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Sample records for adolescents screening positive

  1. Positively Adolescent!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Believes that music teachers should reassess their views toward adolescent behavior in the music classroom by learning to see their behavior in a positive light. Describes teaching strategies that build on four adolescent behaviors: (1) desire for peer acceptance; (2) abundant energy; (3) love of fun; and (4) limited time-managing skills. (CMK)

  2. Screening Practices for Adolescent Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry K.; Puster, Kristie L.; Vazquez, Elizabeth A.; Hunter, Heather L.; Lescano, Celia M.

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to determine the screening practices of child and adolescent psychiatrists regarding adolescent dating violence (DV). A questionnaire regarding screening practices for DV and other risk behaviors was administered to 817 child and adolescent psychiatrists via the Internet and mail. Twenty-one percent of clinicians screened for DV…

  3. The Positive Psychology of Youth and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Grant Jewell

    2003-01-01

    Introduces this theme issue that explores the nature of adolescence and the positive psychology movement that focuses on positive aspects of adolescent development. Articles in this collection provide a window into the exploration of youth strengths. (SLD)

  4. Associations between dietary patterns and screen time among Korean adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae Yeon; Jun, Nuri; Baik, Inkyung

    2013-01-01

    Data are limited on the association between dietary patterns and screen time among Korean adolescents. The present study identified dietary patterns of 691 adolescents, aged 13-18 years, who had participated in the Third Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III) and analyzed their associations with screen time. Screen time was defined as the time spent watching TV, using a computer, or playing video games was calculated as a sum of all these times. Dietary patterns...

  5. Prevalence of excessive screen time and associated factors in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Marcela Sales de Lucena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of excessive screen time and to analyze associated factors among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional school-based epidemiological study with 2874 high school adolescents with age 14-19 years (57.8% female from public and private schools in the city of João Pessoa, PB, Northeast Brazil. Excessive screen time was defined as watching television and playing video games or using the computer for more than 2 h/day. The associated factors analyzed were: sociodemographic (gender, age, economic class, and skin color, physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents. Results: The prevalence of excessive screen time was 79.5% (95%CI 78.1-81.1 and it was higher in males (84.3% compared to females (76.1%; p<0.001. In multivariate analysis, adolescent males, those aged 14-15 year old and the highest economic class had higher chances of exposure to excessive screen time. The level of physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents were not associated with excessive screen time. Conclusions: The prevalence of excessive screen time was high and varied according to sociodemographic characteristics of adolescents. It is necessary to develop interventions to reduce the excessive screen time among adolescents, particularly in subgroups with higher exposure.

  6. Should Screening for Depression among Children and Adolescents Be Demedicalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Allan V.; Wakefield, Jerome C.

    2009-01-01

    The criteria for diagnosing depressive disorders fails to place the symptoms of intense sadness in the context of major losses in life, and separating normal sadness from depressive disorder among adolescents is especially difficult. Suggested modifications to the screening of suicidal ideation among adolescents are also presented.

  7. Comparison among Different Screening Tests for Diagnosis of Adolescent Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Totaro, Silvia; Rabbia, Franco; Rabbone, Ivana; Covella, Michele; Berra, Elena; Fulcheri, Chiara; Di Monaco, Silvia; Testa, Elisa; Veglio, Franco

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of childhood hypertension based upon percentile tables proposed by the international guidelines is complex and often a cause of underdiagnosis, particularly among physicians who have not had specific training in the field of adolescent hypertension. The use of a simple and accurate screening test may improve hypertension diagnosis in adolescents. The aim of our study is to compare the different screening methods currently used in the literature to improve the diagnosis of childh...

  8. Adolescent Suicide Risk Screening: The Effect of Communication about Type of Follow-Up on Adolescents' Screening Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cheryl A.; Hill, Ryan M.; Wynne, Henry A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study examined the effect of communication about type of screening follow-up (in-person follow-up vs. no in-person follow-up) on adolescents' responses to a self-report suicide risk screen. Participants were 245 adolescents (131 girls, 114 boys; ages 13-17; 80% White, 21.6% Black, 9.8% American Indian, 2.9% Asian) seeking medical…

  9. Associations between screen time and physical activity among Spanish adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A Serrano-Sanchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive time in front of a single or several screens could explain a displacement of physical activity. The present study aimed at determining whether screen-time is associated with a reduced level of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA in Spanish adolescents living in favorable environmental conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A multi-stage stratified random sampling method was used to select 3503 adolescents (12-18 years old from the school population of Gran Canaria, Spain. MVPA, screen-time in front of television, computer, video game console and portable console was assessed in the classroom by fulfilling a standardized questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted by a set of social-environmental variables were carried out. Forty-six percent of girls (95% CI±2.3% and 26% of boys (95% CI±2.1% did not meet the MVPA recommendations for adolescents. Major gender differences were observed in the time devoted to vigorous PA, video games and the total time spent on screen-based activities. Boys who reported 4 hours•week(-1 or more to total screen-time showed a 64% (OR = 0.61, 95% CI, 0.44-0.86 increased risk of failing to achieve the recommended adolescent MVPA level. Participation in organized physical activities and sports competitions were more strongly associated with MVPA than screen-related behaviors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: No single screen-related behavior explained the reduction of MVPA in adolescents. However, the total time accumulated through several screen-related behaviors was negatively associated with MVPA level in boys. This association could be due to lower availability of time for exercise as the time devoted to sedentary screen-time activities increases. Participation in organized physical activities seems to counteract the negative impact of excessive time in front of screens on physical activity.

  10. False-positive Human Papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    Based on data from randomised controlled trials (RCT) on primary cervical screening, it has been reported that the problem of more frequent false-positive tests in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA screening compared to cytology could be overcome. However, these reports predominantly operated with a...... narrow definition of a (false-)positive test. The aim of this paper was to illustrate how the narrow definition affected the measured adverse effects of HPV DNA screening compared with cytology screening....

  11. Prevalence of excessive screen time and associated factors in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Joana Marcela Sales de Lucena; Luanna Alexandra Cheng; Thaísa Leite Mafaldo Cavalcante; Vanessa Araújo da Silva; José Cazuza de Farias Júnior

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of excessive screen time and to analyze associated factors among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional school-based epidemiological study with 2874 high school adolescents with age 14-19 years (57.8% female) from public and private schools in the city of João Pessoa, PB, Northeast Brazil. Excessive screen time was defined as watching television and playing video games or using the computer for more than 2 h/day. The associated factors analyze...

  12. Self-reported screen time and cardiometabolic risk in obese Dutch adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teatske M Altenburg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether the association between sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk exists among obese adolescents. We examined the association between screen time (TV and computer time and cardiometabolic risk in obese Dutch adolescents. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For the current cross-sectional study, baseline data of 125 Dutch overweight and obese adolescents (12-18 years participating in the Go4it study were included. Self-reported screen time (Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults and clustered and individual cardiometabolic risk (i.e. body composition, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, low-density (LDL-C, high-density (HDL-C and total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides, glucose and insulin were assessed in all participants. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the association between screen time and cardiometabolic risk, adjusting for age, gender, pubertal stage, ethnicity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. We found no significant relationship between self-reported total screen time and clustered cardiometabolic risk or individual risk factors in overweight and obese adolescents. Unexpectedly, self-reported computer time, but not TV time, was slightly but significantly inversely associated with TC (B = -0.002; CI = [-0.003;-0.000] and LDL-C (B = -0.002; CI = [-0.001;0.000]. CONCLUSIONS: In obese adolescents we could not confirm the hypothesised positive association between screen time and cardiometabolic risk. Future studies should consider computer use as a separate class of screen behaviour, thereby also discriminating between active video gaming and other computer activities.

  13. Descriptive epidemiology of screen and non-screen sedentary time in adolescents: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridley Kate

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much attention has been paid to adolescents' screen time, however very few studies have examined non-screen sedentary time (NSST. This study aimed to (1 describe the magnitude and composition of screen sedentary time (SST and NSST in Australian adolescents, (2 describe the socio-demographic correlates of SST and NSST, and (3 determine whether screen time is an adequate surrogate for total sedentary behaviour in this population. Methods 2200 9-16 year old Australians provided detailed use of time data for four days. Non-screen sedentary time (NSST included time spent participating in activities expected to elicit Results Adolescents spent a mean (SD of 345 (105 minutes/day in NSST, which constituted 60% of total sedentary time. School activities contributed 42% of NSST, socialising 19%, self-care (mainly eating 16%, and passive transport 15%. Screen time and NSST showed opposite patterns in relation to key socio-demographic characteristics, including sex, age, weight status, household income, parental education and day type. Because screen time was negatively correlated with NSST (r = -0.58, and exhibited a moderate correlation (r = 0.53 with total sedentary time, screen time was only a moderately effective surrogate for total sedentary time. Conclusions To capture a complete picture of young people's sedentary time, studies should endeavour to measure both screen time and NSST.

  14. Screen time, weight status and the self-concept of physical attractiveness in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchert, Vivien; Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Adolescents in modern societies spend about 3 h per day in front of small recreational screens. The present study aims at investigating the relationships between screen time and different indicators of overweight. In addition, associations with the self-concept of physical attractiveness and perceived weight status will be examined. In a total sample of 1228 students (47.5% girls) aged 12-17 years (M = 13.74, SD = 0.68) cross-sectional associations were determined by conducting multiple linear regression analyses. Screen time showed a significant positive dose-response relationship with body mass index percentile, waist circumference, body fat, waist-to-height-ratio, and a negative association with self-concept of physical attractiveness independent of age, gender and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Thus, screen time seems to be associated with adolescent overweight, abdominal obesity, and body dissatisfaction. Reducing adolescents' screen time could be a promising approach for primary prevention of obesity and for the promotion of a positive physical self-concept. PMID:26854729

  15. Item Selection Methods for the Adolescent Domain Screening Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe the method of item selection tested in the development of the Adolescent Domain Screening Inventory. Method: The convenience sampling frame used for these analyses consisted of 26,781 Communities That Care Youth Surveys. The three item selection methods were used to assess known instrument,…

  16. Screening of the spine in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartun, Ellen; Degerfalk, Anna; Kentsdotter, Linn;

    2014-01-01

    . METHODS: Two experienced chiropractors independently assessed 111 adolescents aged 12-14 years who were recruited from a primary school in Denmark. A standardised examination protocol was used to test inter-rater reliability including tests for scoliosis, hypermobility, general mobility, inter...

  17. Cervical cancer screening in Belgium and overscreening of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerrebroeck, Helena; Makar, Amin

    2016-03-01

    There has been a marked decrease in the incidence of cervical cancer thanks to cytological screening with the Pap smear test. In Belgium, this screening is rather opportunistic. Over 39% of Belgian women between 25 and 64 years of age are never or only rarely screened by cytological tests. Moreover, there is an excess use of Pap smears because of women who rely on their yearly cervical smear and because many Pap smears are obtained from women beyond the target age range of 25 to 64 years. Sexually active adolescents are increasingly being recognized as a population distinct from adult women. They are at a high risk of acquiring the human papillomavirus (HPV), but most infections and cervical intraepithelial lesions caused by HPV are efficiently cleared by the immune system. We present a description of cervical cancer screening in Belgium using the database of the National Health Insurance Institute (RIZIV/INAMI) and the Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE). We describe why elimination of Pap testing in the adolescent population reduces costs and harms without increasing cervical cancer rates. Expectant management, education on the risk factors for cervical cancer and HPV persistence, and HPV vaccination are very important in adolescents and young adults. PMID:25812038

  18. To screen or not to screen for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis? A review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurloo, J.A.; Verkerk, P.H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Over the years, there has been much debate about the desirability and efficacy of screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To analyse the current evidence from a public health point of view a renewed evaluation of the literature was performed. Study design: Literature review. Metho

  19. Parent Personality and Positive Parenting as Predictors of Positive Adolescent Personality Development over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Jochem, Rachel; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the degree to which parent positive personality characteristics in terms of conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability predict similar adolescent personality traits over time, as well as the role played by positive parenting in this process. Mothers and fathers of 451 White adolescents (52% female, mean age = 13.59…

  20. The cumulative risk of false-positive screening results across screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, M., E-mail: Marta.Roman@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Department of Women and Children’s Health, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Skaane, P., E-mail: PERSK@ous-hf.no [Department of Radiology, Oslo University Hospital Ullevaal, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Hofvind, S., E-mail: Solveig.Hofvind@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We found variation in early performance measures across screening centres. • Radiologists’ performance may play a key role in the variability. • Potential to improve the effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs. • Continuous surveillance of screening centres and radiologists is essential. - Abstract: Background: Recall for assessment in mammographic screening entails an inevitable number of false-positive screening results. This study aimed to investigate the variation in the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result and the positive predictive value across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Methods: We studied 618,636 women aged 50–69 years who underwent 2,090,575 screening exams (1996–2010. Recall rate, positive predictive value, rate of screen-detected cancer, and the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result, without and with invasive procedures across the screening centres were calculated. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of a false positive screening result and to compute the cumulative false-positive risk for up to ten biennial screening examinations. Results: The cumulative risk of a false-positive screening exam varied from 10.7% (95% CI: 9.4–12.0%) to 41.5% (95% CI: 34.1–48.9%) across screening centres, with a highest to lowest ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 3.7–4.0). The highest to lowest ratio for the cumulative risk of undergoing an invasive procedure with a benign outcome was 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0–4.6). The positive predictive value of recall varied between 12.0% (95% CI: 11.0–12.9%) and 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3–21.5%), with a highest to lowest ratio of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5–1.9). Conclusions: A substantial variation in the performance measures across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program was identified, despite of similar administration, procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Differences in the

  1. The cumulative risk of false-positive screening results across screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We found variation in early performance measures across screening centres. • Radiologists’ performance may play a key role in the variability. • Potential to improve the effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs. • Continuous surveillance of screening centres and radiologists is essential. - Abstract: Background: Recall for assessment in mammographic screening entails an inevitable number of false-positive screening results. This study aimed to investigate the variation in the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result and the positive predictive value across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Methods: We studied 618,636 women aged 50–69 years who underwent 2,090,575 screening exams (1996–2010. Recall rate, positive predictive value, rate of screen-detected cancer, and the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result, without and with invasive procedures across the screening centres were calculated. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of a false positive screening result and to compute the cumulative false-positive risk for up to ten biennial screening examinations. Results: The cumulative risk of a false-positive screening exam varied from 10.7% (95% CI: 9.4–12.0%) to 41.5% (95% CI: 34.1–48.9%) across screening centres, with a highest to lowest ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 3.7–4.0). The highest to lowest ratio for the cumulative risk of undergoing an invasive procedure with a benign outcome was 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0–4.6). The positive predictive value of recall varied between 12.0% (95% CI: 11.0–12.9%) and 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3–21.5%), with a highest to lowest ratio of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5–1.9). Conclusions: A substantial variation in the performance measures across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program was identified, despite of similar administration, procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Differences in the

  2. Screen time and adiposity in adolescents in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajous, Martín; Chavarro, Jorge; Peterson, Karen E; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo; Cruz-Valdéz, Aurelio; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the association of time spent viewing television, videos and videogames with measures of fat mass [body mass index (BMI)] and distribution [triceps and subscapular skin folds (TSF, SSF)]. Design Cross-sectional validated survey, self-administered to students to assess screen time (TV, videos and videogames) and lifestyle variables. Trained personnel obtained anthropometry. The association of screen time with fat mass and distribution, stratified by sex, was modeled with multivariable linear regression, adjusting for potential confounders and correlation of observations within schools. Subjects and setting 3519 males and 5613 females aged 11 to 18 years attending urban and rural schools in the State of Morelos, Mexico Results In males, ≥5 hr/day compared with Mexico. Maturational tempo appears to affect the relationship of screen time with adiposity in boys and girls. Findings suggest obesity preventive interventions in the Mexican context should explore strategies to reduce screen time among youth in early adolescence. PMID:19232154

  3. Screening and Treatment of Common Lipid Disorders in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialo, Shara R; Boney, Charlotte M

    2015-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains a substantial health care burden in the adult population, the roots of which begin in childhood. Universal screening for dyslipidemia in all children and adolescents has been implemented to identify cases of FH that are otherwise missed by conventional screening because untreated FH can result in early CVD and untimely death. Recommendations for medical therapy did not change with the 2011 NHLBI guidelines. LDL levels targeted for therapy usually are elevated because of primary genetic disorders such as FH. Although these recommendations remain controversial, the benefit of universal screening and subsequent treatment of high-risk patients far outweighs the risk of not screening, although more investigation is warranted to understand the long-term outcomes of CVD risk in youth. PMID:26999877

  4. SCREENING METHOD OF THE DYSPLASIA OF THE CONNECTIVE TISSUE IN ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Y. Kalaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aim of the study is to develop the diagnostic checklist based on the incidence and significance analysis of the external features of the dysplasia of the connective tissue (DCT for its screening and assessment of its prevalence in the adolescents’ population.Materials and methods.110 adolescents (aged from 10 to 14 years were examined, 81 of them had the dysplasia of the connective tissue (the first group. The second group was presented by 29 adolescents without DCT. The presence and degree of manifestation of DCT were established according to the criterions of Kadurina T. I., Gorbunova V.N. (2009, Т. Milkovska–Dimitrova (1987. There were the physical, laboratory and instrumental examination. Statistical processing of the results was carried out using Statistica 6.0 program and IBM SPSS Statistics 20.0. The diagnostic efficiency of the developed checklist was appreciated by means of the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve. Results. The frequent occurrence of the DCT’s external features in adolescents was identified. The diagnostic checklist was developed. It was consisted of 12 items with illustrations, allowing readily identification of the dysplastic phenotype presence with diagnostic sensitivity 81.5% and specificity 79.3%. This checklist can be recommended as for the population studies, as for screening about DCT in adolescents during the primary outpatient pediatrician attendance. In the positive result of the screening it is necessary the further checkup to detect the organ changes and diagnosis updating. 

  5. Screening for Common Respiratory Diseases among Israeli Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Yaron Bar Dayan; Keren Elishkevits; Liav Goldstein; Avishay Goldberg; Michel Fichler; Nisim Ohana; Yehezkel Levi; Yosefa Bar Dayan

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory diseases are responsible for a significant proportion of serious morbidity among adolescents. There are few reports on the prevalence of common respiratory disorders in this population. The previous studies focused on specific diseases and screened relatively small samples.OBJECTIVE: To define the prevalence of different common respiratory disorders among 17-year-old Israeli conscripts.DESIGN: All 17-year-old Israeli nationals are obliged by law to appear at the Israel...

  6. Socioeconomic position and participation in colorectal cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B L; Jørgensen, Torben; Brasso, K;

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with faecal occult blood test (FOBT) has the potential to reduce the incidence and mortality of CRC. Screening uptake is known to be inferior in people with low socioeconomic position (SEP) when compared with those with high position; however, the results of most...... information on education, employment, and income to encompass different but related aspects of socioeconomic stratification. Also, the impact of ethnicity and cohabiting status was analysed....

  7. A Sex-Positive Framework for Research on Adolescent Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, K Paige

    2014-09-01

    In this article, I propose a sex-positive framework for research on adolescent sexuality in which I consider consensual sexual activities in adolescence as developmentally normative and potentially healthy. The sex-positive framework is contrasted with the predominant "risk" perspective that presumes that abstinence from sexual activity is the ideal behavioral outcome for teenagers. Evidence from longitudinal and behavioral genetic studies indicates that engaging in sexual intercourse in adolescence does not typically cause worse psychological functioning. The relationship context of sexual experience may be a critical moderator of its psychological impact. Moreover, cross-cultural data on adolescents' contraception usage, unintended pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections suggest that, despite the unacceptably high rate of negative health consequences among U.S. teenagers, adolescents can have the developmental capacity to regulate the health risks inherent in sexual activity. Understanding adolescent sexuality can be fostered by considering sexual well-being, a multidimensional construct that incorporates an adolescent's sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, feelings of sexual pleasure and satisfaction, and freedom from pain and negative affect regarding sexuality. New research is necessary to understand the development of adolescent sexual well-being, including its normative age trends, its reciprocal links with sexual behavior, and its impact on psychological and physical health.

  8. A Sex-Positive Framework for Research on Adolescent Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, K Paige

    2014-09-01

    In this article, I propose a sex-positive framework for research on adolescent sexuality in which I consider consensual sexual activities in adolescence as developmentally normative and potentially healthy. The sex-positive framework is contrasted with the predominant "risk" perspective that presumes that abstinence from sexual activity is the ideal behavioral outcome for teenagers. Evidence from longitudinal and behavioral genetic studies indicates that engaging in sexual intercourse in adolescence does not typically cause worse psychological functioning. The relationship context of sexual experience may be a critical moderator of its psychological impact. Moreover, cross-cultural data on adolescents' contraception usage, unintended pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections suggest that, despite the unacceptably high rate of negative health consequences among U.S. teenagers, adolescents can have the developmental capacity to regulate the health risks inherent in sexual activity. Understanding adolescent sexuality can be fostered by considering sexual well-being, a multidimensional construct that incorporates an adolescent's sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, feelings of sexual pleasure and satisfaction, and freedom from pain and negative affect regarding sexuality. New research is necessary to understand the development of adolescent sexual well-being, including its normative age trends, its reciprocal links with sexual behavior, and its impact on psychological and physical health. PMID:26186753

  9. Adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on parent-adolescent positivity and negativity: Implications for genotype-environment correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Knopik, Valerie S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spotts, Erica L; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David

    2016-02-01

    We examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and nonpassive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. The findings indicated that nonpassive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father-adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than in families with younger adolescents, and that passive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed.

  10. Parental socioeconomic position and development of overweight in adolescence: longitudinal study of Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Rasmussen, Mette;

    2010-01-01

    An inverse social gradient in overweight among adolescents has been shown in developed countries, but few studies have examined whether weight gain and the development of overweight differs among adolescents from different socioeconomic groups in a longitudinal study. The objective was to identif...... the possible association between parental socioeconomic position, weight change and the risk of developing overweight among adolescents between the ages 15 to 21....

  11. A model of the influence of false-positive mammography screening results on subsequent screening

    OpenAIRE

    DeFrank, Jessica T.; Brewer, Noel

    2010-01-01

    Decades of empirical research have demonstrated psychological and behavioural consequences of false-positive medical tests. To organise this literature and offer novel predictions, we propose a model of how false-positive mammography results affect return for subsequent mammography screening. We propose that false-positive mammography results alter how women think about themselves (e.g., increasing their perceived likelihood of getting breast cancer) and the screening test (e.g., believing ma...

  12. Adolescent reactions to icon-driven response modes in a tablet-based health screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blander, Eitan; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2015-05-01

    Increasingly popular touch-screen electronic tablets offer clinics a new medium for collecting adolescent health screening data in the waiting area before visits, but there has been limited evaluation of interactive response modes. This study investigated the clarity, comprehensibility, and utility of icon-driven and gestural response functions employed in one such screening tool, TickiT. We conducted cognitive processing interviews with 30 adolescents from Vancouver (aged 14-20 years, 60% female, 30% English as a second language) as they completed the TickiT survey. Participants used seven different interactive functions to respond to questions across 30 slides, while being prompted to articulate their thoughts and reactions. The audio-recorded, transcribed interviews were analyzed for evidence of comprehension, nuances in response choices, and youth interest in the modes. Participants were quite receptive to the icon response modes. Across demographics and cultural backgrounds, they indicated question prompts were clear, response choices appropriate, and response modes intuitive. Most said they found the format engaging and would be more inclined to fill out such a screening tool than a paper-and-pencil form in a clinical setting. Given the positive responses and ready understanding of these modes among youth, clinicians may want to consider interactive icon-driven approaches for screening. PMID:25851558

  13. Preventive cancer screening practices in HIV-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momplaisir, Florence; Mounzer, Karam; Long, Judith A

    2014-01-01

    As patients with HIV age, they are at risk of developing non-AIDS defining malignancies. We performed a questionnaire study to evaluate colorectal and breast cancer screening among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients seeking care from either an integrated (HIV/primary care), nonintegrated (specialized HIV), or general internal medicine clinic between August 2010 and July 2011. We performed a logistic regression to determine the odds of cancer screening. A total of 813 surveys were collected, and 762 were included in the analysis. As much as 401 were from HIV-positive patients. Patients with HIV were less likely to be current with their colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) (54.4% versus 65.0%, p=0.009); mammography rates were 24.3% versus 62.3% if done during the past year (pscreening in HIV-positive patients compared to negative controls was not statistically significant (OR 0.8; 95% CI 0.5-1.3); however, HIV-positive women remained significantly less likely to be current with breast cancer screening (BCS) whether their mammogram was completed within 1 year (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.1-0.2) or within 5 years (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.0-0.2). Integrated care was not associated with improved screening; however, having frequent visits to a primary care physician (PCP) increased the likelihood of getting screened. BCS was lower in HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative women. Frequent visits to a PCPs improved cancer screening.

  14. Obesity Related Indices for Screening of Obesity in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Sohani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a fast growing problem in the developing countries like India and is now known to be associated with increased health risk. Realizing the fact that the obesity in adolescent age group does not receive the deserved attention in the prevention and control programme, the present study was undertaken on 585 adolescent subjects studying in one college and three schools. Aims and Objectives: 1. To study the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescent population. 2. To find the association of body mass index (BMI with important parameters like skin fold thickness, waist circumference and waist to hip ratio. Methods: It was a cross sectional observational study. The study population was school and college going adolescents in the age group of 11-19 years. The estimated sample size for present study is 585 students. The subjects were screened by body mass index, skin fold thickness, waist circumference and waist to hip ratio. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 19.14% and 4.44% respectively. It was found that there was strong association between the waist circumference with overweight and obesity. Similarly a strong association between waist to hip ratio with overweight and obesity has been found. Also it was found that there was a strong association between skin fold thickness with overweight and obesity. Skin-fold thickness has more sensitivity as compared to waist circumference and waist to hip ratio. Waist to hip ratio has got maximum specificity amongst all but when both sensitivity and specificity criteria are considered together waist circumference stands out. Conclusion: It was found that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 19.14% and 4.44% respectively. Skin-fold thickness has more sensitivity as compared waist circumference and waist to hip ratio. Waist to hip ratio has got maximum specificity. When sensitivity and specificity criteria are considered together waist circumference can be

  15. Attachment styles and self-concept: basis for positive adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria S. Martínez Festorazzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The nature and characteristics of the primary bonds and attachment styles wwhich are established with parental figures and / or their surrogates in the first years of life, without doubt are one of the basis and models for later relationships. Intense changes will be produce particularly during adolescence in the parental bonds and the scenario, which defines and reinforces personal autonomy to be extended. In this way, self-concept is probably one of the most researched constructs in psychological tradition if we compare it with other psychological and contextual variables. Nevertheless, a few studies explore especially the relationship between attachment and self-concept in adolescents. The aim of this empirical study was to analyze the relationship between attachment styles and self-concept dimensions in adolescents, from a salutogenic approach in order to identify if certain attachment characteristics are associated with more positive aspects of self-concept. A sample of 583 adolescents aged 15- 18 years from public and private schools in Mar del Plata completed the AF5 and IPPA scales. Significant positive relationships were confirmed between secure attachment style and self- concept dimensions. These results provide empirical support to advance in the research about which characteristics are specifically related to positive and healthy development in adolescents

  16. Amphetamine Positive Urine Toxicology Screen Secondary to Atomoxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua L. Fenderson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report the first case of atomoxetine leading to false-positive urine drug screen. An otherwise healthy 27-year-old female with a history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD treated with atomoxetine had an acute onset tonic-clonic seizure. On arrival to the hospital, a urine toxicological drug screen with immunochemical cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA was performed. Results were positive for amphetamines; however, the presence of these substances could not be confirmed with urine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. She denied any illicit drug use, herbal medications, or supplements, and her other prescription medications have not been previously known to cause a false-positive result for amphetamines. While stimulant treatments for ADHD could certainly result in a positive result on urine screen for amphetamines, there have been no reports of false-positive results for amphetamines secondary to patients using atomoxetine. We implicate atomoxetine, and/or its metabolites, as a compound or compounds which may interfere with urine drug immunoassays leading to false-positive results for amphetamines CEDIA assays.

  17. Genomic Amplifications Cause False Positives in CRISPR Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheel, Ankur; Xue, Wen

    2016-08-01

    In CRISPR-based screens for essential genes, Munoz and colleagues and Aguirre and colleagues show that gene-independent targeting of genomic amplifications in human cancer cell lines reduces proliferation or survival. The correlation between CRISPR target site copy number and lethality demonstrates the need for scrutiny and complementary approaches to rule out off-target effects and false positives in CRISPR screens. Cancer Discov; 6(8); 824-6. ©2016 AACR.See related article by Munoz et al., p. 900See related article by Aguirre et al., p. 914. PMID:27485003

  18. Maternal responses to adolescent positive affect are associated with adolescents' reward neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sarah; Yap, Marie B H; Yücel, Murat; Sheeber, Lisa; Simmons, Julian G; Pantelis, Christos; Allen, Nicholas B

    2009-09-01

    The development of reward-based learning and decision-making, and the neural circuitry underlying these processes, appears to be influenced negatively by adverse child-rearing environments characterized by abuse and other forms of maltreatment. No research to-date has investigated whether normative variations in the child-rearing environment have effects on adolescent brain structure. We examined whether normative variations in maternal responses to adolescents' positive affective behavior were associated with morphometric measures of the adolescents' affective neural circuitry, namely the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Healthy adolescents (N = 113) participated in laboratory-based interaction tasks with their mothers, and underwent high-resolution (3T) structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The mother-adolescent interactions included a pleasant event-planning interaction (EPI) and a conflictual problem-solving interaction (PSI). Adolescents, whose mothers displayed more punishing responses to their positive affective behavior during both tasks, and only during the PSI, had larger left dorsal ACC and bilateral OFC volumes, respectively. In addition, boys whose mothers evidenced this pattern of behavior during the EPI had larger right amygdala volumes. These results suggest that normative variations in maternal responses to affective behavior are associated with the structural characteristics of adolescents' affective neural circuitry, which may have implications for the development of their social, cognitive and affective functioning.

  19. Depression screening and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents: a systematic review protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Thombs Brett D; Roseman Michelle; Kloda Lorie A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Depression is an important cause of disability among children and adolescents. Depression screening is one possible method for managing depression, and screening programs have been initiated in some school and medical settings. However, in 2005, the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care and the United Kingdom National Institute of Clinical Excellence did not recommend depression screening among children and adolescents. By contrast, in 2009, the United States Preve...

  20. Does positive youth development predict adolescent attitudes about sexuality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Erin N; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome for youth. PYD philosophy and theory, bioecological theory (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998), and identity development theory (Erikson, 1983, 1968; Marcia, 1980, 1993) provided the foundation for this study and were used to make the connections between PYD, adolescent sexuality (including attitudes and behavior), and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship. Both self-esteem and sexual experience were significant predictors of attitudes regarding sex, but overall, parents contributed the most influence on the outcome variable. (It should be noted, however, that parental influence was the only factor that was a significant predictor.) Only one of the two involvements in activities variables was a significant predictor of attitudes regarding sex.

  1. Cognitive abilities in early adolescence: an outlook from positive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Contini de González

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to refer to social abilities in early adolescence. Personal success and social success seem to be more related to interpersonal abilities than with those cognitive abilities expressed in synthetic measures of IQ. Social abilities are also one of the major sources of self esteem and personal well-being. The concepts of social intelligence, social abilities, social competence, assertiveness and adaptative behaviour are differentiated. Social abilities are characterized. The different types of social abilities founded are described and the theories which explain those types of abilities are referred. Possible interaction between social abilities, personality and psychosocial adjustment are analyzed. Positive Psychology is defined. It is explained why the Social Abilities are part of child and adolescent’s psychological capital. It is also treated why is important to study those aspects recently mentioned in early adolescence. Opportune diagnosis of those types of adolescent resources –or their dysfunctions like aggressiveness or isolation- would allow tracing a lay out intervention programs which promote protective abilities for its development which also would help the permanence in the scholar system as a way of social inclusion. Finally, it is explained how social abilities work as a salugenic resource in early adolescence within the frame of Positive Psychology. 

  2. Screening for "substance abuse" among school-based youth in Mexico using the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument (POSIT) for Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, William W; O'Brien, Megan S; McDouall, Jorge; Toussova, Olga; Floyd, Leah J; Vazquez, Marco

    2004-01-01

    Indices of classification accuracy of the Substance Use/Abuse scale of a Spanish-language version of the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) were evaluated among school-based youth in Mexico. Participants were 1203 youth attending one middle school (N = 619) and one high school (N = 584) in the third largest city of Coahuila, a northern border state in Mexico in May 1998. More than 94% of youth enrolled in the participating middle school and 89% of youth enrolled in the participating high school completed the International Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health. Indices of classification accuracy of the POSIT Substance Use/Abuse scale were evaluated against a "drug abuse" problem severity criterion that combined youth meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence disorders with youth having used other illicit drugs five or more times in their lifetime. The present study findings suggest that using a cut score of one or two on the POSIT Substance Use/Abuse scale generally yields optimal classification accuracy indices that vary somewhat by gender and school subgroups. Further, classification accuracy indices of the POSIT Substance Use/Abuse scale are slightly better when used among high school males due, in part, to the higher base rate of serious involvement among this group compared to others.

  3. Preliminary Blood Pressure Screening in a Representative Sample of Extremely Obese Kuwaiti Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Abdul Razzak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between blood pressure (BP and obesity has been found in young adults, but no data are available for adolescents in Kuwait. 257 adolescent (11–19 years participants were categorized into two groups according to their BMI; 48 nonobese (21 males: 43.7% and 27 females: 56.3% with mean age of years and 209 obese (128 males: 61.25% and 81 females: 38.75% with mean age of years. The mean BMI was  kg/m2 for the nonobese group and  kg/m3 for the obese group. Most BP measures based on a single screening were significantly higher in the obese group. The prevalence of elevated BP was significantly higher in the obese subjects (nonobese: 13%; obese: 63%; . In the obese group, there was a significant positive correlation between total sample BMI and all BP measures except the pulse pressure. There was a similar rate of elevated blood pressure between males and females (64% versus 60%; . For both isolated systolic elevated BP and isolated diastolic elevated BP, the prevalences were comparable between the males (systolic: 42%; diastolic: 5% and females (systolic: 34%; diastolic: 14%. Only systolic BP was positively correlated with BMI in obese adolescent males (Spearman ; , with a significant correlation between BMI with diastolic (Spearman ; and mean BP (Spearman ; in females.

  4. Screening Bleeding Disorders in Adolescents and Young Women with Menorrhagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suar Çakı Kılıç

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chronic menorrhagia causes anemia and impairment of life quality. In this study the aim was the screening of bleeding disorders in adolescents and young women with menorrhagia. METHODS: The study was performed prospectively by pediatric hematologists. A form including demographic characteristics of the patients, bleedings other than menorrhagia, familial bleeding history, characteristics of the menorrhagia, and impairment of life quality due to menorrhagia was filled out by the researcher during a face-to-face interview with the patient. A pictorial blood assessment chart was also used for evaluation of blood loss. All patients underwent pelvic ultrasound sonography testing and women also received pelvic examination by gynecologists. Whole blood count, peripheral blood smear, blood group, serum transaminases, urea, creatinine, ferritin, PFA-100, PT, aPTT, INR, TT, fibrinogen, VWF: Ag, VWF: RCo, FVIII, and platelet aggregation assays were performed. Platelet aggregations were studied by lumiaggregometer. RESULTS: Out of 75 patients enrolled, 60 patients completed the study. The mean age was 20.68±10.34 (range: 10-48 years and 65% (n=39 of the patients were younger than 18 years. In 18 (46% of the adolescents, menorrhagia subsided spontaneously. In 20% (n=12 of the patients, a bleeding disorder was detected (1 case of type 3 von Willebrand disease, 2 patients with low VWF: Ag, 1 case of probable von Willebrand disease, 3 cases of Bernard-Soulier syndrome, 2 cases of Glanzmann thrombasthenia, 2 cases of immune thrombocytopenic purpura, 1 case of congenital factor VII deficiency. CONCLUSION: In patients with menorrhagia, at least complete blood count, peripheral smear, aPTT, PT, VWF: Ag, VWF: RCo, FVIII, and fibrinogen assays must be performed. When there is history of nose and gum bleeding, platelet function assay by lumiaggregometer must also be performed. In nearly 50% of adolescents, menorrhagia is dysfunctional and transient

  5. Positive Psychology Enviroment for children and adolescents with disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Miloseva, Lence

    2014-01-01

    In collaboration with local community, our main aim in this paper was to identify presence of discrimination toward disabled children and adolescents and to raise awareness against this kind of discrimination. The theoretical frame of this paper was grounded in positive psychology programs and social ecology theory. The paper consists of two parts. The main aim of the first part of the paper was to identify attitudes of students for discrimination towards disabled people. After we gain result...

  6. Translating primary into 'positive' prevention for adolescents in Eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Jasna, Loos; Sabrina, Bakeera-Kitaka; Obong'o, Christopher; Eric, Wobudeya; Buvé, Anne

    2016-09-01

    There is an urgent need to develop positive prevention interventions for adolescents living with HIV in high endemic regions. Adapting existing evidence-based interventions for resource-constrained settings is effective when the intervention's theoretical core elements are preserved while achieving cultural relevance. We describe the process of adapting a primary prevention to a secondary/positive prevention programme for adolescents living with HIV in Kenya and Uganda. The systematic adaptation was guided by the Centers for Diseases Control's map for the adaptation process, describing an iterative process. The procedure included: assessing the target positive prevention group's needs (safer sex; fertility-related issues), identifying the potential interventions through a literature review, conducting qualitative adaptation research to identify areas for adaptation by ensuring cultural relevance (revising the intervention logic by adding topics such as adherence; HIV-related stigma; HIV-disclosure; safer sex), pilot-testing the adapted programme and conducting a process evaluation of its first implementation. Areas added onto the original intervention's logic framework, based on social cognitive theory, the theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour were information and skills building on sexual relationships and protection behaviour, prevention of vertical HIV transmission, contraception, HIV-disclosure, HIV-related stigma, HIV-treatment and adherence. The process evaluation using mixed methods showed that we delivered a feasible and acceptable intervention for HIV-positive adolescents aged 13-17 years. The systematic approach adopted facilitated the development of a contextualized and developmentally appropriate (i.e. age-specific) intervention for adolescents living with HIV. PMID:26048865

  7. Management of mental health disorders and central nervous system sequelae in HIV-positive children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nassen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV-positive children and adolescents are at increased risk of both central nervous system (CNS sequelae and mental disorders owing to a number of factors, including the impact of HIV infection on the brain, social determinants of health (e.g. poverty and orphanhood and psychosocial stressors related to living with HIV. Every effort should be made to identify perinatally HIV-infected children and initiate them on antiretroviral therapy early in life. HIV clinicians should ideally screen for mental health and neurocognitive problems, as part of the routine monitoring of children attending antiretroviral clinics. This guideline is intended as a reference tool for HIV clinicians to support the early identification, screening and management of mental health disorders and/or CNS impairment in children and adolescents. This guideline covers mental disorders (section 1 and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (section 2 among children and adolescents.  

  8. Adolescent-parent interactions and attitudes around screen time and sugary drink consumption: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Howlett Sarah A; King Lesley A; Shrewsbury Vanessa A; Hattersley Libby A; Hardy Louise L; Baur Louise A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Little is known about how adolescents and their parents interact and talk about some of the key lifestyle behaviors that are associated with overweight and obesity, such as screen time (ST) and sugary drink (SD) consumption. This qualitative study aimed to explore adolescents' and parents' perceptions, attitudes, and interactions in regards to these topics. Methods Using an exploratory approach, semi-structured focus groups were conducted separately with adolescents and (u...

  9. Factors Associated with Recruitment and Screening in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Diane E.; Hallin, Mary J.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Puumala, Susan E.; Smith, Lynette S.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; Weller, Elizabeth B.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Breland-Noble, Alfiee; March, John S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine factors associated with eligibility and randomization and consider the efficiency of recruitment methods. Method: Adolescents, ages 12 to 17 years, were telephone screened (N = 2,804) followed by in-person evaluation (N = 1,088) for the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study. Separate logistic regression models,…

  10. A prospective study of screen time in adolescence and depression symptoms in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Singhammer, John; Froberg, Karsten;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between screen time in adolescence and depressive symptoms in young adulthood in a population-based cohort study of Danish adolescents. METHODS: Data were from a cohort of adolescents who were followed-up in young adulthood for ...... in young adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Limiting screen time, particularly television viewing, during adolescence may be important for preventing depression in young adulthood.......OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between screen time in adolescence and depressive symptoms in young adulthood in a population-based cohort study of Danish adolescents. METHODS: Data were from a cohort of adolescents who were followed-up in young adulthood...... for a period of up to 12years (1997-2010, mean 8.8years, n=435). Information on television viewing, computer use, total screen time and other determinants of depression were obtained in adolescence. Depressive symptoms were obtained in young adulthood using the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and classified...

  11. ERICA: use of screens and consumption of meals and snacks by Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Juliana Souza; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Brunken, Gisela Soares; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; dos Santos, Marize Melo; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the length of exposure to screens and the prevalence of consumption of meals and snacks by Brazilian adolescents in front of screens. METHODS We evaluated 74,589 12 to 17-year old adolescents from 1,247 schools in 124 Brazilian municipalities. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Its segment regarding nutrition contained questions about using TV, computers, and video game systems, having meals while watching TV, and consuming snacks in front of screens. Consumption of meals and snacks in front of screens was analyzed according to the following variables: geographical region, gender, age range, type of school (public or private), and school shift. The prevalences and their respective 95% confidence intervals were estimated under a complex sampling design. RESULTS A great deal of the adolescents (73.5%, 95%CI 72.3-74.7) reported spending two or more hours a day in front of screens. That habit was more frequent among male adolescents, private school students, morning shift students, and students from Brazil's South region. More than half of the adolescents (56.6%, 95%CI 55.4-57.8) reported almost always or always having meals in front of TV, and 39.6% (95%CI 38.8-40.5) of them said they consumed snacks in front of screens exactly as often. Both situations were the most prevalent ones among the girls, who attended public schools and were from Brazil's Midwest region. CONCLUSIONS Length of exposure to screens and consumption of meals and snacks almost always or always in front of screens are high among Brazilian adolescents. It is necessary to develop strategies aiming to reduce the length of screen use, considering the media reality that children and adolescents have been experiencing from earlier and earlier ages. That context must therefore be analyzed in an indissociable way. PMID:26910539

  12. False-positive results in mammographic screening for breast cancer in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofvind, Solveig; Ponti, Antonio; Patnick, Julietta;

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening result in European mammographic screening programmes, and examine the rates and procedures of further assessment.......To estimate the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening result in European mammographic screening programmes, and examine the rates and procedures of further assessment....

  13. Adolescent-parent interactions and attitudes around screen time and sugary drink consumption: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howlett Sarah A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how adolescents and their parents interact and talk about some of the key lifestyle behaviors that are associated with overweight and obesity, such as screen time (ST and sugary drink (SD consumption. This qualitative study aimed to explore adolescents' and parents' perceptions, attitudes, and interactions in regards to these topics. Methods Using an exploratory approach, semi-structured focus groups were conducted separately with adolescents and (unrelated parents. Participants were recruited from low and middle socio-economic areas in the Sydney metropolitan area and a regional area of New South Wales, Australia. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis for each of the four content areas (adolescent-ST, adolescent-SD consumption, parents' views on adolescents' ST and parents' views on adolescents' SD consumption. Results Nine focus groups, with a total of 63 participants, were conducted. Broad themes spanned all groups: patterns of behavior; attitudes and concerns; adolescent-parent interactions; strategies for behavior change; and awareness of ST guidelines. While parents and adolescents described similar patterns of behaviour in relation to adolescents' SD consumption and ST, there were marked differences in their attitudes to these two behaviours which were also evident in the adolescent-parent interactions in the home that they described. Parents felt able to limit adolescents' access to SDs, but felt unable to control their adolescents' screen time. Conclusion This study offers unique insights regarding topics rarely explored with parents or adolescents, yet which are part of everyday family life, are known to be linked to risk of weight gain, and are potentially amenable to change.

  14. Management of mental health disorders and central nervous system sequelae in HIV-positive children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    R Nassen; Donald, K; Walker, K.; S Paruk; M Vujovic; Duncan, W.; Laughton, B; B Moos

    2014-01-01

    HIV-positive children and adolescents are at increased risk of both central nervous system (CNS) sequelae and mental disorders owing to a number of factors, including the impact of HIV infection on the brain, social determinants of health (e.g. poverty and orphanhood) and psychosocial stressors related to living with HIV. Every effort should be made to identify perinatally HIV-infected children and initiate them on antiretroviral therapy early in life. HIV clinicians should ideally screen for...

  15. Risk of breast cancer after false-positive test results in screening mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Risør, Louise Madeleine; Thorsted, Brian Larsen;

    2012-01-01

    Screening for disease in healthy people inevitably leads to some false-positive tests in disease-free individuals. Normally, women with false-positive screening tests for breast cancer are referred back to routine screening. However, the long-term outcome for women with false-positive tests is un...

  16. The influence of friends and psychosocial factors on physical activity and screen time behavior in adolescents: a mixed-methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jeanette M; Sirard, John R; Deutsch, Nancy L; Weltman, Arthur

    2016-08-01

    (1) Determine the association between adolescent moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time with their nominated friends' behaviors and (2) explore potential mechanisms of friends' social influences on MVPA and screen time. Participants consisted of 152 adolescents (mean age: 14.5 years, 53 % female, 50 % high school, 80 % Caucasian). MVPA was measured with an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer. Demographic and psychosocial variables were assessed via questionnaires. Participants nominated up to 5 friends who completed MVPA and screen time questionnaires. A subset of adolescents (n = 108) participated in focus groups that examined potential mechanism of friends' influence on MVPA and screen time. Multiple regression analysis examined the association of demographic, psychological, and nominated friend variables with participants' MVPA and screen time. NVivo 10.0 was used to analyze qualitative data. Greater levels of friends' MVPA was associated with greater levels of MVPA in both males (p friends' screen time was associated with greater levels of screen time in males (p = .04) while psychosocial variables, such as increased screen time enjoyment, were associated with increased screen time in females (p = .01). School level was not associated with either MVPA or screen time. Focus group data indicated that friends positively influenced participants' MVPA through engaging in activity with participants, verbal encouragement, and modeling of MVPA. All participants preferred to be active with friends rather than alone, however, females preferred activity with a close friend while males preferred to be active with a group. Enjoyment of MVPA was the most cited reason for engaging in MVPA with friends. The majority of participants reported friends not having an influence on screen time. Adolescents with active friends are more likely to be physically active and spend less time engaging in screen-based behaviors. Interventions to increase MVPA in

  17. Screen Time and Sleep among School-Aged Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hale, Lauren; Guan, Stanford

    2014-01-01

    We systematically examined and updated the scientific literature on the association between screen time (e.g., television, computers, video games, and mobile devices) and sleep outcomes among school-aged children and adolescents. We reviewed 67 studies published from 1999 to early 2014. We found that screen time is adversely associated with sleep outcomes (primarily shortened duration and delayed timing) in 90% of studies. Some of the results varied by type of screen exposure, age of particip...

  18. Using colour to determine pointer position on a screen

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, David; Gegov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Thin Film Transistor (TFT) screens are becoming more common in the workplace, replacing traditional Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) screens. As the TFT screen does not generate a scan line, traditional methods of light sensing pens do not work effectively on a TFT screen. This paper describes a novel light pen type peripheral, which may be used on either a TFT or CRT screen. The peripheral is intended to replace the need to use a touch screen, mouse or keyboard. A specially designed kaleidoscope is pl...

  19. Promoting Positive Future Expectations During Adolescence: The Role of Assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Sarah A; Pierce, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    Positive future expectations can facilitate optimal development and contribute to healthier outcomes for youth. Researchers suggest that internal resources and community-level factors may influence adolescent future expectations, yet little is known about the processes through which these benefits are conferred. The present study examined the relationship between contribution to community, neighborhood collective efficacy, purpose, hope and future expectations, and tested a mediation model that linked contribution to community and collective efficacy with future expectations through purpose and hope in a sample of 7th grade youth (N = 196; Mage = 12.39; 60 % female; 40 % African American; 71 % economically disadvantaged). Greater collective efficacy and contribution to community predicted higher levels of hope and purpose. Higher levels of hope and purpose predicted more positive future expectations. Contribution to community and neighborhood collective efficacy indirectly predicted future expectations via hope. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:26385095

  20. The influence of friends and psychosocial factors on physical activity and screen time behavior in adolescents: a mixed-methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jeanette M; Sirard, John R; Deutsch, Nancy L; Weltman, Arthur

    2016-08-01

    (1) Determine the association between adolescent moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time with their nominated friends' behaviors and (2) explore potential mechanisms of friends' social influences on MVPA and screen time. Participants consisted of 152 adolescents (mean age: 14.5 years, 53 % female, 50 % high school, 80 % Caucasian). MVPA was measured with an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer. Demographic and psychosocial variables were assessed via questionnaires. Participants nominated up to 5 friends who completed MVPA and screen time questionnaires. A subset of adolescents (n = 108) participated in focus groups that examined potential mechanism of friends' influence on MVPA and screen time. Multiple regression analysis examined the association of demographic, psychological, and nominated friend variables with participants' MVPA and screen time. NVivo 10.0 was used to analyze qualitative data. Greater levels of friends' MVPA was associated with greater levels of MVPA in both males (p associated with greater levels of screen time in males (p = .04) while psychosocial variables, such as increased screen time enjoyment, were associated with increased screen time in females (p = .01). School level was not associated with either MVPA or screen time. Focus group data indicated that friends positively influenced participants' MVPA through engaging in activity with participants, verbal encouragement, and modeling of MVPA. All participants preferred to be active with friends rather than alone, however, females preferred activity with a close friend while males preferred to be active with a group. Enjoyment of MVPA was the most cited reason for engaging in MVPA with friends. The majority of participants reported friends not having an influence on screen time. Adolescents with active friends are more likely to be physically active and spend less time engaging in screen-based behaviors. Interventions to increase MVPA in youth could be designed to

  1. A Positive Domestic Violence Screen Predicts Future Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houry, Debra; Feldhaus, Kim; Peery, Benjamin; Abbott, Jean; Lowenstein, Steven R.; al-Bataa-de-Montero, Sameerah; Levine, Saul

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a brief screen for domestic violence (DV) predicts future violence. We conducted a cohort study of adult women who presented to an inner-city emergency department during an 8-week study period. Participants were screened for DV using the Partner Violence Screen (PVS). At 4 months, follow-up telephone…

  2. Positive predictive value for polyps detected at screening CT colonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickhardt, Perry J.; Wise, Steven M.; Kim, David H. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2010-07-15

    To determine the positive predictive value (PPV) for polyps detected at CT colonography (CTC). Assessment of 739 colorectal lesions {>=}6 mm detected prospectively at CTC screening in 479 patients was performed. By-polyp PPV was analyzed according to small (6-9 mm) versus large ({>=}10 mm) size; morphology (sessile/pedunculated/flat); diagnostic confidence level (3 = most confident, 1 = least confident); and histology. By-patient PPV was analyzed at various polyp size thresholds. By-polyp PPV for CTC-detected lesions {>=}6 mm, 6-9 mm, and {>=}10 mm was 91.6% (677/739), 90.1% (410/451), and 92.7% (267/288), respectively (p = 0.4). By-polyp PPV according to sessile, pedunculated, flat, and mass-like morphology was 92.5% (441/477), 96.5% (139/144), 77.7% (73/94), and 97.6% (40/41), respectively (p < 0.0001 for flat versus polypoid morphology). By-polyp PPV according to diagnostic confidence level was 94.7% (554/585) for highest (= level 3), 83.5% (106/127) for intermediate (= level 2), and 63.0% (17/27) for lowest (= level 1) confidence (p < 0.0001 for levels-2/3 versus level-1). By-patient PPV at 6-mm, 8-mm, 10-mm, and 30-mm polyp size thresholds was 92.3% (442/479), 93.0% (306/329), 93.1% (228/245), and 97.4% (38/39), respectively. The overall per-polyp and per-patient PPV for lesions {>=}6 mm was 92% for CTC screening. Increased diagnostic confidence and polypoid (non-flat) morphology correlated with a higher PPV, whereas small versus large polyp size had very little effect. (orig.)

  3. Health complaints among adolescents: Associations with more screen-based behaviours and less physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Adilson; Calmeiro, Luís; Loureiro, Nuno; Frasquilho, Diana; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between screen-based behaviours, physical activity, and health complaints (headaches, feeling low, irritability, and nervousness). Screen-based behaviour included TV viewing, computer use, and time spent playing video games. Data were collected from 4462 Portuguese adolescents (2394 girls) aged 11-16 years. Girls who reported engaging in more screen-based behaviour (hours/day) also reported having more headaches, feeling lower, being more irritable, and feeling more nervous. Boys who reported more screen time were more irritable. Physical activity (times/week) was negatively associated with reports of feeling nervous among girls, and with headaches, feeling low, irritability, and feeling nervous among boys. Considering that time spent using the computer is related with more health complaints, and physical activity was related with fewer health complaints among boys, it is important to develop strategies to reduce adolescents' computer screen time, and to promote physical activity. PMID:26275746

  4. Greater screen time is associated with adolescent obesity: a longitudinal study of the BMI distribution from ages 14 to 18

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Jonathan A.; Rodriguez, Daniel; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Audrain-Mcgovern, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has examined the association between screen time and average changes in adolescent body mass index (BMI). Until now, no study has evaluated the longitudinal relationship between screen time and changes in the BMI distribution across mid to late adolescence. Participants (n=1,336) were adolescents who were followed from age 14 to age 18 and surveyed every six months. Time spent watching television/videos and playing video games was self-reported (

  5. "Media Time = Family Time": Positive Media Use in Families with Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Fraser, Ashley M.; Fellows, Kaylene; Day, Randal D.

    2014-01-01

    Media use in families has generally been examined from a narrow viewpoint, focusing on monitoring or co-viewing. The current research provides an expanded view of positive media use in families with adolescents by examining associations between diverse positive media use and family and adolescents outcomes. In addition, we used qualitative methods…

  6. Screening and Assessing Violence and Mental Health Disorders in a Cohort of Inner City HIV-Positive Youth between 1998–2006

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Jaime; Hosek, Sybil G.; Carleton, Russell A.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of the primary care appointments for HIV-positive youth is often solely on medical concerns. However, these youth also present with mental health issues and histories of exposure to violence. To screen and assess for mental health disorders, HIV-positive youth between the ages of 13 to 24 consecutively enrolled in an adolescent and young adult HIV clinic between 1998–2006 (n = 174), were screened for mental health disorders and violence, using the Client Diagnostic Questionnaire (CD...

  7. Predicting the risk of a false-positive test for women following a mammography screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Olsen, Anne Helene; Schwartz, Walter;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study was to provide a simple estimate of the cumulative risk of a false-positive test for women participating in mammography screening. To test the method, we used data from two well-established, organized mammography screening programmes offering biennial...... be calculated in a simple way relatively early after the start of a mammography screening programme....

  8. Assessing At-Risk Youth Using the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory with a Latino Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Richard S.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Garcia, Roberto; Dominguez, Denise L.; Valarezo, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Factor analyses were conducted on scores from the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory (RAASI; Reynolds, 2001) representing at-risk Latino youth. The 4-factor model of the RAASI did not exhibit a good fit. However, evidence of generalizability for Latino youth was noted. (Contains 3 tables.)

  9. Prevalence of Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Adolescents: Potential Value of Universal Screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jing; Martin, Andrew C; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Watts, Gerald F

    2016-03-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) significantly increases the risk of coronary heart disease. Most individuals are unaware they have the condition. In the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, 1 in 267 adolescents were found to have FH. Universal cholesterol screening in childhood may offer the best strategy for diagnosing FH. PMID:26690851

  10. Preliminary Validation of a Screening Tool for Adolescent Panic Disorder in Pediatric Primary Care Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Alexander H.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Hershorin, Eugene R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the validity of a brief screening tool for adolescent panic disorder (PD) in a primary care setting. A total of 165 participants (ages 12-17 years) seen in two pediatric primary care clinics completed the Autonomic Nervous System Questionnaire (ANS; Stein et al. in Psychosomatic Med 61:359-364, 40). A subset of those screening…

  11. Screening for personality disorder in incarcerated adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Kongerslev, Mickey; Moran, Paul;

    2012-01-01

    an established diagnostic interview for DSM-IV PDs. Nine days later the screen was readministered. Results: A score of 3 or more on the screening interview correctly identified the presence of DSM-IV PD in 86% of participants, yielding a sensitivity and specificity of 0.87 and 0.86 respectively. Internal...

  12. Screening for personality disorder in incarcerated adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongerslev, Mickey Toftkjær; Moran, Paul; Bo, Sune;

    2012-01-01

    an established diagnostic interview for DSM-IV PDs. Nine days later the screen was readministered. RESULTS: A score of 3 or more on the screening interview correctly identified the presence of DSM-IV PD in 86% of participants, yielding a sensitivity and specificity of 0.87 and 0.86 respectively. Internal...

  13. Screen time and physical activity during adolescence: longitudinal effects on obesity in young adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon-Larsen Penny

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The joint impact of sedentary behavior and physical activity on obesity has not been assessed in a large cohort followed from adolescence to adulthood. Methods Nationally representative longitudinal data from Waves II (1995; mean age: 15.9 and III (2001; mean age: 21.4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 9,155 were collected. Sex-stratified multivariate logistic regression analysis assessed the odds of obesity associated with Wave II MVPA and screen time, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and change in MVPA and screen time from Wave II to III. Obesity was defined using body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 International Obesity Task Force cut-points at Wave II and adult cut-points at Wave III (BMI ≥ 30. Results In males, adjusted odds of prevalent obesity was strongly predicted by MVPA bouts [OR (95% CI: OR6 vs. 1 MVPA bouts = 0.50 (0.40, 0.62; OR4 vs. 40 hrs screen time = 0.83 (0.69, 1.00]. In females, greater MVPA bouts and lower screen time correlated with lower prevalent obesity [OR (95% CI: OR6 vs. 1 MVPA bouts = 0.67 (0.49, 0.91; OR4 vs. 40 hrs screen time = 0.67 (0.53, 0.85]. Longitudinally, adolescent screen time hours had a stronger influence on incident obesity in females [OR (95% CI: OR4 vs. 40 hrs = 0.58 (0.43, 0.80] than males [OR (95% CI: OR4 vs. 40 hrs = 0.78 (0.61, 0.99]. Longitudinal activity patterns were not predictive of incident obesity. Conclusion Reducing screen time during adolescence and into adulthood may be a promising strategy for reducing obesity incidence, especially in females.

  14. Identity Styles, Positive Youth Development, and Civic Engagement in Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Erentaite, Rasa; Žukauskiene, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Identity formation is a core developmental task of adolescence. Adolescents can rely on different social-cognitive styles to seek, process, and encode self-relevant information: information-oriented, normative, and diffuse-avoidant identity styles. The reliance on different styles might impact adole

  15. Criterion validity of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and one- and two-item depression screens in young adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCauley Elizabeth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of short screening questionnaires may be a promising option for identifying children at risk for depression in a community setting. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ and one- and two-item screening instruments for depressive disorders in a school-based sample of young adolescents. Methods Participants were 521 sixth-grade students attending public middle schools. Child and parent versions of the SMFQ were administered to evaluate the child's depressive symptoms. The presence of any depressive disorder during the previous month was assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC as the criterion standard. First, we assessed the diagnostic accuracy of child, parent, and combined scores of the full 13-item SMFQ by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC, sensitivity and specificity. The same approach was then used to evaluate the accuracy of a two-item scale consisting of only depressed mood and anhedonia items, and a single depressed mood item. Results The combined child + parent SMFQ score showed the highest accuracy (AUC = 0.86. Diagnostic accuracy was lower for child (AUC = 0.73 and parent (AUC = 0.74 SMFQ versions. Corresponding versions of one- and two-item screens had lower AUC estimates, but the combined versions of the brief screens each still showed moderate accuracy. Furthermore, child and combined versions of the two-item screen demonstrated higher sensitivity (although lower specificity than either the one-item screen or the full SMFQ. Conclusions Under conditions where parents accompany children to screening settings (e.g. primary care, use of a child + parent version of the SMFQ is recommended. However, when parents are not available, and the cost of a false positive result is minimal, then a one- or two-item screen may be useful for initial identification of at-risk youth.

  16. Screen time and sleep among school-aged children and adolescents: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Lauren; Guan, Stanford

    2015-06-01

    We systematically examined and updated the scientific literature on the association between screen time (e.g., television, computers, video games, and mobile devices) and sleep outcomes among school-aged children and adolescents. We reviewed 67 studies published from 1999 to early 2014. We found that screen time is adversely associated with sleep outcomes (primarily shortened duration and delayed timing) in 90% of studies. Some of the results varied by type of screen exposure, age of participant, gender, and day of the week. While the evidence regarding the association between screen time and sleep is consistent, we discuss limitations of the current studies: 1) causal association not confirmed; 2) measurement error (of both screen time exposure and sleep measures); 3) limited data on simultaneous use of multiple screens, characteristics and content of screens used. Youth should be advised to limit or reduce screen time exposure, especially before or during bedtime hours to minimize any harmful effects of screen time on sleep and well-being. Future research should better account for the methodological limitations of the extant studies, and seek to better understand the magnitude and mechanisms of the association. These steps will help the development and implementation of policies or interventions related to screen time among youth. PMID:25193149

  17. Bidirectional associations between valued activities and adolescent positive adjustment in a longitudinal study: positive mood as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesRoches, Andrea; Willoughby, Teena

    2014-02-01

    Although activity involvement has been linked to positive youth development, the value that adolescents place on these activities (i.e., how much they enjoy the activities, find them important, and spend time on them) has received less attention. The purpose of the present study was to examine the bidirectional longitudinal association between engagement in valued activities and adolescent positive adjustment (optimism, purpose in life, and self-esteem), as well as investigate a possible underlying mechanism for this link. High school students (N = 2,270, 48.7% female) from Ontario, Canada completed questionnaires annually in grades 10, 11, and 12. Auto-regressive cross-lagged path analyses were conducted over time, controlling for gender, parental education, and academic grades. Greater engagement in valued activities predicted higher optimism, purpose, and self-esteem over time. Importantly, the results did not support an alternate hypothesis of selection effects, in that adolescents who were better adjusted were not more likely than their peers to engage in valued activities over time. We also found that the longitudinal associations between valued activities and positive adjustment may be due partly to an underlying effect of increased positive mood. Thus, engagement in valued activities appears to be important for adolescent positive adjustment, and may help to foster thriving. Communities, educators, and parents should actively support and encourage adolescents to develop valued activities, and seek to ensure that there are ample opportunities and resources available for them to do so. PMID:23625185

  18. Risk factors for VIA positivity and determinants of screening attendances in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahesa, Crispin; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Ngoma, Twalib;

    2012-01-01

    screening program in Dar es Salaam in the period 2002 -- 2008. The women underwent VIA examination and took part in a structured questionnaire interview. Socioeconomic characteristics, sexual behavior, HIV status and high-risk (HR) HPV infection were determined in a subpopulation of 890 who participated...... participated in the screening were more likely to be HIV positive OR= 1.59 (95% CI. 1.14-2.25) in comparison with women who had never attended screening, while no difference was found in the prevalence of HR-HPV infection among women who had attended screening and women who had not attended screening...... screening program is in place in the setting studied, where HIV positive were more likely to participate in the cervical cancer screening program than HIV negative women....

  19. Screening diagnostics of antivital experiences and propensity toward impulsive, autoagressive behavior in adolescents (preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bannikov G.S.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of methods for revealing antivital experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior in educational institutions is one of the key steps in developing strategies for the primary prevention of suicidal behavior in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to develop an effective screening diagnostic package aimed at identifying antivital experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior. The survey methods we used were: Beck Hopelessness Scale, Russell Loneliness Scale, A.G. Shmelev Suicide Risk Questionnaire, PDQ-IV Borderline disorder and Narcissism scales. At the first stage we examined 750 minors aged 12-18 and identified risk group (85 people – 11.4%, which included adolescents with high levels of both individual scales, and their combination. At the second stage we examined 10 adolescents at risk. In 7 of them (70% were identified antivital, suicidal thoughts of passive or compulsive nature, signs of subjective and objective socio- psychological maladjustment. Our preliminary conclusion is that high levels of hopelessness and loneliness in adolescents are stable predictors of mental and emotional distress and psychosocial maladjustment in the period of psychological crises and decompensation of character accentuation of borderline and narcissistic types. These scales can be recommended for primary screening of antivital (depressive experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior in adolescents.

  20. Effects of Positive Affect on Risk Perceptions in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Affective influences may play a key role in adolescent risk taking, but have rarely been studied. Using an audiovisual method of affect induction, two experimental studies examined the effect of positive affect on risk perceptions in adolescence and young adulthood. Outcomes were risk perceptions regarding drinking alcohol, smoking a cigarette,…

  1. Parenting, Community, and Religious Predictors of Positive and Negative Developmental Outcomes among Muslim Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Steven Eric; Hamzah, Azimi; Ismail, Ismi Arif; Suandi, Turiman; Hamzah, Siti Raba'ah; Dahalan, Dzuhailmi; Idris, Fazilah

    2014-01-01

    Despite existing research on the contribution of social context and religiosity to adolescent behavioral outcomes, few studies have attempted to explore this topic among Muslim adolescents in non-Western settings, looking at both positive and negative outcomes. In response to this gap, the current study explored the effects of three dimensions of…

  2. An Adolescent Version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Mark; Thurber, Steven; Hodgson, Joele M.

    2002-01-01

    Item content of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) was modified to make it more appropriate for young persons. The resulting test was found to have lower internal consistency than the adult MAST, but the elimination of five items with comparatively poor psychometric properties yielded an acceptable alpha coefficient. (Contains 10…

  3. Screen Time and Its Relation to Cardiometabolic Risk among Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN-III Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid SAFIRI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs, the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes is more prominent. CNCDs origin in early life; with sedentary habits, notably prolonged screen time (ST, leisure time spent on watching TV and working computer, suggested as one of their risk factors. We aimed to investigate the relationship between ST and cardiometabolic risk factors in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents.Methods: In this analytical cross-sectional study, 5,625 school students aged 10-18 were studied in the third national survey of a school-based surveillance program. For ensuring representativeness of sample, subjects were selected using multistage random cluster sampling method from urban and rural areas of 27 provinces in Iran (2009-10. ST was assessed through validated self-administered questionnaire, and cardiometabolic factors were determined. In addition, metabolic syndrome components were defined based on the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria modified for the pediatric age group. In addition, high total cholesterol (TC, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and generalized obesity were assessed as other cardiometabolic risk factors.Results: Mean age was 14.73±2.41. While, positive significant association was found between ST and abdominal obesity, blood pressure, levels of LDL-C and triglycerides (P <0.05, it was reversely correlated with HDL-C level (P <0.05. However, there was positive but not statistically significant association between ST and odds of metabolic syndrome (P =0.32.Conclusion: The association between ST and some metabolic syndrome components, reducing ST should be considered as one of the preventive strategies among children and adolescents. Keywords: Metabolic syndrome, Screen time, Physical activity, Children, Adolescent, Cardiometabolic risk factors, Iran 

  4. Development and psychometric properties of the Suicidality of Adolescent Screening Scale (SASS) using Multidimensional Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhawaha, Supattra; Arunpongpaisal, Suwanna; Hurst, Cameron

    2016-09-30

    Suicide prevention in adolescents by early detection using screening tools to identify high suicidal risk is a priority. Our objective was to build a multidimensional scale namely "Suicidality of Adolescent Screening Scale (SASS)" to identify adolescents at risk of suicide. An initial pool of items was developed by using in-depth interview, focus groups and a literature review. Initially, 77 items were administered to 307 adolescents and analyzed using the exploratory Multidimensional Item Response Theory (MIRT) to remove unnecessary items. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis revealed 35 items that collected into 4 factors: Stressors, Pessimism, Suicidality and Depression. To confirm this structure, a new sample of 450 adolescents were collected and confirmatory MIRT factor analysis was performed. The resulting scale was shown to be both construct valid and able to discriminate well between adolescents that had, and hadn't previous attempted suicide. PMID:27450746

  5. Broadly defined risk mental states during adolescence: disorganization mediates positive schizotypal expression

    OpenAIRE

    Debbané, Martin; Badoud, Deborah Myriam; Balanzin, Dario; Eliez, Stéphan

    2013-01-01

    While schizotypal features are common during adolescence, they can also signal increased risk for the onset of schizophreniform disorders. Most studies with adolescents find that hallucination and delusion-like symptoms (positive schizotypal features) best predict future psychopathology. Still, the developmental process of positive schizotypy remains elusive, specifically with regards to 1) its relationships to negative and disorganization schizotypal dimensions; 2) its associations to malada...

  6. Lack of utility of risk score and gynecological examination for screening for sexually transmitted infections in sexually active adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Côrtes Rejane LM

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections constitute the main health risk among adolescents. In developing countries the diagnosis and treatment of cervical infections is based on the syndromic approach. In this study we estimated the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among female adolescents from a Health Sector of the city of Goiânia, Brazil, and validated cervicitis diagnosis using World Health Organization/Ministry of Health risk score and gynecological examination. Methods A cross-sectional community-based sample of 914 15- to 19-year-old female teenagers was randomly selected and referred to the local Family Health Program. Of these, 472 (51.6% were sexually active and gynecological examinations were carried out for 427. Endocervical samples were collected to perform the polymerase chain reaction for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Performance of risk score, the presence of mucopurulent discharge, friability, ectopia and pain during cervical maneuver were compared with the presence of C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae or both. Results The prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was 14.5% and 2.1%, respectively. The risk score had a specificity of 31.9% (95% confidence interval, 21.2 to 44.2 and a positive predictive value of 20.8% (95% confidence interval, 13.5 to 29.7. Friability was the component of the gynecological examination that presented the best performance with a sensitivity of 43.5%, specificity of 81.0%, and 30.6% of positive predictive value. Conclusion The prevalence of infection by C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was high among these sexually active adolescents. The syndromic approach is clearly inadequate for screening and treating these infections in this population. Therefore, the implantation of other strategies to control these infections among adolescents is urgently required.

  7. An Algorithm of Calculating the Position in a Self-Capacitance Touch Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Peng, Haiyan; Qian, Xiaoli; Ren, Can; Wang, Wentao; Li, Jianjun

    Touch screens have been widely used in many kinds of electronic products. For many capacitive touch sensing devices, they always suffer from a variety of electronic signal noises. So when a finger touches the screen, it is difficult to calculate the exact touch position on the screen. We proposed an algorithm of calculating the position in a self-capacitance touch screen to alleviate noise interference. We determined the touch region by calculating the differences between current data and reference data in every channel. In the touch region we divided it into different ranges to calculate the touch point. The simulation results show that the algorithm that we proposed can alleviate noise interference effectively and obtain the exact positioning on touch screen accurately.

  8. Screen sensitivity in photosensitive children and adolescents: patient-dependant and stimulus-dependant factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Katia; Kronisch, Saskia; Waltz, Stephan; Stephani, Ulrich

    2007-03-01

    Television viewing is the most frequent cause of photogenic attacks in daily life. In the present study, we examined 48 photosensitive children and adolescents to find out: 1) whether hypersynchronous activity is induced less often by viewing a PC monitor than a television screen and 2) whether certain images are more likely to cause hypersynchronous activity than others. All subjects were tested for sensitivity to intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) and to a black and white striped pattern on cards. Additionally, all were subjected to stimuli from four different images (vertical black and white striped pattern, geometric figures, text, and a painting by Max Pechstein - 1913, Italian church), presented on a television screen (with an image regeneration frequency of 50 Hz) and on PC screens (with regeneration frequencies of 48 and 100 Hz). A total of 21 non-photosensitive, healthy children and adolescents served as controls. Of the 48 photosensitive subjects 13% were also pattern sensitive (cards), and 33% exhibited screen sensitivity. No differences were found between the three monitor types. However, the hypersynchronous reactivity to the four images presented was significantly different, with high contrast vertical striped pattern being the most provocative. Non-photosensitive subjects did not react to any of the stimuli. The results of the present study show that screen-dependant factors are less important than image-dependant factors. PMID:17307713

  9. Screening diagnostics of antivital experiences and propensity toward impulsive, autoagressive behavior in adolescents (preliminary results)

    OpenAIRE

    Bannikov G.S.,; Pavlova T.S.; Vikhristyuk O.V.,

    2014-01-01

    Development of methods for revealing antivital experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior in educational institutions is one of the key steps in developing strategies for the primary prevention of suicidal behavior in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to develop an effective screening diagnostic package aimed at identifying antivital experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior. The survey methods we used were: Beck Hopelessness Scale, Russell Loneliness Scale, A....

  10. Recreational Screen-Time Among Chinese Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Hardy, Louise L.; Ding, Ding; Baur, Louise A; Shi, Hui-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization in China has led to a proliferation of electronic entertainment media among youth. Prolonged screen time (ST; includes watching television and playing on computers, video game consoles, or mobile phones) is linked to poor health profiles. The aim of this study was to report recreational ST behaviors and ST correlates among Chinese adolescents living in two regions with different degrees of urbanization. Methods A cross-sectional, school-based survey (n = 3461 ado...

  11. Long-term psychosocial consequences of false-positive screening mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Cancer screening programs have the potential of intended beneficial effects, but they also inevitably have unintended harmful effects. In the case of screening mammography, the most frequent harm is a false-positive result. Prior efforts to measure their psychosocial consequences have been limited...

  12. Evaluating mental health difficulties and associated outcomes among HIV-positive adolescents in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Dorothy E; Turner, Elizabeth L; Shayo, Aisa M; Mmbaga, Blandina; Cunningham, Coleen K; O'Donnell, Karen

    2016-07-01

    AIDS-related mortality among HIV-positive adolescents has risen by 50% despite the scale up of antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART maladherence likely plays a role in the increase of AIDS-related deaths among adolescents and has shown to be associated with psychosocial and mental health difficulties. Addressing the specific mental health needs of HIV-positive adolescents is critical to ending the HIV epidemic. This cross-sectional study prospectively enrolled HIV-positive adolescents (12-24 years) in Moshi, Tanzania. A structured questionnaire was administered that included questions about home, school, adherence, and measures of stigma (Berger Stigma Scale) and mental health. Mental health measures included depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), emotional/behavioral difficulties (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), and traumatic experiences/post-traumatic stress symptoms (The University of California Los Angeles-post-traumatic stress disorder-Reaction Index). Mental health difficulties were prevalent among HIV-positive adolescents and were associated with incomplete adherence and stigma. Resources are needed to reduce HIV stigma and address mental health among HIV-positive adolescents in low-resource settings. This will improve not only mental health, but may also improve ART adherence and virologic suppression, improving overall health of the individual and reducing the risk of HIV transmission to others. PMID:26837437

  13. Psychological effects of false-positive results in expanded newborn screening in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jun Tu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: As more families participate expanded newborn screening for metabolic disorders in China, the overall number of false positives increases. Our goal was to assess the potential impact on parental stress, perceptions of the child's health, and family relationships. METHODS: Parents of 49 infants with false-positive screening results for metabolic disorders in the expanded newborn screening panel were compared with parents of 42 children with normal screening results. Parents first completed structured interview using likert scales, closed and open questions. Parents also completed the parenting stress index. RESULTS: A total of 88 mothers and 41 fathers were interviewed. More mothers in the false-positive group reported that their children required extra parental care (21%, compared with 5% of mothers in the normal-screened group (P<0.001. 39% of mothers in the false-positive group reported that they worry about their child's future development, compared with 10% of mothers in the normal-screened group (P<0.001. Fathers in the false-positive group did not differ from fathers in the normal-screened group in reporting worry about their child's extra care requirements, and their child's future development. Children with false-positive results compared with children with normal results were triple as likely to experience hospitalization (27%vs 9%, respectively; P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The results showing false-positive screening results may affect parental stress and the parent-child relationship. Parental stress and anxiety can be reduced with improved education and communication to parents about false-positive results.

  14. Positive Drug Screen for Benzodiazepine Due to a Chinese Herbal Product

    OpenAIRE

    Eachus, Patricia L.

    1996-01-01

    A female athlete tested positive for benzodiazepine on a random drug screen. She denied taking any illicit or prescription drugs. The positive screen was found to be caused by undeclared addiction of diazepam to a Chinese herbal product, “Miracle Herb.” Some foreign vitamins, health care products, or herbal tea may contain banned or dangerous additives unknown to the consumer. These additives may include ingredients such as benzodiazepine, mefenamic acid, or corticosteroids. Possible physical...

  15. Broadly defined risk mental states during adolescence: disorganization mediates positive schizotypal expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbané, Martin; Badoud, Deborah; Balanzin, Dario; Eliez, Stephan

    2013-06-01

    While schizotypal features are common during adolescence, they can also signal increased risk for the onset of schizophreniform disorders. Most studies with adolescents find that hallucination and delusion-like symptoms (positive schizotypal features) best predict future psychopathology. Still, the developmental process of positive schizotypy remains elusive, specifically with regards to 1) its relationships to negative and disorganization schizotypal dimensions; 2) its associations to maladaptive functioning during adolescence. This longitudinal study aimed to further characterize these relationships, thereby delineating "early and broadly defined psychosis risk mental states" (Keshavan et al., 2011). The current study presents the 3-year course of schizotypal trait expression in 34 clinical adolescents aged 12 to 18 years consulting for non-psychotic difficulties. Schizotypal expression was assessed twice using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, accompanied by an examination of internalizing/externalizing problems using the Achenbach scales. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted to assess the expression and course of schizotypal dimensions; mediation analyses were further employed to highlight the developmental interactions promoting the maintenance of positive schizotypal expression. The results reveal that positive schizotypy, and more specifically unusual perceptual experiences, significantly declined during the study interval. Disorganization features were found to mediate the relationships between the negative and positive dimensions of schizotypy within and across evaluations. Somatic complaints and attentional difficulties further strengthened the expression of positive schizotypy during the study interval. These results suggest that the relationship between disorganization features and positive schizotypy may play a central role in establishing risk for psychosis during adolescence.

  16. Bullying behaviour in schools, socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity: a cross-sectional study in late adolescents in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magklara Konstantina

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying is quite prevalent in the school setting and has been associated with the socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity of the pupils. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between bullying and socioeconomic status in a sample of Greek adolescents and to examine whether this is confounded by the presence of psychiatric morbidity, including sub-threshold forms of illness. Methods 5,614 adolescents aged 16-18 years old and attending 25 senior high schools were screened and a stratified random sample of 2,427 were selected for a detailed interview. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed with a fully structured psychiatric interview, the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R, while bullying was assessed with the revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. The following socio-economic variables were assessed: parental educational level and employment status, financial difficulties of the family and adolescents' school performance. The associations were investigated using multinomial logit models. Results 26.4% of the pupils were involved in bullying-related behaviours at least once monthly either as victims, perpetrators or both, while more frequent involvement (at least once weekly was reported by 4.1%. Psychiatric morbidity was associated with all types of bullying-related behaviours. No socioeconomic associations were reported for victimization. A lower school performance and unemployment of the father were significantly more likely among perpetrators, while economic inactivity of the mother was more likely in pupils who were both victims and perpetrators. These results were largely confirmed when we focused on high frequency behaviours only. In addition, being overweight increased the risk of frequent victimization. Conclusions The prevalence of bullying among Greek pupils is substantial. Perpetration was associated with some dimensions of adolescents' socioeconomic status, while victimization

  17. “Up Means Good”: The Effect of Screen Position on Evaluative Ratings in Web Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Tourangeau, Roger; Couper, Mick P.; Conrad, Frederick G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from six experiments that examine the effect of the position of an item on the screen on the evaluative ratings it receives. The experiments are based on the idea that respondents expect “good” things—those they view positively—to be higher up on the screen than “bad” things. The experiments use items on different topics (Congress and HMOs, a variety of foods, and six physician specialties) and different methods for varying their vertical position on the screen. A ...

  18. Obesity, overweight, screen time and physical activity in Mexican adolescents Obesidad, sobrepeso, tiempo frente a la pantalla y actividad física en adolescentes mexicanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Morales-Ruán

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether screen time and physical activity is related to overweight or obesity in adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional design. Adolescents aged 10 to 19 were included in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. The dependent variable was overweight or obesity; the independent variable was screen time. A logistic regression model was created to estimate the relationship of overweight and obesity to various factors, including screen time, physical activity, study vs. no study, age, sex, indigenous ethnicity, alcohol consumption and tobacco use. RESULTS: A total of 18 784 adolescents were included. A positive relation between screen time and overweight and obesity was found. CONCLUSIONS: Screen time is associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican adolescents.OBJETIVO: Determinar si el tiempo que los adolescentes permanecen frente a pantalla y realizan actividad física se asocia con el sobrepeso o la obesidad. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Diseño transversal. Se incluyeron adolescentes de 10 a 19 años de edad, de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. La variable dependiente fue el sobrepeso u obesidad y la independiente el tiempo frente a la pantalla. Se ajustó un modelo de regresión logística para estimar la relación entre el sobrepeso u obesidad con el tiempo frente a la pantalla, actividad física, edad, sexo, condición de estudiante, indigenismo, tabaquismo y consumo de alcohol. RESULTADOS: Se estudió a 18 784 adolescentes. Se encontró una asociación positiva entre el tiempo frente a pantalla y el sobrepeso u obesidad. CONCLUSIONES: El tiempo que los adolescentes mexicanos pasan frente a pantalla está asociado con el sobrepeso u obesidad.

  19. Sports Dietitians Australia position statement: sports nutrition for the adolescent athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbrow, Ben; McCormack, Joanna; Burke, Louise M; Cox, Gregory R; Fallon, Kieran; Hislop, Matthew; Logan, Ruth; Marino, Nello; Sawyer, Susan M; Shaw, Greg; Star, Anita; Vidgen, Helen; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-10-01

    It is the position of Sports Dietitians Australia (SDA) that adolescent athletes have unique nutritional requirements as a consequence of undertaking daily training and competition in addition to the demands of growth and development. As such, SDA established an expert multidisciplinary panel to undertake an independent review of the relevant scientific evidence and consulted with its professional members to develop sports nutrition recommendations for active and competitive adolescent athletes. The position of SDA is that dietary education and recommendations for these adolescent athletes should reinforce eating for long term health. More specifically, the adolescent athlete should be encouraged to moderate eating patterns to reflect daily exercise demands and provide a regular spread of high quality carbohydrate and protein sources over the day, especially in the period immediately after training. SDA recommends that consideration also be given to the dietary calcium, Vitamin D and iron intake of adolescent athletes due to the elevated risk of deficiency of these nutrients. To maintain optimal hydration, adolescent athletes should have access to fluids that are clean, cool and supplied in sufficient quantities before, during and after participation in sport. Finally, it is the position of SDA that nutrient needs should be met by core foods rather than supplements, as the recommendation of dietary supplements to developing athletes over-emphasizes their ability to manipulate performance in comparison with other training and dietary strategies. PMID:24668620

  20. Sports Dietitians Australia position statement: sports nutrition for the adolescent athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbrow, Ben; McCormack, Joanna; Burke, Louise M; Cox, Gregory R; Fallon, Kieran; Hislop, Matthew; Logan, Ruth; Marino, Nello; Sawyer, Susan M; Shaw, Greg; Star, Anita; Vidgen, Helen; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-10-01

    It is the position of Sports Dietitians Australia (SDA) that adolescent athletes have unique nutritional requirements as a consequence of undertaking daily training and competition in addition to the demands of growth and development. As such, SDA established an expert multidisciplinary panel to undertake an independent review of the relevant scientific evidence and consulted with its professional members to develop sports nutrition recommendations for active and competitive adolescent athletes. The position of SDA is that dietary education and recommendations for these adolescent athletes should reinforce eating for long term health. More specifically, the adolescent athlete should be encouraged to moderate eating patterns to reflect daily exercise demands and provide a regular spread of high quality carbohydrate and protein sources over the day, especially in the period immediately after training. SDA recommends that consideration also be given to the dietary calcium, Vitamin D and iron intake of adolescent athletes due to the elevated risk of deficiency of these nutrients. To maintain optimal hydration, adolescent athletes should have access to fluids that are clean, cool and supplied in sufficient quantities before, during and after participation in sport. Finally, it is the position of SDA that nutrient needs should be met by core foods rather than supplements, as the recommendation of dietary supplements to developing athletes over-emphasizes their ability to manipulate performance in comparison with other training and dietary strategies.

  1. Positive Psychology and Adolescent Mental Health: False Promise or True Breakthrough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    The emerging field of positive psychology has pledged to improve the mental health of American adolescents. Yet, without a principle-based conceptual foundation to guide its study of optimal youth functioning, positive psychology will ultimately fail to keep its promise. This paper suggests that the principles of Mind, Thought and Consciousness…

  2. Utilization of cervical cancer screening services and trends in screening positivity rates in a 'screen-and-treat' program integrated with HIV/AIDS care in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulindi H Mwanahamuntu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the absence of stand-alone infrastructures for delivering cervical cancer screening services, efforts are underway in sub-Saharan Africa to dovetail screening with ongoing vertical health initiatives like HIV/AIDS care programs. Yet, evidence demonstrating the utilization of cervical cancer prevention services in such integrated programs by women of the general population is lacking. METHODS: We analyzed program operations data from the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Zambia (CCPPZ, the largest public sector programs of its kind in sub-Saharan Africa. We evaluated patterns of utilization of screening services by HIV serostatus, examined contemporaneous trends in screening outcomes, and used multivariable modeling to identify factors associated with screening test positivity. RESULTS: Between January 2006 and April 2011, CCPPZ services were utilized by 56,247 women who underwent cervical cancer screening with visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA, aided by digital cervicography. The proportion of women accessing these services who were HIV-seropositive declined from 54% to 23% between 2006-2010, which coincided with increasing proportions of HIV-seronegative women (from 22% to 38% and women whose HIV serostatus was unknown (from 24% to 39% (all p-for trend<0.001. The rates of VIA screening positivity declined from 47% to 17% during the same period (p-for trend <0.001, and this decline was consistent across all HIV serostatus categories. After adjusting for demographic and sexual/reproductive factors, HIV-seropositive women were more than twice as likely (Odds ratio 2.62, 95% CI 2.49, 2.76 to screen VIA-positive than HIV-seronegative women. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first 'real world' demonstration in a public sector implementation program in a sub-Saharan African setting that with successful program scale-up efforts, nurse-led cervical cancer screening programs targeting women with HIV can expand and serve all women

  3. Integrating Universal Behavioral Screening within Program-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Mack D.; Rispoli, Mandy; Clemens, Nathan H.; Lee, Yuan-Hsuan; Sanchez, Lisa; Hatton, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Universal behavioral screening is a major part of positive behavioral support and response to intervention systems. Program-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) focuses on establishing social, emotional, and behavioral competence through promotion of a small set of behavioral expectations that are agreed upon, taught, and…

  4. Participation behaviour following a false positive test in the Copenhagen mammography screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sune Bangsbøll; Vejborg, Ilse; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is an ongoing debate concerning possible disadvantages of mammography screening, one being the consequence of receiving a false positive test-result. It is argued that receiving a false positive answer may have short- and/or long-term adverse psychological effects on women, bu...

  5. The ligase chain reaction as a primary screening tool for the detection of culture positive tuberculosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The ligase chain reaction Mycobacterium tuberculosis assay uses ligase chain reaction technology to detect tuberculous DNA sequences in clinical specimens. A study was undertaken to determine its sensitivity and specificity as a primary screening tool for the detection of culture positive tuberculosis. METHODS: The study was conducted on 2420 clinical specimens (sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, pleural fluid, urine) submitted for primary screening for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to a regional medical microbiology laboratory. Specimens were tested in parallel with smear, ligase chain reaction, and culture. RESULTS: Thirty nine patients had specimens testing positive by the ligase chain reaction assay. Thirty two patients had newly diagnosed tuberculosis, one had a tuberculosis relapse, three had tuberculosis (on antituberculous therapy when tested), and three had healed tuberculosis. In the newly diagnosed group specimens were smear positive in 21 cases (66%), ligase chain reaction positive in 30 cases (94%), and culture positive in 32 cases (100%). Using a positive culture to diagnose active tuberculosis, the ligase chain reaction assay had a sensitivity of 93.9%, a specificity of 99.8%, a positive predictive value of 83.8%, and a negative predictive value of 99.9%. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the largest clinical trial to date to report the efficacy of the ligase chain reaction as a primary screening tool to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The authors conclude that ligase chain reaction is a useful primary screening test for tuberculosis, offering speed and discrimination in the early stages of diagnosis and complementing traditional smear and culture techniques.

  6. The Interpersonal Legacy of a Positive Family Climate in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Ackerman, Robert A.; Kashy, Deborah A.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Neppl, Tricia; Lorenz, Fredrick O.; Conger, Rand D.

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated how well overall levels of positive engagement in adolescents’ families of origin, as well as adolescents’ unique expressions of positive engagement in observed family interactions, statistically predicted marital outcomes approximately 20 years later. Data for family-of-origin positive engagement were drawn from approximately 400 families participating in the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP) during three waves of data collection from 1989 to 1991. The primary ou...

  7. Parental knowledge reduces long term anxiety induced by false-positive test results after newborn screening for cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij-van Langen, A.M.M.; Pal, S.M. van der; Reijntjens, A.J.T.; Loeber, J.G.; Dompeling, E.; Dankert-Roelse, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: False-positive screening results in newborn screening for cystic fibrosis may lead to parental stress, family relationship problems and a changed perception of the child's health. Aim of the study: To evaluate whether parental anxiety induced by a false positive screening result disappea

  8. Positive parenting predicts the development of adolescent brain structure: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Whittle

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Little work has been conducted that examines the effects of positive environmental experiences on brain development to date. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the effects of positive (warm and supportive maternal behavior on structural brain development during adolescence, using longitudinal structural MRI. Participants were 188 (92 female adolescents, who were part of a longitudinal adolescent development study that involved mother–adolescent interactions and MRI scans at approximately 12 years old, and follow-up MRI scans approximately 4 years later. FreeSurfer software was used to estimate the volume of limbic-striatal regions (amygdala, hippocampus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens and the thickness of prefrontal regions (anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices across both time points. Higher frequency of positive maternal behavior during the interactions predicted attenuated volumetric growth in the right amygdala, and accelerated cortical thinning in the right anterior cingulate (males only and left and right orbitofrontal cortices, between baseline and follow up. These results have implications for understanding the biological mediators of risk and protective factors for mental disorders that have onset during adolescence.

  9. Cognitive and Emotional Associations to Positive Schizotypy during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbane, Martin; Van der Linden, Martial; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Eliez, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sub-clinical symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations and delusions, known as positive schizotypy, constitute one of the strongest predictive factors for adult psychotic disorders. Recent cognitive models suggest that the expression of positive schizotypy is associated with depression, anxiety, metacognitive beliefs and…

  10. Socioeconomic position, macroeconomic environment and overweight among adolescents in 35 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Damsgaard, M Rasmussen, MT; Holstein, Bjørn;

    2009-01-01

    Objective It is important to understand levels and social inequalities in childhood overweight within and between countries. This study examined prevalence and social inequality in adolescent overweight in 35 countries, and associations with macroeconomic factors. Design International cross...... associated with prevalence and socioeconomic inequality in overweight among the 23-high income and 10-middle income countries, with a positive relationship among the high income countries and a negative association among the middle income countries. Conclusion The direction and magnitude of social inequality...... in adolescent overweight shows large international variation, with negative social gradients in most countries, but positive social gradients, especially for boys, in some Central European countries. Macroeconomic factors are associated with the heterogeneity in prevalence and social inequality of adolescent...

  11. Socioeconomic position, macroeconomic environment and overweight among adolescents in 35 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Rasmussen, M;

    2009-01-01

    with prevalence and socioeconomic inequality in overweight among the 23-high income and 10-middle income countries, with a positive relationship among the high income countries and a negative association among the middle income countries.Conclusion:The direction and magnitude of social inequality in adolescent......Objective:It is important to understand levels and social inequalities in childhood overweight within and between countries. This study examined prevalence and social inequality in adolescent overweight in 35 countries, and associations with macroeconomic factors.Design:International cross...... overweight shows large international variation, with negative social gradients in most countries, but positive social gradients, especially for boys, in some Central European countries. Macroeconomic factors are associated with the heterogeneity in prevalence and social inequality of adolescent overweight...

  12. BAP Position Statement: Off-label prescribing of psychotropic medication to children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aditya N; Arango, Celso; Coghill, David; Gringras, Paul; Nutt, David J; Pratt, Peter; Young, Allan H; Hollis, Chris

    2016-05-01

    The off-label use of medicines for children and adolescents remains a common and important issue for prescribing practice across child and adolescent psychiatry, paediatrics and primary care. This editorial focusses on psychotropic drug treatment, which plays an essential part in the comprehensive management of a range of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders. Despite a growing evidence base for drug treatment in child and adolescent psychiatric disorders, much psychotropic medication continues to be prescribed off-label (i.e. outside the limits of the marketing authorisation or product license). The reasons for and implications of off-label prescribing, including the potential clinical benefits/risks and medico-legal implications, are often poorly understood by both patients and prescribers. An important unintended consequence of the uncertainties and confusion surrounding the status of off-label prescribing for children and adolescents may be that effective drug treatments are being withheld or underused. This BAP Position Statement aims to clarify these issues, challenge some of the myths surrounding off-label prescribing for children and adolescents and offer practical guidance for prescribers. PMID:27098018

  13. BAP Position Statement: Off-label prescribing of psychotropic medication to children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aditya N; Arango, Celso; Coghill, David; Gringras, Paul; Nutt, David J; Pratt, Peter; Young, Allan H; Hollis, Chris

    2016-05-01

    The off-label use of medicines for children and adolescents remains a common and important issue for prescribing practice across child and adolescent psychiatry, paediatrics and primary care. This editorial focusses on psychotropic drug treatment, which plays an essential part in the comprehensive management of a range of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders. Despite a growing evidence base for drug treatment in child and adolescent psychiatric disorders, much psychotropic medication continues to be prescribed off-label (i.e. outside the limits of the marketing authorisation or product license). The reasons for and implications of off-label prescribing, including the potential clinical benefits/risks and medico-legal implications, are often poorly understood by both patients and prescribers. An important unintended consequence of the uncertainties and confusion surrounding the status of off-label prescribing for children and adolescents may be that effective drug treatments are being withheld or underused. This BAP Position Statement aims to clarify these issues, challenge some of the myths surrounding off-label prescribing for children and adolescents and offer practical guidance for prescribers.

  14. Screen media usage, sleep time and academic performance in adolescents: clustering a self-organizing maps analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiró-Velert, Carmen; Valencia-Peris, Alexandra; González, Luis M; García-Massó, Xavier; Serra-Añó, Pilar; Devís-Devís, José

    2014-01-01

    Screen media usage, sleep time and socio-demographic features are related to adolescents' academic performance, but interrelations are little explored. This paper describes these interrelations and behavioral profiles clustered in low and high academic performance. A nationally representative sample of 3,095 Spanish adolescents, aged 12 to 18, was surveyed on 15 variables linked to the purpose of the study. A Self-Organizing Maps analysis established non-linear interrelationships among these variables and identified behavior patterns in subsequent cluster analyses. Topological interrelationships established from the 15 emerging maps indicated that boys used more passive videogames and computers for playing than girls, who tended to use mobile phones to communicate with others. Adolescents with the highest academic performance were the youngest. They slept more and spent less time using sedentary screen media when compared to those with the lowest performance, and they also showed topological relationships with higher socioeconomic status adolescents. Cluster 1 grouped boys who spent more than 5.5 hours daily using sedentary screen media. Their academic performance was low and they slept an average of 8 hours daily. Cluster 2 gathered girls with an excellent academic performance, who slept nearly 9 hours per day, and devoted less time daily to sedentary screen media. Academic performance was directly related to sleep time and socioeconomic status, but inversely related to overall sedentary screen media usage. Profiles from the two clusters were strongly differentiated by gender, age, sedentary screen media usage, sleep time and academic achievement. Girls with the highest academic results had a medium socioeconomic status in Cluster 2. Findings may contribute to establishing recommendations about the timing and duration of screen media usage in adolescents and appropriate sleep time needed to successfully meet the demands of school academics and to improve

  15. Screen media usage, sleep time and academic performance in adolescents: clustering a self-organizing maps analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiró-Velert, Carmen; Valencia-Peris, Alexandra; González, Luis M; García-Massó, Xavier; Serra-Añó, Pilar; Devís-Devís, José

    2014-01-01

    Screen media usage, sleep time and socio-demographic features are related to adolescents' academic performance, but interrelations are little explored. This paper describes these interrelations and behavioral profiles clustered in low and high academic performance. A nationally representative sample of 3,095 Spanish adolescents, aged 12 to 18, was surveyed on 15 variables linked to the purpose of the study. A Self-Organizing Maps analysis established non-linear interrelationships among these variables and identified behavior patterns in subsequent cluster analyses. Topological interrelationships established from the 15 emerging maps indicated that boys used more passive videogames and computers for playing than girls, who tended to use mobile phones to communicate with others. Adolescents with the highest academic performance were the youngest. They slept more and spent less time using sedentary screen media when compared to those with the lowest performance, and they also showed topological relationships with higher socioeconomic status adolescents. Cluster 1 grouped boys who spent more than 5.5 hours daily using sedentary screen media. Their academic performance was low and they slept an average of 8 hours daily. Cluster 2 gathered girls with an excellent academic performance, who slept nearly 9 hours per day, and devoted less time daily to sedentary screen media. Academic performance was directly related to sleep time and socioeconomic status, but inversely related to overall sedentary screen media usage. Profiles from the two clusters were strongly differentiated by gender, age, sedentary screen media usage, sleep time and academic achievement. Girls with the highest academic results had a medium socioeconomic status in Cluster 2. Findings may contribute to establishing recommendations about the timing and duration of screen media usage in adolescents and appropriate sleep time needed to successfully meet the demands of school academics and to improve

  16. Screen media usage, sleep time and academic performance in adolescents: clustering a self-organizing maps analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Peiró-Velert

    Full Text Available Screen media usage, sleep time and socio-demographic features are related to adolescents' academic performance, but interrelations are little explored. This paper describes these interrelations and behavioral profiles clustered in low and high academic performance. A nationally representative sample of 3,095 Spanish adolescents, aged 12 to 18, was surveyed on 15 variables linked to the purpose of the study. A Self-Organizing Maps analysis established non-linear interrelationships among these variables and identified behavior patterns in subsequent cluster analyses. Topological interrelationships established from the 15 emerging maps indicated that boys used more passive videogames and computers for playing than girls, who tended to use mobile phones to communicate with others. Adolescents with the highest academic performance were the youngest. They slept more and spent less time using sedentary screen media when compared to those with the lowest performance, and they also showed topological relationships with higher socioeconomic status adolescents. Cluster 1 grouped boys who spent more than 5.5 hours daily using sedentary screen media. Their academic performance was low and they slept an average of 8 hours daily. Cluster 2 gathered girls with an excellent academic performance, who slept nearly 9 hours per day, and devoted less time daily to sedentary screen media. Academic performance was directly related to sleep time and socioeconomic status, but inversely related to overall sedentary screen media usage. Profiles from the two clusters were strongly differentiated by gender, age, sedentary screen media usage, sleep time and academic achievement. Girls with the highest academic results had a medium socioeconomic status in Cluster 2. Findings may contribute to establishing recommendations about the timing and duration of screen media usage in adolescents and appropriate sleep time needed to successfully meet the demands of school academics and

  17. Maternal Health Care Utilization Among HIV-Positive Female Adolescents in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Birungi; F. Obare; A. van der Kwaak; J.H. Namwebya

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Given the health risks of HIV/AIDS and the risks of teenage pregnancy in general, pregnant HIV-positive adolescents in Kenya need maternal health care services that account for their HIV status. However, research on their access to and use of these services is scant. METHODS: To examine mat

  18. Social Media Use and Social Connectedness in Adolescents: The Positives and the Potential Pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kelly A.; Ryan, Tracii; Gray, DeLeon L.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Waters, Lea

    2014-01-01

    As social media use is rising among adolescents, the issue of whether this use leads to positive or negative outcomes warrants greater understanding. This article critically reviews the literature related to this important topic. Specifically, we examine how social media use affects social connectedness in terms of three elements of adolescent…

  19. Positive Parenting of Young Adolescents by Male Cohabiting Partners: The Roles of Coparenting Conflict and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Fathers have often been ignored in the parenting literature. The current study focused on male cohabiting partners (MCPs) who can serve as "social stepfathers" and examined the association of coparent support and conflict with their positive parenting behavior (i.e., acceptance, firm control, and monitoring) of adolescents. Participants…

  20. Predictors and Health-Related Outcomes of Positive Body Image in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential…

  1. Trajectories of Positive and Negative Behaviors from Early- to Middle-Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin-Bizan, Selva; Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Fay, Kristen; Schmid, Kristina; McPherran, Caitlin; Lerner, Jacqueline V.; Lerner, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Although the positive youth development (PYD) model initially assumed inverse links between indicators of PYD and of risk/problem behaviors, empirical work in adolescence has suggested that more complex associations exist between trajectories of the two domains of functioning. To clarify the PYD model, this study assessed intraindividual change in…

  2. Positive Adult Support and Depression Symptoms in Adolescent Females: The Partially Mediating Role of Eating Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linville, Deanna; O'Neil, Maya; Huebner, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This study examined linkages between depression symptoms (DEP) and positive adult support (PAS) in female adolescents and the partially mediating influence of eating disturbances (ED). Structural equation modeling was used to establish measurement models for each of the latent constructs, determine the relationships among the latent constructs,…

  3. Parental Divorce and Adolescent Drunkenness : Role of Socioeconomic Position, Psychological Well-Being and Social Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomcikova, Z.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Orosova, O.; van Dijk, J. P.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness in the last 4 weeks and the contribution of socioeconomic position, family structure, social support from family and well-being to this association. Methods: We obtain

  4. Investigating the Relationship among Internet Addiction, Positive and Negative Affects, and Life Satisfaction in Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telef, Bülent Baki

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between Internet addiction and the areas of life satisfaction and positive or negative affects in Turkish adolescents. The research sample comprised 358 students studying in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades at four different middle schools in Canakkale city centre during the 2012-2013 academic year, of…

  5. Adolescent Diet and Time Use Clusters and Associations with Overweight and Obesity and Socioeconomic Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, Katia; Golley, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Risk factors for adolescent overweight and obesity include low levels of physical activity, high levels of sedentary behavior, low fruit and vegetable intake, and low socioeconomic position (SEP). To date, the vast majority of research investigating associations between lifestyle behaviors and weight status analyze dietary and time use factors…

  6. Improved detection of breast cancer on FDG-PET cancer screening using breast positioning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the detection rate of breast cancer by positron emission tomography cancer screening using a breast positioning device. Between January 2004 and January 2006, 1,498 healthy asymptomatic individuals underwent cancer screening by fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) at our institution; 660 of 1498 asymptomatic healthy women underwent breast PET imaging in the prone position using the breast positioning device to examine the mammary glands in addition to whole-body PET imaging. All subjects that showed abnormal 18F-FDG uptake in the mammary glands were referred for further examination or surgery at our institution or a local hospital. Our data were compared with the histopathological findings or findings of other imaging modalities in our institution and replies from the doctors at another hospital. Of the 660 participants, 7 (1.06%) were found to have breast cancers at a curable stage. All the seven cancers were detected by breast PET imaging, but only five of these were detected by whole-body PET imaging; the other two were detected by breast PET imaging using the breast positioning device. In cancer screening, prone breast imaging using a positioning device may help to improve the detection rate of breast cancer. However, overall cancer including mammography and ultrasonography screening should be performed to investigate the false-negative cases and reduce false-positive cases. The effectiveness of prone breast PET imaging in cancer screening should be investigated using a much larger number of cases in the near future. (author)

  7. Positive diagnostic values and histological detection ratios from the Rotterdam cervical cancer screening programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. Kreuger; H. Beerman (Henk); H.G. Nijs (Huub); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: In organized screening programmes for cervical cancer, pre-cancerous lesions are detected by cervical smears. However, during follow-up after a positive smear these pre-cancerous lesions are not always found. The purpose of the study is to analys

  8. Video game genre preference, physical activity and screen-time in adolescent boys from low-income communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Hayden T; Smith, Jordan J; Morgan, Philip J; Babic, Mark J; Lubans, David R

    2014-12-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between the types of video games played by adolescent boys and their participation in physical activity and recreational screen-time. Participants were 320 boys (mean age = 12.7, ±0.5 years) from 14 secondary schools located in low-income areas of New South Wales, Australia. Outcomes included height, weight, physical activity (accelerometers), total screen-time, and video game genre preference. Significant differences in both weekday and weekend screen-time were found between video game genre groups. In addition, significant differences in overall activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were found between genre groups on weekdays. Between-group differences in physical activity on weekends were not statistically significant. This cross-sectional study has demonstrated that video game genre preference is associated with physical activity and screen-time in adolescent boys from low-income communities.

  9. Video game genre preference, physical activity and screen-time in adolescent boys from low-income communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Hayden T; Smith, Jordan J; Morgan, Philip J; Babic, Mark J; Lubans, David R

    2014-12-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between the types of video games played by adolescent boys and their participation in physical activity and recreational screen-time. Participants were 320 boys (mean age = 12.7, ±0.5 years) from 14 secondary schools located in low-income areas of New South Wales, Australia. Outcomes included height, weight, physical activity (accelerometers), total screen-time, and video game genre preference. Significant differences in both weekday and weekend screen-time were found between video game genre groups. In addition, significant differences in overall activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were found between genre groups on weekdays. Between-group differences in physical activity on weekends were not statistically significant. This cross-sectional study has demonstrated that video game genre preference is associated with physical activity and screen-time in adolescent boys from low-income communities. PMID:25448829

  10. Criterion validity of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and one- and two-item depression screens in young adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    McCauley Elizabeth; Lymp James; Tracy Melissa; Simpson Kate; Rhew Isaac C; Tsuang Debby; Stoep Ann

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of short screening questionnaires may be a promising option for identifying children at risk for depression in a community setting. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ) and one- and two-item screening instruments for depressive disorders in a school-based sample of young adolescents. Methods Participants were 521 sixth-grade students attending public middle schools. Child and parent versions of t...

  11. Comparison of colorectal cancer screening and diagnoses in HIV-positive and HIV-negative veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, J L; Rentsch, C T; Rimland, D

    2014-01-01

    Non-AIDS defining malignancies, including colorectal cancer (CRC), are emerging as significant problems in HIV-infected people. Some data suggest that HIV-positive patients have higher incidence of CRC at younger ages than those who are HIV-negative. This investigation examined CRC rates and screening types and trends between 943 HIV-infected cases and their age, race, and gender matched HIV-negative controls (n = 943) from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2008 at the Atlanta VA Medical Center. The most common screening type among these patients was fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), but colonoscopies were more common in the controls (16.4% for cases, 27.5% for controls; p screening for CRC during the four years of follow-up even though average age was 55 years. Fifty-one percent of cases had at least one screening test during follow-up compared to 48% of the controls; 7.6% of the cases had a screening each of the four years compared to only 2.4% of the controls (p HIV-positive patients were diagnosed with CRC during the study period compared to no CRC diagnoses among controls (p = 0.0015), though there was no difference in the diagnosis of colon polyps (4.6% vs. 5.1%, p = 0.5911). These data also suggest a discrepancy in CRC incidence between race and age groups: 80% of HIV-positive cases diagnosed with CRC during the study were black and two were less than 50 years of age. Future studies will need to address whether different recommendations are needed for screening based on HIV status, younger age, or race.

  12. Contribution of personal and environmental factors on positive psychological functioning in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Daniela; Scalas, L Francesca; Meleddu, Mauro

    2015-08-01

    This study examined self-esteem as mediator in the relations of personal (extraversion, neuroticism) and environmental (maternal, paternal, peer-relationships) variables with domains of positive psychological functioning (PPF) in adolescence (Satisfaction with life, Mastery, Vigor, Social Interest, Social Cheerfulness). We compared one-sided and multidimensional models using a sample of 1193 high school students (592 males and 601 females). We examined variations in adolescent PPF as a function of parenting styles via independent examination of maternal and paternal bonding. Results supported the multidimensional models, which indicated direct effects of personality traits, maternal care and peer relationships, as well as indirect effects, mediated by self-esteem, of all predictors on most PPF dimensions. Overall, our study provided a broader picture of personal and environmental predictors on different dimensions of PPF, which supported the mediating role of self-esteem and emphasized the importance of considering multidimensional models to characterize PPF in adolescents.

  13. Contribution of personal and environmental factors on positive psychological functioning in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Daniela; Scalas, L Francesca; Meleddu, Mauro

    2015-08-01

    This study examined self-esteem as mediator in the relations of personal (extraversion, neuroticism) and environmental (maternal, paternal, peer-relationships) variables with domains of positive psychological functioning (PPF) in adolescence (Satisfaction with life, Mastery, Vigor, Social Interest, Social Cheerfulness). We compared one-sided and multidimensional models using a sample of 1193 high school students (592 males and 601 females). We examined variations in adolescent PPF as a function of parenting styles via independent examination of maternal and paternal bonding. Results supported the multidimensional models, which indicated direct effects of personality traits, maternal care and peer relationships, as well as indirect effects, mediated by self-esteem, of all predictors on most PPF dimensions. Overall, our study provided a broader picture of personal and environmental predictors on different dimensions of PPF, which supported the mediating role of self-esteem and emphasized the importance of considering multidimensional models to characterize PPF in adolescents. PMID:26093819

  14. Cervical cancer screening adherence among HIV-positive female smokers from a comprehensive HIV clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Faith E; Vidrine, Damon J; Tami-Maury, Irene; Danysh, Heather E; King, Rachel Marks; Buchberg, Meredith; Arduino, Roberto C; Gritz, Ellen R

    2014-03-01

    HIV-positive women are at elevated risk for developing cervical cancer. While emerging research suggests that gynecologic health care is underutilized by HIV-positive women, factors associated with adherence to Pap testing, especially among HIV-positive female smokers are not well known. We utilized baseline data from a smoking cessation trial and electronic medical records to assess Pap smear screening prevalence and the associated characteristics among the HIV-positive female participants (n = 138). 46 % of the women had at least 1 Pap test in the year following study enrollment. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age, African American race, hazardous drinking, increased number of cigarettes smoked per day, and smoking risk perception were associated with non-adherence to Pap smear screening. Cervical cancer screening was severely underutilized by women in this study. Findings underscore the importance of identifying predictors of non-adherence and addressing multiple risk factors and behavioral patterns among HIV-positive women who smoke.

  15. A nationwide survey on the daily screen time of Iranian children and adolescents: The CASPIAN - IV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Jari

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The time spent on screen activities is long in a considerably high number of Iranian children and adolescents. It should be reduced by increasing the public awareness and by providing facilities for regular daily physic activity for students′ leisure times.

  16. Screen Time, How Much Is Too Much? The Social and Emotional Costs of Technology on the Adolescent Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeese, Katherine Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Screen time no longer means just the amount of time one spends in front of the television. Now it is an aggregate amount of time spent on smartphones, computers as well as multitasking with different devices. How much are the glowing rectangles taking away from adolescent social and emotional health? How is it changing how students learn and how…

  17. Quality Indicator Development for Positive Screen Follow-up for Sickle Cell Disease and Trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, Elissa Z; Wang, C Jason; Oyeku, Suzette O

    2016-07-01

    Extensive variation exists in the follow-up of positive screens for sickle cell disease. Limited quality indicators exist to measure if the public health goals of screening-early initiation of treatment and enrollment to care-are being achieved. This manuscript focuses on the development of quality indicators related to the follow-up care for individuals identified with sickle cell disease and trait through screening processes. The authors used a modified Delphi method to develop the indicators. The process included a comprehensive literature review with rating of the evidence followed by ratings of draft indicators by an expert panel held in September 2012. The expert panel was nominated by leaders of various professional societies, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and met face to face to discuss and rate each indicator. The panel recommended nine quality indicators focused on key aspects of follow-up care for individuals with positive screens for sickle cell disease and trait. Public health programs and healthcare institutions can use these indicators to assess the quality of follow-up care and provide a basis for improvement efforts to ensure appropriate family education, early initiation of treatment, and appropriate referral to care for individuals identified with sickle cell disease and trait. PMID:27320465

  18. A Clustered Randomized Controlled Trial of the Positive Prevention PLUS Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the impact of Positive Prevention PLUS, a school-based adolescent pregnancy prevention program on delaying sexual intercourse, birth control use, and pregnancy. Methods. I randomly assigned a diverse sample of ninth grade students in 21 suburban public high schools in California into treatment (n = 2483) and control (n = 1784) groups that participated in a clustered randomized controlled trial. Between October 2013 and May 2014, participants completed baseline and 6-month follow-up surveys regarding sexual behavior and pregnancy. Participants in the treatment group were offered Positive Prevention PLUS, an 11-lesson adolescent pregnancy prevention program. Results. The program had statistically significant impacts on delaying sexual intercourse and increasing the use of birth control. However, I detected no program effect on pregnancy rates at 6-month follow-up. Conclusions. The Positive Prevention PLUS program demonstrated positive impacts on adolescent sexual behavior. This suggests that programs that focus on having students practice risk reduction skills may delay sexual activity and increase birth control use. PMID:27689502

  19. Accuracy study of the main screening tools for temporomandibular disorder in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santis, Tatiana Oliveira; Motta, Lara Jansiski; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; de Godoy, Camila Haddad Leal; Alfaya, Thays Almeida; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the degree of sensitivity and specificity of the screening questionnaire recommended by the American Academy of Orofacial Pain (AAOP) and the patient-history index proposed by Helkimo (modified by Fonseca) and correlate the findings with a clinical exam. All participants answered the questionnaires and were submitted to a clinical exam by a dentist who had undergone calibration training. Both the AAOP questionnaire and Helkimo index achieved low degrees of sensitivity for the detection of temporomandibular disorder (TMD), but exhibited a high degree of specificity. With regard to concordance, the AAOP questionnaire and Helkimo index both achieved low levels of agreement with the clinical exam. The different instruments available in the literature for the assessment of TMD and examined herein exhibit low sensitivity and high specificity when administered to children and adolescents stemming from difficulties in comprehension due to the age group studied and the language used in the self-explanatory questions.

  20. Prevalence of positive syphilis serology among HIV-infected patients: role for routine screening in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukanok, Sivaporn; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin

    2014-03-01

    Data regarding syphilis screening in resource-limited settings is limited. We aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of positive syphilis serology in HIV-infected adult patients in an outpatient setting in Thailand. A cross sectional study was conducted among 178 HIV-infected patients. Ninety-eight patients (55%) were male; then median (interquartile range; IQR) age was 43 (36-49) years. The majority of the patients (84.3%) had a heterosexual risk. Three patients (1.7%) had a positive rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test (range, 1:2 to 1:16), 9 (5%) patients had a positive Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) test, and 3 patients (1.7%) had positive results on both tests. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, a pruritic papular eruption [odds ratio (OR) 5.37; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-26.38; p = 0.038], current CD4 cell count (OR 1.22, per 50 cells/mm3; 95% CI: 1.01-1.46; p = 0.035), and using abacavir in the current regimen (OR 59.19; 95% CI: 2.15-1,628.68; p = 0.016) were associated with positive syphilis serology. In conclusion, the prevalence of positive syphilis serology among Thai HIV-infected patients was low. Routine screening for syphilis in HIV-infected patients who are asymptomatic may need to be re-considered at the national level in this resource-limited setting. PMID:24968686

  1. How and why community hospital clinicians document a positive screen for intimate partner violence: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann Richard C; Leiter Karen S; Gerber Megan R; Bor David H

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background This two-part study examines primary care clinicians' chart documentation and attitudes when confronted by a positive waiting room screen for intimate partner violence (IPV). Methods Patients at community hospital-affiliated health centers completed a screening questionnaire in waiting rooms that primary care providers (PCPs) were subsequently given at the time of the visit. We first reviewed the medical records of patients who screened positive for IPV, evaluating the pre...

  2. Epidemiological comparisons of problems and positive qualities reported by adolescents in 24 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, Leslie; Achenbach, Thomas M; Ivanova, Masha Y;

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared ratings of behavioral and emotional problems and positive qualities on the Youth Self-Report (T. M. Achenbach & L. A. Rescorla, 2001) by adolescents in general population samples from 24 countries (N = 27,206). For problem scales, country effect sizes (ESs...... averaged .69. For Total Problems, 17 of 24 countries scored within one standard deviation of the overall mean of 35.3. In the 19 countries for which parent ratings were also available, the mean of 20.5 for parent ratings was far lower than the self-report mean of 34.0 in the same 19 countries (d = 2.......5). Results indicate considerable consistency across 24 countries in adolescents' self-reported problems but less consistency for positive qualities....

  3. Cancer during adolescence: negative and positive consequences reported three and four years after diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunn Engvall

    Full Text Available Persons diagnosed with cancer during adolescence have reported negative and positive cancer-related consequences two years after diagnosis. The overall aim was to longitudinally describe negative and positive cancer-related consequences reported by the same persons three and four years after diagnosis. A secondary aim was to explore whether reports of using vs. not using certain coping strategies shortly after diagnosis are related to reporting or not reporting certain consequences four years after diagnosis. Thirty-two participants answered questions about coping strategies shortly after diagnosis and negative and positive consequences three and four years after diagnosis. Answers about consequences were analysed with content analysis, potential relations between coping strategies and consequences were analysed by Fisher's exact test. The great majority reported negative and positive consequences three and four years after diagnosis and the findings indicate stability over time with regard to perceived consequences during the extended phase of survival. Findings reveal a potential relation between seeking information shortly after diagnosis and reporting a more positive view of life four years after diagnosis and not using fighting spirit shortly after diagnosis and not reporting good self-esteem and good relations four years after diagnosis. It is concluded that concomitant negative and positive cancer-related consequences appear stable over time in the extended phase of survival and that dialectical forces of negative and positive as well as distress and growth often go hand-in-hand after a trauma such as cancer during adolescence.

  4. An audit to investigate the impact of false positive breast screening results and diagnostic work-up on re-engagement with subsequent routine screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Women attending breast screening may have suspicious mammographic findings that are subsequently found at assessment clinic to be normal (false positive, FP). A false positive diagnosis is not harmless, with short and long term negative psychosocial consequences reported. Women are at increased relative risk of breast cancer therefore their attendance at subsequent screening is essential. Aims: To assess the impact of FP breast screening diagnosis and diagnostic work-up on re-attendance rates across four consecutive screening rounds at a typical breast screening centre. Method: Diagnostic interventions and screening re-attendance rates at one prior and two consecutive rounds were analysed for women receiving an FP diagnosis between 2004 and 2006. Results: 397 women (5.57%) were referred for further assessment, including 228 (57.43%) false positives. 34 eligible women failed to re-attend routine screening (+3 years), with 17 failing to re-attend subsequently (+6 years). 70.6% (24/34) of non-attenders had attended at least two screening rounds prior to FP assessment. 75% of FP women had an imaging-only assessment with 17.5% (30/171) failing to re-attend, and 25% received a biopsy, with 7% (4/57) failing to re-attend subsequently. Conclusion: This study is unique as it follows FP women through four consecutive screening rounds. FP non-attendance rates were considerably lower compared to the general screening population, with diagnostic work-up having limited influence. FP non-attendance may appear insignificant in comparison to total screened population, but these women are at greater risk of subsequent cancer so should be actively encouraged to re-engage with the screening programme

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in a Non-Clinical Sample of Children and Adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Arwa; El Keshky, Mogeda; Hadwin, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    This paper examined the reliability, convergent validity and factor structure of the self-report Screen for Child Anxiety Disorders (SCARED; Birmaher et al. in J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:545-553, 1997) in a large community sample of children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire showed moderate to high internal consistency and satisfactory test-retest reliability over a 2 week period. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between reported anxiety symptoms with parent report behavioural difficulties. The five factor structure model of the SCARED also had a good model fit in this population. The results showed that self-report anxiety symptoms decreased with age (for boys and not girls) and were higher in adolescent girls. The results suggest that the SCARED could be useful in this population to identify individuals who are at risk of developing anxiety disorders in childhood with a view to implementing prevention and intervention methods to ensure positive developmental outcome over time. PMID:26424720

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in a Non-Clinical Sample of Children and Adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Arwa; El Keshky, Mogeda; Hadwin, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    This paper examined the reliability, convergent validity and factor structure of the self-report Screen for Child Anxiety Disorders (SCARED; Birmaher et al. in J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:545-553, 1997) in a large community sample of children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire showed moderate to high internal consistency and satisfactory test-retest reliability over a 2 week period. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between reported anxiety symptoms with parent report behavioural difficulties. The five factor structure model of the SCARED also had a good model fit in this population. The results showed that self-report anxiety symptoms decreased with age (for boys and not girls) and were higher in adolescent girls. The results suggest that the SCARED could be useful in this population to identify individuals who are at risk of developing anxiety disorders in childhood with a view to implementing prevention and intervention methods to ensure positive developmental outcome over time.

  7. Health inequality in adolescence. Does stratification occur by familial social background, family affluence, or personal social position?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Rimpelä

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two new sets of stratification indicators – family's material affluence and adolescent's personal social position- were compared with traditional indicators of familial social position based on parental occupation and education for their ability to detect health inequality among adolescents. Methods Survey data were collected in the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey in 2003 from nationally representative samples of 12-, 14- and 16-year-old Finns (number of respondents 5394, response rate 71%. Indicators of the familial social position were father's socio-economic status, parents' education, parents' labour market position. Indicators of material affluence were number of cars, vacation travels, and computers in the family, own room and amount of weekly spending money. Adolescent's personal social position was measured as school performance. Measures of health were long-standing illness, overweight, use of mental health services, poor self-rated health and number of weekly health complaints. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was applied to study the associations between stratification indicators and health variables. Results All three groups of indicators of social stratification showed inequality in health, but the strongest associations were observed with the adolescent's personal social position. Health inequality was only partly identifiable by the traditional indicators of familial social position. The direction of the inequality was as expected when using the traditional indicators or personal social position: adolescents from higher social positions were healthier than those from lower positions. The indicators of family's material affluence showed mainly weak or no association with health and some of the indicators were inversely associated, although weakly. Conclusion In addition to traditional indicators describing the socio-structural influences on the distribution of health among adolescents, indicators of

  8. When Parents' Affection Depends on Child's Achievement: Parental Conditional Positive Regard, Self-Aggrandizement, Shame and Coping in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assor, Avi; Tal, Karen

    2012-01-01

    We examined the idea that adolescents' perceptions of their mothers as using parental conditional positive regard (PCPR) to promote academic achievement are associated with maladaptive self feelings and coping. A study of 153 adolescents supported the hypothesis that PCPR predicts self-aggrandizement following success and self devaluation and…

  9. Effects of an Integrated Science and Societal Implication Intervention on Promoting Adolescents' Positive Thinking and Emotional Perceptions in Learning Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zuway R.; Lin, Huann-Shyang; Lawrenz, Frances P.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of integrating science and societal implication on adolescents' positive thinking and emotional perceptions about learning science. Twenty-five eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (9 boys and 16 girls) volunteered to participate in a 12-week intervention and formed the experimental group.…

  10. The Mediation Effect of School Satisfaction in the Relationship between Teacher Support, Positive Affect and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telef, Bülent Baki; Arslan, Gökmen; Mert, Abdullah; Kalafat, Sezai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationships among teacher support, positive emotions, school satisfaction and life satisfaction in adolescences. The study had the participation of 344 adolescents from different socio-economic levels studying in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades of three public middle schools in the province of…

  11. Positive Adolescent Career Development: The Role of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Work Values

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschi, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 268 Swiss adolescents, spanning across 8th grade, investigated the relation of intrinsic and extrinsic work values to positive career development in deciding, planning, and exploring. Results showed that girls reported more intrinsic and fewer extrinsic work values compared with boys. Students with an immigration background reported more extrinsic values than did students of Swiss nationality. When gender, nationality, and scholastic achievement were controlled, mor...

  12. Positive Psychology Program for equal Access for Children and Adolescents with Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kokotova, Tatjana; Miloseva, Lence; Angelovska, Beti; Milenkovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical frame of this paper was grounded in positive psychology programs and social ecology theory. Our main aim was to raise awareness against discrimination toward disabled children and adolescents. In the frame of the project Equal Access through Service Learning for Persons with Disabilities, we conducted our Service Learning Project, on which we based our paper. It consists of two parts. The main aim of the first part of the study was to identify students’discrimination attitud...

  13. Trends in child and adolescent obesity prevalence according to socioeconomic position: protocol for a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Alexandra; Backholer, Kathryn; Wong, Evelyn; Palermo, Claire; Keating, Catherine; Peeters, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is a significant public health issue and is socially patterned, with greater prevalence of obesity observed in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Recent evidence suggests that the prevalence of childhood obesity is levelling off in some countries. However, this may not be the case across all socioeconomic strata. The aim of this review is to examine whether trends in child and adolescent obesity prevalence since 1990 differ according to socioeconomic position ...

  14. Validation of cervical cancer screening methods in HIV positive women from Johannesburg South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Firnhaber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-infected women are at increased risk for developing cervical cancer. Women living in resource-limited countries are especially at risk due to poor access to cervical cancer screening and treatment. We evaluated three cervical cancer screening methods to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and above (CIN 2+ in HIV-infected women in South Africa; Pap smear, visual inspection with 5% acetic acid (VIA and human papillomavirus detection (HPV. METHODS: HIV-infected women aged 18-65 were recruited in Johannesburg. A cross-sectional study evaluating three screening methods for the detection of the histologically-defined gold standard CIN-2 + was performed. Women were screened for cervical abnormalities with the Digene HC2 assay (HPV, Pap smear and VIA. VIA was performed by clinic nurses, digital photographs taken and then later reviewed by specialist physicians. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive valves for CIN-2 + were calculated using maximum likelihood estimators. RESULTS: 1,202 HIV-infected women participated, with a median age of 38 years and CD4 counts of 394 cells/mm(3. One third of women had a high grade lesion on cytology. VIA and HPV were positive in 45% and 61% of women respectively. Estimated sensitivity/specificity for HPV, Pap smear and VIA for CIN 2+ was 92%/51.4%, 75.8%/83.4% and 65.4/68.5% (nurse reading, respectively. Sensitivities were similar, and specificities appeared significantly lower for the HPV test, cytology and VIA among women with CD4 counts ≤200 cells/mm(3 as compared to CD4 counts >350 cells/mm(3. CONCLUSIONS: Although HPV was the most sensitive screening method for detecting CIN 2+, it was less specific than conventional cytology and VIA with digital imaging review. Screening programs may need to be individualized in context of the resources and capacity in each area.

  15. Total spine and posterior fossa MRI screening in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (177 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Etemadifar

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: MRI screening for idiopathic scoliosis is controversial. Considering our clinical experiences, the results of MRI in all patients with idiopathic scoliosis were evaluated. Methods: In a prospective clinical study, all neurologically normal patients with idiopathic scoliosis screened by posterior fossa and total spine MRI. Results: After excluding 9 patients for mild neurological findings, in other 177 patients (132 female, 45 male, the average age and curve angle was 15±2 years and 59±17º (30 to 135º, respectively. Convexity was to right in 146 and to left in 31 cases. MRI was positive in 12 cases (6.8%. In 5 cases (2.8%, neurosurgical intervention was necessary prior to scoliosis surgery. There was no relation between age, sex, presence of pain or curve angle and positive MRI findings (P>0.05. Left convexity was significantly related to positive MRI findings (P=0.013. In males with left convex curves, the probability of positive MRI findings was 8.8 folds other patients. Conclusion: Considering our results and other reported articles, it seems that routine MRI screening of all patients presenting as idiopathic scoliosis is necessary for detection of underlying pathologies. Key words: Idiopathic Scoliosis, MRI, Spine Syrinx, Chiari

  16. The effects of positive and negative parenting practices on adolescent mental health outcomes in a multicultural sample of rural youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Bacallao, Martica L; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R

    2015-06-01

    The quality of parent-child relationships has a significant impact on adolescent developmental outcomes, especially mental health. Given the lack of research on rural adolescent mental health in general and rural parent-child relationships in particular, the current longitudinal study explores how rural adolescents' (N = 2,617) perceptions of parenting practices effect their mental health (i.e., anxiety, depression, aggression, self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction) over a 1 year period. Regression models showed that current parenting practices (i.e., in Year 2) were strongly associated with current adolescent mental health outcomes. Negative current parenting, manifesting in parent-adolescent conflict, was related to higher adolescent anxiety, depression, and aggression and lower self-esteem, and school satisfaction. Past parent-adolescent conflict (i.e., in Year 1) also positively predicted adolescent aggression in the present. Current positive parenting (i.e., parent support, parent-child future orientation, and parent education support) was significantly associated with less depression and higher self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction. Past parent education support was also related to current adolescent future optimism. Implications for practice and limitations were discussed. PMID:24880498

  17. The effects of positive and negative parenting practices on adolescent mental health outcomes in a multicultural sample of rural youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Bacallao, Martica L; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R

    2015-06-01

    The quality of parent-child relationships has a significant impact on adolescent developmental outcomes, especially mental health. Given the lack of research on rural adolescent mental health in general and rural parent-child relationships in particular, the current longitudinal study explores how rural adolescents' (N = 2,617) perceptions of parenting practices effect their mental health (i.e., anxiety, depression, aggression, self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction) over a 1 year period. Regression models showed that current parenting practices (i.e., in Year 2) were strongly associated with current adolescent mental health outcomes. Negative current parenting, manifesting in parent-adolescent conflict, was related to higher adolescent anxiety, depression, and aggression and lower self-esteem, and school satisfaction. Past parent-adolescent conflict (i.e., in Year 1) also positively predicted adolescent aggression in the present. Current positive parenting (i.e., parent support, parent-child future orientation, and parent education support) was significantly associated with less depression and higher self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction. Past parent education support was also related to current adolescent future optimism. Implications for practice and limitations were discussed.

  18. Impact of Cell-Free Fetal DNA Screening on Patients’ Choice of Invasive Procedures after a Positive California Prenatal Screen Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forum T. Shah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, maternal serum analyte levels paired with sonographic fetal nuchal translucency measurement was the most accurate prenatal screen available for Trisomies 18 and 21, (91% and 94% detection and false positive rates of 0.31% and 4.5% respectively. Women with positive California Prenatal Screening Program (CPSP results have the option of diagnostic testing to determine definitively if the fetus has a chromosomal abnormality. Cell-free fetal (cff- DNA screening for Trisomies 13, 18, and 21 was first offered in 2012, allowing women with positive screens to choose additional screening before diagnostic testing. Cff-DNA sensitivity rates are as high as 99.9% and 99.1%, with false positive rates of 0.4% and 0.1%, for Trisomies 18 and 21, respectively. A retrospective chart review was performed in 2012 on 500 CPSP referrals at the University of California, San Diego Thornton Hospital. Data were collected prior to and after the introduction of cff-DNA. There was a significant increase in the number of participants who chose to pursue additional testing and a decrease in the number of invasive procedures performed after cff-DNA screening was available. We conclude that as fetal aneuploidy screening improves, the number of invasive procedures will continue to decrease.

  19. Vitamin D in Health and Disease in Adolescents: When to Screen, Whom to Treat, and How to Treat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Neville H; Carey, Dennis E

    2016-01-01

    The existing guidelines on screening and treatment are confusing because different guidelines target different populations. The IOM and AAP guidelines target generally healthy populations, whereas the Endocrine Society and other subspecialty guidelines target individuals with specific medical conditions associated with increased bone fragility. These distinctions have not always been well articulated. For healthy adolescents, the AAP does not recommend universal screening or screening of obese or dark-skinned individuals. Increased dietary intake of vitamin D is recommended, and vitamin D supplementation can be considered if the RDA cannot be met. For adolescents with chronic medical illnesses associated with increased fracture risk, screening for vitamin D deficiency should be performed by obtaining a serum 25-OHD level. Those found to be deficient (25-OHD level vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 higher than the daily requirement (as discussed in the section on vitamin D and chronic disease), followed by a maintenance dose. A repeat 25-OHD level should be obtained after the therapeutic course is completed. Some experts advocate for achievement of 25-OHD levels greater than 30 ng/mL in conditions associated with increased bone fragility, and several pediatric subspecialty organizations have made recommendations specific to the diseases they treat. In such instances, the recommendations of the pediatric subspecialty organizations should take precedence over the AAP recommendations for adolescents with chronic illnesses associated with increased bone fragility because the AAP recommendations were primarily targeted at a healthy population.

  20. Recommendations for promoting the health and well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adolescents: a position paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Adolescent health care providers frequently care for patients who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered (LGBT), or who may be struggling with or questioning their sexual orientation or gender identity. Whereas these youth have the same health concerns as their non-LGBT peers, LGBT teens may face additional challenges because of the complexity of the coming-out process, as well as societal discrimination and bias against sexual and gender minorities. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine encourages adolescent providers and researchers to incorporate the impact of these developmental processes (and understand the impacts of concurrent potential discrimination) when caring for LGBT adolescents. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine also encourages providers to help positively influence policy related to LGBT adolescents in schools, the foster care system, and the juvenile justice system, and within the family structure. Consistent with other medical organizations, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine rejects the mistaken notion that LGBT orientations are mental disorders, and opposes the use of any type of reparative therapy for LGBT adolescents.

  1. Recommendations for promoting the health and well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adolescents: a position paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Adolescent health care providers frequently care for patients who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered (LGBT), or who may be struggling with or questioning their sexual orientation or gender identity. Whereas these youth have the same health concerns as their non-LGBT peers, LGBT teens may face additional challenges because of the complexity of the coming-out process, as well as societal discrimination and bias against sexual and gender minorities. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine encourages adolescent providers and researchers to incorporate the impact of these developmental processes (and understand the impacts of concurrent potential discrimination) when caring for LGBT adolescents. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine also encourages providers to help positively influence policy related to LGBT adolescents in schools, the foster care system, and the juvenile justice system, and within the family structure. Consistent with other medical organizations, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine rejects the mistaken notion that LGBT orientations are mental disorders, and opposes the use of any type of reparative therapy for LGBT adolescents. PMID:23521897

  2. Effect of upright position on tonsillar level in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ryan K.L.; Leung, Joyce H.Y.; Chu, Winnie C.W. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, Shatin (China); Griffith, James F. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, Shatin (China); The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Shatin, Hong Kong, SAR (China); Lam, T.P.; Ng, Bobby K.W.; Cheng, Jack C.Y. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Shatin (China)

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an upright position on cerebellar tonsillar level in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Twenty-five patients with clinically diagnosed AIS and 18 normal controls were examined in both supine and upright positions using 0.25T MRI. The position of the inferior cerebellar tonsil tip relative to a reference line connecting the basion to the opisthion (BO line) was measured in millimetres. None of the 18 normal control subjects had cerebellar tonsillar descent below the BO line in either supine or the upright position. Forty-eight percent of AIS patients had tonsillar descent in the upright position, compared to 28 % in the supine position. In the upright position, cerebellar tonsillar position was lower in AIS patients than in normal subjects (mean -0.7 ± 1.5 vs. +2.1 ± 1.7, p < 0.00001). AIS patients also had a large degree of tonsillar excursion between upright and supine positions compared to normal subjects (mean -1.9 ± 2.3 vs. -0.1 ± 0.2, p < 0.00001). When considering the theoretical likelihood that a low tonsillar position may affect spinal cord function, one should bear in mind that tonsillar descent in AIS is significantly greater in the upright position. (orig.)

  3. Characteristics of Low-income Racial/Ethnic Minority Pregnant Women Screening Positive for Alcohol Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Yukiko; Mericle, Amy A; Cassey, Heather; Daubert, Angela M; Kirby, Kimberly C

    2016-08-01

    The current study examined the prevalence and characteristics associated with alcohol risk among low-income, predominantly racial/ethnic minority pregnant women in an urban area. We surveyed 225 pregnant women receiving nutritional care. Twenty-six percent screened positive for alcohol risk. Current smoking status (AOR 2.9, p = 0.018, 95 % CI [1.2, 7.0]) and a history of marijuana use (AOR 3.1, p = 0.001, 95 % CI [1.6, 6.2]) were the strongest predictors of alcohol risk status. This study underscores the need for screening for alcohol risk, smoking, and illicit drug use among low-income, racial/ethnic minority pregnant women and highlights the usefulness of the TWEAK in identifying alcohol risk in WIC settings. PMID:26187172

  4. Can scapular and humeral head position predict shoulder pain in adolescent swimmers and non-swimmers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Leanda; Straker, Leon; Smith, Anne

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether scapular and humeral head position can predict the development of shoulder pain in swimmers, whether those predictors were applicable to non-swimmers and the annual rate of shoulder pain in adolescent swimmers and non-swimmers. Forty-six adolescent swimmers and 43 adolescent non-swimmers were examined prospectively with a questionnaire and anthropometric measures. The questionnaire examined demographic and training variables. Anthropometric measures examined the distances between the T7 spinous process and the inferior scapula (Inferior Kibler) and T3 spinous process and the medial spine of the scapula (Superior Kibler), humeral head position in relation to the acromion using palpation, BMI and chest width. Shoulder pain was re-assessed 12 months later by questionnaire. Shoulder pain in swimmers was best predicted by a larger BMI (OR = 1.48, P = 0.049), a smaller Inferior Kibler distance in abduction (e.g. OR = 0.90, P = 0.009) and a smaller horizontal distance between the anterior humeral head and the anterior acromion (OR = 0.76, P = 0.035). These variables were not significantly predictive of shoulder pain in non-swimmers. Annual prevalence of shoulder pain was 23.9% in swimmers and 30.8% in non-swimmers (χ(2) = 0.50, P = 0.478).

  5. The Quebec Association of Gastroenterology Position Paper on Colorectal Cancer Screening - 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AN Barkun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of death and the third most common cancer in Canada. Evidence suggests that screening can reduce mortality rates and the cost effectiveness of a program compares favourably with initiatives for breast and cervical cancer. The objectives of the Association des gastro-entérologues du Québec Task Force were to determine the need for a policy on screening for colorectal cancer in Quebec, to evaluate the testing methods available and to propose one or more of these alternatives as part of a formal screening program, if indicated. Fecal occult blood testing (FOBT, endoscopy (including sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy, barium enema and virtual colonoscopy were considered. Although most clinical efficacy data are available for FOBT and sigmoidoscopy, there are limitations to programs based on these strategies. FOBT has a high false positive rate and a low detection yield, and even a combination of these strategies will miss 24% of cancers. Colonoscopy is the best strategy to both detect and remove polyps and to diagnose colorectal cancer, with double contrast barium enema also being a sensitive detection method. The Task Force recommended the establishment, in Quebec, of a screening program with five- to 10-yearly double contrast barium enema or 10-yearly colonoscopy for individuals aged 50 years or older at low risk. The program should include outcome monitoring, public and professional education to increase awareness and promote compliance, and central coordination with other provincial programs. The program should be evaluated; specific billing codes for screening for colorectal cancer would help facilitate this. Formal feasibility, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness studies in Quebec are now warranted.

  6. Posttest risk calculation following positive noninvasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA in maternal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Noninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS) for fetal chromosome defects has high sensitivity and specificity but is not fully diagnostic. In response to a desire to provide more information to individual women with positive NIPS results, 2 online calculators have been developed to calculate posttest risk (PTR). Use of these calculators is critically reviewed. There is a mathematically dictated requirement for a precise estimate for the specificity to provide an accurate PTR. This is illustrated by showing that a 0.1% decrease in the value for specificities for trisomies 21, 18, and 13 can reduce the PTR from 79-64% for trisomy 21, 39-27% for trisomy 18, and 21-13% for trisomy 13, respectively. Use of the calculators assumes that sensitivity and specificity are constant for all women receiving the test but there is evidence that discordancy between screening results and true fetal karyotype is more common for older women. Use of an appropriate value for the prior risk is also important and for rare disorders there is considerable uncertainty regarding prevalence. For example, commonly used rates for trisomy 13, monosomy-X, triploidy, and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome can vary by >4-fold and this can translate into large differences in PTR. When screening for rare disorders, it may not be possible to provide a reliable PTR if there is uncertainty over the false-positive rate and/or prevalence. These limitations, per se, do not negate the value of screening for rare conditions. However, counselors need to carefully weigh the validity of PTR before presenting them to patients. Additional epidemiologic and NIPS outcome data are needed. PMID:26772793

  7. Predicting Positive Citizenship from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Effects of a Civic Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaff, Jonathan F; Malanchuk, Oksana; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have theorized that programs to promote positive citizenship should begin with an opportunity for adolescents to participate in civic activities, such as community service or political volunteering. In this article we extend the theory by arguing that a more systemic approach is needed, in which a civic context is developed to promote citizenship. We hypothesize that living within a consistent civic context leads to civic engagement in late adolescence and into young adulthood. We use a diverse, longitudinal dataset to test this hypothesis. We find that social interactions with peers, parent modeling of civic behaviors, and cultural factors, such as ethnicity-specific practices, cumulatively result in a higher level of civic activities among youth and that a continued context that includes these factors results in a higher level of civic activities into adulthood. The implications of our findings are discussed with regard to program and policy development. PMID:22837638

  8. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology position paper: resistance training in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, David G; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Falk, Baraket; Klentrou, Panagiota

    2008-06-01

    Many position stands and review papers have refuted the myths associated with resistance training (RT) in children and adolescents. With proper training methods, RT for children and adolescents can be relatively safe and improve overall health. The objective of this position paper and review is to highlight research and provide recommendations in aspects of RT that have not been extensively reported in the pediatric literature. In addition to the well-documented increases in muscular strength and endurance, RT has been used to improve function in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis and cerebral palsy, as well as pediatric burn victims. Increases in children's muscular strength have been attributed primarily to neurological adaptations due to the disproportionately higher increase in muscle strength than in muscle size. Although most studies using anthropometric measures have not shown significant muscle hypertrophy in children, more sensitive measures such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have suggested hypertrophy may occur. There is no minimum age for RT for children. However, the training and instruction must be appropriate for children and adolescents, involving a proper warm-up, cool-down, and appropriate choice of exercises. It is recommended that low- to moderate-intensity resistance exercise should be done 2-3 times/week on non-consecutive days, with 1-2 sets initially, progressing to 4 sets of 8-15 repetitions for 8-12 exercises. These exercises can include more advanced movements such as Olympic-style lifting, plyometrics, and balance training, which can enhance strength, power, co-ordination, and balance. However, specific guidelines for these more advanced techniques need to be established for youth. In conclusion, an RT program that is within a child's or adolescent's capacity and involves gradual progression under qualified instruction and supervision with appropriately sized equipment can involve more advanced or intense RT exercises

  9. Obesity, overweight, screen time and physical activity in Mexican adolescents Obesidad, sobrepeso, tiempo frente a la pantalla y actividad física en adolescentes mexicanos

    OpenAIRE

    María del Carmen Morales-Ruán; Bernardo Hernández-Prado; Luz María Gómez-Acosta; Teresa Shamah-Levy; Lucía Cuevas-Nasu

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether screen time and physical activity is related to overweight or obesity in adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional design. Adolescents aged 10 to 19 were included in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006). The dependent variable was overweight or obesity; the independent variable was screen time. A logistic regression model was created to estimate the relationship of overweight and obesity to various factors, including scr...

  10. Prenatal ultrasound screening: false positive soft markers may alter maternal representations and mother-infant interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Viaux-Savelon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In up to 5% of pregnancies, ultrasound screening detects a "soft marker" (SM that places the foetus at risk for a severe abnormality. In most cases, prenatal diagnostic work-up rules out a severe defect. We aimed to study the effects of false positive SM on maternal emotional status, maternal representations of the infant, and mother-infant interaction. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Utilizing an extreme-case prospective case control design, we selected from a group of 244 women undergoing ultrasound, 19 pregnant women whose foetus had a positive SM screening and a reassuring diagnostic work up, and 19 controls without SM matched for age and education. In the third trimester of pregnancy, within one week after delivery, and 2 months postpartum, we assessed anxiety, depression, and maternal representations. Mother-infant interactions were videotaped during feeding within one week after delivery and again at 2 months postpartum and coded blindly using the Coding Interactive Behavior (CIB scales. Anxiety and depression scores were significantly higher at all assessment points in the SM group. Maternal representations were also different between SM and control groups at all study time. Perturbations to early mother-infant interactions were observed in the SM group. These dyads showed greater dysregulation, lower maternal sensitivity, higher maternal intrusive behaviour and higher infant avoidance. Multivariate analysis showed that maternal representation and depression at third trimester predicted mother-infant interaction. CONCLUSION: False positive ultrasound screenings for SM are not benign and negatively affect the developing maternal-infant attachment. Medical efforts should be directed to minimize as much as possible such false diagnoses, and to limit their psychological adverse consequences.

  11. Towards an integration of positive and sickness paradigms in the prevention of eating disorders in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa C. Góngora

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders problems are highly relevant in adolescence and require intervention through the implementation of prevention and promotion health programs. A Few primary prevention programmers to fight eating disorders have reached satisfactory results. The most successful results have been obtained with approaches that promote media literacy, the use of cognitive dissonance and the enhancement of self-esteem. Since many of the programs based on the disease model have failed to prevent such difficulties, the prevention of eating disorders may be improved by taking the contributions of positive psychology. Studies have shown that interventions based on this paradigm are effective to increase the feeling of happiness and subjective well-being. Unlike the traditional approach that works with the identification of risk and protective factors, positive psychology emphasizes the identification and promotion of healthy factors. Positive interventions assume that strengthening the positive, the dysfunctional or negative will be diminished. The integration of both contributions will enrich the approach to promote healthy behavior in adolescents.

  12. The acute effects of nicotine on positive and negative affect in adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassel, Jon D; Evatt, Daniel P; Greenstein, Justin E; Wardle, Margaret C; Yates, Marisa C; Veilleux, Jennifer C

    2007-08-01

    Although adolescent cigarette smoking remains a critical public health concern, little is known about the reinforcing mechanisms governing smoking in this vulnerable population. To assess predictions derived from both positive and negative reinforcement models of drug use, the authors measured the acute effects of nicotine, as administered via tobacco cigarettes, on both positive and negative affect in a group of 15- to 18-year-old smokers. A matched group of nonsmokers served as a comparison group. Findings revealed that whereas adolescents who smoked a cigarette experienced reductions in both positive and negative affect, the observed reductions in negative affect were moderated by nicotine content of the cigarette (high yield vs. denicotinized), level of nicotine dependence, level of baseline craving, and smoking expectancies pertinent to negative affect regulation. Nonsmokers experienced no change in affect over the 10-min assessment period, and no interaction effects were observed for positive affect. Overall, the findings conform to a negative reinforcement model of nicotine effects and strongly suggest that, even among young light smokers, nicotine dependence and resultant withdrawal symptomatology may serve as motivating factors governing smoking behavior. PMID:17696710

  13. Predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential predictors, and a range of health outcomes, at 2 time points separated by 1 year. Longitudinal change regression models showed that perceived body acceptance by others (positively), self-objectification and social comparison (negatively), and body appreciation (positively) prospectively predicted intuitive eating 1 year later, consistent with the acceptance model of intuitive eating. Perceived body acceptance by others was the only proposed predictor to prospectively predict an increase in body appreciation over time. Time 1 body appreciation prospectively predicted a decrease in dieting, alcohol, and cigarette use, and an increase in physical activity 1 year later. In particular, girls with low body appreciation were more likely than girls with high body appreciation to take up alcohol and cigarette use between time points. The results highlight body appreciation as an important target for interventions designed to prevent or delay the uptake of alcohol and cigarette consumption among girls. More broadly, they suggest that a positive body image can confer considerable benefit for adolescent girls. PMID:26727595

  14. The acute effects of nicotine on positive and negative affect in adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassel, Jon D; Evatt, Daniel P; Greenstein, Justin E; Wardle, Margaret C; Yates, Marisa C; Veilleux, Jennifer C

    2007-08-01

    Although adolescent cigarette smoking remains a critical public health concern, little is known about the reinforcing mechanisms governing smoking in this vulnerable population. To assess predictions derived from both positive and negative reinforcement models of drug use, the authors measured the acute effects of nicotine, as administered via tobacco cigarettes, on both positive and negative affect in a group of 15- to 18-year-old smokers. A matched group of nonsmokers served as a comparison group. Findings revealed that whereas adolescents who smoked a cigarette experienced reductions in both positive and negative affect, the observed reductions in negative affect were moderated by nicotine content of the cigarette (high yield vs. denicotinized), level of nicotine dependence, level of baseline craving, and smoking expectancies pertinent to negative affect regulation. Nonsmokers experienced no change in affect over the 10-min assessment period, and no interaction effects were observed for positive affect. Overall, the findings conform to a negative reinforcement model of nicotine effects and strongly suggest that, even among young light smokers, nicotine dependence and resultant withdrawal symptomatology may serve as motivating factors governing smoking behavior.

  15. An actor-based model of social network influence on adolescent body size, screen time, and playing sports.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Shoham

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that obesity may be "contagious" between individuals in social networks. Social contagion (influence, however, may not be identifiable using traditional statistical approaches because they cannot distinguish contagion from homophily (the propensity for individuals to select friends who are similar to themselves or from shared environmental influences. In this paper, we apply the stochastic actor-based model (SABM framework developed by Snijders and colleagues to data on adolescent body mass index (BMI, screen time, and playing active sports. Our primary hypothesis was that social influences on adolescent body size and related behaviors are independent of friend selection. Employing the SABM, we simultaneously modeled network dynamics (friendship selection based on homophily and structural characteristics of the network and social influence. We focused on the 2 largest schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health and held the school environment constant by examining the 2 school networks separately (N = 624 and 1151. Results show support in both schools for homophily on BMI, but also for social influence on BMI. There was no evidence of homophily on screen time in either school, while only one of the schools showed homophily on playing active sports. There was, however, evidence of social influence on screen time in one of the schools, and playing active sports in both schools. These results suggest that both homophily and social influence are important in understanding patterns of adolescent obesity. Intervention efforts should take into consideration peers' influence on one another, rather than treating "high risk" adolescents in isolation.

  16. Development and Implementation of a Smartphone Application to Promote Physical Activity and Reduce Screen-Time in Adolescent Boys

    OpenAIRE

    Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J.; Skinner, Geoff; Morgan, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the development and implementation of a smartphone application (app) designed to promote physical activity and reduce screen-time in adolescent boys considered “at-risk” of obesity. Methods: An app was developed to support the delivery of a face-to-face school-based obesity prevention program known as the “Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time” (ATLAS) program. ATLAS was guided by self-determination theory and social cognitive theory and evaluated using a cluster ra...

  17. Development and Implementation of a Smartphone Application to Promote Physical Activity and Reduce Screen-time in Adolescent Boys

    OpenAIRE

    David Revalds Lubans; Jordan eSmith; Geoff eSkinner; Philip James Morgan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim is to describe the development and implementation of a smartphone application (app) designed to promote physical activity and reduce screen-time in adolescent boys ‘at risk’ of obesity from low-income communities.Methods: An app was developed to support the delivery of a face-to-face school-based obesity prevention program known as the ‘Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time’ (ATLAS) program. ATLAS was guided by self-determination theory and social cognitive theory ...

  18. A Nationwide Survey on the Daily Screen Time of Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN - IV Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Jari; Mostafa Qorbani; Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh; Ramin Heshmat; Gelayol Ardalan; Roya Kelishadi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Leisure time activity is an important life-style habit. This study aims to determine the screen time of a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Methods: This nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted as part of the fourth survey of a surveillance system. The participants consisted of 14880 students, with aged range from 6 to 18 years, living in 30 provinces in Iran. Screen time, i.e. the time spent on watching television (TV)/video and comp...

  19. Positive Youth Development, Life Satisfaction and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents in Intact and Non-Intact Families in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tan Lei Shek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether Chinese adolescents living in intact and non-intact families differed in their positive development, life satisfaction, and risk behavior. A total of 3,328 Secondary 1 students responded to measures of positive youth development (such as resilience and psychosocial competencies, life satisfaction, and risk behavior (substance abuse, delinquency, Internet addiction, consumption of pornographic materials, self-harm, and behavioral intention to engage in problem behavior. Findings revealed that adolescents growing up in intact families reported higher levels of positive developmental outcomes and life satisfaction as compared with adolescents from non-intact families. Adolescents in non-intact families also reported higher levels of risk behaviors than those growing up in intact families.

  20. Effects of an Integrated Science and Societal Implication Intervention on Promoting Adolescents' Positive Thinking and Emotional Perceptions in Learning Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zuway R.; Lin, Huann-Shyang; Lawrenz, Frances P.

    2012-02-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of integrating science and societal implication on adolescents' positive thinking and emotional perceptions about learning science. Twenty-five eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (9 boys and 16 girls) volunteered to participate in a 12-week intervention and formed the experimental group. Fifty-seven eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (30 boys and 27 girls) volunteered to participate in the assessments and were used as the comparison group. Additionally, 15 experimental students were recruited to be observed and interviewed. Paired t-tests, correlations, and analyses of covariance assessed the similarity and differences between groups. The findings were that the experimental group significantly outperformed its counterpart on positive thinking and emotional perceptions, and all participants' positive thinking scores were significantly related to their emotional perceptions about learning science. Recommendations for integrating science and societal implication for adolescents are provided.

  1. Psychosexual development among HIV-positive adolescents in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aka Dago-Akribi, Hortense; Cacou Adjoua, Marie-Chantal

    2004-05-01

    Some 84,000 children with HIV/AIDS live in Côte d'Ivoire, where very little therapeutic or psychological help is available to them. The Yopougon Child Programme of the "Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida" was launched in Abidjan in October 2000. It provides services for HIV-infected children and psychological consultations for children and their parents. This paper is about the psychosexual development of the HIV-positive adolescents in the Programme, 11 girls and 8 boys aged 13-17, their problems with HIV-related physiological and psychosexual changes, and relationships with their parents. The information was gathered in individual therapy sessions, group discussions and family support sessions. Bodily development was of major importance to these adolescents, particularly among those who had not yet developed secondary sexual characteristics and were shorter and weighed less than their peers. Those who had not achieved puberty were unable to participate in traditional rituals and worried whether they could ever marry or have children. In most cases, adolescents with HIV have been infected by a sexually transmitted virus without having had sexual relations themselves. They need support dealing with their sexual development and sexual feelings, along with medical care, in a context in which HIV infection is a secret, impossible to talk about with their peers.

  2. Analysis of Positive Human Immunodeifciency Virus (1+2) Antibodies in Preliminar y Screening:A Report of 394 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Fang; LIU Yan-yan; MA Cai-yun; WU Zhi-qi; XU Hua-guo; JIANG Li

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To comprehend the characteristics of patients with positive human immunodeifciency virus (HIV) (1+2) antibodies in the preliminary screening so as to provide basis for local HIV screening and prevention. Methods:Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect serum HIV (1 +2) antibodies in the preliminary screening, after which the positive serum was sent to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) confirmatory laboratory to be confirmed with western blotting method. Clinical data of patients with positive HIV antibodies in the preliminary screening in the outpatients and inpatients from 2006 to 2013 were collected and analyzed. Results:A total of 394 patients with positive serum HIV antibodies were screened initially, in which 214 were confirmed positive HIV, 13 were not certain and another 167 were negative. Patients with positive serum HIV antibodies in the preliminary screening were increased from 9 cases in 2006 to 94 cases in 2013, in which those conifrmed with positive HIV increased from 5 to 49. Patients with positive serum HIV antibodies in the preliminary screening and those conifrmed increased annually. In addition, patients confirmed with positive serum HIV antibodies were mainly males and aged 20 ~ 49 years, distributing in Departments of Infections, Respiratory, Dermatology, Hematology and Emergency, whereas those confirmed with negative HIV were mainly females and aged >20 years, distributing in Departments of Hematology, Maternity and Emergency as well as Reproductive Center. Conclusion: HIV infection is in low level with characteristics of annually increasing infection rate, male-orientated and wide-spread distribution in variuos departments, etc., knowing which will help guide the clinical practices and carry out the local HIV screening and prevention by relevant departments.

  3. HIV-Positive Mothers With Late Adolescent/Early Adult Children: “Empty Nest” Concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Debra A.; Roberts, Kathleen Johnston; Herbeck, Diane M

    2012-01-01

    In-depth interviews about the “empty nest” were conducted with 57 HIV-positive mothers of late adolescent/early adult children. Empty nest worries included: (1) identity loss, (2) loss of social support, (3) financial insecurity, (4) worsening of physical health, and (5) death/dying. Hopes included: (1) self-improvement, (2) change of life focus, (3) travel, (4) romantic partners, and (5) familial ties. Respondents’ HIV/AIDS status colored their thoughts/feelings about the empty nest; some wo...

  4. Galactosemia Screening with Low False-Positive Recall Rate: The Swedish Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Ohlsson, Annika; Guthenberg, Claes; von Döbeln, Ulrika

    2011-01-01

    Newborn screening was implemented in the 1960s with screening for phenylketonuria (PKU). In the same decade, it became possible to screen for classical galactosemia, a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder, which is potentially life threatening if not treated. While newborn screening for PKU has become almost universal, galactosemia is included only in a minority of European newborn screening programs. The major arguments why galactosemia is excluded from newborn screening programs are ...

  5. Measuring psychosocial consequences of false-positive screening results - breast cancer as an example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John

    Screening, mammografiscreening, psykosociale konsekvenser, falsk positiv screeningssvar, psykometri, differentiel item funktion......Screening, mammografiscreening, psykosociale konsekvenser, falsk positiv screeningssvar, psykometri, differentiel item funktion...

  6. Measuring health-related quality of life of HIV-positive adolescents in resource-constrained settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Masquillier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Access to antiretroviral treatment among adolescents living with HIV (ALH is increasing. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL is relevant for monitoring the impact of the disease on both well-being and treatment outcomes. However, adequate screening tools to assess HRQOL in low-resource settings are scarce. This study aims to fill this research gap, by 1 assessing the psychometric properties and reliability of an Eastern African English version of a European HRQOL scale for adolescents (KIDSCREEN and 2 determining which version of the KIDSCREEN (52-, 27- and 10-item version is most suitable for low-resource settings. METHODS: The KIDSCREEN was translated into Eastern African English, Luganda (Uganda and Dholuo (Kenya according to standard procedures. The reconciled version was administered in 2011 to ALH aged 13-17 in Kenya (n = 283 and Uganda (n = 299. All three KIDSCREEN versions were fitted to the data with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. After comparison, the most suitable version was adapted based on the CFA outcomes utilizing the results of previous formative research. In order to develop a general HRQOL factor, a second-order measurement model was fitted to the data. RESULTS: The CFA results showed that without adjustments, the KIDSCREEN cannot be used for measuring the HRQOL of HIV-positive adolescents. After comparison, the most suitable version for low-resource settings--the 27-item version--was adapted further. The introduction of a negative wording factor was required for the Dholuo model. The Dholuo (CFI: 0.93; RMSEA: 0.039 and the Luganda model (CFI: 0.90; RMSEA: 0.052 showed a good fit. All cronbach's alphas of the factors were 0.70 or above. The alpha value of the Dholuo and Lugandan HRQOL second-order factor was respectively 0.84 and 0.87. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that the adapted KIDSCREEN-27 is an adequate tool for measuring HRQOL in low-resource settings with high HIV prevalence.

  7. Cervical cytology screening among low-income, minority adolescents in New York City following the 2009 ACOG guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Jennifer; Hofstetter, Annika M.; Soren, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In December 2009, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommended cervical cancer screening begin at age 21 for young women. In this study, we examine receipt of first lifetime Papanicolaou (Pap) test and predictors of over-screening among adolescents within a large urban ambulatory care network. Methods We compared the proportion of first lifetime Pap test of adolescents aged 13-20 years between June 2007-November 2009 (n=7700) and December 2009-June 2012 (n=9637) using electronic health records. We employed multivariable regression models to identify demographic and health care factors associated with receiving a first lifetime Pap test at age <21 years in the post-guideline period (over-screening). Results The proportion of Pap tests declined from 19.3% to 4.2% (p <0.001) between the two periods. Multivariable logistic regression results showed receiving care from gynecology/obstetrics/family planning clinics compared to pediatric clinics, having more clinic encounters, and older age were associated with over-screening in the post-guideline period. Conclusions We found that guideline adherence differed by clinic type, insurance status, and health care encounters. In the quickly evolving field of cervical cancer control, it is important to monitor practice trends as they relate to shifts in population-based guidelines, especially in high-risk populations. PMID:24650625

  8. Screening for Sleep Reduction in Adolescents through Self-Report: Development and Validation of the Sleep Reduction Screening Questionnaire (SRSQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maanen, Annette; Dewald-Kaufmann, Julia F.; Oort, Frans J.; de Bruin, Eduard J.; Smits, Marcel G.; Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Kerkhof, Gerard A.; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sleep reduction, resulting from insufficient or poor sleep, is a common phenomenon in adolescents. Due to its severe negative psychological and behavioral daytime consequences, it is important to have a short reliable and valid measure to assess symptoms of sleep reduction. Objective: This study aims to validate the Sleep Reduction…

  9. Screening for sleep reduction in adolescents through self-report: Development and validation of the sleep reduction screening questionnaire (SRSQ)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Maanen; J.F. Dewald-Kaufmann; F.J. Oort; E.J. de Bruin; M.G. Smits; M.A. Short; M. Gradisar; G.A. Kerkhof; A.M. Meijer

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sleep reduction, resulting from insufficient or poor sleep, is a common phenomenon in adolescents. Due to its severe negative psychological and behavioral daytime consequences, it is important to have a short reliable and valid measure to assess symptoms of sleep reduction. Objective: Th

  10. False-positive findings in mammography screening induces short-term distress - breast cancer-specific concern prevails longer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Pilvikki Absetz, S; van Elderen, T M;

    2000-01-01

    -ups at 2 and 12 months postscreening. At 2 months, there was a moderate multivariate effect of group on distress; and intrusive thinking and worry about breast cancer, in particular, were most frequent amongst the false positives. Intrusive thinking still prevailed at 12 months, in addition to a higher...... perceived breast cancer risk and susceptibility. Distress related to screening and false-positive findings seems to be moderate, but prevailing cancer-specific concerns call for improvements in screening programmes....... findings (n=1407), false-positive findings (n=492) and referents from outside the screening programme (n=1718, age 48-49 years). Distress was measured as illness worry, anxiety, depression, cancer beliefs and early detection behaviour. Measurements were one month before screening invitation with follow...

  11. Positive and Negative Self-Esteem among Ethnic Minority Early Adolescents: Social and Cultural Sources and Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel

    2003-01-01

    Studied positive and negative self-esteem among 1,070 Turkish and Moroccan early adolescents in the Netherlands. Findings show the usefulness of distinguishing between positive and negative self-esteem when studying global self-esteem among a dolescents. (SLD)

  12. Interpreting positive signs of the supraspinatus test in screening for torn rotator cuff.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim,Eugene

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of the supraspinatus test as a screening test for detecting torn rotator cuff and to determine what its valuable positive signs were. Both the empty-can test and full-can test were performed on 200 shoulders diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-and in some cases, surgical findings-to have full-thickness or partial-thickness torn rotator cuff s, or no tear in the rotator cuff . During the maneuver, the presence of pain or weakness or both pain and weakness were recorded as positive signs, and the distribution of these signs were analyzed according to the degree of tear. The predictive values were calculated in 2 ways by considering (1 only full-thickness tears as tears and (2 both full- and partial-thickness tears as tears. The 2 tests and the 2 ways of considering partial-thickness tears were compared. Pain and weakness were severity-dependent, and the empty-can test had a higher incidence of pain. The sensitivities of the 2 supraspinatus tests in all positive signs were higher when including partial-thickness tears in the tear group ; however, their specificities were higher when excluding partial-thickness tears. Both pain and weakness were interpretive for the supraspinatus test, and both tests were sensitive to full- and partial- thickness tears and specific for full-thickness tears.

  13. Concurrent Associations of Physical Activity and Screen-Based Sedentary Behavior on Obesity Among US Adolescents: A Latent Class Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngdeok Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Independent associations of physical activity (PA and sedentary behavior (SB with obesity are well documented. However, little is known about the combined associations of these behaviors with obesity in adolescents. The present study examines the prevalence of concurrent levels of PA and SB, and their associations with obesity among US adolescents. Methods: Data from a total of 12 081 adolescents who participated in the Youth Risk Behaviors Survey during 2012–2013 were analyzed. A latent class analysis was performed to identify latent subgroups with varying combined levels of subjectively measured PA and screen-based SB. Follow-up analysis examined the changes in the likelihood of being obese as determined by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention Growth Chart between latent subgroups. Results: Four latent subgroups with varying combined levels of PA and SB were identified across gender. The likelihood of being obese was significantly greater for the subgroups featuring either or both Low PA or High SB when compared with High PA/Low SB across genders (odds ratio [OR] ranges, 2.1–2.7 for males and 9.6–23.5 for females. Low PA/High SB showed the greater likelihood of being obese compared to subgroups featuring either or both High PA and Low SB (OR ranges, 2.2–23.5 for female adolescents only. Conclusions: The findings imply that promoting sufficient levels of PA while reducing SB should be encouraged in order to reduce obesity risk among adolescents, particularly for males. The risk of obesity for female adolescents can be reduced by engaging in either high levels of PA or low levels of SB.

  14. Changes in depression in a cohort of Danish HIV-positive individuals: time for routine screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodkjaer, Lotte; Laursen, Tinne; Christensen, Nils B;

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to follow a cohort of HIV-positive individuals for 3 years in order to assess changes in depression, adherence, unsafe sex and emotional strains from living with HIV. Methods: Participants were assessed for depression, adherence, emotional strain and unsafe sex...... via a questionnaire. The Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI) was used to assess the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms. Patients with a BDI score of 20 or above (moderate to major depression) were offered a clinical evaluation by a consultant psychiatrist. Results: In 2005, 205 HIV...... demonstrated a decline in depression scores over time and an association between the risk of depression and low medication adherence, stress and unsafe sex. We recommend routine screening for depression to be conducted regularly to provide full evaluations and relevant psychiatric treatment....

  15. School-based intervention on healthy behaviour among Ecuadorian adolescents: effect of a cluster-randomized controlled trial on screen-time

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Tenesaca, Dolores Susana; Verloigne, Maïté; Cardon, Greet; Kolsteren, Patrick; Ochoa Avilés, Angélica María; Verstraeten, Roos; Donoso, Silvana; Lachat, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Background Effective interventions on screen-time behaviours (television, video games and computer time) are needed to prevent non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. The present manuscript investigates the effect of a school-based health promotion intervention on screen-time behaviour among 12- to 15-year-old adolescents. We report the effect of the trial on screen-time after two stages of implementation. Methods We performed a cluster-randomised pair matched trial in ...

  16. The use of colour to determine the position of a pointer on a screen

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, David

    2011-01-01

    Thin Film Transistor (TFT) screens are becoming more common in the workplace, replacing traditional Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) screens. As the TFT screen does not generate a scan line, traditional methods of light sensing pens do not work effectively on a TFT screen. This paper describes a novel light pen type peripheral, which may be used on either a TFT or CRT screen. The peripheral is intended to replace the need to use a touch screen, mouse or keyboard. A specially designed kaleidoscope is pl...

  17. CT colonography with limited bowel preparation for the detection of colorectal neoplasia in an FOBT positive screening population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Liedenbaum (Marjolein); A.H. de Vries (Ayso); A.F. van Rijn (Anne); H.M. Dekker (Heleen); F.E.J.A. Willemssen (François); M.E. van Leerdam (Monique); C.J. van Marrewijk (Corine); P. Fockens (Paul); S. Bipat (Shandra); P.M.M. Bossuyt (Patrick); E. Dekker (Evelien); J. Stoker (Jacob)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Aim was to evaluate the accuracy of computed tomography colonography (CTC) for detection of colorectal neoplasia in a Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) positive screening population. Methods: In three different institutions, consecutive FOBT positives underwent CTC after laxative f

  18. Using CT colonography as a triage technique after a positive faecal occult blood test in colorectal cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Liedenbaum; A.F. van Rijn; A.H. de Vries; H.M. Dekker; M. Thomeer; C.J. van Marrewijk; L. Hol; M.G. Dijkgraaf; P. Fockens; P.M. Bossuyt; E. Dekker; J. Stoker

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CT colonography (CTC) as a triage technique in faecal occult blood test (FOBT)-positive screening participants. Methods: Consecutive guaiac (G-FOBT) and immunochemical (I-FOBT) FOBT-positive patients scheduled for colonoscopy

  19. Using CT colonography as a triage technique after a positive faecal occult blood test in colorectal cancer screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liedenbaum, M.H.; Rijn, A.F. van; Vries, A.H.M. de; Dekker, H.M.; Thomeer, M.; Marrewijk, C.J. van; Hol, L.; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Fockens, P.; Bossuyt, P.M.; Dekker, E.; Stoker, J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CT colonography (CTC) as a triage technique in faecal occult blood test (FOBT)-positive screening participants. METHODS: Consecutive guaiac (G-FOBT) and immunochemical (I-FOBT) FOBT-positive patients scheduled for colonoscopy

  20. CT colonography with limited bowel preparation for the detection of colorectal neoplasia in an FOBT positive screening population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liedenbaum, M.H.; Vries, A.H.M. de; Rijn, A.F. van; Dekker, H.M.; Willemssen, F.E.; Leerdam, M.E. van; Marrewijk, C.J. van; Fockens, P.; Bipat, S.; Bossuyt, P.M.; Dekker, E. den; Stoker, J.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Aim was to evaluate the accuracy of computed tomography colonography (CTC) for detection of colorectal neoplasia in a Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) positive screening population. METHODS: In three different institutions, consecutive FOBT positives underwent CTC after laxative free iodine t

  1. Positive aspects of the coping of mothers of adolescent children with developmental disability in the Bedouin community in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor-Binyamini, Iris

    2014-06-01

    This research examines the positive aspects of coping experienced by 270 mothers of adolescent children with and without a developmental disability in the Bedouin community. The mothers completed the Sociodemographic Data Questionnaire, the Grandparents Functional Support Assessment, the Gratitude Questionnaire, and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Mothers of adolescent children with developmental disability reported higher levels of social support, gratitude, and personal growth than did mothers of adolescent children without developmental disability. Additionally, mothers demonstrated a higher level of gratitude toward their spouse's parents. Positive correlation was also found between gratitude and personal growth and between gratitude and support from the husband's parents. The findings highlight the important need to develop awareness and culturally appropriate intervention programs based on these positive aspects, to enhance these mothers' coping abilities.

  2. Number of steps per day and the screening of cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Júlio Brugnara Mello; Vinícius Martins Farias; Mauren Lúcia de Araújo Bergmann; Gabriel Gustavo Bergmann

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pedometers have been used in some studies to measure physical activity in adolescents. However, cutoff points of steps per day that classify physical activity levels are not yet fully established. The aims of this study were to identify the possibility the number of steps/day to predict cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents and to propose cutoff points to the number of steps/day for adolescents. Method: 1,045 adolescents (51.7 % girls) aged 11-17 were randomly selected...

  3. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of a modified version of the Social Phobia Screening Questionnaire for use in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svedin Carl

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social phobia (social anxiety disorder - SAD is a rather common but often undetected and undertreated psychiatric condition in youths. Screening of SAD in young individuals in community samples is thus important in preventing negative outcomes. The present study is the first report on the psychometric properties of the Social Phobia Screening Questionnaire for Children and adolescents (SPSQ-C. Methods The SPSQ-C was administered to a community sample of high-school students. Test-retest reliability over three weeks was evaluated (n = 127 and internal consistency was calculated for items measuring level of fear in eight social situations. To measure concurrent validity, subjects who reported SAD on at least one occasion and randomly selected non-cases were blindly interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I, as gold standard (n = 51. Results A moderate test-retest reliability, r = .60 (P Conclusion The SPSQ-C is a short and psychometrically sound questionnaire for screening of SAD in adolescents, with the advantage of being based on the DSM-IV criteria.

  4. Obesity-related behaviors among poor adolescents and young adults: Is social position associated with risk behaviors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Lucia Ritterman Weintraub

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study examines multiple dimensions of social position in relation to obesity-related behaviors in an adolescent and young adult population. In addition to using conventional measures of social position, including parental education and household expenditures, we explore the usefulness of three youth-specific measures of social position—community and society subjective social status and school dropout status. Data is taken from a 2004 house-to-house survey of urban households within the bottom 20th percentile of income distribution within seven states in Mexico. A total of 5,321 Mexican adolescents, aged 12-22 years, provided information on obesity-related behaviors (e.g. diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior and indicators of subjective and objective social position. A parent in each household provided information on socioeconomic status of the parent and household. Ordinal logistic regressions are used to estimate the associations of parental, household and adolescent indicators of social position and obesity-related risk behaviors. Those adolescents with the highest odds of adopting obesity risk behaviors were the ones who perceived themselves as lower in social status in reference to their peer community and those who had dropped out of school. We found no significant associations between parental education or household expenditures and obesity-related risk behaviors. Immediate social factors in adolescents' lives may have a strong influence on their health-related behaviors. This study provides evidence for the usefulness of two particular measures, both of which are youth-specific. Adolescents and young adults who have dropped out of school and those with lower perceived relative social position within their community are more likely to be at-risk for obesity-related behaviors than those with higher relative social position. We conclude that youth-specific measures may be important in identifying the most at

  5. Positive association of video game playing with left frontal cortical thickness in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Kühn

    Full Text Available Playing video games is a common recreational activity of adolescents. Recent research associated frequent video game playing with improvements in cognitive functions. Improvements in cognition have been related to grey matter changes in prefrontal cortex. However, a fine-grained analysis of human brain structure in relation to video gaming is lacking. In magnetic resonance imaging scans of 152 14-year old adolescents, FreeSurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness. Cortical thickness across the whole cortical surface was correlated with self-reported duration of video gaming (hours per week. A robust positive association between cortical thickness and video gaming duration was observed in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and left frontal eye fields (FEFs. No regions showed cortical thinning in association with video gaming frequency. DLPFC is the core correlate of executive control and strategic planning which in turn are essential cognitive domains for successful video gaming. The FEFs are a key region involved in visuo-motor integration important for programming and execution of eye movements and allocation of visuo-spatial attention, processes engaged extensively in video games. The results may represent the biological basis of previously reported cognitive improvements due to video game play. Whether or not these results represent a-priori characteristics or consequences of video gaming should be studied in future longitudinal investigations.

  6. Positive Association of Video Game Playing with Left Frontal Cortical Thickness in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Lorenz, Robert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J.; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J.; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Ittermann, Bernd; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Nees, Frauke; Artiges, Eric; Paus, Tomas; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N.; Ströhle, Andreas; Walaszek, Bernadetta; Schumann, Gunter; Heinz, Andreas; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Playing video games is a common recreational activity of adolescents. Recent research associated frequent video game playing with improvements in cognitive functions. Improvements in cognition have been related to grey matter changes in prefrontal cortex. However, a fine-grained analysis of human brain structure in relation to video gaming is lacking. In magnetic resonance imaging scans of 152 14-year old adolescents, FreeSurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness. Cortical thickness across the whole cortical surface was correlated with self-reported duration of video gaming (hours per week). A robust positive association between cortical thickness and video gaming duration was observed in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left frontal eye fields (FEFs). No regions showed cortical thinning in association with video gaming frequency. DLPFC is the core correlate of executive control and strategic planning which in turn are essential cognitive domains for successful video gaming. The FEFs are a key region involved in visuo-motor integration important for programming and execution of eye movements and allocation of visuo-spatial attention, processes engaged extensively in video games. The results may represent the biological basis of previously reported cognitive improvements due to video game play. Whether or not these results represent a-priori characteristics or consequences of video gaming should be studied in future longitudinal investigations. PMID:24633348

  7. Brief report: Attention to positive information mediates the relationship between hope and psychosocial well-being of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Dannii Y; Ho, Samuel M Y; Mak, Christine W Y

    2015-07-01

    This study tested the mediating roles of cognitive reappraisal and attentional preferences in the relationship between hope and psychosocial well-being among 712 adolescents. Results of the structural equation modeling revealed that the beneficial relation of hope to subjective happiness, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and interpersonal difficulties was partially mediated by attention to positive information but not cognitive reappraisal. Findings of this study may inform the design of intervention research by highlighting the importance of hopeful thinking style and attention to positive information in mental health of adolescents. PMID:25968107

  8. Avoidable surgical consultations in women with a positive screening mammogram: Experience from a southern region of the Dutch breast screening programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: According to current Dutch guidelines, all women with a positive screening mammogram are referred for a full hospital assessment, which includes surgical consultation and radiological assessment. Surgical consultation may be unnecessary for many patients. Our objective was to determine how often surgical consultations can be avoided by radiological pre-assessment. Materials and methods: All women with a positive screening mammogram, referred to our radiology department between 2002 and 2007, were included (n = 1014). Percentage of women that was downstaged to BI-RADS category 1 or 2 by radiological pre-assessment was calculated. Negative predictive value (NPV) for malignancy was estimated from the in-hospital follow-up, which was available up to September 2012. Results: 423 of 1014 women (42%) were downstaged to BI-RADS category 1 or 2 by radiological pre-assessment. During follow-up, 8 of these 423 women (2%) developed a malignancy in the same breast. At least 6 of these malignancies were located at a different location as the original screening findings which led to the initial referral. The estimated NPV for malignancy was 99.5% (95%CI, 98.3–99.9). Conclusion: By referring women with a positive screening mammogram to the radiology department for pre-assessment, a surgical consultation was avoided in 42%, with an estimated NPV of 99.5% for malignancy

  9. Children who screen positive for autism at 2.5 years and receive early intervention: a prospective naturalistic 2-year outcome study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spjut Jansson B

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Birgitta Spjut Jansson,1–3 Carmela Miniscalco,1,4 Joakim Westerlund,1,5 Anne-Katrin Kantzer,1,6 Elisabeth Fernell,1 Christopher Gillberg1 1Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Habilitation, 3Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, 4Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 5Department of Psychology, University of Stockholm, Stockholm, 6Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, NU Hospital Organization, Trollhättan, Sweden Background: Previous research has stressed the importance of early identification and intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. Methods: Children who had screened positive for autism at the age of 2.5 years in a general population screening and then received a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder were enrolled in an intervention program provided by Swedish habilitation services. The following interventions were available: a comprehensive intervention based on Applied Behavior Analysis – Intensive Learning (IL – in two settings, which included home- and preschool-based (IL Regular and only home-based (IL Modified and eclectic interventions.Results: There was considerable variability in terms of outcome, but intervention group status was not associated with any of the chosen outcome variables. Conclusion: The main finding was that the type of intervention was not critical for outcome of adaptive or global functioning. The variability in outcome demonstrates the need for continuous assessments and evaluation of the child’s function and behavior throughout the intervention period. Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, preschool children, early intervention, ABA, cognitive function, follow-up

  10. Obesity-Related Behaviors among Poor Adolescents and Young Adults: Is Social Position Associated with Risk Behaviors?

    OpenAIRE

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C.; Goodman, Elizabeth; Guendelman, Sylvia; Adler, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Different measures of social position capture unique dimensions of relative rank among youth. Youth-specific measures of social position may be important in identifying the most at-risk for obesity. Lower social status youth are more likely to be at-risk for obesity-related behaviors compared to those with a higher rank. This cross-sectional study examines multiple dimensions of social position in relation to obesity-related behaviors in an adolescent and young adult p...

  11. 'We do the impossible': women overcoming barriers to cervical cancer screening in rural Honduras--a positive deviance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Jenna J; Barrington, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for women in Honduras, and sexual behaviour and low screening uptake are two major factors contributing to high rates of morbidity and mortality. A qualitative study was conducted to investigate barriers that prevent rural Honduran women from engaging in screening and ways that women overcome those barriers. This study examined examples of positive deviance, or individuals engaging in the uncommon but beneficial practise of screening. Amor por sí misma (self-love), and social support were identified as two constructs women employed to overcome barriers to screening. Participants defined self-love as the act of displaying care and concern for oneself and one's health and suggested that it compels women to participate in screening. Social support was defined as receiving tangible aid and advice from others that facilitated women's screening participation. Findings suggest that the concept of self-love could be used in future screening promotion efforts and that integrating social support would also be beneficial. Engaging men in sexual and reproductive health programming is suggested in order to ensure male partners offer social support for screening and to challenge the cultural, gender and sexual norms that place women at higher risk for cervical cancer.

  12. Resilience against All Odds: A Positive Psychology Perspective of Adolescent-Headed Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lethale, Praline S.; Pillay, Jace

    2013-01-01

    As a result of the AIDS pandemic, adolescent-headed families are becoming a common trend in South Africa. However, little is known about the experiences of the adolescent, especially within the school context. Hence the purpose of this article was to explore the experiences of adolescents within the school context. During our initial review of…

  13. Does a Happy Marriage Make Positive Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Self-Satisfied Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masche, J. Gowert

    This study examined the impact of parental marriage quality on two aspects of self-esteem in their adolescent children, mediated by parent-adolescent relationship quality. Participating in the study were mothers, fathers, and 16- to 18-year-olds from 54 intact families. The first assessment was completed before the adolescents left middle school,…

  14. Marfan syndrome in children and adolescents: predictive and prognostic value of aortic root growth for screening for aortic complications

    OpenAIRE

    Groenink, M; Rozendaal, L; Naeff, M.S.J.; Hennekam, R.C.M.; Hart, A.A.M.; Wall; Mulder, B.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To assess and measure the diagnostic and prognostic value of individual aortic root growth in children and adolescents with Marfan syndrome.
Design—From 1983 to 1996, 250 children were screened for Marfan syndrome. Serial echocardiographic aortic root measurements of 123 children (57 Marfan, 66 control) were available for evaluation of aortic root growth. Aortic root diameters were correlated with body surface area. Based on individual growth of the aortic root a discrimination form...

  15. Real-time screening tests for functional alignment of the trunk and lower extremities in adolescent – a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina; Wedderkopp, Niels; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The presence of neuromuscular imbalance (Hewett, 2010) or functional malalignment may be part of the increased rate of adolescent knee injuries, specifically the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Abnormal lateral trunk and knee abduction moment are possibly linked to the biomechanical...... mechanisms resulting in ACL injuries (Hewett, 2010). Prevention may therefore depend on identifying these potentially injury risk factors. Screening tools must thus include patterns of typical movements in sport and leisure time activities, consisting of high-load and multi-directional tests, focusing...

  16. Positive Outcome Expectancy Mediates the Relationship Between Peer Influence and Internet Gaming Addiction Among Adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jo Yung Wei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Wu, Li-An; Oei, Tian Po

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positive outcome expectancy in the relationship between peer/parental influence and Internet gaming addiction (IGA) among adolescents in Taiwan. Two thousand, one hundred and four junior high students completed the Chen Internet Addiction Scale for IGA, Parental Influence for IGA, peer influence for IGA, and Positive Outcome Expectancy of Internet Gaming Questionnaire. Results showed that the three types of peer influences (positive attitudes toward Internet gaming, frequency of Internet game use, and invitation to play) and positive outcome expectancy were significantly and positively correlated with IGA. Moreover, peer influence was also positively correlated with positive outcome expectancy. On the other hand, positive outcome expectancy and parental influences had a low correlation. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that positive outcome expectancy did not mediate the relationship between either type of parental influences and IGA, and only the parent's invitation to play Internet games directly predicted IGA severity. However, peers' positive attitude or the frequency of peers' Internet game use positively predicted IGA and was fully mediated through positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. In addition, the frequency of peers' invitation to play Internet games directly and indirectly predicted IGA severity through a partial mediation of positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. The overall fit of the model was adequate and was able to explain 25.0 percent of the variance. The findings provide evidence in illuminating the role of peer influences and positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming in the process of why adolescents may develop IGA.

  17. Utilization and cost of diagnostic imaging and biopsies following positive screening mammography in the southern breast cancer screening region of the Netherlands, 2000-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We prospectively assessed trends in utilization and costs of diagnostic services of screen-positive women in a biennial breast cancer screening program for women aged 50-75 years. All 2,062 women with suspicious findings at screening mammography in the southern region of the Netherlands between 1 January 2000 and 1 July 2005 (158,997 screens) were included. Data were collected on any diagnostic examinations, interventional procedures, and surgical consultations with two-year follow-up. We used national reimbursement rates to estimate imaging costs and percutaneous biopsy costs. Cost prices, charged by hospitals, were used to estimate open surgical biopsy costs and surgical consultation costs. The largest increase in utilization of diagnostic procedures per 100 referrals was observed for axillary ultrasound (from 3.9 in 2000 to 33.5 in 2005) and for stereotactic core biopsy (from 2.1 in 2000 to 26.8 in 2005). Per 100 referrals, the open surgical biopsy rate decreased from 34.7 (2000) to 4.6 (2005) and the number of outpatient surgical consultations fluctuated between 269.8 (2000) and 309.7 (2004). Mean costs for the diagnosis of one cancer were EUR1,501 and ranged from EUR1,223 (2002) to EUR1,647 (2003). Surgical biopsies comprised 54.1% of total diagnostic costs for women screened in 2000, but decreased to 9.9% for women screened in 2005. Imaging costs increased from 23.7 to 43.8%, percutaneous biopsy costs from 9.9 to 27.2%, and consultation costs from 12.3 to 19.1%. We conclude that diagnostic costs per screen-detected cancer remained fairly stable through the years, although huge changes in the use of different diagnostic procedures were observed. (orig.)

  18. Bioautography screening of Jatropha gossypsifolia L. Leaves against the Gram positive organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana J

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha gossypifolia L., belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae is traditionally used in curing various ailments. It is commonly called as cotton leaf, physic nut and Belly ache. In Tamil commonly called as Kattamanakku. Humans are natural hosts for many bacterial species that colonize the skin as normal flora. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus epidermis is infrequent resident flora, but they account for a wide variety of bacterial pyodermas.  Predisposing factors to infection include minor trauma, pre-existing skin disease, poor hygiene, and rarely, impaired host immunity. The present study deals with the antibacterial activity and phytochemical screening of Jatropha gossypifolia. Sequential extraction was carried out using solvents such as chloroform, ethanol, and water from leaf of the plant were investigated for preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial property. Results of the study showed that all the extracts had good inhibitory activity against Gram-positive test organism. Although all four extracts showed promising antibacterial activity against test bacterial species, yet maximum activity was observed in ethanol extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged in between 64 to 1024 μg/ml. Evaluation of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponin, tannin, glycosides, phenolic compound, proteins and amino acids revealed the presence of most of constituents in polar extracts of aqueous. All the findings exhibit that the leaf extracts have broad-spectrum activity and suggest its possible use in treatment of infectious diseases.

  19. Positive Peer Support or Negative Peer Influence? the Role of Peers among Adolescents in Recovery High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakos, Holly L.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from previous research suggests that peers at times exert negative influence and at other times exert positive influence on drug and alcohol use among adolescents in recovery. This study explores recovery high school staff members' perceptions of peer support among students in recovery high schools using qualitative interview data.…

  20. Training Workers Implementing Adolescent Prevention and Positive Youth Development Programs: What Have We Learned from the Literature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Wai, C. L. Y.

    2008-01-01

    Although many studies are evaluating the effectiveness of adolescent prevention and positive youth development programs, training programs for workers implementing such programs are seldom examined. In this paper, such programs indexed in several databases were reviewed. The basic characteristics, objectives, content, theory, process, and…

  1. Positive and Negative Self-Esteem Among Ethnic Minority Early Adolescents : Social and Cultural Sources and Threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses data from a large-scale study (N D 1070) of Turkish and Moroccan early adolescents in the Netherlands. In it, it was found that a distinction between positive and negative self-esteem as 2 relatively independent dimensions of global self-esteem could be made. Other results were that

  2. Effect of faecal occult blood positivity on detection rates and positive predictive value of CT colonography when screening for colorectal neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To determine the detection rates and positive predictive value (PPV) of computed tomography (CT) colonography (CTC) according to the magnitude of faecal occult blood test (FOBt) positivity. Materials and methods: Anonymised data from individuals undergoing CTC after a positive FOBt in the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme were analysed. The detection of colorectal cancer (CRC), advanced neoplasia, and ≥6mm polyps were stratified by the number of positive FOBt windows. The PPV was calculated by reference to subsequent endoscopy results. The influence of the FOBt result on detection rates was estimated with multilevel logistic regression. PPV, CRC stage, and location were compared across groups according to FOBt positivity. Results: Four thousand, six hundred and one individuals were included (mean =66.7 years, 54.2% men). Detection rates of CRC and advanced neoplasia increased with greater numbers of positive FOBt windows (odds ratio [OR] for CRC=1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31–1.52; OR for advanced neoplasia=1.17; 95%CI: 1.12–1.23; both p<0.0001). The PPV was significantly greater at higher FOBt levels (p=0.020). The number of positive FOBt windows had no significant effect on stage (p=0.30) or location (p=0.20) of confirmed CRC. Conclusions: The magnitude of FOBt positivity influences the PPV and detection rates when screening for colorectal neoplasia. CTC may be particularly useful for FOBt patients with few positive test windows. -- Highlights: •Detection rates at CTC increase with higher levels of fecal occult blood (FOB). •Positive predictive value of CTC increases with greater FOB positivity. •Stage and location of cancers are not affected by magnitude of FOB positivity. •CTC may be valuable for otherwise low-risk patients with small amounts of FOB

  3. Effect of radiologist experience on the risk of false-positive results in breast cancer screening programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of radiologist experience on the risk of false-positive results in population-based breast cancer screening programmes. We evaluated 1,440,384 single-read screening mammograms, corresponding to 471,112 women aged 45-69 years participating in four Spanish programmes between 1990 and 2006. The mammograms were interpreted by 72 radiologists. The overall percentage of false-positive results was 5.85% and that for false-positives resulting in an invasive procedure was 0.38%. Both the risk of false-positives overall and of false-positives leading to an invasive procedure significantly decreased (p 14,999 mammograms with respect to the reference category (<500). The risk of both categories of false-positives was also significantly reduced (p < 0.001) as radiologists' years of experience increased: OR 0.96 and OR 0.84, respectively, for 1 year's experience and OR 0.72 and OR 0.73, respectively, for more than 4 years' experience with regard to the category of <1 year's experience. Radiologist experience is a determining factor in the risk of a false-positive result in breast cancer screening. (orig.)

  4. Positive family relationships and religious affiliation as mediators between negative environment and illicit drug symptoms in American Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mansoo; Stiffman, Arlene R

    2010-07-01

    The present study tests how positive family relationships and religious affiliation mediate between negative familial and social environments, and adolescent illicit drug abuse/dependence symptoms. The theoretical framework is based on an integration of two theories: the ecological model of human development (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) and the social development model (Hawkins & Weis, 1985). We used a stratified random sample of 401 American Indian adolescents. A path analysis tested the integrative theoretical model. Findings showed that positive family relationships mediated the negative impact of addicted family members, violence victimization, and negative school environment on illicit drug abuse/dependence symptoms. Religious affiliation mediated the negative effect of deviant peers on positive family relationships. Intervention and prevention efforts may benefit from promoting positive family relationships and religious affiliation to reduce the impact of complex familial and social problems on illicit drug symptoms.

  5. Sensation seeking as a potential screening tool for suicidality in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Won Kyung; Lim, Dohee; Lee, Hye Ah; Park, Hyesook

    2016-01-01

    Background Although suicide could be an adverse health problem related to sensation seeking, this relationship has not been rigorously evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between sensation seeking and suicidality (suicidal ideation and plan) among adolescents and to test the influence of depressive symptom on this relationship. Methods We surveyed 2,017 adolescents in seven middle and high schools located in urban and rural areas in 2012. A self-report questi...

  6. Obesity-related behaviors among poor adolescents and young adults: Is social position associated with risk behaviors?

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Lucia Ritterman Weintraub; Fernald, Lia C.H.; Elizabeth eGoodman; Sylvia eGuendelman; Nancy eAdler

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examines multiple dimensions of social position in relation to obesity-related behaviors in an adolescent and young adult population. In addition to using conventional measures of social position, including parental education and household expenditures, we explore the usefulness of three youth-specific measures of social position—community and society subjective social status and school dropout status. Data is taken from a 2004 house-to-house survey of urban househ...

  7. Incomplete follow-up of positive HPV tests: overview of randomised controlled trials on primary cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, M; Lynge, E

    2010-01-01

    Background:It has been suggested that adjustment for incomplete compliance with follow-up in women with positive human papillomavirus (HPV) tests would be appropriate for estimating the true sensitivity of cervical screening with HPV testing. We assessed the compliance and its impact on >/=CIN3 d...

  8. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and risk of screening positive for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porcel, Jacqueline; Feigal, Christine; Poye, Laney; Postma, Ineke R.; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Olowoyeye, Abiola; Tsigas, Eleni; Wilson, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy (HDP) encompass a spectrum of disorders that affect 6-8% of US pregnancies. We aim to determine the impact of self-reported history of HDP as a risk factor for screening positive for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which results from exposure to

  9. Personality and emotional processing: A relationship between extraversion and the late positive potential in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Brittany C; Nelson, Brady D; Perlman, Greg; Klein, Daniel N; Kotov, Roman; Hajcak, Greg

    2015-08-01

    Neuroticism and extraversion are multifaceted affective-laden personality traits that have been associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). Research and theory have argued that extraversion, and particularly its facet positive emotionality, is specific to MDD, while neuroticism is common across internalizing disorders. Converging evidence has suggested that MDD is associated with reduced engagement with emotional stimuli, but it remains unclear whether either extraversion, neuroticism, or both modulate reactivity to emotional cues. The late positive potential (LPP) is an event-related brain potential that is uniquely suited to assess engagement with emotional stimuli because it reflects sustained attention toward emotional content. The current study examined the LPP in relation to personality traits that may confer risk for depression by examining the relationship between the LPP and both neuroticism and extraversion in never-depressed adolescent girls. Specifically, 550 girls aged 13.5-15.5 with no lifetime history of depression completed an emotional picture-viewing task, and the LPP was measured in response to neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures. Personality traits were gathered via self- and informant report. Results indicated that high extraversion was associated with a potentiated LPP to emotional pictures-and this effect was accounted for by positive emotionality in particular. In contrast, there was no association between the LPP and neuroticism or its facets. The present study is one of the first to demonstrate that extraversion is associated with variation in neural indices of emotional picture processing, similar to what has been observed among individuals with depression and at high risk for depression.

  10. Impact of intermediate mammography assessment on the likelihood of false-positive results in breast cancer screening programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascunce, Nieves [Public Health Institute, CIBERESP, Navarra Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Pamplona (Spain); Instituto de Salud Publica, Navarra Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Pamplona (Spain); Ederra, Maria; Delfrade, Josu; Erdozain, Nieves [Public Health Institute, CIBERESP, Navarra Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Pamplona (Spain); Baroja, Araceli [Fundacion Rioja Salud, Logrono (Spain); Zubizarreta, Raquel [Public Health and Planning Directorate, Health Office, Galician Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Galicia (Spain); Salas, Dolores [General Directorate Public Health and Centre for Public Health Research (CSISP), Valencia (Spain); Castells, Xavier [Mar Teaching Hospital, CIBERESP, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-02-15

    Breast cancer screening is offered to 100% of the target population in Spain and intermediate mammograms (IMs) are sometimes indicated. This study was aimed at analysing the frequency of IMs, the factors determining their recommendation, and their impact on the risk of false-positive results and the detection rate. Data from 3,471,307 mammograms from Spanish breast cancer screening programmes were included. 3.36% of the mammograms were IMs. The factors associated with the use of IMs were age, initial screening, previous invasive tests, a familial history of breast cancer and use of hormone replacement therapy. In screening episodes with an IM, the probability of a false-positive result was 13.74% (95% CI: 13.43-14.05), almost double that in episodes without IMs (6.02%, 95% CI 5.99-6.05). In young women with previous invasive procedures, a familial history of breast cancer or hormone replacement therapy use who were undergoing their initial screen, this probability was lower when IMs were performed. IMs always increased the detection rate. The factors prompting IMs should be characterised so that radiologists can systematise their recommendations according to the presence of the factors maximising the benefits and minimising the adverse effects of this procedure. (orig.)

  11. Impact of intermediate mammography assessment on the likelihood of false-positive results in breast cancer screening programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer screening is offered to 100% of the target population in Spain and intermediate mammograms (IMs) are sometimes indicated. This study was aimed at analysing the frequency of IMs, the factors determining their recommendation, and their impact on the risk of false-positive results and the detection rate. Data from 3,471,307 mammograms from Spanish breast cancer screening programmes were included. 3.36% of the mammograms were IMs. The factors associated with the use of IMs were age, initial screening, previous invasive tests, a familial history of breast cancer and use of hormone replacement therapy. In screening episodes with an IM, the probability of a false-positive result was 13.74% (95% CI: 13.43-14.05), almost double that in episodes without IMs (6.02%, 95% CI 5.99-6.05). In young women with previous invasive procedures, a familial history of breast cancer or hormone replacement therapy use who were undergoing their initial screen, this probability was lower when IMs were performed. IMs always increased the detection rate. The factors prompting IMs should be characterised so that radiologists can systematise their recommendations according to the presence of the factors maximising the benefits and minimising the adverse effects of this procedure. (orig.)

  12. How and why community hospital clinicians document a positive screen for intimate partner violence: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Richard C

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This two-part study examines primary care clinicians' chart documentation and attitudes when confronted by a positive waiting room screen for intimate partner violence (IPV. Methods Patients at community hospital-affiliated health centers completed a screening questionnaire in waiting rooms that primary care providers (PCPs were subsequently given at the time of the visit. We first reviewed the medical records of patients who screened positive for IPV, evaluating the presence and quality of documentation. Next we administered a survey to PCPs that measured their knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding IPV. Results Seventy-two percent of charts contained some documentation of IPV, however only 10% contained both a referral and safety plan. PCPs were more likely to refer patients (p Conclusion Mandatory waiting room screening for IPV does not result in high levels of referral or safety planning by PCPs. Despite the implementation of a screening process, clinicians lack confidence and time to address IPV in their patient populations suggesting that alternative methods of training and supporting PCPs need to be developed.

  13. Screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: an information statement by the scoliosis research society international task force

    OpenAIRE

    Labelle, Hubert; Richards, Stephens B; de Kleuver, Marinus; Grivas, Theodoros B; Luk, Keith D. K.; Wong, Hee Kit; Thometz, John; Beauséjour, Marie; Turgeon, Isabelle; Fong, Daniel Y.T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Routine screening of scoliosis is a controversial subject and screening efforts vary greatly around the world. Methods Consensus was sought among an international group of experts (seven spine surgeons and one clinical epidemiologist) using a modified Delphi approach. The consensus achieved was based on careful analysis of a recent critical review of the literature on scoliosis screening, performed using a conceptual framework of analysis focusing on five main dimensions: technical...

  14. The importance of a positive approach to sexuality in sexual health programmes for unmarried adolescents in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Reeuwijk, Miranda; Nahar, Papreen

    2013-05-01

    This article explores the mismatch that exists between what unmarried adolescents in Bangladesh experience, want and need in regard to their sexuality and what they receive from their society, which negatively impacts on their understanding of sexuality and their well-being. The findings provide a picture of Bangladeshi adolescents' (12-18 years) sexual feelings, experiences, behaviours, anxieties and concerns - in particular in relation to desire, pleasure, sexual power, masturbation, virginity, romantic love and dating, and arranged marriage - and how socio-sexual norms and taboos influence these. Curiosity of boys and girls about sex was driven by a need and desire to know and understand, but also because it was exciting to read about and talk about sex. Young people are not just passive recipients of adult norms and messages around sexuality, but agents who actively construe meanings and navigate between what is expected from them and what they want, need and feel themselves. Adolescents have a need for information and support - long before they ever have sex. We call for a positive, rights-based approach to sexuality education for adolescents and a focus beyond health outcomes alone to support adolescents and young people to make sense of the multiplicity of messages they encounter and reduce unnecessary feelings of guilt and anxiety.

  15. Problems, solutions, and perspectives in the evaluation of interval cancers in Italian mammography screening programmes: a position paper from the Italian group for mammography screening (GISMa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchi, Lauro; Frigerio, Alfonso; Zorzi, Manuel; Fedato, Chiara; Angiolucci, Giovanni; Bernardi, Daniela; Campari, Cinzia; Crocetti, Emanuele; Ferretti, Stefano; Giorgi, Daniela; Marchisio, Francesca; Morrone, Doralba; Naldoni, Carlo; Petrella, Marco; Ponti, Antonio; Ravaioli, Alessandra; Saguatti, Gianni; Santini, Dolores; Sassoli de Bianchi, Priscilla; Serafini, Monica; Vergini, Viviana; Giordano, Livia

    2015-01-01

    In this position paper, a self-convened team of experts from the Italian Group for Mammography Screening (Gruppo italiano screening mammografico, GISMa) pointed out the problems that increasingly hamper the feasibility and validity of the estimate of the proportional incidence of interval breast cancer (IBC) in Italy, suggested potential solutions and an agenda for research, and proposed that the question of the sensitivity of mammography be viewed in a larger perspective, with a greater attention to radiological review activities and breast radiology quality assurance programmes. The main problems are as follows: the coverage of cancer registration is incomplete; the robustness of using the pre-screening incidence rates as underlying rates decreases with time since the start of screening; the intermediate mammograms performed for early detection purposes may cause an overrepresentation of IBCs; the classification of many borderline screening histories is prone to subjectivity; and, finally, the composition of cohorts of women with negative screening results is uncertain, because several mammography reports are neither clearly negative nor clearly positive, and because of the limitations and instability of the electronic mammography records. Several possibilities can be considered to cope with these issues: standard methods for using the hospital discharge records in the identification of IBCs should be established; for the calculation of regional estimates of the underlying incidence, a suitable mathematical model should be identified; the definition of IBC according to the 2008 GISMa guidelines needs to be updated, especially with respect to in situ cancers and to invasive cancers with borderline screening histories; a closer adherence to standard screening protocols, with a simplified patient management, would make it easier to objectively identify IBCs; alternative methods for estimating the sensitivity of mammography should be taken into consideration; and

  16. Development of a Positive Youth Development Program: Promoting the Mental Health of Stressful Adolescents Using Principles of Problem Solving Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T.L. Shek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the proposal for the development, implementation, and evaluation of a positive youth development program that attempts to promote the mental health of stressful Chinese adolescents using principles of Problem Solving Therapy (PST. There are two general aims of PST: to help clients identify life difficulties and resolve them, as well as to teach them skills on how to deal with future problems. The proposed project will utilize the principles of PST as the guiding framework to run two mental health promotion courses for adolescents who are experiencing disturbing stressful responses and students who want to improve their stress management style. Both objective and subjective outcome evaluation strategies will be carried out to assess the effectiveness of the intervention to promote the psychological well-being in adolescents who are experiencing stress. A related sample proposal is described that can give social workers some insight on how to prepare a proposal for developing the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs.

  17. Results of the thyroid and diabetes-associated autoantibodies screening in children and adolescents living in various regions of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently among the factors capable to induce autoimmune reaction, it is ionizing radiation that is discussed, along with virus infections and chemical influences. Investigation of 540 healthy children and adolescents (age range 12-19 y.o.) living in radionuclide contaminated areas (average cesium 137 contamination 0,19-0,56 MBq/m2) and in conditionally clear regions revealed significant differences in levels of diabetes-associated (AB-GAD, AB-IA2) and thyroid (AB-TG, AB-TPO) autoantibodies. At the same time frequencies of positive AB-IA2, AB-TPO and AB-TG were higher in persons from contaminated regions. Obtained results correlate with the increase of the type 1 diabetes incidence in children and adolescents from Gomel region and dictate the necessity to continue the such study

  18. Positive Outcome Expectancy Mediates the Relationship Between Peer Influence and Internet Gaming Addiction Among Adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jo Yung Wei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Wu, Li-An; Oei, Tian Po

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positive outcome expectancy in the relationship between peer/parental influence and Internet gaming addiction (IGA) among adolescents in Taiwan. Two thousand, one hundred and four junior high students completed the Chen Internet Addiction Scale for IGA, Parental Influence for IGA, peer influence for IGA, and Positive Outcome Expectancy of Internet Gaming Questionnaire. Results showed that the three types of peer influences (positive attitudes toward Internet gaming, frequency of Internet game use, and invitation to play) and positive outcome expectancy were significantly and positively correlated with IGA. Moreover, peer influence was also positively correlated with positive outcome expectancy. On the other hand, positive outcome expectancy and parental influences had a low correlation. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that positive outcome expectancy did not mediate the relationship between either type of parental influences and IGA, and only the parent's invitation to play Internet games directly predicted IGA severity. However, peers' positive attitude or the frequency of peers' Internet game use positively predicted IGA and was fully mediated through positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. In addition, the frequency of peers' invitation to play Internet games directly and indirectly predicted IGA severity through a partial mediation of positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. The overall fit of the model was adequate and was able to explain 25.0 percent of the variance. The findings provide evidence in illuminating the role of peer influences and positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming in the process of why adolescents may develop IGA. PMID:26716791

  19. Positive and Negative Self-Esteem Among Ethnic Minority Early Adolescents: Social and Cultural Sources and Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Verkuyten, Maykel

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses data from a large-scale study (N D 1070) of Turkish and Moroccan early adolescents in the Netherlands. In it, it was found that a distinction between positive and negative self-esteem as 2 relatively independent dimensions of global self-esteem could be made. Other results were that ethnic identification and family integrity as an individual tendency toward collectivism turned out to be positively related to positive self-esteem. On the other hand, peer discrimination and inte...

  20. The Child Suicide Risk Assessment: A Screening Measure of Suicide Risk in Pre-Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzelere, Robert E.; Andersen, Jamie J.; Ringle, Jay L.; Jorgensen, Dan D.

    2004-01-01

    This study documents the initial reliability and validity of the Child Suicide Risk Assessment (CSRA) for children under the age of 13. The revised CSRA retained 18 of 20 original items based on item-specific psychometric data from 140 pre-adolescents in out-of-home treatment programs. The CSRA demonstrated adequate internal consistency (alpha =…

  1. Effect of radiologist experience on the risk of false-positive results in breast cancer screening programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubizarreta Alberdi, Raquel [Galician Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Public Health and Planning Directorate, Health Office, Galicia (Spain); Edificio Administrativo da Conselleria de Sanidade, Servicio de Programas Poboacionais de Cribado, Direccion Xeral de Saude Publica e Planificacion, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Llanes, Ana B.F.; Ortega, Raquel Almazan [Galician Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Public Health and Planning Directorate, Health Office, Galicia (Spain); Exposito, Ruben Roman; Collado, Jose M.V.; Oliveres, Xavier Castells [Department of Epidemiology and Evaluation, Institut Municipal d' Investigacio Medica-Parc de Salut Mar. CIBERESP, Barcelona (Spain); Queiro Verdes, Teresa [Galician Agency for Health Technology Assessment, Public Health and Planning Directorate, Health Office, Galicia (Spain); Natal Ramos, Carmen [Principality of Asturias Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Principality of Asturias (Spain); Sanz, Maria Ederra [Public Health Institute, Navarra Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Pamplona (Spain); Salas Trejo, Dolores [General Directorate Public Health and Centre for Public Health Research (CSISP), Valencia Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    To evaluate the effect of radiologist experience on the risk of false-positive results in population-based breast cancer screening programmes. We evaluated 1,440,384 single-read screening mammograms, corresponding to 471,112 women aged 45-69 years participating in four Spanish programmes between 1990 and 2006. The mammograms were interpreted by 72 radiologists. The overall percentage of false-positive results was 5.85% and that for false-positives resulting in an invasive procedure was 0.38%. Both the risk of false-positives overall and of false-positives leading to an invasive procedure significantly decreased (p < 0.001) with greater reading volume in the previous year: OR 0.77 and OR 0.78, respectively, for a reading volume 500-1,999 mammograms and OR 0.59 and OR 0.60 for a reading volume of >14,999 mammograms with respect to the reference category (<500). The risk of both categories of false-positives was also significantly reduced (p < 0.001) as radiologists' years of experience increased: OR 0.96 and OR 0.84, respectively, for 1 year's experience and OR 0.72 and OR 0.73, respectively, for more than 4 years' experience with regard to the category of <1 year's experience. Radiologist experience is a determining factor in the risk of a false-positive result in breast cancer screening. (orig.)

  2. INTERNAL CONSISTENCY AND FACTORIAL ANALYSIS OF THE SCOFF QUESTIONNAIRE FOR SCREENING EATING DISORDERS AMONG ADOLESCENT STUDENTS: A GENDER COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADALBERTO CAMPO-ARIAS

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms of eating disorders (ED have increased among males recently. The SCOFF questionnairefor screening ED counts on a formal validation in Colombian only on girl students. However, psychometricproperties of this questionnaire in males are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determinethe internal consistency and factors of the SCOFF questionnaire and make a gender comparisonamong adolescent students from Bucaramanga, Colombia. A probabilistic sample of 2496 male and2375 female, aged 10-19 year-old, completed the SCOFF questionnaire and the CAGE questionnairethat identifies abusive alcohol consumption (divergent validation. The internal consistency of the SCOFFwas established with the Kuder-Richardson’s formula 20, and the divergence with the CAGE questionnairewith the Pearson’s correlation. Results showed among male an internal consistency 0.521, andamong female a consistency of 0.584. One factor explained 34.7% of the variance in males, and one especifactor was responsible of 37.5% of variance in females. Finally, SCOFF scores and CAGE scorespresented a poor correlation both males and females. In conclusion the SCOFF questionnaire presents an acceptable internal consistency, and a high divergence with the CAGE questionnaire among male and female adolescents. Further, the criterion validation of SCOFF questionnaire is needed for males.

  3. Development and Implementation of a Smartphone Application to Promote Physical Activity and Reduce Screen-time in Adolescent Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Revalds Lubans

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The primary aim is to describe the development and implementation of a smartphone application (app designed to promote physical activity and reduce screen-time in adolescent boys ‘at risk’ of obesity from low-income communities.Methods: An app was developed to support the delivery of a face-to-face school-based obesity prevention program known as the ‘Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time’ (ATLAS program. ATLAS was guided by self-determination theory and social cognitive theory and evaluated using a cluster randomized controlled trial with 361 boys (12.7± 0.5 years in 14 secondary schools. Following the completion of the study, participants in the intervention group completed a process evaluation questionnaire and focus groups were conducted with 42 students to explore their general perceptions of the ATLAS program and their experience with the smartphone app. Barriers and challenges encountered in the development, implementation and evaluation of the app are also described.Results: Participation in the study was not contingent on ownership of a smartphone, but 70% of participants in the intervention group reported having access to a smartphone or tablet device. Focus group participants reported an enjoyment of the program, and felt that it had provided them with new skills, techniques, and routines for the future. However, their engagement with the smartphone app was limited, due to a variety of reasons. Barriers to the implementation and evaluation of the app included limited access to smartphone devices, technical problems with the push notifications, lack of access to usage data and the challenges of maintaining participants’ interest in using the app.Conclusions: Although participants reported high levels of satisfaction with the ATLAS program in general, the smartphone app was not used extensively. Additional strategies and features may be needed to enhance engagement in adolescent boys.

  4. Socioeconomic position and childhood-adolescent weight status in rich countries: a systematic review, 1990–2013

    OpenAIRE

    Barriuso, Laura; Miqueleiz Autor, Estrella; Albaladejo, Romana; Villanueva, Rosa; Juana M. Santos; Regidor Poyatos, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a major problem in rich countries due to its high prevalence and its harmful health consequences. An exploratory analysis conducted in the PubMed database highlighted that the number of papers published on the relationship between socioeconomic position (SEP) and childhood-adolescent weight status had risen substantially with respect to an earlier review which had covered the period 1990–2005. Methods To describe the findings on the relationship between SEP and...

  5. The Effect of Positive Adolescent Life Skills Training on Long Term Outcomes for High-Risk Teens

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell-Heider, Nancy; Tuttle, Jane; Knapp, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on long term follow-up data—12 months post intervention—from a clinical trial of an intervention designed to enhance teen resilience by supporting the development of social skills needed to make positive connections and overcome the influence of negative environmental influences. Sixteen adolescents aged 12 to 16 (10 boys and 6 girls) attending an inner city urban secondary school participated in a 32 week intervention study. Subjects were randomly assigned within sex to Te...

  6. Positive association of video game playing with left frontal cortical thickness in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Kühn; Robert Lorenz; Tobias Banaschewski; Barker, Gareth J.; Christian Büchel; Conrod, Patricia J.; Herta Flor; Hugh Garavan; Bernd Ittermann; Eva Loth; Karl Mann; Frauke Nees; Eric Artiges; Tomas Paus; Marcella Rietschel

    2014-01-01

    PUBLISHED Playing video games is a common recreational activity of adolescents. Recent research associated frequent video game playing with improvements in cognitive functions. Improvements in cognition have been related to grey matter changes in prefrontal cortex. However, a fine-grained analysis of human brain structure in relation to video gaming is lacking. In magnetic resonance imaging scans of 152 14-year old adolescents, FreeSurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness. Cortical t...

  7. Sleep restriction is not associated with a positive energy balance in adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingenberg, Lars; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Holmbäck, Ulf;

    2012-01-01

    A short sleep (SS) duration has been linked to obesity in observational studies. However, experimental evidence of the potential mechanisms of sleep restriction on energy balance is conflicting and, to our knowledge, nonexistent in adolescents.......A short sleep (SS) duration has been linked to obesity in observational studies. However, experimental evidence of the potential mechanisms of sleep restriction on energy balance is conflicting and, to our knowledge, nonexistent in adolescents....

  8. MODERN CONCEPTS OF CHRONIC GASTRO-DUODENITIS IN ADOLESCENTS WITH POSITION EVALUATION OF QUALITY OF LIFE

    OpenAIRE

    Skomorin Maksim Sergeevich

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess quality of life (QOL) in adolescents aged 13-17 years with chronic gastroduodenitis associated with H. pylori (CGD) during exacerbation and remission. Methods: The clinical, laboratory, instrumental, sociological: the quality of life questionnaire PedsQL-4, a special questionnaire GSRS Results: CGD syndrome analyzed using special GSRS questionnaire and quality of life associated with health of adolescents with CGD (self-assessment and evaluation of the parents using a com...

  9. The problem of false-positive human papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm;

    2013-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been extensively studied in randomized controlled trials of primary cervical screening. Based on encouraging results concerning its high detection rates and a high negative predictive value for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), HPV testing...

  10. Cervical screening in HIV-positive women in the East of England: recent CD4 as the predictive risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Olubanke; Rajamanoharan, Sasikala; Balachandran, Thambiah

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the relationship between CD4 count and cervical cytological abnormality in HIV-positive women attending two district general hospital genitourinary medicine clinics in the East of England. It aims to determine whether the rate of cervical cytological abnormalities differs in HIV-positive women with CD4 count >350 cells/µl and those with CD4 count ≤350 cells/µl; and to compare the rates of abnormalities with that of the general population. We retrospectively reviewed data from a cross-sectional audit undertaken between December 2010 and December 2011 and analysed them using multivariable statistics. There was a significant association between recent CD4 count ≤350 cells/µl and cervical cytological abnormality (p 350 cells/µl had abnormal cervical smear results, compared with 6.6% of the general population in the screening period 2010-11 and 7.2% of the general population in the screening period 2009-10. In our study population of women with recent CD4 counts >350 cells/µl, the proportions of mild, moderate and severe dysplasia were also similar to national figures. This raises important questions about the cost effectiveness of blanket annual screening for HIV-positive women.

  11. Por uma agenda positiva dos direitos sexuais da adolescência For a positive agenda of sexual rights of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Heilborn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo busca esclarecer as dimensões dos chamados direitos sexuais de adolescentes com base em perspectivas empíricas, tanto qualitativas quanto quantitativas. A partir de entrevistas em profundidade e um inquérito domiciliar com jovens sobre conhecimento, experiências e valores associados à sexualidade, o artigo procura demonstrar que a "conversa sobre sexo" é limitada no âmbito da família, da escola e nos serviços de saúde. O acesso à informação e familiaridade com a temática da sexualidade constitui-se em um direito sexual de primeira linha para adolescentes e jovens, a despeito das convicções morais do entorno social.This article focuses on the theme of adolescent sexual rights, based on qualitative and quantitative empirical data. Taking into consideration the results obtained with deep interviews and a population survey with youth about knowledge, experience and values about sexuality, the article shows that "talking about sex" is still limited in different social spheres, that is, family, school and health services. The access to information and approach to sexual themes is a fundamental right to adolescents and youth, despite moral convictions that exist in the social environment.

  12. Evaluation of false positive results in microbial inhibitor tests for screening antibiotics in goat milk

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Rueda, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Goat milk is primarily destined for the production of fermented products, in particular cheese. Therefore, the control of antibiotic residues in milk is of great importance, since these could have negative repercussions on technological properties of the milk as well as on the health of consumers. In milk quality control programs, microbial inhibitor tests are widely applied to detect antibiotics during the screening stage. However, tests are non-specific and may be affected...

  13. Marfan syndrome in children and adolescents: an adjusted nomogram for screening aortic root dilatation

    OpenAIRE

    Rozendaal, L; Groenink, M; Naeff, M.S.J.; Hennekam, R. C. M.; Hart, A.A.M.; Wall, van der, E.E.; Mulder, B.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To construct an adjusted nomogram for the echocardiographic screening of aortic root diameter in children with possible Marfan disease.
Design—In 91 children (42 boys, 49 girls, age range 3.2 to 18.4 years) undergoing Marfan screening from 1983 until 1996, the diagnosis Marfan syndrome and any other aortic pathology was definitely ruled out. These served as a control population to set appropriate reference standards.
Results—Compared with a standard Dutch reference population, body ...

  14. No differences in ventral striatum responsivity between adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kathrin U; Gan, Gabriela; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lawrence, Claire; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Ströhle, Andreas; Struve, Maren; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael N

    2015-05-01

    Individuals with alcohol-dependent parents show an elevated risk of developing alcohol-related problems themselves. Modulations of the mesolimbic reward circuit have been postulated as a pre-existing marker of alcoholism. We tested whether a positive family history of alcoholism is correlated with ventral striatum functionality during a reward task. All participants performed a modified version of the monetary incentive delay task while their brain responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared 206 healthy adolescents (aged 13-15) who had any first- or second-degree relative with alcoholism to 206 matched controls with no biological relative with alcoholism. Reward anticipation as well as feedback of win recruited the ventral striatum in all participants, but adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism did not differ from their matched peers. Also we did not find any correlation between family history density and reward anticipation or feedback of win. This finding of no differences did not change when we analyzed a subsample of 77 adolescents with at least one parent with alcohol use disorder and their matched controls. Because this result is in line with another study reporting no differences between children with alcohol-dependent parents and controls at young age, but contrasts with studies of older individuals, one might conclude that at younger age the effect of family history has not yet exerted its influence on the still developing mesolimbic reward circuit.

  15. Psychometric validation of measures of alcohol expectancies, retrospective subjective response, and positive drinking consequences for use with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, M E; Zellers, S; Tamler, M; Krishnan-Sarin, S

    2016-07-01

    The Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale (AEAS), the Subjective Effects of Alcohol Scale, and the Positive Drinking Consequences Questionnaire (PDCQ) are psychometrically sound measures of alcohol expectancies (expectancies), subjective response to alcohol, and positive drinking consequences, respectively, for use with adults. Prior research using these measures suggests that expectancies, subjective response, and positive drinking consequences are related yet distinct determinants of drinking. The current study presents psychometric evaluations of these measures for use with adolescents including confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of the previously identified latent structures, internal consistency, and test-criterion relationships. Legally, alcohol cannot be administered to adolescents, so we assessed retrospective subjective response (during the first drinking episode ever [SEAS First] and the most recent drinking episode [SEAS Recent]). The sample comprised 248 Connecticut high school students (53.6% male; mean age 16.50 [1.19] years; 71.4% White) who completed an anonymous survey. CFA confirmed the latent factor structures for each measure. The AEAS, SEAS First, SEAS Recent and the PDCQ were internally consistent (mean α AEAS=0.83; SEAS First=0.88; SEAS Recent=0.89, PDCQ=0.87). AEAS subscales evidenced moderate overlap with corresponding SEAS First subscales (mean=0.36) and SEAS Recent subscales (mean=0.46) and modest overlap with the PDCQ (mean=0.17). Expectancies, subjective response, and positive drinking consequences also accounted for significant variance in monthly drinking, lifetime maximum number of drinks consumed, and alcohol-related problems. In sum, the AEAS, the retrospective SEAS, and the PDCQ are psychometrically sound measures for use with adolescents. PMID:26967911

  16. Effectiveness of the workshop "Adolescent depression: What can schools do?"

    OpenAIRE

    Vania eMartinez; Daniel eEspinosa; Pedro eZitko; Rigoberto eMarin; Sara eSchilling; Camila eSchwerter; Graciela eRojas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescent depression is associated with serious consequences. School staff is in a unique position to screen and refer adolescents with depression in a timely manner, and can collaborate with healthcare teams to assist in the proper management of the disease. The objective of this paper is to describe the results of a workshop that aims to improve the knowledge of adolescent depression among school staff.Material and methods: This was a single-arm trial with a pre-post design. ...

  17. Removal of Positive Reinforcement to Alter Learning Disabled Adolescents' Preacademic Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Lee

    1979-01-01

    One reversal and two multiple baseline designs were used to assess the effects of punishment on the disruptive behavior of six adolescent learning disability students. During baseline conditions of praise and ignore contingencies, the frequency of inappropriate preacademic behavior was assessed. With the institution of punishment procedures,…

  18. Adolescent Reading/Viewing of Advertisements: Understandings from Transactional and Positioning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begoray, Deborah; Higgins, Joan Wharf; Harrison, Janie; Collins-Emery, Amy

    2013-01-01

    We examined middle years adolescents' (ages 12-13) responses to reading and viewing advertisements as part of integrated language arts and health education lessons. We report here on the qualitative results from student and teacher focus groups, and from student journals. Three regular classroom teachers co-developed (with university…

  19. Introducing positive media psychology to the field of children, adolescents, and media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Buijzen, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The field of children, adolescents, and media has predominantly focused on harmful media effects, for instance, concerning the potential harm of media violence. Although we recognize the relevance of that research, we propose that the balance in the field should be restored with research that also c

  20. Graduated Exposure and Positive Reinforcement to Overcome Setting and Activity Avoidance in an Adolescent with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Luiselli, James K.; Rue, Hanna; Whalley, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Some students who have developmental disabilities avoid settings and activities that can improve their learning and quality of life. This two-phase study concerned an adolescent boy with autism who avoided the gross-motor exercise room, gymnasium, and music room at his school; he demonstrated distress, agitation, and problem behaviors when…

  1. Encouraging Lifelong Healthy Habits for a Positive Body Image in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Christine

    This article discusses issues related to body image in adolescents, explaining what school practitioners can do to encourage lifelong healthy habits that enhance body image. Body image is the picture of physical self carried in the mind's eye. This impression can have little resemblance to how a teen actually looks. Body image culturalization is…

  2. Parental Education Level Positively Affects Self-Esteem of Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Barut, Yasar; Ersanli, Ercüment

    2013-01-01

    Although the literature on self-esteem has a long and prolific history in Turkey regarding which demographics may influence the self-esteem of adolescents. The research findings are intricate and undermine the need of further research in Turkey. This cross-sectional study re-examined the effects of age, grade level and education level of a mother…

  3. Positive association between blood Omega-3 index and cognition in healthy Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wurff, Inge; Von Schacky, Clemens; Berge, Kjetil; Zeegers, Maurice P; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Groot, Renate

    2016-01-01

    The impact of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) on cognition is heavily debated. In the current study, the possible association between omega-3 LCPUFAs in blood and cognitive performance of 266 typically developing adolescents aged 13–15 years is investigated. Baseline data fr

  4. Adolescent Literacy Practices and Positive Youth Development through Fink's Taxonomy of Significant Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Greathouse, Paula

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was not to disprove the effects of the current, common remedial literacy course design and the literacy practices within that help adolescent RLLs pass statewide assessment tests, but to describe the potential long-term impact of an innovative comprehensive approach to literacy (CAL) framed through an integrated course…

  5. Brief Report: Accuracy of a 16-Item Questionnaire Based on the HEADSS Approach (QBH-16) in the Screening of Mental Disorders in Adolescents with Behavioral Problems in Secondary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Lilian Day; Mainieri, Alberto Scolfano; Zeni, Cristian Patrick; Wagner, Mario Bernardes

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Compare a questionnaire based on the HEADSS approach (QBH-16) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in the screening of mental disorder in adolescents with behavioral problems. Methods: Adolescents from both genders 12-17 years-old presenting behavioral problems without a previous diagnosis of mental disorder were referred from…

  6. Enhanced screening for posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid diagnoses in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Verlinden, Eva; Opmeer, Brent C; Els P. M. Van Meijel; Beer, Renée; De Roos, Carlijn; Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Olff, Miranda; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be a debilitating disorder and often co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders, such as mood, behavioral, and anxiety disorders. Early identification of PTSD and psychiatric comorbidity is highly relevant in order to offer children appropriate and timely treatment. The Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-13) is a reliable and valid self-report measure designed to screen children for PTSD. However, this measure is not useful as ...

  7. Parameter optimization of parenchymal texture analysis for prediction of false-positive recalls from screening mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Shonket; Keller, Brad M.; Chen, Jinbo; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2016-03-01

    This work details a methodology to obtain optimal parameter values for a locally-adaptive texture analysis algorithm that extracts mammographic texture features representative of breast parenchymal complexity for predicting falsepositive (FP) recalls from breast cancer screening with digital mammography. The algorithm has two components: (1) adaptive selection of localized regions of interest (ROIs) and (2) Haralick texture feature extraction via Gray- Level Co-Occurrence Matrices (GLCM). The following parameters were systematically varied: mammographic views used, upper limit of the ROI window size used for adaptive ROI selection, GLCM distance offsets, and gray levels (binning) used for feature extraction. Each iteration per parameter set had logistic regression with stepwise feature selection performed on a clinical screening cohort of 474 non-recalled women and 68 FP recalled women; FP recall prediction was evaluated using area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and associations between the extracted features and FP recall were assessed via odds ratios (OR). A default instance of mediolateral (MLO) view, upper ROI size limit of 143.36 mm (2048 pixels2), GLCM distance offset combination range of 0.07 to 0.84 mm (1 to 12 pixels) and 16 GLCM gray levels was set. The highest ROC performance value of AUC=0.77 [95% confidence intervals: 0.71-0.83] was obtained at three specific instances: the default instance, upper ROI window equal to 17.92 mm (256 pixels2), and gray levels set to 128. The texture feature of sum average was chosen as a statistically significant (p<0.05) predictor and associated with higher odds of FP recall for 12 out of 14 total instances.

  8. Constructing Positive Futures: Modeling the Relationship between Adolescents' Hopeful Future Expectations and Intentional Self Regulation in Predicting Positive Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Kristina L.; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Intentional self regulation and hopeful expectations for the future are theoretically-related constructs shown to lead to positive youth development (PYD). However, the nature of their relationship over time has not been tested. Therefore, this study explored the associations between hopeful future expectations and intentional self regulation in…

  9. Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conone, Ruth M.

    The key to positioning is the creation of a clear benefit image in the consumer's mind. One positioning strategy is creating in the prospect's mind a position that takes into consideration the company's or agency's strengths and weaknesses as well as those of its competitors. Another strategy is to gain entry into a position ladder owned by…

  10. Factors affecting recall rate and false positive fraction in breast cancer screening with breast tomosynthesis - A statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Aldana; Lång, Kristina; Petersson, Ingemar F; Zackrisson, Sophia

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we investigate which factors affect the false positive fraction (FPF) for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) compared to digital mammography (DM) in a screening population by using classification and regression trees (C&RT) and binary marginal generalized linear models. The data was obtained from the Malmö Breast Tomosynthesis Screening Trial, which aimed to compare the performance of DBT to DM in breast cancer screening. By using data from the first half of the study population (7500 women), a tree with the recall probability for different groups was calculated. The effect of age and breast density on the FPF was estimated using a binary marginal generalized linear model. Our results show that breast density and breast cancer were the main factors influencing recall. The FPF is mainly affected by breast density and increases with breast density for DBT and DM. In conclusion, the results obtained with C&RT are easy to interpret and similar to those obtained using binary marginal generalized linear models. The FPF is approximately 40% higher for DBT compared to DM for all breast density categories.

  11. Gender related differences in response to "in favor of myself" wellness program to enhance positive self & body image among adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moria Golan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical, neurological and psychological changes are often experienced differently by male and female adolescents. Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements, and family connectedness are considered as protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examines the gender differences in respect to the effect of a school-based interactive wellness program--"In Favor of Myself"--on self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behaviors of young adolescents. METHODS: Two hundred and ten adolescents (mean age 13.5 participated in the intervention group, 55% were girls and 45% boys. Program consisted of eight 90-minutes structured sessions integrated into a regular school coping skills curriculum. The program focused on self-esteem, self-image, body image, media literacy and cognitive dissonance. The overall impact of the program and the study protocol were previously published. RESULTS: Overall, there are gender related differences in respect to body image and self-image in young adolescents in response to "In Favor of Myself". Compared to boys, girls reported at baseline higher self-esteem, being more contingent by appearance, and their self-image was more influenced by popularity, appearance, interpersonal communication and admired people. Furthermore girls presented greater gap between current body figure and perceived ideal figure. Not only were girls more dissatisfied with their body, but they were more active in attempts to become and/or remain "thin". At program termination, gender × time effect was detected in reduction of self-worth contingent by others, change in importance given to achievements at schools, parents' perceptions, as well as the impact of comparisons to friends and family members on self-image. CONCLUSIONS: Girls exhibited more gains than boys from 'In Favor of Myself' which raise the questions about how effective would be the program when delivered in mixed gender groups

  12. Use of faecal markers in screening for colorectal neoplasia: a European group on tumor markers position paper.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Several randomized controlled trials have shown that population-based screening using faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) can reduce mortality from colorectal neoplasia. Based on this evidence, a number of countries have introduced screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) and high-risk adenoma and many others are considering its introduction. The aim of this article is to critically review the current status of faecal markers as population-based screening tests for these neoplasia. Most of the available faecal tests involve the measurement of either occult blood or a panel of DNA markers. Occult blood may be measured using either the guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) or a faecal immunochemical test (iFOBT). Although iFOBT may require a greater initial investment, they have several advantages over gFOBT, including greater analytical sensitivity and specificity. Their use results in improved clinical performance and higher uptake rates. Importantly for population screening, some of the iFOBTs can be automated and provide an adjustable cutoff for faecal haemoglobin concentration. However, samples for iFOBT, may be less stable after collection than for gFOBT. For new centres undertaking FOBT for colorectal neoplasia, the European Group on Tumour Markers recommends use of a quantitative iFOBT with an adjustable cutoff point and high throughput analysis. All participants with positive FOBT results should be offered colonoscopy. The panel recommends further research into increasing the stability of iFOBT and the development of improved and affordable DNA and proteomic-based tests, which reduce current false negative rates, simplify sample transport and enable automated analysis.

  13. ICRH H-modes produced with Be-screen antennas and coupling-resistance position feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion-cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) H-mode discharges in the JET tokamak were first produced using dipole (0, π) antenna where beryllium gettering was applied to the nickel antenna screen and the first-wall of the tokamak. These results have now been extended from dipole (0, π) to monopole (0,0) phasing of the antenna by the use of new screens made of solid beryllium bars which have reduced al ICRH specific impurity effects to negligible levels. Moreover, with Be-screens the energy confinement time in ICRH H-modes using dipole is better than found earlier with Ni-screens and is now typically 2.5 times Goldston L-mode prediction. But, with monopole the confinement time is typically 35 % smaller than the dipole H-mode confinement. These H-modes have a duration of up to 2.8 s and RF power levels of up to 12 MW. ICRH H-modes are generally free of edge-localized modes (ELMs). ICRF heated plasmas often develop long sawtooth-free periods (monster sawtooth) and this feature is retained during H-modes both in monopole and dipole phasing. Further, to maintain the antenna-plasma coupling resistance constant at a desired value during the H-mode a feedback control loop on the radial plasma position has been implemented, for the first time on the JET tokamak, which helps in maintaining a good match between the antenna and plasma and keeps the coupled power constant throughout the ICRH pulse. (author) 7 refs., 5 figs

  14. Tracking of Head Position Relative to the Screen Using Head Mounted Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldas Borcovas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper head position locating systems were analyzed. There were reviewed scientific articles with different proposed methods. The chosen system is with the camera located on the user head. The main parameters of the head positioning systems were analyzed. The procedure laid down in what order parameters are found. The diagram of the system and detail block diagram of the algorithm were provided. Realization of the algorithm used: edge detection method (Sobel, the adjustment algorithm (Subpixel. System is realized in Matlab and C# environment. Determine the optimal parameters for the algorithm execution. Execution of the algorithm in Matlab environment is 1.2 s and C # environment – 126 ms. During the examination of the longest executing algorithm segment, it was found that image filtering is carried out in 107 ms. It is noted that the uncertainty of the algorithm can be divided into static and measurement. The maximum static uncertainty while measuring head position parameters is 1.63 mm and orientation parameters – 0.16°. The maximum measurement uncertainty while measuring head position parameters is 4 mm and orientation parameters – 0.11°.Article in Lithuanian

  15. Breakfast consumption is positively associated with nutrient adequacy in Canadian children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, Susan I.; DiFrancesco, Loretta; Fulgoni, Victor L.

    2014-01-01

    Although breakfast is associated with more favourable nutrient intake profiles in children, limited data exist on the impact of breakfast on nutrient adequacy and the potential risk of excessive intakes. Accordingly, we assessed differences in nutrient intake and adequacy among breakfast non-consumers, consumers of breakfasts with ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) and consumers of other types of breakfasts. We used cross-sectional data from 12 281 children and adolescents aged 4–18 years who took pa...

  16. Towards an integration of positive and sickness paradigms in the prevention of eating disorders in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    VANESA C. GÓNGORA

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders problems are highly relevant in adolescence and require intervention through the implementation of prevention and promotion health programs. A Few primary prevention programmers to fight eating disorders have reached satisfactory results. The most successful results have been obtained with approaches that promote media literacy, the use of cognitive dissonance and the enhancement of self-esteem. Since many of the programs based on the disease model have failed to prevent such...

  17. The effectiveness of mental rehabilitation based on positive thinking skills training on increasing happiness in hearing impaired adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rostami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing impairment can have an impact on adolescents’ quality of life and can lead to their isolation and depression. The main purpose of this research was to study the effectiveness of a mental rehabilitation program based on positive thinking skills training on increasing happiness in a group of hearing impaired girls and boys.Methods: In this experimental study, pre- and post-test plan with a control group was used. All of the hearing impaired students (girls and boys in all high schools of southern parts of Tehran, Iran, in year 2012-13 were our statistical research community. 48 hearing impaired girls and boys were selected by multistage sampling including stratified, purposive, and random sampling. They were randomly divided into two groups of experimental and control. Each group consists of 12 boys and 12 girls. Positive thinking skills were trained to experimental groups during eight 45-minutes sessions, twice a week. We used the Oxford happiness questionnaire to assess the level of happiness.Results: Using analysis of covariance showed that positive thinking skills training had meaningful and positive effect on increasing happiness of hearing impaired boys and girls in the experimental groups (p<0.01. Also, the mean happiness scores of boys and girls were meaningfully different (p<0.01.Conclusion: Positive thinking skills training increases the happiness scores of hearing impaired adolescents. So, the approach taken in this study can be considered as an appropriate method for psychological-education interventions, counseling and treatment in hearing impaired adolescent.

  18. Screening and brief intervention for alcohol and other abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sion Kim; Louis-Jacques, Jennifer; Knight, John R

    2014-04-01

    structured algorithm for specific recommended responses based on level of risk. Adolescents who are at low or moderate risk for a substance use disorder, who constitute most of those seen in general medical settings, may be effectively counseled with a few minutes of brief advice, particularly after being primed with screening, feedback, and education before seeing their physician. High-risk patients (screen-positives) should receive a brief follow-up assessment to determine the appropriate level of care needed and a BI, using MI principles, to enhance motivation for behavioral change and help-seeking. Indications of acute danger or addiction may necessitate breaking confidentiality to protect patient safety and begin RT. Our review shows a small but growing body of research on the effectiveness of opportunistic BIs following screening of adolescents in clinical settings. Studies to date have largely tested brief alcohol-focused MI-based interventions with adolescents in the ED or trauma care settings; however, the number of studies conducted in primary health care settings is increasing. The strongest BI effects found in these studies tend to be related to harm reduction, such as reduction of substance-related driving/riding, alcohol-related injuries, unplanned sex, and other negative consequences of use. Effects on substance use have been more modest and tend to be stronger at shorter ( or = 12 months). However, many of these studies compared BI to active control conditions, which often included elements of BI (eg, assessment, brief advice, informational handouts). Significant reductions in substance use and related harms were also seen in these control groups, likely making detection ofa BI effect more difficult. A few studies have shown initial support for a prevention effect of BI among abstinent adolescents. At the opposite end of the spectrum, little is known about the effects of BI for adolescents with dependence and needing RT because of a lack of studies. Other

  19. Serum Thyrotropin Is Positively Correlated with the Metabolic Syndrome Components of Obesity and Dyslipidemia in Chinese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a medical disorder characterized by obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Thyroid hormone has been shown to affect many metabolic processes. This study was undertaken to explore the relationship between serum thyrotropin and components of metabolic syndrome in Chinese adolescents. Waist circumference (76.4 ± 10.7 versus 70.0 ± 10.6 cm, P = 0.006 and body mass index (23.90 ± 4.20 versus 21.51 ± 4.16 kg/m2, P = 0.011 were significantly greater among adolescents with subclinical hypothyroidism compared with euthyroid subjects. The risk of obesity in the subclinical hypothyroid group was 3.444 times that in the euthyroid group (odds ratio = 3.444, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.570–7.553. Serum TSH was significantly positively correlated with waist circumference (β = 1.512, P = 0.019, TC (β = 0.160, P = 0.003, LDL-C (β = 0.032, P = 0.008, and TG (β = 0.095, P = 0.001. The TSH level in the metabolic syndrome group was significantly higher than that in nonmetabolic syndrome group (2.65 [2.28–3.80] versus 2.53 [1.92–3.45] mIU/L, P = 0.032. Serum TSH within the reference range was positively associated with TC (β = 0.173, P = 0.013, LDL-C (β = 0.031, P = 0.043, and TG (β = 0.132, P = 0.021. Increased serum TSH in adolescents may be a potential risk factor for metabolic syndrome.

  20. [Expert research on sera yielding false-positive results for HIV antibodies during screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noskov, F S; Smol'skaia, T T; Konikova, R E; Borisova, V V; Leshchinskaia, N P; Noskova, O V; Lobanova, A L; Marennikova, S S; Matsevich, G R; Shelukhina, E M

    1992-04-01

    The significance of different serological methods and assay systems for the verification of false positive cases of HIV infection has been analyzed on the basis of materials obtained in arbitration studies. As demonstrated by this analysis, the use of such highly specific and sensitive systems as Huma-Lab, Enzygnost, Serodia and Erythrorecombinant has made it possible to obtain a reliable result as early as at the first stage of expert diagnosis in the enzyme immunoassay and the agglutination test. The methods of radioimmunoprecipitation and indirect immunofluorescence have permitted a more precise differentiation of doubtful results than that achieved by immune blotting. PMID:1496871

  1. Measuring Evaluation Fears in Adolescence: Psychometric Validation of the Portuguese Versions of the Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale and the Specific Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagos, Paula; Salvador, Maria do Céu; Rijo, Daniel; Santos, Isabel M.; Weeks, Justin W.; Heimberg, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Modified measures of Fear of Negative Evaluation and Fear of Positive Evaluation were examined among Portuguese adolescents. These measures demonstrated replicable factor structure, internal consistency, and positive relationships with social anxiety and avoidance. Gender differences were found. Implications for evaluation and intervention are…

  2. Increasing Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention in Comparison to the Effects of Therapeutic Alliance, Youth Factors, and Expectancy for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jessica Ann

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the variance in subjective well-being (SWB) of early adolescents ( n = 54) exposed to a positive psychology intervention aimed at increasing positive affect and life satisfaction as well as decreasing negative affect through intentional activities (e.g., gratitude journals, acts of kindness, use of character strengths,…

  3. Oral HPV prevalence in women positive for cervical HPV infection and their sexual partners: a German screening study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uken, Ralf B; Brummer, Oliver; von Schubert-Bayer, Carolin; Brodegger, Thomas; Teudt, Ingo U

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) associated oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OSCC) is on the rise. With the HPV-positive uterine cervix as a reservoir, HPV-positive OSCC is discussed as a sexually transmitted disease. Mechanisms of HPV transmission to the oral cavity are poorly understood. To gain more insight into HPV-transmission routes, cervically HPV-positive women and their sexual partners are screened for oral HPV infection. Women with cervical dysplasia underwent HPV testing of the uterine cervix and tonsillar region via brush test. In addition, sexual partners received oral HPV testing. Tonsillar brush tests of patients admitted for routine surgery served as the control group. The HPV-PCR (Roche Linear Array Kit) was used to differentiate 37 HPV types. All participants completed a risk-factor questionnaire focusing on sexual habits. 101 women were tested HPV-positive at the cervix. Only 3/101 (3 %) were tested HPV-positive in the oropharynx. In 60/101 (60 %) women the sexual partner could be tested for oral HPV infection: testing was positive in 3/60 (5 %). No oral HPV was detected in the control group. The risk-factor questionnaire revealed significant differences between the female study- and control group in terms of age at first sexual intercourse and smoking habits. The limited data suggest that among sexual partners in Germany, HPV transmission to the oropharynx by oral-genital sex or by autoinoculation is a rare and unlikely event with low HPV concordance. Another explanation for the low oral prevalence could be an independent clearance of HPV from the oropharyngeal site compared to cervix uteri or at different time intervals.

  4. From screen to green: The effect of screen time and setting on pre-adolescent children’s executive function skills.

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Debra Christine

    2015-01-01

    According to Greenfield’s Theory of Social Change and Human Development (2009), ecological changes lead to shifts in human development. With technological resources available to early-adolescent youth, it is expected that “digital-natives” will demonstrate developmental shift patterns relating to cognitive skills of attention. This study further explores the impact of Attention Restoration Theory (ART) upon selective attention in pre-adolescent children. Attention skills of fifth-grade dig...

  5. The non-advertising effects of screen-based sedentary activities on acute eating behaviours in children, adolescents, and young adults. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Samantha; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Maddison, Ralph

    2013-12-01

    Sedentary screen time may be an important determinant of childhood obesity. A number of potential mechanisms to explain the link between screen time and increased bodyweight have been proposed; however, the relationship appears to be best explained by the effects on dietary intake, which is attributed to either food advertising or effects independent of food advertising. Technological advances have allowed for greater accessibility and exposure to advertisement-free screen-based media. This review was conducted to systematically synthesise the evidence from laboratory based studies which have investigated the non-advertising effects of screen time (TV viewing, sedentary video games, and computer use) on dietary intake in children, adolescents, and young adults. MEDLINE, PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, and Embase were searched from inception through 5 July 2013. Ten trials met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Risk of study bias was judged to range from low to high. Screen time in the absence of food advertising was consistently found to be associated with increased dietary intake compared with non-screen behaviours. Suggested explanations for this relationship included: distraction, interruption of physiologic food regulation, screen time as a conditioned cue to eat, disruption of memory formation, and the effects of the stress-induced reward system. Due to the limited number of high-quality studies available for this review, our findings are preliminary. More work is required to better establish the link between dietary intake and advertisement-free screen time and assess whether differences exist between the different screen-based activities. PMID:24001394

  6. Correlation between hyoid bone position and airway dimensions in Chinese adolescents by cone beam computed tomography analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y-Y

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the correlation between upper airway dimensions and hyoid bone position in Chinese adolescents based on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. CBCT images from a total of 254 study subjects were included. The upper airway and hyoid bone parameters were measured by Materialism's interactive medical image control system (MIMICS) v.16.01 (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). The airway dimensions were evaluated in terms of volume, cross-sectional area (CSA), mean CSA, length, anteroposterior dimension of the cross-section (AP), lateral dimension of the cross-section (LAT), and LAT/AP ratio. The hyoid bone position was evaluated using eight linear parameters and two angular parameters. Facial characteristics were evaluated using three linear parameters and three angular parameters. Most hyoid bone position parameters (especially the distance between the hyoid bone and hard palate) were significantly associated with most airway dimension parameters. Significant correlations were also observed between the different facial characteristic parameters and hyoid bone position parameters. Most airway dimension parameters showed significant correlations with linear facial parameters, but they displayed significant correlations with only a few angular facial parameters. These findings provide an understanding of the static relationship between the hyoid bone position and airway dimensions, which may serve as a reference for surgeons before orthodontic or orthognathic surgery.

  7. Correlation between hyoid bone position and airway dimensions in Chinese adolescents by cone beam computed tomography analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y-Y

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the correlation between upper airway dimensions and hyoid bone position in Chinese adolescents based on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. CBCT images from a total of 254 study subjects were included. The upper airway and hyoid bone parameters were measured by Materialism's interactive medical image control system (MIMICS) v.16.01 (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). The airway dimensions were evaluated in terms of volume, cross-sectional area (CSA), mean CSA, length, anteroposterior dimension of the cross-section (AP), lateral dimension of the cross-section (LAT), and LAT/AP ratio. The hyoid bone position was evaluated using eight linear parameters and two angular parameters. Facial characteristics were evaluated using three linear parameters and three angular parameters. Most hyoid bone position parameters (especially the distance between the hyoid bone and hard palate) were significantly associated with most airway dimension parameters. Significant correlations were also observed between the different facial characteristic parameters and hyoid bone position parameters. Most airway dimension parameters showed significant correlations with linear facial parameters, but they displayed significant correlations with only a few angular facial parameters. These findings provide an understanding of the static relationship between the hyoid bone position and airway dimensions, which may serve as a reference for surgeons before orthodontic or orthognathic surgery. PMID:26949129

  8. The Upward Spiral of Adolescents' Positive School Experiences and Happiness: Investigating Reciprocal Effects over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglbauer, Barbara; Gnambs, Timo; Gamsjager, Manuela; Batinic, Bernad

    2013-01-01

    In line with self-determination theory and Fredrickson's (2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, this study adopts a positive perspective on students' school experiences and their general psychological functioning. The reciprocal effects of positive school experiences and happiness, a dimension of affective well-being, are examined…

  9. It Hurts to Be Lonely! Loneliness and Positive Mental Wellbeing in Australian Rural and Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Stephen; Hattie, John; Carroll, Annemaree; Wood, Lisa; Baffour, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    This study examined associations between loneliness, a construct associated with serious adverse mental health outcomes, and positive mental wellbeing. Validated measures of loneliness (represented by friendship-related loneliness, isolation, positive attitude to solitude, and negative attitude to solitude) and positive mental wellbeing were…

  10. Temporal Trends in Overweight and Obesity, Physical Activity and Screen Time among Czech Adolescents from 2002 to 2014: A National Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Badura, Petr; Kalman, Michal; Hamrik, Zdenek; Pavelka, Jan

    2015-09-01

    This study examines trends in overweight and obesity, physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) among Czech adolescents over a recent 12-year study period. Nationally representative samples consisted of 19,940 adolescents (9760 boys and 10,180 girls) aged 10.5-16.5 years from the Czech Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire-based surveys conducted in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Trends in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, meeting the recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (≥60 min per day of MVPA) and excessive ST (>2 h per day) were estimated using logistic regression. Significant increases (p obesity between the years 2002 and 2014 were evident for both adolescent boys (18.3%(2002)-24.8%(2014)) and girls (8.3%(2002)-11.9%(2014)). Compared to 2002, in 2014 significant decreases (p obesity with concomitant decreases in PA provide evidence in support of the current and upcoming efforts of government and commercial organizations in implementing interventions aimed at reducing excessive body weight among Czech adolescents.

  11. Explicit and implicit positive alcohol expectancies in problem and non-problem drinkers: differences across age groups from young adolescence to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie eVilenne

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Recent studies with animal models showed that the stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol change during the adolescent period. In humans, the stimulant effects of ethanol are most often indirectly recorded through the measurement of explicit and implicit alcohol effect expectancies. However, it is unknown how such implicit and explicit expectancies evolve with age in humans during adolescence.Methods: Adolescent (13-16 year old, young adult (17-18 year old and adult (35-55 year old participants were recruited. On the basis of their score on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT, they were classified as non-problem (AUDIT ≤ 7 or problem (AUDIT ≥ 11 drinkers. The participants completed the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ and performed two unipolar Implicit Association Test (IAT to assess implicit associations between alcohol and the concepts of stimulation and sedation.Results: Problem drinkers from the three age groups reported significantly higher positive alcohol expectancies than non-problem drinkers on all AEQ subscales. Positive alcohol explicit expectancies also gradually decreased with age, with adolescent problem drinkers reporting especially high positive expectancies. This effect was statistically significant for all positive expectancies, with the exception of relaxation expectancies that were only close to statistical significance. In contrast, stimulation and sedation alcohol implicit associations were not significantly different between problem and non-problem drinkers and did not change with age.Conclusions: These results indicate that explicit positive alcohol effect expectancies predict current alcohol consumption levels, especially in adolescents. Positive alcohol expectancies also gradually decrease with age in the three cross-sectional groups of adolescents, young adults and adults. This effect might be related to changes in the physiological response to alcohol.

  12. Building positive self-image in adolescents in foster care: the use of role models in an interactive group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, A K

    1998-01-01

    In a previous article (Yancey, 1992), the literature on identity development in individuals from socially devalued racial and ethnic groups was summarized. It was postulated that the social maladaptation of adolescents in residential group foster care is reflective of identity disturbances created by the negative images of African-Americans and Latinos perpetuated by the dominant society and unfiltered by optimal parental racial/ethnic socialization. The present article describes the development of a pilot preventive mental health intervention, the PRIDE (Personal and Racial/ethnic Identity Development and Enhancement) program, designed to provide components of parenting that are necessary for promoting positive self-image in ethnically marginalized adolescents and that are typically lacking in the group foster care milieu. PRIDE utilizes successful, ethnically relevant role models in interactive group sessions to create a significant cognitive and emotional experience for teens. While the utility of role modeling for at-risk youth is widely accepted, there is little research on the packaging, delivery, and influence of this intervention modality. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a "hybrid" role-modeling approach (intermediate in intensity of exposure and cost between one-to-one mentoring and career-day programs). Implications for further research on this type of intervention are discussed.

  13. How does self-injury feel? Examining automatic positive reinforcement in adolescent self-injurers with experience sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Edward A; Nock, Matthew K; Kranzler, Amy

    2014-02-28

    One of the most frequently reported, yet understudied, motivations for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) involves automatic positive reinforcement (APR), wherein sensations arising from NSSI reinforce and promote the behavior. The current study used experience sampling methodology with a clinical sample of self-injuring adolescents (N=30) over a 2-week period during which the adolescents reported NSSI behaviors, and rated if an APR motivation was present, and if so whether that motivation pertained to feeling "pain," "stimulation," or "satisfaction." Over 50% of the sample reported at least one instance of NSSI for APR reasons. No significant differences were found on demographic factors or psychiatric comorbidity for those with and without an APR motivation. However, those with an APR motivation reported elevated NSSI thoughts, longer duration of those thoughts, and more NSSI behaviors. They also reported more alcohol use thoughts, alcohol use, impulsive spending, and binge eating. The most commonly reported sensation following NSSI for APR was "satisfaction." However those endorsing feeling pain reported the most NSSI behaviors. These findings provide new information about the APR motivations for NSSI and shed light on the different sensations felt.

  14. Cognitive ability, parental socioeconomic position and internalising and externalising problems in adolescence: Findings from two European cohort studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated whether cognitive ability (CA) may be a moderator of the relationship of parental socioeconomic position (SEP) with internalising and externalising problems in adolescents. We used data from two longitudinal cohort studies; the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). Indicators of SEP were mother's education and household income. CA was estimated with IQ scores, derived from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Internalising and externalising problems were measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in ALSPAC and with the Child Behavior Checklist in TRAILS. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the relative index of inequality (RII) for each outcome; the RII provides the odds ratio comparing the most to least deprived for each measure of SEP. In fully adjusted models an association of mother's education with externalising problems was observed [ALSPAC RII 1.42 (95%CI: 1.01-1.99); TRAILS RII 2.21 (95%CI: 1.37-3.54)], and of household income with internalising and externalising problems [pooled ALSPAC and TRAILS internalising RII 1.30 (95%CI: 0.99-1.71); pooled ALSPAC and TRAILS externalising RII 1.38 (95%CI: 1.03-1.84)]. No consistent associations were observed between mother's education and internalising problems. Results of stratified analyses and interaction-terms showed no evidence that CA moderated the association of SEP with internalising or externalising problems.

  15. Concurrent Associations of Physical Activity and Screen-Based Sedentary Behavior on Obesity Among US Adolescents: A Latent Class Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Youngdeok Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Independent associations of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with obesity are well documented. However, little is known about the combined associations of these behaviors with obesity in adolescents. The present study examines the prevalence of concurrent levels of PA and SB, and their associations with obesity among US adolescents. Methods: Data from a total of 12 081 adolescents who participated in the Youth Risk Behaviors Survey during 2012–2013 were analyz...

  16. The upward spiral of adolescents' positive school experiences and happiness: investigating reciprocal effects over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglbauer, Barbara; Gnambs, Timo; Gamsjäger, Manuela; Batinic, Bernad

    2013-04-01

    In line with self-determination theory and Fredrickson's (2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, this study adopts a positive perspective on students' school experiences and their general psychological functioning. The reciprocal effects of positive school experiences and happiness, a dimension of affective well-being, are examined over the course of an academic year. Data were collected from 215 secondary school students at 5 measurement occasions. The results of longitudinal cross-lagged structural equation modeling support the notion of an upward spiral of positive school experiences and happiness over time. Positive school experiences had a stable lagged effect on happiness, and, in turn, happiness had a lagged effect on future positive school experiences.

  17. Validity of Commonly Used Clinical Tests to Diagnose and Screen for Spinal Pain in Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartun, Ellen; Hartvigsen, Jan; Hestbaek, Lise

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The overall aim of this study was to determine the ability of 2 selected clinical tests to detect or predict neck pain, mid back pain, and low back pain in a school-based cohort of Danish 11- to 15-year-olds. METHODS: A school-based 2-year prospective cohort study was conducted. Data...... were collected at the age of 11 to 13 (n = 1224) and 2 years later (n = 963). Spinal pain (neck pain, mid back pain, and low back pain) was assessed by an electronic survey completed during school time, and reference standard was defined as both lifetime prevalence and frequent pain as a proxy...... of severity. The tests included assessments of scoliosis, hypermobility, global mobility, intersegmental mobility, end range pain, and isometric endurance of back extensors. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values, and odds ratios were calculated for each test individually, and area...

  18. Compliments and accounts : Positive evaluation of reported behavior in psychotherapy for adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Margot; De Winter, Andrea F.; Metselaar, Janneke; Knorth, Erik J.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Huiskes, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Based on conversation analysis (CA) of video-recorded therapy sessions, the article explicates a particular interactional project of positively evaluating client-reported behavior in psychotherapy. The analysis focuses on the therapist's actions that convey a positive evaluation of client-reported b

  19. Positive Youth Development, Life Satisfaction and Problem Behaviour among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong: A Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rachel C. F.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this replication study was to examine the relationships among life satisfaction, positive youth development and problem behaviour. The respondents were 7,151 Chinese Secondary 2 (Grade 8) students (3,707 boys and 3,014 girls) recruited from 44 schools in Hong Kong. Validated assessment tools measuring positive youth development,…

  20. A false positive newborn screening result due to a complex allele carrying two frequent CF-causing variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergougnoux, Anne; Boureau-Wirth, Amandine; Rouzier, Cécile; Altieri, Jean-Pierre; Verneau, Fanny; Larrieu, Lise; Koenig, Michel; Claustres, Mireille; Raynal, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    The detection of two frequent CFTR disease-causing variations in the context of a newborn screening program (NBS) usually leads to the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) and a relevant genetic counseling in the family. In the present study, CF-causing variants p.Phe508del (F508del) and c.3140-26A>G (3272-26A>G) were identified on a neonate with positive ImmunoReactive Trypsinogen test by the Elucigene™ CF30 kit. The CF diagnosis initially suggested, despite three inconclusive Sweat Chloride Tests (SCT), was finally ruled out after the familial segregation study combined with a negative SCT. Haplotype studies, based on the comparison of 80 p.Phe508del haplotypes, suggested a probable de novo occurrence of c.3140-26A>G on the p.Phe508del ancestral allele in this family. This false positive case emphasizes the importance of SCT in the NBS strategy. Moreover, it raises the need for familial segregation studies in CF and in overall molecular diagnosis strategy of autosomal recessive diseases. PMID:27117206

  1. Selecting At-Risk First-Grade Readers for Early Intervention: Eliminating False Positives and Exploring the Promise of a Two-Stage Gated Screening Process

    OpenAIRE

    Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Bouton, Bobette; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Barquero, Laura A.; Cho, Eunsoo; Crouch, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to identify measures that when added to a base 1st-grade screening battery help eliminate false positives and (b) to investigate gains in efficiency associated with a 2-stage gated screening procedure. We tested 355 children in the fall of 1st grade, and assessed for reading difficulty at the end of 2nd grade. The base screening model, included measures of phonemic awareness, rapid naming skill, oral vocabulary, and initial word identification fluency (WIF)...

  2. Positive behavioural support in schools for children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities whose behaviour challenges: An exploration of the economic case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iemmi, Valentina; Knapp, Martin; Brown, Freddy Jackson

    2016-09-01

    Decision-makers with limited budgets want to know the economic consequences of their decisions. Is there an economic case for positive behavioural support (PBS)? A small before-after study assessing the impact of PBS on challenging behaviours and positive social and communication skills in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities and behaviours that challenge was followed by an evaluation of costs. Results were compared with the costs of alternative packages of care currently available in England obtained from a Delphi exercise conducted alongside the study. Children and adolescents supported with PBS showed improvement in challenging behaviours and social and communication skills, at a total weekly cost of GBP 1909 (and GBP 1951 including carer-related costs). PBS in schools for children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities and behaviours that challenge may help to support them in the community with potential improvements in outcomes and also cost advantages. PMID:26912505

  3. ESPGHAN Position Paper on Management of Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschkel, R B; Gottrand, F; Devarajan, K;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) position statement provides a comprehensive guide for health care providers to manage percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes in a safe, effective, and appropriate way. METHODS: Relevant litera...

  4. Effectiveness of the Workshop “Adolescent Depression: What Can Schools Do?”

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Vania; Espinosa, Daniel; Zitko, Pedro; Marín, Rigoberto; Schilling, Sara; Schwerter, Camila; Rojas, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adolescent depression is associated with serious consequences. School staff is in a unique position to screen and refer adolescents with depression in a timely manner, and can collaborate with healthcare teams to assist in the proper management of the disease. The objective of this paper is to describe the results of a workshop that aims to improve the knowledge of adolescent depression among school staff. Materials and methods This was a single-arm trial with a pre-po...

  5. The effects of experimentally induced rumination, positive reappraisal, acceptance, and distancing when thinking about a stressful event on affect states in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Rood; J. Roelofs; S.M. Bögels; A. Arntz

    2012-01-01

    The current study compares the effects of experimentally induced rumination, positive reappraisal, distancing, and acceptance on affect states in adolescents aged 13-18. Participants (N = 160) were instructed to think about a recent stressful event. Next, they received specific instructions on how t

  6. The Effects of Experimentally Induced Rumination, Positive Reappraisal, Acceptance, and Distancing when Thinking about a Stressful Event on Affect States in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Lea; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Bogels, Susan M.; Arntz, Arnoud

    2012-01-01

    The current study compares the effects of experimentally induced rumination, positive reappraisal, distancing, and acceptance on affect states in adolescents aged 13-18. Participants (N = 160) were instructed to think about a recent stressful event. Next, they received specific instructions on how to think about that event in each condition.…

  7. The effect of "in favor of myself": preventive program to enhance positive self and body image among adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moria Golan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements and family connectedness are considered protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examined the effect of an interactive, community-based, media literacy and dissonance wellness program, In Favor of Myself, on the self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behavior of young adolescents. A preliminary cohort study was conducted among 972 program participants who did not take part in the controlled trial. Over 75% of participants said they would recommend the program to their friends. METHODS: A controlled trial was conducted to evaluate program acceptability, efficacy and effectiveness among 259 participants (210 in the intervention group and 49 in the control group, aged 12-14 years, who completed questionnaires during at least two assessment times. Program materials were provided, along with leaders' training, in order to ensure quality program delivery and creation of a wide network of committed program leaders. RESULTS: The program significantly reduced drive for thinness and self-worth contingent upon others' approval, the gap between current body figure and ideal figure, and the impact of mood on girls' self-image. Superiority was found among those participating in the intervention group with respect to recognizing media strategies, the influence of media on desire to change, and the influence of appearance on self-confidence and drive for thinness. CONCLUSIONS: In Favor of Myself shows promising results for strengthening adolescents' ability to cope with the challenges of their life stage. Suggestions for improving In Favor of Myself are presented.

  8. Interplay of Network Position and Peer Substance Use in Early Adolescent Cigarette, Alcohol, and Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus, Kimberly; Henry, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Network position ("isolate," "member," "liaison"), peer-group substance use, and their interaction were examined as predictors of cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use in a sample of 163 urban sixth, seventh, and eighth graders. Two measures of peer substance use were compared: one based on social network analysis (SNA), the other on perceptions…

  9. Empowering Adolescents as Servant-Leaders: Promoting Resiliency, Positive Networking, and Community Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothaus, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The leadership training model profiled here espouses the belief that all youth are gifted and are capable of making a positive difference in their communities. The program incorporates the key elements of a deliberate psychological education and embraces the philosophy of servant-leadership. Selected at-risk youth participated in a 7-month,…

  10. Game On: Diminishing Risks for Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescence through Positive Involvement in Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Erin M.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

    2006-01-01

    While research shows that low levels of social acceptance and elevated body dissatisfaction increase risks for depressive symptoms among both girls and boys, little is known about protective factors that can mediate these risks. We test the hypothesis that positive team sports involvement mediates the effects of these risks on depression in a…

  11. Family income and young adolescents' perceived social position: associations with self-esteem and life satisfaction in the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bannink, R.; Pearce, A.; Hope, S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-esteem and life satisfaction are important aspects of positive mental health in young people, and both are socially distributed. However, the majority of evidence is based on socioeconomic characteristics of the family. As children enter adolescence and gain independence, perceptions of their own social position are likely to influence mental health. DESIGN AND OBJECTIVES: Using data on 11-year-olds from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, we investigated associations of both fam...

  12. Effects of "Like Type" Sex Pairings between Applicants-Principals and Type of Focal Position Considered at the Screening Stage of the Selection Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I. Phillip

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses the screening decisions for a national random sample of high school principals as viewed from the attraction-similarity theory of interpersonal perceptions. Independent variables are the sex of principals, sex of applicants, and the type of focal positions sought by hypothetical job applicants (teacher or counselor). Dependent…

  13. STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION OF ADENOVIRAL TRANSDUCTION OF AN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR POSITIVE CELL LINE WITH AN MMTV-LUC REPORTER FOR ENDOCRINE SCREENING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standardization and Validation of Adenoviral Transduction of an Androgen Receptor Positive Cell Line with an MMTV-Luc Reporter for Endocrine Screening P. Hartig, K . Bobseine, M. Cardon, C. Lambright and L. E. Gray, Jr. USEPA, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, RTP, NC...

  14. Health-related quality of life in adolescents with screening-detected celiac disease, before and one year after diagnosis and initiation of gluten-free diet, a prospective nested case-referent study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordyke Katrina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Celiac disease (CD is a chronic disorder in genetically predisposed individuals in which a small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy is precipitated by dietary gluten. It can be difficult to diagnose because signs and symptoms may be absent, subtle, or not recognized as CD related and therefore not prompt testing within routine clinical practice. Thus, most people with CD are undiagnosed and a public health intervention, which involves screening the general population, is an option to find those with unrecognized CD. However, how these screening-detected individuals experience the diagnosis and treatment (gluten-free diet is not fully understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL of adolescents with screening-detected CD before and one year after diagnosis and treatment. Methods A prospective nested case-referent study was done involving Swedish adolescents who had participated in a CD screening study when they were in the sixth grade and about 12 years old. Screening-detected adolescents (n = 103 and referents without CD who participated in the same screening (n = 483 answered questionnaires at the time of the screening and approximately one year after the screening-detected adolescents had received their diagnosis that included the EQ-5D instrument used to measure health status and report HRQoL. Results The HRQoL for the adolescents with screening-detected CD is similar to the referents, both before and one year after diagnosis and initiation of the gluten-free diet, except in the dimension of pain at follow-up. In the pain dimension at follow-up, fewer cases reported problems than referents (12.6% and 21.9% respectively, Adjusted OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.27-0.94. However, a sex stratified analysis revealed that the significant difference was for boys at follow-up, where fewer screening-detected boys reported problems (4.3% compared to referent boys (18.8% (Adjusted OR 0

  15. How to screen for problematic cannabis use in population surveys. An Evaluation of the Cannabis Use Disorders Identification Test (CUDIT) in a Swiss sample of adolescents and young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Annaheim, B; Rehm, Jürgen; Gmel, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cannabis use is a growing challenge for public health, calling for adequate instruments to identify problematic consumption patterns. The Cannabis Use Disorders Identification Test (CUDIT) is a 10-item questionnaire used for screening cannabis abuse and dependency. The present study evaluated that screening instrument. METHODS: In a representative population sample of 5,025 Swiss adolescents and young adults, 593 current cannabis users replied to the CUDIT. Internal consisten...

  16. HAMS: High-Affinity Mass Spectrometry Screening. A High-Throughput Screening Method for Identifying the Tightest-Binding Lead Compounds for Target Proteins with No False Positive Identifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaduwage, Kasun P.; Go, Eden P.; Zhu, Zhikai; Desaire, Heather

    2016-09-01

    A major challenge in drug discovery is the identification of high affinity lead compounds that bind a particular target protein; these leads are typically identified by high throughput screens. Mass spectrometry has become a detection method of choice in drug screening assays because the target and the ligand need not be modified. Label-free assays are advantageous because they can be developed more rapidly than assays requiring labels, and they eliminate the risk of the label interfering with the binding event. However, in commonly used MS-based screening methods, detection of false positives is a major challenge. Here, we describe a detection strategy designed to eliminate false positives. In this approach, the protein and the ligands are incubated together, and the non-binders are separated for detection. Hits (protein binders) are not detectable by MS after incubation with the protein, but readily identifiable by MS when the target protein is not present in the incubation media. The assay was demonstrated using three different proteins and hundreds of non-inhibitors; no false positive hits were identified in any experiment. The assay can be tuned to select for ligands of a particular binding affinity by varying the quantity of protein used and the immobilization method. As examples, the method selectively detected inhibitors that have Ki values of 0.2 μM, 50 pM, and 700 pM. These findings demonstrate that the approach described here compares favorably with traditional MS-based screening methods.

  17. Community-Based Health Education has Positive Influence on the Attitude to Cervical Cancer Screening among Women in Rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Sunila; Karmacharya, Biraj Man; Afset, Jan Egil; Bofin, Anna; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Syversen, Unni; Tingulstad, Solveig

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of cervical cancer among women in rural Nepal and explore the feasibility and impact of a community-based awareness program on cervical cancer. Community-based educational meetings on cervical cancer and its prevention were conducted among women's groups in rural Nepal. Through a questionnaire, the women's baseline knowledge of risk factors, symptoms, and perceived risk of cervical cancer were identified. The willingness to participate in cervical cancer screening was compared before and after the educational meeting. The meetings were followed by a cervical cancer screening program. Among the 122 participants at the educational meeting, only 6 % had heard of cervical cancer. Their baseline knowledge of risk factors and symptoms was poor. The proportion of women willing to participate in cervical screening increased from 15.6 to 100 % after attending the educational meeting. All the study subjects participated in the screening program. Additionally, the study participants recruited a further 222 of their peers for screening. Poor knowledge of cervical cancer among women in rural Nepal highlights the urgency of public awareness programs for cervical cancer at a national level. A community-based awareness program can change women's attitude to cervical screening, and women's groups can play a major role in promoting participation in cervical cancer screening programs. PMID:26031906

  18. 两种快速筛选重组阳性克隆的方法%Two Rapid Screening Positive Colone Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐寒梅; 王凯; 李治国

    2001-01-01

    During the investigation period of molecular cloning,two methods of rapid screening bacterial colony containing recombinant plasmid were established.They were the rapid screening plasmid method and PCR method.The screening of human tissue plasminogen activator recombinant plasmid showed that the two methods can recognize the positive colones quickly and correctly.%在分子克隆工作中,建立了两种简捷的鉴定含重组质粒菌落的方法:质粒快速鉴定法和PCR鉴定法。以对人的组织纤维溶酶原激活剂(t-PA)的cDNA克隆为例。测序结果表明这两种方法能快速,准确地筛选出阳性克隆。

  19. The Effects of Experimentally Induced Rumination, Positive Reappraisal, Acceptance, and Distancing When Thinking About a Stressful Event on Affect States in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Rood, Lea; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Bögels, Susan M.; Arntz, Arnoud

    2011-01-01

    The current study compares the effects of experimentally induced rumination, positive reappraisal, distancing, and acceptance on affect states in adolescents aged 13–18. Participants (N = 160) were instructed to think about a recent stressful event. Next, they received specific instructions on how to think about that event in each condition. Manipulation checks revealed that the manipulations were successful, except for acceptance. The two most reported events were “a fight” and “death of lov...

  20. Considering an Affect Regulation Framework for Examining the Association Between Body Dissatisfaction and Positive Body Image in Black Older Adolescent Females: Does Body Mass Index Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Jennifer B.; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessm...

  1. Adolescents with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Adhere Poorly to Positive Airway Pressure (PAP), but PAP Users Show Improved Attention and School Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Beebe, Dean W; Byars, Kelly C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is associated with medical and neurobehavioral morbidity across the lifespan. Positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment has demonstrated efficacy in treating OSA and has been shown to improve daytime functioning in adults, but treatment adherence can be problematic. There are nearly no published studies examining functional outcomes such as academic functioning in adolescents treated with PAP. This study was conducted as an initial step towards determi...

  2. Confirmation of positive antibody screens by solid-phase red cell adherence assay using a tube technique method with polyethylene glycol enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, R R; Lake, M; Velasquez, N; Prichard, A

    2001-01-01

    Our blood bank routinely screens donors for antibodies using a solid-phase red cell adherence (SPRCA) assay. Positive results are then confirmed using a tube technique with polyethylene glycol (PEG) enhancement due to reported higher specificity than with SPRCA. Over a 5-month period, 49,084 donor serum or plasma samples were tested using the SPRCA assay. Further identification of positive samples was performed using a PEG enhancement method. Testing was performed with strict adherence to the manufacturers' inserts. Of 49,084 samples, 313 (0.64%) were positive by the SPRCA assay. Of these, 99 (31.6%) samples remained positive when tested with PEG enhancement. The remaining 214 (68.4%) were negative, giving specificity for the SPRCA assay of 99.6 percent (48,985/ 49,199). We report a high specificity for antibody screening using the SPRCA assay. However, it is cost effective to perform a confirmatory tube test with PEG enhancement because 214 SPRCA assay samples were interpreted as having a negative antibody screen, thus allowing the release of valuable blood components for transfusion.

  3. HIV抗体筛查阳性标本确证结果分析%Analysis on Confirmatory Test Results of Positive Samples of HIV Antibody Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗小成; 邓荣婧; 陈倩; 周凌; 颜淑妩

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between screening test results and confirmatory test results through analyzing 2,344 positive samples of HIV antibody screening. Methods ELISA was used for HIV antibody screening. Rapid im-munochromatographic assay was applied in re - examination. Western blotting was adopted in confirmatory test. Results The total coincidence rate of screening positive samples and confirming positive samples was higher (86.22 % ). Moreover, it was increased year by year. The coincidence rate in voluntary blood donors was lower (33. 33%), and most indeterminate results were attributed to non-specific reactions. Conclusions Western blotting is needed to confirm the infection of HIV and exclude false - positive reaction. The false - positive reactions in voluntary blood donors are higher, which should be diagnosed carefully.%目的 通过对2344例HIV抗体筛查阳性标本确证实验结果的分析,探讨筛查试验结果与确证试验结果之间的关系.方法 筛查和复检:ELISA和快速检测;确证:免疫印迹(WB)法.结果 筛查阳性与确证阳性总体符合率较高(86.22%),且逐年有所提高;无偿献血人群符合率较低(33.33%),不确定结果多为非特异性反应.结论 确定HIV感染必须进行WB确证试验以便排除假阳性反应,无偿献血人群筛查假阳性较高,应慎重诊断.

  4. Utilization of Professional Mental Health Services Related to Population-Level Screening for Anxiety, Depression, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Among Public High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, John D; Le, Vi Donna; Baillargeon, Jacques; Temple, Jeff R

    2016-08-01

    This study examines results from three mental health screening measures in a cohort of adolescent public school students in seven public schools in Southeast Texas affiliated with the Dating it Safe study. We estimated the odds of receiving professional mental health treatment in the previous year given results from different mental health screening batteries: the CES-D 10 battery for depression screening, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, and the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder screen. Overall, students with higher scores on screening instruments for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and combinations of screening instruments were more likely to have sought past-year professional mental health treatment than non-symptomatic youth. However, the proportion of students screening positive and receiving professional treatment was low, ranging from 11 to 16 %. This study emphasizes the need for broader evaluation of population-based mental health screening among adolescents.

  5. Utilization of Professional Mental Health Services Related to Population-Level Screening for Anxiety, Depression, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Among Public High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, John D; Le, Vi Donna; Baillargeon, Jacques; Temple, Jeff R

    2016-08-01

    This study examines results from three mental health screening measures in a cohort of adolescent public school students in seven public schools in Southeast Texas affiliated with the Dating it Safe study. We estimated the odds of receiving professional mental health treatment in the previous year given results from different mental health screening batteries: the CES-D 10 battery for depression screening, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, and the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder screen. Overall, students with higher scores on screening instruments for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and combinations of screening instruments were more likely to have sought past-year professional mental health treatment than non-symptomatic youth. However, the proportion of students screening positive and receiving professional treatment was low, ranging from 11 to 16 %. This study emphasizes the need for broader evaluation of population-based mental health screening among adolescents. PMID:26733335

  6. Positive outlook as a moderator of the effectiveness of an HIV/STI intervention with adolescents in detention

    OpenAIRE

    Schmiege, Sarah J.; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Hendershot, Christian S.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2010-01-01

    Justice-involved adolescents engage in high levels of risky sexual behavior, underscoring the need for targeted, effective, prevention interventions geared toward this population. In a randomized controlled trial, 484 detained adolescents received a theory-based intervention or an information-only control. We have previously demonstrated that the theory-based intervention was superior to the control condition in changing theoretical mediators and in producing longitudinal decreases in risky s...

  7. Screen time behaviors may interact with obesity genes, independent of physical activity, to influence adolescent BMI in an ethnically-diverse cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, M; North, KE; Richardson, AS; Young, K M; Mohlke, KL; Lange, LA; Lange, EM; Harris, KM; Gordon-Larsen, P

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been little investigation of gene-by-environment interactions related to sedentary behavior, a risk factor for obesity defined as leisure screen time (ST; i.e., TV, video, and computer games). Objective To test the hypothesis that limiting ST use attenuates the genetic predisposition to increased BMI, independent of physical activity. Design Using 7,642 wave II participants of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, (Add Health; mean=16.4 years, 52.6% female), we assessed the interaction of ST (h/wk) and 41 established obesity SNPs with age- and sex-specific BMI Z scores in 4,788 European-(EA),1,612 African- (AA), and 1,242 Hispanic-American(HA)adolescents. Results Nominally significant SNP*ST interaction were found for FLJ35779 in EA, GNPDA2 in AA, and none in HA (EA: beta[SE]=0.016[0.007]), AA: beta[SE]=0.016[0.011]) per 7 h/wk ST and 1 risk allele in relation to BMI Z-score. Conclusions While for two established BMI loci, we find evidence that high levels of ST exacerbate the influence of obesity susceptibility variants on body mass, overall we do not find strong evidence for interactions between the majority of established obesity loci. However, future studies with larger sample sizes, or that may build on our current study and the growing published literature, are clearly warranted. PMID:24039247

  8. Psychopathy in adolescent offenders: an item response theory study of the antisocial process screening device-self report and the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Crystal L; Salekin, Randall T; Barker, Edward D; Grimes, Ross D

    2013-04-01

    Few studies have examined the item functioning of youth psychopathy measures or compared the functioning of clinician and self-report based indices. Even fewer studies have made these comparisons in both male and female adolescent samples. The present study examined the applicability of items from two psychopathy measures, the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick, P. J., & Hare, R. D., 2001, The Antisocial Process Screening Device. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems) and Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; Forth, A. E., Kosson, D. S., & Hare, R. D., 2003, The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems), to adolescent boys and girls who had come into contact with the law. Item Response Theory was used to test item functioning of the two psychopathy indices. Examination of the Item Response Theory trace lines indicated that the APSD and the PCL:YV have both highly discriminating and poorly discriminating items and that the measures differ in the regions of psychopathy they cover. The PCL:YV is particularly effective at assessing interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy and to a lesser extent, lifestyle and antisocial features. The APSD appears to be effective at assessing narcissism and impulsivity but not callousness. In addition, the items most discriminating of the underlying construct of psychopathy for males and females demonstrate some important differences. These findings suggest that the measures may tap different underlying elements of the same overlaying construct. This may account for modest correlations between the measures. The findings suggest that clinicians should be aware of the regions that each measure best taps and also suggest that continued refinement and revisions to the youth psychopathy measures may be required. PMID:22686465

  9. AMSSM Position Statement on Cardiovascular Preparticipation Screening in Athletes: Current Evidence, Knowledge Gaps, Recommendations, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezner, Jonathan A; OʼConnor, Francis G; Harmon, Kimberly G; Fields, Karl B; Asplund, Chad A; Asif, Irfan M; Price, David E; Dimeff, Robert J; Bernhardt, David T; Roberts, William O

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) screening in young athletes is widely recommended and routinely performed before participation in competitive sports. While there is general agreement that early detection of cardiac conditions at risk for sudden cardiac arrest and death (SCA/D) is an important objective, the optimal strategy for CV screening in athletes remains an issue of considerable debate. At the center of the controversy is the addition of a resting electrocardiogram (ECG) to the standard preparticipation evaluation using history and physical examination. The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) formed a task force to address the current evidence and knowledge gaps regarding preparticipation CV screening in athletes from the perspective of a primary care sports medicine physician. The absence of definitive outcomes-based evidence at this time precludes AMSSM from endorsing any single or universal CV screening strategy for all athletes including legislative mandates. This statement presents a new paradigm to assist the individual physician in assessing the most appropriate CV screening strategy unique to their athlete population, community needs, and resources. The decision to implement a CV screening program, with or without the addition of ECG, necessitates careful consideration of the risk of SCA/D in the targeted population and the availability of cardiology resources and infrastructure. Importantly, it is the individual physician's assessment in the context of an emerging evidence base that the chosen model for early detection of cardiac disorders in the specific population provides greater benefit than harm. American Medical Society for Sports Medicine is committed to advancing evidenced-based research and educational initiatives that will validate and promote the most efficacious strategies to foster safe sport participation and reduce SCA/D in athletes. PMID:27598018

  10. AMSSM Position Statement on Cardiovascular Preparticipation Screening in Athletes: Current Evidence, Knowledge Gaps, Recommendations and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezner, Jonathan A; O'Connor, Francis G; Harmon, Kimberly G; Fields, Karl B; Asplund, Chad A; Asif, Irfan M; Price, David E; Dimeff, Robert J; Bernhardt, David T; Roberts, William O

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular screening in young athletes is widely recommended and routinely performed prior to participation in competitive sports. While there is general agreement that early detection of cardiac conditions at risk for sudden cardiac arrest and death (SCA/D) is an important objective, the optimal strategy for cardiovascular screening in athletes remains an issue of considerable debate. At the center of the controversy is the addition of a resting electrocardiogram (ECG) to the standard preparticipation evaluation using history and physical examination. The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) formed a task force to address the current evidence and knowledge gaps regarding preparticipation cardiovascular screening in athletes from the perspective of a primary care sports medicine physician. The absence of definitive outcomes-based evidence at this time precludes AMSSM from endorsing any single or universal cardiovascular screening strategy for all athletes, including legislative mandates. This statement presents a new paradigm to assist the individual physician in assessing the most appropriate cardiovascular screening strategy unique to their athlete population, community needs, and resources. The decision to implement a cardiovascular screening program, with or without the addition of ECG, necessitates careful consideration of the risk of SCA/D in the targeted population and the availability of cardiology resources and infrastructure. Importantly, it is the individual physician's assessment in the context of an emerging evidence-base that the chosen model for early detection of cardiac disorders in the specific population provides greater benefit than harm. AMSSM is committed to advancing evidenced-based research and educational initiatives that will validate and promote the most efficacious strategies to foster safe sport participation and reduce SCA/D in athletes. PMID:27618246

  11. Adolescents with obstructive sleep apnea adhere poorly to positive airway pressure (PAP, but PAP users show improved attention and school performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean W Beebe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA is associated with medical and neurobehavioral morbidity across the lifespan. Positive airway pressure (PAP treatment has demonstrated efficacy in treating OSA and has been shown to improve daytime functioning in adults, but treatment adherence can be problematic. There are nearly no published studies examining functional outcomes such as academic functioning in adolescents treated with PAP. This study was conducted as an initial step towards determining whether PAP treatment improves daytime functioning among adolescents with OSA. METHODS: Self-reported academic grades, self- and parent-reported academic quality of life, and objectively-measured attention were assessed before and after PAP was clinically initiated in a sample of 13 obese adolescents with OSA, as well as 15 untreated obese Controls without OSA. Based on adherence data, the treated group was divided into PAP Users (n = 6 and Non-Adherent participants (n = 7. RESULTS: Though demographically similar, the three groups significantly differed in how their academic performance and attention scores changed from baseline to follow-up. Non-Adherent participants showed worsening functioning over time, while PAP Users showed stable or improved functioning, similar to controls. CONCLUSION: Although many adolescents prescribed PAP for OSA are non-adherent to the treatment, those who adhere to treatment can display improved attention and academic functioning.

  12. Thyroid dysfunction in Down's syndrome and screening for hypothyroidism in children and adolescents using capillary TSH measurement.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, J

    2008-02-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is more common in individuals with Down\\'s syndrome (DS) than in the general population, whose clinical features can mask the presenting signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism. Biochemical screening is necessary; however, venepuncture may be difficult.

  13. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. PMID:25079011

  14. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed.

  15. Production of polyol oils from soybean oil by bioprocess: results of microbial screening and identification of positive cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently we reported methods for microbial screening and production of polyol oils from soybean oil through bioprocessing (Hou and Lin, 2013). Soy-polyol oils (oxygenated acylglycerols) are important starting materials for the manufacture of polymers such as polyurethane. Currently, they are produce...

  16. Systematic hybrid LOH: a new method to reduce false positives and negatives during screening of yeast gene deletion libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvaro, D.; Sunjevaric, I.; Reid, R. J.;

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a new method, systematic hybrid loss of heterozygosity, to facilitate genomic screens utilizing the yeast gene deletion library. Screening is performed using hybrid diploid strains produced through mating the library haploids with strains from a different genetic background......, to minimize the contribution of unpredicted recessive genetic factors present in the individual library strains. We utilize a set of strains where each contains a conditional centromere construct on one of the 16 yeast chromosomes that allows the destabilization and selectable loss of that chromosome. After...... mating a library gene deletion haploid to such a conditional centromere strain, which corresponds to the chromosome carrying the gene deletion, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the gene deletion locus can be generated in these otherwise hybrid diploids. The use of hybrid diploid strains permits...

  17. A Resistive Touch Screen Coordinate Positioning Method%一种电阻触摸屏坐标定位方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飞; 凌云; 陈欢; 罗树英

    2015-01-01

    提出了一种五线电阻触摸屏的坐标定位方法。五线电阻触摸屏从下导电层的4个角施加恒定电流流入,所有电流从上导电层流出。定位触按坐标时,先设置初始预设点,然后测量触按点的实际对角线电压,采用反向搜索定位法,计算预设点和搜索点的理论对角线电压,取误差最小的理论对角线电压点为新预设点,反复搜索,最终逼近触按点。该方法解决了在不加补偿电极的情况下,五线电阻触摸屏的非线性方程求解和失真校正问题,可以使五线电阻触摸屏的边框变窄,拓宽了五线电阻触摸屏在小屏幕下的应用范围。%Puts forward a method on positioning coordinate of five-wire resistive touch screen. The constant current is applied to inflow from four corners of lower conducting layer of the resistive touch screen and all current outflows from upper conducting layer. Sets the initial preset point first when the touch coordinate is positioned, then measures the actual diagonal voltage of the touch point, and uses the reverse-search positioning method to calculate the theoretical diagonalvoltage of the preset and searching point. Takes the theoretical minimum error diagonal voltage point as new preset point and searches repeatedly to get the final approach touch point. The method solves the problems of nonlinear equa-tions solution and distortion calibration for five-wire resistive touch screen without the compensation electrode. It makes the touch screen frame narrower and broadens the five-wire resistive touch screen application range in small screen.

  18. Cardiorespiratory fitness in Flemish adolescents and its relationship with leisure-time physical activity, active travel to school and screen-based sedentariness

    OpenAIRE

    Seghers, Jan; Rutten, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Cardiorespiratory fitness is a key component of overall physical fitness and has been identified as a powerful health index in youth (Anderssen et al., 2007). The apparently obvious positive association between cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity still requires further research. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the association of cardiorespiratory fitness with leisure-time physical activity, active travel to school and screen-based sedent...

  19. Intrinsic religiousness and spirituality as predictors of mental health and positive psychological functioning in Latter-Day Saint adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Peter W; Allen, G E Kawika; Fischer, Lane; Richards, P Scott; Morgan, David T; Potts, Richard W

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the relationships between religiousness and spirituality and various indicators of mental health and positive psychosocial functioning in three separate samples of college students. A total of 898 students at Brigham Young University participated in the three studies. The students ranged in age from 17 to 26 years old, with the average age of 20.9 across all three samples. Our results indicate that intrinsic religiousness, spiritual maturity, and self-transcendence were significantly predictive of better mental health and positive functioning, including lower levels of depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsiveness, and higher levels of global self-esteem, identity integration, moral self-approval, and meaning in life. Intrinsic religiousness was not predictive of shame, perfectionism, and eating disorder symptoms. These findings are consistent with many prior studies that have found religiousness and spirituality to be positively associated with better mental health and positive psychosocial functioning in adolescents and young adults. PMID:25854319

  20. Airport Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ionizing radiation for security screening individuals [online]. Health Physics Society Position Statement. 2009. Available at http: / / hps. org/ documents/ securityscreening_ ps017- 1. pdf. Accessed 7 January 2011. Interagency Steering Committee on ...

  1. Social Support and Maternal Depression from Pregnancy to Postpartum: The Association with Positive Maternal Behaviours among Brazilian Adolescent Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Eva; Koller, Sílvia H.; Volling, Brenda L.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent motherhood is a risky situation related to poorer quality of infant caregiving. The lack of social support and increased odds for maternal depression are the main concerns. This study aimed to investigate whether maternal-foetal attachment, social support and maternal depression measured during pregnancy and after birth were associated…

  2. Positive Outcomes following Participation in a Music Intervention for Adolescents and Young Adults on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Ashleigh; Greher, Gena; Poto, Nataliya; Dougherty, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Music interventions are frequently utilized with those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and have shown a range of benefits. However, empirical evaluations are lacking and would be a timely step forward in the field. Here we report the findings of our pilot music program for adolescents and young adults with ASD. Evaluation of the program…

  3. An Examination of the Relationships between Ego Development, Dabrowski's Theory of Positive Disintegration, and the Behavioral Characteristics of Gifted Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Carrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Literature exploring the experiences of gifted individuals has often focused on asynchronous development, particularly during childhood and adolescence. Also discussed in the literature are the unique social, emotional, and behavioral characteristics associated with giftedness. However, there is still an unclear picture concerning the implications…

  4. Screening for depressed mood in an adolescent psychiatric context by brief self-assessment scales -- testing psychometric validity of WHO-5 and BDI-6 indices by latent trait analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Eva Henje; Bech, Per; Högberg, Göran;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder is prevalent in the adolescent psychiatric clinical setting and often comorbid with other primary psychiatric diagnoses such as ADHD or social anxiety disorder. Systematic manual-based diagnostic procedures are recommended to identify such comorbidity...... but they are time-consuming and often not fully implemented in clinical practice. Screening for depressive symptoms in the child psychiatric context using brief, user-friendly and easily managed self-assessment scales may be of clinical value and utility. The aim of the study is to test the psychometric validity...... of two such scales, which may be used in a two-step screening procedure, the WHO-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5) and the six-item version of Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-6). METHOD: 66 adolescent psychiatric patients with a clinical diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD), 60 girls and 6 boys...

  5. Association between Nutritional Status and Positive Childhood Disability Screening Using the Ten Questions Plus Tool in Sarlahi, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, L; Katz, J.; Mullany, L C; Haytmanek, E.; Khatry, S K; Darmstadt, G.L.; West, K P; LeClerq, S C; Tielsch, J M

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to examine the association between the indicators of malnutrition and disability of children as reported by caregivers. The Ten Questions Plus questionnaire was administered to caregivers of 1,902 children aged 1–9 years, during August 2007–March 2008, in rural Nepal. Height and weight of children were also measured. The main outcome was a positive response to one or more questions. In total, 514 (27%) children had a positive response to at least one question. Moderate...

  6. Benign and Deleterious Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Mutations Identified by Sequencing in Positive Cystic Fibrosis Newborn Screen Children from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Danieli B.; Sosnay, Patrick R.; Azen, Colleen; Young, Suzanne; Raraigh, Karen S.; Keens, Thomas G.; Kharrazi, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Of the 2007 Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) mutations, 202 have been assigned disease liability. California’s racially diverse population, along with CFTR sequencing as part of newborn screening model, provides the opportunity to examine the phenotypes of children with uncategorized mutations to help inform disease liability and penetrance. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on children screened from 2007 to 2011 and followed for two to six years. Newborns that screened positive were divided into three genotype groups: those with two CF-causing mutations (CF-C); those with one mutation of varying clinic consequence (VCC); and those with one mutation of unknown disease liability (Unknown). Sweat chloride tests, pancreatic sufficiency status, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization were compared. Results Children with two CF-causing mutations had a classical CF phenotype, while 5% of VCC (4/78) and 11% of Unknown (27/244) met diagnostic criteria of CF. Children carrying Unknown mutations 2215insG with D836Y, and T1036N had early and classical CF phenotype, while others carrying 1525-42G>A, L320V, L967S, R170H, and 296+28A>G had a benign clinical presentation, suggesting that these are non-CF causing. Conclusions While most infants with VCC and Unknown CFTR mutations do not meet diagnostic criteria for CF, a small proportion do. These findings highlight the range of genotypes and phenotypes in the first few years of life following CF newborn screening when CFTR sequencing is performed. PMID:27214204

  7. Benign and Deleterious Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Mutations Identified by Sequencing in Positive Cystic Fibrosis Newborn Screen Children from California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danieli B Salinas

    Full Text Available Of the 2007 Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR mutations, 202 have been assigned disease liability. California's racially diverse population, along with CFTR sequencing as part of newborn screening model, provides the opportunity to examine the phenotypes of children with uncategorized mutations to help inform disease liability and penetrance.We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on children screened from 2007 to 2011 and followed for two to six years. Newborns that screened positive were divided into three genotype groups: those with two CF-causing mutations (CF-C; those with one mutation of varying clinic consequence (VCC; and those with one mutation of unknown disease liability (Unknown. Sweat chloride tests, pancreatic sufficiency status, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization were compared.Children with two CF-causing mutations had a classical CF phenotype, while 5% of VCC (4/78 and 11% of Unknown (27/244 met diagnostic criteria of CF. Children carrying Unknown mutations 2215insG with D836Y, and T1036N had early and classical CF phenotype, while others carrying 1525-42G>A, L320V, L967S, R170H, and 296+28A>G had a benign clinical presentation, suggesting that these are non-CF causing.While most infants with VCC and Unknown CFTR mutations do not meet diagnostic criteria for CF, a small proportion do. These findings highlight the range of genotypes and phenotypes in the first few years of life following CF newborn screening when CFTR sequencing is performed.

  8. Higher Adolescent Body Mass Index Is Associated with Lower Regional Gray and White Matter Volumes and Lower Levels of Positive Emotionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James T.; Collins, Paul F.; Luciana, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%), in 137 adolescents (age range: 9–20 years, BMI% range: 5.16–99.56). Variations in gray and white matter volume and BMI% were then linked to individual differences in personality measures from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). After controlling for age and other covariates, BMI% correlated negatively with gray matter volume in the bilateral caudate (right: partial r = −0.338, left: r = −0.404), medial prefrontal cortex (partial r = −0.339), anterior cingulate (partial r = −0.312), bilateral frontal pole (right: partial r = −0.368, left: r = −0.316), and uncus (partial r = −0.475) as well as white matter volume bilaterally in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (right: partial r = −0.34, left: r = −0.386), extending to the left middle frontal subgyral white matter. Agentic Positive Emotionality (PEM-AG) was correlated negatively with BMI% (partial r = −0.384). PEM-AG was correlated positively with gray matter volume in the right uncus (partial r = 0.329). These results suggest that higher levels of adiposity in adolescents are associated with lower trait levels in reward-related personality domains, as well as structural variations in brain regions associated with reward processing, control, and sensory integration. PMID:27660604

  9. Higher Adolescent Body Mass Index Is Associated with Lower Regional Gray and White Matter Volumes and Lower Levels of Positive Emotionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James T; Collins, Paul F; Luciana, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%), in 137 adolescents (age range: 9-20 years, BMI% range: 5.16-99.56). Variations in gray and white matter volume and BMI% were then linked to individual differences in personality measures from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). After controlling for age and other covariates, BMI% correlated negatively with gray matter volume in the bilateral caudate (right: partial r = -0.338, left: r = -0.404), medial prefrontal cortex (partial r = -0.339), anterior cingulate (partial r = -0.312), bilateral frontal pole (right: partial r = -0.368, left: r = -0.316), and uncus (partial r = -0.475) as well as white matter volume bilaterally in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (right: partial r = -0.34, left: r = -0.386), extending to the left middle frontal subgyral white matter. Agentic Positive Emotionality (PEM-AG) was correlated negatively with BMI% (partial r = -0.384). PEM-AG was correlated positively with gray matter volume in the right uncus (partial r = 0.329). These results suggest that higher levels of adiposity in adolescents are associated with lower trait levels in reward-related personality domains, as well as structural variations in brain regions associated with reward processing, control, and sensory integration. PMID:27660604

  10. Evaluation of 14 triage strategies for HPV DNA-positive women in population-based cervical screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkaart, Dorien C.; Berkhof, Johannes; van Kemenade, Folkert J.; Coupe, Veerle M. H.; Hesselink, Albertus T.; Rozendaal, Lawrence; Heideman, Danielle A. M.; Verheijen, Ren H.; Bulk, Saskia; Verweij, Wim M.; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.

    2012-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing has a higher sensitivity but lower specificity than cytology for detection of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). To avoid over-referral to colposcopy and overtreatment, hrHPV-positive women require triage testing and/or followup. A total of 25,

  11. Screening the risk of bipolar spectrum disorders: Validity evidence of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Paino, Mercedes; Muñiz, José

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gather sources of validity evidence of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) in young adults for its use as a screening tool for bipolar spectrum disorders. The sample was composed of 1,002 participants, 268 men (26.7%). The mean age of participants was 21.1 years (SD=3.9). The results showed that between 3 and 59% of the sample reported some hypomanic experience. Gender differences were found in the total score of the MDQ. The analysis of the internal structure by exploratory factor analysis yielded 2 factors, called Energy-Activity and Disinhibition-Attention. This dimensional structure was replicated in the exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), and also had factorial equivalence by gender. Participants who met the cut-off points of the MDQ reported a worse perceived mental health status and more consummatory and anticipatory pleasure, compared to the low scores group. These findings indicate that the MDQ has adequate psychometric properties in non-clinical samples, and could be useful as a screening tool in psychopathology, with the possibility of optimizing strategies for early identification and prevention in individuals at high risk for bipolar disorders. Future studies should further explore the role of subclinical bipolar phenotype and conduct longitudinal studies in samples of the general population.

  12. Validation of 5-item and 2-item questionnaires in Chinese version of Dizziness Handicap Inventory for screening objective benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Shu, Liang; Wang, Qian; Pan, Hui; Wu, Jing; Fang, Jie; Sun, Xu-Hong; Zhai, Yu; Dong, You-Rong; Liu, Jian-Ren

    2016-08-01

    As possible candidate screening instruments for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), studies to validate the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) sub-scale (5-item and 2-item) and total scores are rare in China. From May 2014 to December 2014, 108(55 with and 53 without BPPV) patients complaining of episodic vertigo in the past week from a vertigo outpatient clinic were enrolled for DHI evaluation, as well as demographic and other clinical data. Objective BPPV was subsequently determined by positional evoking maneuvers under the record of optical Frenzel glasses. Cronbach's coefficient α was used to evaluate the reliability of psychometric scales. The validity of DHI total, 5-item and 2-item questionnaires to screen for BPPV was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. It revealed that the DHI 5-item questionnaire had good internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α = 0.72). Area under the curve of total DHI, 5-item and 2-item scores for discriminating BPPV from those without was 0.678 (95 % CI 0.578-0.778), 0.873(95 % CI 0.807-0.940) and 0.895(95 % CI 0.836-0.953), respectively. It revealed 74.5 % sensitivity and 88.7 % specificity in separating BPPV and those without, with a cutoff value of 12 in the 5-item questionnaire. The corresponding rate of sensitivity and specificity was 78.2 and 88.7 %, respectively, with a cutoff value of 6 in 2-item questionnaire. The present study indicated that both 5-item and 2-item questionnaires in the Chinese version of DHI may be more valid than DHI total score for screening objective BPPV and merit further application in clinical practice in China. PMID:27071688

  13. Validation of 5-item and 2-item questionnaires in Chinese version of Dizziness Handicap Inventory for screening objective benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Shu, Liang; Wang, Qian; Pan, Hui; Wu, Jing; Fang, Jie; Sun, Xu-Hong; Zhai, Yu; Dong, You-Rong; Liu, Jian-Ren

    2016-08-01

    As possible candidate screening instruments for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), studies to validate the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) sub-scale (5-item and 2-item) and total scores are rare in China. From May 2014 to December 2014, 108(55 with and 53 without BPPV) patients complaining of episodic vertigo in the past week from a vertigo outpatient clinic were enrolled for DHI evaluation, as well as demographic and other clinical data. Objective BPPV was subsequently determined by positional evoking maneuvers under the record of optical Frenzel glasses. Cronbach's coefficient α was used to evaluate the reliability of psychometric scales. The validity of DHI total, 5-item and 2-item questionnaires to screen for BPPV was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. It revealed that the DHI 5-item questionnaire had good internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α = 0.72). Area under the curve of total DHI, 5-item and 2-item scores for discriminating BPPV from those without was 0.678 (95 % CI 0.578-0.778), 0.873(95 % CI 0.807-0.940) and 0.895(95 % CI 0.836-0.953), respectively. It revealed 74.5 % sensitivity and 88.7 % specificity in separating BPPV and those without, with a cutoff value of 12 in the 5-item questionnaire. The corresponding rate of sensitivity and specificity was 78.2 and 88.7 %, respectively, with a cutoff value of 6 in 2-item questionnaire. The present study indicated that both 5-item and 2-item questionnaires in the Chinese version of DHI may be more valid than DHI total score for screening objective BPPV and merit further application in clinical practice in China.

  14. Computer-aided evaluation as an adjunct to revised BI-RADS Atlas: improvement in positive predictive value at screening breast MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate whether kinetic features via magnetic resonance (MR)-computer-aided evaluation (CAE) can improve the positive predictive value (PPV) of morphological descriptors for suspicious lesions at screening breast MRI. One hundred and sixteen consecutive, suspiciously enhancing lesions detected at contralateral breast MRI screening in 116 women with newly-diagnosed breast cancers were included. Morphological descriptors according to the revised BI-RADS Atlas and kinetic features from MR-CAE were analysed. The PPV of each descriptor was analysed to identify subgroups in which PPV could be improved by the addition of MR-CAE. When biopsy recommendations were downgraded to follow-up in cases where there were both the absence of enhancement at a 50 % threshold and the absence of delayed washout, PPV increased from 0.328 (95 % CI, 0.249-0.417) to 0.500 (95 % CI, 0.387- 0.613). Two ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) non-mass enhancement (NME) lesions were missed. Application of downgrading criteria to foci or masses led to increased PPV from 0.310 (95 % CI, 0.216-0.419) to 0.437 (95 % CI, 0.331-0.547) without missing cancers. MR-CAE has the potential to improve the PPV of breast MR imaging by reducing the number of false positives. When suspicious mass lesions do not show enhancement at a 50 % threshold nor delayed washout, follow-up rather than biopsy can be considered. (orig.)

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Personalized Text Message Reminders to Promote Medication Adherence Among HIV-Positive Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Robert; Kuhns, Lisa M; Hotton, Anna; Johnson, Amy; Muldoon, Abigail; Rice, Dion

    2016-05-01

    HIV-positive adolescents and young adults often experience suboptimal medication adherence, yet few interventions to improve adherence in this group have shown evidence of efficacy. We conducted a randomized trial of a two-way, personalized daily text messaging intervention to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among N = 105 poorly adherent HIV-positive adolescents and young adults, ages 16-29. Adherence to ART was assessed via self-reported visual analogue scale (VAS; 0-100 %) at 3 and 6-months for mean adherence level and proportion ≥90 % adherent. The average effect estimate over the 6-month intervention period was significant for ≥90 % adherence (OR = 2.12, 95 % CI 1.01-4.45, p < .05) and maintained at 12-months (6 months post-intervention). Satisfaction scores for the intervention were very high. These results suggest both feasibility and initial efficacy of this approach. Given study limitations, additional testing of this intervention as part of a larger clinical trial with objective and/or clinical outcome measures of adherence is warranted. PMID:26362167

  16. International Youth Justice Systems: Promoting Youth Development and Alternative Approaches: A Position Paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Youth incarceration is an international public health concern among developed and developing countries. Worldwide, youth are held in incarceration, detention, and other secure settings that are inappropriate for their age and developmental stages, jeopardizing their prosocial development, and reintegration into society. Youth incarceration lacks evidence and cost-effectiveness. The well-being of youth is a key indicator of the welfare of families, communities, and society at large; therefore, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) supports a paradigm shift in the role of the justice system as it relates to treatment of youth. SAHM recommends justice systems focus greater attention and resources on identifying and reducing the antecedents of high-risk and criminal behaviors, recognizing the rights and freedom of young persons, and prioritizing the well-being of youth over punitive measures that may harm and disrupt healthy adolescent development. SAHM supports the following positions: (1) incarceration is a last option for selected offenders who have committed the most serious violent crimes and are unable to remain safely in the community; (2) youth justice policies, programs, and practices affecting youth be evidence based and trauma informed; (3) youth justice policies, programs, and practices must incorporate research and ongoing program evaluation; (4) youth justice policies shall protect the privacy and dignity of children younger than 18 years; and (5) health care professionals and media will promote positive portrayals of youth in healthy relationships within their communities and reduce representations and images of youth that are negative, violent, deviant, and threatening. PMID:27664466

  17. Vitamin D and health in pregnancy, infants, children and adolescents in Australia and New Zealand: a position statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Georgia A; Teale, Glyn R; Nowson, Caryl A; Mason, Rebecca S; McGrath, John J; Thompson, Melanie J; Siafarikas, Aris; Rodda, Christine P; Munns, Craig F

    2013-02-18

    • The recommended level for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in infants, children, adolescents and during pregnancy and lactation is ≥ 50 nmol/L. This level may need to be 10-20 nmol/L higher at the end of summer to maintain levels ≥ 50 nmol/L over winter and spring. • Sunlight is the most important source of vitamin D. The US recommended dietary allowance for vitamin D is 600 IU daily in children aged over 12 months and during pregnancy and lactation, assuming minimal sun exposure. • Risk factors for low vitamin D are: lack of skin exposure to sunlight, dark skin, southerly latitude, conditions affecting vitamin D metabolism and storage (including obesity) and, for infants, being born to a mother with low vitamin D and exclusive breastfeeding combined with at least one other risk factor. • Targeted measurement of 25(OH)D levels is recommended for infants, children and adolescents with at least one risk factor for low vitamin D and for pregnant women with at least one risk factor for low vitamin D at the first antenatal visit. • Vitamin D deficiency can be treated with daily low-dose vitamin D supplements, although barriers to adherence have been identified. High-dose intermittent vitamin D can be used in children and adolescents. Treatment should be paired with health education and advice about sensible sun exposure. Infants at risk of low vitamin D should be supplemented with 400 IU vitamin D₃ daily for at least the first year of life. • There is increasing evidence of an association between low vitamin D and a range of non-bone health outcomes, however there is a lack of data from robust randomised controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation. PMID:23418693

  18. Positive Impact of a Shelter-based Hepatitis B Vaccine Program in Homeless Baltimore Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Kathleen; Garrett, Beth; Lee, Jennifer; Thompson, Douglas; Thiel, Thelma; Alter, Miriam J.; Strathdee, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Homeless youth are at increased risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and HBV vaccine coverage is poor in this group. The purpose of our study was to determine if a shelter-based HBV vaccine program in children and adolescents 2–18 years of age with a randomized controlled trial using a culturally appropriate HBV video could increase HBV vaccine coverage rates. Subjects were randomized to an 8 min HBV video or a control, smoking prevention video. Before exposure to the videos, HBV knowle...

  19. Exploring the Contributions of School Belonging to Complete Mental Health Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffa, Kathryn; Dowdy, Erin; Furlong, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Considering the many positive outcomes associated with adolescents' sense of school belonging, including psychological functioning, it is possible that including an assessment of school belonging within a complete mental health screening process could contribute to the prediction of students' future mental health status. This exploratory study…

  20. Physical activity and screen-based media use: cross-sectional associations with health-related quality of life and the role of body satisfaction in a representative sample of German adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finne, Emily; Bucksch, Jens; Lampert, Thomas; Kolip, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although it is widely accepted that physical activity (PA) positively, and screen-based media use (SBM) negatively, affects well-being, there is a lack of studies relating PA and SBM to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents. We examined these associations in German adolescents for different HRQoL subdomains and explored the role of body satisfaction as a possible mediator. Methods: The 11-17-year-old subsample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (2003-2006) was analysed (N = 6813; 51.3% male). Cross-sectional associations of self-reported PA frequency and amount of daily SBM with HRQoL subscale scores (according to KINDL-R) were examined by hierarchical linear regression models, adjusting for the clustering of the sample and for a variety of possible confounders. The size and significance of indirect effects via body (dis)satisfaction (BDS) were examined by mediation analyses. Results: Higher PA frequency was significantly associated with higher HRQoL on nearly all subscales and dose-response-relationships were observable. Variations were greatest in terms of social well-being in boys (effect size d = 0.59) and physical well-being in girls (d = 0.43). Higher SBM was related to lower HRQoL on all subscales in girls and on some subscales in boys, with the largest effects for school functioning in both genders (d = 0.31 and 0.37, respectively). The mediated effects for PA and SBM were significant in both genders, but the sizes and the proportions of total effects mediated by body satisfaction were rather small. Conclusions: Higher PA frequency was associated with higher self-reported HRQoL, and higher SBM was associated with lower self-reported HRQoL in both genders, even after adjusting for relevant covariates. The results support the assumption of independent health impacts of both behaviours, although no causal relationship can be confirmed with these cross-sectional data. Mechanisms other than body satisfaction must

  1. Using Positive Youth Development to Predict Contribution and Risk Behaviors in Early Adolescence: Findings from the First Two Waves of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelicic, Helena; Bobek, Deborah L.; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.; Lerner, Jacqueline V.

    2007-01-01

    Theories of positive youth development (PYD) regard such development as bases of both community contributions and lessened likelihood of risk/problem behaviors. Using data from the 4-H Study of PYD, we tested these expectations by examining if PYD in Grade 5 predicted both youth contributions and risk behaviors and depression in Grade 6. Results…

  2. Screening and brief intervention for alcohol and other abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sion Kim; Louis-Jacques, Jennifer; Knight, John R

    2014-04-01

    structured algorithm for specific recommended responses based on level of risk. Adolescents who are at low or moderate risk for a substance use disorder, who constitute most of those seen in general medical settings, may be effectively counseled with a few minutes of brief advice, particularly after being primed with screening, feedback, and education before seeing their physician. High-risk patients (screen-positives) should receive a brief follow-up assessment to determine the appropriate level of care needed and a BI, using MI principles, to enhance motivation for behavioral change and help-seeking. Indications of acute danger or addiction may necessitate breaking confidentiality to protect patient safety and begin RT. Our review shows a small but growing body of research on the effectiveness of opportunistic BIs following screening of adolescents in clinical settings. Studies to date have largely tested brief alcohol-focused MI-based interventions with adolescents in the ED or trauma care settings; however, the number of studies conducted in primary health care settings is increasing. The strongest BI effects found in these studies tend to be related to harm reduction, such as reduction of substance-related driving/riding, alcohol-related injuries, unplanned sex, and other negative consequences of use. Effects on substance use have been more modest and tend to be stronger at shorter ( or = 12 months). However, many of these studies compared BI to active control conditions, which often included elements of BI (eg, assessment, brief advice, informational handouts). Significant reductions in substance use and related harms were also seen in these control groups, likely making detection ofa BI effect more difficult. A few studies have shown initial support for a prevention effect of BI among abstinent adolescents. At the opposite end of the spectrum, little is known about the effects of BI for adolescents with dependence and needing RT because of a lack of studies. Other

  3. A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara De Meyer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective: The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design: In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador. Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results: The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions: Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender

  4. Children who screen positive for autism at 2.5 years and receive early intervention: a prospective naturalistic 2-year outcome study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spjut Jansson, Birgitta; Miniscalco, Carmela; Westerlund, Joakim; Kantzer, Anne-Katrin; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research has stressed the importance of early identification and intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. Methods Children who had screened positive for autism at the age of 2.5 years in a general population screening and then received a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder were enrolled in an intervention program provided by Swedish habilitation services. The following interventions were available: a comprehensive intervention based on Applied Behavior Analysis – Intensive Learning (IL) – in two settings, which included home- and preschool-based (IL Regular) and only home-based (IL Modified) and eclectic interventions. Results There was considerable variability in terms of outcome, but intervention group status was not associated with any of the chosen outcome variables. Conclusion The main finding was that the type of intervention was not critical for outcome of adaptive or global functioning. The variability in outcome demonstrates the need for continuous assessments and evaluation of the child’s function and behavior throughout the intervention period. PMID:27621636

  5. Update on Substance Use in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Simone C; Fogger, Susanne A; McGuinness, Teena M

    2016-08-01

    With alarming frequency, an individual's first substance use occurs in childhood or adolescence. However, the use of many types of substances among individuals younger than 18 has been gradually declining over the past 6 years, and our understanding of risk factors for youth substance use has improved. Risk factors identified as possibly contributing to a young individual's first encounter with cigarettes or alcohol include parents' own substance use or mental health problems. Mental disorders of children have been implicated in substance use as well. Screening and interventions are available to reduce the frequency and intensity of adolescent substance use and are suggested in the current article. Nurses are in a position to identify adolescents who are at risk for substance use disorders and link the family system to effective intervention. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(8), 24-27.]. PMID:27479476

  6. Coping strategies to manage acculturative stress: Meaningful activity participation, social support, and positive emotion among Korean immigrant adolescents in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Junhyoung; Suh, Wonseok; Kim, Sooyeon; Gopalan, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    During acculturation, Asian immigrant adolescents have numerous challenges such as language barriers, cultural and ethnic differences, different school environments, discrimination experiences, and intergroup conflicts and tension. These challenges generate acculturative stress, which negatively affects the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. This article explored how Asian immigrant adolescents perceive and cope with acculturative stress. In particular, thi...

  7. Effects of the Maytiv positive psychology school program on early adolescents' well-being, engagement, and achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshani, Anat; Steinmetz, Sarit; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv

    2016-08-01

    As positive psychology is a nascent area of research, there are very few empirical studies assessing the impact and sustained effects of positive psychology school interventions. The current study presents a 2-year longitudinal evaluation of the effects of a school-based positive psychology program on students' subjective well-being, school engagement, and academic achievements. The study investigated the effectiveness of the Maytiv school program using a positive psychology-based classroom-level intervention with 2517 seventh- to ninth-grade students in 70 classrooms, from six schools in the center of Israel. The classes were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions, which were comparable in terms of students' age, gender, and socio-economic status. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed positive intervention effects on positive emotions, peer relations, emotional engagement in school, cognitive engagement, and grade point average scores (Cohen's ds 0.16-0.71). In the control group, there were significant decreases in positive emotions and cognitive engagement, and no significant changes in peer relations, emotional engagement or school achievements. These findings demonstrate the significant socio-emotional and academic benefits of incorporating components of positive psychology into school curricula.

  8. Effects of the Maytiv positive psychology school program on early adolescents' well-being, engagement, and achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshani, Anat; Steinmetz, Sarit; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv

    2016-08-01

    As positive psychology is a nascent area of research, there are very few empirical studies assessing the impact and sustained effects of positive psychology school interventions. The current study presents a 2-year longitudinal evaluation of the effects of a school-based positive psychology program on students' subjective well-being, school engagement, and academic achievements. The study investigated the effectiveness of the Maytiv school program using a positive psychology-based classroom-level intervention with 2517 seventh- to ninth-grade students in 70 classrooms, from six schools in the center of Israel. The classes were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions, which were comparable in terms of students' age, gender, and socio-economic status. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed positive intervention effects on positive emotions, peer relations, emotional engagement in school, cognitive engagement, and grade point average scores (Cohen's ds 0.16-0.71). In the control group, there were significant decreases in positive emotions and cognitive engagement, and no significant changes in peer relations, emotional engagement or school achievements. These findings demonstrate the significant socio-emotional and academic benefits of incorporating components of positive psychology into school curricula. PMID:27425567

  9. Life Stressors as Mediators of the Relation Between Socioeconomic Position and Mental Health Problems in Early Adolescence : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amone-P'Olak, K.; Ormel, J.; Huisman, Martijn; Verhulst, F.C.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Burger, Huib

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Life stressors and family socioeconomic position have often been associated with mental health status. The aim of the present study is to contribute to the understanding of the pathways from low socioeconomic position and life stressors to mental problems. Method: In a cross-sectional ana

  10. Processo adolescente e saúde positiva: âmbitos afectivo e cognitivo Adolescent process and positive health: affective and cognitive scope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Borges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Os adolescentes portugueses percepcionam-se prevalentemente como saudáveis. Questiona-se se nesta percepção tem mais relevo a componente afectivo-emocional ou a componente cognitiva da saúde positiva. Este estudo fixou-se nas medidas sobre a auto-percepção da qualidade de vida relacionada com a saúde, sobre a satisfação com a vida e sobre a felicidade, enquanto variáveis de cariz afectivo-emocional e de índole cognitiva. Procurou-se perceber a influência do género, da idade, do nível socioeconómico e do nível de instrução da família nos índices da saúde positiva dos adolescentes portugueses. Utilizaram-se dados da amostra portuguesa do estudo Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children 2006 constituída por 4877 adolescentes, com uma média de idade de 14 anos, 49,6% do género masculino e 50,4% do género feminino. Após análise estatística descritiva, procedeu-se à comparação de médias entre grupos e à regressão linear para delinear os factores preditores de cada variável. Em todos os âmbitos do estudo observa-se uma maior relevância da dimensão afectivo-emocional na percepção do índice de saúde positiva dos adolescentes portugueses.Portuguese adolescents perceive themselves prevailingly as healthy subjects. It is questioned whether, in this perception, the affective-emotional component or the cognitive component of the positive health has more relevance. This study focused on the measures of quality of life self-perception related to health, satisfaction with life and happiness as variables of cognitive and affective-emotional nature. It was sought to perceive the influence of gender, age, socio-economic and family instruction level on the index of positive health of the Portuguese adolescents. Data from the Portuguese sample of the study on Health Behavior in School-Aged Children 2006 were used. The sample is made up by 4877 adolescents, with an average age of 14 years old, 49.6% male and 50.4% female. After

  11. Measurement and Interpretation of Body Mass Index during Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Susan Kohl; Zemel, Babette S.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of childhood health and disease has changed over the past century, and school nurses are now in a unique position to address the conditions that lead to chronic disease, such as obesity. Measuring body mass index (BMI) during childhood and adolescence is the recommended method for screening and/or monitoring obesity in school…

  12. Screen time on school days and risks for psychiatric symptoms and self-harm in mainland Chinese adolescents: A multicenter cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingli eLiu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate associations of television and of video game or non-educational computer use (VG/CU exposure volumes in a typical school day with psychiatric symptoms and suicidal ideation/self-injurious behavior (self-harm, in mainland Chinese adolescents.Methods Secondary school pupils (N = 13,659; mean age: 15.18 ± 1.89 from 10 urban areas sampled from different regions of mainland China were recruited. The subjects were divided into the follow four screen exposure volume groups for television and VG/CU respectively based on a self-administered questionnaire: 0 h/d, >0 to ≤1 h/d, >1 to ≤2 h/d, and >2 h/d. Demographic and psychiatric symptoms were recorded for each respondent. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for several types of psychological problems and self-harm were calculated.Results For television, >2 hours per school day was associated with greater risk of depression in both boys (OR = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.02–1.73 and girls (OR = 1.62, 95%CI: 1.19– 2.21, of anxiety in boys (OR = 1.43, 95%CI: 1.05–1.95, of general emotional, behavioral, and social problems (GEBSPs in girls (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.01–2.39, and of oppositional defiant problems (ODPs in girls (OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.09–2.50, compared with the reference group. Conversely, television exposure of >0 to ≤1 hour per school day was associated with lower self-harm risk in boys (OR = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.67–0.99 compared with the no television exposure group. For VG/CU, higher risks of anxiety (OR = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.06–1.86 and of attention deficit/hyperactivity problems (ADHPs (OR = 1.56, 95%CI: 1.02–2.38 were associated with excessive VG/CU time (>2 h per school day in boys compared with the no VG/CU exposure group. Higher risks of self-harm and all other psychiatric problems (including anxiety and ADHPs in girls were associated with any school-day VG/CU exposure, compared to no VG/CU exposure, in both genders.Conclusion For mainland Chinese

  13. Prevalent false positives of azoospermia factor a (AZFa) microdeletions caused by single-nucleotide polymorphism rs72609647 in the sY84 screening of male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Wu; Hui-Juan Shi; Guo-Wu Chen; Tao-Fei Yan; Hui Wang; Yu-Ling Liu; Zheng Li; Shi-Wei Duan; Fei Sun; Yun Feng

    2011-01-01

    Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been widely used to detect Y-chromosome microdeletions,which is one of the major causes of male infertility.Both the European Academy of Andrology (EAA) and the European Molecular Genetics Quality Network (EMQN) have recommended the use of sY84 and sY86 markers for the detection of azoospermia factor a (AZFa) microdeletion during DNA testing for male infertility.In this study,a large-scale analysis of AZF microdeletion in a total of 630 Chinese males,including healthy semen donors (n=200),infertile males with normal sperm count (n=226) and patients with either nonobstructive azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia (n=204),was performed.A series of nine sequence-tagged site (STS) markers from the AZF region of the Y chromosome was used to detect microdeletions.All primers were designed based on the recommendations of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.An unusually high incidence (73/630,11.6%) of sY84-absent but sY86-present genotypes was observed in the AZFa microdeletion screening.Sequencing the sY84-flanking region revealed a total of 73 patients with sY84-absent but sY86-present genotypes have a T-to-G transversion at the fifth base from the 5' end of the reverse sY84 primer.These prevalent false positives,which were not only observed in infertile men,but also observed in donors,resulted from a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) named rs72609647 in the targeting sequence of the reverse sY84 primer.Our study suggests that a pre-screening of existence of rs72609647 polymorphism can prevent the frequent false positive results of AZFa microdeletions detection in the infertile Chinese males.Given the SNP rs72609647 was recently found in a deep sequencing of a Chinese individual,the current EAA and EMQN standards may need to be scrutinized among different populations to avoid the potential genetic variations in the primer binding sequences.

  14. School-Based Positive Psychoeducation in Early Adolescents: Effects on Happiness, Depression, Anxiety, School Engagement, and Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that voluntary activity accounts for 40% of individual happiness and can be purposefully manipulated to make meaningful changes in one's reported level of happiness (Lyubomirsky, Sheldon, & Schkade, 2005a; Tkach & Lyubomirsky, 2006). The current study explored the utility of a school-based positive psychology psychoeducation…

  15. Mortality Salience and Positive Affect Influence Adolescents' Attitudes toward Peers with Physical Disabilities: Terror Management and Broaden and Build Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Eherenfreund-Hager, Ahinoam; Findler, Liora

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes toward teenagers with and without physical disabilities, and their social acceptance, were examined from the perspective of terror management theory and the broaden and build theory. Participants (n = 390, aged 13-17) were divided into 3 experimental conditions: positive emotions, mortality salience, and control. Then, they were shown…

  16. Community Violence Exposure and Adolescent Substance Use: Does Monitoring and Positive Parenting Moderate Risk in Urban Communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rosalyn

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether monitoring and positive parenting moderate the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and youth substance use. Analyses utilized a subsample (N = 2197) of a cross-sectional, ethnically diverse, urban school district sample. Dependent variables were any past year alcohol or drug use (AOD) and binge…

  17. Engagement as Flourishing: The Contribution of Positive Emotions and Coping to Adolescents' Engagement at School and with Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschly, Amy L.; Huebner, E. Scott; Appleton, James J.; Antaramian, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Fredrickson's (1998, 2001) broaden and build theory postulates that the experience of frequent positive emotions serves to broaden humans' thoughts and behaviors, resulting in accrual of resources, including coping resources, which catalyze upward spirals toward future well-being. Initial research supports the tenets of broaden and build; however,…

  18. Exploring the Meso-System: The Roles of Community, Family, and Peers in Adolescent Delinquency and Positive Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emilie Phillips; Faulk, Monique; Sizer, Monteic A.

    2016-01-01

    Community contexts are important ecological settings related to problem behavior and positive youth development (PYD). While substantial work has focused on neighborhood disadvantage, the current study explores the role of community assets, specifically linkages to important institutional resources and people in those settings. These concepts are…

  19. The Structure and Developmental Course of Positive Youth Development (PYD) in Early Adolescence: Implications for Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Erin; Zimmerman, Stacy; Warren, A. E. A.; Jelicic, Helena; von Eye, Alexander; Lerner, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from Grades 5 to 7 of the longitudinal 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development (PYD), this research assessed the structure and development of PYD. Building on Grade 5 findings, that "Five Cs" (Competence, Confidence, Connection, Character, and Caring) could be empirically defined as latent constructs converging on a second-order…

  20. Neuroblastoma Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professional Neuroblastoma Treatment Neuroblastoma Screening Research Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to Health Professional Version Screening is looking ...

  1. Meeting the needs of adolescent parents and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent parents and their children present to health care practitioners as two paediatric patients, each with unique health care needs. Young parents and their children may be at risk for negative health outcomes, not directly as a consequence of maternal age but because of poverty and other inequities in the social determinants of health. The health needs of child and mother are best assessed using a nonjudgmental approach, appropriate screening tools and open questions that address both preventative and acute health issues. The dyad's coexisting needs may be anticipated as they relate to growth and development, infant and adolescent mental health, nutrition and food security, safety, relationships, parenting, education, sexual health and the facilitation of supports and resources. Care providers who understand adolescent development and integrate medical home elements of a patient-centred 'medical home' into their practices are ideally positioned to facilitate positive health outcomes for both mother and child. PMID:27441025

  2. Respostas falso-positivas na triagem auditiva neonatal universal: possíveis causas False-positive results in newborn universal hearing screening: possible causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Silva Simonek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a ocorrência de respostas falso-positivas na Triagem Auditiva dentro de uma maternidade particular, suas possíveis causas e soluções. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados 1.110 recém-nascidos eutróficos entre 6 e 48 horas de vida no berçário, com o analisador de Emissões Otoacústicas Evocadas Transientes (EOATE modelo Echochek da Ilodynamics Ltd. Na ausência de resposta, foi realizada a manipulação do meato acústico externo (Manobra Facilitadora e colhido novo resultado. Os que falharam foram retestados em 15 dias. RESULTADOS: 50,09% dos RN falhou na primeira tentativa. Após a manobra facilitadora, 24,41% continuou falhando, mas demonstraram EOATE presentes no reteste. O tempo médio de internação foi de 42,27 h, sendo 93,42% oriundos de cesareana. Pertenciam a convênios particulares padrão enfermaria 98% e 2% quarto individual. A idade média do grupo que passou foi de 24,14 h (± 10,21 e a do grupo que falhou 19,19 horas (±8,43. Possuíam menos de 24 horas de vida no momento do teste 66,12% dos RN, foi constatado vérnix obliterante em 4.9%. CONLUSÃO: face a alta precoce hospitalar, é necessário que o Fonoaudiólogo realize o teste antes das 48 horas de vida do RN. Desta forma, além das causas biológicas inerentes a faixa etária, detectou-se um problema estrutural de administração hospitalar, que independe da habilidade ou experiência do Fonoaudiólogo. A Manobra Facilitadora é altamente recomendada.PURPOSE: to investigate the rate of false positive responses in a hospital - based newborn hearing screening program (NHS, their possible causes and solutions. METHODS: during the period we evaluated 1,110 regular nursery newborns, age 6 to 48 hours with Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions (TEOAEs, Echocheck, Ilodynamics Ltd model., at the nurseries, before discharge. In case of absence of response, the ear canal was manipulated. Infants that failed the screening were retested fifteen days after birth

  3. Social support among HIV-positive and HIV-negative adolescents in Umlazi, South Africa: changes in family and partner relationships during pregnancy and the postpartum period

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Lauren M.; Maman, Suzanne; Groves, Allison K.; Moodley, Dhayendre

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy is common among adolescents in South Africa, yet the social experiences of adolescents during the pregnancy and postpartum period remain understudied in this context. We aimed to explore how adolescent women’s discovery and disclosure of both their pregnancy and HIV status affected their relationships with family members and sexual partners, with a particular focus on whether and how support changed throughout this time period. Methods We conducted in-depth semi-structure...

  4. Explicit and implicit positive alcohol expectancies in problem and non-problem drinkers: differences across age groups from young adolescence to adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Aurélie eVilenne; Etienne eQuertemont

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Recent studies with animal models showed that the stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol change during the adolescent period. In humans, the stimulant effects of ethanol are most often indirectly recorded through the measurement of explicit and implicit alcohol effect expectancies. However, it is unknown how such implicit and explicit expectancies evolve with age in humans during adolescence.Methods: Adolescent (13-16 year old), young adult (17-18 year old) and adult (35-55 year old)...

  5. Explicit and Implicit Positive Alcohol Expectancies in Problem and Non-Problem Drinkers: Differences Across Age Groups from Young Adolescence to Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Vilenne, Aurélie; Quertemont, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Recent studies with animal models showed that the stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol change during the adolescent period. In humans, the stimulant effects of ethanol are most often indirectly recorded through the measurement of explicit and implicit alcohol effect expectancies. However, it is unknown how such implicit and explicit expectancies evolve with age in humans during adolescence. Methods: Adolescent (13-16 year old), young adult (17-18 year old), and adult (35-55 year ol...

  6. Positive Youth Development in Turkey: A Critical Review of Research on the Social and Emotional Learning Needs of Turkish Adolescents, 2000-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robin Ann; Alacaci, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a critical and systematic review of 52 articles published from 2000 to 2012 about research conducted in Turkey concerning adolescents' social and emotional learning needs. In correspondence with international research, articles were examined across three categories in which adolescent needs could be addressed by educational…

  7. Universal screening for hepatitis B among pregnant women led to 96% vaccination coverage among newborns of HBsAg positive mothers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Katja Majlund; Cowan, Susan; Eriksen, Mette Brandt;

    2011-01-01

    to examine the effectiveness of universal HBV-screening of pregnant women and HBV-immunizations of their newborn, and to provide a prevalence-estimate for HBV in Denmark. On a opt out basis all women in Denmark attending antenatal care were tested for hepatitis B serology. Vaccination data of the newborns......%) and 13% had a HBVDNA ≥10(8) IU/ml. The prevalence estimate of chronic hepatitis B in Denmark was 0.2-0.3% in the general population. Among children born within the project period, 96% received vaccination at birth compared to 50% of siblings born prior to universal screening. During 3 years of passive......In Denmark selective screening programs of pregnant women for hepatitis B missed 30-50% of high-risk groups and in late 2005 a universal screening of pregnant women for HBsAg was implemented. During a 2-year period a prospective enhanced surveillance of the universal screening was performed...

  8. Prevention of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescents: 42 and 54 Months Follow-Up of the Aussie Optimism Program-Positive Thinking Skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eJohnstone

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety and depression are the most commonly reported mental health problems amongst Australian children and adolescents. The Aussie Optimism Program: Positive Thinking Skills (AOP- PTS is a universal intervention program based on cognitive and behavioral strategies and aimed to prevent anxiety and depression in the middle primary school children aged 9-10 years old. 370 students randomly assigned to the intervention and control condition participated in the 42 and 54 months follow – up study. The intervention group received the AOP-PTS 10-week program and the control group received the regular Health Education curriculum. Students were assessed on anxiety, depression and attribution style at school whilst parents reported on their child’s externalizing and internalising problems at home. Results showed there were no significant reduction across groups in the depressive and anxiety symptoms, and attribution style at either 42 or 54 months follow-up. These findings suggest that AOP-PTS has short and medium term effects but were not sustained in longer term period. Future strategies to achieve the desirable outcomes in a longitudinal study are discussed.

  9. Enhancement of social novelty discrimination by positive allosteric modulators at metabotropic glutamate 5 receptors: adolescent administration prevents adult-onset deficits induced by neonatal treatment with phencyclidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Nicholas E; Morisot, Nadège; Girardon, Sylvie; Millan, Mark J; Loiseau, Florence

    2013-02-01

    Metabotropic glutamate-5 receptors (mGluR5), which physically and functionally interact with N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptors, likewise control cognitive processes and have been proposed as targets for novel classes of antipsychotic agent. Since social cognition is impaired in schizophrenia and disrupted by NMDA receptor antagonists like dizocilpine, we evaluated its potential modulation by mGluR5. Acute administration (0.63-40 mg/kg) of the mGluR5 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs), 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide (CDPPB) and ADX47273, reversed a delay-induced impairment in social novelty discrimination (SND) in adult rats. The action of CDPPB was blocked by the mGluR5 antagonist, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (2.5-10 mg/kg), and was also expressed upon microinjection into frontal cortex (0.63-10 μg/side), but not striatum. Supporting an interrelationship between mGluR5 and NMDA receptors, enhancement of SND by CDPPB was blocked by dizocilpine (0.08 mg/kg) while, reciprocally, dizocilpine-induced impairment in SND was attenuated by CDPPB (10 mg/kg). The SND deficit elicited by post-natal administration of phencyclidine (10 mg/kg, days 7-11) was reversed by CDPPB or ADX47273 in adults at week 8. This phencyclidine-induced impairment in cognition emerged in adult rats from week 7 on, and chronic, pre-symptomatic treatment of adolescent rats with CDPPB over weeks 5-6 (10 mg/kg per day) prevented the appearance of SND deficits in adults until at least week 13. In conclusion, as evaluated by a SND procedure, mGluR5 PAMs promote social cognition via actions expressed in interaction with NMDA receptors and exerted in frontal cortex. MGluR5 PAMs not only reverse but also (when given during adolescence) prevent the emergence of cognitive impairment associated with a developmental model of schizophrenia.

  10. Adolescent development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... rights and privileges. Establish and maintain satisfying relationships. Adolescents will learn to share intimacy without feeling worried ...

  11. Prognostic significance of functional somatic symptoms in adolescence: a 15-year community-based follow-up study of adolescents with depression compared with healthy peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohman Hannes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of population-based long-term longitudinal research on mental health status and functional physical/somatic symptoms. Little is known about the long-term mental health outcomes associated with somatic symptoms or the temporal relationship between depression and such symptoms. This 15-year study followed up adolescents with depression and matched controls, screened from a population-based sample, who reported different numbers of somatic symptoms. Methods The total population of 16–17-year-olds in Uppsala, Sweden, was screened for depression in 1991–1993. Adolescents who screened positive and an equal number of healthy controls took part in a semi-structured diagnostic interview. In addition, 21 different self-rated somatic symptoms were assessed. Sixty-four percent of those adolescents participated in a follow-up structured interview 15 years later. Results Somatic symptoms in adolescence predicted depression and other adult mental disorders regardless of the presence of adolescent depression. In adolescents with depression, the number of functional somatic symptoms predicted, in a dose response relationship, suicidal behavior, bipolar episodes, and psychotic episodes as well as chronic and recurrent depression. Contrary to expectations, the somatic symptoms of abdominal pain and perspiration without exertion better predicted depression than all DSM-IV depressive symptoms. Abdominal pain persisted as an independent strong predictor of depression and anxiety, even after controlling for other important confounders. Conclusions Somatic symptoms in adolescence can predict severe adult mental health disorders. The number of somatic symptoms concurrent with adolescent depression is, in a stepwise manner, linked to suicidal attempts, bipolar disorders, psychotic disorders, and recurrent and chronic depression. These findings can be useful in developing treatment guidelines for patients with somatic symptoms.

  12. Adolescent drinking, social identity, and parenting for safety: Perspectives from Australian adolescents and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, Lynda; Jones, Sandra C; Andrews, Kelly

    2016-03-01

    We explored young people and parents' views on adolescent drinking and safety in the locations where drinking may occur. Focus groups with adolescents and parents showed that many believed adolescent drinking and drunkenness is normative. Younger adolescents had more negative views of adolescent drinkers than their older peers. Adolescent drinking occurred in private settings and parents made decisions about allowing their adolescent children to attend social events based on the level of safety attributed to the location. If adolescent drinking was likely then home was the preferred location as it provided scope for risk minimisation. Positive portrayals of non-drinking adolescents and information to assist parents' decision-making are needed.

  13. Study on TCT split-flow for HPV positive method on Xinjiang cervical cancer screening%careHPV 初筛及 TCT 分流法在新疆宫颈癌筛查中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    帕提曼·米吉提; 唐努尔·阿布力米提; 古扎丽努尔·阿不力孜; 李华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical value of TCT split-flow for HPV positive method on Xinjiang cervical cancer screening project.Methods Colposcopy and cervical biopsy were given to the women with positive result of the careHPV test and Thinprep test.Diagnostic evaluation was conducted to detect the sensitivity,specificity,predictive positive value and predictive negative value and the AUC.Diagnostic val-ue was compared by ROC curve and analyzed by SPSS19.0 software.Results It showed better value for the test of TCT split-flow for HPV positive result than HPV split-flow for TCT positive method,with their AUC 0.743 and 0.680 respectively.Conclusions Split-flow by TCT after screening by careHPV method showed high diagnostic value in Xinjiang cervical cancer screening.%果以careHPV 为初筛、薄层液基细胞学为分流的筛查方法 AUC 值为0.743,高于以细胞学初筛、HPV 分流法。结论careHPV 初筛、细胞学分流法在新疆农村地区妇女宫颈癌筛查中有较好的应用前景。

  14. The effect of rapid screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on the identification and earlier isolation of MRSA-positive patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Creamer, Eilish

    2010-04-01

    (1) To determine whether rapid screening with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays leads to the earlier isolation of patients at risk for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization, (2) to assess compliance with routine MRSA screening protocols, (3) to confirm the diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MRSA real-time PCR assay (Cepheid) by comparison with culture, and (4) to compare turnaround times for PCR assay results with those for culture results.

  15. A Genome-Wide siRNA Screen Reveals Positive and Negative Regulators of the NOD2 and NF-κB Signaling Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Neil; Burberry, Aaron; Franchi, Luigi; Kim, Yun-Gi; McDonald, Christine; Sartor, Maureen A.; Núñez, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The cytoplasmic receptor NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2) senses peptidoglycan fragments and triggers host defense pathways that lead to inflammatory immune responses. Dysregulation of NOD2 signaling is associated with inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and Blau syndrome. We used a genome-wide, small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen to identify regulators of the NOD2 signaling pathway. Several genes associated with Crohn’s disease risk were identified in the screen...

  16. High-Content Positional Biosensor Screening Assay for Compounds to Prevent or Disrupt Androgen Receptor and Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 2 Protein–Protein Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yun; Shun, Tong Ying; Strock, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The androgen receptor–transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (AR-TIF2) positional protein–protein interaction (PPI) biosensor assay described herein combines physiologically relevant cell-based assays with the specificity of binding assays by incorporating structural information of AR and TIF2 functional domains along with intracellular targeting sequences and fluorescent reporters. Expression of the AR-red fluorescent protein (RFP) “prey” and TIF2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) “bait” components of the biosensor was directed by recombinant adenovirus constructs that expressed the ligand binding and activation function 2 surface domains of AR fused to RFP with nuclear localization and nuclear export sequences, and three α-helical LXXLL motifs from TIF2 fused to GFP and an HIV Rev nucleolar targeting sequence. In unstimulated cells, AR-RFP was localized predominantly to the cytoplasm and TIF2-GFP was localized to nucleoli. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment induced AR-RFP translocation into the nucleus where the PPIs between AR and TIF2 resulted in the colocalization of both biosensors within the nucleolus. We adapted the translocation enhanced image analysis module to quantify the colocalization of the AR-RFP and TIF2-GFP biosensors in images acquired on the ImageXpress platform. DHT induced a concentration-dependent AR-TIF2 colocalization and produced a characteristic condensed punctate AR-RFP PPI nucleolar distribution pattern. The heat-shock protein 90 inhibitor 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) and antiandrogens flutamide and bicalutamide inhibited DHT-induced AR-TIF2 PPI formation with 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50s) of 88.5±12.5 nM, 7.6±2.4 μM, and 1.6±0.4 μM, respectively. Images of the AR-RFP distribution phenotype allowed us to distinguish between 17-AAG and flutamide, which prevented AR translocation, and bicalutamide, which blocked AR-TIF2 PPIs. We screened the Library of Pharmacologically Active

  17. High-content positional biosensor screening assay for compounds to prevent or disrupt androgen receptor and transcriptional intermediary factor 2 protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yun; Shun, Tong Ying; Strock, Christopher J; Johnston, Paul A

    2014-09-01

    The androgen receptor-transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (AR-TIF2) positional protein-protein interaction (PPI) biosensor assay described herein combines physiologically relevant cell-based assays with the specificity of binding assays by incorporating structural information of AR and TIF2 functional domains along with intracellular targeting sequences and fluorescent reporters. Expression of the AR-red fluorescent protein (RFP) "prey" and TIF2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) "bait" components of the biosensor was directed by recombinant adenovirus constructs that expressed the ligand binding and activation function 2 surface domains of AR fused to RFP with nuclear localization and nuclear export sequences, and three α-helical LXXLL motifs from TIF2 fused to GFP and an HIV Rev nucleolar targeting sequence. In unstimulated cells, AR-RFP was localized predominantly to the cytoplasm and TIF2-GFP was localized to nucleoli. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment induced AR-RFP translocation into the nucleus where the PPIs between AR and TIF2 resulted in the colocalization of both biosensors within the nucleolus. We adapted the translocation enhanced image analysis module to quantify the colocalization of the AR-RFP and TIF2-GFP biosensors in images acquired on the ImageXpress platform. DHT induced a concentration-dependent AR-TIF2 colocalization and produced a characteristic condensed punctate AR-RFP PPI nucleolar distribution pattern. The heat-shock protein 90 inhibitor 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) and antiandrogens flutamide and bicalutamide inhibited DHT-induced AR-TIF2 PPI formation with 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50s) of 88.5±12.5 nM, 7.6±2.4 μM, and 1.6±0.4 μM, respectively. Images of the AR-RFP distribution phenotype allowed us to distinguish between 17-AAG and flutamide, which prevented AR translocation, and bicalutamide, which blocked AR-TIF2 PPIs. We screened the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) set

  18. Racial differences in suicidal ideation among school going adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Young adults are at increased risk for suicidal behavior and there is growing concern about racial differences in suicidal ideation, especially in the younger population. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess suicidal ideation in school going tribal and nontribal adolescents and to study its relationships with psychological well-being, depression, and anxiety. Materials and Methods: A total of 259 students of Classes X, XI, and XII of three Schools of Ranchi, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria, were screened for suicidal ideation by Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (SIQ and psychological well-being by General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12. The level of anxiety and depression was assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS. Results: Overall 33.2% of the adolescents had suicidal ideation out of which 34.2% were tribal-students and 32.8% nontribal-students with no significant intergroup difference. Psychological discomfort (GHQ-12 Score ≥3 was noticed in 59.1% of adolescents, but no racial difference was found. However, the mean HADS depression score was significantly higher in tribal adolescents, more so in tribal boys than nontribal adolescents or boys, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation of SIQ total score in all the adolescents with GHQ-12 total score, HADS total score, HADS anxiety score, and HADS depression score. Conclusion: There were no racial differences in suicidal ideation and psychological discomfort among tribal and nontribal adolescents. Tribal adolescents, and more specifically tribal boys, had more depression than their nontribal counterparts. Suicidal ideation was positively correlated with psychological discomfort, anxiety, and depression.

  19. Role of the Aspartate Transaminase and Platelet Ratio Index in Assessing Hepatic Fibrosis and Liver Inflammation in Adolescent Patients with HBeAg-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study described an index of aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI to assess hepatic fibrosis with limited expense and widespread availability compared to the liver biopsy in adolescent patients with CHB.

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis Infections: Implications for Pregnant Adolescents and Their Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Melzer-Lange

    1994-01-01

    trachomatis in pregnant adolescents. This study was undertaken to determine if aggressive screening for C. trachomatis in pregnant adolescents and early treatment with erythromycin can prevent complications in their newborn infants.

  1. Brief report: Using global positioning system (GPS) enabled cell phones to examine adolescent travel patterns and time in proximity to alcohol outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Morrison, Christopher N; Wiebe, Douglas J; Remer, Lillian G; Wiehe, Sarah E

    2016-07-01

    As adolescents gain freedom to explore new environments unsupervised, more time in proximity to alcohol outlets may increase risks for alcohol and marijuana use. This pilot study: 1) Describes variations in adolescents' proximity to outlets by time of day and day of the week, 2) Examines variations in outlet proximity by drinking and marijuana use status, and 3) Tests feasibility of obtaining real-time data to study adolescent proximity to outlets. U.S. adolescents (N = 18) aged 16-17 (50% female) carried GPS-enabled smartphones for one week with their locations tracked. The geographic areas where adolescents spend time, activity spaces, were created by connecting GPS points sequentially and adding spatial buffers around routes. Proximity to outlets was greater during after school and evening hours. Drinkers and marijuana users were in proximity to outlets 1½ to 2 times more than non-users. Findings provide information about where adolescents spend time and times of greatest risk, informing prevention efforts. PMID:27214713

  2. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offer vision screening programs for children. At what age should a child have his or her vision screened? Vision screening ... a child fails a vision screening at any age, the child should be referred for a comprehensive eye examination. ...

  3. TB incidence in an adolescent cohort in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mahomed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health problem globally. Little is known about TB incidence in adolescents who are a proposed target group for new TB vaccines. We conducted a study to determine the TB incidence rates and risk factors for TB disease in a cohort of school-going adolescents in a high TB burden area in South Africa. METHODS: We recruited adolescents aged 12 to 18 years from high schools in Worcester, South Africa. Demographic and clinical information was collected, a tuberculin skin test (TST performed and blood drawn for a QuantiFERON TB Gold assay at baseline. Screening for TB cases occurred at follow up visits and by surveillance of registers at public sector TB clinics over a period of up to 3.8 years after enrolment. RESULTS: A total of 6,363 adolescents were enrolled (58% of the school population targeted. During follow up, 67 cases of bacteriologically confirmed TB were detected giving an overall incidence rate of 0.45 per 100 person years (95% confidence interval 0.29-0.72. Black or mixed race, maternal education of primary school or less or unknown, a positive baseline QuantiFERON assay and a positive baseline TST were significant predictors of TB disease on adjusted analysis. CONCLUSION: The adolescent TB incidence found in a high burden setting will help TB vaccine developers plan clinical trials in this population. Latent TB infection and low socio-economic status were predictors of TB disease.

  4. Positive predictive value of non-invasive prenatal screening for fetal chromosome disorders using cell-free DNA in maternal serum: independent clinical experience of a tertiary referral center

    OpenAIRE

    Neufeld-Kaiser, Whitney A.; Cheng, Edith Y.; Liu, Yajuan J

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS) for fetal chromosome abnormalities using cell-free deoxyribonucleic acid (cfDNA) in maternal serum has significantly influenced prenatal diagnosis of fetal aneuploidies since becoming clinically available in the fall of 2011. High sensitivity and specificity have been reported in multiple publications, nearly all of which have been sponsored by the commercial performing laboratories. Once results are returned, positive and negative predictive ...

  5. Improved first-trimester Down syndrome screening performance by lowering the false-positive rate: a prospective study of 9941 low-risk women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøjdemann, K R; Shalmi, A C; Christiansen, M;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the performance of screening for Down syndrome (DS) and other major chromosomal abnormalities using nuchal translucency (NT), free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in a prospective study of a non...

  6. Update on Adolescent Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Nirav K; Wulkan, Mark L; Inge, Thomas H

    2016-09-01

    Childhood obesity remains a significant public health issue. Approximately 8% of adolescent girls and 7% of adolescent boys have severe (≥class 2) obesity. Adolescent severe obesity is associated with numerous comorbidities, and persists into adulthood. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment available, resulting in major weight loss and resolution of important comorbid conditions. Clinical practice guidelines for pediatric obesity treatment recommend consideration of surgery after failure of behavioral approaches. Careful screening and postoperative management of patients by a multidisciplinary team is required. Long-term studies are needed to assess the impact of adolescent bariatric surgery. PMID:27519138

  7. Rescreening and confirmation of anti-HIV antibody positive serum in primary screening in Qingdao%青岛市HIV抗体初筛阳性标本的复检及确证结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史晓燕; 张洪花; 赵国有; 弋英; 汪照国

    2013-01-01

    Objective To rescreen and confirm anti-HIV antibody positive serum in primary screening in Qingdao from 2009 to 2011 and to analyze the related data,so as to provide basis for prevention and control of AIDS in Qingdao.Methods Samples positive for anti-HIV antibody in primary screening test were re-screened with both Electroselenium method and ELISA.Then the positive samples in either re-screening test were further confirmed with Western Blot (WB).Results In 1348 positive samples from primary screening test,positive were found in 745 cases in re-screening test.By WB confirmation,563 cases were positive,95 cases were suspected and 87 cases were negative.In contrast to WB,positive coincidence rates of ELISA and Electroselenium method were 81.5% and 84.3% respectively.The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 100% and 93.6 % respectively,and those of Electroselenium method were 100% and 94.5% respectively.Flouting population accounted for 58.4% and MSM accounted for 40.1% of total HIV infection.Conclusion Anti-HIV antibody rescreening tests could exclude most false positive samples in primary screening test.However,there is still some false positive rate in either rescreening test.Flouting population and MSM are the high risk population of HIV infection in Qingdao city and intervention should be strengthened among those people.%目的 复检和确认HIV抗体初筛阳性血清并分析相关资料,为青岛市艾滋病防治工作提供依据.方法 对初筛阳性血清,用胶体硒和ELISA试验复检,任一复检试验阳性的血清再用WB试验确证并对确证阳性病例进行流行病学分析.结果 1348份初筛阳性血清经复检745份阳性,WB确证563份HIV-l抗体阳性,不确定95份,阴性87份.ELISA、胶体硒法与WB的阳性符合率分别为81.5%和84.3%,二者的敏感度均为100%,特异度分别为93.6%和94.5%,确证阳性人群中,外来人员占58.4%,男男性行为人群占40.1%.结论 ELISA和胶体硒

  8. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, Mary T; Draughon, Jessica E

    2016-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious concern for women that is associated with significant adverse health effects. Routine screening for IPV is recommended, but there are many barriers to screening that have been identified by providers, including discomfort, lack of training, and not knowing how to respond to a positive screen. This article reviews IPV screening and appropriate techniques for responding to a positive screen. IPV screening best practices include using a systematic protocol, developing a screening script, using a validated screening tool, and considerations for privacy and mandatory reporting. Responding to a positive screen should include acknowledging the experience, asking if the woman desires help, offering support and referrals, encouraging safety planning, and completing additional assessments to determine level of danger and to identify any comorbidities. Using these techniques along with therapeutic communication may increase IPV identification and create an environment in which women feel empowered to get help. PMID:26990666

  9. A genome-wide siRNA screen reveals positive and negative regulators of the NOD2 and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Neil; Burberry, Aaron; Franchi, Luigi; Kim, Yun-Gi; McDonald, Christine; Sartor, Maureen A; Núñez, Gabriel

    2013-01-15

    The cytoplasmic receptor NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2) senses peptidoglycan fragments and triggers host defense pathways, including activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling, which lead to inflammatory immune responses. Dysregulation of NOD2 signaling is associated with inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn's disease and Blau syndrome. We used a genome-wide small interfering RNA screen to identify regulators of the NOD2 signaling pathway. Several genes associated with Crohn's disease risk were identified in the screen. A comparison of candidates from this screen with other "omics" data sets revealed interconnected networks of genes implicated in NF-κB signaling, thus supporting a role for NOD2 and NF-κB pathways in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. Many of these regulators were validated in secondary assays, such as measurement of interleukin-8 secretion, which is partially dependent on NF-κB. Knockdown of putative regulators in human embryonic kidney 293 cells followed by stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-α revealed that most of the genes identified were general regulators of NF-κB signaling. Overall, the genes identified here provide a resource to facilitate the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that regulate NOD2- and NF-κB-mediated inflammation. PMID:23322906

  10. Dispositional optimism in adolescents with cancer : Differential associations of optimism and pessimism with positive and negative aspects of well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulkers, Esther; Fleer, Joke; Brinksma, Aeltsje; Roodbol, Petrie F.; Kamps, Willem A.; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Sanderman, Robbert

    2013-01-01

    ObjectivesDispositional optimism is often considered to be a unidimensional construct. Recent studies suggest, however, that optimism and pessimism are separate dimensions. In this study we investigated two issues. First, the levels of optimism and pessimism in adolescents with cancer compared with

  11. Adapted Physical Activity Programme and Self-Perception in Obese Adolescents with Intellectual Disability: Between Morphological Awareness and Positive Illusory Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaun, Laureline; Reynes, Eric; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In adolescents with intellectual disability, the management of obesity is a crucial issue, yet also quite complex because of their particular perception of themselves. This study investigated the relationship between self-perception variables and morphological variables and their changes after a 9-month Adapted Physical Activity (APA)…

  12. Breast and ovarian cancer screening of non-carriers from BRCA1/2 mutation-positive families: 2-year follow-up of cohorts from France and Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorval, Michel; Noguès, Catherine; Berthet, Pascaline; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Lasset, Christine; Picard, Claude; Plante, Marie; Simard, Jacques; Julian-Reynier, Claire

    2011-05-01

    We described and compared breast and ovarian screening practices in the 2-year period following test result disclosure in female non-carriers from BRCA1/2 mutation-positive families living in two countries, France and Quebec, Canada, which provide universal health care. Four hundred and two (France n=293; Quebec n=109) unaffected female non-carriers from BRCA-proven mutation families provided information about the uptake of mammography, clinical breast examination, breast self-examination, and ovarian ultrasounds using self-administered questionnaires. The frequency of screening practices between study cohorts were compared using logistic regression. Annual mammography was conducted in 23 and 43% of French and Quebecer women participants cancer screening practices for female non-carriers from BRCA1/2 mutation-positive families in both France and Quebec exceeded those recommended for similarly aged women in the general population. Our findings highlight the need for clearcut recommendations on the follow-up of women from BRCA1/2 families who are not themselves carriers of a BRCA1/2 mutation.

  13. Clinical features and related factors to anxiety disorders in adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the social and psychological risk factors to anxiety disorders in adolescents,and to screen protective factors and risk factors and establish the prediction model.Methods The Screen for Child Anxiety

  14. Is liver transaminases assessment an appropriate tool for the screening of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in at risk obese children and adolescents? ¿Es útil la valoración de las transaminasas hepáticas para el screening del hígado graso no alcohólico en niños y adolescentes obesos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rodríguez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric obesity has increased dramatically all over the world and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the most frequent complications associated with excess adiposity. NAFLD causes serum transaminase elevation and liver disease, which could end up in fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD seems to be associated with the metabolic complications of obesity, mainly insulin resistance. The aim of the present article is to review the role of serum liver enzyme assessment as a suitable non invasive predictor of NAFLD in children. Although serum liver enzyme elevation does not accurately measure liver damage, it may be a valuable and non invasive test to screen NAFLD in children and adolescents and a marker to control NAFLD evolution. To detect NAFLD in obese children and adolescents, transaminases serum concentrations should be routinely determined in these patients. In this sense, it seems necessary to obtain transaminase reference standards for children and adolescents.La prevalencia de obesidad en niños ha aumentado considerablemente en todo el mundo y el hígado graso no alcohólico (HGNA es una de las complicaciones más frecuentemente asociadas al exceso de adiposidad. El HGNA provoca elevación de las transaminasas hepáticas y una alteración hepática que pueden desencadenar fibrosis, cirrosis e incluso malignización. El HGNA aparece asociado a las complicaciones metabólicas de la obesidad, sobre todo a la resistencia a la insulina. El objetivo del presente artículo es revisar el rol que tienen las enzimas hepáticas como predictor no invasivo del HGNA en niños. Aunque la elevación de las enzimas hepáticas no valora con exactitud el daño hepático, pueden suponer un test no invasivo para el screening del HGNA en niños y adolescentes y un marcador de su evolución. Las transaminasas hepáticas deben ser determinadas de rutina en el diagnóstico del HGNA en niños y adolescentes. En este

  15. Factor Structure of the Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in a Community Sample of Hong Kong Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui; Leung, Chi Hung

    2015-10-01

    The current study tested the factor structure of the 41-item SCARED in assessing anxiety in a sample of Hong Kong adolescents. Data were collected from 5,226 youths (54.5 % boys) aged 12-18. Results showed that the scale and the five subscales had high internal consistency. However, confirmatory factor analyses showed that the original five-factor model did not fit the data collected in this sample. Instead, the results revealed a seven-factor model consisting of one second-order factor of anxiety and seven first-order factors: the four original factors of General Anxiety, Panic/Somatic Syndromes, Social Anxiety, and School Phobia and three new factors representing different aspects of Separation Anxiety. Group invariance in the Boys and Girls models was found. It is recommended that the three new factors (Fear of Loneliness, Separation Fear, Worry about Harm) be further developed by adding new items so as to enhance the content and construct validities of the SCARED when used with Hong Kong adolescents.

  16. Health Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screenings are tests that look for diseases before you have symptoms. Screening tests can find diseases early, when they're easier to treat. You can get some screenings in your doctor's office. Others need special equipment, ...

  17. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test. PMID:21954677

  18. Power of Knowledge: Effect of Two Educational Interventions on Readiness for Chlamydia Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagor, Rachel S; Golding, Jeremy; Giorgio, Margaret M; Blake, Diane R

    2016-07-01

    We compared (a) the effectiveness of print versus digital educational media for communicating information about Chlamydia trachomatis to adolescents and young adults and (b) the influence of media type on readiness for Chlamydia screening. Young men and women (n = 103), aged 15 to 24 years, were recruited from a youth center and university campus and randomized to receive the print or digital Chlamydia educational intervention. Participant mean knowledge score improved postintervention, but there was no association with type of intervention medium. Nearly two-thirds (61%) of sexually active participants endorsed an increased postintervention stage of readiness for screening; however, there was no association with type of intervention medium. Learning about Chlamydia infection may have positive effects on willingness to be screened. Further study is needed to evaluate the efficacy of educational interventions for increasing actual screening rates. PMID:26350429

  19. A Screen for Identifying Maladaptive Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Siu L.; Leung, G. M.; Ng, Cecilia; Yu, Effie

    2009-01-01

    A screening tool (in Chinese) for maladaptive internet use was developed in two stages. Thirty-five factors were first extracted from data obtained from 378 adolescents with a 179-item questionnaire. Nine higher-order factors were then obtained from 35 factors. A 26-item screen that measures both endogenous and exogenous factors was constructed on…

  20. 中学生视屏时间、心理亚健康与自伤行为%Relation of screen time and psychological sub-health to self-harm behavior in adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付继玲; 万宇辉; 孙莹; 陶舒曼; 祖萍; 安静; 王熙; 陶芳标

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To describe the prevalence of screen time and self-harm behavior among school students in China,and the relations to psychological sub-health status.Methods:Based on the cluster sampling method,13817 middle school students were recruited from 4 cities in China,including Shenyang,Xinxiang,Guangzhou and Chongqing.Their self-harm behavior and screen time were assessed,and the psychological sub-health status was assessed with the Multidimensional Sub-Health Questionnaire of Adolescents (MSQA).Results:The selfreported rates of screen time > 2 h/d on weekdays and weekends were 15.1% (2085/13817) and 58.5% (8077/13817),respectively.The rates of psychological sub-health status and self-harm behavior were 21.7% (2997/13817) and 28.2% (3899/13817).After adjusting on potential confounders,multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that there was no statistical association between weekday screen time 2 h/d and self-harm behavior in no psychological sub-health status students,but weekday screen time > 2 h/d of psychological sub-health status students was a risk factor of self-harm (OR =1.27).Weekday screen time and weekend screen time were risk factors of self-harm behavior (OR =1.37,1.39),no matter whether students had psychological sub-health status.Conclusion:The results suggest that there may be higher rate in Chinese adolescents with longer screen time,and longer screen time may be related to psychological sub-health status and self-harm behavior.%目的:调查我国中学生视屏时间及自伤行为现状,探讨在不同心理亚健康状态下视屏时间与自伤行为的关联.方法:选取沈阳、新乡、广州和重庆4个城市的中学生13817名,使用自伤行为及久坐行为调查问卷调查自伤行为和视屏时间,用青少年亚健康多维评定问卷评价心理亚健康状态.结果:学习日和周末视屏时间>2 h/d者分别为2085人(15.1%)、8077人(58.5%),心理亚健康状态者2997人(21.7

  1. Biomarker screening of oral cancer cell lines revealed sub-populations of CD133-, CD44-, CD24- and ALDH1- positive cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall K

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC ranks sixth worldwide for cancer-related mortality. For the past several decades the mainstay of treatment for HNSCC has been surgery and external beam radiation, although more recent trials combining chemotherapy and radiation have demonstrated improvements. However, cancer recurrence and treatment failures continue to occur in a significant percentage of patients. Recent advances in tumor biology have led to the discovery that many cancers, including HNSCC, may contain subpopulations of cells with stem cell-like properties that may explain relapse and recurrence. The objective of this study was to screen existing oral cancer cell lines for biomarkers specific for cells with stem cell-like properties. RNA was isolated for RT-PCR screening using primers for specific mRNA of the biomarkers: CD44, CD24, CD133, NANOG, Nestin, ALDH1, and ABCG2 in CAL27, SCC25 and SCC15 cells. This analysis revealed that some oral cancer cell lines (CAL27 and SCC25 may contain small subpopulations of adhesion- and contact-independent cells (AiDC that also express tumor stem cell markers, including CD44, CD133, and CD24. In addition, CAL27 cells also expressed the intracellular tumor stem cell markers, ALDH1 and ABCG2. Isolation and culture of the adhesion- and contact-independent cells from CAL27 and SCC25 populations revealed differential proliferation rates and more robust inhibition by the MEK inhibitor PD98059, as well as the chemotherapeutic agents Cisplatin and Paclitaxel, within the AiDC CAL27 cells. At least one oral cancer cell line (CAL27 contained subpopulations of cells that express specific biomarkers associated with tumor stem cells which were morphologically and phenotypically distinct from other cells within this cell line.

  2. Quality of life and parental styles assessed by adolescents suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases and their parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenova, Daniela; Prasko, Jan; Ociskova, Marie; Latalova, Klara; Karaskova, Eva; Hruby, Radovan; Kamaradova, Dana; Mihal, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Background Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in adolescents are chronic medical conditions with a substantial influence on the quality of life (QoL) of the families. Methods A total of 27 adolescents suffering from IBD, 39 healthy adolescents, and their parents were included in the cross-sectional study. The adolescents completed the questionnaires ADOR (parenting styles), KidScreen-10 (QoL), SAD (The Scale of Anxiety in Children), and CDI (Children’s Depression Inventory). The parents completed the BAI (Beck Anxiety Inventory), BDI-II (Beck Depression Inventory, second version), and PedsQL (Pediatrics Quality of Life) Family Impact Module. Results The parental styles of the parents of the IBD adolescents and controls were without significant differences. The only exception was that fathers’ positive parental style was significantly higher in the fathers of the controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the IBD children and controls in the QoL assessed using KidScreen-10. However, the QoL of the parents of the ill children was significantly lower than that of the parents of the controls (PedsQL total scores in mothers 66.84±14.78 vs 76.17±14.65 and in fathers 68.86±16.35 vs 81.74±12.89, respectively). The mothers of the IBD adolescents were significantly more anxious (BAI scores 9.50±10.38 vs 5.26±4.75) and the fathers more depressed (BDI-II scores 7.23±6.50 vs 3.64±3.51) than the parents of the controls, but there was no difference in the levels of anxiety or depression between the IBD adolescents and the controls. The positive parental style of both the parents of the children suffering from IBD positively correlated with the QoL of the adolescents evaluated by KidScreen-10. The positive parental style of the fathers negatively correlated with the children’s state and trait anxiety and negatively correlated with the severity of childhood depression. Conclusion The fathers of the IBD adolescents may exhibit low levels of

  3. Joint Association of Screen Time and Physical Activity with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in a National Sample of Iranian Adolescents: The CASPIANIII Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmat, Ramin; Qorbani, Mostafa; Shahr Babaki, Amir Eslami; Djalalinia, Shirin; Ataei-Jafari, Asal; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ardalan, Gelayol; Arefirad, Tahereh; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Asayesh, Hamid; Kelishadi, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its contributing factors are considered important health problems in the pediatric age group. This study was designed to assess the joint association of ST and PA with cardiometabolic risk factors among Iranian adolescents. A representative sample of 5625 (50.2% boys) school students with a mean age of 14.73 (SD: 2.41) were selected through multistage random cluster sampling method from urban and rural areas of 27 provinces in Iran. ST and PA were assessed by self-administered validated questionnaires. Anthropometric measures (height, weight and waist circumference (WC)) and MetS components (abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure (BP), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated triglycerides (TG) and high fasting blood sugar (FBG)) were measured according to standardized protocols. MetS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria modified for the pediatric age group. Moreover, elevated total cholesterol (TC), elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and generalized obesity were considered as other cardiometabolic risk factors. Students with high ST levels had significantly higher body mass index z-score (BMI z-score), WC, TG, LDL-C, and BP as well as lower HDL-C level; whereas those with high PA levels had significantly higher HDL-C levels as well as lower BMI z-score, TC, and BP. Adolescents with low PA/ high ST levels had significantly higher BMI, WC, LDL-C levels, as well as higher SBP and DBP compared to their other counterparts. In Multivariate model, joint effect of low PA/ high ST (compared to the high PA/low ST group) increased the odds of overweight, abdominal obesity and low HDL-C and decreased the odds of elevated TC. The findings of this study showed that joint association of high ST and low PA have direct association with abdominal obesity, overweight and low HDL-C and indirect association with elevated TC. PMID:27167372

  4. 清远市273份HIV抗体初筛阳性标本与确证结果分析%Analysis on preliminary screening and confirmed results in 273 HIV antibody positive samples in Qingyuan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓远玲; 詹巧莉; 罗文玲; 朱劲涛

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解清远市人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)抗体初筛实验与确证实验结果符合率,为提高实验室HIV抗体检测技术提供依据.方法 对清远市2010-2011年经酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)初筛的273份标本HIV抗体阳性及可疑阳性的结果与确证实验的结果进行比较分析.结果 273份标本,经蛋白印迹(WB)试验确证HIV-1阳性257例,占94.14%;不确定9例,占3.3%;阴性7例,占2.56%.筛查阳性与确证阳性总体符合率为94.14%,确证条带gp160、gp120、p24出现率均有95%以上;出现8条以上条带的有166份,出现率为64.59%.结论 初筛试剂检测HIV抗体与WB确证试验的检测结果符合率较高,但判断HIV抗体阳性或艾滋病必须经WB试验确证,以排除假阳性.%[ Objective]To understand the coincidence rate of HIV antibody screening and confirmed test in Qingyuan City, provide a basis for improving the HIV antibody examination technology. [ Methods ] The ELISA results of preliminary screening (273 HIV antibody positive samples and probable positive samples) in Qingyuan City from 2010-2011 were compared with the results of confirmed test. [Results]In 273 HIV antibody positive samples of screening, 257 cases were confirmed by Western blot (WB) test, which accounted for 94.14% , while 9 (3. 3% ) cases were uncertain and 7 (2. 56% ) cases were negative. The total coincidence rate of screening and confirmed test for positive cases was 94. 14%. The occurrence rate of gpl60, gpl20 and p24 reactive bands was over 95%. 166 cases had more than 8 bands in WB test (64. 59% ). [ Conclusion] The coincidence rate of HIV antibody screening and confirmed WB test is high. However, HIV antibody positive cases and AIDS cases must be confirmed by WB test to exclude false positive reaction.

  5. Predictors of future depression in early and late adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lang, Natasia D. J.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examined whether the possibility to predict future DSM-IV depressive disorder can be increased with recurrent screening for depression in community adolescents, compared to single screening in early or in late adolescence. in addition, it examined which depressive symptoms in

  6. RT-PCR Screening for ETV6-RUNX1-positive Clones in Cord Blood From Newborns in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Marianne; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Melbye, Mads;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Several large biobanks comprising umbilical cord blood samples have been established allowing efforts to characterize the prevalence and risk factors for preleukemic cell clones in healthy newborns. This study explores the feasibility of demonstrating translocation ETV6-RUNX1 transcr...... history of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Finally, the estimated frequency of translocation ETV6-RUNX1-positive cells was below 10....

  7. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescent students; a perspective from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijeratne Thilina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sri Lanka recorded an extraordinary high suicide rate for adolescents aged 15 - 19 in the early 1990s (46.5/100,000. With this in perspective, the Ministry of Health in Sri Lanka recommends school programmes for adolescents by mental health units of local hospitals. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys to screen for symptoms of anxiety and depression among students aged 14 - 18 during school mental health programmes. Two schools were randomly selected within the Ratnapura municipality (urban population of approx. 50,000, Sri Lanka and all students aged 14-18 were assessed with self administered (pre tested, Sinhalese translations questionnaires [Center for epidemiologic studies depression scale, Anxiety screening test of suicide and mental health association international]. Results A total of 445 students were assessed (male-54.4%, female 45.6%. Thirty six percent screened positive for depression (mild depression-17%, severe depression-19% and 28% screened positive for severe anxiety. Females screened positive for depression and anxiety significantly more than the males (p = 0.0001, 0.005 respectively. Students in classes facing barrier examinations at the end of the year had the highest positivity rates. Examination related issues (36% were the most commonly cited problem. Recommendations It is recommended that: 1. School mental health development programmes in Sri Lanka concentrate more on reducing examination related stress, and in particular focus on the female students 2. Policy decisions are made to reduce competition for higher education 3. A nationally coordinated survey on mental health of adolescent students is carried out utilizing the island-wide network of medical officers of mental health.

  8. Aneuploidy Screening in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashe, Jodi S

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal aneuploidy screening has changed dramatically in recent years with increases in the types of chromosomal abnormalities reliably identified and in the proportion of aneuploid fetuses detected. Initially, screening was available only for trisomies 21 and 18 and was offered only to low-risk pregnancies. Improved detection with the quadruple- and first-trimester multiple marker screens led to the option of aneuploidy screening for women 35 years of age and older. Cell-free DNA tests now screen for common autosomal trisomies and sex chromosome aneuploidies. Cell-free DNA screening is particularly effective in older women because of higher positive predictive values and lower false-positive rates. Integrated first- and second-trimester multiple marker tests provide specific risks for trisomies 21, 18, and possibly 13, and may detect an even wider range of aneuploidies. Given current precision in risk assessment, based on maternal age and preferences for screening or diagnostic tests, counseling has become more complex. This review addresses the benefits and limitations of available aneuploidy screening methods along with counseling considerations when offering them. PMID:27275786

  9. High-Content Positional Biosensor Screening Assay for Compounds to Prevent or Disrupt Androgen Receptor and Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 2 Protein–Protein Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Yun; Shun, Tong Ying; Strock, Christopher J.; Johnston, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The androgen receptor–transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (AR-TIF2) positional protein–protein interaction (PPI) biosensor assay described herein combines physiologically relevant cell-based assays with the specificity of binding assays by incorporating structural information of AR and TIF2 functional domains along with intracellular targeting sequences and fluorescent reporters. Expression of the AR-red fluorescent protein (RFP) “prey” and TIF2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) “bait” compon...

  10. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV detection and typing by PCR: a contribution to diagnostic screening of EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seuánez Héctor N

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is associated to the etio-pathogenesis of an increasing number of tumors. Detection of EBV in pathology samples is relevant since its high prevalence in some cancers makes the virus a promising target of specific therapies. RNA in situ hybridization (RISH is the standard diagnostic procedure, while polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods are used for strain (EBV type-1 or 2 distinction. We performed a systematic comparison between RISH and PCR for EBV detection, in a group of childhood B-cell Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL, aiming to validate PCR as a first, rapid method for the diagnosis of EBV-associated B-cell NHL. Methods EBV infection was investigated in formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples of 41 children with B-cell NHL, including 35 Burkitt's lymphoma (BL, from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, by in situ hybridization of EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER-RISH and PCR assays based on EBNA2 amplification. Results EBV genomes were detected in 68% of all NHL. Type 1 and 2 accounted for 80% and 20% of EBV infection, respectively. PCR and RISH were highly concordant (95%, as well as single- and nested-PCR results, allowing the use of a single PCR round for diagnostic purposes. PCR assays showed a sensitivity and specificity of 96% and 100%, respectively, with a detection level of 1 EBV genome in 5,000–10,000 EBV-negative cells, excluding the possibility of detecting low-number EBV-bearing memory cells. Conclusion We describe adequate PCR conditions with similar sensitivity and reliability to RISH, to be used for EBV diagnostic screening in high grade B-NHL, in "at risk" geographic regions.

  11. 三种方法联合检测避免梅毒诊断的假阳性结果%Combining three ways to avoid the false positive of screening Treponema pallidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘旭萍; 迟军晓

    2012-01-01

      Objective To investigate a method for avoiding the false positive of screening syphilis by Treponema pallidum antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(TP-ELISA) though combining TP-ELISA with toluidine red unheated serum test(TRUST) and Treponema pallidum panicle agglutination test(TPPA). Methods The clinical samples were screened syphilis by TP-ELISA first, then the positive samples were further tested by TRUST and TPPA. Results There were 114 positive samples tested by TP-ELISA. Among them the number of the same result tested by TPPA was 111. The positive coincidence rate was 97.36%. Among the 111 positive samples,27 positive samples tested by TRUST were also positive tested by TPPA. The positive coincidence rate was 100%. There were 94 positive samples tested by TPPA among the remaining 97 negative samples tested by TRUST. The number of negative samples was 3. The mismatch rate was 2.64%. Conclusions The false positive result tested syphilis by TP-ELISA exists objectively. The positive samples from TP-ELISA were tested by TRUST and then were ascertained by TPPA. The positive result from TPPA can be diagnosed that syphilis antibody was positive. The negative result from TPPA can be diagnosed that syphilis antibody was negative.%  目的探讨用梅毒螺旋体抗体酶联免疫吸附试验(TP-ELISA)联合梅毒甲苯胺红不加热血清试验(TRUST)和梅毒螺旋体明胶凝集试验(TPPA)的方法避免TP-ELISA法筛查梅毒抗体的假阳性结果.方法用TP-ELISA法作为临床标本的梅毒筛查实验,对阳性标本进一步作TRUST和TPPA检测.结果 TP-ELlSA法检出114例梅毒阳性标本,TPPA确证阳性111例,阳性符合率为97.36%(111/114);其中27例TRUST阳性,TPPA确证试验均为阳性,阳性符合率为100%;97例TRUST阴性, TPPA确证阳性94例,阴性3例,不符合率为2.64%.结论 TP-ELISA法筛查梅毒存在一定比例的假阳性结果,对TP-ELlSA法测出的阳性标本先做TRUST试验,再用TPPA确证,阳性

  12. Why adolescents use substances of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhigg, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    In summary, adolescent substance use is associated with a variety of risks. Using a nonjudgmental and collaborative approach to treating adolescent substance users can yield positive results. Motivational interviewing and the adolescent community reinforcement approach are evidence-based, nonpharmacologic treatments for teens with substance use disorders.

  13. Program Strategies for Adolescent Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Deborah J.; Wider, Lottchen Crane; Hardin, Sally B.; Horrocks, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    School nurses who work with adolescents are in an ideal position to promote smoking cessation. This opportunity is important because research suggests teens who smoke are likely to become habitual smokers. This study characterizes adolescents' patterns and levels of smoking, describes adolescents' perceptions toward smoking, and delineates quit…

  14. False positive rate of an arrayCGH platform for single-cell preimplantation genetic screening and subsequent clinical application on day-3

    OpenAIRE

    Mir, Pere; Rodrigo, Lorena; Mercader, Amparo; Buendía Segura, Maria del Pilar; Mateu, Emilia; Milán-Sánchez, Miguel; Peinado, Vanessa; Pellicer Martínez, Antonio; Remohí Giménez, José; Simón, Carlos; Rubio Lluesa, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    In this work, false positive rate of an arrayCGH platform for its use in day-3 single-blastomere analysis was calculated. For this purpose, 38 embryos diagnosed as abnormal on day-3 by FISH were re-biopsied on day-4. Single-cell day-4 arrayCGH diagnosis was then performed. A successful amplification was obtained in 97.4 % (37/38) of the day-4 cells analysed by arrayCGH. Day-3 FISH and day-4 arrayCGH diagnosis were concordant in 35/37 cases. The two discordant embryos were spread and all the c...

  15. MRSA Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? MRSA Screening Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus Screening Related tests: Wound Culture At a Glance Test ...

  16. Committee Opinion No. 653: Concerns Regarding Social Media and Health Issues in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues. PMID:26942388

  17. Committee Opinion No. 653: Concerns Regarding Social Media and Health Issues in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues.

  18. Suicide in children and young adolescents: a 25-year database on suicides from Northern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Anniina; Harju, Aleksi; Hakko, Helinä; Riala, Kaisa; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2014-11-01

    Despite the large amount of research on adolescent suicidality, there are few detailed studies illustrating the characteristics of child and adolescent completed suicide. Our study presents the characteristics of child and adolescent suicides occurring over a period of 25 years within a large geographical area in Northern Finland, with a special focus on gender differences. The study sample included all 58 suicides among children and adolescents (suicide victims were male. Violent suicide methods predominated in both genders (males 98%, females 83%). While symptoms of mental illness were common, only a minority (15% of males and 17% of females) had a previous history of psychiatric hospitalization. 17% of females but none of the males had been hospitalized previously due to self-poisoning. A greater proportion of females than males had a history of self-cutting (33% vs. 7%) and previous suicide attempts (25% vs. 4%). 48% of males and 58% of females were under the influence of alcohol at the time of their suicide, and alcohol intoxication was related to suicides during the night. One fifth of the adolescents screened positive for substances other than alcohol. The results of this study indicate that there are similarities but also some differences in the characteristics of male and female suicides in adolescents.

  19. Wagering the future: Cognitive distortions, impulsivity, delay discounting, and time perspective in adolescent gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosenza, Marina; Nigro, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship of cognitive distortions, self-reported impulsivity, delay discounting, and time perspective to gambling severity in Italian adolescents. One thousand and thirty high school students were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA), the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ), and the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFC-14). A factor analysis, used to evaluate common factors assessed by the different measures, revealed a three-factor structure of Cognitive distortions, Impulsive present orientation, and Delay discounting. The results of regression analysis using factor scores showed that males scored higher than females on the SOGS-RA and that gambling severity correlated positively with high scores on the three factors. These results indicate that cognitive distortions associated with gambling are a powerful predictor of gambling severity, and that adolescent gamblers are impaired in their abilities to think about the future. PMID:26363842

  20. Cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Prasad

    1987-01-01

    Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  1. Atrial fibrillation after taser exposure in a previously healthy adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multerer, Sara; Berkenbosch, John W; Das, Bibhuti; Johnsrude, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    We are reporting a previously healthy adolescent who developed atrial fibrillation after being tased. He has a structurally normal heart on echocardiogram, normal electrolyte level and thyroid function test results, and a urine toxicology screen positive for marijuana. The patient ultimately required external defibrillation to convert his cardiac rhythm to normal sinus rhythm and has had no recurrent arrhythmias since hospital discharge (approximately 1 year). This is the first reported case of atrial fibrillation developing after a Taser shot, occurring in an adolescent without other risk factors. This case illustrates the arrhythmogenic potential of a Taser in otherwise healthy young individuals, and further study of occurrence of Taser-induced arrhythmias is warranted. PMID:20016356

  2. Limited agreement of independent RNAi screens for virus-required host genes owes more to false-negative than false-positive factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhui Hao

    Full Text Available Systematic, genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi analysis is a powerful approach to identify gene functions that support or modulate selected biological processes. An emerging challenge shared with some other genome-wide approaches is that independent RNAi studies often show limited agreement in their lists of implicated genes. To better understand this, we analyzed four genome-wide RNAi studies that identified host genes involved in influenza virus replication. These studies collectively identified and validated the roles of 614 cell genes, but pair-wise overlap among the four gene lists was only 3% to 15% (average 6.7%. However, a number of functional categories were overrepresented in multiple studies. The pair-wise overlap of these enriched-category lists was high, ∼19%, implying more agreement among studies than apparent at the gene level. Probing this further, we found that the gene lists implicated by independent studies were highly connected in interacting networks by independent functional measures such as protein-protein interactions, at rates significantly higher than predicted by chance. We also developed a general, model-based approach to gauge the effects of false-positive and false-negative factors and to estimate, from a limited number of studies, the total number of genes involved in a process. For influenza virus replication, this novel statistical approach estimates the total number of cell genes involved to be ∼2,800. This and multiple other aspects of our experimental and computational results imply that, when following good quality control practices, the low overlap between studies is primarily due to false negatives rather than false-positive gene identifications. These results and methods have implications for and applications to multiple forms of genome-wide analysis.

  3. Infection with cagA-positive and cagA-negative types of Helicobacter pylori among children and adolescents with gastrointestinal symptoms in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugule, I; Rumba, I; Engstrand, L; Ejderhamn, J

    2003-10-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of concomitant cagA-positive and cagA-negative Helicobacter pylori genotypes in individual subjects, a group of 56 symptomatic patients (aged 8-18 years) was studied. Among 31 patients culture-positive for Helicobacter pylori, only cagA-positive colonies were isolated from 18 patients, both cagA-positive and cagA-negative genotypes were isolated from 4 patients, and in 9 patients all of the individual colonies isolated were cagA-negative, but in seven of them a pool of colonies was positive for cagA. Thus, the presence of both cagA-positive and cagA-negative genotypes in the same individual was identified in 11 of the 31 culture-positive patients tested, and most of the patients predominantly colonized by cagA-negative strains also harbored a small amount of cagA-positive strains. Previous or current infection with cagA-positive strains of Helicobacter pylori was observed in 50 of the 56 patients studied.

  4. Performance of Eleven Simplified Methods for the Identification of Elevated Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuanwei; Kelishadi, Roya; Hong, Young Mi; Bovet, Pascal; Khadilkar, Anuradha; Nawarycz, Tadeusz; Krzywińska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Zong, Xin'nan; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Kim, Hae Soon; Khadilkar, Vaman; Krzyżaniak, Alicja; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Heshmat, Ramin; Chiplonkar, Shashi; Stawińska-Witoszyńska, Barbara; El Ati, Jalila; Qorbani, Mostafa; Kajale, Neha; Traissac, Pierre; Ostrowska-Nawarycz, Lidia; Ardalan, Gelayol; Parthasarathy, Lavanya; Zhao, Min; Xi, Bo

    2016-09-01

    The identification of elevated blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents relies on complex percentile tables. The present study compares the performance of 11 simplified methods for assessing elevated or high BP in children and adolescents using individual-level data from 7 countries. Data on BP were available for a total of 58 899 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years from 7 national surveys in China, India, Iran, Korea, Poland, Tunisia, and the United States. Performance of the simplified methods for screening elevated or high BP was assessed with receiver operating characteristic curve (area under the curve), sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. When pooling individual data from the 7 countries, all 11 simplified methods performed well in screening high BP, with high area under the curve values (0.84-0.98), high sensitivity (0.69-1.00), high specificity (0.87-1.00), and high negative predictive values (≥0.98). However, positive predictive value was low for most simplified methods, but reached ≈0.90 for each of the 3 methods, including sex- and age-specific BP references (at the 95th percentile of height), the formula for BP references (at the 95th percentile of height), and the simplified method relying on a child's absolute height. These findings were found independently of sex, age, and geographical location. Similar results were found for simplified methods for screening elevated BP. In conclusion, all 11 simplified methods performed well for identifying high or elevated BP in children and adolescents, but 3 methods performed best and may be most useful for screening purposes. PMID:27432869

  5. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had adolescents from rural than urban areas (P adolescents in our population.

  6. The role of parents in pre-adolescent and adolescent overweight and obesity treatment: a systematic review of clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrewsbury, V A; Steinbeck, K S; Torvaldsen, S; Baur, L A

    2011-10-01

    The study aims to describe clinical recommendations (i) on the role of parents in both pre-adolescent and adolescent overweight and obesity treatment; (ii) to health professionals on how to involve parents in paediatric overweight and obesity treatment and (iii) to identify deficiencies in the associated literature. A systematic literature review was conducted in March 2010 to identify clinical practice guidelines, position or consensus statements on clinical management of paediatric overweight or obesity, developed by a national or international health professional association or government agency, and endorsed for current use. Relevant clinical recommendations in these documents were identified via a screen for the words 'parent', 'family' and synonyms. Twenty documents were included. Most documents emphasized the importance of involving parents or the family in paediatric overweight and obesity treatment with approximately a third of documents providing separate recommendations on the role of parents/family for pre-adolescents and adolescents. The documents varied markedly with regard to the presence of recommendations on parent/family involvement in the various components of lifestyle interventions or bariatric surgery. Almost half of the documents contained recommendations to health professionals regarding interactions with parents. High-quality research is needed on age-specific techniques to optimize the involvement of parents and family members in paediatric overweight and obesity treatment.

  7. 孕产妇HIV抗体筛查阳性与免疫印迹试验对比%Comparison of Positive of HIV Antibody Screening and Western Blot Test in Pregnant Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱厚宏; 王晨笛; 刘杨; 张祁; 孟建彤; 黄薇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the results of HIV antibody screening test and Westem Blot test ( WB) in pregnant women. Methods Thirty three positive samples from pregnant women were tested with the ELISA and Westem blot test (WB). Those with indefinite result by WB test were re-tested 3 and 6 months later, and HIV-1 viral load testing ( VL) was carried out at 6th month. The results of ELISA and the WB test were analyzed. Result The 33 samples were all positive by ELISA and 20 were HIV-1 positive by WB test. The ELISA and the WB test positive coincidence rate was 60. 61 % (20/33). Of 20 samples 0were with S/CO value more than 8, the WB test results of HIV-1 antibody were all positive. Of 13 samples were with S/CO value less than 1 , 5 were negative and 8 were indefinite in WB test. The HIV-1 viral load test result at 6th month was less than the minimum detection limit (50 IU/ml ) . Conclusion The false positive in HIV antibody screening test (ELISA) was observed. The false positive sample were in the WB test negative and indefinite ones. ELISA and the WB test positive coincidence rate increased with the S/CO value of ELISA. The HIV WB test indefinite result in pregnant women was mostly due to non-specific immune response.%目的 探讨孕产妇人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)抗体筛查试验阳性与免疫印迹试验(WB)结果的关系.方法 对33份孕产妇HIV抗体待复查样本,进行酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA )及免疫印迹试验(WB),对WB试验结果不确定者进行3个月、6个月随访检测,6个月随访样本补充HIV-1病毒载量检测,分析ELISA检测与WB试验检测结果.结果 33份样本ELISA复检均呈阳性,免疫印迹试验(WB)中20份确认为HIV-1抗体阳性,ELISA检测与WB试验阳性符合率为60.61%(20/33); S/CO值>8的20份样本,WB试验结果均为HIV-1抗体阳性,I < S/CO值<8的13份样本,WB试验5份为HIV抗体阴性,8份为HIV抗体不确定;6个月随访样本HIV-1病毒载量检测,

  8. EV71特免血浆筛选方法的建立及其应用%Establishment and application of method to screen anti-EV71 positive plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭书英; 汪模正; 丁勇; 孙思才

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the titers of EV71 neutralizing antibody in donators' plasma,and to establish a high throughput screening method to screening anti-EV71 positive plasma for the production of EV7l-specific IVIG in practice.Methods The EV71 neutralizing antibody titers in plasma samples and in commercial IVIGs (intravenous immunoglobulins) were evaluated by micro-cytopathic effect neutralization test (MCPENT),and a selecting criteria was determined for screening anti-EV71 positive plasma.Then,a high throughput neutralizing method for screening plasma was established and a comparison with MCPENT was conducted.EV71-specific IVIG was prepared from screened anti-EV71 source plasma,and its neutralizing activity was evaluated in cell model and mouse model.Results The results of MCPENT showed that the titers of EVT1 neutralizing antibody were 1 ∶ 50 or above in 20% of the source plasma,and reached 1 ∶ 180 after being pooled,approaching to the titer of commercial IVIG.In 480 samples,the coincidence rate between the established high throughput neutralizing method and MCPENT was 88.1%.The quality of prepared EV71-specific IVIG was complied with the national standard,and its neutralizing potency was 16 times of that of IVIG,suggesting EV71-specific IVIG had a significantly improved protecting effect on experimental neonatal mice.Conclusion The screening method and the screening criteria for EV71 specific plasma were successfully established.The established high throughput neutralizing method that was operated easily could be used for plasma screening in the development of EV71-specific IVIG.The prepared EV71-specific IVIG,whose neutralizing potency was significantly improved,showed a markedly protective effect on experimental neonatal mice,suggesting it might be very important for the prevention and treatment of handfoot-and-mouth disease.%目的 考察献血员血浆中抗EV71中和抗体的状况,同时建立适宜的高通量筛选EV71特

  9. Positive Youth Development, Participation in Community Youth Development Programs, and Community Contributions of Fifth-Grade Adolescents: Findings From the First Wave Of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M.; Lerner, Jacqueline V.; Almerigi, Jason B.; Theokas, Christina; Phelps, Erin; Gestsdottir, Steinunn; Naudeau, Sophie; Jelicic, Helena; Alberts, Amy; Ma, Lang; Smith, Lisa M.; Bobek, Deborah L.; Richman-Raphael, David; Christiansen, Elise DiDenti; von Eye, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development (PYD), a longitudinal investigation of a diverse sample of 1,700 fifth graders and 1,117 of their parents, tests developmental contextual ideas linking PYD, youth contributions, and participation in community youth development (YD) programs, representing a key ecological asset. Using data from Wave 1 of…

  10. Screen-based behaviour in school-aged children with long-term illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husarova, Daniela; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Blinka, Lukas; Sevcikova, Anna; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence is lacking on the screen-based behaviour of adolescents with a chronic condition. The aim of our study was to analyse differences in screen-based behaviour of adolescents by long-term illness, asthma and learning disabilities. METHODS: We used data from the cross-sectional Healt

  11. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  12. Contraceptive care for the adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Elizabeth

    2006-06-01

    Despite recent improvements in rates of teen pregnancy, abortion, birth,and contraceptive use, effective contraceptive counseling for adolescents should be a high priority for the primary care provider in the office setting. Adolescent psychosocial risk screening and appropriate counseling about sexual decision-making is necessary. Contraceptive services visits include, relevant history, limited physical examination, provision of information, anticipatory guidance about sexual behaviors, and the provision of contraceptive methods. Teens should always be encouraged to use a male condom during sex to reduce STI risk. A variety of barrier and hormonal contraceptive methods are available for the adolescent population. Education about and provision of EC is effective in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancy and abortion in the United States. Contraceptive care for adolescents is a rewarding experience for primary care providers.

  13. Teaching adolescents and adults about adjudicative proceedings: a comparison of pre- and post-teaching scores on the MacCAT-CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Jodi L; Odgers, Candice; Grisso, Thomas; Tillbrook, Chad

    2007-10-01

    The current study investigated whether teaching was associated with improved legal understanding among adolescents and adults. Participants included 927 youth and 466 young adults, who completed the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Criminal Adjudication, the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Second Version, and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Adolescents aged 13 and younger were less likely than older individuals to improve with teaching. IQ score was positively associated with improvements following teaching, and individuals from ethnic minority groups showed greater improvements following teaching than non-Hispanic Caucasians. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Are screening instruments valid for psychotic-like experiences? A validation study of screening questions for psychotic-like experiences using in-depth clinical interview.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Ian

    2011-03-01

    Individuals who report psychotic-like experiences are at increased risk of future clinical psychotic disorder. They constitute a unique "high-risk" group for studying the developmental trajectory to schizophrenia and related illnesses. Previous research has used screening instruments to identify this high-risk group, but the validity of these instruments has not yet been established. We administered a screening questionnaire with 7 items designed to assess psychotic-like experiences to 334 adolescents aged 11-13 years. Detailed clinical interviews were subsequently carried out with a sample of these adolescents. We calculated sensitivity and specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each screening question for the specific symptom it enquired about and also in relation to any psychotic-like experience. The predictive power varied substantially between items, with the question on auditory hallucinations ("Have you ever heard voices or sounds that no one else can hear?") providing the best predictive power. For interview-verified auditory hallucinations specifically, this question had a PPV of 71.4% and an NPV of 90.4%. When assessed for its predictive power for any psychotic-like experience (including, but not limited to, auditory hallucinations), it provided a PPV of 100% and an NPV of 88.4%. Two further questions-relating to visual hallucinations and paranoid thoughts-also demonstrated good predictive power for psychotic-like experiences. Our results suggest that it may be possible to screen the general adolescent population for psychotic-like experiences with a high degree of accuracy using a short self-report questionnaire.

  15. Are screening instruments valid for psychotic-like experiences? A validation study of screening questions for psychotic-like experiences using in-depth clinical interview.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Ian

    2012-02-01

    Individuals who report psychotic-like experiences are at increased risk of future clinical psychotic disorder. They constitute a unique "high-risk" group for studying the developmental trajectory to schizophrenia and related illnesses. Previous research has used screening instruments to identify this high-risk group, but the validity of these instruments has not yet been established. We administered a screening questionnaire with 7 items designed to assess psychotic-like experiences to 334 adolescents aged 11-13 years. Detailed clinical interviews were subsequently carried out with a sample of these adolescents. We calculated sensitivity and specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each screening question for the specific symptom it enquired about and also in relation to any psychotic-like experience. The predictive power varied substantially between items, with the question on auditory hallucinations ("Have you ever heard voices or sounds that no one else can hear?") providing the best predictive power. For interview-verified auditory hallucinations specifically, this question had a PPV of 71.4% and an NPV of 90.4%. When assessed for its predictive power for any psychotic-like experience (including, but not limited to, auditory hallucinations), it provided a PPV of 100% and an NPV of 88.4%. Two further questions-relating to visual hallucinations and paranoid thoughts-also demonstrated good predictive power for psychotic-like experiences. Our results suggest that it may be possible to screen the general adolescent population for psychotic-like experiences with a high degree of accuracy using a short self-report questionnaire.

  16. Valores positivos e desenvolvimento do adolescente: perfil de jovens paulistanos Valores positivos y el desarrollo del adolescente: perfil de jóvenes paulistanos Positive values and adolescent development: a profile in São Paulo city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. S. de Macedo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa é parte do projeto "Os valores positivos e o desenvolvimento do adolescente", que se iniciou com a adaptação cultural do questionário Search Institute Profiles of Student Life. Seu objetivo foi mapear valores positivos presentes em adolescentes paulistanos, visando gerar informações que permitam planejar ações de promoção de saúde para jovens, suas famílias e comunidades. O instrumento adaptado foi aplicado em 2725 jovens paulistanos, de 11 a 19 anos, de ambos os sexos, provenientes de todas as regiões da cidade de São Paulo, categorizados de acordo com o Índice Paulista de Vulnerabilidade Social. Os resultados indicaram a presença um número baixo de valores, diferenças associadas mais à idade e ao sexo do que ao IPVS e, principalmente, a necessidade de revisão de nossas estratégias de promoção de saúde, que poderiam basear-se no desenvolvimento de valores positivos.La presente pesquisa es parte de lo proyeto "Los valores positivos y el desarrollo del adolescente" , que se ha iniciado com la adaptación cultural de lo instrumento Search Institute Profiles of Student Life. Lo objetivo fue mapear valores positivos presentes en jóvenes de la ciudad de São Paulo, para el desarrollo de acciones promotoras de salud para los jóvenes, sus famílias y comunidad. Lo instrumento adaptado fue aplicado a 2725 adolescentes, de 11 a 19 años, de ambos los sexos y en tres niveles de vulnerabilidad social: baja, mediana y alta. Los resultados han indicado la presencia de bajo número de valores positivos, diferencias más associadas a la edad y sexo y menos a la vulnerabilidad social y, especialmente, la necesidad de uma revisión de nuestras estratégias para la promoción de la salud, que podrían estar basadas en el desarrollo de valores positivos.This research is part of the project "The positive values and the adolescent development: from vulnerability to responsibility" that begun with the cultural adaptation

  17. Positive-Themed Suicide Prevention Messages Delivered by Adolescent Peer Leaders: Proximal Impact on Classmates' Coping Attitudes and Perceptions of Adult Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Mariya; Wyman, Peter A; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Pisani, Anthony R

    2015-12-01

    Developing science-based communication guidance and positive-themed messages for suicide prevention are important priorities. Drawing on social learning and elaboration likelihood models, we designed and tested two positive-focused presentations by high school peer leaders delivered in the context of a suicide prevention program (Sources of Strength). Thirty-six classrooms in four schools (N = 706 students) were randomized to (1) peer leader modeling of healthy coping, (2) peer leader modeling plus audience involvement to identify trusted adults, or (3) control condition. Students' attitudes and norms were assessed by immediate post-only assessments. Exposure to either presentation enhanced positive coping attitudes and perceptions of adult support. Students who reported suicide ideation in the past 12 months benefited more than nonsuicidal students. Beyond modeling alone, audience involvement modestly enhanced expectations of adult support, congruent with the elaboration likelihood model. Positive peer modeling is a promising alternative to communications focused on negative consequences and directives and may enhance social-interpersonal factors linked to reduced suicidal behaviors.

  18. The Relationship between Coach Leadership, the Coach-Athlete Relationship, Team Success, and the Positive Developmental Experiences of Adolescent Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Stewart A.; Oades, Lindsay G.; Crowe, Trevor P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The goals of participation youth sports are primarily concerned with the facilitation of positive youth development as opposed to outright success. Consequently, there are strong theoretical and empirical links between sports coaching and athlete development. Transformational leadership behaviours, in particular, have been…

  19. Screening CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramírez, A.; Hagedoorn, S.; Kramers, L.; Wildenborg, T.; Hendriks, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a methodology to screen and rank Dutch reservoirs suitable for long-term large scale CO2 storage. The screening focuses on off- and on-shore individual aquifers, gas and oil fields. In total 176 storage reservoirs have been taken int

  20. Popularity Contagion among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Peter E. L.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to support the theory of popularity contagion, which posits that popularity spreads among friends spontaneously and regardless of behavioral changes. Peer nominations of status and behavior were collected annually between 6th and 12th grades from a total of 1062 adolescents. Longitudinal hypotheses were mostly supported using path…

  1. Lung Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Geena X; Raz, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States and worldwide. Since lung cancer outcomes are dependent on stage at diagnosis with early disease resulting in longer survival, the goal of screening is to capture lung cancer in its early stages when it can be treated and cured. Multiple studies have evaluated the use of chest X-ray (CXR) with or without sputum cytologic examination for lung cancer screening, but none has demonstrated a mortality benefit. In contrast, the multicenter National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) from the United States found a 20 % reduction in lung cancer mortality following three consecutive screenings with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in high-risk current and former smokers. Data from European trials are not yet available. In addition to a mortality benefit, lung cancer screening with LDCT also offers a unique opportunity to promote smoking cessation and abstinence and may lead to the diagnoses of treatable chronic diseases, thus decreasing the overall disease burden. The risks of lung cancer screening include overdiagnosis, radiation exposure, and false-positive results leading to unnecessary testing and possible patient anxiety and distress. However, the reduction in lung cancer mortality is a benefit that outweighs the risks and major health organizations currently recommend lung cancer screening using age, smoking history, and quit time criteria derived from the NLST. Although more research is needed to clearly define and understand the application and utility of lung cancer screening in the general population, current data support that lung cancer screening is effective and should be offered to eligible beneficiaries. PMID:27535387

  2. Committee Opinion No 653 Summary: Concerns Regarding Social Media and Health Issues in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues. PMID:26942381

  3. Committee Opinion No 653 Summary: Concerns Regarding Social Media and Health Issues in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues.

  4. Economic hardship and Mexican-origin adolescents' adjustment: examining adolescents' perceptions of hardship and parent-adolescent relationship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Melissa Y; Killoren, Sarah E; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2013-10-01

    Studies examining economic hardship consistently have linked family economic hardship to adolescent adjustment via parent and family functioning, but limited attention has been given to adolescents' perceptions of these processes. To address this, the authors investigated the intervening effects of adolescents' perceptions of economic hardship and of parent-adolescent warmth and conflict on the associations between parental economic hardship and adolescent adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms, risky behaviors, and school performance) in a sample of 246 Mexican-origin families. Findings revealed that both mothers' and fathers' reports of economic hardship were positively related to adolescents' reports of economic hardship, which in turn, were negatively related to parent-adolescent warmth and positively related to parent-adolescent conflict with both mothers and fathers. Adolescents' perceptions of economic hardship were indirectly related to (a) depressive symptoms through warmth with mothers and conflict with mothers and fathers, (b) involvement in risky behaviors through conflict with mothers and fathers, and (c) GPA through conflict with fathers. Our findings highlight the importance of adolescents' perceptions of family economic hardship and relationships with mothers and fathers in predicting adolescent adjustment.

  5. Effectiveness of the workshop "Adolescent depression: What can schools do?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania eMartinez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescent depression is associated with serious consequences. School staff is in a unique position to screen and refer adolescents with depression in a timely manner, and can collaborate with healthcare teams to assist in the proper management of the disease. The objective of this paper is to describe the results of a workshop that aims to improve the knowledge of adolescent depression among school staff.Material and methods: This was a single-arm trial with a pre-post design. Six workshops were conducted in four cities in Chile. Each workshop lasted four hours. Participatory methodology was used. A 26-item knowledge questionnaire about adolescent depression, with the alternatives I agree, I disagree, and I don’t know was administered to the participants, before and after the workshop.Results: A total of 152 people participated in the trial. Of these, 74.3% were female, and 44.7% were school psychologists, 25.0%, teachers, 17.8%, school counselors, and 5.3%, social workers. On average, there were 69.6% (SD 21.3 correct responses on the initial test, and 91.8% (SD 8.0 on the final test. All items had an increase of correct answers and a decrease of don’t know answers. There were notable increases of correct responses on statements dealing with myths: Antidepressants for the treatment of depression in adolescents must be avoided because they produce dependence (59% to 96% and Depression in adolescence is better defined as a weakness of character than as a disease (75% to 95%. School psychologists scored higher than the other participants on the questionnaire both before and after the workshop.Conclusions: The workshop: Adolescent depression: What can schools do? can improve school staff knowledge of this topic, especially aiding to dispel myths regarding the disease and its treatment. This can help bring about timely case detection and improved collaboration with health team for proper handling of adolescent depression.

  6. Screening for Panic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conference & Education Membership Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Screening for Panic Disorder Main navigation FAQs Screen Yourself Screening for Depression Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) ...

  7. Hypertension screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  8. Hypercholesterolemia: The Role of Schools in Cholesterol Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H.; Casler, Suzanne M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among children and adolescents, the pros and cons of cholesterol screening among youth, cholesterol assessments of at-risk youth, and the role of schools in cholesterol education and screening (focusing on comprehensive school health education and services). (SM)

  9. Positive Parenting and Challenging Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    Positive parenting focuses on developing proactive ways to teach and reinforce desirable behaviors, as opposed to focusing on reacting to and attempting to decrease negative behaviors. Dr. Sheldon Braaten, Executive Director of Behavioral Institute for Children and Adolescents, offers some keys for setting up and using a positive reinforcement…

  10. Self constructing in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranješević Jelena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore “theories” adolescents have about themselves, i.e. about the changes in the ways they construe themselves in the period of middle adolescence: how they construe changes and estimate them according to some dimensions relevant for change (appreciation of change, its importance, expectancy, timing, comprehensiveness, intensity and visibility in social surroundings. The study was explorative and it was performed on the sample of 96 adolescents aged 15-17 (middle adolescence. Instruments used for the study were: interview and Role Construct Repertory Grid, adjusted to the need of study. The results show that the adolescents’ construct system is highly monolithic and tight in regard to constructs (black and white construing, but at the same time vague and predictively unclear in regard to elements, i. e. the stated changes, meaning that adolescents are not able to construe those changes according to certain constructs. It seems that this study included the beginning of the loosening phase (creativity cycle in which the system is still tight and, therefore, protects from threat and anxiety, while the elements are not predictively (this is what Erikson calls moratorium, i.e. the process of active experimenting. Changes which are fully predictively are those which refer to adults' roles, such as: self confident, experienced, independent and has responsibilities, worries. On the hand, changes which are predictably the most clear to adolescents (and not appreciated are depression and nervousness. Adolescents face an implicative dilemma: positive implications of maturity are not enough, while negative implications, such as nervousness, depression and not trusting people are clear, predictable and negative. This dilemma can be the cause of their ambivalence towards growing-up and accepting the roles of adults.

  11. A Survey of Addiction Training in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Residency Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbaum, Marjorie; Galanter, Marc; Dermatis, Helen; Greenberg, William M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Childhood and adolescence represent a critical period for the potential initiation of substance use, and thus it is important that child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) residents learn to screen, assess, refer, and/or treat children and adolescents who have substance abuse diagnoses. Method: The authors conducted a survey by mail of…

  12. STUDY OF DEPRESSION AMONG ADOLESCENT STUDENTS OF RURAL MAHARASHTRA AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelke Umesh S, Kunkulol Rahul R, Phalke Vaishali D, Narwane Sandeep P, Patel Prashant C

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder that appears in adolescents. It has an adverse effect on physical as well as mental health. Many adolescents remain undiagnosed due to no accessibility to clinics. Objectives: To study demographic factors and their association with depression among adolescents of rural Maharashtra. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 300 students (30 of either sex from 8th to 12th class. 6 item KADS (Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale, BG Prasad’s modified socioeconomic scale and demographic data were collected from volunteers. Results: 6.66% of students were screened positive for depression by the scale. No statistical difference was found in number of students with depression with respect to sex, class and socioeconomic status. However the residence and type of family showed significant difference in number students of depression. Conclusion: the KADS is a good screening tool for depression and should be implemented for adolescents studying in rural areas for prevention and early treatment of depression.

  13. HCC screening; HCC-Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, T. [Charite-Unversitaetsmedizin,Freie Universitaet und Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Klinik und Hochschulambulanz fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin,Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed tumour diseases throughout the world. In the vast majority of cases those affected are high-risk patients with chronic viral hepatitis and/or liver cirrhosis, which means there is a clearly identifiable target group for HCC screening. With resection, transplantation, and interventional procedures for local ablation, following early diagnosis curative treatment options are available with which 5-year survival rates of over 60% can be reached. Such early diagnosis is a reality only in a minority of patients, however, and in the majority of cases the disease is already in an advanced stage at diagnosis. One of the objects of HCC screening is diagnosis in an early stage when curative treatment is still possible. Precisely this is achieved by screening, so that the proportion of patients treated with curative intent is decisively higher. There is not yet any clear evidence as to whether this leads to a lowering of the mortality of HCC. As lower mortality is the decisive indicator of success for a screening programme the benefit of HCC screening has so far been neither documented nor refuted. Nonetheless, in large regions of the world it is the practice for high-risk patients to undergo HCC screening in the form of twice-yearly ultrasound examination and determination of AFP. (orig.) [German] Das hepatozellulaere Karzinom (HCC) ist eine der weltweit haeufigsten Tumorerkrankungen. Es tritt in der grossen Mehrzahl der Faelle bei Hochrisikopatienten mit chronischer Virushepatitis bzw. Leberzirrhose auf, woraus sich eine klar identifizierbare Zielgruppe fuer das HCC-Screening ergibt. Mit der Resektion, der Transplantation und interventionellen lokal ablativen Verfahren stehen bei rechtzeitiger Diagnosestellung kurative Therapieoptionen zur Verfuegung, die 5-Jahres-Ueberlebensraten von >60% erreichen. Diese rechtzeitige Diagnosestellung erfolgt jedoch nur bei einer Minderzahl der Patienten, waehrend die

  14. Does perceived physical attractiveness in adolescence predict better socioeconomic position in adulthood? Evidence from 20 years of follow up in a population cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Benzeval

    Full Text Available There is believed to be a 'beauty premium' in key life outcomes: it is thought that people perceived to be more physically attractive have better educational outcomes, higher-status jobs, higher wages, and are more likely to marry. Evidence for these beliefs, however, is generally based on photographs in hypothetical experiments or studies of very specific population subgroups (such as college students. The extent to which physical attractiveness might have a lasting effect on such outcomes in 'real life' situations across the whole population is less well known. Using longitudinal data from a general population cohort of people in the West of Scotland, this paper investigated the association between physical attractiveness at age 15 and key socioeconomic outcomes approximately 20 years later. People assessed as more physically attractive at age 15 had higher socioeconomic positions at age 36- in terms of their employment status, housing tenure and income - and they were more likely to be married; even after adjusting for parental socioeconomic background, their own intelligence, health and self esteem, education and other adult socioeconomic outcomes. For education the association was significant for women but not for men. Understanding why attractiveness is strongly associated with long-term socioeconomic outcomes, after such extensive confounders have been considered, is important.

  15. Does perceived physical attractiveness in adolescence predict better socioeconomic position in adulthood? Evidence from 20 years of follow up in a population cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzeval, Michaela; Green, Michael J; Macintyre, Sally

    2013-01-01

    There is believed to be a 'beauty premium' in key life outcomes: it is thought that people perceived to be more physically attractive have better educational outcomes, higher-status jobs, higher wages, and are more likely to marry. Evidence for these beliefs, however, is generally based on photographs in hypothetical experiments or studies of very specific population subgroups (such as college students). The extent to which physical attractiveness might have a lasting effect on such outcomes in 'real life' situations across the whole population is less well known. Using longitudinal data from a general population cohort of people in the West of Scotland, this paper investigated the association between physical attractiveness at age 15 and key socioeconomic outcomes approximately 20 years later. People assessed as more physically attractive at age 15 had higher socioeconomic positions at age 36- in terms of their employment status, housing tenure and income - and they were more likely to be married; even after adjusting for parental socioeconomic background, their own intelligence, health and self esteem, education and other adult socioeconomic outcomes. For education the association was significant for women but not for men. Understanding why attractiveness is strongly associated with long-term socioeconomic outcomes, after such extensive confounders have been considered, is important.

  16. Important non-parental adults and positive youth development across mid- to late-adolescence: the moderating effect of parenting profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Edmond P; Johnson, Sara K; Buckingham, Mary H; Gasca, Santiago; Warren, Daniel J A; Lerner, Jacqueline V; Lerner, Richard M

    2014-06-01

    Both parents and important non-parental adults have influential roles in promoting positive youth development (PYD). Little research, however, has examined the simultaneous effects of both parents and important non-parental adults for PYD. We assessed the relationships among youth-reported parenting profiles and important non-parental adult relationships in predicting the Five Cs of PYD (competence, confidence, connection, character, and caring) in four cross-sectional waves of data from the 4-H Study of PYD (Grade 9: N = 975, 61.1% female; Grade 10: N = 1,855, 63.4% female; Grade 11: N = 983, 67.9% female; Grade 12: N = 703, 69.3% female). The results indicated the existence of latent profiles of youth-reported parenting styles based on maternal warmth, parental school involvement, and parental monitoring that were consistent with previously identified profiles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) as well as reflecting several novel profiles (highly involved, integrative, school-focused, controlling). Parenting profile membership predicted mean differences in the Five Cs at each wave, and also moderated the relationships between the presence of an important non-parental adult and the Five Cs. In general, authoritative and highly involved parenting predicted higher levels of PYD and a higher likelihood of being connected to an important non-parental adult. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research on adult influences of youth development and for programs that involve adults in attempts to promote PYD. PMID:24557780

  17. Important non-parental adults and positive youth development across mid- to late-adolescence: the moderating effect of parenting profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Edmond P; Johnson, Sara K; Buckingham, Mary H; Gasca, Santiago; Warren, Daniel J A; Lerner, Jacqueline V; Lerner, Richard M

    2014-06-01

    Both parents and important non-parental adults have influential roles in promoting positive youth development (PYD). Little research, however, has examined the simultaneous effects of both parents and important non-parental adults for PYD. We assessed the relationships among youth-reported parenting profiles and important non-parental adult relationships in predicting the Five Cs of PYD (competence, confidence, connection, character, and caring) in four cross-sectional waves of data from the 4-H Study of PYD (Grade 9: N = 975, 61.1% female; Grade 10: N = 1,855, 63.4% female; Grade 11: N = 983, 67.9% female; Grade 12: N = 703, 69.3% female). The results indicated the existence of latent profiles of youth-reported parenting styles based on maternal warmth, parental school involvement, and parental monitoring that were consistent with previously identified profiles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) as well as reflecting several novel profiles (highly involved, integrative, school-focused, controlling). Parenting profile membership predicted mean differences in the Five Cs at each wave, and also moderated the relationships between the presence of an important non-parental adult and the Five Cs. In general, authoritative and highly involved parenting predicted higher levels of PYD and a higher likelihood of being connected to an important non-parental adult. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research on adult influences of youth development and for programs that involve adults in attempts to promote PYD.

  18. Does perceived physical attractiveness in adolescence predict better socioeconomic position in adulthood? Evidence from 20 years of follow up in a population cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzeval, Michaela; Green, Michael J; Macintyre, Sally

    2013-01-01

    There is believed to be a 'beauty premium' in key life outcomes: it is thought that people perceived to be more physically attractive have better educational outcomes, higher-status jobs, higher wages, and are more likely to marry. Evidence for these beliefs, however, is generally based on photographs in hypothetical experiments or studies of very specific population subgroups (such as college students). The extent to which physical attractiveness might have a lasting effect on such outcomes in 'real life' situations across the whole population is less well known. Using longitudinal data from a general population cohort of people in the West of Scotland, this paper investigated the association between physical attractiveness at age 15 and key socioeconomic outcomes approximately 20 years later. People assessed as more physically attractive at age 15 had higher socioeconomic positions at age 36- in terms of their employment status, housing tenure and income - and they were more likely to be married; even after adjusting for parental socioeconomic background, their own intelligence, health and self esteem, education and other adult socioeconomic outcomes. For education the association was significant for women but not for men. Understanding why attractiveness is strongly associated with long-term socioeconomic outcomes, after such extensive confounders have been considered, is important. PMID:23717520

  19. Individuation or Identification? Self-Objectification and the Mother-Adolescent Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Budge, Stephanie L; Lindberg, Sara M; Hyde, Janet S

    2013-09-01

    Do adolescents model their mothers' self-objectification? We measured self-objectification (body surveillance and body shame), body mass index (BMI), body esteem, and quality of the mother-adolescent relationship in 179 female and 162 male adolescents at age 15, as well as self-objectification in their mothers. Initial analyses indicated no improvement in model fit if paths were allowed to differ for females and males; therefore a single model was tested for the combined sample. Findings revealed that mothers' body surveillance negatively predicted adolescents' body surveillance. Mothers' body shame was unrelated to adolescents' body shame, but positively predicted adolescents' body surveillance. Results for the relationship between mothers' and adolescents' self-objectification suggest that adolescents engaged in more individuation than modeling. A more positive mother-adolescent relationship predicted lower body shame and higher body esteem in adolescents, suggesting that the quality of the relationship with the mother may be a protective factor for adolescents' body image. Mother-adolescent relationship quality did not moderate the association between mothers' and adolescents' self-objectification. These findings contribute to our understanding about the sociocultural role of parents in adolescents' body image and inform interventions addressing negative body image in this age group. The quality of the mother-adolescent relationship is a clear point of entry for such interventions. Therapists should work with adolescents and their mothers toward a more positive relationship quality, which could then positively impact adolescents' body image. PMID:24363490

  20. [Adolescents and new technologies: Behaviours pointing a possible addiction problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrador Encinas, Francisco Javier; Villadangos González, Silvia María

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate adolescents' subjective risk perception derived from the use of the New Technologies (NT), and to identify behaviours or warning symptoms of possible addiction problems. A sample of 1,710 underage students of Madrid responded to the DENA questionnaire. Firstly, we found a positive correlation between the time of NT use and the perception of addiction problems. Also, age was positively correlated to these perception problems. Secondly, the results indicated that television is the technology that generates a major perception problem in underage students. Lastly, the NTs have produced behaviours that are similar to those produced by other established addictions. Among them are notable the relaxation caused by their use or discomfort if they cannot be used. In addition, the frequent presence of other behaviours exclusive to these instruments has been identified, such as constantly checking one's mobile phone screen. It is necessary to continue studying possible addictive behaviours specific to the NT. PMID:20423619

  1. Adolescent Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Jacy, Ed.; Steele, Jennifer L., Ed.; Samson, Jennifer F., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Adolescent Literacy" initially appeared as a special issue of the "Harvard Educational Review". It explores key issues and debates in the adolescent literacy crisis, the popular use of cognitive strategies, and disciplinary and content-area literacy. Also examined are alternative forms of literacy, afterschool interventions, new instruction…

  2. Possible selves among adolescents in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Shimin; 朱詩敏

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a stage full of possibility, in which adolescents start exploring what is possible for them. Possible selves represent people’s self-concept pointing to the future, what they hope to be, what they expect to be and what they fear to be. These future oriented selves are closely related with adolescents’ behaviors, channeling their effort toward positive behavioral outcomes. The possible selves in Chinese context are less examined and adolescents in Hong Kong are facing a lot of c...

  3. Screening for Specific Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Screening for Social Anxiety Disorder Screening for Specific Phobias Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Children Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Family Member Self- ...

  4. Carotid Artery Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Carotid Artery Screening What is carotid artery screening? Who should consider ... about carotid artery screening? What is carotid artery screening? Screening examinations are tests performed to find disease ...

  5. Preconception Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preconception Carrier Screening Home For Patients Search FAQs Preconception Carrier Screening ... Screening FAQ179, August 2012 PDF Format Preconception Carrier Screening Pregnancy What is preconception carrier screening? What is ...

  6. Luminescent screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminescent screens which are useful for such purposes as intensifying screens for radiographs are comprised of a support bearing a layer of finely divided particles of a phosphor dispersed in a cross-linked polymeric matrix formed by heat-curing of a coating composition comprising an unsaturated cross-linkable polymer, a polymerizable acrylic monomer, a thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer, and a heat-activatable polymerization initiator. The phosphor layer includes voids formed by evaporation of an evaporable component which is present in the coating composition from which such layer is formed. (author)

  7. The role of polymerase chain reaction of high-risk human papilloma virus in the screening of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in the anal mucosa of human immunodeficiency virus-positive males having sex with males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Hidalgo-Tenorio

    Full Text Available To evaluate the advantages of cytology and PCR of high-risk human papilloma virus (PCR HR-HPV infection in biopsy-derived diagnosis of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL = AIN2/AIN3 in HIV-positive men having sex with men (MSM.This is a single-centered study conducted between May 2010 and May 2014 in patients (n = 201, mean age 37 years recruited from our outpatient clinic. Samples of anal canal mucosa were taken into liquid medium for PCR HPV analysis and for cytology. Anoscopy was performed for histology evaluation.Anoscopy showed 33.8% were normal, 47.8% low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, and 18.4% HSIL; 80.2% had HR-HPV. PCR of HR-HPV had greater sensitivity than did cytology (88.8% vs. 75.7% in HSIL screening, with similar positive (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of 20.3 vs. 22.9 and 89.7 vs. 88.1, respectively. Combining both tests increased the sensitivity and NPV of HSIL diagnosis to 100%. Correlation of cytology vs. histology was, generally, very low and PCR of HR-HPV vs. histology was non-existent (<0.2 or low (<0.4. Area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC curve analysis of cytology and PCR HR-HPV for the diagnosis of HSIL was poor (<0.6. Multivariate regression analysis showed protective factors against HSIL were: viral suppression (OR: 0.312; 95%CI: 0.099-0.984, and/or syphilis infection (OR: 0.193; 95%CI: 0.045-0.827. HSIL risk was associated with HPV-68 genotype (OR: 20.1; 95%CI: 2.04-197.82.When cytology and PCR HR-HPV findings are normal, the diagnosis of pre-malignant HSIL can be reliably ruled-out in HIV suppression with treatment protects against the appearance of HSIL [corrected].

  8. The Alcohol Warning and Adolescents: 5-Year Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, David P.; Nohre, Liva; Pentz, Mary Ann; Stacy, Alan W.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the effect of alcohol warning labels on adolescents during the first 5 years that the warning was required. Surveys of 10th and 12th grade students over 5 years indicated that the initial positive effects of the labels on adolescents leveled off after 3.5 years. The labels have not affected adolescents' beliefs about alcohol or…

  9. The Body-Image of Physically Abused and Normal Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Craig W.; Harway, Michele

    1981-01-01

    Compared the human figure drawings of physically abused adolescents with those of normal adolescents. Significant differences were found between the drawings of the two groups including erasure, clothing, detail, fingers, symmetry, and arm position. The drawings of the physically abused adolescents seemed to be indicative of poor body image.…

  10. Current screens

    OpenAIRE

    Cubitt, Sean

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of screen design, including LCD, LED and DLP projection, is analysed in terms of the political economy and their aesthetics and phenomenological impacts, in association with the use of codecs as constraining as well as enabling tools in the control and management of visual data transmission.

  11. Hearing Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  12. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceived Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Poor Chinese Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationships between parent-adolescent discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics (indexed by parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and parental control) and adolescent developmental outcomes (indexed by achievement motivation and psychological competence) in poor families in Hong Kong. A sample of 275 intact families having at least one child aged 11-16 experiencing economic disadvantage were invited to participate in the study. Fathers and mothers completed the Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale, and adolescents completed the Social-Oriented Achievement Motivation Scale and Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale in addition to paternal and maternal Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale. Results indicated that parents and adolescents had different perceptions of parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and paternal control, with adolescents generally perceived lower levels of parenting behaviors than did their parents. While father-adolescent discrepancy in perceived paternal responsiveness and mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceived maternal control negatively predicted adolescent achievement motivation, mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceptions of maternal responsiveness negatively predicted psychological competence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present findings provided support that parent-child discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics have negative impacts on the developmental outcomes of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present study addresses parent-child discrepancies in perceived parental behaviors as "legitimate" constructs, and explores their links with adolescent psychosocial development, which sheds light for researchers and clinical practitioners in helping the Chinese families experiencing economic disadvantage.

  13. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceived Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Poor Chinese Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationships between parent-adolescent discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics (indexed by parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and parental control) and adolescent developmental outcomes (indexed by achievement motivation and psychological competence) in poor families in Hong Kong. A sample of 275 intact families having at least one child aged 11-16 experiencing economic disadvantage were invited to participate in the study. Fathers and mothers completed the Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale, and adolescents completed the Social-Oriented Achievement Motivation Scale and Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale in addition to paternal and maternal Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale. Results indicated that parents and adolescents had different perceptions of parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and paternal control, with adolescents generally perceived lower levels of parenting behaviors than did their parents. While father-adolescent discrepancy in perceived paternal responsiveness and mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceived maternal control negatively predicted adolescent achievement motivation, mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceptions of maternal responsiveness negatively predicted psychological competence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present findings provided support that parent-child discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics have negative impacts on the developmental outcomes of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present study addresses parent-child discrepancies in perceived parental behaviors as "legitimate" constructs, and explores their links with adolescent psychosocial development, which sheds light for researchers and clinical practitioners in helping the Chinese families experiencing economic disadvantage. PMID:24482569

  14. Anxiety in adolescent epilepsy. A clinimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrozzino, Danilo; Marchetti, Daniela; Laino, Daniela; Minna, Maria; Verrocchio, Maria Cristina; Fulcheri, Mario; Verrotti, Alberto; Bech, Per

    2016-08-01

    Background Anxiety and depression have been considered to be neglected disorders in epilepsy. Because panic disorder is one of the most important anxiety disorders, it has been problematic to use very comprehensive anxiety questionnaires in epilepsy patients, as panic attacks and epileptic seizures, although two distinct clinical entities from a diagnostic point of view, show a significant overlap of symptoms. Aims We have focused on single items for anxiety and depression as screening candidates in adolescent epilepsy. Methods The individual panic attack item in the Screen for Children Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders Scale (SCARED) and the single depression item in the Kellner Symptom Questionnaire were tested. Our samples consisted of adolescent patients with epilepsy and a matched control group with healthy participants, as well as two numerical groups acting as controls. Results The single panic attack item identified panic anxiety in 24.1% in the group of patients with epilepsy and 0.0% in the matched control group (p = 0.01). The single depression item identified 52.2% with depression in the epilepsy group and 6.2% in the matched control group (p = 0.001). Conclusion As screening instruments, single items of panic attack and depression are sufficient to screen for these affective states in adolescent epilepsy. The clinical implications are that it is important to be quite specific when screening for depression and panic attacks in adolescent patients with epilepsy. PMID:26906494

  15. Stages of Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  16. Enhanced striatal sensitivity to aversive reinforcement in adolescents versus adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Adriana; McGlennen, Kristine M

    2013-02-01

    Neurodevelopmental changes in mesolimbic regions are associated with adolescent risk-taking behavior. Numerous studies have shown exaggerated activation in the striatum in adolescents compared with children and adults during reward processing. However, striatal sensitivity to aversion remains elusive. Given the important role of the striatum in tracking both appetitive and aversive events, addressing this question is critical to understanding adolescent decision-making, as both positive and negative factors contribute to this behavior. In this study, human adult and adolescent participants performed a task in which they received squirts of appetitive or aversive liquid while undergoing fMRI, a novel approach in human adolescents. Compared with adults, adolescents showed greater behavioral and striatal sensitivity to both appetitive and aversive stimuli, an effect that was exaggerated in response to delivery of the aversive stimulus. Collectively, these findings contribute to understanding how neural responses to positive and negative outcomes differ between adolescents and adults and how they may influence adolescent behavior.

  17. A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Sara De; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Decat, Peter; Vega, Bernardo; Cordova, Kathya; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier; Michielsen, Kristien

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health.Objective: The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries.Design: In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents ...

  18. A longitudinal study of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and its relationship with coping skill and locus of control in adolescents after an earthquake in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqing Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Post-traumatic stress disorder is a common psychological maladaptation among adolescents after undergoing an earthquake. Knowledge about the prevalence and maintenance of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and the changes of its predictors over time can help medical providers assist adolescent survivors with mitigating long-term impacts. This study examined the changes in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and its relationship with coping skill and locus of control among adolescent earthquake survivors in China. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: The study used an observational longitudinal design. A total of 1420 adolescents were evaluated twice after the earthquake by using the Post-traumatic stress disorder Checklist-Civilian Version, The Internality, Powerful others and Chance scale and the Coping Styles Scale. The results indicated that the mean scores of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were decreased significantly and the positive rates of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms also declined remarkably at 17 months compared to the 3 months post-earthquake. Internality locus of control and problem solving coping skill were effective resilient factors for the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, while chance locus of control was a powerful risk factor of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms as well as being female, being injured and property loss. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Continuous screening is recommended to identify adolescent earthquake survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. More attention should be paid to adolescent survivors who are prone to adopt passive coping strategies responding to trauma events and who own external causal attribution.

  19. "My Mom Makes Me So Angry!" Adolescent Perceptions of Mother-Child Interactions as Correlates of Adolescent Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of mother-child interactions as correlates of adolescents' positive, negative, and guilt emotions. Two hundred thirty-four adolescents (M age = 16.39, SD = 1.17) completed measures assessing parenting practices in response to typical mother-child interactions in both positive…

  20. Screening Devices at School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene

    2011-01-01

    it as a “screening device”. It is a “device” in the sense that it distributes agency, and it “screens” in the word’s multiple meanings: “projecting” as in creating a viewer position;“sifting” and “systematizing” as in discriminating “knowledge” from mere “opinionings”; and “protecting” teachers from noise. Using...