reflect inexperience with the task rather than a movement impairment. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of positional variations on DST scores in a population of young, healthy adults. We hypothesized that self-selecting foot positioning, removal of an overhead component, or changing both aspects of the DST would result in improvement in FMS scores. Twenty healthy subjects completed 4 squatting conditions in a counterbalanced sequence to eliminate carry over effects: DST, modified squat with hands at chest level and feet in the DST position (DSTO), modified squat with arms in the DST position and self-selected foot placement (DSTF), and modified squat with hands at chest level and self-selected foot placement (DSTB). A Friedman's analysis of variance and Wilcoxon signed-ranks' post hoc analysis revealed a significant difference between all squat conditions (p = 0.036), between DSTB-DST groups (p DST groups (p = 0.004), and DSTO-DSTB groups (p = 0.046). Each modified squat condition had an average score higher than the DST. These findings suggest that the FMS DST might underestimate an individual's ability to squat during functional tasks that involve self-selected foot and arm placement.

  10. Factors affecting linkage to care and engagement in care for newly diagnosed HIV-positive adolescents within fifteen adolescent medicine clinics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbin, Morgan M; Tanner, Amanda E; DuVal, Anna; Ellen, Jonathan M; Xu, Jiahong; Kapogiannis, Bill; Bethel, Jim; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2014-08-01

    Early linkage to care and engagement in care are critical for initiation of medical interventions. However, over 50 % of newly diagnosed persons do not receive HIV-related care within 6 months of diagnosis. We evaluated a linkage to care and engagement in care initiative for HIV-positive adolescents in 15 U.S.-based clinics. Structural and client-level factors (e.g. demographic and behavioral characteristics, clinic staff and location) were evaluated as predictors of successful linkage and engagement. Within 32 months, 1,172/1,679 (69.8 %) of adolescents were linked to care of which 1,043/1,172 (89 %) were engaged in care. Only 62.1 % (1,043/1,679) of adolescents were linked and engaged in care. Linkage to care failure was attributed to adolescent, provider, and clinic-specific factors. Many adolescents provided incomplete data during the linkage process or failed to attend appointments, both associated with failure to linkage to care. Additional improvements in HIV care will require creative approaches to coordinated data sharing, as well as continued outreach services to support newly diagnosed adolescents.

  11. Concurrent Associations of Physical Activity and Screen-Based Sedentary Behavior on Obesity Among US Adolescents: A Latent Class Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngdeok Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Independent associations of physical activity (PA and sedentary behavior (SB with obesity are well documented. However, little is known about the combined associations of these behaviors with obesity in adolescents. The present study examines the prevalence of concurrent levels of PA and SB, and their associations with obesity among US adolescents. Methods: Data from a total of 12 081 adolescents who participated in the Youth Risk Behaviors Survey during 2012–2013 were analyzed. A latent class analysis was performed to identify latent subgroups with varying combined levels of subjectively measured PA and screen-based SB. Follow-up analysis examined the changes in the likelihood of being obese as determined by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention Growth Chart between latent subgroups. Results: Four latent subgroups with varying combined levels of PA and SB were identified across gender. The likelihood of being obese was significantly greater for the subgroups featuring either or both Low PA or High SB when compared with High PA/Low SB across genders (odds ratio [OR] ranges, 2.1–2.7 for males and 9.6–23.5 for females. Low PA/High SB showed the greater likelihood of being obese compared to subgroups featuring either or both High PA and Low SB (OR ranges, 2.2–23.5 for female adolescents only. Conclusions: The findings imply that promoting sufficient levels of PA while reducing SB should be encouraged in order to reduce obesity risk among adolescents, particularly for males. The risk of obesity for female adolescents can be reduced by engaging in either high levels of PA or low levels of SB.

  12. False-positive findings in mammography screening induces short-term distress - breast cancer-specific concern prevails longer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Pilvikki Absetz, S; van Elderen, T M

    2000-01-01

    -ups at 2 and 12 months postscreening. At 2 months, there was a moderate multivariate effect of group on distress; and intrusive thinking and worry about breast cancer, in particular, were most frequent amongst the false positives. Intrusive thinking still prevailed at 12 months, in addition to a higher...... perceived breast cancer risk and susceptibility. Distress related to screening and false-positive findings seems to be moderate, but prevailing cancer-specific concerns call for improvements in screening programmes....... findings (n=1407), false-positive findings (n=492) and referents from outside the screening programme (n=1718, age 48-49 years). Distress was measured as illness worry, anxiety, depression, cancer beliefs and early detection behaviour. Measurements were one month before screening invitation with follow...

  13. The positive predictive value of guaiac faecal occult blood test in relation to the number of positive squares in two consecutive rounds of colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Sylvain; Philip, Julie; Campillo, Boris; Piette, Christine; Durand, Gerard; Riou, Françoise; Bretagne, Jean François

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to define the positive predictive values of a positive guaiac faecal occult blood test according to the number of positive squares, in two consecutive rounds of colorectal cancer mass screening in a French region. A total of 4172 colonoscopies were analyzed. Sex, age, number of positive squares, and colonoscopic and histopathologic findings were studied. In the results obtained, 76.6% of positive tests were positive with one or two squares. The number of positive squares was not related to sex, age and rank of participation. The positive predictive value for cancers and adenomas increased significantly with age, sex (male) and number of positive squares from 6.6% (one to two squares) to 27.6% (five to six squares) and from 15.2% to 22.2%, respectively. Cancer was diagnosed 211 times (54.1%) and advanced neoplasia was diagnosed 696 times (65.3%) following positive tests with one to two squares. The TNM stage of cancer increased significantly with the number of positive squares: 85.8% of stages 0-1-2 for one to two positive squares and 66.3% for five to six positive squares (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed an increased risk of cancer and advanced neoplasia for male patients and aged persons. The number of positive squares significantly increased the risk of cancer (odds ratio=4.6 for five to six positive squares) and the risk of advanced neoplasia (odds ratio=2.9). Age, sex and number of positive squares were independent predictive factors of positive guaiac faecal occult blood test. The proportion of TNM stages 3-4 was significantly higher in those with five to six positive squares. Performing a complete colonoscopy in every individual having a positive test, especially aged men with a high number of positive squares, should be a priority in any screening programme.

  14. Interpreting positive signs of the supraspinatus test in screening for torn rotator cuff.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim,Eugene

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of the supraspinatus test as a screening test for detecting torn rotator cuff and to determine what its valuable positive signs were. Both the empty-can test and full-can test were performed on 200 shoulders diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-and in some cases, surgical findings-to have full-thickness or partial-thickness torn rotator cuff s, or no tear in the rotator cuff . During the maneuver, the presence of pain or weakness or both pain and weakness were recorded as positive signs, and the distribution of these signs were analyzed according to the degree of tear. The predictive values were calculated in 2 ways by considering (1 only full-thickness tears as tears and (2 both full- and partial-thickness tears as tears. The 2 tests and the 2 ways of considering partial-thickness tears were compared. Pain and weakness were severity-dependent, and the empty-can test had a higher incidence of pain. The sensitivities of the 2 supraspinatus tests in all positive signs were higher when including partial-thickness tears in the tear group ; however, their specificities were higher when excluding partial-thickness tears. Both pain and weakness were interpretive for the supraspinatus test, and both tests were sensitive to full- and partial- thickness tears and specific for full-thickness tears.

  15. Positive aspects of the coping of mothers of adolescent children with developmental disability in the Bedouin community in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor-Binyamini, Iris

    2014-06-01

    This research examines the positive aspects of coping experienced by 270 mothers of adolescent children with and without a developmental disability in the Bedouin community. The mothers completed the Sociodemographic Data Questionnaire, the Grandparents Functional Support Assessment, the Gratitude Questionnaire, and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Mothers of adolescent children with developmental disability reported higher levels of social support, gratitude, and personal growth than did mothers of adolescent children without developmental disability. Additionally, mothers demonstrated a higher level of gratitude toward their spouse's parents. Positive correlation was also found between gratitude and personal growth and between gratitude and support from the husband's parents. The findings highlight the important need to develop awareness and culturally appropriate intervention programs based on these positive aspects, to enhance these mothers' coping abilities.

  16. Identifying Adolescent Patients at Risk for Sexually Transmitted Infections: Development of a Brief Sexual Health Screening Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Elizabeth C; Chung, Richard; Thompson, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the association between survey responses to health behaviors, personality/psychosocial factors, and self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to create a brief survey to identify youth at risk for contracting STIs. Participants included 200 racially diverse 14- to 18-year-old patients from a pediatric primary care clinic. Two sexual behavior variables and one peer norm variable were used to differentiate subgroups of individuals at risk of contracting a STI based on reported history of STIs using probability (decision tree) analyses. These items, as well as sexual orientation and having ever had oral sex, were used to create a brief sexual health screening (BSHS) survey. Each point increase in total BSHS score was associated with exponential growth in the percentage of sexually active adolescents reporting STIs. Findings suggest that the BSHS could serve as a useful tool for clinicians to quickly and accurately detect sexual risk among adolescent patients.

  17. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of a modified version of the Social Phobia Screening Questionnaire for use in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svedin Carl

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social phobia (social anxiety disorder - SAD is a rather common but often undetected and undertreated psychiatric condition in youths. Screening of SAD in young individuals in community samples is thus important in preventing negative outcomes. The present study is the first report on the psychometric properties of the Social Phobia Screening Questionnaire for Children and adolescents (SPSQ-C. Methods The SPSQ-C was administered to a community sample of high-school students. Test-retest reliability over three weeks was evaluated (n = 127 and internal consistency was calculated for items measuring level of fear in eight social situations. To measure concurrent validity, subjects who reported SAD on at least one occasion and randomly selected non-cases were blindly interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I, as gold standard (n = 51. Results A moderate test-retest reliability, r = .60 (P Conclusion The SPSQ-C is a short and psychometrically sound questionnaire for screening of SAD in adolescents, with the advantage of being based on the DSM-IV criteria.

  18. Positive association of video game playing with left frontal cortical thickness in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Kühn

    Full Text Available Playing video games is a common recreational activity of adolescents. Recent research associated frequent video game playing with improvements in cognitive functions. Improvements in cognition have been related to grey matter changes in prefrontal cortex. However, a fine-grained analysis of human brain structure in relation to video gaming is lacking. In magnetic resonance imaging scans of 152 14-year old adolescents, FreeSurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness. Cortical thickness across the whole cortical surface was correlated with self-reported duration of video gaming (hours per week. A robust positive association between cortical thickness and video gaming duration was observed in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and left frontal eye fields (FEFs. No regions showed cortical thinning in association with video gaming frequency. DLPFC is the core correlate of executive control and strategic planning which in turn are essential cognitive domains for successful video gaming. The FEFs are a key region involved in visuo-motor integration important for programming and execution of eye movements and allocation of visuo-spatial attention, processes engaged extensively in video games. The results may represent the biological basis of previously reported cognitive improvements due to video game play. Whether or not these results represent a-priori characteristics or consequences of video gaming should be studied in future longitudinal investigations.

  19. Positive Association of Video Game Playing with Left Frontal Cortical Thickness in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Lorenz, Robert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J.; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J.; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Ittermann, Bernd; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Nees, Frauke; Artiges, Eric; Paus, Tomas; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N.; Ströhle, Andreas; Walaszek, Bernadetta; Schumann, Gunter; Heinz, Andreas; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Playing video games is a common recreational activity of adolescents. Recent research associated frequent video game playing with improvements in cognitive functions. Improvements in cognition have been related to grey matter changes in prefrontal cortex. However, a fine-grained analysis of human brain structure in relation to video gaming is lacking. In magnetic resonance imaging scans of 152 14-year old adolescents, FreeSurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness. Cortical thickness across the whole cortical surface was correlated with self-reported duration of video gaming (hours per week). A robust positive association between cortical thickness and video gaming duration was observed in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left frontal eye fields (FEFs). No regions showed cortical thinning in association with video gaming frequency. DLPFC is the core correlate of executive control and strategic planning which in turn are essential cognitive domains for successful video gaming. The FEFs are a key region involved in visuo-motor integration important for programming and execution of eye movements and allocation of visuo-spatial attention, processes engaged extensively in video games. The results may represent the biological basis of previously reported cognitive improvements due to video game play. Whether or not these results represent a-priori characteristics or consequences of video gaming should be studied in future longitudinal investigations. PMID:24633348

  20. The relationship of value orientations in older adolescents with high status position in a student group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Kuteynikova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present study results of social and psychological characteristics of group and individual value orientations in older adolescents. We considered the main criteria to be content and orientation of values, and level of value-oriented student group unity. The study involved 86 high school students of IX-XI grades of Moscow schools. We used a set of socio-psychological methods and instructional techniques: sociometry, referentometry, a technique of defining the informal intragroup power structure in a contact community, "Values and orientation of the individual" method by L.N.Silantieva, a method of determining the degree of value-orientation of group unity. The results obtained show that in high school there is a relationship between the student's status in the group and his system of individual and group value orientations. The most significant differences among students with different status position were detected in the content and direction of value orientations.

  1. Does a Happy Marriage Make Positive Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Self-Satisfied Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masche, J. Gowert

    This study examined the impact of parental marriage quality on two aspects of self-esteem in their adolescent children, mediated by parent-adolescent relationship quality. Participating in the study were mothers, fathers, and 16- to 18-year-olds from 54 intact families. The first assessment was completed before the adolescents left middle school,…

  2. Resilience against All Odds: A Positive Psychology Perspective of Adolescent-Headed Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lethale, Praline S.; Pillay, Jace

    2013-01-01

    As a result of the AIDS pandemic, adolescent-headed families are becoming a common trend in South Africa. However, little is known about the experiences of the adolescent, especially within the school context. Hence the purpose of this article was to explore the experiences of adolescents within the school context. During our initial review of…

  3. A semi-parametric censoring bias model for estimating the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening test under dependent censoring

    OpenAIRE

    Hubbard, Rebecca A.; Miglioretti, Diana L.

    2013-01-01

    False-positive test results are among the most common harms of screening tests and may lead to more invasive and expensive diagnostic testing procedures. Estimating the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening test result after repeat screening rounds is therefore important for evaluating potential screening regimens. Existing estimators of the cumulative false-positive risk are limited by strong assumptions about censoring mechanisms and parametric assumptions about variation in risk ac...

  4. Positive Outcome Expectancy Mediates the Relationship Between Peer Influence and Internet Gaming Addiction Among Adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jo Yung Wei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Wu, Li-An; Oei, Tian Po

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positive outcome expectancy in the relationship between peer/parental influence and Internet gaming addiction (IGA) among adolescents in Taiwan. Two thousand, one hundred and four junior high students completed the Chen Internet Addiction Scale for IGA, Parental Influence for IGA, peer influence for IGA, and Positive Outcome Expectancy of Internet Gaming Questionnaire. Results showed that the three types of peer influences (positive attitudes toward Internet gaming, frequency of Internet game use, and invitation to play) and positive outcome expectancy were significantly and positively correlated with IGA. Moreover, peer influence was also positively correlated with positive outcome expectancy. On the other hand, positive outcome expectancy and parental influences had a low correlation. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that positive outcome expectancy did not mediate the relationship between either type of parental influences and IGA, and only the parent's invitation to play Internet games directly predicted IGA severity. However, peers' positive attitude or the frequency of peers' Internet game use positively predicted IGA and was fully mediated through positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. In addition, the frequency of peers' invitation to play Internet games directly and indirectly predicted IGA severity through a partial mediation of positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. The overall fit of the model was adequate and was able to explain 25.0 percent of the variance. The findings provide evidence in illuminating the role of peer influences and positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming in the process of why adolescents may develop IGA.

  5. Evaluation of a Positive Youth Development Program for Adolescents with Greater Psychosocial Needs: Integrated Views of Program Implementers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To help adolescents with greater psychosocial needs, the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes was designed and implemented by school social workers and teachers. Based on subjective outcome evaluation data collected from the program participants (n = 2,542 in 49 schools, program implementers were invited to write down five conclusions based on an integration of the evaluation findings. With reference to 245 conclusions included in the 49 evaluation reports, secondary data analyses showed that most of the conclusions concerning perceptions of the Tier 2 Program, instructors, and program effectiveness were positive. In addition, difficulties encountered and recommendations for program improvement were highlighted. In conjunction with previous evaluation findings, the present study suggests that the Tier 2 Program was well received and was perceived to be beneficial to the development of adolescents with greater psychosocial needs.

  6. 'We do the impossible': women overcoming barriers to cervical cancer screening in rural Honduras--a positive deviance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Jenna J; Barrington, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for women in Honduras, and sexual behaviour and low screening uptake are two major factors contributing to high rates of morbidity and mortality. A qualitative study was conducted to investigate barriers that prevent rural Honduran women from engaging in screening and ways that women overcome those barriers. This study examined examples of positive deviance, or individuals engaging in the uncommon but beneficial practise of screening. Amor por sí misma (self-love), and social support were identified as two constructs women employed to overcome barriers to screening. Participants defined self-love as the act of displaying care and concern for oneself and one's health and suggested that it compels women to participate in screening. Social support was defined as receiving tangible aid and advice from others that facilitated women's screening participation. Findings suggest that the concept of self-love could be used in future screening promotion efforts and that integrating social support would also be beneficial. Engaging men in sexual and reproductive health programming is suggested in order to ensure male partners offer social support for screening and to challenge the cultural, gender and sexual norms that place women at higher risk for cervical cancer.

  7. Screening for obesity-related complications among obese children and adolescents: 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Lacey J; Baer, Heather J; Kaelber, David C

    2011-05-01

    Obesity is becoming an increasingly prevalent problem among American children. Screening for obesity associated comorbid conditions has been shown to be inconsistent. The current study was undertaken to explore patterns of ordering screening tests among obese pediatric patients. We analyzed electronic medical records (EMR) from 69,901 patients ages 2-18 years between June 1999 and December 2008. Obese children who had documented diagnoses of obesity were identified based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. Screening rates for glucose, liver, and lipid abnormalities were assessed. Regression analysis was used to examine impact of patient characteristics and temporal trends were analyzed. Of the 9,251 obese diagnosed patients identified, 22% were screened for all three included obesity-related conditions: diabetes, liver, and lipid abnormalities; 52% were screened for glucose abnormalities; 30% for liver abnormalities; and 41% for lipid abnormalities. Increasing BMI and age were associated with increased rates of screening. Females and Hispanic patients were more likely to be screened. The majority of screening was ordered under "basic metabolic panel," "hepatic function panel," and "full lipid profile" for each respective condition. The percentages of patients screened generally increased over time, although the percentages screened for diabetes and lipid abnormalities seemed to plateau or decrease after 2004. Even after diagnosis, many obese patients are not receiving recommended laboratory screening tests. Screening increased during the study period, but remains less than ideal. Providers could improve care by more complete laboratory screening in patients diagnosed with obesity.

  8. Hypomania spectrum disorder in adolescence : a 15-year follow-up of non-mood morbidity in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: We investigated whether adolescents with hypomania spectrum episodes have an excess risk of mental and physical morbidity in adulthood, as compared with adolescents exclusively reporting major depressive disorder (MDD) and controls without a history of adolescent mood disorders. Methods: A community sample of adolescents (N = 2 300) in the town of Uppsala, Sweden, was screened for depressive symptoms. Both participants with positive screening and matched controls (in total 631) we...

  9. A review of screening strategies for cervical cancer in human immunodeficiency virus-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviano, Manuela; DeBeaudrap, Pierre; Tebeu, Pierre-Marie; Fouogue, Jovanny T; Vassilakos, Pierre; Petignat, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death and a major public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa. This heavy burden parallels that of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, which increases the risk of developing CC. Despite the progressive reduction of HIV prevalence in the past decade, the CC incidence and mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa remain high. The heterogeneity of the distribution of the two diseases in the African continent, together with the different availability of human and material resources, stands in the way of finding an appropriate screening strategy. The lack of high-quality evidence on the prevention of CC for HIV-positive women, which is necessary for the implementation of efficient screening and treatment strategies, results in the absence of a clearly defined program, which is responsible for the low screening uptake and high mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa. By taking advantage of the HIV-positive women’s frequent access to health facilities, one way to increase the CC screening coverage rates would be by providing integrated HIV and screening services within the same infrastructure. With the increasing availability of cost-effective methods, screening is becoming more and more available to women who have limited access to health care. Moreover, the introduction of point-of-care technologies for human papillomavirus testing and the subsequent implementation of screen-and-treat strategies, by reducing the number of clinical appointments and, in the long term, the loss to follow-up rates, open up new opportunities for all women, regardless of their HIV status. The purpose of this review is to provide an insight into the different screening practices for CC in order to help define one that is adapted to the resources and necessities of HIV-positive women living in middle-to-low income countries. PMID:28203108

  10. Cognitive ability, parental socioeconomic position and internalising and externalising problems in adolescence : Findings from two European cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Martijn; Araya, Ricardo; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Oldehinkel, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether cognitive ability (CA) may be a moderator of the relationship of parental socioeconomic position (SEP) with internalising and externalising problems in adolescents. We used data from two longitudinal cohort studies; the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)

  11. Positive and Negative Self-Esteem Among Ethnic Minority Early Adolescents : Social and Cultural Sources and Threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses data from a large-scale study (N D 1070) of Turkish and Moroccan early adolescents in the Netherlands. In it, it was found that a distinction between positive and negative self-esteem as 2 relatively independent dimensions of global self-esteem could be made. Other results were that

  12. Development and content validity of a screening instrument for gaming addiction in adolescents: the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlin, Sofia; Åslund, Cecilia; Nilsson, Kent W

    2015-08-01

    This study describes the development of a screening tool for gaming addiction in adolescents - the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT). Its development was based on the research literature on gaming and addiction. An expert panel comprising professional raters (n = 7), experiential adolescent raters (n = 10), and parent raters (n = 10) estimated the content validity of each item (I-CVI) as well as of the whole scale (S-CVI/Ave), and participated in a cognitive interview about the GAIT scale. The mean scores for both I-CVI and S-CVI/Ave ranged between 0.97 and 0.99 compared with the lowest recommended I-CVI value of 0.78 and the S-CVI/Ave value of 0.90. There were no sex differences and no differences between expert groups regarding ratings in content validity. No differences in the overall evaluation of the scale emerged in the cognitive interviews. Our conclusions were that GAIT showed good content validity in capturing gaming addiction. The GAIT needs further investigation into its psychometric properties of construct validity (convergent and divergent validity) and criterion-related validity, as well as its reliability in both clinical settings and in community settings with adolescents.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of enhanced syphilis screening among HIV-positive men who have sex with men: a microsimulation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashleigh R Tuite

    Full Text Available Syphilis co-infection risk has increased substantially among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM. Frequent screening for syphilis and treatment of men who test positive might be a practical means of controlling the risk of infection and disease sequelae in this population.We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of strategies that increased the frequency and population coverage of syphilis screening in HIV-infected MSM receiving HIV care, relative to current standard of care.We developed a state-transition microsimulation model of syphilis natural history and medical care in HIV-infected MSM receiving care for HIV. We performed Monte Carlo simulations using input data derived from a large observational cohort in Ontario, Canada, and from published biomedical literature. Simulations compared usual care (57% of the population screened annually to different combinations of more frequent (3- or 6-monthly screening and higher coverage (100% screened. We estimated expected disease-specific outcomes, quality-adjusted survival, costs, and cost-effectiveness associated with each strategy from the perspective of a public health care payer.Usual care was more costly and less effective than strategies with more frequent or higher coverage screening. Higher coverage strategies (with screening frequency of 3 or 6 months were expected to be cost-effective based on usually cited willingness-to-pay thresholds. These findings were robust in the face of probabilistic sensitivity analyses, alternate cost-effectiveness thresholds, and alternate assumptions about duration of risk, program characteristics, and management of underlying HIV.We project that higher coverage and more frequent syphilis screening of HIV-infected MSM would be a highly cost-effective health intervention, with many potentially viable screening strategies projected to both save costs and improve health when compared to usual care. The baseline requirement for regular blood testing in this

  14. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis screening for school, community, and clinical health promotion practice utilizing the PRECEDE-PROCEED model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyatt Lawrence A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is a commonly performed procedure for school children during the high risk years. The PRECEDE-PROCEDE (PP model is a health promotion planning model that has not been utilized for the clinical diagnosis of AIS. The purpose of this research is to study AIS in the school age population using the PP model and its relevance for community, school, and clinical health promotion. Methods MEDLINE was utilized to locate AIS data. Studies were screened for relevance and applicability under the auspices of the PP model. Where data was unavailable, expert opinion was utilized based on consensus. Results The social assessment of quality of life is limited with few studies approaching the long-term effects of AIS. Epidemiologically, AIS is the most common form of scoliosis and leading orthopedic problem in children. Behavioral/environmental studies focus on discovering etiologic relationships yet this data is confounded because AIS is not a behavioral. Illness and parenting health behaviors can be appreciated. The educational diagnosis is confounded because AIS is an orthopedic disorder and not behavioral. The administration/policy diagnosis is hindered in that scoliosis screening programs are not considered cost-effective. Policies are determined in some schools because 26 states mandate school scoliosis screening. There exists potential error with the Adam's test. The most widely used measure in the PP model, the Health Belief Model, has not been utilized in any AIS research. Conclusion The PP model is a useful tool for a comprehensive study of a particular health concern. This research showed where gaps in AIS research exist suggesting that there may be problems to the implementation of school screening. Until research disparities are filled, implementation of AIS screening by school, community, and clinical health promotion will be compromised. Lack of data and perceived importance by

  15. Positive family relationships and religious affiliation as mediators between negative environment and illicit drug symptoms in American Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mansoo; Stiffman, Arlene R

    2010-07-01

    The present study tests how positive family relationships and religious affiliation mediate between negative familial and social environments, and adolescent illicit drug abuse/dependence symptoms. The theoretical framework is based on an integration of two theories: the ecological model of human development (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) and the social development model (Hawkins & Weis, 1985). We used a stratified random sample of 401 American Indian adolescents. A path analysis tested the integrative theoretical model. Findings showed that positive family relationships mediated the negative impact of addicted family members, violence victimization, and negative school environment on illicit drug abuse/dependence symptoms. Religious affiliation mediated the negative effect of deviant peers on positive family relationships. Intervention and prevention efforts may benefit from promoting positive family relationships and religious affiliation to reduce the impact of complex familial and social problems on illicit drug symptoms.

  16. Potentially Inappropriate Medication in Community-Dwelling Primary Care Patients who were Screened Positive for Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wucherer, Diana; Eichler, Tilly; Hertel, Johannes; Kilimann, Ingo; Richter, Steffen; Michalowsky, Bernhard; Thyrian, Jochen René; Teipel, Stefan; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) in older people is a risk factor for adverse drug effects. This risk is even higher in older people with dementia (PWD). Objective: Our study aimed to determine (1) the prevalence of PIM among primary care patients who were screened positive for dementia and (2) the sociodemographic and clinical variables associated with the use of PIM. Methods: DelpHi-MV (Dementia: life- and person-centered help in Mecklenburg–Western Pomerania) is a general practitioner-based, cluster-randomized, controlled intervention study to implement and evaluate an innovative concept of collaborative dementia care management in Germany. The comprehensive baseline assessment includes a home medication review. The present analyses are based on the data from 448 study participants (age 70+, DemTect benzodiazepines, and analgetics. The most frequently prescribed PIMs were amitriptyline, etoricoxib, and doxazosin. (2) Use of a PIM was significantly associated with a diagnosis of a mental or behavioral disorder. Conclusions: The prescription rate of PIMs for community-dwelling PWD was comparable with the rates found for the general population of older people in Germany (20–29%). Antidepressants with anticholinergic properties and long-acting benzodiazepines were the most prescribed PIMs, despite having an unfavorable benefit-risk ratio. This high prevalence of PIM prescriptions in a vulnerable population of PWD indicates that standard care for dementia should include careful medication review and management. PMID:27716668

  17. Clinical evaluation of children testing positive in screening tests for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Skounti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Screening tests are of great diagnostic value in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, however final diagnosis relies on a clinical examination by an expert. The objective of the present study was to clinically evaluate children who had been screened positive for ADHD through both a parent and a teacher questionnaire. Methods: Parent interview and child behavior checklist and clinical assessment were used to confirm the preliminary diagnosis in 42 children aged 8 years, who have been screened positive for ADHD out of 1,708 children, in a large, two-setting screening study conducted in Crete, Greece. Results: The diagnosis of ADHD was confirmed for 31 children (74%. In the remaining 11 children, ADHD manifestations were attributed to other primary disorders. None of the 42 children was classified as lacking symptoms suggesting ADHD. Among the 31 children with confirmed ADHD, only 2 had been diagnosed prior to the screening test. Conclusions: Although clinical evaluation is the golden standard for diagnosis of ADHD, two-setting screening questionnaires by parent and teacher are useful tools in identifying children who need further investigation and intervention.

  18. Reduced Uptake of Family Screening in Genotype-Negative Versus Genotype-Positive Long QT Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanninen, Mikael; Klein, George J; Laksman, Zachary; Conacher, Susan S; Skanes, Allan C; Yee, Raymond; Gula, Lorne J; Leong-Sit, Peter; Manlucu, Jaimie; Krahn, Andrew D

    2015-08-01

    The acceptance and yield of family screening in genotype-negative long QT syndrome (LQTS) remains incompletely characterized. In this study of family screening for phenotype-definite Long QT Syndrome (LQTS, Schwartz score ≥3.5), probands at a regional Inherited Cardiac Arrhythmia clinic were reviewed. All LQTS patients were offered education by a qualified genetic counselor, along with materials for family screening including electronic and paper correspondence to provide to family members. Thirty-eight qualifying probands were identified and 20 of these had family members who participated in cascade screening. The acceptance of screening was found to be lower among families without a known pathogenic mutation (33 vs. 77 %, p = 0.02). A total of 52 relatives were screened; fewer relatives were screened per index case when the proband was genotype-negative (1.7 vs. 3.1, p = 0.02). The clinical yield of screening appeared to be similar irrespective of gene testing results (38 vs. 33 %, p = 0.69). Additional efforts to promote family screening among gene-negative long QT families may be warranted.

  19. The effect of positive group psychotherapy on self-esteem and state anger among adolescents at Korean immigrant churches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jin

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to describe participants' experiences and examine the effects of group therapy on self-esteem and state anger among the adolescent children of immigrants in the US. A quasi-experimental design and qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Group therapy was conducted for 8weeks. Thirty-three adolescents took part in the study. Quantitative results revealed that group therapy improved self-esteem (t=2.222. pmanagement of anger. Furthermore, group therapy utilizing positive psychology strategies improved self-esteem, interpersonal relationships, and communication skills.

  20. Adequate sleep among adolescents is positively associated with health status and health-related behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Jeng Yi-Jong; Wang Edward K; Chen Mei-Yen

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Amount of sleep is an important indicator of health and well-being in children and adolescents. Adequate sleep (AS: adequate sleep is defined as 6–8 hours per night regularly) is a critical factor in adolescent health and health-related behaviors. The present study was based on a health promotion project previously conducted on adolescents in Tao-Yuan County, Taiwan. The aim was to examine the relationship between AS during schooldays and excessive body weight, frequency o...

  1. Risk factors for false positive and for false negative test results in screening with fecal occult blood testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegeman, Inge; de Wijkerslooth, Thomas R; Stoop, Esther M; van Leerdam, Monique; van Ballegooijen, M; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A; Fockens, Paul; Kuipers, Ernst J; Dekker, Evelien; Bossuyt, Patrick M

    2013-11-15

    Differences in the risk of a false negative or a false positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) across subgroups may affect optimal screening strategies. We evaluate whether subgroups are at increased risk of a false positive or a false negative FIT result, whether such variability in risk is related to differences in FIT sensitivity and specificity or to differences in prior CRC risk. Randomly selected, asymptomatic individuals were invited to undergo colonoscopy. Participants were asked to undergo one sample FIT and to complete a risk questionnaire. We identified patient characteristics associated with a false negative and false positive FIT results using logistic regression. We focused on statistically significant differences as well as on variables influencing the false positive or negative risk for which the odds ratio exceeded 1.25. Of the 1,426 screening participants, 1,112 (78%) completed FIT and the questionnaire; 101 (9.1%) had advanced neoplasia. 102 Individuals were FIT positive, 65 (64%) had a false negative FIT result and 66 (65%) a false positive FIT result. Participants at higher age and smokers had a significantly higher risk of a false negative FIT result. Males were at increased risk of a false positive result, so were smokers and regular NSAID users. FIT sensitivity was lower in females. Specificity was lower for males, smokers and regular NSAID users. FIT sensitivity was lower in women. FIT specificity was lower in males, smokers and regular NSAID users. Our results can be used for further evidence based individualization of screening strategies.

  2. Construction of an Integrated Positive Youth Development Conceptual Framework for the Prevention of the Use of Psychotropic Drugs among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Yan Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a theoretical paper with an aim to construct an integrated conceptual framework for the prevention of adolescents' use and abuse of psychotropic drugs. This paper first reports the subjective reasons for adolescents' drug use and abuse in Hong Kong and reviews the theoretical underpinnings. Theories of drug use and abuse, including neurological, pharmacological, genetic predisposition, psychological, and sociological theories, were reviewed. It provides a critical re-examination of crucial factors that support the construction of a conceptual framework for primary prevention of adolescents' drug use and abuse building on, with minor revision, the model of victimization and substance abuse among women presented by Logan et al. This revised model provides a comprehensive and coherent framework synthesized from theories of drug abuse. This paper then provides empirical support for integrating a positive youth development perspective in the revised model. It further explains how the 15 empirically sound constructs identified by Catalano et al. and used in a positive youth development program, the Project P.A.T.H.S., relate generally to the components of the revised model to formulate an integrated positive youth development conceptual framework for primary prevention of adolescent drug use. Theoretical and practical implications as well as limitations and recommendations are discussed.

  3. Personality and emotional processing: A relationship between extraversion and the late positive potential in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Brittany C; Nelson, Brady D; Perlman, Greg; Klein, Daniel N; Kotov, Roman; Hajcak, Greg

    2015-08-01

    Neuroticism and extraversion are multifaceted affective-laden personality traits that have been associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). Research and theory have argued that extraversion, and particularly its facet positive emotionality, is specific to MDD, while neuroticism is common across internalizing disorders. Converging evidence has suggested that MDD is associated with reduced engagement with emotional stimuli, but it remains unclear whether either extraversion, neuroticism, or both modulate reactivity to emotional cues. The late positive potential (LPP) is an event-related brain potential that is uniquely suited to assess engagement with emotional stimuli because it reflects sustained attention toward emotional content. The current study examined the LPP in relation to personality traits that may confer risk for depression by examining the relationship between the LPP and both neuroticism and extraversion in never-depressed adolescent girls. Specifically, 550 girls aged 13.5-15.5 with no lifetime history of depression completed an emotional picture-viewing task, and the LPP was measured in response to neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures. Personality traits were gathered via self- and informant report. Results indicated that high extraversion was associated with a potentiated LPP to emotional pictures-and this effect was accounted for by positive emotionality in particular. In contrast, there was no association between the LPP and neuroticism or its facets. The present study is one of the first to demonstrate that extraversion is associated with variation in neural indices of emotional picture processing, similar to what has been observed among individuals with depression and at high risk for depression.

  4. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and risk of screening positive for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porcel, Jacqueline; Feigal, Christine; Poye, Laney; Postma, Ineke R.; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Olowoyeye, Abiola; Tsigas, Eleni; Wilson, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy (HDP) encompass a spectrum of disorders that affect 6-8% of US pregnancies. We aim to determine the impact of self-reported history of HDP as a risk factor for screening positive for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which results from exposure to

  5. Recall of symptoms and treatment of syphilis and yaws by healthy blood donors screening positive for syphilis in Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Sarkodie

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: A small proportion of confirmed seroreactive donors in this sample had any recall of symptoms or treatment for yaws or syphilis. These data suggest that clinical questioning adds little further information to the current screening algorithm. The relative contribution of yaws and syphilis to frequent positive tests in endemic areas remains speculative.

  6. The importance of a positive approach to sexuality in sexual health programmes for unmarried adolescents in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Reeuwijk, Miranda; Nahar, Papreen

    2013-05-01

    This article explores the mismatch that exists between what unmarried adolescents in Bangladesh experience, want and need in regard to their sexuality and what they receive from their society, which negatively impacts on their understanding of sexuality and their well-being. The findings provide a picture of Bangladeshi adolescents' (12-18 years) sexual feelings, experiences, behaviours, anxieties and concerns - in particular in relation to desire, pleasure, sexual power, masturbation, virginity, romantic love and dating, and arranged marriage - and how socio-sexual norms and taboos influence these. Curiosity of boys and girls about sex was driven by a need and desire to know and understand, but also because it was exciting to read about and talk about sex. Young people are not just passive recipients of adult norms and messages around sexuality, but agents who actively construe meanings and navigate between what is expected from them and what they want, need and feel themselves. Adolescents have a need for information and support - long before they ever have sex. We call for a positive, rights-based approach to sexuality education for adolescents and a focus beyond health outcomes alone to support adolescents and young people to make sense of the multiplicity of messages they encounter and reduce unnecessary feelings of guilt and anxiety.

  7. School based screening for tuberculosis infection in Norway: comparison of positive tuberculin skin test with interferon-gamma release assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winje, Brita Askeland; Oftung, Fredrik; Korsvold, Gro Ellen; Mannsåker, Turid; Ly, Ingvild Nesthus; Harstad, Ingunn; Dyrhol-Riise, Anne Margarita; Heldal, Einar

    2008-01-01

    Background In Norway, screening for tuberculosis infection by tuberculin skin test (TST) has been offered for several decades to all children in 9th grade of school, prior to BCG-vaccination. The incidence of tuberculosis in Norway is low and infection with M. tuberculosis is considered rare. QuantiFERON®TB Gold (QFT) is a new and specific blood test for tuberculosis infection. So far, there have been few reports of QFT used in screening of predominantly unexposed, healthy, TST-positive children, including first and second generation immigrants. In order to evaluate the current TST screening and BCG-vaccination programme we aimed to (1) measure the prevalence of QFT positivity among TST positive children identified in the school based screening, and (2) measure the association between demographic and clinical risk factors for tuberculosis infection and QFT positivity. Methods This cross-sectional multi-centre study was conducted during the school year 2005–6 and the TST positive children were recruited from seven public hospitals covering rural and urban areas in Norway. Participation included a QFT test and a questionnaire regarding demographic and clinical risk factors for latent infection. All positive QFT results were confirmed by re-analysis of the same plasma sample. If the confirmatory test was negative the result was reported as non-conclusive and the participant was offered a new test. Results Among 511 TST positive children only 9% (44) had a confirmed positive QFT result. QFT positivity was associated with larger TST induration, origin outside Western countries and known exposure to tuberculosis. Most children (79%) had TST reactions in the range of 6–14 mm; 5% of these were QFT positive. Discrepant results between the tests were common even for TST reactions above 15 mm, as only 22 % had a positive QFT. Conclusion The results support the assumption that factors other than tuberculosis infection are widely contributing to positive TST results in

  8. Adolescent Scoliosis Screening in Nara City Schools: A 23-Year Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Shigematsu, Hideki; Kadono, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Yukihiro; Tatematsu, Masataka; Okuda, Akinori; Iwata, Eiichiro; Koizumi, Munehisa; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective cross-sectional study. Purpose To determine the prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis, define the distribution of the curve magnitude, evaluate the accuracy of Moiré topography as a screening tool, and investigate the cost-effectiveness of our screening system. Overview of Literature Early detection of idiopathic scoliosis provides the opportunity for conservative treatment before the deformity is noticeable. We believe that scoliosis screening in schools is useful for...

  9. Adolescent Scoliosis Screening in Nara City Schools: A 23-Year Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study.

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMOTO, Satoshi; Shigematsu, Hideki; Kadono, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Yukihiro; Tatematsu, Masataka; Okuda, Akinori; Iwata, Eiichiro; Koizumi, Munehisa; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis, define the distribution of the curve magnitude, evaluate the accuracy of Moiré topography as a screening tool, and investigate the cost-effectiveness of our screening system. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Early detection of idiopathic scoliosis provides the opportunity for conservative treatment before the deformity is noticeable. We believe that scoliosis screening in schools is useful ...

  10. [Screening for subclinical complications in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: experience acquired in Brussels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorchy, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Clinical studies conducted since the 1970s by the pediatric diabetology group of the Free University of Brussels have demonstrated that screening for subclinical retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy should be started at puberty and at least 3 years after the diabetes diagnosis with the goal of detecting early abnormalities responsible for subclinical disorders that can be reversed by improved metabolic control, thus preventing the occurrence of irreversible potentially incapacitating lesions. A 1974 retinal fluorescein angiography study showed that the development of microaneurysms, which are irreversible lesions, could be preceded by fluorescein leakage due to disruption of the blood-retinal barrier. Risk factors for early retinopathy include: duration of diabetes, age at diagnosis (with younger children having longer times to retinopathy), puberty and sex (with onset one year earlier in girls than in boys), long-term bad metabolic control over several years, high cholesterol levels and excessive body mass index (2002). On the other hand, rapid improvement of diabetic control may worsen diabetic retinopathy (1985). Minimal EEG abnormalities were found in relationship with frequent and severe hypoglycemic comas and/or convulsions, and retinopathy (1979). Desynchronization of action potentials in distal nerve fibers preceded conduction velocity slowing (1981). A single high glycated hemoglobin value was associated with peroneal motor nerve conduction slowing (1985), which was not observed in the femoral nerve (1987). Sympathetic skin response (1996) and statistical analysis of heart rate variability (2001) could have some interest for the diagnosis of early diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Early microproteinuria is of mixed origin, being both glomerular (microalbumin) and tubular (beta2-microglobulin). Exercise testing to exhaustion did not provide additional information than the basal excretion (1976). Microtransferrinuria (1984) and urinary acid

  11. Positive Development in Adolescence: The Development and Role of Intentional Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestsdottir, Steinunn; Lerner, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of marked change in the person's cognitive, physical, psychological, and social development and in the individual's relations with the people and institutions of the social world. These changes place adaptational demands on adolescents, ones involving relations between their actions upon the context and the action of the…

  12. A computerised screening instrument for adolescent depression: population-based validation and application to a two-phase case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, G C; Coffey, C; Posterino, M; Carlin, J B; Wolfe, R; Bowes, G

    1999-03-01

    Computer-administered questionnaires have been little explored as a potentially effective and inexpensive alternative to pencil and paper screening tests. A self-administered computerised form of the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R) was compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) in a two-phase study of 2032 Australian high school students (mean age 15.7 years) drawn from a stratified random sample of 44 schools in the state of Victoria, Australia. Prevalence, sensitivity and specificity were estimated using weighting to compensate for the two-phase sampling. Point prevalence estimates of depression using the CIS-R were 1.8% for males and 5.6% for females--an overall prevalence of 3.2%. Prevalence estimates for depression in the past 6 months using the CIDI were 5.2% for males and 16.9% for females--an overall estimate of 12.1%. The CIS-R had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.49 and negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.91 for CIDI depression in the past 6 months. Specificity was very high (0.97) but sensitivity low (0.18), indicating that a majority of those with a CIDI-defined depressive episode in the past 6 months were not recognised at a single screening using the CIS-R. Even so, the CIS-R has proved at least as good as any pencil and paper questionnaire in identifying cases for nested case-control studies of adolescent depression. Further exploration of strategies such as serial screening to enhance sensitivity is warranted.

  13. Impact of intermediate mammography assessment on the likelihood of false-positive results in breast cancer screening programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascunce, Nieves [Public Health Institute, CIBERESP, Navarra Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Pamplona (Spain); Instituto de Salud Publica, Navarra Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Pamplona (Spain); Ederra, Maria; Delfrade, Josu; Erdozain, Nieves [Public Health Institute, CIBERESP, Navarra Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Pamplona (Spain); Baroja, Araceli [Fundacion Rioja Salud, Logrono (Spain); Zubizarreta, Raquel [Public Health and Planning Directorate, Health Office, Galician Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Galicia (Spain); Salas, Dolores [General Directorate Public Health and Centre for Public Health Research (CSISP), Valencia (Spain); Castells, Xavier [Mar Teaching Hospital, CIBERESP, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-02-15

    Breast cancer screening is offered to 100% of the target population in Spain and intermediate mammograms (IMs) are sometimes indicated. This study was aimed at analysing the frequency of IMs, the factors determining their recommendation, and their impact on the risk of false-positive results and the detection rate. Data from 3,471,307 mammograms from Spanish breast cancer screening programmes were included. 3.36% of the mammograms were IMs. The factors associated with the use of IMs were age, initial screening, previous invasive tests, a familial history of breast cancer and use of hormone replacement therapy. In screening episodes with an IM, the probability of a false-positive result was 13.74% (95% CI: 13.43-14.05), almost double that in episodes without IMs (6.02%, 95% CI 5.99-6.05). In young women with previous invasive procedures, a familial history of breast cancer or hormone replacement therapy use who were undergoing their initial screen, this probability was lower when IMs were performed. IMs always increased the detection rate. The factors prompting IMs should be characterised so that radiologists can systematise their recommendations according to the presence of the factors maximising the benefits and minimising the adverse effects of this procedure. (orig.)

  14. How and why community hospital clinicians document a positive screen for intimate partner violence: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Richard C

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This two-part study examines primary care clinicians' chart documentation and attitudes when confronted by a positive waiting room screen for intimate partner violence (IPV. Methods Patients at community hospital-affiliated health centers completed a screening questionnaire in waiting rooms that primary care providers (PCPs were subsequently given at the time of the visit. We first reviewed the medical records of patients who screened positive for IPV, evaluating the presence and quality of documentation. Next we administered a survey to PCPs that measured their knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding IPV. Results Seventy-two percent of charts contained some documentation of IPV, however only 10% contained both a referral and safety plan. PCPs were more likely to refer patients (p Conclusion Mandatory waiting room screening for IPV does not result in high levels of referral or safety planning by PCPs. Despite the implementation of a screening process, clinicians lack confidence and time to address IPV in their patient populations suggesting that alternative methods of training and supporting PCPs need to be developed.

  15. Twelve weeks of dance exergaming in overweight and obese adolescent girls: Transfer effects on physical activity, screen time, and self-efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E. Staiano

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Exergaming for 12 weeks was associated with positive impacts on adolescent girls' self-reported PA, television viewing, self-efficacy, and intrinsic motivation. Future research is warranted to leverage exergames as an enjoyable, motivating, and effective PA tool.

  16. Development of a Positive Youth Development Program: Promoting the Mental Health of Stressful Adolescents Using Principles of Problem Solving Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T.L. Shek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the proposal for the development, implementation, and evaluation of a positive youth development program that attempts to promote the mental health of stressful Chinese adolescents using principles of Problem Solving Therapy (PST. There are two general aims of PST: to help clients identify life difficulties and resolve them, as well as to teach them skills on how to deal with future problems. The proposed project will utilize the principles of PST as the guiding framework to run two mental health promotion courses for adolescents who are experiencing disturbing stressful responses and students who want to improve their stress management style. Both objective and subjective outcome evaluation strategies will be carried out to assess the effectiveness of the intervention to promote the psychological well-being in adolescents who are experiencing stress. A related sample proposal is described that can give social workers some insight on how to prepare a proposal for developing the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs.

  17. Problems, solutions, and perspectives in the evaluation of interval cancers in Italian mammography screening programmes: a position paper from the Italian group for mammography screening (GISMa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchi, Lauro; Frigerio, Alfonso; Zorzi, Manuel; Fedato, Chiara; Angiolucci, Giovanni; Bernardi, Daniela; Campari, Cinzia; Crocetti, Emanuele; Ferretti, Stefano; Giorgi, Daniela; Marchisio, Francesca; Morrone, Doralba; Naldoni, Carlo; Petrella, Marco; Ponti, Antonio; Ravaioli, Alessandra; Saguatti, Gianni; Santini, Dolores; Sassoli de Bianchi, Priscilla; Serafini, Monica; Vergini, Viviana; Giordano, Livia

    2015-01-01

    In this position paper, a self-convened team of experts from the Italian Group for Mammography Screening (Gruppo italiano screening mammografico, GISMa) pointed out the problems that increasingly hamper the feasibility and validity of the estimate of the proportional incidence of interval breast cancer (IBC) in Italy, suggested potential solutions and an agenda for research, and proposed that the question of the sensitivity of mammography be viewed in a larger perspective, with a greater attention to radiological review activities and breast radiology quality assurance programmes. The main problems are as follows: the coverage of cancer registration is incomplete; the robustness of using the pre-screening incidence rates as underlying rates decreases with time since the start of screening; the intermediate mammograms performed for early detection purposes may cause an overrepresentation of IBCs; the classification of many borderline screening histories is prone to subjectivity; and, finally, the composition of cohorts of women with negative screening results is uncertain, because several mammography reports are neither clearly negative nor clearly positive, and because of the limitations and instability of the electronic mammography records. Several possibilities can be considered to cope with these issues: standard methods for using the hospital discharge records in the identification of IBCs should be established; for the calculation of regional estimates of the underlying incidence, a suitable mathematical model should be identified; the definition of IBC according to the 2008 GISMa guidelines needs to be updated, especially with respect to in situ cancers and to invasive cancers with borderline screening histories; a closer adherence to standard screening protocols, with a simplified patient management, would make it easier to objectively identify IBCs; alternative methods for estimating the sensitivity of mammography should be taken into consideration; and

  18. Incomplete follow-up of positive HPV tests: overview of randomised controlled trials on primary cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, M; Lynge, E

    2010-01-01

    Background:It has been suggested that adjustment for incomplete compliance with follow-up in women with positive human papillomavirus (HPV) tests would be appropriate for estimating the true sensitivity of cervical screening with HPV testing. We assessed the compliance and its impact on >/=CIN3...... for colposcopy was around 90% in all RCTs, whereas compliance with repeated testing among HPV-positive/cytology-negative women was around 60% in three RCTs and 73% in one RCT. Detection of >/=CIN3 was significantly increased in two out of six RCTs with reported data. The correlation between compliance...... with follow-up in HPV-positive women and relative >/=CIN3 detection was 0.48 (P=0.33).Conclusion:There is at present scant evidence to support the view that the measured sensitivity of HPV screening is a simple reflection of compliance with follow-up. Adjustment of measured cervical intraepithelial neoplasia...

  19. Music, Technology and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Effectiveness of the Touch Screen Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Ashleigh; Greher, Gena; Queenan, Alexa; Marshall, Savannah; Kopec, Justin

    2016-01-01

    The use of technology in music education is gaining momentum, although very little work has focused on students with disabilities. Our "SoundScape" programme addressed this gap through implementing a technology-based music programme for adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Programme participants met on a…

  20. Validity and reliability of the Turkish version of CRAFFT Substance Abuse Screening Test among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandemir H

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hasan Kandemir,1 Ömer Aydemir,2 Suat Ekinci,3 Salih Selek,4 Sultan B Kandemir,5 Hüseyin Bayazit61Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Harran University, Sanliurfa, 2Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, 3Balikli Rum Hospital, Istanbul, 4Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, USA; 5Department of Psychiatry, Balikligol State Hospital, Sanliurfa, 6Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Harran University, Sanliurfa, TurkeyAim: This study aimed to validate the CRAFFT diagnostic test, against the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fourth Edition, Axis 1-based diagnostic inventory in a Turkish population of adolescents.Method: The 124 adolescents who were 15–18 years old were enrolled to this study. CRAFFT was self-administered. Interviews took approximately 30 minutes, including the DSM-IV diagnostic interview for alcohol/drug dependence.Results: The mean age of subjects was 16.653 years (minimum: 15 years, maximum: 18 years. A score of 2 or higher in part B was found to be optimal for detecting youths with substance dependence problems (sensitivity: 0.82; specificity: 0.88 and it was sufficiently discriminative.Conclusion: The CRAFFT is a valid and reliable instrument for identifying Turkish-speaking youths at risk for substance use disorders.Keywords: CRAFFT, substance abuse, validity, Turkish, adolescent

  1. The Child Suicide Risk Assessment: A Screening Measure of Suicide Risk in Pre-Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzelere, Robert E.; Andersen, Jamie J.; Ringle, Jay L.; Jorgensen, Dan D.

    2004-01-01

    This study documents the initial reliability and validity of the Child Suicide Risk Assessment (CSRA) for children under the age of 13. The revised CSRA retained 18 of 20 original items based on item-specific psychometric data from 140 pre-adolescents in out-of-home treatment programs. The CSRA demonstrated adequate internal consistency (alpha =…

  2. Indirect Effects of Attributional Style for Positive Events on Depressive Symptoms Through Self-Esteem During Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; George, Rachel

    2017-04-01

    Research on adolescent depression has overwhelmingly focused on risk factors, such as stressful negative events and cognitive vulnerabilities, but much important information can be gained by focusing on protective factors. Thus, the current study aimed to broaden understanding on adolescent depression by considering the role of two positive elements as protective factors, attributional style for positive events and self-esteem, in a model of depression. The sample included 491 middle school students (52 % female; n = 249) with an age range from 12 to 15 years (M = 13.2, SD = .70). The sample was ethnically/racially diverse, with 55 % White, 22 % Hispanic, 10 % Asian American, 3 % African American, and 10 % Biracial/Other. Correlational analyses indicated significant cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between an enhancing attributional style (internal, stable, global attributions for positive events), self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Further, prospective analyses using bootstrapping methodology demonstrated significant indirect effects of an enhancing attributional style on decreases in depressive symptoms through its effects on self-esteem. These findings highlight the importance of considering attributional style for positive events as a protective factor in the developmental course of depressive symptoms during early adolescence.

  3. Patients' & healthcare professionals' values regarding true- & false-positive diagnosis when colorectal cancer screening by CT colonography: discrete choice experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Boone

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish the relative weighting given by patients and healthcare professionals to gains in diagnostic sensitivity versus loss of specificity when using CT colonography (CTC for colorectal cancer screening. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following ethical approval and informed consent, 75 patients and 50 healthcare professionals undertook a discrete choice experiment in which they chose between "standard" CTC and "enhanced" CTC that raised diagnostic sensitivity 10% for either cancer or polyps in exchange for varying levels of specificity. We established the relative increase in false-positive diagnoses participants traded for an increase in true-positive diagnoses. RESULTS: Data from 122 participants were analysed. There were 30 (25% non-traders for the cancer scenario and 20 (16% for the polyp scenario. For cancer, the 10% gain in sensitivity was traded up to a median 45% (IQR 25 to >85 drop in specificity, equating to 2250 (IQR 1250 to >4250 additional false-positives per additional true-positive cancer, at 0.2% prevalence. For polyps, the figure was 15% (IQR 7.5 to 55, equating to 6 (IQR 3 to 22 additional false-positives per additional true-positive polyp, at 25% prevalence. Tipping points were significantly higher for patients than professionals for both cancer (85 vs 25, p<0.001 and polyps (55 vs 15, p<0.001. Patients were willing to pay significantly more for increased sensitivity for cancer (p = 0.021. CONCLUSION: When screening for colorectal cancer, patients and professionals believe gains in true-positive diagnoses are worth much more than the negative consequences of a corresponding rise in false-positives. Evaluation of screening tests should account for this.

  4. Screening for depressive symptoms in adolescents at school: New validity evidences on the short form of the Reynolds Depression Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritio-Solana, Rebeca; Inchausti, Félix; Chocarro de Luis, Edurne; Lucas Molina, Beatriz; Pérez de Albéniz, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to assess the depressive symptomatology and to gather new validity evidences of the Reynolds Depression Scale-Short form (RADS-SF) in a representative sample of youths. The sample consisted of 2914 adolescents with a mean age of 15.85 years (SD = 1.68). We calculated the descriptive statistics and internal consistency of the RADS-SF scores. Also, confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) at the item level and successive multigroup CFAs to test measurement invariance, were conducted. Latent mean differences across gender and educational level groups were estimated, and finally, we studied the sources of validity evidences with other external variables. The level of internal consistency of the RADS-SF Total score by means of Ordinal alpha was .89. Results from CFAs showed that the one-dimensional model displayed appropriate goodness of-fit indices with CFI value over .95, and RMSEA value under .08. In addition, the results support the strong measurement invariance of the RADS-SF scores across gender and age. When latent means were compared, statistically significant differences were found by gender and age. Females scored 0.347 over than males in Depression latent variable, whereas older adolescents scored 0.111 higher than the younger group. In addition, the RADS-SF score was associated with the RADS scores. The results suggest that the RADS-SF could be used as an efficient screening test to assess self-reported depressive symptoms in adolescents from the general population. PMID:28222193

  5. Development and Implementation of a Smartphone Application to Promote Physical Activity and Reduce Screen-time in Adolescent Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Revalds Lubans

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The primary aim is to describe the development and implementation of a smartphone application (app designed to promote physical activity and reduce screen-time in adolescent boys ‘at risk’ of obesity from low-income communities.Methods: An app was developed to support the delivery of a face-to-face school-based obesity prevention program known as the ‘Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time’ (ATLAS program. ATLAS was guided by self-determination theory and social cognitive theory and evaluated using a cluster randomized controlled trial with 361 boys (12.7± 0.5 years in 14 secondary schools. Following the completion of the study, participants in the intervention group completed a process evaluation questionnaire and focus groups were conducted with 42 students to explore their general perceptions of the ATLAS program and their experience with the smartphone app. Barriers and challenges encountered in the development, implementation and evaluation of the app are also described.Results: Participation in the study was not contingent on ownership of a smartphone, but 70% of participants in the intervention group reported having access to a smartphone or tablet device. Focus group participants reported an enjoyment of the program, and felt that it had provided them with new skills, techniques, and routines for the future. However, their engagement with the smartphone app was limited, due to a variety of reasons. Barriers to the implementation and evaluation of the app included limited access to smartphone devices, technical problems with the push notifications, lack of access to usage data and the challenges of maintaining participants’ interest in using the app.Conclusions: Although participants reported high levels of satisfaction with the ATLAS program in general, the smartphone app was not used extensively. Additional strategies and features may be needed to enhance engagement in adolescent boys.

  6. Region-specific upregulation of parvalbumin-, but not calretinin-positive cells in the ventral hippocampus during adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero, Adriana; Diah, Kimberly C.; Tseng, Kuei Y.

    2013-01-01

    Animal studies have highlighted the role of the ventral hippocampus-prefrontal cortex pathway in the acquisition of mature cortical function through refinement of GABAergic circuits during adolescence. Inhibitory GABAergic responses are mediated by highly specialized interneurons, which have distinct functional properties and are characterized by the expression of calcium binding proteins. Among these, we recently found that parvalbumin (PV)- and calretinin (CR)-positive interneurons in the p...

  7. The Effect of Positive Adolescent Life Skills Training on Long Term Outcomes for High-Risk Teens

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell-Heider, Nancy; Tuttle, Jane; Thomas R. Knapp

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on long term follow-up data—12 months post intervention—from a clinical trial of an intervention designed to enhance teen resilience by supporting the development of social skills needed to make positive connections and overcome the influence of negative environmental influences. Sixteen adolescents aged 12 to 16 (10 boys and 6 girls) attending an inner city urban secondary school participated in a 32 week intervention study. Subjects were randomly assigned within sex to Te...

  8. Early memories of positive emotions and its relationships to attachment styles, self-compassion and psychopathology in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Marina; Martinho, Maria Inês; Xavier,Ana Maria; Espirito-Santo,Helena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Literature has shown that early childhood experiences, especially those related to feelings of threat or safeness play a key role in emotional and social subsequent development. Objectives: (1) examine the impact of early memories of warmth and safeness on quality of attachment in adolescents; (2) Explore the relationship between early positive memories, self-compassion and psychopathology (depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms); (3) Explore the relative contri...

  9. Sleep restriction is not associated with a positive energy balance in adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingenberg, Lars; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Holmbäck, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    A short sleep (SS) duration has been linked to obesity in observational studies. However, experimental evidence of the potential mechanisms of sleep restriction on energy balance is conflicting and, to our knowledge, nonexistent in adolescents....

  10. Socioeconomic position, macroeconomic environment and overweight among adolescents in 35 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Damsgaard, M T; Rasmussen, Mette;

    2009-01-01

    It is important to understand levels and social inequalities in childhood overweight within and between countries. This study examined prevalence and social inequality in adolescent overweight in 35 countries, and associations with macroeconomic factors....

  11. Balancing the false negative and positive rates in suspect screening with high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry using multivariate statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergeynst, Leendert; Van Langenhove, Herman; Demeestere, Kristof

    2015-02-17

    Modern high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) enables full-spectrum trace level analysis of emerging environmental organic contaminants. This raises the opportunity for post-acquisition suspect screening when no reference standards are a priori available. When setting up a conventional screening identification train based on successively different identification criteria including mass error and isotope fit, the false negative rate typically accumulates upon advancing through the decision tree. The challenge is thus to elaborate a well-balanced screening, in which the different criteria are equally stringent, leading to a controllable number of false negatives. Presented is a novel suspect screening approach using liquid-chromatography Orbitrap HRMS. Based on a multivariate statistical model, the screening takes into account the accurate mass error of the mono isotopic ion and up to three isotopes, isotope ratios, and a peak/noise filter. As such, for the first time, controlling the overall false negative rate of the screening algorithm to a desired level (5% in this study) is achieved. Simultaneously, a well-balanced identification decision is guaranteed taking the different identification criteria as a whole in a holistic statistical approach. Taking into account 1, 2, and 3 isotopes decreases the false positive rate from 22, 2.8 to <0.3%, but the cost of increasing the median limits of identification from 200, 2000 to 2062 ng L(-1), respectively, should also be considered. As proof of concept, 7 biologically treated wastewaters were screened toward 77 suspect pharmaceuticals resulting in the indicative identification of 25 suspects. Subsequently obtained reference standards allowed confirmation for 19 out of these 25 pharmaceutical contaminants.

  12. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Position Statement on Screening Individuals at Average Risk for Developing Colorectal Cancer: 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond J Leddin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology and the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation published guidelines on colon cancer screening in 2004. Subsequent to the publication of these guidelines, many advances have occurred, thereby necessitating a review of the existing guidelines in the context of new technologies and clinical knowledge. The assembled guideline panel recognized three recent American sets of guidelines and identified seven issues that required comment from a Canadian perspective. These issues included, among others, the role of program-based screening, flexible sigmoidoscopy, computed tomography colonography, barium enema and quality improvement. The panel also provided context for the selection of the fecal immunochemical test as the fecal occult blood test of choice, and the relative role of colonoscopy as a primary screening tool. Recommendations were also provided for an upper age limit for colon cancer screening, whether upper endoscopy should be performed following a negative colonoscopy for a positive fecal occult blood test and when colon cancer screening should resume following negative colonoscopy.

  13. Effect of radiologist experience on the risk of false-positive results in breast cancer screening programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubizarreta Alberdi, Raquel [Galician Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Public Health and Planning Directorate, Health Office, Galicia (Spain); Edificio Administrativo da Conselleria de Sanidade, Servicio de Programas Poboacionais de Cribado, Direccion Xeral de Saude Publica e Planificacion, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Llanes, Ana B.F.; Ortega, Raquel Almazan [Galician Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Public Health and Planning Directorate, Health Office, Galicia (Spain); Exposito, Ruben Roman; Collado, Jose M.V.; Oliveres, Xavier Castells [Department of Epidemiology and Evaluation, Institut Municipal d' Investigacio Medica-Parc de Salut Mar. CIBERESP, Barcelona (Spain); Queiro Verdes, Teresa [Galician Agency for Health Technology Assessment, Public Health and Planning Directorate, Health Office, Galicia (Spain); Natal Ramos, Carmen [Principality of Asturias Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Principality of Asturias (Spain); Sanz, Maria Ederra [Public Health Institute, Navarra Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Pamplona (Spain); Salas Trejo, Dolores [General Directorate Public Health and Centre for Public Health Research (CSISP), Valencia Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    To evaluate the effect of radiologist experience on the risk of false-positive results in population-based breast cancer screening programmes. We evaluated 1,440,384 single-read screening mammograms, corresponding to 471,112 women aged 45-69 years participating in four Spanish programmes between 1990 and 2006. The mammograms were interpreted by 72 radiologists. The overall percentage of false-positive results was 5.85% and that for false-positives resulting in an invasive procedure was 0.38%. Both the risk of false-positives overall and of false-positives leading to an invasive procedure significantly decreased (p < 0.001) with greater reading volume in the previous year: OR 0.77 and OR 0.78, respectively, for a reading volume 500-1,999 mammograms and OR 0.59 and OR 0.60 for a reading volume of >14,999 mammograms with respect to the reference category (<500). The risk of both categories of false-positives was also significantly reduced (p < 0.001) as radiologists' years of experience increased: OR 0.96 and OR 0.84, respectively, for 1 year's experience and OR 0.72 and OR 0.73, respectively, for more than 4 years' experience with regard to the category of <1 year's experience. Radiologist experience is a determining factor in the risk of a false-positive result in breast cancer screening. (orig.)

  14. A randomized trial of the Positive Thoughts and Action program for depression among early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Carolyn A; Violette, Heather D; Duong, Mylien T; Cruz, Rick A; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the outcomes of a group-based cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention (Positive Thoughts and Actions [PTA]) tailored to youth in middle school with a brief, individually administered supportive intervention (Individual Support Program [ISP]). A randomized, controlled trial was conducted with 120 early adolescents (72 girls, 48 boys; age = 11-15 years) who had elevated depressive symptoms and were selected from a school-based population. Measures of internalizing problems, externalizing problems, personal adjustment, school problems, and interpersonal relations were obtained from parents, youth, and/or teachers at preintervention (Time 1) and postintervention (Time 2, 5-7 months after preintervention). General linear model repeated measures analyses yielded a significant Group × Time interaction on youth-reported, but not parent-reported, depressive symptoms and internalizing symptoms. Youth in the PTA group showed greater decreases following intervention compared to youth who received ISP, yielding effect sizes (Cohen's d) of 0.36 for depressive symptoms, 95% CI [-.02, .73], and 0.44, 95% CI [.05, .82], for internalizing symptoms. PTA youth also showed improvements in their personal adjustment (sense of inadequacy, self-esteem), and parent-reported social skills, but no differences emerged between groups for externalizing symptoms, school problems, or interpersonal relationships. Cognitive-behavioral preventive interventions in which youth engage in personal goal-setting and practice social-emotional skills, such as PTA, may be beneficial for the reduction of depressive symptoms over and above general support and empathy.

  15. Coping strategies to manage acculturative stress: Meaningful activity participation, social support, and positive emotion among Korean immigrant adolescents in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyoung Kim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available During acculturation, Asian immigrant adolescents have numerous challenges such as language barriers, cultural and ethnic differences, different school environments, discrimination experiences, and intergroup conflicts and tension. These challenges generate acculturative stress, which negatively affects the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. This article explored how Asian immigrant adolescents perceive and cope with acculturative stress. In particular, this study examined the stress-coping strategies in the adaptation process as experienced by Korean immigrant adolescents. Three main themes associated with the stress-coping strategies were captured: (a engagement in meaningful activities; (b social support; and (c positive emotion. This finding implies that Asian immigrant adolescents create and develop their own strategies to deal with acculturative stress, which results in a sense of happiness and psychological well-being. This study discuss the future implications on how to improve the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents.

  16. Theoretical study of a screened Hartree–Fock exchange potential using position-dependent atomic dielectric constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimazaki, Tomomi; Nakajima, Takahito [RIKEN, Advanced Institute for Computational Science, 7-1-26 Minatojima-minami-machi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan)

    2015-02-21

    Dielectric-dependent screened Hartree–Fock (HF) exchange potential and Slater-formula have been reported, where the ratio of the HF exchange term mixed into potentials is inversely proportional to the dielectric constant of the target semiconductor. This study introduces a position-dependent dielectric constant method in which the dielectric constant is partitioned between the atoms in a semiconductor. These partitioned values differ depending on the electrostatic environment surrounding the atoms and lead to position-dependent atomic dielectric constants. These atomic dielectric constants provide atomic orbital-based matrix elements for the screened exchange potentials. Energy band structures of several semiconductors and insulators are also presented to validate this approach.

  17. Risk factors for VIA positivity and determinants of screening attendances in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahesa, Crispin; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Ngoma, Twalib;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Tanzania is among the countries in the world where the cervical cancer incidence is estimated to be highest. Acknowledging an increase in the burden of cervical cancer, VIA was implemented as a regional cervical cancer screening strategy in Tanzania in 2002. With the aim of ...

  18. Cervical screening in HIV-positive women in the East of England: recent CD4 as the predictive risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Olubanke; Rajamanoharan, Sasikala; Balachandran, Thambiah

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the relationship between CD4 count and cervical cytological abnormality in HIV-positive women attending two district general hospital genitourinary medicine clinics in the East of England. It aims to determine whether the rate of cervical cytological abnormalities differs in HIV-positive women with CD4 count >350 cells/µl and those with CD4 count ≤350 cells/µl; and to compare the rates of abnormalities with that of the general population. We retrospectively reviewed data from a cross-sectional audit undertaken between December 2010 and December 2011 and analysed them using multivariable statistics. There was a significant association between recent CD4 count ≤350 cells/µl and cervical cytological abnormality (p 350 cells/µl had abnormal cervical smear results, compared with 6.6% of the general population in the screening period 2010-11 and 7.2% of the general population in the screening period 2009-10. In our study population of women with recent CD4 counts >350 cells/µl, the proportions of mild, moderate and severe dysplasia were also similar to national figures. This raises important questions about the cost effectiveness of blanket annual screening for HIV-positive women.

  19. Application of computer-extracted breast tissue texture features in predicting false-positive recalls from screening mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Shonket; Choi, Jae Y.; Keller, Brad M.; Chen, Jinbo; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2014-03-01

    Mammographic texture features have been shown to have value in breast cancer risk assessment. Previous models have also been developed that use computer-extracted mammographic features of breast tissue complexity to predict the risk of false-positive (FP) recall from breast cancer screening with digital mammography. This work details a novel locallyadaptive parenchymal texture analysis algorithm that identifies and extracts mammographic features of local parenchymal tissue complexity potentially relevant for false-positive biopsy prediction. This algorithm has two important aspects: (1) the adaptive nature of automatically determining an optimal number of region-of-interests (ROIs) in the image and each ROI's corresponding size based on the parenchymal tissue distribution over the whole breast region and (2) characterizing both the local and global mammographic appearances of the parenchymal tissue that could provide more discriminative information for FP biopsy risk prediction. Preliminary results show that this locallyadaptive texture analysis algorithm, in conjunction with logistic regression, can predict the likelihood of false-positive biopsy with an ROC performance value of AUC=0.92 (pclinical implications of using prediction models incorporating these texture features may include the future development of better tools and guidelines regarding personalized breast cancer screening recommendations. Further studies are warranted to prospectively validate our findings in larger screening populations and evaluate their clinical utility.

  20. No differences in ventral striatum responsivity between adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kathrin U; Gan, Gabriela; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lawrence, Claire; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Ströhle, Andreas; Struve, Maren; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael N

    2015-05-01

    Individuals with alcohol-dependent parents show an elevated risk of developing alcohol-related problems themselves. Modulations of the mesolimbic reward circuit have been postulated as a pre-existing marker of alcoholism. We tested whether a positive family history of alcoholism is correlated with ventral striatum functionality during a reward task. All participants performed a modified version of the monetary incentive delay task while their brain responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared 206 healthy adolescents (aged 13-15) who had any first- or second-degree relative with alcoholism to 206 matched controls with no biological relative with alcoholism. Reward anticipation as well as feedback of win recruited the ventral striatum in all participants, but adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism did not differ from their matched peers. Also we did not find any correlation between family history density and reward anticipation or feedback of win. This finding of no differences did not change when we analyzed a subsample of 77 adolescents with at least one parent with alcohol use disorder and their matched controls. Because this result is in line with another study reporting no differences between children with alcohol-dependent parents and controls at young age, but contrasts with studies of older individuals, one might conclude that at younger age the effect of family history has not yet exerted its influence on the still developing mesolimbic reward circuit.

  1. Distinguishing binders from false positives by free energy calculations: fragment screening against the flap site of HIV protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Nanjie; Forli, Stefano; He, Peng; Perryman, Alex; Wickstrom, Lauren; Vijayan, R S K; Tiefenbrunn, Theresa; Stout, David; Gallicchio, Emilio; Olson, Arthur J; Levy, Ronald M

    2015-01-22

    Molecular docking is a powerful tool used in drug discovery and structural biology for predicting the structures of ligand-receptor complexes. However, the accuracy of docking calculations can be limited by factors such as the neglect of protein reorganization in the scoring function; as a result, ligand screening can produce a high rate of false positive hits. Although absolute binding free energy methods still have difficulty in accurately rank-ordering binders, we believe that they can be fruitfully employed to distinguish binders from nonbinders and reduce the false positive rate. Here we study a set of ligands that dock favorably to a newly discovered, potentially allosteric site on the flap of HIV-1 protease. Fragment binding to this site stabilizes a closed form of protease, which could be exploited for the design of allosteric inhibitors. Twenty-three top-ranked protein-ligand complexes from AutoDock were subject to the free energy screening using two methods, the recently developed binding energy analysis method (BEDAM) and the standard double decoupling method (DDM). Free energy calculations correctly identified most of the false positives (≥83%) and recovered all the confirmed binders. The results show a gap averaging ≥3.7 kcal/mol, separating the binders and the false positives. We present a formula that decomposes the binding free energy into contributions from the receptor conformational macrostates, which provides insights into the roles of different binding modes. Our binding free energy component analysis further suggests that improving the treatment for the desolvation penalty associated with the unfulfilled polar groups could reduce the rate of false positive hits in docking. The current study demonstrates that the combination of docking with free energy methods can be very useful for more accurate ligand screening against valuable drug targets.

  2. Using CT colonography as a triage technique after a positive faecal occult blood test in colorectal cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedenbaum, M H; van Rijn, A F; de Vries, A H; Dekker, H M; Thomeer, M; van Marrewijk, C J; Hol, L; Dijkgraaf, M G W; Fockens, P; Bossuyt, P M M; Dekker, E; Stoker, J

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CT colonography (CTC) as a triage technique in faecal occult blood test (FOBT)-positive screening participants. Methods: Consecutive guaiac (G-FOBT) and immunochemical (I-FOBT) FOBT-positive patients scheduled for colonoscopy underwent CTC with iodine tagging bowel preparation. Each CTC was read independently by two experienced observers. Per patient sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were calculated based on double reading with different CTC cut-off lesion sizes using segmental unblinded colonoscopy as the reference standard. The acceptability of the technique to patients was evaluated with questionnaires. Results: 302 FOBT-positive patients were included (54 G-FOBT and 248 I-FOBT). 22 FOBT-positive patients (7%) had a colorectal carcinoma and 211 (70%) had a lesion ⩾6 mm. Participants considered colonoscopy more burdensome than CTC (p<0.05). Using a 6 mm CTC size cut-off, per patient sensitivity for CTC was 91% (95% CI 85% to 91%) and specificity was 69% (95% CI 60% to 89%) for the detection of colonoscopy lesions ⩾6 mm. The PPV of CTC was 87% (95% CI 80% to 93%) and NPV 77% (95% CI 69% to 85%). Using CTC as a triage technique in 100 FOBT-positive patients would mean that colonoscopy could be prevented in 28 patients while missing ⩾10 mm lesions in 2 patients. Conclusion: CTC with limited bowel preparation has reasonable predictive values in an FOBT-positive population and a higher acceptability to patients than colonoscopy. However, due to the high prevalence of clinically relevant lesions in FOBT-positive patients, CTC is unlikely to be an efficient triage technique in a first round FOBT population screening programme. PMID:19625276

  3. Evaluation of false positive results in microbial inhibitor tests for screening antibiotics in goat milk

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Rueda, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Goat milk is primarily destined for the production of fermented products, in particular cheese. Therefore, the control of antibiotic residues in milk is of great importance, since these could have negative repercussions on technological properties of the milk as well as on the health of consumers. In milk quality control programs, microbial inhibitor tests are widely applied to detect antibiotics during the screening stage. However, tests are non-specific and may be affected...

  4. Barriers to asymptomatic screening and other STD services for adolescents and young adults: focus group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leone Peter A

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are a major public health problem among young people and can lead to the spread of HIV. Previous studies have primarily addressed barriers to STD care for symptomatic patients. The purpose of our study was to identify perceptions about existing barriers to and ideal services for STDs, especially asymptomatic screening, among young people in a southeastern community. Methods Eight focus group discussions including 53 White, African American, and Latino youth (age 14–24 were conducted. Results Perceived barriers to care included lack of knowledge of STDs and available services, cost, shame associated with seeking services, long clinic waiting times, discrimination, and urethral specimen collection methods. Perceived features of ideal STD services included locations close to familiar places, extended hours, and urine-based screening. Television was perceived as the most effective route of disseminating STD information. Conclusions Further research is warranted to evaluate improving convenience, efficiency, and privacy of existing services; adding urine-based screening and new services closer to neighborhoods; and using mass media to disseminate STD information as strategies to increase STD screening.

  5. Region-specific upregulation of parvalbumin-, but not calretinin-positive cells in the ventral hippocampus during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Adriana; Diah, Kimberly C; Tseng, Kuei Y

    2013-12-01

    Animal studies have highlighted the role of the ventral hippocampus-prefrontal cortex pathway in the acquisition of mature cortical function through refinement of GABAergic circuits during adolescence. Inhibitory GABAergic responses are mediated by highly specialized interneurons, which have distinct functional properties and are characterized by the expression of calcium binding proteins. Among these, we recently found that parvalbumin (PV)- and calretinin (CR)-positive interneurons in the prefrontal cortex follow opposite developmental trajectories during the periadolescent transition period. In the present study, we asked whether interneurons expressing PV and CR in the ventral hippocampus follow similar periadolescent trajectories as seen in the prefrontal cortex. By measuring the relative abundance of these interneurons in three age groups (postnatal days (PD) 25-40, 45-55, and 60-85), we found that regions within the dorso-ventral axis of the ventral hippocampus undergo distinct developmental trajectories in PV expression during the periadolescent transition. Specifically, the ventral subiculum displayed a dramatic increase in PV-positive interneurons from PD25-40 to PD45-55 with an increasing rostro-caudal gradient, whereas negligible changes were found in the dorsal and middle regions. In contrast, the number of CR-positive interneurons in the ventral hippocampus remained unchanged across the three age groups studied. Together, these results describe for the first time that GABAergic circuits in the ventral hippocampus undergo protracted development during adolescence, in particular the PV-positive cell population circumscribed to the ventral region of the ventral hippocampus.

  6. Adolescent Literacy Practices and Positive Youth Development through Fink's Taxonomy of Significant Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Greathouse, Paula

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was not to disprove the effects of the current, common remedial literacy course design and the literacy practices within that help adolescent RLLs pass statewide assessment tests, but to describe the potential long-term impact of an innovative comprehensive approach to literacy (CAL) framed through an integrated course…

  7. Graduated Exposure and Positive Reinforcement to Overcome Setting and Activity Avoidance in an Adolescent with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Luiselli, James K.; Rue, Hanna; Whalley, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Some students who have developmental disabilities avoid settings and activities that can improve their learning and quality of life. This two-phase study concerned an adolescent boy with autism who avoided the gross-motor exercise room, gymnasium, and music room at his school; he demonstrated distress, agitation, and problem behaviors when…

  8. Positive association between blood Omega-3 index and cognition in healthy Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wurff, Inge; Von Schacky, Clemens; Berge, Kjetil; Zeegers, Maurice P; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Groot, Renate

    2016-01-01

    The impact of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) on cognition is heavily debated. In the current study, the possible association between omega-3 LCPUFAs in blood and cognitive performance of 266 typically developing adolescents aged 13–15 years is investigated. Baseline data fr

  9. Adolescent Reading/Viewing of Advertisements: Understandings from Transactional and Positioning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begoray, Deborah; Higgins, Joan Wharf; Harrison, Janie; Collins-Emery, Amy

    2013-01-01

    We examined middle years adolescents' (ages 12-13) responses to reading and viewing advertisements as part of integrated language arts and health education lessons. We report here on the qualitative results from student and teacher focus groups, and from student journals. Three regular classroom teachers co-developed (with university…

  10. Parental Education Level Positively Affects Self-Esteem of Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Barut, Yasar; Ersanli, Ercüment

    2013-01-01

    Although the literature on self-esteem has a long and prolific history in Turkey regarding which demographics may influence the self-esteem of adolescents. The research findings are intricate and undermine the need of further research in Turkey. This cross-sectional study re-examined the effects of age, grade level and education level of a mother…

  11. Positive Effects of Promoting Prosocial Behavior in Early Adolescence: Evidence from a School-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Kanacri, Bernadette Paula Luengo; Gerbino, Maria; Zuffianò, Antonio; Alessandri, Guido; Vecchio, Giovanni; Caprara, Eva; Pastorelli, Concetta; Bridglall, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a pilot school-based intervention called CEPIDEA, designed to promote prosocial behavior in early adolescence. The study took place in a middle school located in a small city near Rome. The intervention group included 151 students (52.3% males; M[subscript age] = 12.4), and the control group…

  12. Introducing positive media psychology to the field of children, adolescents, and media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Buijzen, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The field of children, adolescents, and media has predominantly focused on harmful media effects, for instance, concerning the potential harm of media violence. Although we recognize the relevance of that research, we propose that the balance in the field should be restored with research that also c

  13. Urine levels of drugs for which Triage DOA screening was positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Fumio

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between urine levels of target drugs of abuse for which Triage DOA gave positive results, as well as the cut-off levels for these drugs. Thirty-eight forensic urine samples positive for commonly abused drugs were involved. Of these samples, 12 were positive for barbiturates (BAR), 11 for benzodiazepines (BZO), 8 for opiates (OPI), 7 for amphetamines (AMP), and 4 for tricyclic antidepressants (TCA). In the BAR-positive urine samples, phenobarbital, amobarbital or barbital was detected at concentrations higher than cut-off levels. In the BZO-positive samples, diazepam, nordiazepam, triazolam, nitrazepam and/or midazolam was detected at concentrations lower than cut-off levels; in the triazolam-involved urine, alpha-hydroxytriazolam, a metabolite of triazolam, showed concentrations higher than cut-off level. In the AMP-positive samples, methamphetamine was detected at concentrations higher than cut-off level. Urine samples positive for OPI contained total dihydrocodeine, codeine or morphine at concentrations higher than cut-off levels. In TCA-positive samples, amitriptyline was detected at concentrations higher or lower than cut-off level, and clomipramine was detected at a concentration much lower than cut-off level. Metabolites of BZO and TCA, which are not typically analyzed by instrumental procedures, may cross-react to varying degrees with the antibodies used for Triage DOA.

  14. Fat mass is positively associated with bone mass in relatively thin adolescents: data from the Kitakata Kids Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouda, Katsuyasu; Fujita, Yuki; Sato, Yuho; Ohara, Kumiko; Nakamura, Harunobu; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Iki, Masayuki

    2014-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies have found that higher body weight is associated with better bone health. Body weight consists of both fat mass (FM) and lean soft tissue mass (LSTM). Previous studies have examined the effects of FM levels during childhood on bone health, with conflicting results. In the present study, we investigated the independent contributions of FM to bone mass in Japanese adolescents. Subjects were 235 adolescents aged 15-18 years old in August 2010 and in August 2013 from the Kitakata Kids Health Study in Japan. We obtained cross-sectional data on body composition as well as bone mineral density (BMD). Body composition and BMD were measured using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner. We found moderate and positive relationships between FM index and LSTM index (males, r=0.69; females, r=0.44). To verify a potentially additive effect of FM on the variance of bone variables beyond LSTM, we assessed the association between FM index and bone variables after stratification by tertiles of the LSTM index. In the lowest tertile of the LSTM index, FM index was significantly (PLSTM index. These findings indicate that FM can influence how high bone mass is obtained among relatively thin adolescents, but not among those who are of normal weight or overweight.

  15. Constructing Positive Futures: Modeling the Relationship between Adolescents' Hopeful Future Expectations and Intentional Self Regulation in Predicting Positive Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Kristina L.; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Intentional self regulation and hopeful expectations for the future are theoretically-related constructs shown to lead to positive youth development (PYD). However, the nature of their relationship over time has not been tested. Therefore, this study explored the associations between hopeful future expectations and intentional self regulation in…

  16. Gender related differences in response to "in favor of myself" wellness program to enhance positive self & body image among adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moria Golan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical, neurological and psychological changes are often experienced differently by male and female adolescents. Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements, and family connectedness are considered as protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examines the gender differences in respect to the effect of a school-based interactive wellness program--"In Favor of Myself"--on self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behaviors of young adolescents. METHODS: Two hundred and ten adolescents (mean age 13.5 participated in the intervention group, 55% were girls and 45% boys. Program consisted of eight 90-minutes structured sessions integrated into a regular school coping skills curriculum. The program focused on self-esteem, self-image, body image, media literacy and cognitive dissonance. The overall impact of the program and the study protocol were previously published. RESULTS: Overall, there are gender related differences in respect to body image and self-image in young adolescents in response to "In Favor of Myself". Compared to boys, girls reported at baseline higher self-esteem, being more contingent by appearance, and their self-image was more influenced by popularity, appearance, interpersonal communication and admired people. Furthermore girls presented greater gap between current body figure and perceived ideal figure. Not only were girls more dissatisfied with their body, but they were more active in attempts to become and/or remain "thin". At program termination, gender × time effect was detected in reduction of self-worth contingent by others, change in importance given to achievements at schools, parents' perceptions, as well as the impact of comparisons to friends and family members on self-image. CONCLUSIONS: Girls exhibited more gains than boys from 'In Favor of Myself' which raise the questions about how effective would be the program when delivered in mixed gender groups

  17. Online Positive Interventions to Promote Well-being and Resilience in the Adolescent Population: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños, Rosa M; Etchemendy, Ernestina; Mira, Adriana; Riva, Giuseppe; Gaggioli, Andrea; Botella, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown an alarming prevalence of depression, anxiety, and behavior disorders in youth. Thus, prevention of psychological problems in this population becomes crucial. According to the World Health Organization (1), prevention should also include the promotion and development of the individual's strengths in order to reduce vulnerability to suffering from mental disorders. In addition, other key elements of prevention are the reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of interventions. The information and communication technologies, especially the Internet, have much to offer in terms of the prevention and promotion of positive mental health in adolescents. This paper reviews these fields of research-prevention, positive psychology, Internet, and adolescents-and discusses the potential of positive interventions delivered over the Internet as effective and sustainable health promotion tools. The paper provides a brief description of the systems developed so far and a summary of selected features of the studies detected in the literature review. The overall conclusions are that there is a need for more controlled studies with long-term follow-ups, the interventions should be designed considering the specific features of the target users and the specific contexts where the interventions will be delivered, and they could be enhanced by the use of other technologies, such as smartphones, sensors, or social networks.

  18. Obesity, systemic inflammation, and increased risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes among adolescents: a need for screening tools to target interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoer, Mark D

    2013-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus have their roots in childhood, particularly in obese children and adolescents, raising important opportunities for early lifestyle intervention in at-risk individuals. However, not all obese individuals are at the same risk for disease progression. Accurate screening of obese adolescents may identify those in greatest need for intensive intervention to prevent or delay future disease. One potential screening target is obesity-related inflammation, which contributes to insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and CVD. In adults, the inflammatory marker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) has utility for risk stratification and treatment initiation in individuals of intermediate CVD risk. In adolescents, hsCRP shares many of the associations of hsCRP in adults regarding the degree of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and carotid artery media thickness. However, long-term data linking increased hsCRP levels-and increased insulin or decreased adiponectin-in childhood to adult disease outcomes are lacking at this time. Future efforts continue to be needed to identify childhood clinical and laboratory characteristics that could be used as screening tests to predict adult disease progression. Such tests may have utility in motivating physicians and patients' families toward lifestyle changes, ultimately improving prevention efforts.

  19. SPLICEFINDER - a fast and easy screening method for active protein trans-splicing positions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Zettler

    Full Text Available Split intein enabled protein trans-splicing (PTS is a powerful method for the ligation of two protein fragments, thereby paving the way for various protein modification or protein function control applications. PTS activity is strongly influenced by the amino acids directly flanking the splice junctions. However, to date no reliable prediction can be made whether or not a split intein is active in a particular foreign extein context. Here we describe SPLICEFINDER, a PCR-based method, allowing fast and easy screening for active split intein insertions in any target protein. Furthermore we demonstrate the applicability of SPLICEFINDER for segmental isotopic labeling as well as for the generation of multi-domain and enzymatically active proteins.

  20. Parameter optimization of parenchymal texture analysis for prediction of false-positive recalls from screening mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Shonket; Keller, Brad M.; Chen, Jinbo; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2016-03-01

    This work details a methodology to obtain optimal parameter values for a locally-adaptive texture analysis algorithm that extracts mammographic texture features representative of breast parenchymal complexity for predicting falsepositive (FP) recalls from breast cancer screening with digital mammography. The algorithm has two components: (1) adaptive selection of localized regions of interest (ROIs) and (2) Haralick texture feature extraction via Gray- Level Co-Occurrence Matrices (GLCM). The following parameters were systematically varied: mammographic views used, upper limit of the ROI window size used for adaptive ROI selection, GLCM distance offsets, and gray levels (binning) used for feature extraction. Each iteration per parameter set had logistic regression with stepwise feature selection performed on a clinical screening cohort of 474 non-recalled women and 68 FP recalled women; FP recall prediction was evaluated using area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and associations between the extracted features and FP recall were assessed via odds ratios (OR). A default instance of mediolateral (MLO) view, upper ROI size limit of 143.36 mm (2048 pixels2), GLCM distance offset combination range of 0.07 to 0.84 mm (1 to 12 pixels) and 16 GLCM gray levels was set. The highest ROC performance value of AUC=0.77 [95% confidence intervals: 0.71-0.83] was obtained at three specific instances: the default instance, upper ROI window equal to 17.92 mm (256 pixels2), and gray levels set to 128. The texture feature of sum average was chosen as a statistically significant (p<0.05) predictor and associated with higher odds of FP recall for 12 out of 14 total instances.

  1. How useful are screening instruments for toddlers to predict outcome at age 4? General development, language skills, and symptom severity in children with a false positive screen for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereu, Mieke; Roeyers, Herbert; Raymaekers, Ruth; Meirsschaut, Mieke; Warreyn, Petra

    2012-10-01

    Screening instruments for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often generate many false positives. It is argued that these children may have other developmental difficulties and are also in need of thorough assessment and early intervention. The current study looked at the predictive validity of positive screens on the Checklist for Early Signs of Developmental Disorders (CESDD) and the Early Screening of Autistic Traits questionnaire (ESAT) at age 2 towards language, cognitive function, and symptom severity at age 4. Children who screened positive on the ESAT scored lower for both language and cognitive functioning at age 4 compared with children who screened negative on the ESAT. Also, the more signs of ASD that were recognized on the CESDD or ESAT, the lower the scores for language and cognitive functioning at age 4. False positive screens could be differentiated from true positive screens on the CESDD only in symptom severity score on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). It seems that early screeners for ASD also detect children with other developmental disorders and that diagnostic instruments such as the ADOS are warranted to differentiate between children with ASD and other developmental problems.

  2. Factors affecting recall rate and false positive fraction in breast cancer screening with breast tomosynthesis - A statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Aldana; Lång, Kristina; Petersson, Ingemar F; Zackrisson, Sophia

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we investigate which factors affect the false positive fraction (FPF) for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) compared to digital mammography (DM) in a screening population by using classification and regression trees (C&RT) and binary marginal generalized linear models. The data was obtained from the Malmö Breast Tomosynthesis Screening Trial, which aimed to compare the performance of DBT to DM in breast cancer screening. By using data from the first half of the study population (7500 women), a tree with the recall probability for different groups was calculated. The effect of age and breast density on the FPF was estimated using a binary marginal generalized linear model. Our results show that breast density and breast cancer were the main factors influencing recall. The FPF is mainly affected by breast density and increases with breast density for DBT and DM. In conclusion, the results obtained with C&RT are easy to interpret and similar to those obtained using binary marginal generalized linear models. The FPF is approximately 40% higher for DBT compared to DM for all breast density categories.

  3. Substance Use in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients: Self-Report, Health Care Providers' Clinical Impressions, and Urine Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Laurent; Pihet, Sandrine; Passini, Christina Moses; Feijo, Isabelle; Camus, Didier; Eap, Chin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of substance use among adolescent psychiatric outpatients using a variety of data sources. Method: Using a questionnaire, 3-month prevalence of substance use data were obtained from 50 adolescents and their health care providers. Adolescents' self-reports and providers' clinical impressions were compared with…

  4. Stimulus-Food Pairings Produce Stimulus-Directed Touch Screen Responding in Cynomolgus Monkeys ("Macaca Fascicularis") with or without a Positive Response Contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Christopher E.; Myers, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition and maintenance of touch-screen responding was examined in naive cynomolgus monkeys ("Macaca fascicularis") under automaintenance and classical conditioning arrangements. In the first condition of Experiment 1, we compared acquisition of screen touching to a randomly positioned stimulus (a gray square) that was either stationary or…

  5. Use of faecal markers in screening for colorectal neoplasia: a European group on tumor markers position paper.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Several randomized controlled trials have shown that population-based screening using faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) can reduce mortality from colorectal neoplasia. Based on this evidence, a number of countries have introduced screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) and high-risk adenoma and many others are considering its introduction. The aim of this article is to critically review the current status of faecal markers as population-based screening tests for these neoplasia. Most of the available faecal tests involve the measurement of either occult blood or a panel of DNA markers. Occult blood may be measured using either the guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) or a faecal immunochemical test (iFOBT). Although iFOBT may require a greater initial investment, they have several advantages over gFOBT, including greater analytical sensitivity and specificity. Their use results in improved clinical performance and higher uptake rates. Importantly for population screening, some of the iFOBTs can be automated and provide an adjustable cutoff for faecal haemoglobin concentration. However, samples for iFOBT, may be less stable after collection than for gFOBT. For new centres undertaking FOBT for colorectal neoplasia, the European Group on Tumour Markers recommends use of a quantitative iFOBT with an adjustable cutoff point and high throughput analysis. All participants with positive FOBT results should be offered colonoscopy. The panel recommends further research into increasing the stability of iFOBT and the development of improved and affordable DNA and proteomic-based tests, which reduce current false negative rates, simplify sample transport and enable automated analysis.

  6. Tracking of Head Position Relative to the Screen Using Head Mounted Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldas Borcovas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper head position locating systems were analyzed. There were reviewed scientific articles with different proposed methods. The chosen system is with the camera located on the user head. The main parameters of the head positioning systems were analyzed. The procedure laid down in what order parameters are found. The diagram of the system and detail block diagram of the algorithm were provided. Realization of the algorithm used: edge detection method (Sobel, the adjustment algorithm (Subpixel. System is realized in Matlab and C# environment. Determine the optimal parameters for the algorithm execution. Execution of the algorithm in Matlab environment is 1.2 s and C # environment – 126 ms. During the examination of the longest executing algorithm segment, it was found that image filtering is carried out in 107 ms. It is noted that the uncertainty of the algorithm can be divided into static and measurement. The maximum static uncertainty while measuring head position parameters is 1.63 mm and orientation parameters – 0.16°. The maximum measurement uncertainty while measuring head position parameters is 4 mm and orientation parameters – 0.11°.Article in Lithuanian

  7. The effectiveness of mental rehabilitation based on positive thinking skills training on increasing happiness in hearing impaired adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rostami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing impairment can have an impact on adolescents’ quality of life and can lead to their isolation and depression. The main purpose of this research was to study the effectiveness of a mental rehabilitation program based on positive thinking skills training on increasing happiness in a group of hearing impaired girls and boys.Methods: In this experimental study, pre- and post-test plan with a control group was used. All of the hearing impaired students (girls and boys in all high schools of southern parts of Tehran, Iran, in year 2012-13 were our statistical research community. 48 hearing impaired girls and boys were selected by multistage sampling including stratified, purposive, and random sampling. They were randomly divided into two groups of experimental and control. Each group consists of 12 boys and 12 girls. Positive thinking skills were trained to experimental groups during eight 45-minutes sessions, twice a week. We used the Oxford happiness questionnaire to assess the level of happiness.Results: Using analysis of covariance showed that positive thinking skills training had meaningful and positive effect on increasing happiness of hearing impaired boys and girls in the experimental groups (p<0.01. Also, the mean happiness scores of boys and girls were meaningfully different (p<0.01.Conclusion: Positive thinking skills training increases the happiness scores of hearing impaired adolescents. So, the approach taken in this study can be considered as an appropriate method for psychological-education interventions, counseling and treatment in hearing impaired adolescent.

  8. Serum Thyrotropin Is Positively Correlated with the Metabolic Syndrome Components of Obesity and Dyslipidemia in Chinese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a medical disorder characterized by obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Thyroid hormone has been shown to affect many metabolic processes. This study was undertaken to explore the relationship between serum thyrotropin and components of metabolic syndrome in Chinese adolescents. Waist circumference (76.4 ± 10.7 versus 70.0 ± 10.6 cm, P = 0.006 and body mass index (23.90 ± 4.20 versus 21.51 ± 4.16 kg/m2, P = 0.011 were significantly greater among adolescents with subclinical hypothyroidism compared with euthyroid subjects. The risk of obesity in the subclinical hypothyroid group was 3.444 times that in the euthyroid group (odds ratio = 3.444, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.570–7.553. Serum TSH was significantly positively correlated with waist circumference (β = 1.512, P = 0.019, TC (β = 0.160, P = 0.003, LDL-C (β = 0.032, P = 0.008, and TG (β = 0.095, P = 0.001. The TSH level in the metabolic syndrome group was significantly higher than that in nonmetabolic syndrome group (2.65 [2.28–3.80] versus 2.53 [1.92–3.45] mIU/L, P = 0.032. Serum TSH within the reference range was positively associated with TC (β = 0.173, P = 0.013, LDL-C (β = 0.031, P = 0.043, and TG (β = 0.132, P = 0.021. Increased serum TSH in adolescents may be a potential risk factor for metabolic syndrome.

  9. Positively versus negatively charged moral emotion expectancies in adolescence: the role of situational context and the developing moral self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Johnston, Megan

    2011-09-01

    The study analyses adolescents' positively charged versus negatively charged moral emotion expectancies. Two hundred and five students (M= 14.83 years, SD= 2.21) participated in an interview depicting various situations in which a moral norm was either regarded or transgressed. Emotion expectancies were assessed for specific emotions (pride, guilt) as well as for overall strength and valence. In addition, self-importance of moral values was measured by a questionnaire. Results revealed that positively charged emotion expectancies were more pronounced in contexts of prosocial action than in the context of moral transgressions, whereas the opposite was true for negatively charged emotions. At the same time, expectations of guilt and pride were substantially related to the self-importance of moral values.

  10. Increasing Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention in Comparison to the Effects of Therapeutic Alliance, Youth Factors, and Expectancy for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jessica Ann

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the variance in subjective well-being (SWB) of early adolescents ( n = 54) exposed to a positive psychology intervention aimed at increasing positive affect and life satisfaction as well as decreasing negative affect through intentional activities (e.g., gratitude journals, acts of kindness, use of character strengths,…

  11. Positive Behavioural Support in Schools for Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities Whose Behaviour Challenges: An Exploration of the Economic Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iemmi, Valentina; Knapp, Martin; Brown, Freddy Jackson

    2016-01-01

    Decision-makers with limited budgets want to know the economic consequences of their decisions. Is there an economic case for positive behavioural support (PBS)? A small before-after study assessing the impact of PBS on challenging behaviours and positive social and communication skills in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities…

  12. Correlation between hyoid bone position and airway dimensions in Chinese adolescents by cone beam computed tomography analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y-Y

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the correlation between upper airway dimensions and hyoid bone position in Chinese adolescents based on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. CBCT images from a total of 254 study subjects were included. The upper airway and hyoid bone parameters were measured by Materialism's interactive medical image control system (MIMICS) v.16.01 (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). The airway dimensions were evaluated in terms of volume, cross-sectional area (CSA), mean CSA, length, anteroposterior dimension of the cross-section (AP), lateral dimension of the cross-section (LAT), and LAT/AP ratio. The hyoid bone position was evaluated using eight linear parameters and two angular parameters. Facial characteristics were evaluated using three linear parameters and three angular parameters. Most hyoid bone position parameters (especially the distance between the hyoid bone and hard palate) were significantly associated with most airway dimension parameters. Significant correlations were also observed between the different facial characteristic parameters and hyoid bone position parameters. Most airway dimension parameters showed significant correlations with linear facial parameters, but they displayed significant correlations with only a few angular facial parameters. These findings provide an understanding of the static relationship between the hyoid bone position and airway dimensions, which may serve as a reference for surgeons before orthodontic or orthognathic surgery.

  13. Sexually transmitted infection screening and reproductive health counseling in adolescent renal transplant recipients: Perceptions and practice patterns. A study from the Midwest Pediatric Nephrology Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoor, Isa F; Dharnidharka, Vikas R

    2015-11-01

    We wanted to identify practice patterns and perceived barriers among pediatric nephrologists regarding STI screening and reproductive health counseling in adolescent renal transplant recipients. We created an online Likert-scaled survey. Response rate was 54%. The majority (83%) believed STI risk in their patients was similar to or higher than healthy teens. Interestingly, while 67% felt moderately or very confident in asking about sexual activity and counseling about safer sex, only 43% routinely or always inquired about sexual activity, and only 42% routinely or always counseled about safer sex. Fifty-four percent routinely or always discussed contraceptive options and implications of unintentional pregnancy. Fifty-one percent routinely or always referred patients to a gynecologist or adolescent provider for contraception prescription. The most common counseling mechanism was informal discussions in clinic (87%). Ten percent had no mechanism in place. Major barriers included time limitations, adolescents' fear regarding confidentiality, and lack of professional training. This is the first report of perceptions and practice patterns of pediatric nephrologists regarding STI screening and reproductive health counseling. Providers seem to recognize the importance of counseling; however, translation into practice remains low. Professional training in this area and increased encounter time could improve counseling delivery and thereby reduce risk in this population.

  14. Changes in depression in a cohort of Danish HIV-positive individuals: time for routine screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodkjaer, Lotte; Laursen, Tinne; Christensen, Nils B

    2011-01-01

    via a questionnaire. The Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI) was used to assess the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms. Patients with a BDI score of 20 or above (moderate to major depression) were offered a clinical evaluation by a consultant psychiatrist. Results: In 2005, 205 HIV......-positive individuals participated in the study. Symptoms of depression (BDI >14) were observed in 77 (38%) and major depression (BDI ≥20) in 53 (26%) individuals. In 2008, 148 participants were retested (72% of original sample). Depression (BDI >14) was observed in 38 (26%) and symptoms of major depression (BDI ≥20......) in 24 (16%) individuals. Patients at risk of moderate to major depression were more likely to be non-adherent to medications, to practice unsafe sex and to suffer from emotional strains compared with patients not at risk of depression, both at baseline (2005) and follow-up (2008). Conclusion: This study...

  15. The Upward Spiral of Adolescents' Positive School Experiences and Happiness: Investigating Reciprocal Effects over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglbauer, Barbara; Gnambs, Timo; Gamsjager, Manuela; Batinic, Bernad

    2013-01-01

    In line with self-determination theory and Fredrickson's (2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, this study adopts a positive perspective on students' school experiences and their general psychological functioning. The reciprocal effects of positive school experiences and happiness, a dimension of affective well-being, are examined…

  16. Associations of Physical Activity, Sedentary Time, and Screen Time With Cardiovascular Fitness in United States Adolescents: Results from the NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Anna K; Matthews, Krystin J; Salvo, Deborah; Kohl, Harold W

    2017-03-14

    Background Most US adolescents do not meet guidelines of at least 60 daily minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity. Additionally, sedentary behaviors among this age group are of increasing concern. This study examined the association of movement behaviors with cardiovascular fitness among US adolescents. Methods Data from the 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey were used to assess the association of movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary time, screen time) with cardiovascular fitness among adolescent males and females. Multiple logistic regressions were used to test the independent and interactive effects of movement behaviors on cardiovascular fitness. Results Among females, physical activity was directly associated with cardiovascular fitness; no significant association was observed between sedentary behaviors and CVF. Among males, sedentary time moderated the relationship between physical activity and cardiovascular fitness, such that a significant, direct association was only observed among those with high sedentary time (OR: 5.01, 95% CI: 1.60, 15.70). Conclusions Results from this cross-sectional analysis suggest that among female US adolescents, physical activity, but not sedentary behavior, is associated with cardiovascular fitness. Among males, the interaction between physical activity and sedentary time seems to be important for cardiovascular fitness. Longitudinal studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  17. Temporal Trends in Overweight and Obesity, Physical Activity and Screen Time among Czech Adolescents from 2002 to 2014: A National Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Badura, Petr; Kalman, Michal; Hamrik, Zdenek; Pavelka, Jan

    2015-09-18

    This study examines trends in overweight and obesity, physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) among Czech adolescents over a recent 12-year study period. Nationally representative samples consisted of 19,940 adolescents (9760 boys and 10,180 girls) aged 10.5-16.5 years from the Czech Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire-based surveys conducted in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Trends in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, meeting the recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (≥60 min per day of MVPA) and excessive ST (>2 h per day) were estimated using logistic regression. Significant increases (p obesity between the years 2002 and 2014 were evident for both adolescent boys (18.3%(2002)-24.8%(2014)) and girls (8.3%(2002)-11.9%(2014)). Compared to 2002, in 2014 significant decreases (p obesity with concomitant decreases in PA provide evidence in support of the current and upcoming efforts of government and commercial organizations in implementing interventions aimed at reducing excessive body weight among Czech adolescents.

  18. Concurrent Associations of Physical Activity and Screen-Based Sedentary Behavior on Obesity Among US Adolescents: A Latent Class Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Youngdeok Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Independent associations of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with obesity are well documented. However, little is known about the combined associations of these behaviors with obesity in adolescents. The present study examines the prevalence of concurrent levels of PA and SB, and their associations with obesity among US adolescents. Methods: Data from a total of 12 081 adolescents who participated in the Youth Risk Behaviors Survey during 2012–2013 were analyz...

  19. Explicit and implicit positive alcohol expectancies in problem and non-problem drinkers: differences across age groups from young adolescence to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie eVilenne

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Recent studies with animal models showed that the stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol change during the adolescent period. In humans, the stimulant effects of ethanol are most often indirectly recorded through the measurement of explicit and implicit alcohol effect expectancies. However, it is unknown how such implicit and explicit expectancies evolve with age in humans during adolescence.Methods: Adolescent (13-16 year old, young adult (17-18 year old and adult (35-55 year old participants were recruited. On the basis of their score on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT, they were classified as non-problem (AUDIT ≤ 7 or problem (AUDIT ≥ 11 drinkers. The participants completed the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ and performed two unipolar Implicit Association Test (IAT to assess implicit associations between alcohol and the concepts of stimulation and sedation.Results: Problem drinkers from the three age groups reported significantly higher positive alcohol expectancies than non-problem drinkers on all AEQ subscales. Positive alcohol explicit expectancies also gradually decreased with age, with adolescent problem drinkers reporting especially high positive expectancies. This effect was statistically significant for all positive expectancies, with the exception of relaxation expectancies that were only close to statistical significance. In contrast, stimulation and sedation alcohol implicit associations were not significantly different between problem and non-problem drinkers and did not change with age.Conclusions: These results indicate that explicit positive alcohol effect expectancies predict current alcohol consumption levels, especially in adolescents. Positive alcohol expectancies also gradually decrease with age in the three cross-sectional groups of adolescents, young adults and adults. This effect might be related to changes in the physiological response to alcohol.

  20. False positive results using calcitonin as a screening method for medullary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Loch Batista

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of serum calcitonin as part of the evaluation of thyroid nodules has been widely discussed in literature. However there still is no consensus of measurement of calcitonin in the initial evaluation of a patient with thyroid nodule. Problems concerning cost-benefit, lab methods, false positive and low prevalence of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC are factors that limit this approach. We have illustrated two cases where serum calcitonin was used in the evaluation of thyroid nodule and rates proved to be high. A stimulation test was performed, using calcium as secretagogue, and calcitonin hyper-stimulation was confirmed, but anatomopathologic examination did not evidence medullar neoplasia. Anatomopathologic diagnosis detected Hashimoto thyroiditis in one case and adenomatous goiter plus an occult papillary thyroid carcinoma in the other one. Recommendation for routine use of serum calcitonin in the initial diagnostic evaluation of a thyroid nodule, followed by a confirming stimulation test if basal serum calcitonin is showed to be high, is the most currently recommended approach, but questions concerning cost-benefit and possibility of diagnosis error make the validity of this recommendation discussible.

  1. Positive Association between Urinary Concentration of Phthalate Metabolites and Oxidation of DNA and Lipid in Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Yu; Chen, Pau-Chung; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Chen, Chao-Yu; Hu, Anren; Sung, Fung-Chang; Lee, Hui-Ling; Su, Ta-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Phthalate has been used worldwide in various products for years. Little is known about the association between phthalate exposure and biomarkers of oxidative stress in adolescents and young adults. Among 886 subjects recruited from a population-based cohort during 2006 to 2008, 751 subjects (12–30 years) with complete phthalate metabolites and oxidation stress measurement were enrolled in this study. Nine urine phthalate metabolites, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and 8-iso prostaglandin F2α (8-isoPGF2α) were measured in urine to assess exposure and oxidative stress to DNA and lipid, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that an ln-unit increase in mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) concentration in urine was positively associated with an increase in urine biomarkers of oxidative stress (in μg/g; creatinine of 0.098 ± 0.028 in 8-OHdG; and 0.253 ± 0.051 in 8-isoPGF2α). There was no association between other eight phthalate metabolite concentrations and oxidative stress. In conclusion, a higher MMP concentration in urine was associated with an increase in markers of oxidative stress to DNA and lipid in this cohort of adolescents and young adults. Further studies are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between exposure to phthalate and oxidative stress. PMID:28290483

  2. How does self-injury feel? Examining automatic positive reinforcement in adolescent self-injurers with experience sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Edward A; Nock, Matthew K; Kranzler, Amy

    2014-02-28

    One of the most frequently reported, yet understudied, motivations for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) involves automatic positive reinforcement (APR), wherein sensations arising from NSSI reinforce and promote the behavior. The current study used experience sampling methodology with a clinical sample of self-injuring adolescents (N=30) over a 2-week period during which the adolescents reported NSSI behaviors, and rated if an APR motivation was present, and if so whether that motivation pertained to feeling "pain," "stimulation," or "satisfaction." Over 50% of the sample reported at least one instance of NSSI for APR reasons. No significant differences were found on demographic factors or psychiatric comorbidity for those with and without an APR motivation. However, those with an APR motivation reported elevated NSSI thoughts, longer duration of those thoughts, and more NSSI behaviors. They also reported more alcohol use thoughts, alcohol use, impulsive spending, and binge eating. The most commonly reported sensation following NSSI for APR was "satisfaction." However those endorsing feeling pain reported the most NSSI behaviors. These findings provide new information about the APR motivations for NSSI and shed light on the different sensations felt.

  3. Building positive self-image in adolescents in foster care: the use of role models in an interactive group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, A K

    1998-01-01

    In a previous article (Yancey, 1992), the literature on identity development in individuals from socially devalued racial and ethnic groups was summarized. It was postulated that the social maladaptation of adolescents in residential group foster care is reflective of identity disturbances created by the negative images of African-Americans and Latinos perpetuated by the dominant society and unfiltered by optimal parental racial/ethnic socialization. The present article describes the development of a pilot preventive mental health intervention, the PRIDE (Personal and Racial/ethnic Identity Development and Enhancement) program, designed to provide components of parenting that are necessary for promoting positive self-image in ethnically marginalized adolescents and that are typically lacking in the group foster care milieu. PRIDE utilizes successful, ethnically relevant role models in interactive group sessions to create a significant cognitive and emotional experience for teens. While the utility of role modeling for at-risk youth is widely accepted, there is little research on the packaging, delivery, and influence of this intervention modality. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a "hybrid" role-modeling approach (intermediate in intensity of exposure and cost between one-to-one mentoring and career-day programs). Implications for further research on this type of intervention are discussed.

  4. Positive Association between Urinary Concentration of Phthalate Metabolites and Oxidation of DNA and Lipid in Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Yu; Chen, Pau-Chung; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Chen, Chao-Yu; Hu, Anren; Sung, Fung-Chang; Lee, Hui-Ling; Su, Ta-Chen

    2017-03-01

    Phthalate has been used worldwide in various products for years. Little is known about the association between phthalate exposure and biomarkers of oxidative stress in adolescents and young adults. Among 886 subjects recruited from a population-based cohort during 2006 to 2008, 751 subjects (12–30 years) with complete phthalate metabolites and oxidation stress measurement were enrolled in this study. Nine urine phthalate metabolites, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and 8-iso prostaglandin F2α (8-isoPGF2α) were measured in urine to assess exposure and oxidative stress to DNA and lipid, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that an ln-unit increase in mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) concentration in urine was positively associated with an increase in urine biomarkers of oxidative stress (in μg/g creatinine of 0.098 ± 0.028 in 8-OHdG; and 0.253 ± 0.051 in 8-isoPGF2α). There was no association between other eight phthalate metabolite concentrations and oxidative stress. In conclusion, a higher MMP concentration in urine was associated with an increase in markers of oxidative stress to DNA and lipid in this cohort of adolescents and young adults. Further studies are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between exposure to phthalate and oxidative stress.

  5. Validity of Commonly Used Clinical Tests to Diagnose and Screen for Spinal Pain in Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartun, Ellen; Hartvigsen, Jan; Hestbaek, Lise

    2016-01-01

    were collected at the age of 11 to 13 (n = 1224) and 2 years later (n = 963). Spinal pain (neck pain, mid back pain, and low back pain) was assessed by an electronic survey completed during school time, and reference standard was defined as both lifetime prevalence and frequent pain as a proxy...... of severity. The tests included assessments of scoliosis, hypermobility, global mobility, intersegmental mobility, end range pain, and isometric endurance of back extensors. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values, and odds ratios were calculated for each test individually, and area...

  6. The upward spiral of adolescents' positive school experiences and happiness: investigating reciprocal effects over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglbauer, Barbara; Gnambs, Timo; Gamsjäger, Manuela; Batinic, Bernad

    2013-04-01

    In line with self-determination theory and Fredrickson's (2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, this study adopts a positive perspective on students' school experiences and their general psychological functioning. The reciprocal effects of positive school experiences and happiness, a dimension of affective well-being, are examined over the course of an academic year. Data were collected from 215 secondary school students at 5 measurement occasions. The results of longitudinal cross-lagged structural equation modeling support the notion of an upward spiral of positive school experiences and happiness over time. Positive school experiences had a stable lagged effect on happiness, and, in turn, happiness had a lagged effect on future positive school experiences.

  7. Compliments and accounts : Positive evaluation of reported behavior in psychotherapy for adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Margot; De Winter, Andrea F.; Metselaar, Janneke; Knorth, Erik J.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Huiskes, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Based on conversation analysis (CA) of video-recorded therapy sessions, the article explicates a particular interactional project of positively evaluating client-reported behavior in psychotherapy. The analysis focuses on the therapist's actions that convey a positive evaluation of client-reported b

  8. Positive Youth Development, Life Satisfaction and Problem Behaviour among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong: A Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rachel C. F.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this replication study was to examine the relationships among life satisfaction, positive youth development and problem behaviour. The respondents were 7,151 Chinese Secondary 2 (Grade 8) students (3,707 boys and 3,014 girls) recruited from 44 schools in Hong Kong. Validated assessment tools measuring positive youth development,…

  9. Arkansas School Nurses' Role in Statewide Assessment of Body Mass Index to Screen for Overweight Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Bushmiaer, Margo

    2005-01-01

    National surveys that have tracked weight and physical activity in the United States for more than 40 years have shown a continuing increase in the number of overweight children and adolescents. Overweight children and adolescents are showing an increase in diseases related to overweight: Type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and…

  10. Online Positive Interventions to Promote Well-being and Resilience in the Adolescent Population: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños, Rosa M.; Etchemendy, Ernestina; Mira, Adriana; Riva, Giuseppe; Gaggioli, Andrea; Botella, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown an alarming prevalence of depression, anxiety, and behavior disorders in youth. Thus, prevention of psychological problems in this population becomes crucial. According to the World Health Organization (1), prevention should also include the promotion and development of the individual’s strengths in order to reduce vulnerability to suffering from mental disorders. In addition, other key elements of prevention are the reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of interventions. The information and communication technologies, especially the Internet, have much to offer in terms of the prevention and promotion of positive mental health in adolescents. This paper reviews these fields of research—prevention, positive psychology, Internet, and adolescents—and discusses the potential of positive interventions delivered over the Internet as effective and sustainable health promotion tools. The paper provides a brief description of the systems developed so far and a summary of selected features of the studies detected in the literature review. The overall conclusions are that there is a need for more controlled studies with long-term follow-ups, the interventions should be designed considering the specific features of the target users and the specific contexts where the interventions will be delivered, and they could be enhanced by the use of other technologies, such as smartphones, sensors, or social networks. PMID:28194117

  11. The Freedom to Pursue Happiness: Belief in Free Will Predicts Life Satisfaction and Positive Affect among Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunkai; Wang, Song; Zhao, Yajun; Kong, Feng; Li, Jingguang

    2016-01-01

    A small amount of research has examined the association between the belief in free will and subjective well-being (SWB) among Western laypersons from individualist cultures. However, no study has examined this association among participants from collectivist cultures (e.g., Eastern Asian cultures). Therefore, in this study, we explored this association among two large, independent cohorts of Chinese adolescents (N1 = 1,660; N2 = 639; high school students). The belief in free will was measured by a self-reported questionnaire (Cohorts 1 and 2) and a two-alternative forced choice question regarding the existence of free will (Cohort 2). SWB included cognitive well-being (life satisfaction) and affective well-being (positive and negative affect) in both cohorts. Data analyses indicated that a stronger belief in free will was consistently associated with higher life satisfaction and positive affect in both cohorts. Our investigation provides evidence supporting the cultural generality of the positive effects of believing in free will on SWB.

  12. Ability of different screening tools to predict positive effect on nutritional intervention among the elderly in primary health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Beermann, Tina; Kjær, Stine;

    2013-01-01

    Routine identification of nutritional risk screening is paramount as the first stage in nutritional treatment of the elderly. The major focus of former validation studies of screening tools has been on the ability to predict undernutrition. The aim of this study was to validate Mini Nutritional...... Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF), the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002), Body Mass Index (BMI)...

  13. High-throughput screens identify microRNAs essential for HER2 positive breast cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivonen, Suvi-Katri; Sahlberg, Kristine Kleivi; Mäkelä, Rami; Due, Eldri Undlien; Kallioniemi, Olli; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Perälä, Merja

    2014-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression post-transcriptionally. We have characterized the role of miRNAs in regulating the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-pathway in breast cancer. We performed miRNA gain-of-function assays by screening two HER2 amplified cell lines (KPL-4 and JIMT-1) with a miRNA mimic library consisting of 810 human miRNAs. The levels of HER2, phospho-AKT, phospho-ERK1/2, cell proliferation (Ki67) and apoptosis (cPARP) were analyzed with reverse-phase protein arrays. Rank product analyses identified 38 miRNAs (q breast tumors as compared to HER2-negative tumors from two cohorts of breast cancer patients (101 and 1302 cases). miR-342-5p specifically inhibited HER2-positive cell growth, as it had no effect on the growth of HER2-negative control cells in vitro. Furthermore, higher expression of miR-342-5p was associated with better survival in both breast cancer patient cohorts. In conclusion, we have identified miRNAs which are efficient negative regulators of the HER2 pathway that may play a role in vivo during breast cancer progression. These results give mechanistic insights in HER2 regulation which may open potential new strategies towards prevention and therapeutic inhibition of HER2-positive breast cancer.

  14. Brief problem-solving treatment in primary care (PST-PC) was not more effective than placebo for elderly patients screened positive of psychological problems

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, CLK; Fong, DYT; Chin, WY; Lo, YYC; Lee, PWH; Lam, ETP

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate whether screening followed by brief problem-solving treatment by primary care doctors (PST-PC) could improve health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and reduce consultation rates in the elderly. Design A single-blind randomized placebo controlled trial (RCT). Setting Two government funded primary care clinics in Hong Kong. Participants Two hundred and ninety nine Chinese patients aged 60 years or over, with positive screening scores for psychological problems by the Hosp...

  15. Negative and positive consequences of adolescent cancer 10 years after diagnosis : an interview-based longitudinal study in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Gronqvist, Helena; Engvall, Gunn; Ander, Malin; Tuinman, Marrit A.; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Sanderman, Robbert; Mattsson, Elisabet; von Essen, Louise

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide insight into survivor-reported negative and positive consequences of cancer during adolescence 10 years after diagnosis and compare these with consequences reported 3 and 4 years after diagnosis. METHODS: Three, 4, and 10 years after diagnosis, survivo

  16. The Effects of Experimentally Induced Rumination, Positive Reappraisal, Acceptance, and Distancing when Thinking about a Stressful Event on Affect States in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Lea; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Bogels, Susan M.; Arntz, Arnoud

    2012-01-01

    The current study compares the effects of experimentally induced rumination, positive reappraisal, distancing, and acceptance on affect states in adolescents aged 13-18. Participants (N = 160) were instructed to think about a recent stressful event. Next, they received specific instructions on how to think about that event in each condition.…

  17. Improving the Confidence of Pre-Adolescent Girls by Focusing on the Development of Positive Self-Esteem, Body Image, and Assertiveness Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Alice S.

    This practicum was designed to focus on: (1) the improvement of the confidence of pre-adolescent girls; (2) the establishment of a positive body image; and (3) the strengthening of assertiveness skills. The writer worked in a group of 20 girls over a period of 8 months using exercises designed to facilitate their growth. A curriculum was developed…

  18. The effect of "in favor of myself": preventive program to enhance positive self and body image among adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moria Golan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements and family connectedness are considered protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examined the effect of an interactive, community-based, media literacy and dissonance wellness program, In Favor of Myself, on the self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behavior of young adolescents. A preliminary cohort study was conducted among 972 program participants who did not take part in the controlled trial. Over 75% of participants said they would recommend the program to their friends. METHODS: A controlled trial was conducted to evaluate program acceptability, efficacy and effectiveness among 259 participants (210 in the intervention group and 49 in the control group, aged 12-14 years, who completed questionnaires during at least two assessment times. Program materials were provided, along with leaders' training, in order to ensure quality program delivery and creation of a wide network of committed program leaders. RESULTS: The program significantly reduced drive for thinness and self-worth contingent upon others' approval, the gap between current body figure and ideal figure, and the impact of mood on girls' self-image. Superiority was found among those participating in the intervention group with respect to recognizing media strategies, the influence of media on desire to change, and the influence of appearance on self-confidence and drive for thinness. CONCLUSIONS: In Favor of Myself shows promising results for strengthening adolescents' ability to cope with the challenges of their life stage. Suggestions for improving In Favor of Myself are presented.

  19. Social Aggression and Social Position in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence: Burning Bridges or Building Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jennifer Watling

    2010-01-01

    Because the mechanism of harm used in social aggression generally involves the manipulation of peer relationships, it is important to consider its social correlates. The current article uses social dominance theory as a frame to review developmental research on social aggression perpetration and three indicators of social position: sociometric…

  20. Interplay of Network Position and Peer Substance Use in Early Adolescent Cigarette, Alcohol, and Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus, Kimberly; Henry, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Network position ("isolate," "member," "liaison"), peer-group substance use, and their interaction were examined as predictors of cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use in a sample of 163 urban sixth, seventh, and eighth graders. Two measures of peer substance use were compared: one based on social network analysis (SNA), the other on perceptions…

  1. The social position of adolescents and young adults with chronic digestive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calsbeek, Hiske

    2003-01-01

    A chronic digestive disorder can be accompanied by -sometimes embarrassing- symptoms and complaints, such as pain, lack of energy, flatulency or incontinence, which can affect the social position of patients. In addition, diet commitments, or worries about toilet facilities can have a serious impact

  2. Positive behavioural support in schools for children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities whose behaviour challenges: an exploration of the economic case

    OpenAIRE

    Iemmi, Valentina; Knapp, Martin; Brown, Freddy Jackson

    2016-01-01

    Decision-makers with limited budgets want to know the economic consequences of their decisions. Is there an economic case for positive behavioural support (PBS)? A small before–after study assessing the impact of PBS on challenging behaviours and positive social and communication skills in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities and behaviours that challenge was followed by an evaluation of costs. Results were compared with the costs of alternative packages of care currently a...

  3. Screening of Novice Adolescent Girls for Anemia studying in Medical and Paramedical Colleges at Civil Hospital Campus, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

    OpenAIRE

    Mallika V Chavada, Jagruti D Prajapati, Dinesh M Rathod, Pooja Chaudhary, Kriti M Agrawal

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Anemia is major public health problem in adoles-cents in India. This study was conducted to estimate the preva-lence of anemia among novice medical and paramedical adolescent girls students and to study the socio-demographic factors associated with anemia in them. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted by purposive non random sampling method in March 2011. Data was collected from 357 novice girl students of four medical and paramedical colleges and one nursing sc...

  4. Applying Positive Psychology to Illuminate the Needs of Adolescent Males Transitioning Out of Juvenile Detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Danielle; Hanham, José

    2017-01-01

    Reducing the recidivism of young offenders is a critical research issue, not only to enhance the future outcomes for the young person but also to reduce the future risk to the community. Navigating the immediate transition from detention back into the community is positioned as a critical milestone. This small qualitative study describes how young offenders participating in a formal mentoring program in Australia experienced the transition from detention to the community and the intrinsic drivers of their behaviour throughout this transition. Perspectives of their mentors and caseworker were also solicited. Importantly, their stories were interpreted through the lens of positive psychology and self-determination theory to discuss the relevance of one's pursuit of autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Increasing our understanding of these intrinsic motivators will assist young offenders to pursue a better life away from crime and benefit both themselves and the wider community.

  5. Neural activity to intense positive versus negative stimuli can help differentiate bipolar disorder from unipolar major depressive disorder in depressed adolescents: a pilot fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diler, Rasim Somer; de Almeida, Jorge Renner Cardoso; Ladouceur, Cecile; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Phillips, Mary

    2013-12-30

    Failure to distinguish bipolar depression (BDd) from the unipolar depression of major depressive disorder (UDd) in adolescents has significant clinical consequences. We aimed to identify differential patterns of functional neural activity in BDd versus UDd and employed two (fearful and happy) facial expression/ gender labeling functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to study emotion processing in 10 BDd (8 females, mean age=15.1 ± 1.1) compared to age- and gender-matched 10 UDd and 10 healthy control (HC) adolescents who were age- and gender-matched to the BDd group. BDd adolescents, relative to UDd, showed significantly lower activity to both intense happy (e.g., insula and temporal cortex) and intense fearful faces (e.g., frontal precentral cortex). Although the neural regions recruited in each group were not the same, both BDd and UDd adolescents, relative to HC, showed significantly lower neural activity to intense happy and mild happy faces, but elevated neural activity to mild fearful faces. Our results indicated that patterns of neural activity to intense positive and negative emotional stimuli can help differentiate BDd from UDd in adolescents.

  6. Health-related quality of life in adolescents with screening-detected celiac disease, before and one year after diagnosis and initiation of gluten-free diet, a prospective nested case-referent study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordyke Katrina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Celiac disease (CD is a chronic disorder in genetically predisposed individuals in which a small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy is precipitated by dietary gluten. It can be difficult to diagnose because signs and symptoms may be absent, subtle, or not recognized as CD related and therefore not prompt testing within routine clinical practice. Thus, most people with CD are undiagnosed and a public health intervention, which involves screening the general population, is an option to find those with unrecognized CD. However, how these screening-detected individuals experience the diagnosis and treatment (gluten-free diet is not fully understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL of adolescents with screening-detected CD before and one year after diagnosis and treatment. Methods A prospective nested case-referent study was done involving Swedish adolescents who had participated in a CD screening study when they were in the sixth grade and about 12 years old. Screening-detected adolescents (n = 103 and referents without CD who participated in the same screening (n = 483 answered questionnaires at the time of the screening and approximately one year after the screening-detected adolescents had received their diagnosis that included the EQ-5D instrument used to measure health status and report HRQoL. Results The HRQoL for the adolescents with screening-detected CD is similar to the referents, both before and one year after diagnosis and initiation of the gluten-free diet, except in the dimension of pain at follow-up. In the pain dimension at follow-up, fewer cases reported problems than referents (12.6% and 21.9% respectively, Adjusted OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.27-0.94. However, a sex stratified analysis revealed that the significant difference was for boys at follow-up, where fewer screening-detected boys reported problems (4.3% compared to referent boys (18.8% (Adjusted OR 0

  7. The Effect of Specific Sling Exercises on the Functional Movement Screen Score in Adolescent Volleyball Players: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulicz, Edward; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wójtowicz, Monika; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The existing data indicate that the result of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) test influences the likelihood of subsequent injury in professional athletes. Therefore, exercises increasing test scores of the FMS may be useful at various stages of sports activity. This study evaluated the effects of the NEURAC sling exercises method on the FMS test score in teenage volleyball players. The study was conducted on 15 volleyball players aged 14 years. The FMS test was performed three times interspersed with a two-month interval. Between the first and the second assessment, neither additional treatment nor training was applied, while between the second and the third assessment, the participants performed stabilisation exercises based on the NEURAC method. Training was carried out twice a week, for eight weeks. The analysis showed that between the first and the second measurement, no significant differences occurred. The use of specific sling exercises caused a significant improvement in FMS results (p ≤ 0.01) between the first and the third, as well as the second and the third measurement. The applied stabilisation exercises based on the NEURAC method positively influenced the FMS test result in male subjects practicing volleyball. Performance of such exercises also resulted in more than 90% of the subjects having a total FMS test score ≥ 17, which may be important in the prevention of injuries. The preliminary results indicate that this type of exercise should be included in a teenage volleyball training routine. PMID:28031760

  8. Two-year stability of the late positive potential across middle childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Autumn; Klein, Daniel N; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak

    2013-10-01

    The late positive potential (LPP) may be a useful measure of individual differences in emotional processing across development, but little is known about the stability of the LPP across time. We assessed the LPP and behavioral measures of emotional interference following pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images in 8- to 13-year-old youth. Approximately two years later, the same participants completed the task again (N=34). Results indicated that the LPP is moderately-to-highly reliable across development. Stability was lower and more inconsistent for behavioral measures. In addition, consistent with previous cross-sectional analyses, a decrease in occipital activity was observed at the second assessment. Results indicate that the LPP appears to be a stable measure of emotional processing, even across a fairly large period of development.

  9. HAMS: High-Affinity Mass Spectrometry Screening. A High-Throughput Screening Method for Identifying the Tightest-Binding Lead Compounds for Target Proteins with No False Positive Identifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaduwage, Kasun P.; Go, Eden P.; Zhu, Zhikai; Desaire, Heather

    2016-09-01

    A major challenge in drug discovery is the identification of high affinity lead compounds that bind a particular target protein; these leads are typically identified by high throughput screens. Mass spectrometry has become a detection method of choice in drug screening assays because the target and the ligand need not be modified. Label-free assays are advantageous because they can be developed more rapidly than assays requiring labels, and they eliminate the risk of the label interfering with the binding event. However, in commonly used MS-based screening methods, detection of false positives is a major challenge. Here, we describe a detection strategy designed to eliminate false positives. In this approach, the protein and the ligands are incubated together, and the non-binders are separated for detection. Hits (protein binders) are not detectable by MS after incubation with the protein, but readily identifiable by MS when the target protein is not present in the incubation media. The assay was demonstrated using three different proteins and hundreds of non-inhibitors; no false positive hits were identified in any experiment. The assay can be tuned to select for ligands of a particular binding affinity by varying the quantity of protein used and the immobilization method. As examples, the method selectively detected inhibitors that have Ki values of 0.2 μM, 50 pM, and 700 pM. These findings demonstrate that the approach described here compares favorably with traditional MS-based screening methods.

  10. HAMS: High-Affinity Mass Spectrometry Screening. A High-Throughput Screening Method for Identifying the Tightest-Binding Lead Compounds for Target Proteins with No False Positive Identifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaduwage, Kasun P.; Go, Eden P.; Zhu, Zhikai; Desaire, Heather

    2016-11-01

    A major challenge in drug discovery is the identification of high affinity lead compounds that bind a particular target protein; these leads are typically identified by high throughput screens. Mass spectrometry has become a detection method of choice in drug screening assays because the target and the ligand need not be modified. Label-free assays are advantageous because they can be developed more rapidly than assays requiring labels, and they eliminate the risk of the label interfering with the binding event. However, in commonly used MS-based screening methods, detection of false positives is a major challenge. Here, we describe a detection strategy designed to eliminate false positives. In this approach, the protein and the ligands are incubated together, and the non-binders are separated for detection. Hits (protein binders) are not detectable by MS after incubation with the protein, but readily identifiable by MS when the target protein is not present in the incubation media. The assay was demonstrated using three different proteins and hundreds of non-inhibitors; no false positive hits were identified in any experiment. The assay can be tuned to select for ligands of a particular binding affinity by varying the quantity of protein used and the immobilization method. As examples, the method selectively detected inhibitors that have Ki values of 0.2 μM, 50 pM, and 700 pM. These findings demonstrate that the approach described here compares favorably with traditional MS-based screening methods.

  11. The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral stress management training on mental health, social interaction and family function in adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive member

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Keypour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated stress management training to improve mental health, social interaction and family function among adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive member. Methods: There were 34 adolescents (13-18 years old with at least one family member living with HIV from whom finally 15 attended the study and participated in 8 weekly sessions of stress management training. The tests used in this study were: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (self and parent report, General Health Questionnare-28 (GHQ-28 and Family Assessment Device (FAD, conducted before, after and three months after the intervention. The collected data were analyzed by repeated measure test using SPSS software (Version 18.0. Results: Adolescents with one HIV positive family member showed high level of emotional problem (40% and conduct problem (33.3%. There was a significant difference between before, after and 3months after intervention based on GHQ-28 mean scores and FAD mean sores (p < 0.001. There was a significant difference between mean scores of peers′ relationship based on SDQ (self report and parents report forms before and after intervention, but there was no significant difference between mean scores of pro social behavior based on SDQ (self report and parents report forms in all three stages (before, after and three months after intervention. Conclusions: Stress management training is effective in improving mental health, family function and social interaction among adolescents living with parents infected with HIV/AIDS.

  12. Kinome-wide functional screen identifies role of PLK1 in hormone-independent, ER-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, Neil E; Jansen, Valerie M; Bafna, Sangeeta; Giltnane, Jennifer M; Balko, Justin M; Estrada, Mónica V; Meszoely, Ingrid; Mayer, Ingrid; Abramson, Vandana; Ye, Fei; Sanders, Melinda; Dugger, Teresa C; Allen, Eliezer V; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2015-01-15

    Estrogen receptor (ER) α-positive breast cancers initially respond to antiestrogens but eventually become estrogen independent and recur. ER(+) breast cancer cells resistant to long-term estrogen deprivation (LTED) exhibit hormone-independent ER transcriptional activity and growth. A kinome-wide siRNA screen using a library targeting 720 kinases identified Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) as one of the top genes whose downregulation resulted in inhibition of estrogen-independent ER transcriptional activity and growth of LTED cells. High PLK1 mRNA and protein correlated with a high Ki-67 score in primary ER(+) breast cancers after treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PLK1 inhibited ER expression, estrogen-independent growth, and ER transcription in MCF7 and HCC1428 LTED cells. Pharmacologic inhibition of PLK1 with volasertib, a small-molecule ATP-competitive PLK1 inhibitor, decreased LTED cell growth, ER transcriptional activity, and ER expression. Volasertib in combination with the ER antagonist, fulvestrant, decreased MCF7 xenograft growth in ovariectomized mice more potently than each drug alone. JUNB, a component of the AP-1 complex, was expressed 16-fold higher in MCF7/LTED compared with parental MCF7 cells. Furthermore, JUNB and BCL2L1 (which encodes antiapoptotic BCL-xL) mRNA levels were markedly reduced upon volasertib treatment in MCF7/LTED cells, while they were increased in parental MCF7 cells. Finally, JUNB knockdown decreased ER expression and transcriptional activity in MCF7/LTED cells, suggesting that PLK1 drives ER expression and estrogen-independent growth via JUNB. These data support a critical role of PLK1 in acquired hormone-independent growth of ER(+) human breast cancer and is therefore a promising target in tumors that have escaped estrogen deprivation therapy.

  13. Community-Based Health Education has Positive Influence on the Attitude to Cervical Cancer Screening among Women in Rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Sunila; Karmacharya, Biraj Man; Afset, Jan Egil; Bofin, Anna; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Syversen, Unni; Tingulstad, Solveig

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of cervical cancer among women in rural Nepal and explore the feasibility and impact of a community-based awareness program on cervical cancer. Community-based educational meetings on cervical cancer and its prevention were conducted among women's groups in rural Nepal. Through a questionnaire, the women's baseline knowledge of risk factors, symptoms, and perceived risk of cervical cancer were identified. The willingness to participate in cervical cancer screening was compared before and after the educational meeting. The meetings were followed by a cervical cancer screening program. Among the 122 participants at the educational meeting, only 6 % had heard of cervical cancer. Their baseline knowledge of risk factors and symptoms was poor. The proportion of women willing to participate in cervical screening increased from 15.6 to 100 % after attending the educational meeting. All the study subjects participated in the screening program. Additionally, the study participants recruited a further 222 of their peers for screening. Poor knowledge of cervical cancer among women in rural Nepal highlights the urgency of public awareness programs for cervical cancer at a national level. A community-based awareness program can change women's attitude to cervical screening, and women's groups can play a major role in promoting participation in cervical cancer screening programs.

  14. The Prevalence of Hemoglobinopathies in Young Adolescents in the Province of Muğla in Turkey: Results of a Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Yaşar; Topal, Hatice; Ceyhan, Mustafa Nuri; Azik, Fatih; Çapanoğlu, Murat; Kocabaş, Can Naci

    2015-01-01

    Thalassemia is an autosomal recessive inherited blood disorder. It is prevalent in Mediterranean countries such as Sardinia, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Lebanon and also Southeast Asia. Our aim was to investigate the carrier prevalence of thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies in adolescents who live in Muğla Province, Turkey. We analyzed retrospectively the surveys conducted at primary schools between 1997 and 2013. Complete blood count (CBC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to screen for thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies. Patients were diagnosed as having thalassemia trait if the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was ≤ 80.0 fL, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (Hb) was ≤ 27.0 pg and Hb A2 levels were ≥ 3.5%. A total of 164,814 students were analyzed. The median age of the students was 13.5 years (minimum 13.0, maximum 14.0). The total number of students with abnormal HPLC results was 5861 (3.8%). There was a significant decrease in the newborn of new thalassemia patients found with screening programs for hemoglobinopathies in Muğla Province from 1997 to 2013. The number of students with abnormal HPLC results for thalassemia, sickle cell disease and other Hb traits were 3.2, 0.15 and 0.4%, respectively. It is important to recognize that including Hb, MCV, red blood cell (RBC) count and HPLC tests for carrier screening are necessary to find hemoglobinopathies. Our study supported that the number of new patients significantly decreased using these screening programs from 1997 to 2013.

  15. Screen time behaviors may interact with obesity genes, independent of physical activity, to influence adolescent BMI in an ethnically-diverse cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, M; North, KE; Richardson, AS; Young, K M; Mohlke, KL; Lange, LA; Lange, EM; Harris, KM; Gordon-Larsen, P

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been little investigation of gene-by-environment interactions related to sedentary behavior, a risk factor for obesity defined as leisure screen time (ST; i.e., TV, video, and computer games). Objective To test the hypothesis that limiting ST use attenuates the genetic predisposition to increased BMI, independent of physical activity. Design Using 7,642 wave II participants of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, (Add Health; mean=16.4 years, 52.6% female), we assessed the interaction of ST (h/wk) and 41 established obesity SNPs with age- and sex-specific BMI Z scores in 4,788 European-(EA),1,612 African- (AA), and 1,242 Hispanic-American(HA)adolescents. Results Nominally significant SNP*ST interaction were found for FLJ35779 in EA, GNPDA2 in AA, and none in HA (EA: beta[SE]=0.016[0.007]), AA: beta[SE]=0.016[0.011]) per 7 h/wk ST and 1 risk allele in relation to BMI Z-score. Conclusions While for two established BMI loci, we find evidence that high levels of ST exacerbate the influence of obesity susceptibility variants on body mass, overall we do not find strong evidence for interactions between the majority of established obesity loci. However, future studies with larger sample sizes, or that may build on our current study and the growing published literature, are clearly warranted. PMID:24039247

  16. Adolescents with obstructive sleep apnea adhere poorly to positive airway pressure (PAP, but PAP users show improved attention and school performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean W Beebe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA is associated with medical and neurobehavioral morbidity across the lifespan. Positive airway pressure (PAP treatment has demonstrated efficacy in treating OSA and has been shown to improve daytime functioning in adults, but treatment adherence can be problematic. There are nearly no published studies examining functional outcomes such as academic functioning in adolescents treated with PAP. This study was conducted as an initial step towards determining whether PAP treatment improves daytime functioning among adolescents with OSA. METHODS: Self-reported academic grades, self- and parent-reported academic quality of life, and objectively-measured attention were assessed before and after PAP was clinically initiated in a sample of 13 obese adolescents with OSA, as well as 15 untreated obese Controls without OSA. Based on adherence data, the treated group was divided into PAP Users (n = 6 and Non-Adherent participants (n = 7. RESULTS: Though demographically similar, the three groups significantly differed in how their academic performance and attention scores changed from baseline to follow-up. Non-Adherent participants showed worsening functioning over time, while PAP Users showed stable or improved functioning, similar to controls. CONCLUSION: Although many adolescents prescribed PAP for OSA are non-adherent to the treatment, those who adhere to treatment can display improved attention and academic functioning.

  17. Thyroid dysfunction in Down's syndrome and screening for hypothyroidism in children and adolescents using capillary TSH measurement.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, J

    2008-02-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is more common in individuals with Down\\'s syndrome (DS) than in the general population, whose clinical features can mask the presenting signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism. Biochemical screening is necessary; however, venepuncture may be difficult.

  18. Utilization of Professional Mental Health Services Related to Population-Level Screening for Anxiety, Depression, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Among Public High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, John D; Le, Vi Donna; Baillargeon, Jacques; Temple, Jeff R

    2016-08-01

    This study examines results from three mental health screening measures in a cohort of adolescent public school students in seven public schools in Southeast Texas affiliated with the Dating it Safe study. We estimated the odds of receiving professional mental health treatment in the previous year given results from different mental health screening batteries: the CES-D 10 battery for depression screening, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, and the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder screen. Overall, students with higher scores on screening instruments for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and combinations of screening instruments were more likely to have sought past-year professional mental health treatment than non-symptomatic youth. However, the proportion of students screening positive and receiving professional treatment was low, ranging from 11 to 16 %. This study emphasizes the need for broader evaluation of population-based mental health screening among adolescents.

  19. Confirmation of positive antibody screens by solid-phase red cell adherence assay using a tube technique method with polyethylene glycol enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, R R; Lake, M; Velasquez, N; Prichard, A

    2001-01-01

    Our blood bank routinely screens donors for antibodies using a solid-phase red cell adherence (SPRCA) assay. Positive results are then confirmed using a tube technique with polyethylene glycol (PEG) enhancement due to reported higher specificity than with SPRCA. Over a 5-month period, 49,084 donor serum or plasma samples were tested using the SPRCA assay. Further identification of positive samples was performed using a PEG enhancement method. Testing was performed with strict adherence to the manufacturers' inserts. Of 49,084 samples, 313 (0.64%) were positive by the SPRCA assay. Of these, 99 (31.6%) samples remained positive when tested with PEG enhancement. The remaining 214 (68.4%) were negative, giving specificity for the SPRCA assay of 99.6 percent (48,985/ 49,199). We report a high specificity for antibody screening using the SPRCA assay. However, it is cost effective to perform a confirmatory tube test with PEG enhancement because 214 SPRCA assay samples were interpreted as having a negative antibody screen, thus allowing the release of valuable blood components for transfusion.

  20. Benzodiazepine whole blood concentrations in cases with positive oral fluid on-site screening test results using the DrugWipe(®) single for benzodiazepines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blencowe, Tom; Vimpari, Kari; Lillsunde, Pirjo

    2011-07-01

    Reliable on-site oral fluid screening devices are a useful and convenient means of policing traffic. In Finland, benzodiazepines represent a particular challenge to traffic safety. This study presents a retrospective examination of toxicological analysis results from whole blood in cases which gave a positive screening result for benzodiazepines in oral fluid using the DrugWipe Single device (Securetec). Use of oral fluid on-site screening tests and blood confirmation analyses reflects the real situation in many countries. The data were compiled from the databases of Alcohol and Drug Analytics Unit at the National Institute for Health and Welfare. Confirmation analysis results in whole blood were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were from 224 real cases in which the Finnish police had conducted a DrugWipe Single benzodiazepines test on drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). The benzodiazepine concentrations encountered in positive oral fluid screening cases in this study indicate that the device is able to detect these substances even at relatively low levels. However, the DrugWipe device does not enable any distinction between therapeutic use and harmful use of benzodiazepines at higher doses.

  1. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed.

  2. Promoting equity and reducing health disparities among racially/ethnically diverse adolescents: a position paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    With this paper, five key domains of advocacy, clinical care and health promotion, education and health services delivery, workforce and professional development, and research are identified. All five require attention in order to reach the overarching goal of health equity for adolescents and young adults. SAHM believes that achieving health equity is related to its organizational mission and vision and is a key factor in driving excellence in adolescent health and medicine. SAHM will continue to expand its capacity, being introspective as an organization as well as make recommendations to others, in an effort to be collaborative and inclusive of professionals, programs, and systems that represent and serve the diverse populations for whom the Society advocates.

  3. ["I'll tell you if you ask me"; screening young people for substance use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Germond-Burquier, V; Haller, D M; Narring, F

    2010-06-16

    Substance use among young people is an important issue for educational, social and medical providers. More than 75% young people have had a medical visit in the last 12 months, making primary care settings ideal for screening and early intervention programs. The prevalence of substance misuse was assessed with the DEP-ADO screen test among young patients attending the primary care consultation of Geneva University Hospitals. The screen was well accepted by both patients and providers and only took about 10 minutes to complete. One in five screened positive for problematic substance use, supporting the current guidelines recommending annual screening for substance misuse in adolescent primary care outpatients.

  4. Ayahuasca in adolescence: a preliminary psychiatric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier; Grob, Charles S; de Rios, Marlene Dobkin; Lopez, Enrique; Alonso, Luisa K; Tacla, Cristiane; Doering-Silveira, Evelyn

    2005-06-01

    Ayahuasca is believed to be harmless for those (including adolescents) drinking it within a religious setting. Nevertheless controlled studies on the mental/ psychiatric status of ritual hallucinogenic ayahuasca concoction consumers are still lacking. In this study, 40 adolescents from a Brazilian ayahuasca sect were compared with 40 controls matched on sex, age, and educational background for psychiatric symptomatology. Screening scales for depression, anxiety, alcohol consumption patterns (abuse), attentional problems, and body dysmorphic disorders were used. It was found that, compared to controls, considerable lower frequencies of positive scoring for anxiety, body dismorphism, and attentional problems were detected among ayahuasca-using adolescents despite overall similar psychopathological profiles displayed by both study groups. Low frequencies of psychiatric symptoms detected among adolescents consuming ayahuasca within a religious context may reflect a protective effect due to their religious affiliation. However further studies on the possible interference of other variables in the outcome are necessary.

  5. Serum-Free Generation of Multipotent Mesoderm (Kdr-positive) Progenitor Cells in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells For Functional Genomics Screening

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This unit describes a robust protocol for producing multipotent Kdr-expressing mesoderm progenitor cells in serum-free conditions and functional genomics screening using these cells. Kdr-positive cells are known to be able to differentiate into a wide array of mesoderm derivatives including, vascular endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, hematopietic progenitors and smooth muscle cells. The efficient generation of such progenitor cells is of particular interest because it permits subsequent step...

  6. Individual and community-level socioeconomic position and its association with adolescents experience of childhood sexual abuse: a multilevel analysis of six countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Yahaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA is a substantial global health and human rights problem and consequently a growing concern in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the association between individual and community-level socioeconomic status (SES and the likelihood of reporting CSA. Methods: We applied multiple multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 6,351female adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 years from six countries in sub-Saharan Africa, between 2006 and 2008. Results: About 70% of the reported cases of CSA were between 14 and 17 years. Zambia had the highest proportion of reported cases of CSA (5.8%. At the individual and community level, we found that there was no association between CSA and socioeconomic position. This study provides evidence that the likelihood of reporting CSA cut across all individual SES as well as all community socioeconomic strata. Conclusions: We found no evidence of socioeconomic differentials in adolescents’ experience of CSA, suggesting that adolescents from the six countries studied experienced CSA regardless of their individual- and community-level socioeconomic position. However, we found some evidence of geographical clustering, adolescents in the same community are subject to common contextual influences. Further studies are needed to explore possible effects of countries’ political, social, economic, legal, and cultural impact on childhood sexual abuse.

  7. Systematic hybrid LOH: a new method to reduce false positives and negatives during screening of yeast gene deletion libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvaro, D.; Sunjevaric, I.; Reid, R. J.;

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a new method, systematic hybrid loss of heterozygosity, to facilitate genomic screens utilizing the yeast gene deletion library. Screening is performed using hybrid diploid strains produced through mating the library haploids with strains from a different genetic background......, to minimize the contribution of unpredicted recessive genetic factors present in the individual library strains. We utilize a set of strains where each contains a conditional centromere construct on one of the 16 yeast chromosomes that allows the destabilization and selectable loss of that chromosome. After...... mating a library gene deletion haploid to such a conditional centromere strain, which corresponds to the chromosome carrying the gene deletion, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the gene deletion locus can be generated in these otherwise hybrid diploids. The use of hybrid diploid strains permits...

  8. A Resistive Touch Screen Coordinate Positioning Method%一种电阻触摸屏坐标定位方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飞; 凌云; 陈欢; 罗树英

    2015-01-01

    提出了一种五线电阻触摸屏的坐标定位方法。五线电阻触摸屏从下导电层的4个角施加恒定电流流入,所有电流从上导电层流出。定位触按坐标时,先设置初始预设点,然后测量触按点的实际对角线电压,采用反向搜索定位法,计算预设点和搜索点的理论对角线电压,取误差最小的理论对角线电压点为新预设点,反复搜索,最终逼近触按点。该方法解决了在不加补偿电极的情况下,五线电阻触摸屏的非线性方程求解和失真校正问题,可以使五线电阻触摸屏的边框变窄,拓宽了五线电阻触摸屏在小屏幕下的应用范围。%Puts forward a method on positioning coordinate of five-wire resistive touch screen. The constant current is applied to inflow from four corners of lower conducting layer of the resistive touch screen and all current outflows from upper conducting layer. Sets the initial preset point first when the touch coordinate is positioned, then measures the actual diagonal voltage of the touch point, and uses the reverse-search positioning method to calculate the theoretical diagonalvoltage of the preset and searching point. Takes the theoretical minimum error diagonal voltage point as new preset point and searches repeatedly to get the final approach touch point. The method solves the problems of nonlinear equa-tions solution and distortion calibration for five-wire resistive touch screen without the compensation electrode. It makes the touch screen frame narrower and broadens the five-wire resistive touch screen application range in small screen.

  9. Predictors for a positive outcome of adapted clinical dry bed training in adolescents and adults with enuresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeester, Ilse; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Steffens, Martijn G.; van Capelle, Jan Willem; Mulder, Zwaan; Feitz, Wouter F. J.; Blanker, Marco H.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Adapted Dry Bed Training (Adapted DBT) has been shown to be effective in therapy-resistant adolescents and adults with enuresis. Given the substantial impact of enuresis and the time-consuming nature of Adapted DBT, we investigated which patients benefited most from Adapted DBT. Therefore, we i

  10. Social Support and Maternal Depression from Pregnancy to Postpartum: The Association with Positive Maternal Behaviours among Brazilian Adolescent Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Eva; Koller, Sílvia H.; Volling, Brenda L.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent motherhood is a risky situation related to poorer quality of infant caregiving. The lack of social support and increased odds for maternal depression are the main concerns. This study aimed to investigate whether maternal-foetal attachment, social support and maternal depression measured during pregnancy and after birth were associated…

  11. Young Adolescents' Positioning of Human Rights: Findings from Colombia, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Keith C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how young adolescents thought about the location of human rights issues and the nature of violations in differing geographic regions. Open-ended, task-based interviews were conducted with 116 students in Colombia, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the United States. Although students in each location pointed to…

  12. Positive Outcomes following Participation in a Music Intervention for Adolescents and Young Adults on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Ashleigh; Greher, Gena; Poto, Nataliya; Dougherty, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Music interventions are frequently utilized with those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and have shown a range of benefits. However, empirical evaluations are lacking and would be a timely step forward in the field. Here we report the findings of our pilot music program for adolescents and young adults with ASD. Evaluation of the program…

  13. An Examination of the Relationships between Ego Development, Dabrowski's Theory of Positive Disintegration, and the Behavioral Characteristics of Gifted Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Carrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Literature exploring the experiences of gifted individuals has often focused on asynchronous development, particularly during childhood and adolescence. Also discussed in the literature are the unique social, emotional, and behavioral characteristics associated with giftedness. However, there is still an unclear picture concerning the implications…

  14. Serum-Free Generation of Multipotent Mesoderm (Kdr-positive) Progenitor Cells in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells For Functional Genomics Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeithan, Wesley; Colas, Alexandre; Bushway, Paul J.; Ray, Saugata; Mercola, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This unit describes a robust protocol for producing multipotent Kdr-expressing mesoderm progenitor cells in serum-free conditions and functional genomics screening using these cells. Kdr-positive cells are known to be able to differentiate into a wide array of mesoderm derivatives including, vascular endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, hematopietic progenitors and smooth muscle cells. The efficient generation of such progenitor cells is of particular interest because it permits subsequent steps in cardiovascular development to be analyzed in detail, including deciphering the mechanisms that direct differentiation. The oligonucleotide transfection protocol used to functionally screen siRNA and microRNA libraries is a powerful tool to reveal networks of genes, signaling proteins and microRNAs that control the diversification of cardiovascular lineages from multipotent progenitors. The discussion addresses technical limitations, troubleshooting and potential applications. PMID:23154934

  15. Screening for depressed mood in an adolescent psychiatric context by brief self-assessment scales -- testing psychometric validity of WHO-5 and BDI-6 indices by latent trait analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Eva Henje; Bech, Per; Högberg, Göran

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder is prevalent in the adolescent psychiatric clinical setting and often comorbid with other primary psychiatric diagnoses such as ADHD or social anxiety disorder. Systematic manual-based diagnostic procedures are recommended to identify such comorbidity...... of two such scales, which may be used in a two-step screening procedure, the WHO-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5) and the six-item version of Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-6). METHOD: 66 adolescent psychiatric patients with a clinical diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD), 60 girls and 6 boys...... but they are time-consuming and often not fully implemented in clinical practice. Screening for depressive symptoms in the child psychiatric context using brief, user-friendly and easily managed self-assessment scales may be of clinical value and utility. The aim of the study is to test the psychometric validity...

  16. False-Positive Newborn Screen Using the Beutler Spot Assay for Galactosemia in Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhrman, Grace; Perez Juanazo, Stefanie J; Crivelly, Kea; Smith, Jennifer; Andersson, Hans; Morava, Eva

    2017-01-12

    Classical galactosemia is detected through newborn screening by measuring galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) in the USA primarily via the Beutler spot assay. We report on an 18-month-old patient with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency that was originally diagnosed with classical galactosemia. The patient presented with elevated liver function enzymes and bilirubinemia and was immediately treated with soy-based formula. Confirmatory tests revealed deficiency of the GALT enzyme, however, full-sequencing of GALT was normal, suggestive of a different ideology. The Beutler spot assay uses three other enzymatic steps in addition to GALT. A deficiency in either of these enzymes can result in suspected decreased GALT activity when using the Beutler assay. Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation screening for phosphoglucomutase-1 deficiency was negative. Quantitative analysis of G6PD enzyme in red blood cells showed a severe deficiency and a deletion in G6PD. Soy-formula, the standard treatment for galactosemia, has been reported to trigger hemolysis in G6PD deficient patients. G6PD and phosphoglucomutase-1 deficiencies should be considered when confirmatory tests are negative for pathogenic variants in GALT and galactose-1-phosphate level is normal.

  17. The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on prevalence and incidence of cervical human papillomavirus infections in HIV-positive adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Craig M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART among HIV-positive patients results in immune reconstitution, slower progression of HIV disease, and a decrease in the occurrence of opportunistic infections. However, the impact of HAART on cervical human papillomavirus (HPV infection, clearance, and persistence in high-risk adolescents remains controversial. Methods HIV-positive and high-risk HIV-negative female adolescents were enrolled in the Reaching for Excellence in Adolescent Care and Health (REACH longitudinal cohort study. At each semi-annual clinical visit, cervical lavage samples were tested for 30 HPV types. Type-specific and carcinogenic risk-specific HPV prevalence and incidence were compared in 373 eligible participants: 146 HIV-negative female adolescents with a median follow-up of 721.5 [IQR: 483-1301] days and 227 HIV-positive female adolescents. Of the 227 HIV-positive participants, a fixed set (n = 100 were examined both before and after HAART initiation; 70 were examined only before HAART initiation; and 57 were examined only after HAART initiation, with overall median follow-up of 271 [IQR: 86.5-473] and 427.25 [IQR: 200-871] days respectively for before and after HAART initiation. Results Of the 373 eligible participants, 262 (70% were infected with at least one type of HPV at baseline, and 78 of the remaining 111 (70% became infected with at least one type of HPV by the end of the study. Overall, the incidence and prevalence of HPV types 58, 53/66, 68/70, and 31/33/35 were much higher than the established carcinogenic and HPV vaccine types 16 and 18, especially in HIV-positive females both before and after HAART initiation. Baseline prevalence for individual high-risk HPV types ranged, depending on type, from 0.7-10%, 1-17%, and 1-18% in the HIV-negative group, the HIV-positive before HAART initiation group, and the HIV-positive after HAART initiation group, respectively. Likewise, the

  18. Screening and management practices for renal disease in the HIV-positive patient population of an inner metropolitan sexual health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakar, Sheena; Drak, Douglas; Amin, Tahiya; Cheung, Jason; O'Connor, Catherine C; Gracey, David M

    2017-02-01

    Renal disease is an important and commonly encountered co-morbidity in HIV infection. Despite this, few data are available concerning renal disease in this patient group. A retrospective review was conducted of all HIV-positive patients of an inner metropolitan sexual health service who attended from 1 August 2013 to 31 July 2014 for HIV management. One hundred eighty-eight HIV-positive patients attended the clinic during the study period. The majority were male (96%), Caucasian (70%) and 30-39 years of age (37%). There was a high prevalence of renal risk factors in the population, including potentially nephrotoxic antiretroviral therapy (61%), smoking (38%), hypertension (12%), dyslipidemia (11%) and hepatitis C co-infection (7%). In the previous year, measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate were performed in all patients, but measurements of lipid profiles, urinary protein and serum phosphate were performed within the last year in only 48%, 33% and 30% of patients, respectively. These are the first comprehensive data regarding renal disease, associated risk factors and screening and management practices in the HIV-positive patient population of a specialized sexual health service in Australia. This patient population demonstrates a particularly high prevalence of risk factors for renal disease. Despite this, screening investigations were not performed as recommended. This represents a potential area to improve patient care.

  19. Are screen-based sedentary behaviors longitudinally associated with dietary behaviors and leisure-time physical activity in the transition into adolescence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremariam Mekdes K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for more longitudinal studies investigating the associations between screen-based sedentary behaviors (SB, dietary behaviors and leisure-time physical activity (PA. Methods In the HEIA cohort study, 908 children were followed from age 11 to age 13 (September 2007 – May 2009. The children self-reported their intake of fruits, vegetables, soft drinks with sugar and snacks. TV/DVD use, computer/game use and leisure-time PA were also self-reported. Multilevel generalized linear mixed model analysis was used to assess longitudinal associations between the screen-based SB and each of the two other behaviors. Results Twenty-month changes in TV/DVD use and computer/game use were positively associated with changes in the consumption of soft drinks with sugar and unhealthy snacks in the same period; and inversely associated with change in vegetable consumption. Change in computer/game use was also inversely related to change in fruit consumption. An inverse but non-substantive association was found between change in TV/DVD use and change in leisure-time PA. Change in computer/game use was not significantly associated with change in leisure-time PA. Conclusions Changes in screen-based SB were associated with multiple unfavorable changes in dietary habits, although the associations were weak. These associations need to be further investigated in intervention/experimental studies, to assess whether changing screen-based SB will result in clinically relevant changes in dietary behaviors. However, the findings of this study suggest that screen-based SB and leisure-time PA are largely independent behaviors which should be addressed separately in health promotion activities.

  20. The adolescent emotional coping after an earthquake: a risk factor for suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratta, Paolo; Capanna, Cristina; Carmassi, Claudia; Patriarca, Sara; Di Emidio, Gabriella; Riccardi, Ilaria; Collazzoni, Alberto; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Rossi, Alessandro

    2014-07-01

    The study aims to investigate the relationship of suicidal ideation with coping and resilience in a sample of adolescents who survived an earthquake. Three hundred forty-three adolescents who had experienced the L'Aquila earthquake were investigated for a screening distinguishing Suicidal Screen-Negative (SSN) from the Positive (SSP) subjects. Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ) and Brief Cope were administered. Emotion-focused coping score was significantly higher in SSP subjects. In the SSN but not in the SSP sample the READ total score correlated with problem-focused total score. A positive correlation was seen between emotion-focused and problem-focused scores in both samples, with a higher coefficient in SSP sample. Externalising problems and maladaptive behaviours can arise in adolescents exposed to traumatic events. Attention should be paid in reducing risk factors and in the development of psychological abilities, improving the coping strategies that can protect from emotional despair and suicidal ideation.

  1. Italian Adolescent Gambling Behaviour: Psychometric Evaluation of the South Oaks Gambling Screen: Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA) among a sample of Italian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colasante, Emanuela; Gori, Mercedes; Bastiani, Luca; Scalese, Marco; Siciliano, Valeria; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2014-12-01

    Since no Italian validated instrument focuses specifically on the measurement of pathological gambling in very young people, with this study, we aim to adapt an international instrument (SOGS-RA) and assess its psychometric properties in a sample (n = 14.910) of young Italian students aged between 15 and 19 years. Cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument was performed through translation, synthesis of translation, back-translation, expert committee review, and pre-testing. The kappa statistic for test-retest concordance ranged from 0.53 to 0.80. Internal validity was assessed by the MCA that identified one principal component with eigenvalue equal to 3,875: the Divgi index and very simple structure analysis also pointed out one common factor, so uni-dimensionality of the SOGS-RA was accepted. Moreover the SOGS-RA was found to have acceptable internal consistency (α = 0.780). Cronbach's alpha was also assessed separately among males and females (respectively 0.786 and 0.707). The SOGS-RA was assessed in relation to gambling frequency, alcohol and drug use: Chi squared test revealed a strong association both for males and females with gambling frequency (p value ≤ 0.0001), frequent use of illicit drugs (for each drug p value ≤ 0.0001) and having had 3 or more occasions of binge drinking in the last month (p value ≤ 0.0001). At the end we can say that, the results of our study suggest that the SOGS-RA screen may be useful to assess at-risk or problem gambling for both genders in comprehensive youth surveys.

  2. Interviews with anti-HIV-positive individuals detected through the systematic screening of blood donations: consequences on predonation medical interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrère, J J; Elghouzzi, M H; Paquez, F; N'Dalla, J; Nubel, L

    1992-01-01

    This study is based upon interviews with 74 individuals found to be human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive through the screening of blood donations between January 1988 and December 1990. The donation history and the risk factor of HIV infection were established. Questions about the use of blood donation as a diagnostic test and on the notion of a predonation medical interview evoking the risk factor were asked. The majority of the individuals had a risk factor of HIV infection and had given their blood for serological testing. This data can help to adapt the predonation medical interview to the present epidemiological context of HIV infection. The improvement of this interview will contribute to the decrease of the residual transfusional risk of HIV infection.

  3. Incorporating human papillomavirus testing into cytological screening in the era of prophylactic vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonte, Maribel; Sasieni, Peter; Cuzick, Jack

    2011-10-01

    Screening for, and treatment of, pre-cancerous cervical lesions has lead to dramatic reductions in cervical cancer in many countries. In all cases, cervical screening has been based on cytology, but that is beginning to change. Research studies, including randomised trials, clearly show that human papillomavirus (HPV) testing could be used to prevent a greater proportion of cervical cancer within a practical screening programme. Meanwhile, young adolescents are being vaccinated against HPV in developed countries, but cervical screening should continue for many years because it will take decades before most of those targeted by screening have been vaccinated. In the HPV vaccination era, the rate of cervical disease will decrease, and so will the positive predictive value of cytology. The screening characteristics of HPV testing make it the preferred choice for primary screening. However, questions regarding how to use HPV testing to screen vaccinated and unvaccinated women in the future remain unanswered.

  4. Ethnic differences in BMI among Dutch adolescents: what is the role of screen-viewing, active commuting to school, and consumption of soft drinks and high-caloric snacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amika S; Chinapaw, Mai JM; Brug, Johannes; Kremers, Stef PJ; Visscher, Tommy LS; van Mechelen, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Background The threats posed by the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity on public health have been widely acknowledged. Several population groups, which deserve special attention because of their higher prevalence rates, have been identified. These include adolescents and ethnic sub-groups. The aim of the present study was twofold: (1) to assess ethnic differences in body mass index (BMI) and in behaviours that are related to both energy intake and energy expenditure, and (2) to examine whether these behaviours explain the relationship between ethnicity and BMI. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional data analysis among 957 Dutch adolescents (mean age = 12.7 years). Body height and weight were measured using a standardized protocol. Adolescents completed a questionnaire on screen-viewing behaviour, physical activity, consumption of sugar-containing beverages, and consumption of high-caloric snacks. Results In our study sample 121 adolescents (= 13%) were of Non-Western origin. BMI was significantly higher in Non-Western adolescents (boys: 19.9 kg/m2, SD = 3.0, girls: 20.9 kg/m2, SD = 3.8) compared to Dutch adolescents (boys: 18.4 kg/m2, SD = 2.8, girls: 19.0 kg/m2, SD = 3.0). Our results show that time spent on television viewing, active commuting to school, and consumption of fruit juices partially mediated the association between BMI and ethnicity. Conclusion Behaviours related to both energy expenditure and energy intake may contribute to the ethnic differences in BMI in adolescents and should be considered when tailoring overweight prevention programs to ethnic subpopulations. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN87127361 PMID:19383136

  5. Higher Adolescent Body Mass Index is Associated with Lower Regional Gray and White Matter Volumes and Lower Levels of Positive Emotionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T Kennedy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%, in 137 adolescents (age range: 9-20 years, Body Mass Index percentile range: 5.16-99.56. Variations in gray and white matter volume and BMI% were then linked to individual differences in personality measures from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ. After controlling for age and other covariates, BMI% correlated negatively with gray matter volume in the bilateral caudate (right: partial r = -0.338, left: r -0.404, medial prefrontal cortex (partial r = -0.339, anterior cingulate (partial r = -0.312, bilateral frontal pole (right: partial r = -0.368, left: r= -0.316, and uncus (partial r = -0.475 as well as white matter volume bilaterally in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (right: partial r = -0.34, left: r = -0.386, extending to the left middle frontal subgyral white matter. Agentic Positive Emotionality (PEM-AG was correlated negatively with BMI% (partial r = -0.384. PEM-AG was correlated positively with gray matter volume in the right uncus (partial r = 0.329. These results suggest that higher levels of adiposity in adolescents are associated with lower trait levels in reward-related personality domains, as well as structural variations in brain regions associated with reward processing, control, and sensory integration.

  6. Higher Adolescent Body Mass Index Is Associated with Lower Regional Gray and White Matter Volumes and Lower Levels of Positive Emotionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James T; Collins, Paul F; Luciana, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%), in 137 adolescents (age range: 9-20 years, BMI% range: 5.16-99.56). Variations in gray and white matter volume and BMI% were then linked to individual differences in personality measures from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). After controlling for age and other covariates, BMI% correlated negatively with gray matter volume in the bilateral caudate (right: partial r = -0.338, left: r = -0.404), medial prefrontal cortex (partial r = -0.339), anterior cingulate (partial r = -0.312), bilateral frontal pole (right: partial r = -0.368, left: r = -0.316), and uncus (partial r = -0.475) as well as white matter volume bilaterally in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (right: partial r = -0.34, left: r = -0.386), extending to the left middle frontal subgyral white matter. Agentic Positive Emotionality (PEM-AG) was correlated negatively with BMI% (partial r = -0.384). PEM-AG was correlated positively with gray matter volume in the right uncus (partial r = 0.329). These results suggest that higher levels of adiposity in adolescents are associated with lower trait levels in reward-related personality domains, as well as structural variations in brain regions associated with reward processing, control, and sensory integration.

  7. Identification of selective agonists and positive allosteric modulators for µ- and δ-opioid receptors from a single high-throughput screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, Neil T; Wehrman, Tom; Bassoni, Daniel; O'Connell, Jonathan; Banks, Martyn; Zhang, Litao; Alt, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    Hetero-oligomeric complexes of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) may represent novel therapeutic targets exhibiting different pharmacology and tissue- or cell-specific site of action compared with receptor monomers or homo-oligomers. An ideal tool for validating this concept pharmacologically would be a hetero-oligomer selective ligand. We set out to develop and execute a 1536-well high-throughput screen of over 1 million compounds to detect potential hetero-oligomer selective ligands using a β-arrestin recruitment assay in U2OS cells coexpressing recombinant µ- and δ-opioid receptors. Hetero-oligomer selective ligands may bind to orthosteric or allosteric sites, and we might anticipate that the formation of hetero-oligomers may provide novel allosteric binding pockets for ligand binding. Therefore, our goal was to execute the screen in such a way as to identify positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) as well as agonists for µ, δ, and hetero-oligomeric receptors. While no hetero-oligomer selective ligands were identified (based on our selection criteria), this single screen did identify numerous µ- and δ-selective agonists and PAMs as well as nonselective agonists and PAMs. To our knowledge, these are the first µ- and δ-opioid receptor PAMs described in the literature.

  8. Screening the risk of bipolar spectrum disorders: Validity evidence of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Paino, Mercedes; Muñiz, José

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gather sources of validity evidence of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) in young adults for its use as a screening tool for bipolar spectrum disorders. The sample was composed of 1,002 participants, 268 men (26.7%). The mean age of participants was 21.1 years (SD=3.9). The results showed that between 3 and 59% of the sample reported some hypomanic experience. Gender differences were found in the total score of the MDQ. The analysis of the internal structure by exploratory factor analysis yielded 2 factors, called Energy-Activity and Disinhibition-Attention. This dimensional structure was replicated in the exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), and also had factorial equivalence by gender. Participants who met the cut-off points of the MDQ reported a worse perceived mental health status and more consummatory and anticipatory pleasure, compared to the low scores group. These findings indicate that the MDQ has adequate psychometric properties in non-clinical samples, and could be useful as a screening tool in psychopathology, with the possibility of optimizing strategies for early identification and prevention in individuals at high risk for bipolar disorders. Future studies should further explore the role of subclinical bipolar phenotype and conduct longitudinal studies in samples of the general population.

  9. International Youth Justice Systems: Promoting Youth Development and Alternative Approaches: A Position Paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Youth incarceration is an international public health concern among developed and developing countries. Worldwide, youth are held in incarceration, detention, and other secure settings that are inappropriate for their age and developmental stages, jeopardizing their prosocial development, and reintegration into society. Youth incarceration lacks evidence and cost-effectiveness. The well-being of youth is a key indicator of the welfare of families, communities, and society at large; therefore, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) supports a paradigm shift in the role of the justice system as it relates to treatment of youth. SAHM recommends justice systems focus greater attention and resources on identifying and reducing the antecedents of high-risk and criminal behaviors, recognizing the rights and freedom of young persons, and prioritizing the well-being of youth over punitive measures that may harm and disrupt healthy adolescent development. SAHM supports the following positions: (1) incarceration is a last option for selected offenders who have committed the most serious violent crimes and are unable to remain safely in the community; (2) youth justice policies, programs, and practices affecting youth be evidence based and trauma informed; (3) youth justice policies, programs, and practices must incorporate research and ongoing program evaluation; (4) youth justice policies shall protect the privacy and dignity of children younger than 18 years; and (5) health care professionals and media will promote positive portrayals of youth in healthy relationships within their communities and reduce representations and images of youth that are negative, violent, deviant, and threatening.

  10. One-hour upright posture is an ideal position for serum aldosterone concentration and plasma renin activity measuring on primary aldosteronism screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, G; Zhang, S; Yan, L; Wu, M; Xu, M; Li, F; Cheng, H

    2012-07-01

    The serum aldosterone concentration (SAC) to plasma renin activity (PRA) ratio (ARR) is considered a useful screening test in the differential diagnosis of essential hypertension (EH) and primary aldosteronism (PA). The purpose of this study is to investigate the variation of ARR and compare the screening efficiency of it under different postures.37 patients with PA and 92 patients with EH were recruited in this study. Blood was sampled for measuring SAC and PRA under conditions of overnight recumbency, keeping upright posture for 1 h, 2 h and 4 h. The variation and screening efficiency of ARR under these conditions were compared according to repeated measured ANOVA and ROC curve analysis.In the EH group, ARR measured under recumbency posture was higher than those measured under keeping upright posture for 1 h and 2 h. In the PA group, there is no statistical difference for ARR between any 2 postures. AUCs of ARR measured under 4 conditions were 0.976, 0.995, 0.988, and 0.974 respectively. Cutoff values were ranging from 24.75 ng/dl per ng/ml/h under keeping upright for 2 h to 69.19 ng/dl per ng/ml/h under overnight recumbercy. ARR measured under keeping upright posture for 1 h produced the best characteristic of screening efficiency.Keeping upright posture for 1 h was the ideal position for ARR measuring and using a cutoff value of 35.90 ng/dl per ng/ml/h will have a sensitivity and specificity of 100.00% and 92.30% respectively.

  11. Benign and Deleterious Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Mutations Identified by Sequencing in Positive Cystic Fibrosis Newborn Screen Children from California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danieli B Salinas

    Full Text Available Of the 2007 Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR mutations, 202 have been assigned disease liability. California's racially diverse population, along with CFTR sequencing as part of newborn screening model, provides the opportunity to examine the phenotypes of children with uncategorized mutations to help inform disease liability and penetrance.We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on children screened from 2007 to 2011 and followed for two to six years. Newborns that screened positive were divided into three genotype groups: those with two CF-causing mutations (CF-C; those with one mutation of varying clinic consequence (VCC; and those with one mutation of unknown disease liability (Unknown. Sweat chloride tests, pancreatic sufficiency status, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization were compared.Children with two CF-causing mutations had a classical CF phenotype, while 5% of VCC (4/78 and 11% of Unknown (27/244 met diagnostic criteria of CF. Children carrying Unknown mutations 2215insG with D836Y, and T1036N had early and classical CF phenotype, while others carrying 1525-42G>A, L320V, L967S, R170H, and 296+28A>G had a benign clinical presentation, suggesting that these are non-CF causing.While most infants with VCC and Unknown CFTR mutations do not meet diagnostic criteria for CF, a small proportion do. These findings highlight the range of genotypes and phenotypes in the first few years of life following CF newborn screening when CFTR sequencing is performed.

  12. Evaluation of 14 triage strategies for HPV DNA-positive women in population-based cervical screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkaart, Dorien C.; Berkhof, Johannes; van Kemenade, Folkert J.; Coupe, Veerle M. H.; Hesselink, Albertus T.; Rozendaal, Lawrence; Heideman, Danielle A. M.; Verheijen, Ren H.; Bulk, Saskia; Verweij, Wim M.; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.

    2012-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing has a higher sensitivity but lower specificity than cytology for detection of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). To avoid over-referral to colposcopy and overtreatment, hrHPV-positive women require triage testing and/or followup. A total of 25,

  13. Raman spectroscopy-based screening of IgM positive and negative sera for dengue virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, M.; Saleem, M.; Bilal, Maria; Ijaz, T.; Khan, Saranjam; Ullah, Rahat; Raza, A.; Khurram, M.; Akram, W.; Ahmed, M.

    2016-11-01

    A statistical method based on Raman spectroscopy for the screening of immunoglobulin M (IgM) in dengue virus (DENV) infected human sera is presented. In total, 108 sera samples were collected and their antibody indexes (AI) for IgM were determined through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Raman spectra of these samples were acquired using a 785 nm wavelength excitation laser. Seventy-eight Raman spectra were selected randomly and unbiasedly for the development of a statistical model using partial least square (PLS) regression, while the remaining 30 were used for testing the developed model. An R-square (r 2) value of 0.929 was determined using the leave-one-sample-out (LOO) cross validation method, showing the validity of this model. It considers all molecular changes related to IgM concentration, and describes their role in infection. A graphical user interface (GUI) platform has been developed to run a developed multivariate model for the prediction of AI of IgM for blindly tested samples, and an excellent agreement has been found between model predicted and clinically determined values. Parameters like sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve for these tested samples are also reported to visualize model performance.

  14. Validation of 5-item and 2-item questionnaires in Chinese version of Dizziness Handicap Inventory for screening objective benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Shu, Liang; Wang, Qian; Pan, Hui; Wu, Jing; Fang, Jie; Sun, Xu-Hong; Zhai, Yu; Dong, You-Rong; Liu, Jian-Ren

    2016-08-01

    As possible candidate screening instruments for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), studies to validate the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) sub-scale (5-item and 2-item) and total scores are rare in China. From May 2014 to December 2014, 108(55 with and 53 without BPPV) patients complaining of episodic vertigo in the past week from a vertigo outpatient clinic were enrolled for DHI evaluation, as well as demographic and other clinical data. Objective BPPV was subsequently determined by positional evoking maneuvers under the record of optical Frenzel glasses. Cronbach's coefficient α was used to evaluate the reliability of psychometric scales. The validity of DHI total, 5-item and 2-item questionnaires to screen for BPPV was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. It revealed that the DHI 5-item questionnaire had good internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α = 0.72). Area under the curve of total DHI, 5-item and 2-item scores for discriminating BPPV from those without was 0.678 (95 % CI 0.578-0.778), 0.873(95 % CI 0.807-0.940) and 0.895(95 % CI 0.836-0.953), respectively. It revealed 74.5 % sensitivity and 88.7 % specificity in separating BPPV and those without, with a cutoff value of 12 in the 5-item questionnaire. The corresponding rate of sensitivity and specificity was 78.2 and 88.7 %, respectively, with a cutoff value of 6 in 2-item questionnaire. The present study indicated that both 5-item and 2-item questionnaires in the Chinese version of DHI may be more valid than DHI total score for screening objective BPPV and merit further application in clinical practice in China.

  15. Physical activity and screen-based media use: cross-sectional associations with health-related quality of life and the role of body satisfaction in a representative sample of German adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finne, Emily; Bucksch, Jens; Lampert, Thomas; Kolip, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although it is widely accepted that physical activity (PA) positively, and screen-based media use (SBM) negatively, affects well-being, there is a lack of studies relating PA and SBM to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents. We examined these associations in German adolescents for different HRQoL subdomains and explored the role of body satisfaction as a possible mediator. Methods: The 11-17-year-old subsample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (2003-2006) was analysed (N = 6813; 51.3% male). Cross-sectional associations of self-reported PA frequency and amount of daily SBM with HRQoL subscale scores (according to KINDL-R) were examined by hierarchical linear regression models, adjusting for the clustering of the sample and for a variety of possible confounders. The size and significance of indirect effects via body (dis)satisfaction (BDS) were examined by mediation analyses. Results: Higher PA frequency was significantly associated with higher HRQoL on nearly all subscales and dose-response-relationships were observable. Variations were greatest in terms of social well-being in boys (effect size d = 0.59) and physical well-being in girls (d = 0.43). Higher SBM was related to lower HRQoL on all subscales in girls and on some subscales in boys, with the largest effects for school functioning in both genders (d = 0.31 and 0.37, respectively). The mediated effects for PA and SBM were significant in both genders, but the sizes and the proportions of total effects mediated by body satisfaction were rather small. Conclusions: Higher PA frequency was associated with higher self-reported HRQoL, and higher SBM was associated with lower self-reported HRQoL in both genders, even after adjusting for relevant covariates. The results support the assumption of independent health impacts of both behaviours, although no causal relationship can be confirmed with these cross-sectional data. Mechanisms other than body satisfaction must

  16. Recall of symptoms and treatment of syphilis and yaws by healthy blood donors screening positive for syphilis in Kumasi, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkodie, Francis; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Hassall, Oliver;

    2016-01-01

    ) and later by rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, 526 were seroreactive. Four hundred and seventy-one (89.5%) of these subjects were confirmed with the Ortho-Vitros Syphilis TP test as the gold standard and were interviewed to determine past or present clinical manifestations of yaws and syphilis. Results......: Of the 471 respondent donors, 28 (5.9%) gave a history of skin lesions and sores; four (14.3%) of these subjects, who were all male and RPR-positive, recalled a diagnosis of syphilis. All four reported having had skin lesions/bumps with slow-healing sores, but only one of them had had these symptoms before...

  17. Use of Direct LAMP Screening of Broiler Fecal Samples for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in the Positive Flock Identification Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabike, Islam I; Uemura, Ryoko; Kirino, Yumi; Mekata, Hirohisa; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Goto, Yoshitaka; Yamazaki, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Rapid identification of Campylobacter-positive flocks before slaughter, following freezing and heat treatment for the Campylobacter-positive carcasses at the slaughterhouses is an effective control strategy against foodborne campylobacteriosis. We evaluated a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the direct screening of naturally contaminated chicken cloacal swabs for C. jejuni/C. coli to compare this assay with conventional quantitative culture methods. In a comparison study of 165 broilers, the LAMP assay showed 82.8% (48/58 by conventional culture) sensitivity, 100% (107/107) specificity, 100% (48/48) positive predictive value (PPV), and 91.5% (107/117) negative predictive value (NPV). In a comparison of 55 flocks, LAMP showed 90.5% (19/21) sensitivity, 100% (34/34) specificity, 100% (19/19) PPV, and 94.4% (34/36) NPV. In the cumulative total of 28 farm-level comparisons, LAMP showed 100% (12/12) sensitivity, 100% (16/16) specificity, 100% (12/12) PPV, and 100% (16/16) NPV. The LAMP assay required less than 90 min from the arrival of the fecal samples to final results in the laboratory. This suggests that the LAMP assay will facilitate the identification of C. jejuni/C. coli-positive broiler flocks at the farm level or in slaughterhouses before slaughtering, which would make it an effective tool in preventing the spread of Campylobacter contamination.

  18. Screening and brief intervention for alcohol and other abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sion Kim; Louis-Jacques, Jennifer; Knight, John R

    2014-04-01

    structured algorithm for specific recommended responses based on level of risk. Adolescents who are at low or moderate risk for a substance use disorder, who constitute most of those seen in general medical settings, may be effectively counseled with a few minutes of brief advice, particularly after being primed with screening, feedback, and education before seeing their physician. High-risk patients (screen-positives) should receive a brief follow-up assessment to determine the appropriate level of care needed and a BI, using MI principles, to enhance motivation for behavioral change and help-seeking. Indications of acute danger or addiction may necessitate breaking confidentiality to protect patient safety and begin RT. Our review shows a small but growing body of research on the effectiveness of opportunistic BIs following screening of adolescents in clinical settings. Studies to date have largely tested brief alcohol-focused MI-based interventions with adolescents in the ED or trauma care settings; however, the number of studies conducted in primary health care settings is increasing. The strongest BI effects found in these studies tend to be related to harm reduction, such as reduction of substance-related driving/riding, alcohol-related injuries, unplanned sex, and other negative consequences of use. Effects on substance use have been more modest and tend to be stronger at shorter ( or = 12 months). However, many of these studies compared BI to active control conditions, which often included elements of BI (eg, assessment, brief advice, informational handouts). Significant reductions in substance use and related harms were also seen in these control groups, likely making detection ofa BI effect more difficult. A few studies have shown initial support for a prevention effect of BI among abstinent adolescents. At the opposite end of the spectrum, little is known about the effects of BI for adolescents with dependence and needing RT because of a lack of studies. Other

  19. A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara De Meyer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective: The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design: In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador. Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results: The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions: Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender

  20. Diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children and adolescents: position paper of the ESPGHAN Hepatology Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajro, Pietro; Lenta, Selvaggia; Socha, Piotr; Dhawan, Anil; McKiernan, Patrick; Baumann, Ulrich; Durmaz, Ozlem; Lacaille, Florence; McLin, Valerie; Nobili, Valerio

    2012-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents in the United States, and most probably also in the rest of the industrialized world.As the prevalence of NAFLD in childhood increases with the worldwide obesity epidemic, there is an urgent need for diagnostic standards that can be commonly used by pediatricians and hepatologists. To this end, we performed a PubMed search of the adult and pediatric literature on NAFLD diagnosis through May 2011 using Topics and/or relevant Authors as search words. According to the present literature, NAFLD is suspected based on the association of fatty liver combined with risk factors (mainly obesity), after the exclusion of other causes of liver disease. The reference but imperfect standard for confirming NAFLD is liver histology. The following surrogate markers are presently used to estimate degree of steatosis and liver fibrosis and risk of progression to end-stage liver disease: imaging by ultrasonography or magnetic resonance imaging, liver function tests, and serum markers of liver fibrosis.NAFLD should be suspected in all of the overweight or obese children and adolescents older than 3 years with increased waist circumference especially if there is a NAFLD history in relatives. The typical presentation, however, is in children ages 10 years and older. The first diagnostic step in these children should be abdominal ultrasound and liver function tests, followed by exclusion of other liver diseases. Overweight/obese children with normal ultrasonographic imaging and normal liver function tests should still be monitored due to the poor sensitivity of these tests at a single assessment.Indications for liver biopsy include the following: to rule out other treatable diseases, in cases of clinically suspected advanced liver disease, before pharmacological/surgical treatment, and as part of a structured intervention protocol or clinical research trial.

  1. [Normal values of temporal parameters of ECG in children according to results of clinico-epidemiological study ECG-screening of children and adolescents in Russian federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklashevich, I M; Shkol'nikova, M A; Kalinin, L A; Abdullatipova, I V; Osokina, G G; Deev, A D; Blinova, A V; Drozdova, A I; Lebed'kova, S E; Muratov, R A; Verevkina, O N; Timukova, A K; Lunegova, E V; Kozlova, L V; Svintsova, L I; Khomiakova, O I; Ashcheulova, N L

    2009-01-01

    In order to obtain reliable information about time-domain ECG parameters in Russian children and to analyse their links with physiological changes the Project "ECG screening of children and adolescents of the Russian Federation" was carried out in 2003-2008. Time domain ECG parameters were studied in the representative sample of 5387 healthy individuals aged 0 to 18 years. In each age group, lower and upper limits of the norm for heart rate (HR), P wave, PQ and QRS intervals were defined as 2nd and 98th percentiles of their distribution. The equivalent limits of QT interval duration were defined as its 5th and 95th percentiles. Relationship between time domain parameters of pediatric ECG and HR was analyzed as well as relationship of these parameters with sex and age. The most important differences from prior pediatric studies completed 30 years ago were obtained for the heart rate limits. Among children aged 0 to 3, there was a tendency toward lowering of age-specific lower limits and elevation of age-specific upper limits. At ages older than 3 years, there was a tendency toward lowering of both the upper and the lower limits of HR. The newly obtained 2nd percentiles of the heart rate were lower than the known lower limits in nearly all ages. This indicates the necessity for revision of criteria of bradicardia in children. The present study showed that 5th and 95th percentiles of QTc interval (Bazett's formula) varied between 340 ms and 465 ms and were not significantly dependent on children's age and only for ages under 13 also on sex. Results of the study allowed to build age-specific ranges of norm for the time domain ECG parameters presented in a tabular form.

  2. The enzymology of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation and its application to follow-up analysis of positive neonatal screening results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, Ronald J A; Ruiter, Jos P N; IJLst, Lodewijk; Waterham, Hans R; Houten, Sander M

    2010-10-01

    Oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria is a key physiological process in higher eukaryotes including humans. The importance of the mitochondrial beta-oxidation system in humans is exemplified by the existence of a group of genetic diseases in man caused by an impairment in the mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids. Identification of patients with a defect in mitochondrial beta-oxidation has long remained notoriously difficult, but the introduction of tandem-mass spectrometry in laboratories for genetic metabolic diseases has revolutionalized the field by allowing the rapid and sensitive analysis of acylcarnitines. Equally important is that much progress has been made with respect to the development of specific enzyme assays to identify the enzyme defect in patients subsequently followed by genetic analysis. In this review, we will describe the current state of knowledge in the field of fatty acid oxidation enzymology and its application to the follow-up analysis of positive neonatal screening results.

  3. Effects of the Maytiv positive psychology school program on early adolescents' well-being, engagement, and achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshani, Anat; Steinmetz, Sarit; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv

    2016-08-01

    As positive psychology is a nascent area of research, there are very few empirical studies assessing the impact and sustained effects of positive psychology school interventions. The current study presents a 2-year longitudinal evaluation of the effects of a school-based positive psychology program on students' subjective well-being, school engagement, and academic achievements. The study investigated the effectiveness of the Maytiv school program using a positive psychology-based classroom-level intervention with 2517 seventh- to ninth-grade students in 70 classrooms, from six schools in the center of Israel. The classes were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions, which were comparable in terms of students' age, gender, and socio-economic status. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed positive intervention effects on positive emotions, peer relations, emotional engagement in school, cognitive engagement, and grade point average scores (Cohen's ds 0.16-0.71). In the control group, there were significant decreases in positive emotions and cognitive engagement, and no significant changes in peer relations, emotional engagement or school achievements. These findings demonstrate the significant socio-emotional and academic benefits of incorporating components of positive psychology into school curricula.

  4. Adolescent pregnancy and contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, Jessica; Hayon, Ronni; Carlson, Jensena

    2014-09-01

    7% of US teen women became pregnant in 2008, totaling 750,000 pregnancies nationwide. For women ages 15 to 19, 82% of pregnancies are unintended. Adolescents have a disproportionate risk of medical complications in pregnancy. Furthermore, adolescent parents and their infants both tend to suffer poor psychosocial outcomes. Preventing unintended and adolescent pregnancies are key public health objectives for Healthy People 2020. Screening for sexual activity and pregnancy risk should be a routine part of all adolescent visits. Proven reductions in unintended pregnancy in teens are attained by providing access to contraception at no cost and promoting the most-effective methods.

  5. Positive impact of competence skills and psychological wellness in protecting inner-city adolescents from alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jennifer A; Griffin, Kenneth W; Botvin, Gilbert J

    2002-06-01

    Research has shown that competence enhancement prevention programs for substance use are effective in reducing alcohol use and other problem behaviors. However, less is known about the mechanisms by which high competence helps youth avoid negative outcomes. This study explored whether greater competence is associated with increased levels of psychological wellness that in turn deters subsequent alcohol use. Specifically, 1,459 students attending 22 middle and junior high schools in New York City completed surveys that included measures of competence (decision making, self-efficacy), psychological wellness, and alcohol use. Students completed surveys at baseline, 1-year follow-up, and 2-year follow-up. Data collectors administered the questionnaire following a standardized protocol during a regular 40-min class period. On the basis of a longitudinal structural equation model, adolescents who were highly competent reported greater psychological wellness, which was then associated with less drinking. These findings highlight the potential of alcohol prevention programs designed to enhance competence and psychological wellness.

  6. Measurement and Interpretation of Body Mass Index during Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Susan Kohl; Zemel, Babette S.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of childhood health and disease has changed over the past century, and school nurses are now in a unique position to address the conditions that lead to chronic disease, such as obesity. Measuring body mass index (BMI) during childhood and adolescence is the recommended method for screening and/or monitoring obesity in school…

  7. Prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, J J; Rettig, P J; Kaplan, D W

    1983-03-01

    The prevalence of cervical infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae was examined in 125 girls receiving primary gynecologic care in a general adolescent clinic. C trachomatis was isolated in 8% of the patients using a microtiter tissue-culture method, and N gonorrhoeae was found in 12%. A significant association was found between the use of oral contraceptives and positive chlamydial cultures. Patients with Chlamydia-positive cultures were frequently asymptomatic and exhibited no positive findings on physical examination. Three of ten women with cervical chlamydial infection developed pelvic inflammatory disease. These results support the use of cervical screening for both of these pathogens in sexually active adolescents.

  8. Screen time on school days and risks for psychiatric symptoms and self-harm in mainland Chinese adolescents: A multicenter cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingli eLiu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate associations of television and of video game or non-educational computer use (VG/CU exposure volumes in a typical school day with psychiatric symptoms and suicidal ideation/self-injurious behavior (self-harm, in mainland Chinese adolescents.Methods Secondary school pupils (N = 13,659; mean age: 15.18 ± 1.89 from 10 urban areas sampled from different regions of mainland China were recruited. The subjects were divided into the follow four screen exposure volume groups for television and VG/CU respectively based on a self-administered questionnaire: 0 h/d, >0 to ≤1 h/d, >1 to ≤2 h/d, and >2 h/d. Demographic and psychiatric symptoms were recorded for each respondent. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for several types of psychological problems and self-harm were calculated.Results For television, >2 hours per school day was associated with greater risk of depression in both boys (OR = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.02–1.73 and girls (OR = 1.62, 95%CI: 1.19– 2.21, of anxiety in boys (OR = 1.43, 95%CI: 1.05–1.95, of general emotional, behavioral, and social problems (GEBSPs in girls (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.01–2.39, and of oppositional defiant problems (ODPs in girls (OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.09–2.50, compared with the reference group. Conversely, television exposure of >0 to ≤1 hour per school day was associated with lower self-harm risk in boys (OR = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.67–0.99 compared with the no television exposure group. For VG/CU, higher risks of anxiety (OR = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.06–1.86 and of attention deficit/hyperactivity problems (ADHPs (OR = 1.56, 95%CI: 1.02–2.38 were associated with excessive VG/CU time (>2 h per school day in boys compared with the no VG/CU exposure group. Higher risks of self-harm and all other psychiatric problems (including anxiety and ADHPs in girls were associated with any school-day VG/CU exposure, compared to no VG/CU exposure, in both genders.Conclusion For mainland Chinese

  9. Community Violence Exposure and Adolescent Substance Use: Does Monitoring and Positive Parenting Moderate Risk in Urban Communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rosalyn

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether monitoring and positive parenting moderate the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and youth substance use. Analyses utilized a subsample (N = 2197) of a cross-sectional, ethnically diverse, urban school district sample. Dependent variables were any past year alcohol or drug use (AOD) and binge…

  10. Positioning Australia's Contemporary Health and Physical Education Curriculum to Address Poor Physical Activity Participation Rates by Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Wayne; Edwards, Allan; Cudmore, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background: Given the wealth of research identifying how schools are in a strong position to promote physical activity (PA) among children, it would be reasonable to suggest that initial experiences of physical education and school sport are critical factors influencing whether a student will develop a healthy relationship to PA. However, research…

  11. Exploring the Meso-System: The Roles of Community, Family, and Peers in Adolescent Delinquency and Positive Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emilie Phillips; Faulk, Monique; Sizer, Monteic A.

    2016-01-01

    Community contexts are important ecological settings related to problem behavior and positive youth development (PYD). While substantial work has focused on neighborhood disadvantage, the current study explores the role of community assets, specifically linkages to important institutional resources and people in those settings. These concepts are…

  12. Mortality Salience and Positive Affect Influence Adolescents' Attitudes toward Peers with Physical Disabilities: Terror Management and Broaden and Build Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Eherenfreund-Hager, Ahinoam; Findler, Liora

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes toward teenagers with and without physical disabilities, and their social acceptance, were examined from the perspective of terror management theory and the broaden and build theory. Participants (n = 390, aged 13-17) were divided into 3 experimental conditions: positive emotions, mortality salience, and control. Then, they were shown…

  13. Inflammation and positive affect: Examining the stress-buffering hypothesis with data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Cara L; Sagui, Sara J; Bennett, Jeanette M

    2017-03-01

    The present study examined the influence of positive affect (PA) on levels of inflammation within the context of Pressman and Cohen's (2005) stress-buffering model, which suggests that PA confers protective health benefits through its ability to mitigate the pathogenic influence of stress. We hypothesized that greater PA would buffer against the influence of perceived psychological stress (PPS) on systemic inflammation, operationalized as C-reactive protein (CRP, mg/L). Specifically, we predicted that PA would moderate the relationship between PPS and CRP. Cross-sectional data were drawn from Wave IV (2008-2009) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). Participants (n=3093) ranged in age from 25 to 34years old (M=29.0±1.79). Using a moderated hierarchical regression analysis, PPS and PA significantly interacted to predict levels of CRP (pPPS and PA, such that higher PA was protective against elevated CRP levels, but only when individuals also reported greater levels of PPS. Thus, the data partially support the stress-buffering model of PA and extend existing evidence regarding the complexity by which PPS and PA influence health. Findings also provide caution of future assumptions that relationships among PA, PPS, and physical health markers, such as CRP, are always positive (e.g., PA) or negative (e.g., PPS) in nature.

  14. Prevalent false positives of azoospermia factor a (AZFa) microdeletions caused by single-nucleotide polymorphism rs72609647 in the sY84 screening of male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Wu; Hui-Juan Shi; Guo-Wu Chen; Tao-Fei Yan; Hui Wang; Yu-Ling Liu; Zheng Li; Shi-Wei Duan; Fei Sun; Yun Feng

    2011-01-01

    Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been widely used to detect Y-chromosome microdeletions,which is one of the major causes of male infertility.Both the European Academy of Andrology (EAA) and the European Molecular Genetics Quality Network (EMQN) have recommended the use of sY84 and sY86 markers for the detection of azoospermia factor a (AZFa) microdeletion during DNA testing for male infertility.In this study,a large-scale analysis of AZF microdeletion in a total of 630 Chinese males,including healthy semen donors (n=200),infertile males with normal sperm count (n=226) and patients with either nonobstructive azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia (n=204),was performed.A series of nine sequence-tagged site (STS) markers from the AZF region of the Y chromosome was used to detect microdeletions.All primers were designed based on the recommendations of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.An unusually high incidence (73/630,11.6%) of sY84-absent but sY86-present genotypes was observed in the AZFa microdeletion screening.Sequencing the sY84-flanking region revealed a total of 73 patients with sY84-absent but sY86-present genotypes have a T-to-G transversion at the fifth base from the 5' end of the reverse sY84 primer.These prevalent false positives,which were not only observed in infertile men,but also observed in donors,resulted from a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) named rs72609647 in the targeting sequence of the reverse sY84 primer.Our study suggests that a pre-screening of existence of rs72609647 polymorphism can prevent the frequent false positive results of AZFa microdeletions detection in the infertile Chinese males.Given the SNP rs72609647 was recently found in a deep sequencing of a Chinese individual,the current EAA and EMQN standards may need to be scrutinized among different populations to avoid the potential genetic variations in the primer binding sequences.

  15. Respostas falso-positivas na triagem auditiva neonatal universal: possíveis causas False-positive results in newborn universal hearing screening: possible causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Silva Simonek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a ocorrência de respostas falso-positivas na Triagem Auditiva dentro de uma maternidade particular, suas possíveis causas e soluções. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados 1.110 recém-nascidos eutróficos entre 6 e 48 horas de vida no berçário, com o analisador de Emissões Otoacústicas Evocadas Transientes (EOATE modelo Echochek da Ilodynamics Ltd. Na ausência de resposta, foi realizada a manipulação do meato acústico externo (Manobra Facilitadora e colhido novo resultado. Os que falharam foram retestados em 15 dias. RESULTADOS: 50,09% dos RN falhou na primeira tentativa. Após a manobra facilitadora, 24,41% continuou falhando, mas demonstraram EOATE presentes no reteste. O tempo médio de internação foi de 42,27 h, sendo 93,42% oriundos de cesareana. Pertenciam a convênios particulares padrão enfermaria 98% e 2% quarto individual. A idade média do grupo que passou foi de 24,14 h (± 10,21 e a do grupo que falhou 19,19 horas (±8,43. Possuíam menos de 24 horas de vida no momento do teste 66,12% dos RN, foi constatado vérnix obliterante em 4.9%. CONLUSÃO: face a alta precoce hospitalar, é necessário que o Fonoaudiólogo realize o teste antes das 48 horas de vida do RN. Desta forma, além das causas biológicas inerentes a faixa etária, detectou-se um problema estrutural de administração hospitalar, que independe da habilidade ou experiência do Fonoaudiólogo. A Manobra Facilitadora é altamente recomendada.PURPOSE: to investigate the rate of false positive responses in a hospital - based newborn hearing screening program (NHS, their possible causes and solutions. METHODS: during the period we evaluated 1,110 regular nursery newborns, age 6 to 48 hours with Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions (TEOAEs, Echocheck, Ilodynamics Ltd model., at the nurseries, before discharge. In case of absence of response, the ear canal was manipulated. Infants that failed the screening were retested fifteen days after birth

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation of the Position of the Cerebellar Tonsil before and after Posterior Spinal Fusion in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Tomas Bosio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective:  To evaluate variations in cerebellar tonsil position after posterior spinal fusion (PSF in neurologically intact patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS.  Methods: We retrospective evaluated 40 patients with AIS and no neurological symptoms that underwent PSF. Anteroposterior and sagittal standing radiographs, and sagittal hindbrain MRI were performed in all patients before and after spinal surgery.  The level of the cerebellar tonsil relative to the magnum foramen was measured according to the method described by Aboulezz (J Comput Assist Tomogr 1985. We evaluate variations in cerebellar tonsil position in relation to spinal correction and spinal elongation after PSF. Results: Mean preoperative magnitude of the curve was 53,15° (SD 10,46° and thoracic kyphosis was 35,42º (SD 12,38°. Mean postoperative values were 7,45º (SD 7,33°  and 27,87º (SD 9,03°, respectively. This represents 86% correction in the coronal plane (p<0.00001 and 25% of kyphosis variation (p<0.00001. The average length of the spine in the coronal plane was 44,5 cm (SD 5,25 cm in preoperative x-rays and 48,27 cm (SD 4,40 cm in postoperative x-rays (p<0.00001.  The average length in the sagittal plane was 50,87 cm (SD 4,47 cm in preoperative x-rays and 55,13cm (SD 3,27 cm in postoperative x-rays (p<0.00001. There was no significant difference in the position of the Cerebellar Tonsil before and after spinal correction (p=0,6042. In 10 (25% of the 40 patients, we observed caudal displacement in cerebellar tonsil position after PSF. Average displacement in these patients was 1,22 mm (range 0.1-2.3 mm. In 21 patients we did not observe any variation and in 2 a cephalic displacement was measured. Conclusions:  In most AIS patients, position of the cerebellar tonsil does not change with PSF. We were not able to find any correlation between curve correction or spine elongation and variations in cerebellar tonsillar position.

  17. A new method with flexible and balanced control of false negatives and false positives for hit selection in RNA interference high-throughput screening assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas

    2007-08-01

    The z-score method and its variants for testing mean difference are commonly used for hit selection in high-throughput screening (HTS) assays. Strictly standardized mean difference (SSMD) offers a way to measure and classify the short interfering RNA (siRNA) effects. In this article, based on SSMD, the authors propose a new testing method for hit selection in RNA interference (RNAi) HTS assays. This SSMD-based method allows the differentiation between siRNAs with large and small effects on the assay output and maintains flexible and balanced control of both the false-negative rate, in which the siRNAs with strong effects are not selected as hits, and the restricted false-positive rate, in which the siRNAs with weak or no effects are selected as hits. This method directly addresses the size of siRNA effects represented by the strength of difference between an siRNA and a negative reference, whereas the classic z-score method and t-test of testing no mean difference address whether the mean of an siRNA is exactly the same as the mean of a negative reference. This method can readily control the false-negative rate, whereas it is nontrivial for the classic z-score method and t-test to control the false-negative rate. Therefore, theoretically, the SSMD-based method offers better control of the sizes of siRNA effects and the associated false-positive and false-negative rates than the commonly used z-score method and t-test for hit selection in HTS assays. The SSMD-based method should generally be applicable to any assay in which the end point is a difference in signal compared to a reference sample, including those for RNAi, receptor, enzyme, and cellular function.

  18. Study of trunk asymmetry in normal children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivas, Theodoros B; Vasiliadis, Elias S; Koufopoulos, Georgios; Segos, Dimitrios; Triantafyllopoulos, Georgios; Mouzakis, Vasilios

    2006-11-30

    The scoliometer readings in both standing and sitting position of 2071 children and adolescents (1099 boys and 972 girls) aged from 5 to 18 years old were studied. The angle of trunk rotation (ATR) was measured, in order to quantify the existing trunk asymmetry. Children and adolescents were divided in two groups according to the severity of trunk asymmetry. In the first group asymmetry was 1 to 6 degrees and in the second group was 7 or more degrees. Radiographic and leg length inequality evaluation were also performed in a number of children. The mean frequency of symmetric (ATR = 0 degrees) boys and girls was 67.06% and 65.01% for the standing screening position and 76.5% and 75.1% for the sitting position, respectively. The mean difference of frequency of asymmetry (ATR > 0 degrees) at standing minus sitting forward bending position for boys and girls was 10.22% and 9.37%, respectively. The mean frequency of asymmetry of 7 or more degrees was 3.23% for boys and 3.92% for girls at the standing forward bending position and 1.62% and 2.21% at the sitting, respectively. Girls are found to express higher frequency of asymmetry than boys. Right trunk asymmetry was more common than left. The sitting position is the preferred screening position for examining the rib or loin hump during school screening as it demonstrates the best correlation with the spinal deformity exposing the real trunk asymmetry.

  19. Study of trunk asymmetry in normal children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafyllopoulos Georgios

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The scoliometer readings in both standing and sitting position of 2071 children and adolescents (1099 boys and 972 girls aged from 5 to 18 years old were studied. The angle of trunk rotation (ATR was measured, in order to quantify the existing trunk asymmetry. Children and adolescents were divided in two groups according to the severity of trunk asymmetry. In the first group asymmetry was 1 to 6 degrees and in the second group was 7 or more degrees. Radiographic and leg length inequality evaluation were also performed in a number of children. The mean frequency of symmetric (ATR = 0 degrees boys and girls was 67.06% and 65.01% for the standing screening position and 76.5% and 75.1% for the sitting position, respectively. The mean difference of frequency of asymmetry (ATR > 0 degrees at standing minus sitting forward bending position for boys and girls was 10.22% and 9.37%, respectively. The mean frequency of asymmetry of 7 or more degrees was 3.23% for boys and 3.92% for girls at the standing forward bending position and 1.62% and 2.21% at the sitting, respectively. Girls are found to express higher frequency of asymmetry than boys. Right trunk asymmetry was more common than left. The sitting position is the preferred screening position for examining the rib or loin hump during school screening as it demonstrates the best correlation with the spinal deformity exposing the real trunk asymmetry.

  20. Universal screening for hepatitis B among pregnant women led to 96% vaccination coverage among newborns of HBsAg positive mothers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Katja Majlund; Cowan, Susan; Eriksen, Mette Brandt;

    2011-01-01

    In Denmark selective screening programs of pregnant women for hepatitis B missed 30-50% of high-risk groups and in late 2005 a universal screening of pregnant women for HBsAg was implemented. During a 2-year period a prospective enhanced surveillance of the universal screening was performed......-fold. By replacing selective screening with universal, identification of newborns in need of HBV-immunization was increased from 50% to almost complete coverage, and also identifies mothers with high viral load for evaluation of pre-term treatment to interrupt in utero transmission....

  1. Connectedness and Perceived Burdensomeness among Adolescents at Elevated Suicide Risk: An Examination of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicidal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opperman, Kiel; Czyz, Ewa K; Gipson, Polly Y; King, Cheryl A

    2015-01-01

    The interpersonal theory of suicidal behavior emphasizes the constructs of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and acquired capacity, which warrant investigation in adolescents at risk for suicide due to interpersonal stressors. This study examined one component of the interpersonal theory of suicidal behavior, "suicidal desire" (suicidal ideation), in 129 adolescents (12-15 years) recruited from a general medical emergency department who screened positive for bully victimization, bully perpetration, or low interpersonal connectedness. Greater perceived burdensomeness combined with low family connectedness was a significant predictor of suicidal ideation. This suggests the importance of addressing connectedness and perceptions of burdensomeness in prevention and early intervention efforts with at-risk adolescents.

  2. Positive Youth Development in Turkey: A Critical Review of Research on the Social and Emotional Learning Needs of Turkish Adolescents, 2000-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robin Ann; Alacaci, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a critical and systematic review of 52 articles published from 2000 to 2012 about research conducted in Turkey concerning adolescents' social and emotional learning needs. In correspondence with international research, articles were examined across three categories in which adolescent needs could be addressed by educational…

  3. Positive Criminology and Rethinking the Response to Adolescent Addiction: Evidence on the Role of Social Support, Religiosity, and Service to Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Byron R.; Lee, Matthew T.; Pagano, Maria E.; Post, Stephen G.

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent addiction has emerged as a major public health problem. The greatest increase in alcohol and other drug use disorders can be found among youth. Concurrently, technological advances in policing coupled with aggressive prosecuting and sentencing practices have contributed to the growth of America’s correctional system. The assertive response of policing, courts, and corrections, however, have not prevented the dramatic rise of adolescent addiction. Unfortunately, there is no national data tracking addicted youth in the criminal justice system to evaluate what works when it comes to youth with addiction. This article reviews justice system responses to adolescent offenders with addiction, and promising approaches engaging juveniles in programmatic components of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). This study highlights the role of spirituality, service to others, and social support in maintaining sobriety, reducing arrests, and lowering recidivism for adolescents court-referred to treatment. Recommendations for improving the response to adolescent offenders with addiction are offered. PMID:28090237

  4. Prevention of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescents: 42 and 54 Months Follow-Up of the Aussie Optimism Program-Positive Thinking Skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eJohnstone

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety and depression are the most commonly reported mental health problems amongst Australian children and adolescents. The Aussie Optimism Program: Positive Thinking Skills (AOP- PTS is a universal intervention program based on cognitive and behavioral strategies and aimed to prevent anxiety and depression in the middle primary school children aged 9-10 years old. 370 students randomly assigned to the intervention and control condition participated in the 42 and 54 months follow – up study. The intervention group received the AOP-PTS 10-week program and the control group received the regular Health Education curriculum. Students were assessed on anxiety, depression and attribution style at school whilst parents reported on their child’s externalizing and internalising problems at home. Results showed there were no significant reduction across groups in the depressive and anxiety symptoms, and attribution style at either 42 or 54 months follow-up. These findings suggest that AOP-PTS has short and medium term effects but were not sustained in longer term period. Future strategies to achieve the desirable outcomes in a longitudinal study are discussed.

  5. Adolescent development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  6. Enhancement of social novelty discrimination by positive allosteric modulators at metabotropic glutamate 5 receptors: adolescent administration prevents adult-onset deficits induced by neonatal treatment with phencyclidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Nicholas E; Morisot, Nadège; Girardon, Sylvie; Millan, Mark J; Loiseau, Florence

    2013-02-01

    Metabotropic glutamate-5 receptors (mGluR5), which physically and functionally interact with N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptors, likewise control cognitive processes and have been proposed as targets for novel classes of antipsychotic agent. Since social cognition is impaired in schizophrenia and disrupted by NMDA receptor antagonists like dizocilpine, we evaluated its potential modulation by mGluR5. Acute administration (0.63-40 mg/kg) of the mGluR5 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs), 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide (CDPPB) and ADX47273, reversed a delay-induced impairment in social novelty discrimination (SND) in adult rats. The action of CDPPB was blocked by the mGluR5 antagonist, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (2.5-10 mg/kg), and was also expressed upon microinjection into frontal cortex (0.63-10 μg/side), but not striatum. Supporting an interrelationship between mGluR5 and NMDA receptors, enhancement of SND by CDPPB was blocked by dizocilpine (0.08 mg/kg) while, reciprocally, dizocilpine-induced impairment in SND was attenuated by CDPPB (10 mg/kg). The SND deficit elicited by post-natal administration of phencyclidine (10 mg/kg, days 7-11) was reversed by CDPPB or ADX47273 in adults at week 8. This phencyclidine-induced impairment in cognition emerged in adult rats from week 7 on, and chronic, pre-symptomatic treatment of adolescent rats with CDPPB over weeks 5-6 (10 mg/kg per day) prevented the appearance of SND deficits in adults until at least week 13. In conclusion, as evaluated by a SND procedure, mGluR5 PAMs promote social cognition via actions expressed in interaction with NMDA receptors and exerted in frontal cortex. MGluR5 PAMs not only reverse but also (when given during adolescence) prevent the emergence of cognitive impairment associated with a developmental model of schizophrenia.

  7. Vitamin D: still a topical matter in children and adolescents. A position paper by the Committee on Nutrition of the French Society of Paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidailhet, M; Mallet, E; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M-L; Ghisolfi, J; Girardet, J-P; Goulet, O; Hankard, R; Rieu, D; Simeoni, U; Turck, D

    2012-03-01

    The aims of the present position paper by the Committee on Nutrition of the French Society of Paediatrics were to summarize the recently published data on vitamin D in infants, children and adolescents, i.e., on metabolism, physiological effects, and requirements and to make recommendations on supplementation after careful review of the evidence. Scientific evidence indicates that calcium and vitamin D play key roles in bone health. The current evidence, limited to observational studies, however, does not support other benefits for vitamin D. More targeted research should continue, especially interventional studies. In the absence of any underlying risk of vitamin D deficiency, the recommendations are as follows: pregnant women: a single dose of 80,000 to 100,000 IU at the beginning of the 7th month of pregnancy; breastfed infants: 1000 to 1200 IU/day; children less than 18 months of age, receiving milk supplemented with vitamin D: an additional daily dose of 600 to 800 IU; children less than 18 months of age receiving milk not supplemented with vitamin D: daily dose of 1000 to 1200 IU; children from 18 months to 5 years of age: 2 doses of 80,000 to 100,000 IU every winter (November and February). In the presence of an underlying risk of vitamin D deficiency (dark skin; lack of exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B [UVB] radiation from sunshine in summer; skin disease responsible for decreased exposure of the skin to UVB radiation from sunshine in summer; wearing skin-covering clothes in summer; intestinal malabsorption or maldigestion; cholestasis; renal insufficiency; nephrotic syndrome; drugs [rifampicin; antiepileptic treatment: phenobarbital, phenytoin]; obesity; vegan diet), it may be justified to start vitamin D supplementation in winter in children 5 to 10 years of age as well as to maintain supplementation of vitamin D every 3 months all year long in children 1 to 10 years of age and in adolescents. In some pathological conditions, doses of vitamin D can

  8. Adolescent drinking, social identity, and parenting for safety: Perspectives from Australian adolescents and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, Lynda; Jones, Sandra C; Andrews, Kelly

    2016-03-01

    We explored young people and parents' views on adolescent drinking and safety in the locations where drinking may occur. Focus groups with adolescents and parents showed that many believed adolescent drinking and drunkenness is normative. Younger adolescents had more negative views of adolescent drinkers than their older peers. Adolescent drinking occurred in private settings and parents made decisions about allowing their adolescent children to attend social events based on the level of safety attributed to the location. If adolescent drinking was likely then home was the preferred location as it provided scope for risk minimisation. Positive portrayals of non-drinking adolescents and information to assist parents' decision-making are needed.

  9. Prognostic significance of functional somatic symptoms in adolescence: a 15-year community-based follow-up study of adolescents with depression compared with healthy peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohman Hannes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of population-based long-term longitudinal research on mental health status and functional physical/somatic symptoms. Little is known about the long-term mental health outcomes associated with somatic symptoms or the temporal relationship between depression and such symptoms. This 15-year study followed up adolescents with depression and matched controls, screened from a population-based sample, who reported different numbers of somatic symptoms. Methods The total population of 16–17-year-olds in Uppsala, Sweden, was screened for depression in 1991–1993. Adolescents who screened positive and an equal number of healthy controls took part in a semi-structured diagnostic interview. In addition, 21 different self-rated somatic symptoms were assessed. Sixty-four percent of those adolescents participated in a follow-up structured interview 15 years later. Results Somatic symptoms in adolescence predicted depression and other adult mental disorders regardless of the presence of adolescent depression. In adolescents with depression, the number of functional somatic symptoms predicted, in a dose response relationship, suicidal behavior, bipolar episodes, and psychotic episodes as well as chronic and recurrent depression. Contrary to expectations, the somatic symptoms of abdominal pain and perspiration without exertion better predicted depression than all DSM-IV depressive symptoms. Abdominal pain persisted as an independent strong predictor of depression and anxiety, even after controlling for other important confounders. Conclusions Somatic symptoms in adolescence can predict severe adult mental health disorders. The number of somatic symptoms concurrent with adolescent depression is, in a stepwise manner, linked to suicidal attempts, bipolar disorders, psychotic disorders, and recurrent and chronic depression. These findings can be useful in developing treatment guidelines for patients with somatic symptoms.

  10. Adolescents Transitioning to High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan G; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Wornell, Cory; Finnegan, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents transitioning to high school may be at greater risk of depression and suicide if they are victims of bullying behavior. This study explored sex differences in bullying victimization (physical, verbal/social, and cyberbullying) and the impact on depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors in ninth-grade students ( N = 233). Females reported significantly more verbal/social and cyberbullying than male students. There were no significant sex differences in physical bullying; male students who reported physical bullying victimization were more likely to experience depressive symptoms. Verbal/social bullying predicted depressive symptoms in males and females. Females who reported being victims of cyberbullying were more likely to report depressive symptoms, suicide ideation, and suicide attempts. Eighteen students reported suicide attempts, and each also experienced verbal/social bullying. School nurses are positioned to reach out to transitioning students, screen for mental health issues, provide a safe place to talk about bullying experiences, and promote positive mental health.

  11. Racial differences in suicidal ideation among school going adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Young adults are at increased risk for suicidal behavior and there is growing concern about racial differences in suicidal ideation, especially in the younger population. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess suicidal ideation in school going tribal and nontribal adolescents and to study its relationships with psychological well-being, depression, and anxiety. Materials and Methods: A total of 259 students of Classes X, XI, and XII of three Schools of Ranchi, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria, were screened for suicidal ideation by Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (SIQ and psychological well-being by General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12. The level of anxiety and depression was assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS. Results: Overall 33.2% of the adolescents had suicidal ideation out of which 34.2% were tribal-students and 32.8% nontribal-students with no significant intergroup difference. Psychological discomfort (GHQ-12 Score ≥3 was noticed in 59.1% of adolescents, but no racial difference was found. However, the mean HADS depression score was significantly higher in tribal adolescents, more so in tribal boys than nontribal adolescents or boys, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation of SIQ total score in all the adolescents with GHQ-12 total score, HADS total score, HADS anxiety score, and HADS depression score. Conclusion: There were no racial differences in suicidal ideation and psychological discomfort among tribal and nontribal adolescents. Tribal adolescents, and more specifically tribal boys, had more depression than their nontribal counterparts. Suicidal ideation was positively correlated with psychological discomfort, anxiety, and depression.

  12. Study on TCT split-flow for HPV positive method on Xinjiang cervical cancer screening%careHPV 初筛及 TCT 分流法在新疆宫颈癌筛查中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    帕提曼·米吉提; 唐努尔·阿布力米提; 古扎丽努尔·阿不力孜; 李华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical value of TCT split-flow for HPV positive method on Xinjiang cervical cancer screening project.Methods Colposcopy and cervical biopsy were given to the women with positive result of the careHPV test and Thinprep test.Diagnostic evaluation was conducted to detect the sensitivity,specificity,predictive positive value and predictive negative value and the AUC.Diagnostic val-ue was compared by ROC curve and analyzed by SPSS19.0 software.Results It showed better value for the test of TCT split-flow for HPV positive result than HPV split-flow for TCT positive method,with their AUC 0.743 and 0.680 respectively.Conclusions Split-flow by TCT after screening by careHPV method showed high diagnostic value in Xinjiang cervical cancer screening.%果以careHPV 为初筛、薄层液基细胞学为分流的筛查方法 AUC 值为0.743,高于以细胞学初筛、HPV 分流法。结论careHPV 初筛、细胞学分流法在新疆农村地区妇女宫颈癌筛查中有较好的应用前景。

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis Infections: Implications for Pregnant Adolescents and Their Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Melzer-Lange

    1994-01-01

    trachomatis in pregnant adolescents. This study was undertaken to determine if aggressive screening for C. trachomatis in pregnant adolescents and early treatment with erythromycin can prevent complications in their newborn infants.

  14. The effect of rapid screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on the identification and earlier isolation of MRSA-positive patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Creamer, Eilish

    2010-04-01

    (1) To determine whether rapid screening with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays leads to the earlier isolation of patients at risk for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization, (2) to assess compliance with routine MRSA screening protocols, (3) to confirm the diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MRSA real-time PCR assay (Cepheid) by comparison with culture, and (4) to compare turnaround times for PCR assay results with those for culture results.

  15. Brief report: Using global positioning system (GPS) enabled cell phones to examine adolescent travel patterns and time in proximity to alcohol outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Morrison, Christopher N; Wiebe, Douglas J; Remer, Lillian G; Wiehe, Sarah E

    2016-07-01

    As adolescents gain freedom to explore new environments unsupervised, more time in proximity to alcohol outlets may increase risks for alcohol and marijuana use. This pilot study: 1) Describes variations in adolescents' proximity to outlets by time of day and day of the week, 2) Examines variations in outlet proximity by drinking and marijuana use status, and 3) Tests feasibility of obtaining real-time data to study adolescent proximity to outlets. U.S. adolescents (N = 18) aged 16-17 (50% female) carried GPS-enabled smartphones for one week with their locations tracked. The geographic areas where adolescents spend time, activity spaces, were created by connecting GPS points sequentially and adding spatial buffers around routes. Proximity to outlets was greater during after school and evening hours. Drinkers and marijuana users were in proximity to outlets 1½ to 2 times more than non-users. Findings provide information about where adolescents spend time and times of greatest risk, informing prevention efforts.

  16. High-Content Positional Biosensor Screening Assay for Compounds to Prevent or Disrupt Androgen Receptor and Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 2 Protein–Protein Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yun; Shun, Tong Ying; Strock, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The androgen receptor–transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (AR-TIF2) positional protein–protein interaction (PPI) biosensor assay described herein combines physiologically relevant cell-based assays with the specificity of binding assays by incorporating structural information of AR and TIF2 functional domains along with intracellular targeting sequences and fluorescent reporters. Expression of the AR-red fluorescent protein (RFP) “prey” and TIF2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) “bait” components of the biosensor was directed by recombinant adenovirus constructs that expressed the ligand binding and activation function 2 surface domains of AR fused to RFP with nuclear localization and nuclear export sequences, and three α-helical LXXLL motifs from TIF2 fused to GFP and an HIV Rev nucleolar targeting sequence. In unstimulated cells, AR-RFP was localized predominantly to the cytoplasm and TIF2-GFP was localized to nucleoli. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment induced AR-RFP translocation into the nucleus where the PPIs between AR and TIF2 resulted in the colocalization of both biosensors within the nucleolus. We adapted the translocation enhanced image analysis module to quantify the colocalization of the AR-RFP and TIF2-GFP biosensors in images acquired on the ImageXpress platform. DHT induced a concentration-dependent AR-TIF2 colocalization and produced a characteristic condensed punctate AR-RFP PPI nucleolar distribution pattern. The heat-shock protein 90 inhibitor 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) and antiandrogens flutamide and bicalutamide inhibited DHT-induced AR-TIF2 PPI formation with 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50s) of 88.5±12.5 nM, 7.6±2.4 μM, and 1.6±0.4 μM, respectively. Images of the AR-RFP distribution phenotype allowed us to distinguish between 17-AAG and flutamide, which prevented AR translocation, and bicalutamide, which blocked AR-TIF2 PPIs. We screened the Library of Pharmacologically Active

  17. High-content positional biosensor screening assay for compounds to prevent or disrupt androgen receptor and transcriptional intermediary factor 2 protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yun; Shun, Tong Ying; Strock, Christopher J; Johnston, Paul A

    2014-09-01

    The androgen receptor-transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (AR-TIF2) positional protein-protein interaction (PPI) biosensor assay described herein combines physiologically relevant cell-based assays with the specificity of binding assays by incorporating structural information of AR and TIF2 functional domains along with intracellular targeting sequences and fluorescent reporters. Expression of the AR-red fluorescent protein (RFP) "prey" and TIF2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) "bait" components of the biosensor was directed by recombinant adenovirus constructs that expressed the ligand binding and activation function 2 surface domains of AR fused to RFP with nuclear localization and nuclear export sequences, and three α-helical LXXLL motifs from TIF2 fused to GFP and an HIV Rev nucleolar targeting sequence. In unstimulated cells, AR-RFP was localized predominantly to the cytoplasm and TIF2-GFP was localized to nucleoli. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment induced AR-RFP translocation into the nucleus where the PPIs between AR and TIF2 resulted in the colocalization of both biosensors within the nucleolus. We adapted the translocation enhanced image analysis module to quantify the colocalization of the AR-RFP and TIF2-GFP biosensors in images acquired on the ImageXpress platform. DHT induced a concentration-dependent AR-TIF2 colocalization and produced a characteristic condensed punctate AR-RFP PPI nucleolar distribution pattern. The heat-shock protein 90 inhibitor 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) and antiandrogens flutamide and bicalutamide inhibited DHT-induced AR-TIF2 PPI formation with 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50s) of 88.5±12.5 nM, 7.6±2.4 μM, and 1.6±0.4 μM, respectively. Images of the AR-RFP distribution phenotype allowed us to distinguish between 17-AAG and flutamide, which prevented AR translocation, and bicalutamide, which blocked AR-TIF2 PPIs. We screened the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) set

  18. Usefulness of the Waist Circumference-to-Height Ratio in Screening for Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Children and Adolescents: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong-Hyun; Hur, Yang-Im; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kim, Kyoungwoo; Cho, Young Gyu; Hong, Soo-Min; Cho, Eun Byul

    2017-03-10

    The aims of this study were to assess the diagnostic value of the weight-to-height ratio (WHtR) for the detection of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Korean children and adolescents, and to determine the advantages of WHtR as a population-based screening tool in comparison with other obesity indicators, such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from 3057 children and adolescents (1625 boys, 1332 girls) aged 10-19 years who were included in the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2010-2012) up to the second year of the sixth KNHANES (2013-2014). Receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the optimal cutoff value and accuracy of WHtR for predicting individual obesity indicators or more than two non-WC components of MS. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a measure of the diagnostic power of a test. A perfect test will have an AUC of 1.0, and an AUC equal to 0.5 means that the test performs no better than chance. The optimal WHtR cutoff for the evaluation of general obesity and central obesity was 0.50 in boys and 0.47-0.48 in girls, and the AUC was 0.9. Regarding the assessment of each MS risk factor, the optimal WHtR cutoff was 0.43-0.50 in boys and 0.43-0.49 in girls, and these cutoffs were statistically significant only for the detection of high triglyceride and low High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. When a pairwise comparison of the AUCs was conducted between WHtR and BMI/WC percentiles to quantify the differences in power for MS screening, the WHtR AUC values (boys, 0.691; girls, 0.684) were higher than those of other indices; however, these differences were not statistically significant (boys, p = 0.467; girls, p = 0.51). The WHtR cutoff value was 0.44 (sensitivity, 67.7%; specificity, 64.6%) for boys and 0.43 (sensitivity, 66.4%; specificity, 66.9%) for girls. There was no significant difference between

  19. Usefulness of the Waist Circumference-to-Height Ratio in Screening for Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Children and Adolescents: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong-Hyun; Hur, Yang-Im; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kim, Kyoungwoo; Cho, Young Gyu; Hong, Soo-Min; Cho, Eun Byul

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the diagnostic value of the weight-to-height ratio (WHtR) for the detection of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Korean children and adolescents, and to determine the advantages of WHtR as a population-based screening tool in comparison with other obesity indicators, such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from 3057 children and adolescents (1625 boys, 1332 girls) aged 10–19 years who were included in the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2010–2012) up to the second year of the sixth KNHANES (2013–2014). Receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the optimal cutoff value and accuracy of WHtR for predicting individual obesity indicators or more than two non-WC components of MS. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a measure of the diagnostic power of a test. A perfect test will have an AUC of 1.0, and an AUC equal to 0.5 means that the test performs no better than chance. The optimal WHtR cutoff for the evaluation of general obesity and central obesity was 0.50 in boys and 0.47–0.48 in girls, and the AUC was 0.9. Regarding the assessment of each MS risk factor, the optimal WHtR cutoff was 0.43–0.50 in boys and 0.43–0.49 in girls, and these cutoffs were statistically significant only for the detection of high triglyceride and low High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. When a pairwise comparison of the AUCs was conducted between WHtR and BMI/WC percentiles to quantify the differences in power for MS screening, the WHtR AUC values (boys, 0.691; girls, 0.684) were higher than those of other indices; however, these differences were not statistically significant (boys, p = 0.467; girls, p = 0.51). The WHtR cutoff value was 0.44 (sensitivity, 67.7%; specificity, 64.6%) for boys and 0.43 (sensitivity, 66.4%; specificity, 66.9%) for girls. There was no significant

  20. 影响新生儿听力筛查假阳性的因素分析%The Analysis of Influence Factors of Newborn Hearing Screening False Positive Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林莉

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨临床上新生儿听力筛查假阳性以及复查率的影响因素。方法:对来本院筛查的4080例新生儿相关资料进行分析,对所有新生儿进行听力筛查,将初筛不通过的436例新生儿作为试验组,设置研究前初筛不通过的436例作为对照组,比较两组复查结果。结果:6组新生儿每组有680例,A组中110例初筛不通过,且81例假阳性;B组95例初筛不通过,57例假阳性;C组67例初筛不通过,40例假阳性;D组78例初筛不通过,62例假阳性;E组49例初筛不通过,24例假阳性;F组37例初筛不通过,18例假阳性;试验组新生儿出生42 d后349例进行复查,复查率为80.1%,高于对照组,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:听力筛查是早期发现、早期干预听力障碍的重要手段,临床上加强宣传教育提高新生儿复查率。%Objective:To investigate the factors of newborn hearing screeningfalse positive and the clinical effect of review rate.Method:The related data analysis of 4080 cases of newborn in our hospital were selected, hearing screening of all newborns, the screening of 436 cases of neonatal fail as the experimental group, set before the study by screening 436 cases as the control group, two groups were compared the results of the review.Result:Six newborns in each group had 680 cases,A group of 110 cases without going through screening, and 81 cases were false-positive; B group of 95 cases without screening,57 cases were false-positive; C group of 67 cases screening were not passed, 40 cases were false-positive; D group of 78 cases without screening, 62 cases were false-positive; E group of 49 patients without screening, 24 cases were false-positive; F group, 37 cases without screening, 18 cases were false-positive.In the experimental group 349 cases for review, the review was 80.1% higher than the control group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0

  1. Health Snapshot: Hispanic Adolescents in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Updates March 2013 March 2013 Health Snapshot - Hispanic Adolescents in the United States Our nation’s adolescents are ... care and more positive health outcomes. 5 Hispanic adolescents in the U.S... Increasingly have health care coverage. ...

  2. TB incidence in an adolescent cohort in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mahomed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health problem globally. Little is known about TB incidence in adolescents who are a proposed target group for new TB vaccines. We conducted a study to determine the TB incidence rates and risk factors for TB disease in a cohort of school-going adolescents in a high TB burden area in South Africa. METHODS: We recruited adolescents aged 12 to 18 years from high schools in Worcester, South Africa. Demographic and clinical information was collected, a tuberculin skin test (TST performed and blood drawn for a QuantiFERON TB Gold assay at baseline. Screening for TB cases occurred at follow up visits and by surveillance of registers at public sector TB clinics over a period of up to 3.8 years after enrolment. RESULTS: A total of 6,363 adolescents were enrolled (58% of the school population targeted. During follow up, 67 cases of bacteriologically confirmed TB were detected giving an overall incidence rate of 0.45 per 100 person years (95% confidence interval 0.29-0.72. Black or mixed race, maternal education of primary school or less or unknown, a positive baseline QuantiFERON assay and a positive baseline TST were significant predictors of TB disease on adjusted analysis. CONCLUSION: The adolescent TB incidence found in a high burden setting will help TB vaccine developers plan clinical trials in this population. Latent TB infection and low socio-economic status were predictors of TB disease.

  3. Reliability and convergent validity of the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Isolan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and the convergent validity of the Children Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI with DSM-IV anxiety disorder symptoms, by comparison with the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED, in a community sample of Brazilian children and adolescents. METHODS: Children and adolescents from five schools were selected from a larger study that aimed to assess different aspects of childhood anxiety disorders. All participants completed the CASI and the SCARED. RESULTS: This study supported the reliability of the CASI total score. Girls reported higher total anxiety sensitivity scores than boys and there were no differences in total anxiety sensitivity scores between children and adolescents. This study showed moderate to high correlations between the CASI scores with SCARED scores, all correlations coefficients being positive and significant. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate an appropriate reliability and evidence of convergent validity in the CASI in a sample of Brazilian children and adolescents.

  4. Analysis of 88 Cases of Elderly Patients with Treponema Pallidum Antibody Positive Screening Results%88例老年患者梅毒螺旋体抗体筛查阳性结果的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨清梅; 贾伟建

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of Treponema pallidum antibody screening positive for elderly patients. Method The detection of Treponema pallidum antibody in the serum of 3520 elderly patients by chemiluminescence method, and then the positive results of Treponema pallidum gelatin agglutination test (TPPA) and toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST) for a test, antibody indeterminate samples by immunoblotting of Treponema pallidum (Western blot, WB) method for the final confirmation. Results The chemiluminescence method screening of 88 cases of syphilis antibody positive, confirmed by TPPA positive 63 cases, TRUST was positive in 17 cases, which were positive for TPPA validation. 25 cases were identified by uncertainty, WB was positive in 1 cases, 7 cases of suspected, negative in 17 cases. Conclusion Elderly patients with Treponema pallidum antibody screening will have certain false positive, final confirmation of a single screening positive samples by Western blotting.%目的:探讨梅毒螺旋体抗体筛查阳性对老年患者的价值。方法采用化学发光法检测3520例老年患者血清中梅毒螺旋体抗体,阳性结果再用梅毒螺旋体明胶凝集试验(TPPA)和甲苯胺红不加热血清试验( TRUST)进行检测,对不确定标本再用免疫印迹(Western blot, WB)法进行最后确认。结果化学发光法共筛查出88例梅毒螺旋体抗体阳性,经TPPA确证阳性63例,TRUST阳性17例,当中TPPA确证均阳性。25例不确定标本,WB法确认1例阳性,7例可疑,17例阴性。结论老年患者梅毒螺旋体抗体筛查会有一定的假阳性,对单筛查阳性的标本应用免疫印迹法作最后确认。

  5. Rescreening and confirmation of anti-HIV antibody positive serum in primary screening in Qingdao%青岛市HIV抗体初筛阳性标本的复检及确证结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史晓燕; 张洪花; 赵国有; 弋英; 汪照国

    2013-01-01

    Objective To rescreen and confirm anti-HIV antibody positive serum in primary screening in Qingdao from 2009 to 2011 and to analyze the related data,so as to provide basis for prevention and control of AIDS in Qingdao.Methods Samples positive for anti-HIV antibody in primary screening test were re-screened with both Electroselenium method and ELISA.Then the positive samples in either re-screening test were further confirmed with Western Blot (WB).Results In 1348 positive samples from primary screening test,positive were found in 745 cases in re-screening test.By WB confirmation,563 cases were positive,95 cases were suspected and 87 cases were negative.In contrast to WB,positive coincidence rates of ELISA and Electroselenium method were 81.5% and 84.3% respectively.The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 100% and 93.6 % respectively,and those of Electroselenium method were 100% and 94.5% respectively.Flouting population accounted for 58.4% and MSM accounted for 40.1% of total HIV infection.Conclusion Anti-HIV antibody rescreening tests could exclude most false positive samples in primary screening test.However,there is still some false positive rate in either rescreening test.Flouting population and MSM are the high risk population of HIV infection in Qingdao city and intervention should be strengthened among those people.%目的 复检和确认HIV抗体初筛阳性血清并分析相关资料,为青岛市艾滋病防治工作提供依据.方法 对初筛阳性血清,用胶体硒和ELISA试验复检,任一复检试验阳性的血清再用WB试验确证并对确证阳性病例进行流行病学分析.结果 1348份初筛阳性血清经复检745份阳性,WB确证563份HIV-l抗体阳性,不确定95份,阴性87份.ELISA、胶体硒法与WB的阳性符合率分别为81.5%和84.3%,二者的敏感度均为100%,特异度分别为93.6%和94.5%,确证阳性人群中,外来人员占58.4%,男男性行为人群占40.1%.结论 ELISA和胶体硒

  6. Joint Association of Screen Time and Physical Activity with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in a National Sample of Iranian Adolescents: The CASPIANIII Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ramin Heshmat; Mostafa Qorbani; Amir Eslami Shahr Babaki; Shirin Djalalinia; Asal Ataei-Jafari; Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh; Gelayol Ardalan; Tahereh Arefirad; Fatemeh Rezaei; Hamid Asayesh; Roya Kelishadi

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its contributing factors are considered important health problems in the pediatric age group. This study was designed to assess the joint association of ST and PA with cardiometabolic risk factors among Iranian adolescents. A representative sample of 5625 (50.2% boys) school students with a mean age of 14.73 (SD: 2.41) were selected through multistage random cluster sampling method from urban and rural areas of 27 provinces in Iran. ST and PA were assessed by sel...

  7. Dispositional optimism in adolescents with cancer : Differential associations of optimism and pessimism with positive and negative aspects of well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulkers, Esther; Fleer, Joke; Brinksma, Aeltsje; Roodbol, Petrie F.; Kamps, Willem A.; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Sanderman, Robbert

    2013-01-01

    ObjectivesDispositional optimism is often considered to be a unidimensional construct. Recent studies suggest, however, that optimism and pessimism are separate dimensions. In this study we investigated two issues. First, the levels of optimism and pessimism in adolescents with cancer compared with

  8. Dispositional optimism in adolescents with cancer: Differential associations of optimism and pessimism with positive and negative aspects of well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulkers, Esther; Fleer, Joke; Brinksma, Aeltsje; Roodbol, Petrie F.; Kamps, Willem A.; Tissing, Wim J.E.; Sanderman, Robbert

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Dispositional optimism is often considered to be a unidimensional construct. Recent studies suggest, however, that optimism and pessimism are separate dimensions. In this study we investigated two issues. First, the levels of optimism and pessimism in adolescents with cancer compared with

  9. Indications and limitations of bariatric intervention in severely obese children and adolescents with and without nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: ESPGHAN Hepatology Committee Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobili, Valerio; Vajro, Pietro; Dezsofi, Antal; Fischler, Bjorn; Hadzic, Nedim; Jahnel, Joerg; Lamireau, Thierry; McKiernan, Patrick; McLin, Valerie; Socha, Piotr; Tizzard, Sarah; Baumann, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Morbid obesity is strongly associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. The present best treatment for NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is weight reduction through lifestyle modification. Because of frustrating inefficiency of such a therapeutic approach, bariatric surgery is increasingly performed in adolescents as an alternative option for weight reduction. Standards of care and consensus for indications are, however, scarce. We explore the indications and limitations of bariatric surgery in children with severe obesity with and without NASH and aim to provide guidance for the exceptional indications for adolescents with extreme obesity with major comorbidity that may benefit from these controversial interventions. Present evidence suggests that bariatric surgery can decrease the grade of steatosis, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis in NASH. Uncomplicated NAFLD is not an indication for bariatric surgery. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is considered a safe and effective option for adolescents with extreme obesity, as long as an appropriate long-term follow-up is provided. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in adolescents and therefore should be considered investigational. Finally, sleeve gastrectomy and other types of weight loss surgery that have grown increasingly common in adults, still need to be considered investigational. Temporary devices may be increasingly being used in pediatrics; however, future studies, including a long-term risk analysis of patients who undergo surgery, are much needed to clarify the exact indications for bariatric surgery in adolescents.

  10. Improved first-trimester Down syndrome screening performance by lowering the false-positive rate: a prospective study of 9941 low-risk women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøjdemann, K R; Shalmi, A C; Christiansen, M

    2005-01-01

    of 8.8% and 2.1%, respectively. We detected 80% of fetuses with other major chromosomal abnormalities with a combination of NT screening and other ultrasound findings. Low beta-hCG and PAPP-A values (below 0.4 MoM) were observed in 0.5% of the women including all cases of triploidy and trisomy 18...... test (beta-hCG and PAPP-A) and the combined test (NT and the double test) were calculated using a 1 : 250 cut-off. RESULTS: NT could be measured in 97.5% of cases. The DR for DS with NT screening alone was 75% with a FPR of only 1.8%. The double test detected 73% and the combined test 91%, for FPRs...

  11. Clinical features and related factors to anxiety disorders in adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the social and psychological risk factors to anxiety disorders in adolescents,and to screen protective factors and risk factors and establish the prediction model.Methods The Screen for Child Anxiety

  12. Is liver transaminases assessment an appropriate tool for the screening of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in at risk obese children and adolescents? ¿Es útil la valoración de las transaminasas hepáticas para el screening del hígado graso no alcohólico en niños y adolescentes obesos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rodríguez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric obesity has increased dramatically all over the world and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the most frequent complications associated with excess adiposity. NAFLD causes serum transaminase elevation and liver disease, which could end up in fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD seems to be associated with the metabolic complications of obesity, mainly insulin resistance. The aim of the present article is to review the role of serum liver enzyme assessment as a suitable non invasive predictor of NAFLD in children. Although serum liver enzyme elevation does not accurately measure liver damage, it may be a valuable and non invasive test to screen NAFLD in children and adolescents and a marker to control NAFLD evolution. To detect NAFLD in obese children and adolescents, transaminases serum concentrations should be routinely determined in these patients. In this sense, it seems necessary to obtain transaminase reference standards for children and adolescents.La prevalencia de obesidad en niños ha aumentado considerablemente en todo el mundo y el hígado graso no alcohólico (HGNA es una de las complicaciones más frecuentemente asociadas al exceso de adiposidad. El HGNA provoca elevación de las transaminasas hepáticas y una alteración hepática que pueden desencadenar fibrosis, cirrosis e incluso malignización. El HGNA aparece asociado a las complicaciones metabólicas de la obesidad, sobre todo a la resistencia a la insulina. El objetivo del presente artículo es revisar el rol que tienen las enzimas hepáticas como predictor no invasivo del HGNA en niños. Aunque la elevación de las enzimas hepáticas no valora con exactitud el daño hepático, pueden suponer un test no invasivo para el screening del HGNA en niños y adolescentes y un marcador de su evolución. Las transaminasas hepáticas deben ser determinadas de rutina en el diagnóstico del HGNA en niños y adolescentes. En este

  13. Breast and ovarian cancer screening of non-carriers from BRCA1/2 mutation-positive families: 2-year follow-up of cohorts from France and Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorval, Michel; Noguès, Catherine; Berthet, Pascaline; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Lasset, Christine; Picard, Claude; Plante, Marie; Simard, Jacques; Julian-Reynier, Claire

    2011-05-01

    We described and compared breast and ovarian screening practices in the 2-year period following test result disclosure in female non-carriers from BRCA1/2 mutation-positive families living in two countries, France and Quebec, Canada, which provide universal health care. Four hundred and two (France n=293; Quebec n=109) unaffected female non-carriers from BRCA-proven mutation families provided information about the uptake of mammography, clinical breast examination, breast self-examination, and ovarian ultrasounds using self-administered questionnaires. The frequency of screening practices between study cohorts were compared using logistic regression. Annual mammography was conducted in 23 and 43% of French and Quebecer women participants cancer screening practices for female non-carriers from BRCA1/2 mutation-positive families in both France and Quebec exceeded those recommended for similarly aged women in the general population. Our findings highlight the need for clearcut recommendations on the follow-up of women from BRCA1/2 families who are not themselves carriers of a BRCA1/2 mutation.

  14. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test.

  15. A Screen for Identifying Maladaptive Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Siu L.; Leung, G. M.; Ng, Cecilia; Yu, Effie

    2009-01-01

    A screening tool (in Chinese) for maladaptive internet use was developed in two stages. Thirty-five factors were first extracted from data obtained from 378 adolescents with a 179-item questionnaire. Nine higher-order factors were then obtained from 35 factors. A 26-item screen that measures both endogenous and exogenous factors was constructed on…

  16. A High-Throughput Mass Spectrometry Assay Coupled with Redox Activity Testing Reduces Artifacts and False Positives in Lysine Demethylase Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigle, Tim J; Swinger, Kerren K; Campbell, John E; Scholle, Michael D; Sherrill, John; Admirand, Elizabeth A; Boriack-Sjodin, P Ann; Kuntz, Kevin W; Chesworth, Richard; Moyer, Mikel P; Scott, Margaret Porter; Copeland, Robert A

    2015-07-01

    Demethylation of histones by lysine demethylases (KDMs) plays a critical role in controlling gene transcription. Aberrant demethylation may play a causal role in diseases such as cancer. Despite the biological significance of these enzymes, there are limited assay technologies for study of KDMs and few quality chemical probes available to interrogate their biology. In this report, we demonstrate the utility of self-assembled monolayer desorption/ionization (SAMDI) mass spectrometry for the investigation of quantitative KDM enzyme kinetics and for high-throughput screening for KDM inhibitors. SAMDI can be performed in 384-well format and rapidly allows reaction components to be purified prior to injection into a mass spectrometer, without a throughput-limiting liquid chromatography step. We developed sensitive and robust assays for KDM1A (LSD1, AOF2) and KDM4C (JMJD2C, GASC1) and screened 13,824 compounds against each enzyme. Hits were rapidly triaged using a redox assay to identify compounds that interfered with the catalytic oxidation chemistry used by the KDMs for the demethylation reaction. We find that overall this high-throughput mass spectrometry platform coupled with the elimination of redox active compounds leads to a hit rate that is manageable for follow-up work.

  17. Youth screen-time behaviour is associated with cardiovascular risk in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Møller, Niels Christian;

    2014-01-01

    = 435) followed for up to 12 years. Adiposity, blood pressure (BP), triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), glucose, insulin, and self-reported TV viewing and computer use were obtained in adolescence and in young adulthood. A continuous metabolic syndrome z-score was calculated as the sum...... of standardized values of each risk factor (inverse of HDL). In multivariable-adjusted analyses, TV viewing and total screen time in adolescence were positively associated with adiposity, triglycerides, and metabolic syndrome z-score in young adulthood (p ... or decreased their viewing time. Insulin and metabolic syndrome z-scores were also higher among individuals who increased their TV viewing, computer use, or total screen time more than 2 hours/day compared with individuals who remained stable or decreased their viewing time (p

  18. Screening and management of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in HIV-positive patients attending an Australian urban sexual health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakar, Sheena; Drak, Douglas; Amin, Tahiya; Cheung, Jason; O'Connor, Catherine; Gracey, David

    2016-11-11

    Background: Few data exist regarding cardiovascular risk among HIV-infected patients attending sexual health clinics (SHC) in Australia. Methods: The medical records of 188 patients attending an inner-city SHC between August 2013 and July 2014 were retrospectively reviewed for cardiovascular risk factors and associated screening and management practices. Results: Cardiovascular risk factors were common among attendees of the SHC, including smoking (38%), hypertension (14%) and dyslipidaemia (11%). Of the 188 patients, 23% reported using potentially cardiotoxic recreational drugs, 25% of dyslipidaemic patients were not on therapy and 10% of patients were hypertensive; none were prescribed treatment. A smoking cessation program was offered to all patients. Conclusion: A high prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease was demonstrated. Modification of risk factors could be improved.

  19. Joint Association of Screen Time and Physical Activity with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in a National Sample of Iranian Adolescents: The CASPIANIII Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Heshmat

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS and its contributing factors are considered important health problems in the pediatric age group. This study was designed to assess the joint association of ST and PA with cardiometabolic risk factors among Iranian adolescents. A representative sample of 5625 (50.2% boys school students with a mean age of 14.73 (SD: 2.41 were selected through multistage random cluster sampling method from urban and rural areas of 27 provinces in Iran. ST and PA were assessed by self-administered validated questionnaires. Anthropometric measures (height, weight and waist circumference (WC and MetS components (abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure (BP, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, elevated triglycerides (TG and high fasting blood sugar (FBG were measured according to standardized protocols. MetS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria modified for the pediatric age group. Moreover, elevated total cholesterol (TC, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and generalized obesity were considered as other cardiometabolic risk factors. Students with high ST levels had significantly higher body mass index z-score (BMI z-score, WC, TG, LDL-C, and BP as well as lower HDL-C level; whereas those with high PA levels had significantly higher HDL-C levels as well as lower BMI z-score, TC, and BP. Adolescents with low PA/ high ST levels had significantly higher BMI, WC, LDL-C levels, as well as higher SBP and DBP compared to their other counterparts. In Multivariate model, joint effect of low PA/ high ST (compared to the high PA/low ST group increased the odds of overweight, abdominal obesity and low HDL-C and decreased the odds of elevated TC. The findings of this study showed that joint association of high ST and low PA have direct association with abdominal obesity, overweight and low HDL-C and indirect association with elevated TC.

  20. Biomarker screening of oral cancer cell lines revealed sub-populations of CD133-, CD44-, CD24- and ALDH1- positive cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall K

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC ranks sixth worldwide for cancer-related mortality. For the past several decades the mainstay of treatment for HNSCC has been surgery and external beam radiation, although more recent trials combining chemotherapy and radiation have demonstrated improvements. However, cancer recurrence and treatment failures continue to occur in a significant percentage of patients. Recent advances in tumor biology have led to the discovery that many cancers, including HNSCC, may contain subpopulations of cells with stem cell-like properties that may explain relapse and recurrence. The objective of this study was to screen existing oral cancer cell lines for biomarkers specific for cells with stem cell-like properties. RNA was isolated for RT-PCR screening using primers for specific mRNA of the biomarkers: CD44, CD24, CD133, NANOG, Nestin, ALDH1, and ABCG2 in CAL27, SCC25 and SCC15 cells. This analysis revealed that some oral cancer cell lines (CAL27 and SCC25 may contain small subpopulations of adhesion- and contact-independent cells (AiDC that also express tumor stem cell markers, including CD44, CD133, and CD24. In addition, CAL27 cells also expressed the intracellular tumor stem cell markers, ALDH1 and ABCG2. Isolation and culture of the adhesion- and contact-independent cells from CAL27 and SCC25 populations revealed differential proliferation rates and more robust inhibition by the MEK inhibitor PD98059, as well as the chemotherapeutic agents Cisplatin and Paclitaxel, within the AiDC CAL27 cells. At least one oral cancer cell line (CAL27 contained subpopulations of cells that express specific biomarkers associated with tumor stem cells which were morphologically and phenotypically distinct from other cells within this cell line.

  1. Predictors of future depression in early and late adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lang, Natasia D. J.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examined whether the possibility to predict future DSM-IV depressive disorder can be increased with recurrent screening for depression in community adolescents, compared to single screening in early or in late adolescence. in addition, it examined which depressive symptoms in

  2. [Validation of a screening instrument for borderline personality disorder in adolescents and young adults - psychometric properties and association with the patient's self-esteem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, R; Barth, J; Parzer, P; Bertsch, K; Schmitt, R; Lenzen, C; Herpertz, S; Resch, F; Brunner, R; Kaess, M

    2013-06-01

    This investigation aimed to evaluate the German version of the BPQ as a screening instrument for borderline personality disorder (BPD) in a clinical sample. Furthermore, an association between self-esteem and BPD was examined. In a consecutive modus, 27 patients with BPD and 54 clinical controls (age range: 14 - 25 years) completed a self-report questionnaire and took part in a semi-structured interview. The German version of the BPQ revealed a high internal consistency (α = 0.95) and test-retest-reliability (r = 0.94). The criterion validity (r = 0.60) and the cut-off value (49) must be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size. BPD as well as 8 out of 9 subscales of the BPQ were significantly associated with lower self-esteem. A pre-screening using the BPQ within the clinical setting may facilitate early detection of BPD. In addition, building up self-esteem seems to be very important in the treatment of patients with BPD.

  3. [Toxocariasis in children and adolescents with allergic and bronchopulmonary diseases, HIV infection, hepatitis B and C risk groups: results of serological screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautova, E A; Dovgalev, A S; Astanina, S Iu

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassay was used to determine the presence of immunoglobulins class G to Toxocara canis antigens in the sera of children and adolescents (hereinafter referred to as children) with allergic and bronchopulmonary diseases from HIV infection and hepatitis B and C risk groups. A total of 422 dwellers of the Republic of Altai, including 144 subjects aged 1 to 17 years, were examined. Toxocara antibodies were found in 18.8 +/- 3.3% of the children and in 21.9 +/- 2.5% of the adults. The infection rate in children with bronchopulmonary and allergic diseases was 27.1 +/- 5.8 and 14.3 +/- 5.0%, respectively; that in the hepatitis B and C risk groups was 13.1 +/- 6.2%. The children (n = 6) from the HIV infection risk group were seronegative. The infection rate in the adults from the HIV infection and hepatitis risk group was 19.2 +/- 3.5 and 24.3 +/- 3.5%, respectively. Diagnostic antibody titers in the children and adults were determined in 9.0 +/- 2.3 and 8.3 +/- 1.6%, respectively. Immunological assays should be used to rule out toxocariasis in the examinees. If there are seropositive results, specific antiparasitic threatment should be performed.

  4. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescent students; a perspective from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijeratne Thilina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sri Lanka recorded an extraordinary high suicide rate for adolescents aged 15 - 19 in the early 1990s (46.5/100,000. With this in perspective, the Ministry of Health in Sri Lanka recommends school programmes for adolescents by mental health units of local hospitals. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys to screen for symptoms of anxiety and depression among students aged 14 - 18 during school mental health programmes. Two schools were randomly selected within the Ratnapura municipality (urban population of approx. 50,000, Sri Lanka and all students aged 14-18 were assessed with self administered (pre tested, Sinhalese translations questionnaires [Center for epidemiologic studies depression scale, Anxiety screening test of suicide and mental health association international]. Results A total of 445 students were assessed (male-54.4%, female 45.6%. Thirty six percent screened positive for depression (mild depression-17%, severe depression-19% and 28% screened positive for severe anxiety. Females screened positive for depression and anxiety significantly more than the males (p = 0.0001, 0.005 respectively. Students in classes facing barrier examinations at the end of the year had the highest positivity rates. Examination related issues (36% were the most commonly cited problem. Recommendations It is recommended that: 1. School mental health development programmes in Sri Lanka concentrate more on reducing examination related stress, and in particular focus on the female students 2. Policy decisions are made to reduce competition for higher education 3. A nationally coordinated survey on mental health of adolescent students is carried out utilizing the island-wide network of medical officers of mental health.

  5. 清远市273份HIV抗体初筛阳性标本与确证结果分析%Analysis on preliminary screening and confirmed results in 273 HIV antibody positive samples in Qingyuan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓远玲; 詹巧莉; 罗文玲; 朱劲涛

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解清远市人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)抗体初筛实验与确证实验结果符合率,为提高实验室HIV抗体检测技术提供依据.方法 对清远市2010-2011年经酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)初筛的273份标本HIV抗体阳性及可疑阳性的结果与确证实验的结果进行比较分析.结果 273份标本,经蛋白印迹(WB)试验确证HIV-1阳性257例,占94.14%;不确定9例,占3.3%;阴性7例,占2.56%.筛查阳性与确证阳性总体符合率为94.14%,确证条带gp160、gp120、p24出现率均有95%以上;出现8条以上条带的有166份,出现率为64.59%.结论 初筛试剂检测HIV抗体与WB确证试验的检测结果符合率较高,但判断HIV抗体阳性或艾滋病必须经WB试验确证,以排除假阳性.%[ Objective]To understand the coincidence rate of HIV antibody screening and confirmed test in Qingyuan City, provide a basis for improving the HIV antibody examination technology. [ Methods ] The ELISA results of preliminary screening (273 HIV antibody positive samples and probable positive samples) in Qingyuan City from 2010-2011 were compared with the results of confirmed test. [Results]In 273 HIV antibody positive samples of screening, 257 cases were confirmed by Western blot (WB) test, which accounted for 94.14% , while 9 (3. 3% ) cases were uncertain and 7 (2. 56% ) cases were negative. The total coincidence rate of screening and confirmed test for positive cases was 94. 14%. The occurrence rate of gpl60, gpl20 and p24 reactive bands was over 95%. 166 cases had more than 8 bands in WB test (64. 59% ). [ Conclusion] The coincidence rate of HIV antibody screening and confirmed WB test is high. However, HIV antibody positive cases and AIDS cases must be confirmed by WB test to exclude false positive reaction.

  6. RT-PCR Screening for ETV6-RUNX1-positive Clones in Cord Blood From Newborns in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Marianne; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Melbye, Mads;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Several large biobanks comprising umbilical cord blood samples have been established allowing efforts to characterize the prevalence and risk factors for preleukemic cell clones in healthy newborns. This study explores the feasibility of demonstrating translocation ETV6-RUNX1 transcr...... history of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Finally, the estimated frequency of translocation ETV6-RUNX1-positive cells was below 10....

  7. Why adolescents use substances of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhigg, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    In summary, adolescent substance use is associated with a variety of risks. Using a nonjudgmental and collaborative approach to treating adolescent substance users can yield positive results. Motivational interviewing and the adolescent community reinforcement approach are evidence-based, nonpharmacologic treatments for teens with substance use disorders.

  8. Program Strategies for Adolescent Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Deborah J.; Wider, Lottchen Crane; Hardin, Sally B.; Horrocks, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    School nurses who work with adolescents are in an ideal position to promote smoking cessation. This opportunity is important because research suggests teens who smoke are likely to become habitual smokers. This study characterizes adolescents' patterns and levels of smoking, describes adolescents' perceptions toward smoking, and delineates quit…

  9. Acculturation influences on AAPI adolescent-mother interactions and adolescents' sexual initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Guthrie, Barbara; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this secondary analysis of data is to examine relationships among Asian American Pacific Islanders (AAPI) adolescents' level of acculturation, maternal influences, and age of sexual initiation. Selected predictive variables are based on the theoretical frameworks and literature review. The results indicate that for these adolescents speaking English at home was positively associated with maternal sexual discussion, mothers' perceptions of connectedness with their adolescents, adolescents' perceived maternal sexual expectations, and later sexual initiation at Wave 1. Adolescents' years of U.S. residency are positively associated with adolescents' level of perceived connectedness with their mothers and later sexual initiation at Wave 2. Adolescents' level of acculturation influence how they interacted with their mothers, perceived their mothers' sexual expectations, and when they decided to initiate sexual intercourse. Interventions to delay AAPI adolescents' sexual debut should consider factors related to AAPI adolescents' and their mothers' levels of acculturation.

  10. Synthesis and SAR of novel, 4-(phenylsulfamoyl)phenylacetamide mGlu4 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) identified by functional high-throughput screening (HTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engers, Darren W; Gentry, Patrick R; Williams, Richard; Bolinger, Julie D; Weaver, C David; Menon, Usha N; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W; Niswender, Colleen M; Hopkins, Corey R

    2010-09-01

    Herein we disclose the synthesis and SAR of a series of 4-(phenylsulfamoyl)phenylacetamide compounds as mGlu(4) positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that were identified via a functional HTS. An iterative parallel approach to these compounds culminated in the discovery of VU0364439 (11) which represents the most potent (19.8 nM) mGlu(4) PAM reported to date.

  11. High-Content Positional Biosensor Screening Assay for Compounds to Prevent or Disrupt Androgen Receptor and Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 2 Protein–Protein Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Yun; Shun, Tong Ying; Strock, Christopher J.; Johnston, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The androgen receptor–transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (AR-TIF2) positional protein–protein interaction (PPI) biosensor assay described herein combines physiologically relevant cell-based assays with the specificity of binding assays by incorporating structural information of AR and TIF2 functional domains along with intracellular targeting sequences and fluorescent reporters. Expression of the AR-red fluorescent protein (RFP) “prey” and TIF2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) “bait” compon...

  12. Committee Opinion No. 653: Concerns Regarding Social Media and Health Issues in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues.

  13. Suicide in children and young adolescents: a 25-year database on suicides from Northern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Anniina; Harju, Aleksi; Hakko, Helinä; Riala, Kaisa; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2014-11-01

    Despite the large amount of research on adolescent suicidality, there are few detailed studies illustrating the characteristics of child and adolescent completed suicide. Our study presents the characteristics of child and adolescent suicides occurring over a period of 25 years within a large geographical area in Northern Finland, with a special focus on gender differences. The study sample included all 58 suicides among children and adolescents (suicide victims were male. Violent suicide methods predominated in both genders (males 98%, females 83%). While symptoms of mental illness were common, only a minority (15% of males and 17% of females) had a previous history of psychiatric hospitalization. 17% of females but none of the males had been hospitalized previously due to self-poisoning. A greater proportion of females than males had a history of self-cutting (33% vs. 7%) and previous suicide attempts (25% vs. 4%). 48% of males and 58% of females were under the influence of alcohol at the time of their suicide, and alcohol intoxication was related to suicides during the night. One fifth of the adolescents screened positive for substances other than alcohol. The results of this study indicate that there are similarities but also some differences in the characteristics of male and female suicides in adolescents.

  14. Continuity, Stability, and Change in Daily Emotional Experience across Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Reed W.; Moneta, Giovanni; Richards, Maryse H.; Wilson, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined change in 220 adolescents' daily range of emotional states between early and late adolescence. Findings showed that emotional states became less positive across early adolescence; this downward change in average emotions ceased in grade 10. The greatest relative instability was during early adolescence; stability…

  15. Positive Effect of Developing Robot Sports of Quality of Physical Education to Adolescent%发展素质体育机器人运动对青少年的积极作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李恒星; 金成吉

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the comprehensive quality of adolescent effectively, by the way of quality of physical education, this study investigates the positive effect of developing robot sports’ quality of physical education. The results shows that, developing the robot sports of quality of physical education is favorable to improve the abilities of operation with hands and practice , improving the abilities of creativity and team work , enriching after school life, cultivating the sound quality of psychology, melting the education quality into the physical education indeed ,and improving the comprehensive quality of adolescent.%以素质体育为途径,探讨发展素质体育机器人运动的积极作用。发展素质体育机器人运动,有利于提高青少年的动手操作与实践能力、创造能力和团队协作能力,丰富课余生活,培养良好的心理品质,真正把素质教育融入到体育中,从而提高青少年的综合素质。

  16. 三种方法联合检测避免梅毒诊断的假阳性结果%Combining three ways to avoid the false positive of screening Treponema pallidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘旭萍; 迟军晓

    2012-01-01

      Objective To investigate a method for avoiding the false positive of screening syphilis by Treponema pallidum antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(TP-ELISA) though combining TP-ELISA with toluidine red unheated serum test(TRUST) and Treponema pallidum panicle agglutination test(TPPA). Methods The clinical samples were screened syphilis by TP-ELISA first, then the positive samples were further tested by TRUST and TPPA. Results There were 114 positive samples tested by TP-ELISA. Among them the number of the same result tested by TPPA was 111. The positive coincidence rate was 97.36%. Among the 111 positive samples,27 positive samples tested by TRUST were also positive tested by TPPA. The positive coincidence rate was 100%. There were 94 positive samples tested by TPPA among the remaining 97 negative samples tested by TRUST. The number of negative samples was 3. The mismatch rate was 2.64%. Conclusions The false positive result tested syphilis by TP-ELISA exists objectively. The positive samples from TP-ELISA were tested by TRUST and then were ascertained by TPPA. The positive result from TPPA can be diagnosed that syphilis antibody was positive. The negative result from TPPA can be diagnosed that syphilis antibody was negative.%  目的探讨用梅毒螺旋体抗体酶联免疫吸附试验(TP-ELISA)联合梅毒甲苯胺红不加热血清试验(TRUST)和梅毒螺旋体明胶凝集试验(TPPA)的方法避免TP-ELISA法筛查梅毒抗体的假阳性结果.方法用TP-ELISA法作为临床标本的梅毒筛查实验,对阳性标本进一步作TRUST和TPPA检测.结果 TP-ELlSA法检出114例梅毒阳性标本,TPPA确证阳性111例,阳性符合率为97.36%(111/114);其中27例TRUST阳性,TPPA确证试验均为阳性,阳性符合率为100%;97例TRUST阴性, TPPA确证阳性94例,阴性3例,不符合率为2.64%.结论 TP-ELISA法筛查梅毒存在一定比例的假阳性结果,对TP-ELlSA法测出的阳性标本先做TRUST试验,再用TPPA确证,阳性

  17. Anal cytology and p16 immunostaining for screening anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Rahul; Pandhi, Deepika; Mishra, Kiran; Bhattacharya, Sambit N; Yhome, Vizodilhou A

    2014-09-01

    Summary Akin to cervical cancer in sexually-active women, men who have sex with men (MSM) are predisposed to anal cancers, especially those with HIV co-infection. This cross-sectional study endeavored to assess the prevalence of anal dysplasia using Pap smears and p16 immunostaining amongst Indian MSM. A total of 31 consecutive HIV-positive and 34 HIV-negative MSM, from a cohort of sexually transmitted infection clinic attendees, underwent anal cytological evaluation with Pap smear and p16 staining. Chi square test and coefficient of correlation were used for comparison. Eighteen (27.7%) had abnormal anal cytology; increased in HIV-positive as compared to HIV-negative men (35% versus 20%, p = 0.180). Similarly, both low-grade (25.8% versus 17.6%) and high-grade lesions (8.3% versus 4.8%) were comparable in HIV-positive and HIV-negative group. Thirteen (20%) smears were p16-positive with a sensitivity and specificity for anal dysplasia of 72.3% and 100%, respectively. Anal cytology may be used to screen for anal dysplasia in MSM irrespective of HIV status. Furthermore, the addition of p16, with greater specificity for high-grade lesions, may improve diagnostic accuracy especially for high-grade lesions. A larger study to further corroborate these observations is warranted.

  18. Depression Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Diseases + Condition Centers Mental Health Medical Library Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  19. Kinome-wide RNA interference screen reveals a role for PDK1 in acquired resistance to CDK4/6 inhibition in ER-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Valerie M; Bhola, Neil E; Bauer, Joshua A; Formisano, Luigi; Lee, Kyung-Min; Hutchinson, Katherine E; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K; Moore, Preston D; Estrada, Monica Valeria; Sanchez, Violeta; Ericsson, Paula G; Sanders, Melinda; Pohlmann, Paula R; Pishvaian, Michael J; Riddle, David A; Wei, Wenyi; Dugger, Teresa C; Knudsen, Erik; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2017-03-01

    To discover mechanisms of resistance to CDK4/6 inhibitors, we used a kinome-wide siRNA screen to identify kinases that, when downregulated, promote sensitivity to ribociclib. We identified 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) as the top siRNA that sensitized ER+ MCF-7 cells to ribociclib. Pharmacological inhibition of PDK1 with GSK2334470 in combination with ribociclib or palbociclib, synergistically inhibited proliferation and increased apoptosis in a panel of ER+ breast cancer cell lines. Ribociclib-resistant MCF-7, T47D and HCC1428 cells, selected after chronic drug exposure, displayed increased levels of PDK1, P-RSK2, P-AKT and P-S6 compared to parental drug-sensitive cells. Cell cycle analysis revealed that CDK4/6 inhibition failed to induce G1 arrest, a reduction in S phase, and senescence in ribociclib-resistant cells, suggesting an upregulation of S-phase cyclins/CDKs. The resistant cells exhibited significantly higher levels of P-CDK2, cyclin A, cyclin D1, cyclin E and S477/T479 P-AKT, a CDK2-dependent phosphorylation site within AKT required for full kinase activity and limited to the S-phase of the cell cycle. Treatment with GSK2334470 or the CDK2 inhibitor dinaciclib re-sensitized ribociclib-resistant cells to CDK4/6 inhibitors; however, ribociclib/GSK2334470 inhibited the ribociclib-resistant cells more potently than ribociclib/dinaciclib. Ribociclib/GSK2334470 but not ribociclib/dinaciclib completely abrogated P-Rb, P-S6, P-RSK2, P-CDK2, cyclin A, cyclin D1 and cyclin E expression. Further, ribociclib in combination with GSK2334470 or the PI3Kα inhibitor alpelisib induced regression of MCF-7 xenografts. Finally, primary ER+ tumors displayed increased PDK1, P-S6 and cyclin D1 levels after short treatment with palbociclib. These data support a role for PI3K/PDK1 in mediating acquired resistance to CDK4/6 inhibitors.

  20. Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  1. Infection with cagA-positive and cagA-negative types of Helicobacter pylori among children and adolescents with gastrointestinal symptoms in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugule, I; Rumba, I; Engstrand, L; Ejderhamn, J

    2003-10-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of concomitant cagA-positive and cagA-negative Helicobacter pylori genotypes in individual subjects, a group of 56 symptomatic patients (aged 8-18 years) was studied. Among 31 patients culture-positive for Helicobacter pylori, only cagA-positive colonies were isolated from 18 patients, both cagA-positive and cagA-negative genotypes were isolated from 4 patients, and in 9 patients all of the individual colonies isolated were cagA-negative, but in seven of them a pool of colonies was positive for cagA. Thus, the presence of both cagA-positive and cagA-negative genotypes in the same individual was identified in 11 of the 31 culture-positive patients tested, and most of the patients predominantly colonized by cagA-negative strains also harbored a small amount of cagA-positive strains. Previous or current infection with cagA-positive strains of Helicobacter pylori was observed in 50 of the 56 patients studied.

  2. Opt-out and opt-in testing increases syphilis screening of HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Guy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 2005, Australian clinicians were advised to undertake quarterly syphilis testing for all sexually active HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM. We describe differences in syphilis testing frequency among HIV-positive MSM by clinic testing policies since this recommendation. METHODS: Three general practices, two sexual health clinics and two hospital HIV outpatient clinics provided data on HIV viral load and syphilis testing from 2006-2010. Men having ≥1 viral load test per year were included; >95% were MSM. We used Chi-2 tests to assess changes in syphilis testing frequency over time, and differences by clinic testing policy (opt-out, opt-in and risk-based. RESULTS: The proportion of men having HIV viral loads with same-day syphilis tests increased from 37% in 2006 to 63% in 2007 (p<0.01 and 68-69% thereafter. In 2010, same-day syphilis testing was highest in four clinics with opt-out strategies (87%, range:84-91% compared with one clinic with opt-in (74%, p = 0.121 and two clinics with risk-based strategies (22%, range:20-24%, p<0.01. The proportion of men having ≥3 syphilis tests per year increased from 15% in 2006 to 36% in 2007 (p<0.01 and 36-38% thereafter. In 2010, the proportion of men having ≥3 syphilis tests in a year was highest in clinics with opt-out strategies (48%, range:35-59%, compared with opt-in (39%, p = 0.121 and risk-based strategies (8.4%, range:5.4-12%, p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Over five years the proportion of HIV-positive men undergoing syphilis testing at recommended frequencies more than doubled, and was 5-6 times higher in clinics with opt-out and opt-in strategies compared with risk-based policies.

  3. Limited agreement of independent RNAi screens for virus-required host genes owes more to false-negative than false-positive factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhui Hao

    Full Text Available Systematic, genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi analysis is a powerful approach to identify gene functions that support or modulate selected biological processes. An emerging challenge shared with some other genome-wide approaches is that independent RNAi studies often show limited agreement in their lists of implicated genes. To better understand this, we analyzed four genome-wide RNAi studies that identified host genes involved in influenza virus replication. These studies collectively identified and validated the roles of 614 cell genes, but pair-wise overlap among the four gene lists was only 3% to 15% (average 6.7%. However, a number of functional categories were overrepresented in multiple studies. The pair-wise overlap of these enriched-category lists was high, ∼19%, implying more agreement among studies than apparent at the gene level. Probing this further, we found that the gene lists implicated by independent studies were highly connected in interacting networks by independent functional measures such as protein-protein interactions, at rates significantly higher than predicted by chance. We also developed a general, model-based approach to gauge the effects of false-positive and false-negative factors and to estimate, from a limited number of studies, the total number of genes involved in a process. For influenza virus replication, this novel statistical approach estimates the total number of cell genes involved to be ∼2,800. This and multiple other aspects of our experimental and computational results imply that, when following good quality control practices, the low overlap between studies is primarily due to false negatives rather than false-positive gene identifications. These results and methods have implications for and applications to multiple forms of genome-wide analysis.

  4. Proof-of-principle study of a novel cervical screening and triage strategy: Computer-analyzed cytology to decide which HPV-positive women are likely to have ≥CIN2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Mark; Yu, Kai; Zuna, Rosemary; Terence Dunn, S; Zhang, Han; Walker, Joan; Gold, Michael; Hyun, Noorie; Rydzak, Greg; Katki, Hormuzd A; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    A challenge in implementation of sensitive HPV-based screening is limiting unnecessary referrals to colposcopic biopsy. We combined two commonly recommended triage methods: partial HPV typing and "reflex" cytology, evaluating the possibility of automated cytology. This investigation was based on 1,178 exfoliated cervical specimens collected during the enrollment phase of The Study to Understand Cervical Cancer Early Endpoints and Determinants (SUCCEED, Oklahoma City, OK). We chose a colposcopy clinic population to maximize number of outcomes, for this proof-of-principle cross-sectional study. Residual aliquots of PreservCyt were HPV-typed using Linear Array (LA, Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA). High-risk HPV typing data and cytologic results (conventional and automated) were used jointly to predict risk of histologically defined ≥CIN2. We developed a novel computer algorithm that uses the same optical scanning features that are generated by the FocalPoint Slide Profiler (BD, Burlington, NC). We used the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) method to build the prediction model based on a training dataset (n = 600). In the validation set (n = 578), for triage of all HPV-positive women, a cytologic threshold of ≥ASC-US had a sensitivity of 0.94, and specificity of 0.30, in this colposcopy clinic setting. When we chose a threshold for the severity score (generated by the computer algorithm) that had an equal specificity of 0.30, the sensitivity was 0.91. Automated cytology also matched ≥ASC-US when partial HPV typing was added to the triage strategy, and when we re-defined cases as ≥CIN3. If this strategy works in a prospective screening setting, a totally automated screening and triage technology might be possible.

  5. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had adolescents from rural than urban areas (P adolescents in our population.

  6. The role of parents in pre-adolescent and adolescent overweight and obesity treatment: a systematic review of clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrewsbury, V A; Steinbeck, K S; Torvaldsen, S; Baur, L A

    2011-10-01

    The study aims to describe clinical recommendations (i) on the role of parents in both pre-adolescent and adolescent overweight and obesity treatment; (ii) to health professionals on how to involve parents in paediatric overweight and obesity treatment and (iii) to identify deficiencies in the associated literature. A systematic literature review was conducted in March 2010 to identify clinical practice guidelines, position or consensus statements on clinical management of paediatric overweight or obesity, developed by a national or international health professional association or government agency, and endorsed for current use. Relevant clinical recommendations in these documents were identified via a screen for the words 'parent', 'family' and synonyms. Twenty documents were included. Most documents emphasized the importance of involving parents or the family in paediatric overweight and obesity treatment with approximately a third of documents providing separate recommendations on the role of parents/family for pre-adolescents and adolescents. The documents varied markedly with regard to the presence of recommendations on parent/family involvement in the various components of lifestyle interventions or bariatric surgery. Almost half of the documents contained recommendations to health professionals regarding interactions with parents. High-quality research is needed on age-specific techniques to optimize the involvement of parents and family members in paediatric overweight and obesity treatment.

  7. [Chlamydia: from population screening to individual repeated screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, F; Quach, A

    2014-10-08

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a frequent sexually transmitted infection especially in young adults and adolescents. Its complications can impair a woman's reproductive potential. chlamydia control has several challenges. These include asymptomatic infections; a long duration of untreated infections; re-infections and partner treatments. Any person with infection is at high risk of re-infection. Repeated screening would decrease, at an individual level, the risk of complications. General practitioners, gynaecologists and centres for sexual health could participate in Chlamydia screening for asymptomatic infections, in Switzerland, the cost of the laboratory test is fixed by national tariff regulations. The cost is high and prohibitive for many, especially adolescents and young adults and needs to be lowered.

  8. Perception of eye positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorteije, J.A.M.; Wezel, R.J.A. van; Lankheet, M.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    In a two-alternative forced-choice psychophysical test human subjects were tested for their ability to perceive their own viewing direction. A small red flash was presented at different horizontal positions left or right from the subjects' eye position on the screen. Eye positions were recorded with

  9. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  10. Suicide Risk Assessment in Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Larsen, Kim Juul; Horwood, John

    2016-01-01

    Background: Assessment and screening are often the first step in planning interventions to help adolescents at risk of suicide. Causes of suicidal thoughts and behavior are multifaceted and it is important for clinical work that assessment reflects this complexity. Aim(s): To investigate whether ...

  11. Contraceptive care for the adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Elizabeth

    2006-06-01

    Despite recent improvements in rates of teen pregnancy, abortion, birth,and contraceptive use, effective contraceptive counseling for adolescents should be a high priority for the primary care provider in the office setting. Adolescent psychosocial risk screening and appropriate counseling about sexual decision-making is necessary. Contraceptive services visits include, relevant history, limited physical examination, provision of information, anticipatory guidance about sexual behaviors, and the provision of contraceptive methods. Teens should always be encouraged to use a male condom during sex to reduce STI risk. A variety of barrier and hormonal contraceptive methods are available for the adolescent population. Education about and provision of EC is effective in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancy and abortion in the United States. Contraceptive care for adolescents is a rewarding experience for primary care providers.

  12. Positive Youth Development, Participation in Community Youth Development Programs, and Community Contributions of Fifth-Grade Adolescents: Findings From the First Wave Of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M.; Lerner, Jacqueline V.; Almerigi, Jason B.; Theokas, Christina; Phelps, Erin; Gestsdottir, Steinunn; Naudeau, Sophie; Jelicic, Helena; Alberts, Amy; Ma, Lang; Smith, Lisa M.; Bobek, Deborah L.; Richman-Raphael, David; Christiansen, Elise DiDenti; von Eye, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development (PYD), a longitudinal investigation of a diverse sample of 1,700 fifth graders and 1,117 of their parents, tests developmental contextual ideas linking PYD, youth contributions, and participation in community youth development (YD) programs, representing a key ecological asset. Using data from Wave 1 of…

  13. 孕产妇HIV抗体筛查阳性与免疫印迹试验对比%Comparison of Positive of HIV Antibody Screening and Western Blot Test in Pregnant Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱厚宏; 王晨笛; 刘杨; 张祁; 孟建彤; 黄薇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the results of HIV antibody screening test and Westem Blot test ( WB) in pregnant women. Methods Thirty three positive samples from pregnant women were tested with the ELISA and Westem blot test (WB). Those with indefinite result by WB test were re-tested 3 and 6 months later, and HIV-1 viral load testing ( VL) was carried out at 6th month. The results of ELISA and the WB test were analyzed. Result The 33 samples were all positive by ELISA and 20 were HIV-1 positive by WB test. The ELISA and the WB test positive coincidence rate was 60. 61 % (20/33). Of 20 samples 0were with S/CO value more than 8, the WB test results of HIV-1 antibody were all positive. Of 13 samples were with S/CO value less than 1 , 5 were negative and 8 were indefinite in WB test. The HIV-1 viral load test result at 6th month was less than the minimum detection limit (50 IU/ml ) . Conclusion The false positive in HIV antibody screening test (ELISA) was observed. The false positive sample were in the WB test negative and indefinite ones. ELISA and the WB test positive coincidence rate increased with the S/CO value of ELISA. The HIV WB test indefinite result in pregnant women was mostly due to non-specific immune response.%目的 探讨孕产妇人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)抗体筛查试验阳性与免疫印迹试验(WB)结果的关系.方法 对33份孕产妇HIV抗体待复查样本,进行酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA )及免疫印迹试验(WB),对WB试验结果不确定者进行3个月、6个月随访检测,6个月随访样本补充HIV-1病毒载量检测,分析ELISA检测与WB试验检测结果.结果 33份样本ELISA复检均呈阳性,免疫印迹试验(WB)中20份确认为HIV-1抗体阳性,ELISA检测与WB试验阳性符合率为60.61%(20/33); S/CO值>8的20份样本,WB试验结果均为HIV-1抗体阳性,I < S/CO值<8的13份样本,WB试验5份为HIV抗体阴性,8份为HIV抗体不确定;6个月随访样本HIV-1病毒载量检测,

  14. Teaching adolescents and adults about adjudicative proceedings: a comparison of pre- and post-teaching scores on the MacCAT-CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Jodi L; Odgers, Candice; Grisso, Thomas; Tillbrook, Chad

    2007-10-01

    The current study investigated whether teaching was associated with improved legal understanding among adolescents and adults. Participants included 927 youth and 466 young adults, who completed the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Criminal Adjudication, the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Second Version, and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Adolescents aged 13 and younger were less likely than older individuals to improve with teaching. IQ score was positively associated with improvements following teaching, and individuals from ethnic minority groups showed greater improvements following teaching than non-Hispanic Caucasians. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. EV71特免血浆筛选方法的建立及其应用%Establishment and application of method to screen anti-EV71 positive plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭书英; 汪模正; 丁勇; 孙思才

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the titers of EV71 neutralizing antibody in donators' plasma,and to establish a high throughput screening method to screening anti-EV71 positive plasma for the production of EV7l-specific IVIG in practice.Methods The EV71 neutralizing antibody titers in plasma samples and in commercial IVIGs (intravenous immunoglobulins) were evaluated by micro-cytopathic effect neutralization test (MCPENT),and a selecting criteria was determined for screening anti-EV71 positive plasma.Then,a high throughput neutralizing method for screening plasma was established and a comparison with MCPENT was conducted.EV71-specific IVIG was prepared from screened anti-EV71 source plasma,and its neutralizing activity was evaluated in cell model and mouse model.Results The results of MCPENT showed that the titers of EVT1 neutralizing antibody were 1 ∶ 50 or above in 20% of the source plasma,and reached 1 ∶ 180 after being pooled,approaching to the titer of commercial IVIG.In 480 samples,the coincidence rate between the established high throughput neutralizing method and MCPENT was 88.1%.The quality of prepared EV71-specific IVIG was complied with the national standard,and its neutralizing potency was 16 times of that of IVIG,suggesting EV71-specific IVIG had a significantly improved protecting effect on experimental neonatal mice.Conclusion The screening method and the screening criteria for EV71 specific plasma were successfully established.The established high throughput neutralizing method that was operated easily could be used for plasma screening in the development of EV71-specific IVIG.The prepared EV71-specific IVIG,whose neutralizing potency was significantly improved,showed a markedly protective effect on experimental neonatal mice,suggesting it might be very important for the prevention and treatment of handfoot-and-mouth disease.%目的 考察献血员血浆中抗EV71中和抗体的状况,同时建立适宜的高通量筛选EV71特

  16. Screen-based behaviour in school-aged children with long-term illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husarova, Daniela; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Blinka, Lukas; Sevcikova, Anna; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence is lacking on the screen-based behaviour of adolescents with a chronic condition. The aim of our study was to analyse differences in screen-based behaviour of adolescents by long-term illness, asthma and learning disabilities. METHODS: We used data from the cross-sectional Healt

  17. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  18. Creating a Positive Educational Environment for Gay and Lesbian Adolescents: Guidelines and Resources for Staff Development, Curriculum Integration, and School-Based Counseling Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Matthew

    This project presents guidelines and resources for dealing effectively and positively with homosexuality in public schools. As the gay rights movement progresses and the civil rights of homosexual persons continue to receive legal affirmation, gays and lesbians who have kept their sexual orientation hidden will become more open about their…

  19. The Role of Positive and Negative Signaling Communication by Strong and Weak Ties in the Shaping of Safe Sex Subjective Norms of Adolescents in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.; Westhoff, Yvette

    2006-01-01

    We propose the theory that subjective (injunctive) social norms are shaped through two intertwined processes: positive and negative signaling communication by the personal social network and construal of the communicated social norm. Construal is evoked by the strength of the relation between a tie

  20. The Relationship between Coach Leadership, the Coach-Athlete Relationship, Team Success, and the Positive Developmental Experiences of Adolescent Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Stewart A.; Oades, Lindsay G.; Crowe, Trevor P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The goals of participation youth sports are primarily concerned with the facilitation of positive youth development as opposed to outright success. Consequently, there are strong theoretical and empirical links between sports coaching and athlete development. Transformational leadership behaviours, in particular, have been…

  1. Positive-Themed Suicide Prevention Messages Delivered by Adolescent Peer Leaders: Proximal Impact on Classmates' Coping Attitudes and Perceptions of Adult Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Mariya; Wyman, Peter A; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Pisani, Anthony R

    2015-12-01

    Developing science-based communication guidance and positive-themed messages for suicide prevention are important priorities. Drawing on social learning and elaboration likelihood models, we designed and tested two positive-focused presentations by high school peer leaders delivered in the context of a suicide prevention program (Sources of Strength). Thirty-six classrooms in four schools (N = 706 students) were randomized to (1) peer leader modeling of healthy coping, (2) peer leader modeling plus audience involvement to identify trusted adults, or (3) control condition. Students' attitudes and norms were assessed by immediate post-only assessments. Exposure to either presentation enhanced positive coping attitudes and perceptions of adult support. Students who reported suicide ideation in the past 12 months benefited more than nonsuicidal students. Beyond modeling alone, audience involvement modestly enhanced expectations of adult support, congruent with the elaboration likelihood model. Positive peer modeling is a promising alternative to communications focused on negative consequences and directives and may enhance social-interpersonal factors linked to reduced suicidal behaviors.

  2. Congruence between urban adolescent and caregiver responses to questions about the adolescent's asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Christy R; Joseph, Christine L M; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Conrad, Frederick G; Parker, Edith A; Clark, Noreen M

    2011-02-01

    In clinical and research settings, it is increasingly acknowledged that adolescents may be better positioned than their caregivers to provide information in regard to their own health status, including information related to asthma. Very little is known, however, about the congruence between adolescent and caregiver responses to questions about asthma beyond reports of symptoms. We analyzed data for 215 urban, primarily African-American adolescent-caregiver pairs. Adolescents and caregiver reports concerning the adolescent's asthma-related medical history were moderately correlated and not found to differ at the aggregate level. Correlations between adolescent and caregiver reports of the adolescent's asthma symptoms and functional status were weak, although these differences deteriorated at the aggregate level. Adolescent-caregiver reports of symptoms and functioning were more likely to be in agreement if the adolescent was older, if school personnel were unaware of the child's asthma, and if the adolescent's asthma was classified as mild intermittent. For questions concerning the frequency of hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and physician visits, moderate correlations between adolescent and caregiver responses were noted, although with some differences at the aggregate level. Findings suggest that, when adolescents and their caregivers are asked about the adolescent's asthma in clinical and research settings, the extent to which the two perspectives are likely to agree depends on the type of information sought. Clinicians and researchers may obtain more accurate information if questions about symptoms and functional status are directed toward adolescents.

  3. Are screening instruments valid for psychotic-like experiences? A validation study of screening questions for psychotic-like experiences using in-depth clinical interview.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Ian

    2011-03-01

    Individuals who report psychotic-like experiences are at increased risk of future clinical psychotic disorder. They constitute a unique "high-risk" group for studying the developmental trajectory to schizophrenia and related illnesses. Previous research has used screening instruments to identify this high-risk group, but the validity of these instruments has not yet been established. We administered a screening questionnaire with 7 items designed to assess psychotic-like experiences to 334 adolescents aged 11-13 years. Detailed clinical interviews were subsequently carried out with a sample of these adolescents. We calculated sensitivity and specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each screening question for the specific symptom it enquired about and also in relation to any psychotic-like experience. The predictive power varied substantially between items, with the question on auditory hallucinations ("Have you ever heard voices or sounds that no one else can hear?") providing the best predictive power. For interview-verified auditory hallucinations specifically, this question had a PPV of 71.4% and an NPV of 90.4%. When assessed for its predictive power for any psychotic-like experience (including, but not limited to, auditory hallucinations), it provided a PPV of 100% and an NPV of 88.4%. Two further questions-relating to visual hallucinations and paranoid thoughts-also demonstrated good predictive power for psychotic-like experiences. Our results suggest that it may be possible to screen the general adolescent population for psychotic-like experiences with a high degree of accuracy using a short self-report questionnaire.

  4. Are screening instruments valid for psychotic-like experiences? A validation study of screening questions for psychotic-like experiences using in-depth clinical interview.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Ian

    2012-02-01

    Individuals who report psychotic-like experiences are at increased risk of future clinical psychotic disorder. They constitute a unique "high-risk" group for studying the developmental trajectory to schizophrenia and related illnesses. Previous research has used screening instruments to identify this high-risk group, but the validity of these instruments has not yet been established. We administered a screening questionnaire with 7 items designed to assess psychotic-like experiences to 334 adolescents aged 11-13 years. Detailed clinical interviews were subsequently carried out with a sample of these adolescents. We calculated sensitivity and specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each screening question for the specific symptom it enquired about and also in relation to any psychotic-like experience. The predictive power varied substantially between items, with the question on auditory hallucinations ("Have you ever heard voices or sounds that no one else can hear?") providing the best predictive power. For interview-verified auditory hallucinations specifically, this question had a PPV of 71.4% and an NPV of 90.4%. When assessed for its predictive power for any psychotic-like experience (including, but not limited to, auditory hallucinations), it provided a PPV of 100% and an NPV of 88.4%. Two further questions-relating to visual hallucinations and paranoid thoughts-also demonstrated good predictive power for psychotic-like experiences. Our results suggest that it may be possible to screen the general adolescent population for psychotic-like experiences with a high degree of accuracy using a short self-report questionnaire.

  5. Committee Opinion No 653 Summary: Concerns Regarding Social Media and Health Issues in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues.

  6. Economic hardship and Mexican-origin adolescents' adjustment: examining adolescents' perceptions of hardship and parent-adolescent relationship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Melissa Y; Killoren, Sarah E; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2013-10-01

    Studies examining economic hardship consistently have linked family economic hardship to adolescent adjustment via parent and family functioning, but limited attention has been given to adolescents' perceptions of these processes. To address this, the authors investigated the intervening effects of adolescents' perceptions of economic hardship and of parent-adolescent warmth and conflict on the associations between parental economic hardship and adolescent adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms, risky behaviors, and school performance) in a sample of 246 Mexican-origin families. Findings revealed that both mothers' and fathers' reports of economic hardship were positively related to adolescents' reports of economic hardship, which in turn, were negatively related to parent-adolescent warmth and positively related to parent-adolescent conflict with both mothers and fathers. Adolescents' perceptions of economic hardship were indirectly related to (a) depressive symptoms through warmth with mothers and conflict with mothers and fathers, (b) involvement in risky behaviors through conflict with mothers and fathers, and (c) GPA through conflict with fathers. Our findings highlight the importance of adolescents' perceptions of family economic hardship and relationships with mothers and fathers in predicting adolescent adjustment.

  7. Screening CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramírez, A.; Hagedoorn, S.; Kramers, L.; Wildenborg, T.; Hendriks, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a methodology to screen and rank Dutch reservoirs suitable for long-term large scale CO2 storage. The screening focuses on off- and on-shore individual aquifers, gas and oil fields. In total 176 storage reservoirs have been taken int

  8. Effectiveness of the workshop "Adolescent depression: What can schools do?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania eMartinez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescent depression is associated with serious consequences. School staff is in a unique position to screen and refer adolescents with depression in a timely manner, and can collaborate with healthcare teams to assist in the proper management of the disease. The objective of this paper is to describe the results of a workshop that aims to improve the knowledge of adolescent depression among school staff.Material and methods: This was a single-arm trial with a pre-post design. Six workshops were conducted in four cities in Chile. Each workshop lasted four hours. Participatory methodology was used. A 26-item knowledge questionnaire about adolescent depression, with the alternatives I agree, I disagree, and I don’t know was administered to the participants, before and after the workshop.Results: A total of 152 people participated in the trial. Of these, 74.3% were female, and 44.7% were school psychologists, 25.0%, teachers, 17.8%, school counselors, and 5.3%, social workers. On average, there were 69.6% (SD 21.3 correct responses on the initial test, and 91.8% (SD 8.0 on the final test. All items had an increase of correct answers and a decrease of don’t know answers. There were notable increases of correct responses on statements dealing with myths: Antidepressants for the treatment of depression in adolescents must be avoided because they produce dependence (59% to 96% and Depression in adolescence is better defined as a weakness of character than as a disease (75% to 95%. School psychologists scored higher than the other participants on the questionnaire both before and after the workshop.Conclusions: The workshop: Adolescent depression: What can schools do? can improve school staff knowledge of this topic, especially aiding to dispel myths regarding the disease and its treatment. This can help bring about timely case detection and improved collaboration with health team for proper handling of adolescent depression.

  9. 电化学发光法进行HBsAg阳性确认的可行性及应用研究%Feasibility and application of HBsAg positive confirmation by electrochemiluminescence assay in blood screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓雪莲; 陈辉; 王新梅; 臧亮; 王东; 高慧卉; 邹亚轩; 周璐; 梁晓华

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of HBsAg positive confirmation by electrochemiluminescence assay (ECL) in blood screening and to investigate the gray area setting of HBsAg ELISA and an alternative method of HBsAg positive confirmation,and to simplify the algorithm of donor reentry.Method As the supplementary test,HBsAg ECL was adopted to retest samples of HBsAg reactive (ELISA) in blood screening and those HBsAg ECL reactive were confirmed by neutralization test (ECL).HBsAg positive was confirmed by combination of nucleic acid test (NAT),ECL and ELISA and blood donor follow-up.Neutralization test (ECL) and HBsAg (ECL) were compared for detecting HBV DNA positive among samples that were HBsAg reactive to both of two ELISA kits (S/CO≥ 1).The detection efficiency of HBsAg positive confirmed in different detection processes supplemented with HBsAg ECL were analyzed with sensitivity (SEN) and positive predictive value (PPV),as well as grey area setting.The S/CO value distributions of HBsAg false reactive and HBsAg positive were analyzed for each ELISA kit.Results Among 821 HBsAg reactive excluded from 192 065 samples collected in Dalian Blood Center between January 1st,2013 and June 30th,2015,about 160 HBsAg positive were confirmed by combination tests and blood donor follow-up.The ability of HBsAg (ECL) in detecting HBV DNA positive among samples that were HBsAg reactive to both of two ELISA kits (S/CO ≥ 1) was significandy higher than that of neutralization test (ECL) (P < 0.05).The PPV of different detection processes in detecting HBsAg positive confirmed was increased to 92.6%-99.2% by HBsAg (ECL) supplementary test (P =0).There was significant difference between S/CO value distributions of HBsAg false reactive and of the HBsAg positive confirmed for each ELISA kit.The plateau regions of SEN and PPV for two ELISA kits were observed when gray area setting was decreased.The SEN and PPV for ELISA1 were already in plateau regions when S/CO≤ 1,and S

  10. Self constructing in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranješević Jelena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore “theories” adolescents have about themselves, i.e. about the changes in the ways they construe themselves in the period of middle adolescence: how they construe changes and estimate them according to some dimensions relevant for change (appreciation of change, its importance, expectancy, timing, comprehensiveness, intensity and visibility in social surroundings. The study was explorative and it was performed on the sample of 96 adolescents aged 15-17 (middle adolescence. Instruments used for the study were: interview and Role Construct Repertory Grid, adjusted to the need of study. The results show that the adolescents’ construct system is highly monolithic and tight in regard to constructs (black and white construing, but at the same time vague and predictively unclear in regard to elements, i. e. the stated changes, meaning that adolescents are not able to construe those changes according to certain constructs. It seems that this study included the beginning of the loosening phase (creativity cycle in which the system is still tight and, therefore, protects from threat and anxiety, while the elements are not predictively (this is what Erikson calls moratorium, i.e. the process of active experimenting. Changes which are fully predictively are those which refer to adults' roles, such as: self confident, experienced, independent and has responsibilities, worries. On the hand, changes which are predictably the most clear to adolescents (and not appreciated are depression and nervousness. Adolescents face an implicative dilemma: positive implications of maturity are not enough, while negative implications, such as nervousness, depression and not trusting people are clear, predictable and negative. This dilemma can be the cause of their ambivalence towards growing-up and accepting the roles of adults.

  11. Marital Conflict and Adolescents' Peer Aggression: The Mediating and Moderating Role of Mother-Child Emotional Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Chambers, Jessica Campbell; Frabutt, James M.; Mackinnon-Lewis, Carol

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of mother-adolescent emotional reciprocity in connections between marital conflict and adolescent aggression with peers. Data were collected from a racially diverse community sample of 268 adolescents and their mothers. Adolescents reported on parents' marital conflict, and mother-adolescent positive and negative…

  12. Quadruple screen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quad screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen; Down syndrome - quadruple; Trisomy 21 - quadruple; Turner syndrome - quadruple; Spina bifida - ...

  13. Hypertension screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  14. Airport Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cannot become radioactive from this procedure. However, some photographic film may need to be hand-screened because ... level. An American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society industry standard states that the maxi- mum allowable ...

  15. Toxicology screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicology screening is most often done using a blood or urine sample. However, it may be done soon after the person swallowed the medication, using stomach contents taken through gastric lavage (stomach pumping) or after vomiting.

  16. Positive Parenting and Challenging Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    Positive parenting focuses on developing proactive ways to teach and reinforce desirable behaviors, as opposed to focusing on reacting to and attempting to decrease negative behaviors. Dr. Sheldon Braaten, Executive Director of Behavioral Institute for Children and Adolescents, offers some keys for setting up and using a positive reinforcement…

  17. STUDY OF DEPRESSION AMONG ADOLESCENT STUDENTS OF RURAL MAHARASHTRA AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelke Umesh S, Kunkulol Rahul R, Phalke Vaishali D, Narwane Sandeep P, Patel Prashant C

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder that appears in adolescents. It has an adverse effect on physical as well as mental health. Many adolescents remain undiagnosed due to no accessibility to clinics. Objectives: To study demographic factors and their association with depression among adolescents of rural Maharashtra. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 300 students (30 of either sex from 8th to 12th class. 6 item KADS (Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale, BG Prasad’s modified socioeconomic scale and demographic data were collected from volunteers. Results: 6.66% of students were screened positive for depression by the scale. No statistical difference was found in number of students with depression with respect to sex, class and socioeconomic status. However the residence and type of family showed significant difference in number students of depression. Conclusion: the KADS is a good screening tool for depression and should be implemented for adolescents studying in rural areas for prevention and early treatment of depression.

  18. Does perceived physical attractiveness in adolescence predict better socioeconomic position in adulthood? Evidence from 20 years of follow up in a population cohort study.

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    Michaela Benzeval

    Full Text Available There is believed to be a 'beauty premium' in key life outcomes: it is thought that people perceived to be more physically attractive have better educational outcomes, higher-status jobs, higher wages, and are more likely to marry. Evidence for these beliefs, however, is generally based on photographs in hypothetical experiments or studies of very specific population subgroups (such as college students. The extent to which physical attractiveness might have a lasting effect on such outcomes in 'real life' situations across the whole population is less well known. Using longitudinal data from a general population cohort of people in the West of Scotland, this paper investigated the association between physical attractiveness at age 15 and key socioeconomic outcomes approximately 20 years later. People assessed as more physically attractive at age 15 had higher socioeconomic positions at age 36- in terms of their employment status, housing tenure and income - and they were more likely to be married; even after adjusting for parental socioeconomic background, their own intelligence, health and self esteem, education and other adult socioeconomic outcomes. For education the association was significant for women but not for men. Understanding why attractiveness is strongly associated with long-term socioeconomic outcomes, after such extensive confounders have been considered, is important.

  19. Does perceived physical attractiveness in adolescence predict better socioeconomic position in adulthood? Evidence from 20 years of follow up in a population cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzeval, Michaela; Green, Michael J; Macintyre, Sally

    2013-01-01

    There is believed to be a 'beauty premium' in key life outcomes: it is thought that people perceived to be more physically attractive have better educational outcomes, higher-status jobs, higher wages, and are more likely to marry. Evidence for these beliefs, however, is generally based on photographs in hypothetical experiments or studies of very specific population subgroups (such as college students). The extent to which physical attractiveness might have a lasting effect on such outcomes in 'real life' situations across the whole population is less well known. Using longitudinal data from a general population cohort of people in the West of Scotland, this paper investigated the association between physical attractiveness at age 15 and key socioeconomic outcomes approximately 20 years later. People assessed as more physically attractive at age 15 had higher socioeconomic positions at age 36- in terms of their employment status, housing tenure and income - and they were more likely to be married; even after adjusting for parental socioeconomic background, their own intelligence, health and self esteem, education and other adult socioeconomic outcomes. For education the association was significant for women but not for men. Understanding why attractiveness is strongly associated with long-term socioeconomic outcomes, after such extensive confounders have been considered, is important.

  20. Important non-parental adults and positive youth development across mid- to late-adolescence: the moderating effect of parenting profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Edmond P; Johnson, Sara K; Buckingham, Mary H; Gasca, Santiago; Warren, Daniel J A; Lerner, Jacqueline V; Lerner, Richard M

    2014-06-01

    Both parents and important non-parental adults have influential roles in promoting positive youth development (PYD). Little research, however, has examined the simultaneous effects of both parents and important non-parental adults for PYD. We assessed the relationships among youth-reported parenting profiles and important non-parental adult relationships in predicting the Five Cs of PYD (competence, confidence, connection, character, and caring) in four cross-sectional waves of data from the 4-H Study of PYD (Grade 9: N = 975, 61.1% female; Grade 10: N = 1,855, 63.4% female; Grade 11: N = 983, 67.9% female; Grade 12: N = 703, 69.3% female). The results indicated the existence of latent profiles of youth-reported parenting styles based on maternal warmth, parental school involvement, and parental monitoring that were consistent with previously identified profiles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) as well as reflecting several novel profiles (highly involved, integrative, school-focused, controlling). Parenting profile membership predicted mean differences in the Five Cs at each wave, and also moderated the relationships between the presence of an important non-parental adult and the Five Cs. In general, authoritative and highly involved parenting predicted higher levels of PYD and a higher likelihood of being connected to an important non-parental adult. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research on adult influences of youth development and for programs that involve adults in attempts to promote PYD.