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Sample records for adolescents neurobiological considerations

  1. Neurobiological considerations in understanding behavioral treatments for pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Marc N; Balodis, Iris M; Franco, Christine A; Bullock, Scott; Xu, Jiansong; Chung, Tammy; Grant, Jon E

    2013-06-01

    Pathological gambling (PG), a disorder currently categorized as an impulse-control disorder but being considered as a nonsubstance addiction in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) discussions, represents a significant public health concern. Over the past decade, considerable advances have been made with respect to understanding the biological underpinnings of PG. Research has also demonstrated the efficacies of multiple treatments, particularly behavioral therapies, for treating PG. Despite these advances, relatively little is known regarding how biological measures, particularly those assessing brain function, relate to treatments for PG. In this article, we present a conceptual review focusing on the neurobiology of behavioral therapies for PG. To illustrate issues related to study design, we present proof-of-concept preliminary data that link Stroop-related brain activations prior to treatment onset to treatment outcome in individuals with PG receiving a cognitive-behavioral treatment incorporating aspects of imaginal desensitization and motivational interviewing. We conclude with recommendations about current and future directions regarding how to incorporate and translate biological findings into improved therapies for individuals with nonsubstance and substance addictions. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative–motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increased lifetime risks for the development of alcohol dependence, violence, and injuries. Brain synapses, myelination, and neural circuits mature in adolescence to adult levels in parallel with increased reflection on the consequence of actions and reduced impulsivity and thrill seeking. Alcohol binge drinking could alter human development, but variations in genetics, peer groups, family structure, early life experiences, and the emergence of psychopathology in humans confound studies. As adolescence is common to mammalian species, preclinical models of binge drinking provide insight into the direct impact of alcohol on adolescent development. This review relates human findings to basic science studies, particularly the preclinical studies of the Neurobiology of Adolescent Drinking in Adulthood (NADIA) Consortium. These studies focus on persistent adult changes in neurobiology and behavior following adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE), a model of underage drinking. NADIA studies and others find that AIE results in the following: increases in adult alcohol drinking, disinhibition, and social anxiety; altered adult synapses, cognition, and sleep; reduced adult neurogenesis, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurons; and increased neuroimmune gene expression and epigenetic modifiers of gene expression. Many of these effects are specific to adolescents and not found in parallel adult studies. AIE can cause a persistence of adolescent-like synaptic physiology, behavior, and sensitivity

  3. The neurobiology of the emotional adolescent: From the inside out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Amanda E.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Nelson, Eric E.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents are commonly portrayed as highly emotional, with their behaviors often hijacked by their emotions. Research on the neural substrates of adolescent affective behavior is beginning to paint a more nuanced picture of how neurodevelopmental changes in brain function influence affective behavior, and how these influences are modulated by external factors in the environment. Recent neurodevelopmental models suggest that the brain is designed to promote emotion regulation, learning, and affiliation across development, and that affective behavior reciprocally interacts with age-specific social demands and different social contexts. In this review, we discuss current findings on neurobiological mechanisms of adolescents’ affective behavior and highlight individual differences in and social-contextual influences on adolescents’ emotionality. Neurobiological mechanisms of affective processes related to anxiety and depression are also discussed as examples. As the field progresses, it will be critical to test new hypotheses generated from the foundational empirical and conceptual work and to focus on identifying more precisely how and when neural networks change in ways that promote or thwart adaptive affective behavior during adolescence. PMID:27506384

  4. Internet Addiction in adolescence: Neurobiological, psychosocial and clinical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerniglia, L; Zoratto, F; Cimino, S; Laviola, G; Ammaniti, M; Adriani, W

    2017-05-01

    Despite it has not been formally included in DSM-5 as a disorder, 'Internet addiction (IA)' has become a worldwide issue. It can be broadly defined as a non-chemical, behavioral addiction, which involves human-machine interaction. We pinpoint it as an "instrumental" form of social interaction (i.e. mediated by machines), a notion that appears useful for the sake of possible preclinical modeling. The features of Internet use reveals as addictive when this comes at the expense of genuine real-life sociability, with an overlap towards the hikikomori phenomenon (i.e., extreme retreat to one's own room). Due to the specific neuro-developmental plasticity in adolescence, IA poses risks to youths' mental health, and may likely produce negative consequences in everyday life. The thwarted development of adolescents' identity, self-image and adaptive social relationships is discussed: the IA adolescents often suffer loss of control, feelings of anger, symptoms of distress, social withdrawal, and familial conflicts. Further, more severe clinical conditions are also associated to IA, such as dysthymic, bipolar, affective, social-anxiety disorders, as well as major depression. This paper overviews the literature on IA, from neuro-biological, psycho-social and clinical standpoints, taking into account recent debates on diagnostic criteria, nosographic label and assessment tools. Neuroimaging data and neurochemical regulations are illustrated with links to pathogenetic hypotheses, which are amenable to validation through innovative preclinical modeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A systematic review of the neurobiological underpinnings of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsper, Catherine; Marwaha, Steven; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Thompson, Andrew; Eyden, Julie; Singh, Swaran P

    2016-12-01

    Contemporary theories for the aetiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) take a lifespan approach asserting that inborn biological predisposition is potentiated across development by environmental risk factors. In this review, we present and critically evaluate evidence on the neurobiology of BPD in childhood and adolescence, compare this evidence to the adult literature, and contextualise within a neurodevelopmental framework. A systematic review was conducted to identify studies examining the neurobiological (i.e. genetic, structural neuroimaging, neurophysiological, and neuropsychological) correlates of BPD symptoms in children and adolescents aged 19 years or under. We identified, quality assessed, and narratively summarised 34 studies published between 1980 and June 2016. Similar to findings in adult populations, twin studies indicated moderate to high levels of heritability of BPD, and there was some evidence for gene-environment interactions. Also consistent with adult reports is that some adolescents with BPD demonstrated structural (grey and white matter) alterations in frontolimbic regions and neuropsychological abnormalities (i.e. reduced executive function and disturbances in social cognition). These findings suggest that neurobiological abnormalities observed in adult BPD may not solely be the consequence of chronic morbidity or prolonged medication use. They also provide tentative support for neurodevelopmental theories of BPD by demonstrating that neurobiological markers may be observed from childhood onwards and interact with environmental factors to increase risk of BPD in young populations. Prospective studies with a range of repeated measures are now required to elucidate the temporal unfurling of neurobiological features and further delineate the complex pathways to BPD.

  6. Neurobiological and Memory Models of Risky Decision Making in Adolescents versus Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Estrada, Steven M.; DeMarinis, Jessica A.; Myers, Regina M.; Stanisz, Janine M.; Mills, Britain A.

    2011-01-01

    Predictions of fuzzy-trace theory and neurobiological approaches are examined regarding risk taking in a classic decision-making task--the framing task--as well as in the context of real-life risk taking. We report the 1st study of framing effects in adolescents versus adults, varying risk and reward, and relate choices to individual differences,…

  7. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Crews, Fulton T.; Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative?motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increa...

  8. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Considerations for Research in Adolescent Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C. Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent depression is a prevalent disorder with substantial morbidity and mortality. Current treatment interventions do not target relevant pathophysiology and are frequently ineffective, thereby leading to a substantial burden for individuals, families, and society. During adolescence, the prefrontal cortex undergoes extensive structural and functional changes. Recent work suggests that frontolimbic development in depressed adolescents is delayed or aberrant. The judicious application of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques to the prefrontal cortex may present a promising opportunity for durable interventions in adolescent depression. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS applies a low-intensity, continuous current that alters cortical excitability. While this modality does not elicit action potentials, it is thought to manipulate neuronal activity and neuroplasticity. Specifically, tDCS may modulate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels and effect changes through long-term potentiation or long-term depression-like mechanisms. This mini-review considers the neurobiological rationale for developing tDCS protocols in adolescent depression, reviews existing work in adult mood disorders, surveys the existing tDCS literature in adolescent populations, reviews safety studies, and discusses distinct ethical considerations in work with adolescents.

  9. Chronic Stress in Adolescents and Its Neurobiological and Psychopathological Consequences: An RDoC Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Chandni; McGlade, Erin; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative provides a strategy for classifying psychopathology based on behavioral dimensions and neurobiological measures. Neurodevelopment is an orthogonal dimension in the current RDoC framework; however, it has not yet been fully incorporated into the RDoC approach. A combination of both a neurodevelopmental and RDoC approach offers a multidimensional perspective for understanding the emergence of psychopathology during development. Environmental influence (e.g., stress) has a profound impact on the risk for development of psychiatric illnesses. It has been shown that chronic stress interacts with the developing brain, producing significant changes in neural circuits that eventually increase the susceptibility for development of psychiatric disorders. This review highlights effects of chronic stress on the adolescent brain, as adolescence is a period characterized by a combination of significant brain alterations, high levels of stress, and emergence of psychopathology. The literature synthesized in this review suggests that chronic stress-induced changes in neurobiology and behavioral constructs underlie the shared vulnerability across a number of disorders in adolescence. The review particularly focuses on depression and substance use disorders; however, a similar argument can also be made for other psychopathologies, including anxiety disorders. The summarized findings underscore the need for a framework to integrate neurobiological findings from disparate psychiatric disorders and to target transdiagnostic mechanisms across disorders.

  10. Variations in the neurobiology of reading in children and adolescents born full term and preterm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Travis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion properties of white matter tracts have been associated with individual differences in reading. Individuals born preterm are at risk of injury to white matter. In this study we compared the associations between diffusion properties of white matter and reading skills in children and adolescents born full term and preterm. 45 participants, aged 9–17 years, included 26 preterms (born <36 weeks' gestation and 19 full-terms. Tract fractional anisotropy (FA profiles were generated for five bilateral white matter tracts previously associated with reading: anterior superior longitudinal fasciculus (aSLF, arcuate fasciculus (Arc, corticospinal tract (CST, uncinate fasciculus (UF and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF. Mean scores on reading for the two groups were in the normal range and were not statistically different. In both groups, FA was associated with measures of single word reading and comprehension in the aSLF, AF, CST, and UF. However, correlations were negative in the full term group and positive in the preterm group. These results demonstrate variations in the neurobiology of reading in children born full term and preterm despite comparable reading skills. Findings suggest that efficient information exchange required for strong reading abilities may be accomplished via a different balance of neurobiological mechanisms in different groups of readers.

  11. Peri-adolescent asthma symptoms cause adult anxiety-related behavior and neurobiological processes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Jasmine I; Caruso, Michael J; Michael, Kerry C; Bourne, Rebecca A; Chirichella, Nicole R; Klein, Laura C; Craig, Timothy; Bonneau, Robert H; August, Avery; Cavigelli, Sonia A

    2017-05-30

    Human and animal studies have shown that physical challenges and stressors during adolescence can have significant influences on behavioral and neurobiological development associated with internalizing disorders such as anxiety and depression. Given the prevalence of asthma during adolescence and increased rates of internalizing disorders in humans with asthma, we used a mouse model to test if and which symptoms of adolescent allergic asthma (airway inflammation or labored breathing) cause adult anxiety- and depression-related behavior and brain function. To mimic symptoms of allergic asthma in young BALB/cJ mice (postnatal days [P] 7-57; N=98), we induced lung inflammation with repeated intranasal administration of house dust mite extract (most common aeroallergen for humans) and bronchoconstriction with aerosolized methacholine (non-selective muscarinic receptor agonist). Three experimental groups, in addition to a control group, included: (1) "Airway inflammation only", allergen exposure 3 times/week, (2) "Labored breathing only", methacholine exposure once/week, and (3) "Airway inflammation+Labored breathing", allergen and methacholine exposure. Compared to controls, mice that experienced methacholine-induced labored breathing during adolescence displayed a ∼20% decrease in time on open arms of the elevated plus maze in early adulthood (P60), a ∼30% decrease in brainstem serotonin transporter (SERT) mRNA expression and a ∼50% increase in hippocampal serotonin receptor 1a (5Htr1a) and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (Crhr1) expression in adulthood (P75). This is the first evidence that experimentally-induced clinical symptoms of adolescent asthma alter adult anxiety-related behavior and brain function several weeks after completion of asthma manipulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The neurobiology of self-face recognition in depressed adolescents with low or high suicidality.

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    Quevedo, Karina; Ng, Rowena; Scott, Hannah; Martin, Jodi; Smyda, Garry; Keener, Matt; Oppenheimer, Caroline W

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to test whether the neurobiology of self-processing differentiated depressed adolescents with high suicidality (HS) from those with low suicidality (LS) and healthy controls (HC; N = 119, MAGE = 14.79, SD = 1.64, Min = 11.3, Max = 17.8). Participants completed a visual self-recognition task in the scanner during which they identified their own or an unfamiliar adolescent face across 3 emotional expressions (happy, neutral or sad). A 3-group (HS, LS, HC) by 2 within-subject factors (2 Self conditions [self, other] and 3 Emotions [happy, neutral, sad]) GLM yielded (a) a main effect of Self condition with all participants showing higher activity in the right occipital, precuneus and fusiform during the self- versus other-face conditions; (b) a main effect of Group where all depressed youth showed higher dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity than HC across all conditions, and with HS showing higher cuneus and occipital activity versus both LS and HC; and (c) a Group by Self by Emotion interaction with HS showing lower activity in both mid parietal, limbic, and prefrontal areas in the Happy self versus other-face condition relative to the LS group, who in turn had less activity compared to HC youth. Covarying for depression severity replicated all results except the third finding; In this subsequent analysis, a Group by Self interaction showed that although HC had similar midline cortical structure (MCS) activity for all faces, LS showed higher MCS activity for the self versus other faces, whereas HS showed the opposite pattern. Results suggest that the neurophysiology of emotionally charged self-referential information can distinguish depressed, suicidal youth versus nonsuicidal depressed and healthy adolescents. Neurophysiological differences and implications for the prediction of suicidality in youth are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Adolescent bariatric surgery: review on nutrition considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Isadora; Hrovat, Kathleen

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of obesity in adolescents has dramatically increased over the past 3 decades in the United States. Weight loss surgery is becoming a viable treatment option for obese adolescents. The number of surgeries being performed yearly is rising, and this trend is likely to continue. Adolescent patients present a unique challenge to clinicians. There are currently best-practice recommendations and evidence-based nutrition guidelines for the treatment of the adolescent bariatric patient. A review of the current literature was performed to discuss bariatric surgery and nutrition for the adolescent patient. Studies show that most adolescents with obesity will become obese adults, thus increasing their risk of developing serious and debilitating health conditions. It is recommended that the candidates for surgery be referred to a practice that has a multidisciplinary team experienced in meeting the distinct physical and psychological needs of adolescents. Specific nutrition concerns for the adolescent bariatric patient include preoperative educational pathway, postoperative dietary progression, female reproduction, compliance with vitamin/supplementation recommendations, laboratory tests, and long-term monitoring. The medical literature has reported positive outcomes of bariatric surgery in adolescents with severe obesity. Before surgery is offered as an option, unique factors to adolescents must be addressed. The multidisciplinary clinical team must consider the adolescents' cognitive, social, and emotional development when considering their candidacy for surgery. As the number of adolescent bariatric surgery programs increases, continued research and long-term outcome data need to be collected and shared to base future treatment decisions. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  14. Social reorientation in adolescence: neurobiological changes and individual differences in empathic concern

    OpenAIRE

    Overgaauw, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    One of the most prominent changes in adolescence is social reorientation. In other words, adolescents develop more intimate relationships with peers, they discover what it is like to be involved in a romantic relationship, and they take (social) risks by for example showing risky driving in the presence of friends. Given that social networks with peers become central elements in the adolescent’s life, investigating the role of individual differences related to the development of social reorie...

  15. Executive functioning and substance use in adolescence: Neurobiological and behavioral perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Kahn, Rachel E; Lauharatanahirun, Nina; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bickel, Warren K; Chiu, Pearl H; King-Casas, Brooks

    2017-06-01

    The current review is guided by the theoretical perspective that emphasizes the regulating role of executive functioning (Carver et al., 2009) and presents studies that elucidate the ways that executive functioning (inhibition and working memory) explain individual differences in adolescent substance use independently or by regulating the reactive system (reward and punishment sensitivity). Behavioral studies indicate that main effects of executive functioning on adolescent substance use are often nonsignificant or weak in effect sizes. In contrast, emerging evidence suggests consistent and stronger regulating effects of executive functioning over reward and punishment sensitivity. Functional neuroimaging studies reveal significant associations between executive functioning task-related hemodynamic responses and substance use with strong effect sizes. There is also direct evidence from studies testing statistical interactions of the regulating effects of EF-related brain activation, and indirect evidence in studies examining functional connectivity, temporal discounting, and reinforced control. We note key future directions and ways to address limitations in existing work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Periodontal Considerations for the Child and Adolescent. A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guo-Hao; Boynton, James R

    2015-01-01

    The primary etiology of periodontal disease is bacterial plaque and its byproducts in a susceptible host. Although the prevalence of plaque-induced periodontal disease is relatively low for the child and adolescent, destructive periodontal disease may be a manifestation of an underlying systemic disease. In some cases, childhood periodontal destruction may be the first sign of systemic disease, making appropriate recognition and determination of etiology critical in this population. Therefore, this literature review discusses the periodontal considerations for the child and adolescent patient, aiming to offer a guide for differential diagnosis and oral management of periodontal disease in the young population.

  17. Surgical Consideration for Adolescents and Young Adults With Cervical Chordoma.

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    Zhong, Nanzhe; Yang, Xinghai; Yang, Jian; Meng, Tong; Yang, Cheng; Yan, Wangjun; Xiao, Jianru

    2017-05-15

    Retrospective study. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes between adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients and old adult patients with cervical chordoma who were treated surgically and present the surgical consideration for adolescents and young adults with cervical chordoma. With predominance in senior patients, chordoma is distinctively rare in AYAs. Because of the rarity of AYA chordoma, individual case report represents most of the literature on this disease entity on mobile spine and lack of long-term follow up, which leads to the paucity of clinical evidence for treatment planning and prognosis prediction. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the prognosis of AYA patients with cervical chordoma who were treated surgically. We collected the clinical data of these patients and their older counterparts, and further compared the prognosis of the patients in different age groups. To estimate survival curves, Kaplan-Meier method was used, and significance was assessed using a log-rank test. Forty consecutive patients with chordoma of the cervical spine treated in our institution were included in the study. Two groups were identified according to age. Group 1 comprised children and adolescents (age ≤ 25 yrs; n = 9) and Group 2 comprised adults (age > 25 years; n = 31). In comparison, Group 1 was featured by significantly higher rate of recurrence and shorter overall survival, although no difference found in the surgical modality between two groups. There is a dismal prognosis in young patients with chordoma, and thus support the notion that as radical a total en bloc spondylectomy (TES) of the lesions as possible may benefit the overall survival of these young patients. Although the ensuing neurological deficits may be devastating, it will be worth sacrificing if the life expectancy of these young patients is prolonged. 4.

  18. Clinical Considerations in the Assessment of Adolescent Chemical Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Ken

    1990-01-01

    Discusses relevant research findings of clinical assessment of adolescent chemical dependency so that service providers can better address these concerns. Three major issues are discussed: the definition of adolescent chemical dependency, clinical domains of assessment (chemical use problem severity, precipitating and perpetuating risk factors,…

  19. Psychobiological correlates of rape in female adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, I.A.E.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable percentage of youth in the Netherlands has been victimized by rape during adolescence. The present research shows that adolescence rape is correlated with high levels of psychological distress, neurobiological dysregulations and increased risk for problems with sexual and pelvic floor

  20. Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Adolescent Care: Psychosocial and Medical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Carly; Shumer, Daniel; Katz-Wise, Sabra L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Transgender individuals display incongruence between their assigned birth sex and their current gender identity, and may identify as male, female or elsewhere on the gender spectrum. Gender nonconformity describes an individual whose gender identity, role, or expression are not typical for individuals in a given assigned sex category. This update highlights recent literature pertaining to the psychosocial and medical care of transgender and gender nonconforming (TGN) adolescents with applications for the general practitioner. Recent findings The psychological risks and outcomes of TGN adolescents are being more widely recognized. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that social and medical gender transition reduces gender dysphoria, defined as distress that accompanies the incongruence between one’s birth sex and identified gender. Unfortunately, lack of education about TGN adolescents in medical training persists. Summary Recent literature highlights increased health risks in TGN adolescents and improved outcomes following gender dysphoria treatment. It is important for clinicians to become familiar with the range of treatment options and referral resources available to TGN adolescents in order to provide optimal and welcoming care to all adolescents. PMID:26087416

  1. Transgender and gender nonconforming adolescent care: psychosocial and medical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Carly; Shumer, Daniel; Katz-Wise, Sabra L

    2015-08-01

    Transgender individuals display incongruence between their assigned birth sex and their current gender identity, and may identify as male, female, or being elsewhere on the gender spectrum. Gender nonconformity describes an individual whose gender identity, role, or expression is not typical for individuals in a given assigned sex category. This update highlights recent literature pertaining to the psychosocial and medical care of transgender and gender nonconforming (TGN) adolescents with applications for the general practitioner. The psychological risks and outcomes of TGN adolescents are being more widely recognized. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that social and medical gender transition reduces gender dysphoria, defined as distress that accompanies the incongruence between one's birth sex and identified gender. Unfortunately, lack of education about TGN adolescents in medical training persists. Recent literature highlights increased health risks in TGN adolescents and improved outcomes following gender dysphoria treatment. It is important for clinicians to become familiar with the range of treatment options and referral resources available to TGN adolescents in order to provide optimal and welcoming care to all adolescents.

  2. Children and Adolescents: Physiological Considerations during Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawbridge, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Because children and adolescents are not just miniature adults, it is important to know that children might be vulnerable to injury and may not respond positively to certain types or intensities of training. It is also important to recognize how training can positively affect growth and development, so it can be judiciously applied at critical…

  3. Special considerations for adolescent athletic and asthmatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuestenfeld JC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jan C Wuestenfeld,1,2 Bernd Wolfarth1,21Department of Preventive and Rehabilitative Sports Medicine, Technical University Munich (TUM, Munich, Germany; 2Institute for Applied Training Science (IAT, Leipzig, GermanyAbstract: Asthma is defined as a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways with bronchial hyperresponsiveness and variable bronchoconstriction, and is one of the most common diseases in childhood and adolescence. Exercise-induced asthma-like symptoms and asthma are also frequently seen in highly trained athletes. Exercise-induced asthma (EIA and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB are found in 8%–10% of healthy school-aged children and in 35% of children with asthma. Highly increased ventilation, inhalation of cold, dry air and air pollutants (eg, chlorine are thought to be important triggers for EIA and EIB. EIA is often experienced concurrently with vocal cord dysfunction, which needs to be considered during the differential diagnosis. The pharmacological treatment of EIA is similar to the treatment of asthma in nonexercising adolescents. The therapy is based on anti-inflammatory drugs (eg, inhaled glucocorticosteroids and bronchodilators (eg, β2-agonists. The treatment of EIB is comparable to the treatment of EIA and leukotriene modifiers offer a new and promising treatment option, particularly in EIB. Generally, athletes may not use β2-agonists according to the prohibited list of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA. However, the WADA list contains specific β2-agonistic substances that are permitted to be used by inhalation.Keywords: exercise-induced asthma, exercise-induced bronchospasm, adolescents, asthma, athletes

  4. Considerations for the definition, measurement, consequences, and prevention of dating violence victimization among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Andra L; Ball, Barbara; Valle, Linda Anne; Noonan, Rita; Rosenbluth, Barri

    2009-07-01

    Violence experienced by adolescent girls from their dating partners poses considerable threat to their health and well-being. This report provides an overview of the prevalence and consequences of heterosexual teen dating violence and highlights the need for comprehensive prevention approaches to dating violence. We also discuss some considerations and future directions for the study and prevention of dating violence. We begin with a discussion of the definition of dating violence and also discuss measurement concerns and the need for evaluation of prevention strategies. Although women and men of all ages may be the victims or perpetrators, male-to-female dating violence experienced by adolescent girls is the main focus of this article. We incorporate research regarding girls' perpetration of dating violence where appropriate and as it relates to prevention.

  5. Developmental and contextual considerations for adrenal and gonadal hormone functioning during adolescence: Implications for adolescent mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Ruttle, Paula L; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Essex, Marilyn J; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2015-09-01

    Substantial research has implicated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes independently in adolescent mental health problems, though this literature remains largely inconclusive. Given the cross-talk between the HPA and HPG axes and their increased activation in adolescence, a dual-axis approach that examines both axes simultaneously is proposed to predict the emergence and persistence of adolescent mental health problems. After briefly orienting readers to HPA and HPG axis functioning, we review the literature examining associations between hormone levels and changes with behavior during adolescence. Then, we provide a review of the literature supporting examination of both axes simultaneously and present the limited research that has taken a dual-axis approach. We propose future directions including consideration of between-person and within-person approaches to address questions of correlated changes in HPA and HPG hormones. Potential moderators are considered to increase understanding of the nuanced hormone-behavior associations during key developmental transitions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Incorporating Social Support in the Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa: Special Considerations for Older Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisetsky, Emily M.; Utzinger, Linsey M.; Peterson, Carol B.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, research support is strongest for family-based treatment (FBT) for the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN) in adolescents. However, a strong evidence base for treatments for older adolescents and young adults with AN is lacking. Emphasizing social support in the treatment of AN may be beneficial for older adolescents and young adults with AN. This paper provides a brief review of the literature on FBT for adolescent AN and provides a case example of adolescent AN treated with FBT. We then discuss novel treatments that have incorporated social support for older adolescents and young adults with AN, such as modified FBT and couples-based interventions. We provide case studies of each of these novel treatment approaches as well. Additionally, this paper highlights and discusses developmental considerations and challenges in working with older adolescents and young adults with AN. PMID:27429544

  7. [Neurobiology of Tourette Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Dilek; Akdemir, Devrim

    2016-01-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by chronic motor and vocal tics. Although it is a common disorder in childhood, the etiology of Tourette Syndrome has not been fully elucidated yet. Studies, -conducted so far- have revealed differences in neurobiological structures of individuals who suffer from Tourette Syndrome. The objective of this review is to assess etiological and pathophysiological studies in the Tourette Syndrome literature. An electronical search was conducted in PubMed database using the keywords tic disorders, Tourette Syndrome, neurobiology, genetics, neuroimaging and animal models. Research and review studies published between 1985 and 2015, with a selection preference towards recent publications, were reviewed. According to the studies, genetic predisposition hypothesis is considered as a priority. However, a precise genetic disorder associated with Tourette Syndrome has not been found. The evidence from postmortem and neuroimaging studies in heterogenous patient groups and animal studies supports the pathological involvement of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits in Tourette Syndrome. Consequently, the most emphasized hypothesis in the pathophysiology is the dopaminergic dysfunction in these circuits. Furthermore, these findings of the animal, postmortem and neuroimaging studies have confirmed the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of Tourette Syndrome. In conclusion, more studies are needed to understand the etiology of the disorder. The data obtained from neurobiological studies of the disorder will not only shed light on the way of Tourette Syndrome, but also guide studies on its treatment options.

  8. A Clinician's Guide to Co-Occurring ADHD among Adolescent Substance Users: Comorbidity, Neurodevelopmental Risk, and Evidence-Based Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Aaron; Evans, Steven W.; Levin, Frances R.

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces neurodevelopmental and clinical considerations for treating adolescents with co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adolescent substance use (ASU) in outpatient settings. We first describe neurobiological impairments common to ADHD and ASU, including comorbidity with conduct disorder, that evoke a…

  9. The international growth standard for preadolescent and adolescent children: statistical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, T J

    2006-12-01

    This article discusses statistical considerations for the design of a new study intended to provide an International Growth Standard for Preadolescent and Adolescent Children, including issues such as cross-sectional, longitudinal, and mixed designs; sample-size derivation for the number of populations and number of children per population; modeling of growth centiles of height, weight, and other measurements; and modeling of the adolescent growth spurt. The conclusions are that a mixed longitudinal design will provide information on both growth distance and velocity; samples of children from 5 to 10 sites should be suitable for an international standard (based on political rather than statistical arguments); the samples should be broadly uniform across age but oversampled during puberty, and should include data into adulthood. The LMS method is recommended for constructing measurement centiles, and parametric or semiparametric approaches are available to estimate the timing of the adolescent growth spurt in individuals. If the new standard is to be grafted onto the 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) reference, caution is needed at the join point of 5 years, where children from the new standard are likely to be appreciably more obese than those from the WHO reference, due to the rising trends in obesity and the time gap in data collection between the two surveys.

  10. The neurobiology of individuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bivort, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    Individuals often display conspicuously different patterns of behavior, even when they are very closely related genetically. These differences give rise to our sense of individuality, but what is their molecular and neurobiological basis? Individuals that are nominally genetically identical differ at various molecular and neurobiological levels: cell-to-cell variation in somatic genomes, cell-to-cell variation in expression patterns, individual-to-individual variation in neuronal morphology and physiology, and individual-to-individual variation in patterns of brain activity. It is unknown which of these levels is fundamentally causal of behavioral differences. To investigate this problem, we use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, whose genetic toolkit allows the manipulation of each of these mechanistic levels, and whose rapid lifecycle and small size allows for high-throughput automation of behavioral assays. This latter point is crucial; identifying inter-individual behavioral differences requires high sample sizes both within and across individual animals. Automated behavioral characterization is at the heart of our research strategy. In every behavior examined, individual flies have individual behavioral preferences, and we have begun to identify both neural genes and circuits that control the degree of behavioral variability between individuals.

  11. Stalking: a neurobiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Falaschi, Valentina; Lombardi, Amedeo; Mungai, Francesco; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays stalking is becoming a real social emergency, as it may often fuel severe aggressive behaviours. No exhaustive aetiological hypothesis is still available regarding this complex phenomenon. However, the detailed descriptions of some of its peculiar features allow to draw with cautions some general suggestions. Probably stalking may arise from the derangement of those neural networks subserving the so-called social brain and the pair bonding formation, in particular the processes of attachment/separation, attraction/romantic love/reward. In addition, it seems to be modulated by excessive functioning of the dopamine system coupled with decreased serotonin tone. It is believed that the investigation and deepening of its possible neurobiological substrates may be helpful in the prevention of the severe consequences of stalking.

  12. The neurobiology of fatherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, James K; Mascaro, Jennifer S

    2017-06-01

    Only about 5% of mammalian species exhibit paternal caregiving in nature, and paternal behavior has evolved multiple times independently among mammals. The most parsimonious way to evolve paternal behavior may be to utilize pre-existing neural systems that are in place for maternal behavior. Despite evidence for similarity in the neurobiology of maternal and paternal behavior in rodents, paternal behavior also has its own dedicated neural circuitry in some species. Human fathers engage conserved subcortical systems that motivate caregiving in rodent parents and human mothers, as well as cortical systems involved with empathy that they share with human mothers. Finally, paternal behavior is modulated by similar hormones and neuropeptides in rodents, non-human primates, and humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neurobiology of Congenital Amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Isabelle

    2016-11-01

    The past decade of research has provided compelling evidence that musical engagement is a fundamental human trait, and its biological basis is increasingly scrutinized. In this endeavor, the detailed study of individuals who have musical deficiencies is instructive because of likely neurogenetic underpinnings. Such individuals have 'congenital amusia', an umbrella term for lifelong musical disabilities that cannot be attributed to intellectual disability, lack of exposure, or brain damage after birth. Key points are reviewed here that have emerged during recent years regarding the neurobiology of the disorder, focusing on the importance of recurrent processing between the right inferior frontal cortex and the auditory cortex for conscious monitoring of musical pitch, and how this relates to developmental cognitive disorders in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Multidisciplinary care considerations for gender nonconforming adolescents with eating disorders: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Abigail A; Hall, Allison; Neukirch, Jodie; Kasper, Vania; Simones, Shannon; Gagnon, Sherry; Reich, Steven; Forcier, Michelle

    2018-05-01

    Gender nonconforming youth are at risk for body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. Currently, only a small body of literature addresses this high-risk group. The five cases in this series highlight important themes for this patient population from an interdisciplinary perspective. Identified themes include increased risk for self-harm/suicide, complex psychiatric, and medical implications of delay to treatment for either gender dysphoria or disordered eating, and the importance of collaborative management to maximize care and facilitate healthy development to adulthood. The purpose of this case series is to expand the interdisciplinary discussion regarding the breadth of presentation and management considerations for gender nonconforming adolescents with disordered eating. An interdisciplinary approach to care might enhance access to comprehensive, collaborative treatment for disordered eating, and gender dysphoria in this unique population. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Neurobiological basis of PTSD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasue, Hidenori; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2006-01-01

    This review describes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from the aspect that it is one of precious neurobiological models where the stress caused by an outer environmental factor affects the livings afterwards. Also described are the actual imaging investigations of PTSD in people encountered the sarin subway terrorism in Tokyo (1995). High resolution MRI has revealed the decreased volume of hippocampus in PTSD patients in recent years. In victims of the terrorism above, authors have found that the volume of anterior cingulate cortical (ACC) gray matter is reduced in voxel-based MRI morphometry and the reduction is well correlated with PTSD severity and lower P300 amplitude. PET and fMRI have shown the hyperactivity of amygdala and hypoactivity of medial prefrontal region around ACC in PTSD. Findings in conditioned animal studies have indicated the importance of ACC neuronal cell activation for fear extinction, where, in humans, fMRI has revealed the cooperation between amygdala and ACC. At present, genetic factors like serotonin transporter polymorphism, environmental ones at infantile stage and their interactive activity are subject to investigation and discussion. Imaging studies will contribute to the clinical diagnosis, treatment and intervention of PTSD. (T.I)

  16. The neurobiology of falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Alfonso; Plotnik, Meir; Bove, Francesco; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2012-12-01

    Falling is a major clinical problem; especially, in elderly population as it often leads to fractures, immobilization, poor quality of life and life-span reduction. Given the growing body of evidences on the physiopathology of balance disorders in humans, in recent years the approach of research on falls has completely changed and new instruments and new definitions have been formulated. Among them, the definition of "idiopathic faller" (i.e. no overt cause for falling in a given subject) represented a milestone in building the "science of falling". This review deals with the new determinants of the neurobiology of falling: (1) the role of motor impairment and particularly of those "mild parkinsonian signs" frequently detectable in elderly subjects, (2) the role of executive and attentive resources when coping with obstacles, (3) the role of vascular lesions in "highest level gait disorder" (a condition tightly connected with senile gait, cautious gait and frailty), (4) the role of the failure of automaticity or inter-limbs coordination/symmetry during walking and such approach would definitely help the development of screening instrument for subjects at risk (still lacking in present days). This translational approach will lead to the development of specific therapeutic interventions.

  17. Tactile learning in rodents: Neurobiology and neuropharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohbakhsh, Ali; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Ayoobi, Fateme; Fatemi, Iman; Allahtavakoli, Mohammad; Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad

    2016-02-15

    Animal models of learning and memory have been the subject of considerable research. Rodents such as mice and rats are nocturnal animals with poor vision, and their survival depends on their sense of touch. Recent reports have shown that whisker somatosensation is the main channel through which rodents collect and process environmental information. This review describes tactile learning in rodents from a neurobiological and neuropharmacological perspective, and how this is involved in memory-related processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sexual Attitudes and Behavior of Guatemalan Teenagers: Considerations for Prevention of Adolescent Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berganza, Carlos E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Conducted 2 studies to explore prevalence of adolescence pregnancy in Guatemala and identify level of contraception. In first study found 89 percent of male and 38 percent of female adolescents (N=850) had experienced coitus. In the second study found pregnancy rate of minors (N=551) in a gynecology clinic was highest for adolescents aged 13-14.…

  19. Neurobiology of anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Walter

    2008-04-22

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are related disorders of unknown etiology that most commonly begin during adolescence in women. AN and BN have unique and puzzling symptoms, such as restricted eating or binge-purge behaviors, body image distortions, denial of emaciation, and resistance to treatment. These are often chronic and relapsing disorders, and AN has the highest death rate of any psychiatric disorder. The lack of understanding of the pathogenesis of this illness has hindered the development of effective interventions, particularly for AN. Individuals with AN and BN are consistently characterized by perfectionism, obsessive-compulsiveness, and dysphoric mood. Individuals with AN tend to have high constraint, constriction of affect and emotional expressiveness, ahendonia and asceticism, whereas individuals with BN tend to be more impulsive and sensation seeking. Such symptoms often begin in childhood, before the onset of an eating disorder, and persist after recovery, suggesting they are traits that create a vulnerability for developing an ED. There is growing acknowledgement that neurobiological vulnerabilities make a substantial contribution to the pathogenesis of AN and BN. Considerable evidence suggests that altered brain serotonin (5-HT) function contributes to dysregulation of appetite, mood, and impulse control in AN and BN. Brain imaging studies, using 5-HT specific ligands, show that disturbances of 5-HT function occur when people are ill, and persist after recovery from AN and BN. It is possible that a trait-related disturbance of 5-HT neuronal modulation predates the onset of AN and contributes to premorbid symptoms of anxiety, obsessionality, and inhibition. This dysphoric temperament may involve an inherent dysregulation of emotional and reward pathways which also mediate the hedonic aspects of feeding, thus making these individuals vulnerable to disturbed appetitive behaviors. Restricting food intake may become powerfully

  20. Cannabis; Epidemiological, Neurobiological and Psychopathological Issues: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Maria Antonietta; Di Chiara, Gaetano; Cadoni, Cristina; Lecca, Daniele; Orsolini, Laura; Papanti, Duccio; Corkery, John; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis is the illicit drug with both the largest current levels of consumption and the highest reported lifetime prevalence levels in the world. Across different countries, the prevalence of cannabis use varies according to the individual income, with the highest use being reported in North America, Australia and Europe. Despite its 'soft drug' reputation, cannabis misuse may be associated with several acute and chronic adverse effects. The present article aims at reviewing several papers on epidemiological, neurobiological and psychopathological aspects of the use of cannabis. The PubMed database was here examined in order to collect and discuss a range of identified papers. Cannabis intake usually starts during late adolescence/early adulthood (15-24 years) and drastically decreases in adulthood with the acquisition of working, familiar and social responsibilities. Clinical evidence supports the current socio-epidemiological alarm concerning the increased consumption among youngsters and the risks related to the onset of psychotic disorders. The mechanism of action of cannabis presents some analogies with other abused drugs, e.g. opiates. Furthermore, it has been well demonstrated that cannabis intake in adolescence may facilitate the transition to the use and/or abuse of other psychotropic drugs, hence properly being considered a 'gateway drug'. Some considerations on synthetic cannabimimetics are provided here as well. In conclusion, the highest prevalence of cannabis use and the social perception of a relatively low associated risk are in contrast with current knowledge based on biological and clinical evidence. Indeed, there are concerns relating to cannabis intake association with detrimental effects on both cognitive impairment and mental health. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. The Medical Transition from Pediatric to Adult-Oriented Care: Considerations for Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Laura C; Maslow, Gary

    2018-01-01

    More adolescents and young adults are surviving previously fatal childhood illness and need support to transition from pediatric care to adult-oriented care. There are many barriers, but guidelines and tools assist providers with emphasis on gradually addressing transition with patients and families. Child and adolescent psychiatrists should be particularly attuned to the needs of adolescents with previously identified mental illness who are at high risk of falling out of regular care during transition. Providers are also uniquely suited to address the needs of adolescents and young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Adolescent mass shootings: developmental considerations in light of the Sandy Hook shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Timothy R; Hoffman, Leon

    2015-05-01

    Adolescent mass shootings are a special subset of mass killings, which continue despite significant preventative public health efforts. It is often held that these individuals have few salient warning signs that could have been identified. This piece proposes that mass shootings committed by adolescent and post-adolescent young males must be understood from a developmental perspective. The hypothesis proposed in this paper is that such killings occur as the result of the adolescent's frustrated effort to progress along normative development. The goal of normative separation from maternal figures by the boy is presented as a potential risk factor when this goal is thwarted. Childhood case material from the perpetrator of a recent adolescent mass shooting, the Sandy Hook shooting, is discussed as an illustration of this hypothesis. Implications for public health measures and for individualized treatment are presented and developed.

  3. Neurobiological basis of parenting disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Louise K; Harris, Melissa; Allen, Joanne

    2011-02-01

    It has been proposed that early attachment relationships shape the structure and reactivity of social brain structures that underlie later social capacities. We provide a review of the literature surrounding the development of neurological regulatory systems during infancy and outline recent research suggesting these systems go on to underlie adaptive parental responses. We review evidence in the peer-reviewed psychiatric literature including (i) observational human literature on the neurobiological and social sequelae of early parenting experiences, (ii) experimental animal literature on the effects of early maternal care on neurological development, (iii) experimental animal literature on the neurobiological underpinnings of parenting behaviours, (iv) observational and fMRI evidence on the neurobiological correlates of parenting behaviours, (v) functional and volumetric imaging studies on adults affected by borderline personality disorder. The development of infant regulatory systems is influenced by early parenting experiences. These frontolimbic regulatory systems are also heavily implicated in normal parental responses to infant cues. These frontolimbic disturbances are also observed in studies of borderline personality disorder; a disorder associated with poor emotional regulation, early trauma and disturbed parenting. While the current literature is limited to animal models of abnormal care giving, existing disorders associated with deficits in regulatory capacity and abnormal frontolimbic functioning may yet provide a human model of the neurobiology of parenting disturbance.

  4. Neurobiological Substrates of Tourette's Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leckman, James F.; Bloch, Michael H.; Smith, Megan E.; Larabi, Daouia; Hampson, Michelle

    Objective: This article reviews the available scientific literature concerning the neurobiological substrates of Tourette's disorder (TD). Methods: The electronic databases of PubMed, ScienceDirect, and PsycINFO were searched for relevant studies using relevant search terms. Results:

  5. Mental health: More than neurobiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fried, E.; Tuerlinckx, F.; Borsboom, D.

    2014-01-01

    The decision by the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to fund only research into the neurobiological roots of mental disorders (Nature 507, 288; 2014) presumes that these all result from brain abnormalities. But this is not the case for many people with mental-health issues and we fear

  6. [The neurobiology of antisocial behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomans, M M; Tulen, J H M; van Marle, H J C

    2010-01-01

    Neuro-imaging is being used increasingly to provide explanations for antisocial behaviour. To make a neurobiological contribution to the diagnosis of many types of antisocial behaviour. The literature was searched using PubMed and combinations of the keywords 'psychopathy', 'antisocial', 'neurobiology' and 'neuro-anatomy' for the period 1990-2009. Impairments in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, superior temporal gyrus, corpus callosum and anterior cingulate cortex provide a possible explanation for a large number of the symptoms associated with antisocial behaviour. The concept of psychopathy is connected mainly with impairments in a prefrontal-temporal-limbic system. CONCLUSION Combinations of deficiencies in the associated brain areas and malfunctioning of the communication between the various brain structures seem to play a more important role than deficiencies in the separate brain structures.

  7. The neurobiological basis of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curatolo Paolo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is not a single pathophysiological entity and appears to have a complex etiology. There are multiple genetic and environmental risk factors with small individual effect that act in concert to create a spectrum of neurobiological liability. Structural imaging studies show that brains of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder are significantly smaller than unaffected controls. The prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum are differentially affected and evidence indicating reduced connectivity in white matter tracts in key brain areas is emerging. Genetic, pharmacological, imaging, and animal models highlight the important role of dopamine dysregulation in the neurobiology of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. To date, stimulants are the most effective psychopharmacological treatments available for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Currently only immediate release methylphenidate and atomoxetine are approved for the treatment of ADHD in Italy. Drug treatment should always be part of a comprehensive plan that includes psychosocial, behavioural and educational advice and interventions.

  8. Reflexões sobre a anticoncepção na adolescência no Brasil Considerations on contraceptive methods used by adolescents in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Maria Vieira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Faz-se uma reflexão sobre a contracepção e suas conseqüências na adolescência, baseada em trabalhos nacionais e internacionais alertam para a precocidade do início da atividade sexual, a qual expõe os adolescentes aos riscos da gravidez e das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e AIDS. Verifica-se que a maioria dos adolescentes recebe informações sobre contracepção, sendo a pílula e o preservativo os mais conhecidos e utilizados. Porém, registram-se elevada inadequação na utilização dos métodos contraceptivos, além da falta de serviços assistências, onde possam buscar orientações e atendimento. Tal realidade alerta para a necessidade de maior envolvimento de profissionais da saúde, da educação, família e comunidade, garantindo qualidade de vida aos adolescentes.Considerations about the consequences of contraceptives use by adolescents, are made, based on National and international studies warn against early sexual life exposing adolescents to the risks of pregnancy and sexualy transmissible diseases including AIDS. For the most adolescents informations on contraceptives are offered, the pill and the condom being the most popular and used methods. However, a high inadequacy level of contraceptive methods was determined in addition to the lack of guidance and assistance services. Such a situation alerts to the need to have health and education professionals, family and community involved to warrant adolescents an improved life quality.

  9. Neurobiology of consciousness: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacour, J

    1997-05-01

    The aim of this review is to connect the phenomenology of consciousness to its neurobiology. A survey of the recent literature revealed the following points. (1) Comprehensive descriptions of consciousness, of its subjective as well as of its objective aspects, are both possible and necessary for its scientific study. An intentionality-modeling structure (an unified and stable ego refers to objects or to itself in the framework of a stable, reproducible, predictable world) accounts for the main features. (2) The material basis of consciousness can be clarified without recourse to new properties of matter or to quantum physics. Current neurobiology appears to be able to handle the problem. In fact, the neurobiology of consciousness is already in progress, and has achieved substantial results. At the system level, its main sources of data are: the neurophysiology of sleep-wakefulness, brain imaging of mental representations, attention and working memory, the neuropsychology of frontal syndrome, and awareness-unawareness dissociations in global amnesia and different forms of agnosia. At an intermediate level of organization, the mechanisms of consciousness may be the formation of a certain kind of neural assembly. (3) Further research may focus on neuropsychology and neurophysiology of object perception and recognition as a natural model of intentionality, perception of time, body schema, interhemispheric communications, 'voluntary' acts and mental images. The synthetic and dynamic views provided by brain imaging may be decisive for discovering the neural correlates of the integrative aspects of consciousness. (4) The neurobiological approach may, beyond the finding of cellular and molecular mechanisms, improve the general concepts of consciousness, overcome their antinomies and, against epiphenomenalism, definitely establish the reality of consciousness.

  10. Taking a toy gun to school: a consideration of the determinants of adolescent forensic behavior in the aftermath of the Sandy Hook shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Timothy R; Hoffman, Leon

    2015-05-01

    Adolescent forensic behavior can have a variety of meanings. A consideration of the range of meanings can inform the practice of the psychiatric forensic evaluation. This case report describes the history of an adolescent in individual treatment for disruptive and self-defeating behaviors who brought a concealed toy gun into his high school in the aftermath of the Sandy Hook shooting. The overdetermined nature of this act, as well as a consideration of its multiple meanings in the context of the young man's psychology, his educational and family systems, and his relationship with his treatment provider, will be described and developed. The discussion will broaden to consider the parameters of indicated therapeutic programs to address this subset of adolescent forensic behaviors. The role of deficient implicit emotion regulation capacities in adolescents and the corrective measures to target these neurobehavioral deficits will be described. The report concludes with implications for primary prevention of future adolescent forensic behaviors.

  11. Clinical considerations in the management of inflammatory periodontal diseases in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanilla, Leyvee; Molinari, Gail

    2009-01-01

    Periodontal diseases and conditions, as defined by The 1999 International Workshop for Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions presented some significant paradigm shifts based on evidence that the transition from plaque-associated reversible gingival diseases to periodontitis can occur in children and adolescents with characteristics which were previously thought to be typical of adult periodontitis. The purposes of this paper are to present the periodontal diseases and conditions described in the 1999 workshop sponsored by the American Academy of Periodontology, review the risk factors for the development of periodontal diseases in the pediatric and adolescent populations, and present appropriate clinical periodontal assessment and management for these age groups.

  12. The impact of parental divorce for adolescents: a consideration of intervention beyond the crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, S; Petersen, V

    2001-10-01

    The effects of divorce on children and adolescents remain a major public health issue. Over the last three decades, there has been ongoing debate among researchers and mental health and legal professionals who counsel divorcing families as to whether the effects are acute but time-limited or more enduring. This chapter looks at the tasks of normal adolescent psychosocial development and how divorce complicates those tasks. It suggests ways that pediatricians and other health professionals can intervene effectively with divorcing families within the context of their role. Divorce-specific resources and services are explained.

  13. Complementary and alternative medicine in child and adolescent psychiatry: legal considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael H; Natbony, Suzanne R; Abbott, Ryan B

    2013-07-01

    The rising popularity of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in child and adolescent psychiatry raises unique ethical and legal concerns for psychiatrists and other conventional health care providers. This article explores these concerns and provides clinical advice for promoting patient health and safety while minimizing the psychiatrist's risk. Although any departure from the conventional standard of care is a potential risk, the risk of malpractice liability for practicing integrative medicine in child and adolescent psychiatry is low. CAM is most safely recommended from a legal standpoint when there is some published evidence of safety and efficacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mindfulness in Practice: Considerations for Implementation of Mindfulness-Based Programming for Adolescents in School Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Molly Steward

    2014-01-01

    Schools are considered one of the primary settings in which prevention and intervention initiatives can be implemented successfully, reaching a large number of young people. Especially when promoting social and emotional learning (SEL), many adolescents benefit from universal programs implemented in the school context. This chapter embeds…

  15. The use of pedometers for monitoring physical activity in children and adolescents: measurement considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemes, Stacy A; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2013-02-01

    Pedometers are increasingly being used to measure physical activity in children and adolescents. This review provides an overview of common measurement issues relating to their use. Studies addressing the following measurement issues in children/adolescents (aged 3-18 years) were included: pedometer validity and reliability, monitoring period, wear time, reactivity, and data treatment and reporting. Pedometer surveillance studies in children/adolescents (aged: 4-18 years) were also included to enable common measurement protocols to be highlighted. In children > 5 years, pedometers provide a valid and reliable, objective measure of ambulatory activity. Further evidence is required on pedometer validity in preschool children. Across all ages, optimal monitoring frames to detect habitual activity have yet to be determined; most surveillance studies use 7 days. It is recommended that standardized wear time criteria are established for different age groups, and that wear times are reported. As activity varies between weekdays and weekend days, researchers interested in habitual activity should include both types of day in surveillance studies. There is conflicting evidence on the presence of reactivity to pedometers. Pedometers are a suitable tool to objectively assess ambulatory activity in children (> 5 years) and adolescents. This review provides recommendations to enhance the standardization of measurement protocols.

  16. Becoming a Woman: Considerations in Educating Adolescents about Menstruation. Revised 1988. Working Paper No. 169.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Margaret L.; And Others

    This paper reports findings that have emerged from several studies conducted concerning young girls' and boys' attitudes toward menstruation. The research work discussed included: (1) cross-sectional data about menarcheal experience and about attitudes toward menstruation from early adolescent girls in grades six through nine; (2) cross-sectional…

  17. Ergonomic and Anthropometric Considerations of the Use of Computers in Schools by Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermolajew, Anna M.; Newhouse, C. Paul

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been an explosion in the provision of computing facilities in schools for student use. However, there is concern that the development of these facilities has often given little regard to the ergonomics of the design for use by children, particularly adolescents. This paper reports on a study that investigated the…

  18. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Neurobiology, Diagnostic Problems and Clinical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Tuglu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a chronic, lifelong neurobeha-vioral disorder with childhood-onset, which seriously impairs the affected adults in a variety of daily living functions like academic, social and occupational functioning. Prevalence of ADHD declines with age in the general population. The approximate prevalence rates of ADHD is 8% in childhood, 6% in adolescence and 4% in adulthood. The unclear validity of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for this condition can lead to reduced prevalence rates by underestimation of the prevalence of adult ADHD. The disorder is characterized by behavioral symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity across the life cycle and is associated with considerable morbidity and disability. Although its etiology remains unclear, considerable evidence documents its strong neurobiological and genetic underpinnings. ADHD is associated with a high percentage of comorbid psychiatric disorders in every lifespan. In adulthood between 65-89% of all patients with ADHD suffer from one or more additional psychiatric disorders, above all mood and anxiety disorders, substance use disorders and personality disorders, which complicate the clinical picture in terms of diagnostics, treatment and outcome issues. The high comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders, the resulting deficits in social competences and risky health behavior that often go along with a diminished life quality must be stressed in these patients. Preventive and therapeutic interventions should be taken at an early stage to counteract the possible negative influences of ADHD on functioning and relationships. In this paper, we reviewed the historical aspects, epidemiology, neurobiology, comorbidity, diagnostic difficulties and clinical features of adult ADHD.

  19. Neurobiological and neurocognitive effects of chronic cigarette smoking and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2007-05-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with adverse effects on cardiac, pulmonary, and vascular function as well as the increased risk for various forms of cancer. However, little is known about the effects of chronic smoking on human brain function. Although smoking rates have decreased in the developed world, they remain high in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD) and other neuropsychiatric conditions. Despite the high prevalence of chronic smoking in AUD, few studies have addressed the potential neurobiological or neurocognitive consequences of chronic smoking in alcohol use disorders. Here, we review the the neurobiological and neurocognitive findings in both AUD and chronic cigarette smoking, followed by a review of the effects of comorbid cigarette smoking on neurobiology and neurocognition in AUD. Recent research suggests that comorbid chronic cigarette smoking modulates magnetic resonance-detectable brain injury and neurocognition in alcohol use disorders and adversely affects neurobiological and neurocognitive recovery in abstinent alcoholics.. Consideration of the potential separate and interactive effects of chronic smoking and alcohol use disorders may have significant implications for pharmacological and behavioral treatment interventions.

  20. Neurobiology of emotions: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperidião-Antonio, Vanderson; Majeski-Colombo, Marilia; Toledo-Monteverde, Diana; Moraes-Martins, Glaciele; Fernandes, Juliana José; Bauchiglioni de Assis, Marjorie; Montenegro, Stefânia; Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo

    2017-06-01

    The 'nature' of emotions is one of the archaic themes of Western thought, thematized in different cultural manifestations - such as art, science, philosophy, myths and religion -, since Ancient times. In the last decades, the advances in neurosciences have permitted the construction of hypotheses that explain emotions, especially through the studies involving the limbic system. To present an updated discussion about the neurobiology of processes relating to emotions - focusing (1) on the main neural structures that relate to emotions, (2) the paths and circuits of greater relevance, (3) the implicated neurotransmitters, (4) the connections that possess neurovegetative control and (5) the discussion about the main emotions - is the objective of this present article.

  1. Neurobiology of aggression and violence

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Escobar, Joaquín; Alcázar Córcoles, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    La neurobiología de la agresión y la violencia es de interés para la psicología jurídica porque buenaparte de la conducta delictiva tiene componentes violentos. En esta revisión se definen en primer lugarambos conceptos, para diferenciar a continuación los tipos de agresión (impulsiva vs. instrumental) queaparecen en la literatura científica y finalmente analizar las estructuras nerviosas que según los estudiossobre lesiones cerebrales o de neuroimagen están asociadas con la agresión. Esta re...

  2. The neurobiology of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Sean

    2018-01-06

    Directional climate change (global warming) is causing rapid alterations in animals' environments. Because the nervous system is at the forefront of animals' interactions with the environment, the neurobiological implications of climate change are central to understanding how individuals, and ultimately populations, will respond to global warming. Evidence is accumulating for individual level, mechanistic effects of climate change on nervous system development and performance. Climate change can also alter sensory stimuli, changing the effectiveness of sensory and cognitive systems for achieving biological fitness. At the population level, natural selection forces stemming from directional climate change may drive rapid evolutionary change in nervous system structure and function.

  3. The neurobiology of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Sean

    2018-02-01

    Directional climate change (global warming) is causing rapid alterations in animals' environments. Because the nervous system is at the forefront of animals' interactions with the environment, the neurobiological implications of climate change are central to understanding how individuals, and ultimately populations, will respond to global warming. Evidence is accumulating for individual level, mechanistic effects of climate change on nervous system development and performance. Climate change can also alter sensory stimuli, changing the effectiveness of sensory and cognitive systems for achieving biological fitness. At the population level, natural selection forces stemming from directional climate change may drive rapid evolutionary change in nervous system structure and function.

  4. Periodontal considerations in the use of bonds or bands on molars in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, R L; Baumrind, S

    1992-01-01

    This longitudinal study compared the periodontal status of bonded and banded molars in 20 adult and 40 adolescent patients before, during and after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Plaque accumulation (measured by the Plaque Index), gingival inflammation (measured by the Gingival Index and the bleeding tendency), and pocket depth were assessed by one examiner at sites along the mesio-buccal line angle of the maxillary right first molar and the mandibular left first molar. Assessments were made immediately prior to the placement of fixed appliances (pretreatment), at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months after appliances were placed; and 3 months after appliances were removed (posttreatment). Loss of attachment between the pretreatment and posttreatment visits also was determined. At pretreatment, no significant differences were found in gingival inflammation between maxillary and mandibular banded and bonded molars. During treatment, both maxillary and mandibular banded molars showed significantly (p less than 0.05) greater gingival inflammation and plaque accumulation than did bonded molars. Three months after appliance removal, the maxillary molars that had been banded continued to show significantly more gingival inflammation and loss of attachment than did the maxillary molars that had been bonded. When all banded and bonded teeth were grouped by patient age, mean values for plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation in the maxillary molar regions were significantly greater for adolescents than for adults.

  5. Autonomy of children and adolescents in consent to treatment: ethical, jurisprudential and legal considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsapoor, Alireza; Parsapoor, Mohammad-Bagher; Rezaei, Nima; Asghari, Fariba

    2014-06-01

    Autonomy is usually considered as a main principle in making decisions about individuals' health. Children and particularly adolescents have the capacity to take part in medical decision-making to some extent. For the most part the parent-doctor-child/adolescent triangle sides are essentially in agreement, but this may not be true in some cases, causing physicians to face problems attempting to determine their professional duties. According to Islamic jurisprudent upon reaching the age of Taklif (15 full lunar years for boys and 9 full lunar years for girls) no one can be treated as incompetent based on mental immaturity unless his or her insanity or mental immaturity is provend Moreover the Islamic Sharia, decrees that parents should lose their authority to make medical decisions for their children, if their bad faith or imprudence is proven, in which case a fit and proper person or an institution will be appointed to make decisions in this respect based on the child's best interests.

  6. Addressing the Needs of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Considerations and Complexities for High School Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharczyk, Suzanne; Reutebuch, Colleen K.; Carter, Erik W.; Hedges, Susan; El Zein, Farah; Gustafson, Jenny R.

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are driving the field to address how secondary education might be optimally designed and delivered. We conducted 28 focus groups across four states to explore the contexts, considerations, and complexities associated with delivering and combining evidence-based interventions to meet the…

  7. Waking and dreaming consciousness: neurobiological and functional considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, J A; Friston, K J

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a theoretical review of rapid eye movement sleep with a special focus on pontine-geniculate-occipital waves and what they might tell us about the functional anatomy of sleep and consciousness. In particular, we review established ideas about the nature and purpose of sleep in terms of protoconsciousness and free energy minimization. By combining these theoretical perspectives, we discover answers to some fundamental questions about sleep: for example, why is homeothermy suspended during sleep? Why is sleep necessary? Why are we not surprised by our dreams? What is the role of synaptic regression in sleep? The imperatives for sleep that emerge also allow us to speculate about the functional role of PGO waves and make some empirical predictions that can, in principle, be tested using recent advances in the modeling of electrophysiological data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Waking and dreaming consciousness: Neurobiological and functional considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, J.A.; Friston, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical review of rapid eye movement sleep with a special focus on pontine-geniculate-occipital waves and what they might tell us about the functional anatomy of sleep and consciousness. In particular, we review established ideas about the nature and purpose of sleep in terms of protoconsciousness and free energy minimization. By combining these theoretical perspectives, we discover answers to some fundamental questions about sleep: for example, why is homeothermy suspended during sleep? Why is sleep necessary? Why are we not surprised by our dreams? What is the role of synaptic regression in sleep? The imperatives for sleep that emerge also allow us to speculate about the functional role of PGO waves and make some empirical predictions that can, in principle, be tested using recent advances in the modeling of electrophysiological data. PMID:22609044

  9. DSM-V diagnostic criteria for bereavement-related disorders in children and adolescents: developmental considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplow, Julie B; Layne, Christopher M; Pynoos, Robert S; Cohen, Judith A; Lieberman, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Two bereavement-related disorders are proposed for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V): Adjustment Disorder Related to Bereavement, to be located in the main body of the text as an official diagnostic entity; and Bereavement-Related Disorder, including a Traumatic Death Specifier, to be located in the Appendix as an invitation for further research. These diagnoses currently do not include developmentally informed criteria, despite the importance of developmental processes in the ways children and adolescents grieve. In this article, we draw upon a selective review of the empirical literature and expert clinical knowledge to recommend developmentally informed modifications and specifiers of the proposed criteria for both bereavement disorders and strategies to improve future research. This article is derived from an invited report submitted to the DSM-V Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Trauma, and Dissociative Disorders Sub-Work Group, and suggested modifications have received preliminary approval to be incorporated into the DSM-V at the time of this writing. Adoption of these proposals will have far-reaching consequences, given that DSM-V criteria will influence both critical treatment choices for bereaved youth and the next generation of research studies.

  10. An embodied view of octopus neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochner, Binyamin

    2012-10-23

    Octopuses have a unique flexible body and unusual morphology, but nevertheless they are undoubtedly a great evolutionary success. They compete successfully with vertebrates in their ecological niche using a rich behavioral repertoire more typical of an intelligent predator which includes extremely effective defensive behavior--fast escape swimming and an astonishing ability to adapt their shape and color to their environment. The most obvious characteristic feature of an octopus is its eight long and flexible arms, but these pose a great challenge for achieving the level of motor and sensory information processing necessary for their behaviors. First, coordinating motion is a formidable task because of the infinite degrees of freedom that have to be controlled; and second, it is hard to use body coordinates in this flexible animal to represent sensory information in a central control system. Here I will review experimental results suggesting that these difficulties, arising from the animal's morphology, have imposed the evolution of unique brain/body/behavior relationships best explained as intelligent behavior which emerges from the octopus's embodied organization. The term 'intelligent embodiment' comes from robotics and refers to an approach to designing autonomous robots in which the behavior emerges from the dynamic physical and sensory interactions of the agent's materials, morphology and environment. Consideration of the unusual neurobiology of the octopus in the light of its unique morphology suggests that similar embodied principles are instrumental for understanding the emergence of intelligent behavior in all biological systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The neurobiology of psychopathy: a neurodevelopmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Glenn, Andrea L; Schug, Robert A; Yang, Yaling; Raine, Adrian

    2009-12-01

    We provide an overview of the neurobiological underpinnings of psychopathy. Cognitive and affective-emotional processing deficits are associated with abnormal brain structure and function, particularly the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex. There is limited evidence of lower cortisol levels being associated with psychopathic personality. Initial developmental research is beginning to suggest that these neurobiological processes may have their origins early in life. Findings suggest that psychopathic personality may, in part, have a neurodevelopmental basis. Future longitudinal studies delineating neurobiological correlates of the analogues of interpersonal-affective and antisocial features of psychopathy in children are needed to further substantiate a neurodevelopmental hypothesis of psychopathy.

  12. Obesity and addiction: neurobiological overlaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, N D; Wang, G-J; Tomasi, D; Baler, R D

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction and obesity appear to share several properties. Both can be defined as disorders in which the saliency of a specific type of reward (food or drug) becomes exaggerated relative to, and at the expense of others rewards. Both drugs and food have powerful reinforcing effects, which are in part mediated by abrupt dopamine increases in the brain reward centres. The abrupt dopamine increases, in vulnerable individuals, can override the brain's homeostatic control mechanisms. These parallels have generated interest in understanding the shared vulnerabilities between addiction and obesity. Predictably, they also engendered a heated debate. Specifically, brain imaging studies are beginning to uncover common features between these two conditions and delineate some of the overlapping brain circuits whose dysfunctions may underlie the observed deficits. The combined results suggest that both obese and drug-addicted individuals suffer from impairments in dopaminergic pathways that regulate neuronal systems associated not only with reward sensitivity and incentive motivation, but also with conditioning, self-control, stress reactivity and interoceptive awareness. In parallel, studies are also delineating differences between them that centre on the key role that peripheral signals involved with homeostatic control exert on food intake. Here, we focus on the shared neurobiological substrates of obesity and addiction. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  13. Stress: Neurobiology, consequences and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress, both physical and psychological, is attracting increasing attention among neuroresearchers. In the last 20 decades, there has been a surge of interest in the research of stress-induced manifestations and this approach has resulted in the development of more appropriate animal models for stress-associated pathologies and its therapeutic management. These stress models are an easy and convenient method for inducing both psychological and physical stress. To understand the behavioral changes underlying major depression, molecular and cellular studies are required. Dysregulation of the stress system may lead to disturbances in growth and development, and may this may further lead to the development of various other psychiatric disorders. This article reviews the different types of stress and their neurobiology, including the different neurotransmitters affected. There are various complications associated with stress and their management through various pharmacological and non-pharmacological techniques. The use of herbs in the treatment of stress-related problems is practiced in both Indian and Western societies, and it has a vast market in terms of anti-stress medications and treatments. Non-pharmacological techniques such as meditation and yoga are nowadays becoming very popular as a stress-relieving therapy because of their greater effectiveness and no associated side effects. Therefore, this review highlights the changes under stress and stressor and their impact on different animal models in understanding the mechanisms of stress along with their effective and safe management.

  14. Child Maltreatment, Adolescent Attachment Style, and Dating Violence: Considerations in Youths with Borderline-to-Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; MacMullin, Jennifer; Waechter, Randall; Wekerle, Christine

    2011-01-01

    One of the most salient developmental tasks of adolescence is the entry into romantic relationship, which often involves developing attachments to partners. Adolescents with a history of maltreatment have been found to be at greater risk of insecure attachments to romantic partners than non-maltreated adolescents, and the interaction of…

  15. Neurobiology of anxious depression: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Dawn F; Niciu, Mark J; Mathews, Daniel C; Richards, Erica M; Zarate, Carlos A

    2013-04-01

    Anxious depression is a common, distinct clinical subtype of major depressive disorder (MDD). This review summarizes current neurobiological knowledge regarding anxious depression. Peer-reviewed articles, published January 1970 through September 2012, were identified via PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library, using the following key words: anxious depression electroencephalography (EEG), anxious depression functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), anxious depression genetics, anxious depression neurobiology, and anxious melancholia neurobiology. Despite a general dearth of neurobiological research, the results suggest that anxious depression-when defined either syndromally or dimensionally-has distinct neurobiological findings that separate it from nonanxious depression. Structural neuroimaging, EEG, genetics, and neuropsychiatric studies revealed differences in subjects with anxious depression compared to other groups. Endocrine differences between individuals with anxious depression and those with nonanxious depression have also been noted, as evidenced by abnormal responses elicited by exogenous stimulation of the system. Despite these findings, heterogeneity in the definition of anxious depression complicates the results. Because exploring the neurobiology of this depressive subtype is important for improving diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, enrichment strategies to decrease heterogeneity within the field should be employed for future research. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Integrated neurobiology of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir eMaletic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From a neurobiological perspective there is no such thing as bipolar disorder. Rather, it is almost certainly the case that many somewhat similar, but subtly different, pathological conditions produce a disease state that we currently diagnose as bipolarity. This heterogeneity—reflected in the lack of synergy between our current diagnostic schema and our rapidly advancing scientific understanding of the condition—limits attempts to articulate an integrated perspective on bipolar disorder. However, despite these challenges, scientific findings in recent years are beginning to offer a provisional unified field theory of the disease. This theory sees bipolar disorder as a suite of related neurodevelopmental conditions with interconnected functional abnormalities that often appear early in life and worsen over time. In addition to accelerated loss of volume in brain areas known to be essential for mood regulation and cognitive function, consistent findings have emerged at a cellular level, providing evidence that bipolar disorder is reliably associated with dysregulation of glial-neuronal interactions. Among these glial elements are microglia—the brain’s primary immune elements, which appear to be overactive in the context of bipolarity. Multiple studies now indicate that inflammation is also increased in the periphery of the body in both the depressive and manic phases of the illness, with at least some return to normality in the euthymic state. These findings are consistent with changes in the HPA axis, which are known to drive inflammatory activation. In summary, the very fact that no single gene, pathway or brain abnormality is likely to ever account for the condition is itself an extremely important first step in better articulating an integrated perspective on both its ontological status and pathogenesis. Whether this perspective will translate into the discovery of innumerable more homogeneous forms of bipolarity is one of the great

  17. Integrated Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletic, Vladimir; Raison, Charles

    2014-01-01

    From a neurobiological perspective there is no such thing as bipolar disorder. Rather, it is almost certainly the case that many somewhat similar, but subtly different, pathological conditions produce a disease state that we currently diagnose as bipolarity. This heterogeneity – reflected in the lack of synergy between our current diagnostic schema and our rapidly advancing scientific understanding of the condition – limits attempts to articulate an integrated perspective on bipolar disorder. However, despite these challenges, scientific findings in recent years are beginning to offer a provisional “unified field theory” of the disease. This theory sees bipolar disorder as a suite of related neurodevelopmental conditions with interconnected functional abnormalities that often appear early in life and worsen over time. In addition to accelerated loss of volume in brain areas known to be essential for mood regulation and cognitive function, consistent findings have emerged at a cellular level, providing evidence that bipolar disorder is reliably associated with dysregulation of glial–neuronal interactions. Among these glial elements are microglia – the brain’s primary immune elements, which appear to be overactive in the context of bipolarity. Multiple studies now indicate that inflammation is also increased in the periphery of the body in both the depressive and manic phases of the illness, with at least some return to normality in the euthymic state. These findings are consistent with changes in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, which are known to drive inflammatory activation. In summary, the very fact that no single gene, pathway, or brain abnormality is likely to ever account for the condition is itself an extremely important first step in better articulating an integrated perspective on both its ontological status and pathogenesis. Whether this perspective will translate into the discovery of innumerable more homogeneous forms of

  18. Towards a neurobiological model of offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ian J; Beech, Anthony R

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we consider how disturbances in the neurobiological/neurochemical processes at a young age lead to problematic attachment styles in later life, and which can potentiate probability of offending behavior. In particular, we will contrast attachment and offending patterns of the more generalist type of offender (i.e., those who have a varied criminal career, committing both violent and non-violent offenses, in extremis the psychopathic type of offender), with the more specialist sexual offender (prototypically, the fixated pedophile), in the light of a preliminary neurobiological model. Here, we will argue that these two extremes of offenders show, or are predicted to show, differential patterns of neurochemical/neurobiological functioning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Recent progress in neurobiological mechanisms of depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Bo; Li, Liang-Ping; Zhu, Xin-Hong; Gao, Tian-Ming

    2012-08-25

    Revealing the neurobiological mechanism of depression has always been a big challenge in the field of neuroscience. Not only are depressive syndromes heterogeneous and their aetiologies diverse, but also some symptoms are impossible to reproduce in animal models. Nevertheless, great progress has been made on the understanding and treatment of depression in recent years. In this review, we focus on key leading hypotheses in the neurobiological mechanism of depression, examine their strengths and weaknesses critically, and also highlight new insights that promise to extend the understanding of depression and its treatment.

  20. [Conversion disorder : functional neuroimaging and neurobiological mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, J; Piette, C; Salmon, E; Scantamburlo, G

    2017-04-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder often encountered in neurology services. This condition without organic lesions was and still is sometimes referred as an imaginary illness or feigning. However, the absence of organic lesions does not exclude the possibility of cerebral dysfunction. The etiologic mechanisms underlying this disorder remain uncertain even today.The advent of cognitive and functional imaging opens up a field of exploration for psychiatry in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying mental disorders and especially the conversion disorder. This article reports several neuroimaging studies of conversion disorder and attempts to generate hypotheses about neurobiological mechanisms.

  1. Adolescence, schizophrenia and drug abuse: a window of vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, L.; de Haan, L.; van Beveren, N.; van den Brink, W.; Linszen, D.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To discuss the neurobiological and psychosocial developmental factors in adolescence contributing to simultaneous onset and co-occurrence of psychosis and substance use disorders. METHOD: A review of the literature. RESULTS: Adolescence is a period with specific psychosocial challenges

  2. The Neurobiology of Trust and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Derek

    2018-01-01

    Are there neurobiological reasons why we are willing to trust other people and why "trust" and moral values such as "care" play a quite pivotal role in our social lives and the judgements we make, including our social interactions and judgements made in the context of schooling? In pursuing this question, this paper largely…

  3. The Neurobiology of Swallowing and Dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arthur J.

    2008-01-01

    The neurobiological study of swallowing and its dysfunction, defined as dysphagia, has evolved over two centuries beginning with electrical stimulation applied directly to the central nervous system, and then followed by systematic investigations that have used lesioning, transmagnetic stimulation, magnetoencephalography, and functional magnetic…

  4. The neurobiology of syntax: beyond string sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The human capacity to acquire language is an outstanding scientific challenge to understand. Somehow our language capacities arise from the way the human brain processes, develops and learns in interaction with its environment. To set the stage, we begin with a summary of what is known about the neural organization of language and what our artificial grammar learning (AGL) studies have revealed. We then review the Chomsky hierarchy in the context of the theory of computation and formal learning theory. Finally, we outline a neurobiological model of language acquisition and processing based on an adaptive, recurrent, spiking network architecture. This architecture implements an asynchronous, event-driven, parallel system for recursive processing. We conclude that the brain represents grammars (or more precisely, the parser/generator) in its connectivity, and its ability for syntax is based on neurobiological infrastructure for structured sequence processing. The acquisition of this ability is accounted for in an adaptive dynamical systems framework. Artificial language learning (ALL) paradigms might be used to study the acquisition process within such a framework, as well as the processing properties of the underlying neurobiological infrastructure. However, it is necessary to combine and constrain the interpretation of ALL results by theoretical models and empirical studies on natural language processing. Given that the faculty of language is captured by classical computational models to a significant extent, and that these can be embedded in dynamic network architectures, there is hope that significant progress can be made in understanding the neurobiology of the language faculty. PMID:22688633

  5. Atypical Neurotransmitters and the Neurobiology of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joca, Samia Regiane; Moreira, Fabricio Araujo; Wegener, Gregers

    2015-01-01

    Since the first report that the mechanism of action of antidepressants involves the facilitation of monoaminergic neurotransmission in the brain in the 1960s, the leading hypothesis about the neurobiology of depression has been the so called "monoaminergic hypothesis". However, a growing body of evidence from the last two decades also supports important involvement of non-monoaminergic mechanisms in the neurobiology of depression and antidepressant action. The discovery of nitric oxide (NO) and endocannabinoid signaling in the brain during the 1990s challenged the wellestablished criteria of classical neurotransmission. These transmitters are synthesized and released on demand by the postsynaptic neurons, and may act as a retrograde messenger on the presynaptic terminal, modulating neurotransmitter release. These unconventional signaling mechanisms and the important role as neural messengers have classified NO and endocannabinoids as atypical neurotransmitters. They are able to modulate neural signaling mediated by the main conventional neurotransmitters systems in the brain, including the monoaminergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic signaling systems. This review aims at discussing the fundamental aspects of NO- and endocannabinoid-mediated signaling in the brain, and how they can be related to the neurobiology of depression. Both preclinical and clinical evidence supporting the involvement of these atypical neurotransmitters in the neurobiology of depression, and in the antidepressant effects are presented here. The evidence is discussed on basis of their ability to modulate different neurotransmitter systems in the brain, including monoaminergic and glutamatergic ones. A better comprehension of NO and endocannabinoid signaling mechanisms in the neurobiology depression could provide new avenues for the development of novel non-monoamine based antidepressants.

  6. The Link between Competitive Sport Participation and Self-Concept in Early Adolescence: A Consideration of Gender and Sport Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Leanne C.; Bowker, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The current study explored specific aspects of sports and individuals on 4 domains of the self-system (physical competence and physical appearance self-concept, global physical and general self-esteem). Participants were 351 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.45, SD = 1.25 years, males n = 132) recruited from elite sports and regular school…

  7. Cultural Considerations in the Treatment of Mental Illness among Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: The Case of Bali, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus J.; Suryani, Luh Ketut; Tiliopoulos, Niko

    2015-01-01

    Childhood and adolescence sexual abuse can have long-lasting and devastating effects on personal and interpersonal growth and development. Sexually abused children tend to exhibit higher rates of poor school performance, aggressive behavior, PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder), or depressive symptomatology, as well as social and relational…

  8. The neurobiological link between compassion and love

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Tobias; Stefano, George B.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Love and compassion exert pleasant feelings and rewarding effects. Besides their emotional role and capacity to govern behavior, appetitive motivation, and a general ‘positive state’, even ‘spiritual’ at times, the behaviors shown in love and compassion clearly rely on neurobiological mechanisms and underlying molecular principles. These processes and pathways involve the brain’s limbic motivation and reward circuits, that is, a finely tuned and profound autoregulation. This capacity to self-regulate emotions, approach behaviors and even pair bonding, as well as social contact in general, i.e., love, attachment and compassion, can be highly effective in stress reduction, survival and overall health. Yet, molecular biology is the basis of interpersonal neurobiology, however, there is no answer to the question of what comes first or is more important: It is a cybernetic capacity and complex circuit of autoregulation that is clearly ‘amazing’. PMID:21358615

  9. Neurobiological correlates of social functioning in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Emily; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Bernier, Raphael

    2010-08-01

    Although autism is defined by deficits in three areas of functioning (social, communicative, and behavioral), impairments in social interest and restricted behavioral repertoires are central to the disorder. As a result, a detailed understanding of the neurobiological systems subserving social behavior may have implications for prevention, early identification, and intervention for affected families. In this paper, we review a number of potential neurobiological mechanisms--across several levels of analysis--that subserve normative social functioning. These include neural networks, neurotransmitters, and hormone systems. After describing the typical functioning of each system, we review available empirical findings specific to autism. Among the most promising potential mechanisms of social behavioral deficits in autism are those involving neural networks including the amygdala, the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, and the oxytocin system. Particularly compelling are explanatory models that integrate mechanisms across biological systems, such as those linking dopamine and oxytocin with brain regions critical to reward processing. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The neurobiology of the human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietta, Pierluigi; Fietta, Pieranna

    2011-01-01

    Memory can be defined as the ability to acquire, process, store, and retrieve information. Memory is indispensable for learning, adaptation, and survival of every living organism. In humans, the remembering process has acquired great flexibility and complexity, reaching close links with other mental functions, such as thinking and emotions. Changes in synaptic connectivity and interactions among multiple neural networks provide the neurobiological substrates for memory encoding, retention, and consolidation. Memory may be categorized as short-term and long-term memory (according to the storage temporal duration), as implicit and explicit memory (with respect to the consciousness of remembering), as declarative (knowing that [fact]) and procedural (knowing how [skill]) memory, or as sensory (echoic, iconic and haptil), semantic, and episodic memory (according to the various remembering domains). Significant advances have been obtained in understanding memory neurobiology, but much remains to be learned in its cognitive, psychological, and phenomenological aspects.

  11. Successful and unsuccessful psychopaths: a neurobiological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Despite increasing interest in psychopathy research, surprisingly little is known about the etiology of non-incarcerated, successful psychopaths. This review provides an analysis of current knowledge on the similarities and differences between successful and unsuccessful psychopaths derived from five population sources: community samples, individuals from employment agencies, college students, industrial psychopaths, and serial killers. An initial neurobiological model of successful and unsuccessful psychopathy is outlined. It is hypothesized that successful psychopaths have intact or enhanced neurobiological functioning that underlies their normal or even superior cognitive functioning, which in turn helps them to achieve their goals using more covert and nonviolent methods. In contrast, in unsuccessful, caught psychopaths, brain structural and functional impairments together with autonomic nervous system dysfunction are hypothesized to underlie cognitive and emotional deficits and more overt violent offending.

  12. Neurobiology and clinical implications of lucid dreaming

    OpenAIRE

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A.; Araujo, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence converge to the idea that rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is a good model to foster our understanding of psychosis. Both REMS and psychosis course with internally generated perceptions and lack of rational judgment, which is attributed to a hyperlimbic activity along with hypofrontality. Interestingly, some individuals can become aware of dreaming during REMS, a particular experience known as lucid dreaming (LD), whose neurobiological basis is still controversi...

  13. Neurobiology of insomnia as measured with FMRI

    OpenAIRE

    Orff, Henry John

    2010-01-01

    Insomnia, the most common sleep disorder afflicting adults, is diagnostically characterized by a chronic complaint of difficulty sleeping at night and a report of consequent impairment in daytime functioning. Despite this diagnostic requirement and the relative prevalence of daytime distress in patients with insomnia, studies to date have shown only limited evidence of objective daytime impairment in this population. This investigation tested a neurobiological compensation model which attempt...

  14. Bodily Intimacy and its Neurobiological Foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Conill

    2017-01-01

    The first part of this study stresses the importance of intimacy for human life and defends the biological standpoint against the functionalist computational stance. This is based on the concept of bodily subjectivity in Nietzsche, bodily, emotional and spiritual intimacy in Ortega y Gasset, and bodily and personal intimacy in Zubiri. The second part sets forth a significant selection taken from studies on the neurobiological foundations of bodily intimacy, reaching beyond sterile reductionis...

  15. Diterpenes: Advances in Neurobiological Drug Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Torequl; da Silva, Claucenira Bandeira; de Alencar, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros; Paz, Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim; Almeida, Fernanda Regina de Castro; Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de Carvalho

    2016-06-01

    A significant number of studies have been performed with diterpene effect on the brain. Our study aims to make a systematic revision on them. The initial purpose of this review was to screen diterpenes with neurological activity, in particular those that have already been studied and published in different journals (databases until August 2015). The second purpose was to make an action-wise discussion as results viewed on them by taking into drug discovery and development account. Diterpenes considered in this review were selected on the basis of updated information on them and having sufficient information on their screenings. We identified several examples of diterpenes having an interest in further study. We have included the possible sources of them as observed in evidence, their known molecular neurobiological mechanisms, and the active constituents responsible for such activities with the doses and test systems. Results suggest diterpenes to have neurobiological activities like neuro-protection, anti-epileptic, anxiolytic, anti-Alzheimer's disease, anti-Parkinson's disease, anti-cerebral ischemia, anti-neuropathic pain, anti-neuro-inflammatory, and many more. In conclusion, diterpenes may be the prominent candidates in neurobiological drug research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Neurobiological findings related to Internet use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byeongsu; Han, Doug Hyun; Roh, Sungwon

    2017-07-01

    In the last 10 years, numerous neurobiological studies have been conducted on Internet addiction or Internet use disorder. Various neurobiological research methods - such as magnetic resonance imaging; nuclear imaging modalities, including positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography; molecular genetics; and neurophysiologic methods - have made it possible to discover structural or functional impairments in the brains of individuals with Internet use disorder. Specifically, Internet use disorder is associated with structural or functional impairment in the orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex. These regions are associated with the processing of reward, motivation, memory, and cognitive control. Early neurobiological research results in this area indicated that Internet use disorder shares many similarities with substance use disorders, including, to a certain extent, a shared pathophysiology. However, recent studies suggest that differences in biological and psychological markers exist between Internet use disorder and substance use disorders. Further research is required for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of Internet use disorder. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  17. Neurobiological correlates of cognitions in fear and anxiety: a cognitive-neurobiological information-processing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Ellard, Kristen K; Siegle, Greg J

    2012-01-01

    We review likely neurobiological substrates of cognitions related to fear and anxiety. Cognitive processes are linked to abnormal early activity reflecting hypervigilance in subcortical networks involving the amygdala, hippocampus, and insular cortex, and later recruitment of cortical regulatory resources, including activation of the anterior cingulate cortex and prefrontal cortex to implement avoidant response strategies. Based on this evidence, we present a cognitive-neurobiological information-processing model of fear and anxiety, linking distinct brain structures to specific stages of information processing of perceived threat.

  18. Bodily Intimacy and its Neurobiological Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Conill

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this study stresses the importance of intimacy for human life and defends the biological standpoint against the functionalist computational stance. This is based on the concept of bodily subjectivity in Nietzsche, bodily, emotional and spiritual intimacy in Ortega y Gasset, and bodily and personal intimacy in Zubiri. The second part sets forth a significant selection taken from studies on the neurobiological foundations of bodily intimacy, reaching beyond sterile reductionisms: its possible neuronal substrate (the neurology of intimacy?, the brain as selectional system, mirror neurons, synaesthesia and neurophenomenology. It ends by putting forward the problem of the power of intimacy, the conflict between this and the reputation.

  19. PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Gent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Otte, Andreas [Univ. of Applied Sciences, Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van (eds.) [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2014-04-01

    Addresses a variety of aspects of neurotransmission in the brain. Details the latest results in probe development. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT of Neurobiological Systems combines the expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the development of novel probes and techniques for the investigation of neurobiological systems has achieved international recognition. Various aspects of neurotransmission in the brain are discussed, such as visualization and quantification of (more than 20 different) neuroreceptors, neuroinflammatory markers, transporters, and enzymes as well as neurotransmitter synthesis, ?-amyloid deposition, cerebral blood flow, and the metabolic rate of glucose. The latest results in probe development are also detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by radiochemists and nuclear medicine specialists to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to anyone in the field of clinical or preclinical neuroscience, from the radiochemist and radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested neurobiologist and general practitioner. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences. Other volumes focus on PET and SPECT in psychiatry and PET and SPECT in neurology''.

  20. Neurobiological Mediators of Squalor-dwelling Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, David A

    2017-09-01

    Squalor-dwelling behavior has been characterized as living in conditions so unsanitary that feelings of revulsion are elicited among visitors. This behavior is commonly associated with an insensitivity to distress/disgust and a failure to understand the direness of one's living situation, which leads to social isolation and impairment in quality of life. Etiologically, several associations have been described in the literature, including age-related decline, lower socioeconomic status, and rural dwelling status. Primary neuropsychiatric disorders, such as psychosis, alcoholism, dementia, personality disorders, developmental delays, and learning or physical disabilities are frequently seen in squalor-dwelling individuals. However, none of these disorders seems to be necessary or sufficient to explain the behavior. Neurobiologically, squalor-dwelling behavior has been associated with frontal lobe dysfunction as evidenced by executive dysfunction; however, cognitive impairments also fail to completely explain this behavior. The purpose of this report is to describe a typical case of squalor-dwelling behavior and use it as an example to illustrate the complexity of uncovering the neurobiological basis for this maladaptive personal and public health threat. Neuroimaging findings from our case and a review of the literature point toward decreased activity in the insular cortex and the amygdala as a unifying biological explanation for squalor-dwelling behaviors.

  1. Plant neurobiology and green plant intelligence : science, metaphors and nonsense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, P.C.; Yin, X.; Meinke, H.B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the recent debates on the emerging science of plant neurobiology, which claims that the individual green plant should be considered as an intelligent organism. Plant neurobiology tries to use elements from animal physiology as elegant metaphors to trigger the imagination in

  2. [About the heterogeneity in adolescents with gender identity disorder: differential importance of psychiatric comorbidity and considerations of individual psychodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Alexander; Beier, Klaus M; Vukorepa, Julia; Mersmann, Maik; Albiez, Verena

    2014-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID), gender dysphoria (GD) respectively, is considered a multifactorial disease whose etiology is subject to complex bio-psycho-social conditions, each with different weighting. As a result, therapists, who treat children and adolescents with GID/GD, have to deal with a very heterogeneous group with individually varying causes, differing psychopathology and varying disease progression. In addition to general psychiatric aspects of development, particularly psychiatric comorbidity, but also the different individual psychodynamics--i. e. the specific constellation of conflicts and possible ego deficits and structural deficits in the learning history of the person are of differential importance. In regard to the indication for gender reassignment measures this sometimes is relevant for the decision. The difficulties arising for decision making and the usefulness of a systematic evaluation of case reports as a basis for further optimization of the treatment recommendations are illustrated by two case reports. In the course of this, also the disadvantages and potential dangers of too early diagnostic definition and introduction of gender somato-medical and legal measures are shown exemplarily.

  3. [Neurobiological foundations underlying normal and disturbed sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, T H C; Kneer, J

    2017-05-01

    Sexual functions are regulated by hormonal and neurochemical factors as well as neuronal networks. An understanding of these basic principles is necessary for the diagnostics, counselling and treatment of sexual problems. Description of essential mechanisms of sexual function on a neurochemical and neuronal level. Literature search, selection and discussion of relevant studies. Analogous to the dual control model there are primary inhibitory (e. g. serotonin) and excitatory neurotransmitter systems (e.g. sex steroids and dopamine). Moreover, neuronal structures have been identified that are responsible for processing sexual stimuli. These networks are altered in subjects with sexual disorders or by pharmacological treatment, e. g. antiandrogens and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) CONCLUSION: Knowledge of the neurobiology of sexuality forms the foundations for the treatment of sexual dysfunctions in psychiatry and other disciplines.

  4. Mathematical methods in biology and neurobiology

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models can be used to meet many of the challenges and opportunities offered by modern biology. The description of biological phenomena requires a range of mathematical theories. This is the case particularly for the emerging field of systems biology. Mathematical Methods in Biology and Neurobiology introduces and develops these mathematical structures and methods in a systematic manner. It studies:   • discrete structures and graph theory • stochastic processes • dynamical systems and partial differential equations • optimization and the calculus of variations.   The biological applications range from molecular to evolutionary and ecological levels, for example:   • cellular reaction kinetics and gene regulation • biological pattern formation and chemotaxis • the biophysics and dynamics of neurons • the coding of information in neuronal systems • phylogenetic tree reconstruction • branching processes and population genetics • optimal resource allocation • sexual recombi...

  5. Neurobiology of inflammation-associated anorexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Gautron

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Compelling data demonstrate that inflammation-associated anorexia directly results from the action of pro-inflammatory factors, primarily cytokines and prostaglandins E2, on the nervous system. For instance, the aforementioned pro-inflammatory factors can stimulate the activity of peripheral sensory neurons, and induce their own de novo synthesis and release into the brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid. Ultimately, it results in the mobilization of a specific neural circuit that shuts down appetite. The present article describes the different cell groups and neurotransmitters involved in inflammation-associated anorexia and examines how they interact with neural systems regulating feeding such as the melanocortin system. A better understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying inflammation-associated anorexia will help to develop appetite stimulants for cancer and AIDS patients.

  6. Neurobiological Adaptations to Violence across Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Hilary K.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Shannon, Katherine E.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation to violent environments across development involves a multitude of cascading effects spanning many levels of analysis from genes to behavior. In this review, we (a) examine the potentiating effects of violence on genetic vulnerabilities and the functioning of neurotransmitter systems in producing both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, (b) consider the impact of violence on the developing human stress and startle responses, and (c) brain development including the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. This review integrates literature on the developmental effects of violence on rodents, non-human primates, and humans. Many neurobiological changes that are adaptive for survival in violent contexts become maladaptive in other environments, conferring life-long risk for psychopathology. PMID:20102643

  7. Biological sex affects the neurobiology of autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Michael V.; Suckling, John; Ruigrok, Amber N. V.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Ecker, Christine; Deoni, Sean C. L.; Craig, Michael C.; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2013-01-01

    In autism, heterogeneity is the rule rather than the exception. One obvious source of heterogeneity is biological sex. Since autism was first recognized, males with autism have disproportionately skewed research. Females with autism have thus been relatively overlooked, and have generally been assumed to have the same underlying neurobiology as males with autism. Growing evidence, however, suggests that this is an oversimplification that risks obscuring the biological base of autism. This study seeks to answer two questions about how autism is modulated by biological sex at the level of the brain: (i) is the neuroanatomy of autism different in males and females? and (ii) does the neuroanatomy of autism fit predictions from the ‘extreme male brain’ theory of autism, in males and/or in females? Neuroanatomical features derived from voxel-based morphometry were compared in a sample of equal-sized high-functioning male and female adults with and without autism (n = 120, n = 30/group). The first question was investigated using a 2 × 2 factorial design, and by spatial overlap analyses of the neuroanatomy of autism in males and females. The second question was tested through spatial overlap analyses of specific patterns predicted by the extreme male brain theory. We found that the neuroanatomy of autism differed between adult males and females, evidenced by minimal spatial overlap (not different from that occurred under random condition) in both grey and white matter, and substantially large white matter regions showing significant sex × diagnosis interactions in the 2 × 2 factorial design. These suggest that autism manifests differently by biological sex. Furthermore, atypical brain areas in females with autism substantially and non-randomly (P males with autism. How differences in neuroanatomy relate to the similarities in cognition between males and females with autism remains to be understood. Future research should stratify by biological sex to reduce

  8. Adolescent Brain Maturation and Smoking: What We Know and Where We’re Headed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydon, David M.; Wilson, Stephen J.; Child, Amanda; Geier, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Smoking initiation often occurs during adolescence. This paper reviews and synthesizes adolescent development and nicotine dependence literatures to provide an account of adolescent smoking from onset to compulsive use. We extend neurobiological models of adolescent risk-taking, that focus on the interplay between incentive processing and cognitive control brain systems, through incorporating psychosocial and contextual factors specific to smoking, to suggest that adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to cigarette use generally, but that individual differences exist placing some adolescents at increased risk for smoking. Upon smoking, adolescents are more likely to continue smoking due to the increased positive effects induced by nicotine during this period. Continued use during adolescence, may be best understood as reflecting drug-related changes to neural systems underlying incentive processing and cognitive control, resulting in decision-making that is biased towards continued smoking. Persistent changes following nicotine exposure that may underlie continued dependence are described. We highlight ways that interventions may benefit from a consideration of cognitive-neuroscience findings. PMID:25025658

  9. The neurobiology of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: altered functioning in three mental domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Walter; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2013-02-01

    This review discusses neurobiological studies of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder within the conceptual framework of three interrelated mental domains: punishment processing, reward processing, and cognitive control. First, impaired fear conditioning, reduced cortisol reactivity to stress, amygdala hyporeactivity to negative stimuli, and altered serotonin and noradrenaline neurotransmission suggest low punishment sensitivity, which may compromise the ability of children and adolescents to make associations between inappropriate behaviors and forthcoming punishments. Second, sympathetic nervous system hyporeactivity to incentives, low basal heart rate associated with sensation seeking, orbitofrontal cortex hyporeactiviy to reward, and altered dopamine functioning suggest a hyposensitivity to reward. The associated unpleasant emotional state may make children and adolescents prone to sensation-seeking behavior such as rule breaking, delinquency, and substance abuse. Third, impairments in executive functions, especially when motivational factors are involved, as well as structural deficits and impaired functioning of the paralimbic system encompassing the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortex, suggest impaired cognitive control over emotional behavior. In the discussion we argue that more insight into the neurobiology of oppositional defiance disorder and conduct disorder may be obtained by studying these disorders separately and by paying attention to the heterogeneity of symptoms within each disorder.

  10. The Influence of Prebiotics on Neurobiology and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, A C C; Harty, S; Burnet, P W J

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating the intestinal microbiota for the benefit of the brain is a concept that has become widely acknowledged. Prebiotics are nondigestible nutrients (i.e., fibers, carbohydrates, or various saccharides) that proliferate intrinsic, beneficial gut bacteria, and so provide an alternative strategy for effectively altering the enteric ecosystem, and thence brain function. Rodent studies demonstrating neurobiological changes following prebiotic intake are slowly emerging, and have thus far revealed significant benefits in disease models, including antiinflammatory and neuroprotective actions. There are also compelling data showing the robust and favorable effects of prebiotics on several behavioral paradigms including, anxiety, learning, and memory. At present, studies in humans are limited, though there is strong evidence for prebiotics modulating emotional processes and the neuroendocrine stress response that may underlie the pathophysiology of anxiety. While the mechanistic details linking the enteric microbiota to the central nervous system remain to be elucidated, there are a number of considerations that can guide future studies. These include the modulation of intestinal endocrine systems and inflammatory cascades, as well as direct interaction with the enteric nervous system and gut mucosa. Our knowledge of gut microbiome-brain communication is steadily progressing, and thorough investigations validating the use of prebiotics in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders would be highly valued and are encouraged. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gender Differences in Risk Factors for Adolescent Binge Drinking and Implications for Intervention and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson L. Dir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use, particularly binge drinking (BD, is a major public health concern among adolescents. Recent national data show that the gender gap in alcohol use is lessening, and BD among girls is rising. Considering the increase in BD among adolescent girls, as well as females’ increased risk of experiencing more severe biopsychosocial negative effects and consequences from BD, the current review sought to examine gender differences in risk factors for BD. The review highlights gender differences in (1 developmental-related neurobiological vulnerability to BD, (2 psychiatric comorbidity and risk phenotypes for BD, and (3 social-related risk factors for BD among adolescents, as well as considerations for BD prevention and intervention. Most of the information gleaned thus far has come from preclinical research. However, it is expected that, with recent advances in clinical imaging technology, neurobiological effects observed in lower mammals will be confirmed in humans and vice versa. A synthesis of the literature highlights that males and females experience unique neurobiological paths of development, and although there is debate regarding the specific nature of these differences, literature suggests that these differences in turn influence gender differences in psychiatric comorbidity and risk for BD. For one, girls are more susceptible to stress, depression, and other internalizing behaviors and, in turn, these symptoms contribute to their risk for BD. On the other hand, males, given gender differences across the lifespan as well as gender differences in development, are driven by an externalizing phenotype for risk of BD, in part, due to unique paths of neurobiological development that occur across adolescence. With respect to social domains, although social and peer influences are important for both adolescent males and females, there are gender differences. For example, girls may be more sensitive to pressure from peers to fit in and

  12. Action control processes in autism spectrum disorder--insights from a neurobiological and neuroanatomical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Witold X; Beste, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) encompass a range of syndromes that are characterized by social interaction impairments, verbal and nonverbal communication difficulties, and stereotypic or repetitive behaviours. Although there has been considerable progress in understanding the mechanisms underlying the changes in the 'social' and 'communicative' aspects of ASD, the neurofunctional architecture of repetitive and stereotypic behaviours, as well as other cognitive domains related to response and action control, remain poorly understood. Based on the findings of neurobiological and neuroanatomical alterations in ASD and the functional neuroanatomy and neurobiology of different action control functions, we emphasize that changes in action control processes, including response inhibition, conflict and response monitoring, task switching, dual-tasking, motor timing, and error monitoring, are important facets of ASD. These processes must be examined further to understand the executive control deficits in ASD that are related to stereotypic or repetitive behaviours as a major facet of ASD. The review shows that not all domains of action control are strongly affected in ASD. Several factors seem to determine the consistency with which alterations in cognitive control are reported. These factors relate to the relevance of neurobiological changes in ASD for the cognitive domains examined and in how far action control relies upon the adjustment of prior experience. Future directions and hypotheses are outlined that may guide basic and clinical research on action control in ASD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder: rationale, clinical and neurobiological evidence, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanius, Ruth A; Brand, Bethany; Vermetten, Eric; Frewen, Paul A; Spiegel, David

    2012-08-01

    Clinical and neurobiological evidence for a dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has recently been documented. A dissociative subtype of PTSD is being considered for inclusion in the forthcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) to address the symptoms of depersonalization and derealization found among a subset of patients with PTSD. This article reviews research related to the dissociative subtype including antecedent, concurrent, and predictive validators as well as the rationale for recommending the dissociative subtype. The relevant literature pertaining to the dissociative subtype of PTSD was reviewed. Latent class analyses point toward a specific subtype of PTSD consisting of symptoms of depersonalization and derealization in both veteran and civilian samples of PTSD. Compared to individuals with PTSD, those with the dissociative subtype of PTSD also exhibit a different pattern of neurobiological response to symptom provocation as well as a differential response to current cognitive behavioral treatment designed for PTSD. We recommend that consideration be given to adding a dissociative subtype of PTSD in the revision of the DSM. This facilitates more accurate analysis of different phenotypes of PTSD, assist in treatment planning that is informed by considering the degree of patients' dissociativity, will improve treatment outcome, and will lead to much-needed research about the prevalence, symptomatology, neurobiology, and treatment of individuals with the dissociative subtype of PTSD. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Neurobiology of Methamphetamine Induced Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hsin-Wen Hsieh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic methamphetamine abuse commonly leads to psychosis, with positive and cognitive symptoms that are similar to those of schizophrenia. Methamphetamine induced psychosis (MAP can persist and diagnoses of MAP often change to a diagnosis of schizophrenia over time. Studies in schizophrenia have found much evidence of cortical GABAergic dysfunction. Methamphetamine psychosis is a well studied model for schizophrenia, however there is little research on the effects of methamphetamine on cortical GABAergic function in the model, and the neurobiology of MAP is unknown. This paper reviews the effects of methamphetamine on dopaminergic pathways, with focus on its ability to increase glutamate release in the cortex. Excess cortical glutamate would likely damage GABAergic interneurons, and evidence of this disturbance as a result of methamphetamine treatment will be discussed. We propose that cortical GABAergic interneurons are particularly vulnerable to glutamate overflow as a result of subcellular location of NMDA receptors on interneurons in the cortex. Damage to cortical GABAergic function would lead to dysregulation of cortical signals, resulting in psychosis, and further support methamphetamine induced psychosis as a model for schizophrenia.

  15. Neurobiological linkage between stress and sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Larry D.; Wellman, Laurie L.

    2012-10-01

    Stress can have a significant negative impact on health and stress-induced alterations in sleep are implicated in both human sleep disorders and in psychiatric disorders in which sleep is affected. We have demonstrated that the amygdala, a region critical for regulating emotion, is a key modulator of sleep. Our current research is focused on understanding how the amygdala and stressful emotion affect sleep and on the role sleep plays in recovery from stress. We have implemented animal models to examine the how stress and stress-related memories impact sleep. Experiencing uncontrollable stress and reminders of uncontrollable stress can produce significant reductions in sleep, in particular rapid eye movement sleep. We are using these models to explore the neurobiology linking stress-related emotion and sleep. This research is relevant for sleep disorders such as insomnia and into mental disorders in which sleep is affected such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is typically characterized by a prominent sleep disturbance in the aftermath of exposure to a psychologically traumatic event.

  16. Conversion disorder: towards a neurobiological understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Samuel B; Stanton, Biba R; David, Anthony S

    2006-01-01

    Conversion disorders are a common cause of neurological disability, but the diagnosis remains controversial and the mechanism by which psychological stress can result in physical symptoms “unconsciously” is poorly understood. This review summarises research examining conversion disorder from a neurobiological perspective. Early observations suggesting a role for hemispheric specialization have not been replicated consistently. Patients with sensory conversion symptoms have normal evoked responses in primary and secondary somatosensory cortex but a reduction in the P300 potential, which is thought to reflect a lack of conscious processing of sensory stimuli. The emergence of functional imaging has provided the greatest opportunity for understanding the neural basis of conversion symptoms. Studies have been limited by small patient numbers and failure to control for confounding variables. The evidence available would suggest a broad hypothesis that frontal cortical and limbic activation associated with emotional stress may act via inhibitory basal ganglia–thalamocortical circuits to produce a deficit of conscious sensory or motor processing. The conceptual difficulties that have limited progress in this area are discussed. A better neuropsychiatric understanding of the mechanisms of conversion symptoms may improve our understanding of normal attention and volition and reduce the controversy surrounding this diagnosis. PMID:19412442

  17. Sleep and its importance in adolescence and in common adolescent somatic and psychiatric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Br

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Serge Brand1, Roumen Kirov21Depression and Sleep Research Unit, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2Institute of Neurobiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, BulgariaThe authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Restoring sleep is strongly associated with a better physical, cognitive, and psychological well-being. By contrast, poor or disordered sleep is related to impairment of cognitive and psychological functioning and worsened physical health. These associations are well documented not only in adults but also in children and adolescents. Importantly, adolescence is hallmarked by dramatic maturational changes in sleep and its neurobiological regulation, hormonal status, and many psychosocial and physical processes. Thus, the role of sleep in mental and physical health during adolescence and in adolescent patients is complex. However, it has so far received little attention. This review first presents contemporary views about the complex neurobiology of sleep and its functions with important implications for adolescence. Second, existing complex relationships between common adolescent somatic/organic, sleep-related, and psychiatric disorders and certain sleep alterations are discussed. It is concluded that poor or altered sleep in adolescent patients may trigger and maintain many psychiatric and physical disorders or combinations of these conditions, which presumably hinder recovery and may cross into later stages of life. Therefore, timely diagnosis and management of sleep problems appear critical for growth and development in adolescent patients.Keywords: cognitive, psychological, neurobiology, growth, development, sleep physiology, rapid eye movement, non-REM sleep, behavioral disorders, adolescents

  18. Social Context Effects on Decision-Making: A Neurobiological Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Stallen (Mirre)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis explores how social context influences the neurobiological processes underlying decision-making. To this end, this research takes an interdisciplinary approach, combining methods and insights from Psychology, Marketing, Economics, and Neuroscience. In particular, behavioural

  19. Modulation of early stress-induced neurobiological changes: a review of behavioural and pharmacological interventions in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, E L; Baune, B T

    2014-05-13

    Childhood adversity alters the predisposition to psychiatric disorders later in life. Those with psychiatric conditions and a history of early adversity exhibit a higher incidence of treatment resistance compared with individuals with no such history. Modulation of the influence early stress exerts over neurobiology may help to prevent the development of psychiatric disorders in some cases, while attenuating the extent of treatment resistance in those with established psychiatric disorders. This review aims to critically evaluate the ability of behavioural, environmental and pharmacologic interventions to modulate neurobiological changes induced by early stress in animal models. Databases were systematically searched to locate literature relevant to this review. Early adversity was defined as stress that resulted from manipulation of the mother-infant relationship. Analysis was restricted to animal models to enable characterisation of how a given intervention altered specific neurobiological changes induced by early stress. A wide variety of changes in neurobiology due to early stress are amenable to intervention. Behavioural interventions in childhood, exercise in adolescence and administration of epigenetic-modifying drugs throughout life appear to best modulate cellar and behavioural alterations induced by childhood adversity. Other pharmacotherapies, such as endocannabinoid system modulators, anti-inflammatories and antidepressants can also influence these neurobiological and behavioural changes that result from early stress, although findings are less consistent at present and require further investigation. Further work is required to examine the influence that behavioural interventions, exercise and epigenetic-modifying drugs exert over alterations that occur following childhood stress in human studies, before possible translational into clinical practice is possible.

  20. Stress and neurobiology of coping styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod V. Nemets

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In stressful environment, animal can use different coping strategies. Passive animals manifest freezing behaviour at predator attacks, active ones are trying to have an impact on a stressful situation. Each coping style is presupposed to have a neurobiological basis and it helps animals to survive in aggressive and mutable environment. Being under a long lasting stress, leaders can be affected by cardiovascular and ulcer diseases, but a short term impact can cheer them up, improve neuroendocrine stress response more than passive coping style in animals. This paper analyzes animal pattern of coping behaviour, their inheritance based on gender, social status and age. The research shows how anxiety affects social behaviour of people individuals and typological reactions were compared. These patterns can be used by people in a situation of uncontrolled stress to prevent diseases and depressive disorders through altering one’s type of behavior to the one which is more effective. In addition, knowledge of behavioural types can assist teachers in implementing the learning process as in stress situations (e.g. taking exams, working on course papers, doing tests not all students are able to effectively perceive and present the resulting material. On the other hand, active students could encourage short-term rather than long-term stressor irritation. It is necessary to pay special attention to students with low social economic status who display active response to stress. According to statistics, problem students often become aggressors and commit antisocial and sometimes criminal acts. The coping styles mentioned here above are not polar, there are no clear boundaries of personality. In addition, behaving according to the active / non-active type is identified by customary and inherited behaviour patterns.

  1. Neurobiology and clinical implications of lucid dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Araujo, John F

    2013-11-01

    Several lines of evidence converge to the idea that rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is a good model to foster our understanding of psychosis. Both REMS and psychosis course with internally generated perceptions and lack of rational judgment, which is attributed to a hyperlimbic activity along with hypofrontality. Interestingly, some individuals can become aware of dreaming during REMS, a particular experience known as lucid dreaming (LD), whose neurobiological basis is still controversial. Since the frontal lobe plays a role in self-consciousness, working memory and attention, here we hypothesize that LD is associated with increased frontal activity during REMS. A possible way to test this hypothesis is to check whether transcranial magnetic or electric stimulation of the frontal region during REMS triggers LD. We further suggest that psychosis and LD are opposite phenomena: LD as a physiological awakening while dreaming due to frontal activity, and psychosis as a pathological intrusion of dream features during wake state due to hypofrontality. We further suggest that LD research may have three main clinical implications. First, LD could be important to the study of consciousness, including its pathologies and other altered states. Second, LD could be used as a therapy for recurrent nightmares, a common symptom of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Finally, LD may allow for motor imagery during dreaming with possible improvement of physical rehabilitation. In all, we believe that LD research may clarify multiple aspects of brain functioning in its physiological, altered and pathological states. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Alcohol and Suicide: Neurobiological and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Sher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol, primarily in the form of ethyl alcohol (ethanol, has occupied an important place in the history of humankind for at least 8,000 years. In most Western societies, at least 90% of people consume alcohol at some time during their lives, and 30% or more of drinkers develop alcohol-related problems. Severe alcohol-related life impairment, alcohol dependence (alcoholism, is observed at some time during their lives in about 10% of men and 3—5% of women. An additional 5—10% of each sex develops persistent, but less intense, problems that are diagnosed as alcohol abuse. It this review, neurobiological aspects of suicidal behavior in alcoholism is discussed. In individuals with comorbid depression and alcoholism, greater serotonergic impairment may be associated with higher risk of completed suicide. Dopaminergic dysfunction may play an important role in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior in alcoholism. Brain damage and neurobehavioral deficits are associated with alcohol use disorders and may contribute to suicidal behavior in persons with alcohol dependence or abuse. Aggression/impulsivity and alcoholism severity affect risk for suicide among individuals with alcoholism. Major depressive episodes and stressful life events particularly, partner-relationship disruptions, may precipitate suicidal behavior in individuals with alcohol use disorders. Alcohol misuse and psychosocial adversity can combine to increase stress on the person, and, thereby, potentially, increase the risk for suicidal behavior. The management of suicidal patients with alcohol use disorders is also discussed. It is to be hoped that the efforts of clinicians will reduce morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol misuse.

  3. Towards a neurobiological understanding of alexithymia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Meza-Concha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Si bien la literatura especializada sobre la etiología de la alexitimia es controvertida, la investigación neurobiológica sobre el fenómeno ha demostrado importantes avances. El objetivo de esta revisión es analizar la evidencia disponible en relación a las bases neurofisiológicas de la alexitimia. Se realizó una revisión exhaustiva de artículos disponibles en MEDLINE/PubMed, EBSCO y SciELO. Inicialmente, se vinculó a la alexitimia con una conexión cerebral interhemisférica reducida. Desde la perspectiva traumática infantil, la corteza prefrontal derecha y la red neuronal por defecto experimentarían alteraciones, primero hipermetabólicas (desregulación dopaminérgica y glutamatérgica y luego hipometabólicas-disociativas (desregulación serotoninérgica y opioide, resultando en una consciencia interoceptiva y emocional distorsionada. Las neuronas espejo son el sustrato neurobiológico fundamental de la teoría de la mente y la cognición social, intrínsecamente vinculadas con la alexitimia, involucrando cortezas como la parietal, la temporal, la premotora, la cingulada y el giro frontal inferior. Otras estructuras involucradas son amígdala (expresión facial y reactividad emocional, ínsula (interocepción, integración emocional y empatía y cerebelo (cerebelo límbico y consciencia somatosensorial. La genética molecular ha detectado polimorfismos en el gen del transportador de serotonina, en los genes de las enzimas del metabolismo dopaminérgico y del factor neurotrófico derivado del cerebro, mientras que el rol de la oxitocina es controvertido. En conclusión, numerosos estudios demuestran contundentemente la existencia de una neurobiología subyacente a la alexitimia. Sin embargo, la investigación es aún poco concluyente y debe considerar los factores ambientales, traumáticos, sociales y psicológicos que contribuyen al origen del fenómeno.

  4. Optical Probes for Neurobiological Sensing and Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric H; Chin, Gregory; Rong, Guoxin; Poskanzer, Kira E; Clark, Heather A

    2018-04-13

    probing entire neurobiological units with high spatiotemporal resolution. Thus, we introduce selected applications for ion and neurotransmitter detection to investigate both neurons and non-neuronal brain cells. We focus on families of optical probes because of their ability to sense a wide array of molecules and convey spatial information with minimal damage to tissue. We start with a discussion of currently available molecular probes, highlight recent advances in genetically modified fluorescent probes for ions and small molecules, and end with the latest research in nanosensors for biological imaging. Customizable, nanoscale optical sensors that accurately and dynamically monitor the local environment with high spatiotemporal resolution could lead to not only new insights into the function of all cell types but also a broader understanding of how diverse neural signaling systems act in conjunction with neighboring cells in a spatially relevant manner.

  5. The neurobiology of uncertainty: implications for statistical learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Uri

    2017-01-05

    The capacity for assessing the degree of uncertainty in the environment relies on estimating statistics of temporally unfolding inputs. This, in turn, allows calibration of predictive and bottom-up processing, and signalling changes in temporally unfolding environmental features. In the last decade, several studies have examined how the brain codes for and responds to input uncertainty. Initial neurobiological experiments implicated frontoparietal and hippocampal systems, based largely on paradigms that manipulated distributional features of visual stimuli. However, later work in the auditory domain pointed to different systems, whose activation profiles have interesting implications for computational and neurobiological models of statistical learning (SL). This review begins by briefly recapping the historical development of ideas pertaining to the sensitivity to uncertainty in temporally unfolding inputs. It then discusses several issues at the interface of studies of uncertainty and SL. Following, it presents several current treatments of the neurobiology of uncertainty and reviews recent findings that point to principles that serve as important constraints on future neurobiological theories of uncertainty, and relatedly, SL. This review suggests it may be useful to establish closer links between neurobiological research on uncertainty and SL, considering particularly mechanisms sensitive to local and global structure in inputs, the degree of input uncertainty, the complexity of the system generating the input, learning mechanisms that operate on different temporal scales and the use of learnt information for online prediction.This article is part of the themed issue 'New frontiers for statistical learning in the cognitive sciences'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Cultural Adaptation of a Neurobiologically Informed Intervention in Local and International Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakulak, Eric; Hampton Wray, Amanda; Longoria, Zayra; Garcia Isaza, Alejandra; Stevens, Courtney; Bell, Theodore; Burlingame, Sarah; Klein, Scott; Berlinski, Samuel; Attanasio, Orazio; Neville, Helen

    2017-12-01

    The relationship between early adversity and numerous negative outcomes across the lifespan is evident in a wide range of societies and cultures (e.g., Pakulak, Stevens, & Neville, 2018). Among the most affected neural systems are those supporting attention, self-regulation, and stress regulation. As such, these systems represent targets for neurobiologically informed interventions addressing early adversity. In prior work with monolingual native English-speaking families, we showed that a two-generation intervention targeting these systems in families improves outcomes across multiple domains including child brain function for selective attention (for detail, see Neville et al., 2013). Here, we discuss the translation and cultural adaptation (CA) of this intervention in local and international contexts, which required systematic consideration of cultural differences that could affect program acceptability. First, we conducted a translation and CA of our program to serve Latino families in the United States using the Cultural Adaptation Process (CAP), a model that works closely with stakeholders in a systematic, iterative process. Second, to implement the adapted program in Medellín, Colombia, we conducted a subsequent adaptation for Colombian culture using the same CAP. Our experience underscores the importance of consideration of cultural differences and a systematic approach to adaptation before assessing the efficacy of neurobiologically informed interventions in different cultural contexts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mental Health Comorbidities in Pediatric Chronic Pain: A Narrative Review of Epidemiology, Models, Neurobiological Mechanisms and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Vinall

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain during childhood and adolescence can lead to persistent pain problems and mental health disorders into adulthood. Posttraumatic stress disorders and depressive and anxiety disorders are mental health conditions that co-occur at high rates in both adolescent and adult samples, and are linked to heightened impairment and disability. Comorbid chronic pain and psychopathology has been explained by the presence of shared neurobiology and mutually maintaining cognitive-affective and behavioral factors that lead to the development and/or maintenance of both conditions. Particularly within the pediatric chronic pain population, these factors are embedded within the broader context of the parent–child relationship. In this review, we will explore the epidemiology of, and current working models explaining, these comorbidities. Particular emphasis will be made on shared neurobiological mechanisms, given that the majority of previous research to date has centered on cognitive, affective, and behavioral mechanisms. Parental contributions to co-occurring chronic pain and psychopathology in childhood and adolescence will be discussed. Moreover, we will review current treatment recommendations and future directions for both research and practice. We argue that the integration of biological and behavioral approaches will be critical to sufficiently address why these comorbidities exist and how they can best be targeted in treatment.

  8. Neurobiology of dysregulated motivational systems in drug addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Scott; Koob, George F

    2010-01-01

    The progression from recreational drug use to drug addiction impacts multiple neurobiological processes and can be conceptualized as a transition from positive to negative reinforcement mechanisms driving both drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors. Neurobiological mechanisms for negative reinforcement, defined as drug taking that alleviates a negative emotional state, involve changes in the brain reward system and recruitment of brain stress (or antireward) systems within forebrain structures, including the extended amygdala. These systems are hypothesized to be dysregulated by excessive drug intake and to contribute to allostatic changes in reinforcement mechanisms associated with addiction. Points of intersection between positive and negative motivational circuitry may further drive the compulsivity of drug addiction but also provide a rich neurobiological substrate for therapeutic intervention. PMID:20563312

  9. “Love” Phenomenon and Neurobiology of Love Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Evren Tufan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The biology; especially the neurobiological features of the “love” phenomenon has recently started to attract attention. Love relations and attachment, which is closely related with them, are known to be important in health and disease. Love and love relations are found to be complex neurobiological phenomena based on activation of the limbic system of the brain. Those processes involve oxytocin, vasopressin, dopamine and serotonergic functions. Additionally, endorphine and endogenous opiate systems as well as nitrous oxide play role in those processes. The stages of love and love relations may demonstrate different neurochemical and neurophysiological features and may partially overlap with m aternal, romantic and sexual love and attachments. The aim of this article is to evaluate the common neurobiological pathways underlying the “love” phenomenon as well as their importance in medicine and health.

  10. Quantum and Multidimensional Explanations in a Neurobiological Context of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korf, Jakob

    2015-08-01

    This article examines the possible relevance of physical-mathematical multidimensional or quantum concepts aiming at understanding the (human) mind in a neurobiological context. Some typical features of the quantum and multidimensional concepts are briefly introduced, including entanglement, superposition, holonomic, and quantum field theories. Next, we consider neurobiological principles, such as the brain and its emerging (physical) mind, evolutionary and ontological origins, entropy, syntropy/neg-entropy, causation, and brain energy metabolism. In many biological processes, including biochemical conversions, protein folding, and sensory perception, the ubiquitous involvement of quantum mechanisms is well recognized. Quantum and multidimensional approaches might be expected to help describe and model both brain and mental processes, but an understanding of their direct involvement in mental activity, that is, without mediation by molecular processes, remains elusive. More work has to be done to bridge the gap between current neurobiological and physical-mathematical concepts with their associated quantum-mind theories. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Applying neurobiology to the treatment of adults with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Laura; Peck, Stephanie Knatz; Wierenga, Christina E; Kaye, Walter H

    2016-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe, biologically based brain disorder with significant medical complications. It is critical that new, effective treatments are developed to interrupt the persistent course of the illness due to the medical and psychological sequelae. Several psychosocial, behavioral and pharmacologic interventions have been investigated in adult anorexia nervosa; however, evidence shows that their impact is weak and treatment effects are generally small. This paper describes a new neurobiological anorexia nervosa model that shifts focus from solely external influences, such as social and family, to include internal influences that integrate genetic and neurobiological contributions, across the age span. The model serves as a theoretical structure for a new, five-day treatment, outlined in this paper, targeting anorexia nervosa temperament, which integrates neurobiological dimensions into evidence-based treatment interventions. The treatment is in two phases. Phase I is a five day, 40 hour treatment for anorexia nervosa adults. Phase II is the follow-up and is currently being developed. Preliminary qualitative acceptability data on 37 adults with anorexia nervosa and 60 supports (e.g., spouses, parents, aunts, friends, partners, children of anorexia nervosa adults) are promising from Phase I. Clients with anorexia nervosa and their supports report that learning neurobiological facts improved their understanding of the illness and helped equip them with better tools to manage anorexia nervosa traits and symptoms. In addition, nutritional knowledge changed significantly. This is the first neurobiologically based, five-day treatment for adults with anorexia nervosa and their supports. It is a new model that outlines underlying genetic and neurobiological contributions to anorexia nervosa that serves as a foundation to treat both traits and symptoms. Preliminary qualitative findings are promising, with both clients and supports reporting that the

  12. Neurobiological correlates of panic disorder and agoraphobia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Haddad M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Panic Disorder and agoraphobia offer considerable diagnostic and management challenges, particularly in general practice. We describe a typical case of panic disorder in a young adult. The recent advances in our understanding of brain functions can be used to explain to a certain extent the biologic basis of panic disorder. A hypothetical model integrating current views on panic disorder and agoraphobia has been proposed. The management principles including the role of cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy have been discussed.

  13. [Neurobiology and pharmacotherapy of social phobia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouizerate, B; Martin-Guehl, C; Tignol, J

    2004-01-01

    Social phobia (also known as social anxiety disorder) is still not clearly understood. It was not established as an authentic psychiatric entity until the diagnostic nomenclature of the American Psychiatric Association DSM III in 1980. In recent years, increasing attention among researchers has contributed to provide important information about the genetic, familial and temperamental bases of social phobia and its neurochemical, neuroendocrinological and neuroanatomical substrates, which remain to be further investigated. Up to date, there have been several findings about the possible influence of variables, including particularly genetic, socio-familial and early temperamental (eg behavioral inhibition) factors that represent risk for the later development of social phobia. Clinical neurobiological studies, based on the use of exogenous compounds such as lactate, CO2, caffeine, epinephrine, flumazenil or cholecystokinin/pentagastrin to reproduce naturally occurring phobic anxiety, have shown that patients with social phobia appear to exhibit an intermediate sensitivity between patients with panic disorder and control subjects. No difference in the rate of panic attacks in response to lactate, low concentrations of CO2 (5%), epinephrine or flumazenil was observed between patients with social phobia and normal healthy subjects, both being less reactive compared to patients with panic disorder. However, patients with social phobia had similar anxiety reactions to high concentrations of CO2 (35%), caffeine or cholecystokinin/pentagastrin than those seen in patients with panic disorder, both being more intensive than in controls. Several lines of evidence suggest specific neurotransmitter system alterations in social phobia, especially with regard to the serotoninergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems. Although no abnormality in platelet serotonin transporter density has been found, patients with social phobia appear to show an enhanced sensitivity of both post

  14. The neurobiology of offensive aggression : Revealing a modular view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S F; Olivier, B; Veening, J; Koolhaas, J.M.

    Experimental studies aimed at understanding the neurobiology of aggression started in the early 20th century, and by employing increasingly sophisticated tools of functional neuroanatomy (i.e., from electric/chemical lesion and stimulation techniques to neurochemical mapping and manipulations) have

  15. THE NEUROBIOLOGICAL, SOCIAL AND EVOLUTIONARY ASPECTS OF INTER PERSONAL ATTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Smrithi; Devdas; Ashok; Meghashree; Aarathi

    2015-01-01

    Interpersonal Attraction is the attraction between two people, which leads to friendships and even romantic relationships. Although Interpersonal Attraction has been a long - standing concept, only recently it is being studied regarding its neurobiological and socio evolutionary basis. It is now a major area of research in Social as well as Evolutionary Psychology.

  16. Matching the Neurobiology of Learning to Teaching Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, Nelle; Fleisher, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe principles of good teaching drawn from meta-analyses of research on teaching effectiveness. Recent developments in neurobiology are presented and aligned to provide biological support for these principles. To make it easier for college faculty to try out sample instructional strategies, the authors map principles of good…

  17. Neglected but Exciting Concepts in Developmental and Neurobiological Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Evan M.; Thomas, David G.

    2017-01-01

    This review provides an evaluative overview of five concepts specific to developmental and neurobiological psychology that are found to be largely overlooked in current textbooks. A sample of 19 introductory psychology texts was surveyed to develop a list, including glial cell signaling, grandmother cells, memory reconsolidation, brain plasticity,…

  18. The neurobiology and pharmacology of depression: A comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Over the past decade, targeted drug design has led to significant advances in the pharmacological management of depression. A serendipitous approach to drug discovery has therefore been replaced by the development of drugs acting on predetermined neurobiological targets recognised to be involved in ...

  19. Feather pecking and monoamines - a behavioral and neurobiological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kops, M.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341590649

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) remains one of the major welfare issues in laying hens. SFP is the pecking at and pulling out of feathers, inflicting damage to the plumage and skin of the recipient. The neurobiological profile determining the vulnerability of individual hens to develop into a severe

  20. What artificial grammar learning reveals about the neurobiology of syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersson, K.M.; Folia, V.; Hagoort, P.

    2012-01-01

    : In this paper we examine the neurobiological correlates of syntax, the processing of structured sequences, by comparing FMRI results on artificial and natural language syntax. We discuss these and similar findings in the context of formal language and computability theory. We used a simple

  1. What artificial grammar learning reveals about the neurobiology of syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersson, K.M.; Vasiliki, F.; Hagoort, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the neurobiological correlates of syntax, the processing of structured sequences, by comparing FMRI results on artificial and natural language syntax. We discuss these and similar findings in the context of formal language and computability theory. We used a simple

  2. Sex Influences on the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreano, Joseph M.; Cahill, Larry

    2009-01-01

    In essentially every domain of neuroscience, the generally implicit assumption that few, if any, meaningful differences exist between male and female brain function is being challenged. Here we address how this development is influencing studies of the neurobiology of learning and memory. While it has been commonly held that males show an…

  3. Neurobiological Correlates in Internet Gaming Disorder: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria J. Kuss

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD is a potential mental disorder currently included in the third section of the latest (fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5 as a condition that requires additional research to be included in the main manual. Although research efforts in the area have increased, there is a continuing debate about the respective criteria to use as well as the status of the condition as mental health concern. Rather than using diagnostic criteria which are based on subjective symptom experience, the National Institute of Mental Health advocates the use of Research Domain Criteria (RDoC which may support classifying mental disorders based on dimensions of observable behavior and neurobiological measures because mental disorders are viewed as biological disorders that involve brain circuits that implicate specific domains of cognition, emotion, and behavior. Consequently, IGD should be classified on its underlying neurobiology, as well as its subjective symptom experience. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review the neurobiological correlates involved in IGD based on the current literature base. Altogether, 853 studies on the neurobiological correlates were identified on ProQuest (in the following scholarly databases: ProQuest Psychology Journals, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, and ERIC and on MEDLINE, with the application of the exclusion criteria resulting in reviewing a total of 27 studies, using fMRI, rsfMRI, VBM, PET, and EEG methods. The results indicate there are significant neurobiological differences between healthy controls and individuals with IGD. The included studies suggest that compared to healthy controls, gaming addicts have poorer response-inhibition and emotion regulation, impaired prefrontal cortex (PFC functioning and cognitive control, poorer working memory and decision-making capabilities, decreased visual and auditory

  4. Neurobiological Correlates in Internet Gaming Disorder: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J.; Pontes, Halley M.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2018-01-01

    Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) is a potential mental disorder currently included in the third section of the latest (fifth) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a condition that requires additional research to be included in the main manual. Although research efforts in the area have increased, there is a continuing debate about the respective criteria to use as well as the status of the condition as mental health concern. Rather than using diagnostic criteria which are based on subjective symptom experience, the National Institute of Mental Health advocates the use of Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) which may support classifying mental disorders based on dimensions of observable behavior and neurobiological measures because mental disorders are viewed as biological disorders that involve brain circuits that implicate specific domains of cognition, emotion, and behavior. Consequently, IGD should be classified on its underlying neurobiology, as well as its subjective symptom experience. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review the neurobiological correlates involved in IGD based on the current literature base. Altogether, 853 studies on the neurobiological correlates were identified on ProQuest (in the following scholarly databases: ProQuest Psychology Journals, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, and ERIC) and on MEDLINE, with the application of the exclusion criteria resulting in reviewing a total of 27 studies, using fMRI, rsfMRI, VBM, PET, and EEG methods. The results indicate there are significant neurobiological differences between healthy controls and individuals with IGD. The included studies suggest that compared to healthy controls, gaming addicts have poorer response-inhibition and emotion regulation, impaired prefrontal cortex (PFC) functioning and cognitive control, poorer working memory and decision-making capabilities, decreased visual and auditory functioning, and a

  5. Using the Activity-based Anorexia Rodent Model to Study the Neurobiological Basis of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Tara Gunkali; Chen, Yi-Wen; Aoki, Chiye

    2015-10-22

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric illness characterized by excessively restricted caloric intake and abnormally high levels of physical activity. A challenging illness to treat, due to the lack of understanding of the underlying neurobiology, AN has the highest mortality rate among psychiatric illnesses. To address this need, neuroscientists are using an animal model to study how neural circuits may contribute toward vulnerability to AN and may be affected by AN. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is a bio-behavioral phenomenon described in rodents that models the key symptoms of anorexia nervosa. When rodents with free access to voluntary exercise on a running wheel experience food restriction, they become hyperactive - running more than animals with free access to food. Here, we describe the procedures by which ABA is induced in adolescent female C57BL/6 mice. On postnatal day 36 (P36), the animal is housed with access to voluntary exercise on a running wheel. After 4 days of acclimation to the running wheel, on P40, all food is removed from the cage. For the next 3 days, food is returned to the cage (allowing animals free food access) for 2 hr daily. After the fourth day of food restriction, free access to food is returned and the running wheel is removed from the cage to allow the animals to recover. Continuous multi-day analysis of running wheel activity shows that mice become hyperactive within 24 hr following the onset of food restriction. The mice run even during the limited time during which they have access to food. Additionally, the circadian pattern of wheel running becomes disrupted by the experience of food restriction. We have been able to correlate neurobiological changes with various aspects of the animals' wheel running behavior to implicate particular brain regions and neurochemical changes with resilience and vulnerability to food-restriction induced hyperactivity.

  6. Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Neurobiological Features and an Updated Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Arienzo, Donatello; Feusner, Jamie D.

    2013-01-01

    Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) affects approximately 2% of the population and involves misperceived defects of appearance along with obsessive preoccupation and compulsive behaviors. There is evidence of neurobiological abnormalities associated with symptoms in BDD, although research to date is still limited. This review covers the latest neuropsychological, genetic, neurochemical, psychophysical, and neuroimaging studies and synthesizes these findings into an updated (yet still preliminary) neurobiological model of the pathophysiology of BDD. We propose a model in which visual perceptual abnormalities, along with frontostriatal and limbic system dysfunction, may combine to contribute to the symptoms of impaired insight and obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors expressed in BDD. Further research is necessary to gain a greater understanding of the etiological formation of BDD symptoms and their evolution over time. PMID:25419211

  7. Musical hallucinosis: case reports and possible neurobiological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Ramon; Walterfang, Mark; Velakoulis, Dennis

    2008-04-01

    The perception of music without a stimulus, or musical hallucination, is reported in both organic and psychiatric disorders. It is most frequently described in the elderly with associated hearing loss and accompanied by some degree of insight. In this setting it is often referred to as 'musical hallucinosis'. The aim of the authors was to present examples of this syndrome and review the current understanding of its neurobiological basis. We describe three cases of persons experiencing musical hallucinosis in the context of hearing deficits with varying degrees of associated central nervous system abnormalities. Putative neurobiological mechanisms, in particular those involving de-afferentation of a complex auditory recognition system by complete or partial deafness, are discussed in the light of current information from the literature. Musical hallucinosis can be experienced in those patients with hearing impairment and is phenomenologically distinct for hallucinations described in psychiatric disorders.

  8. Toward integrating psyche and soma: psychoanalysis and neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, J; Taylor, G

    1981-02-01

    The brain is the "key organ" for understanding mind/body/illness relationships. During the past two decades neurobiological research has generated a plethora of new data and concepts which have increased tremendously our knowledge of the functioning brain. As a result the psychoanalytic view of the relationship between mind and brain may seem at risk of becoming outmoded. Yet while psychoanalytic theory may no longer be wholly tenable, psychoanalysis continues to offer interesting and heuristically valuable isomorphic models of cortical function. On the other hand neurobiology provides a corrective influence on psychoanalytic concept-building, causing theory to be refined as it is tested against the results of research. One possible result of interdisciplinary cross-fertilization is that a revised theory of the function of dreams and fantasy may throw light on the vicissitudes of somatic experience, and the pathogenesis of psychophysiological disorder.

  9. Insomnia: psychological and neurobiological aspects and non-pharmacological treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Fleury Molen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Insomnia involves difficulty in falling asleep, maintaining sleep or having refreshing sleep. This review gathers the existing informations seeking to explain insomnia, including those that focus on psychological aspects and those considered neurobiological. Insomnia has been defined in psychological (cognitive components, such as worries and rumination, and behavioral aspects, such as classic conditioning and physiological terms (increased metabolic rate, with increased muscle tone, heart rate and temperature. From the neurobiological point of view, there are two perspectives: one which proposes that insomnia occurs in association with a failure to inhibit wakefulness and another that considers hyperarousal as having an important role in the physiology of sleep. The non-pharmacological interventions developed to face different aspects of insomnia are presented.

  10. Insomnia: psychological and neurobiological aspects and non-pharmacological treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molen, Yara Fleury; Carvalho, Luciane Bizari Coin; Prado, Lucila Bizari Fernandes do; Prado, Gilmar Fernandes do

    2014-01-01

    Insomnia involves difficulty in falling asleep, maintaining sleep or having refreshing sleep. This review gathers the existing informations seeking to explain insomnia, including those that focus on psychological aspects and those considered neurobiological. Insomnia has been defined in psychological (cognitive components, such as worries and rumination, and behavioral aspects, such as classic conditioning) and physiological terms (increased metabolic rate, with increased muscle tone, heart rate and temperature). From the neurobiological point of view, there are two perspectives: one which proposes that insomnia occurs in association with a failure to inhibit wakefulness and another that considers hyperarousal as having an important role in the physiology of sleep. The non-pharmacological interventions developed to face different aspects of insomnia are presented.

  11. How Electroconvulsive Therapy Works?: Understanding the Neurobiological Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit; Kar, Sujita Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a time tested treatment modality for the management of various psychiatric disorders. There have been a lot of modifications in the techniques of delivering ECT over decades. Despite lots of criticisms encountered, ECT has still been used commonly in clinical practice due to its safety and efficacy. Research evidences found multiple neuro-biological mechanisms for the therapeutic effect of ECT. ECT brings about various neuro-physiological as well as neuro-chemical changes in the macro- and micro-environment of the brain. Diverse changes involving expression of genes, functional connectivity, neurochemicals, permeability of blood-brain-barrier, alteration in immune system has been suggested to be responsible for the therapeutic effects of ECT. This article reviews different neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic efficacy of ECT. PMID:28783929

  12. Neurobiological correlates of internet gaming disorder: Similarities to pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauth-Bühler, M; Mann, K

    2017-01-01

    The number of massively multiplayer online games (MMOs) is on the rise worldwide along with the fascination that they inspire. Problems occur when the use of MMOs becomes excessive at the expense of other life domains. Although not yet formally included as disorder in common diagnostic systems, internet gaming disorder (IGD) is considered a "condition for further study" in section III of the DSM-5. The current review aims to provide an overview of cognitive and neurobiological data currently available on IGD, with a particular focus on impulsivity, compulsivity, and sensitivity to reward and punishment. Additionally, we also compare these findings on IGD with data from studies on pathological gambling (PG)-so far the only condition officially classified as a behavioral addiction in the DSM-5. Multiple similarities have been observed in the neurobiology of IGD and PG, as measured by alterations in brain function and behavior. Both patients with IGD and those with PG exhibited decreased loss sensitivity; enhanced reactivity to gaming and gambling cues, respectively; enhanced impulsive choice behavior; aberrant reward-based learning; and no changes in cognitive flexibility. In conclusion, the evidence base on the neurobiology of gaming and gambling disorders is beginning to illuminate the similarities between the two. However, as only a few studies have addressed the neurobiological basis of IGD, and some of these studies suffer from significant limitations, more research is required before IGD's inclusion as a second behavioral addiction in the next versions of the ICD and DSM can be justified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neurobiological Basis of Insight in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Rose Mary; Vorderstrasse, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Insight in schizophrenia is defined as awareness into illness, symptoms, and need for treatment and has long been associated with cognition, other psychopathological symptoms, and several adverse clinical and functional outcomes. However, the biological basis of insight is not clearly understood. The aim of this systematic review was to critically evaluate and summarize advances in the study of the biological basis of insight in schizophrenia and to identify gaps in this knowledge. A literature search of PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases was conducted using search terms to identify articles relevant to the biology of insight in schizophrenia published in the last 6 years. Articles that focused on etiology of insight in schizophrenia and those that examined the neurobiology of insight in schizophrenia or psychoses were chosen for analysis. Articles on insight in conditions other than schizophrenia or psychoses and which did not investigate the neurobiological underpinnings of insight were excluded from the review. Twenty-six articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. Of the 26 articles, 3 focused on cellular abnormalities and 23 were neuroimaging studies. Preliminary data identify the prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, and regions of the temporal and parietal lobe (precuneus, inferior parietal lobule) and hippocampus as the neural correlates of insight. A growing body of literature attests to the neurobiological basis of insight in schizophrenia. Current evidence supports the neurobiological basis of insight in schizophrenia and identifies specific neural correlates for insight types and its dimensions. Further studies that examine the precise biological mechanisms of insight are needed to apply this knowledge to effective clinical intervention development.

  14. Consideration of Insulin Pumps or Continuous Glucose Monitors by Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes and Their Parents: Stakeholder Engagement in the Design of Web-Based Decision Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Tim; Hirschfeld, Fiona; Miller, Louis; Izenberg, Neil; Dowshen, Steven A; Taylor, Alex; Milkes, Amy; Shinseki, Michelle T; Bejarano, Carolina; Kozikowski, Chelsea; Kowal, Karen; Starr-Ashton, Penny; Ross, Judith L; Kummer, Mark; Carakushansky, Mauri; Lyness, D'Arcy; Brinkman, William; Pierce, Jessica; Fiks, Alexander; Christofferson, Jennifer; Rafalko, Jessica; Lawson, Margaret L

    2016-08-01

    This article describes the stakeholder-driven design, development, and testing of web-based, multimedia decision aids for youth with type 1 diabetes who are considering the insulin pump or continuous glucose monitoring and their parents. This is the initial phase of work designed to develop and evaluate the efficacy of these decision aids in promoting improved decision-making engagement with use of a selected device. Qualitative interviews of 36 parents and adolescents who had previously faced these decisions and 12 health care providers defined the content, format and structure of the decision aids. Experts in children's health media helped the research team to plan, create, and refine multimedia content and its presentation. A web development firm helped organize the content into a user-friendly interface and enabled tracking of decision aid utilization. Throughout, members of the research team, adolescents, parents, and 3 expert consultants offered perspectives about the website content, structure, and function until the design was complete. With the decision aid websites completed, the next phase of the project is a randomized controlled trial of usual clinical practice alone or augmented by use of the decision aid websites. Stakeholder-driven development of multimedia, web-based decision aids requires meticulous attention to detail but can yield exceptional resources for adolescents and parents contemplating major changes to their diabetes regimens. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Controlling legs for locomotion-insights from robotics and neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Thomas; Ewald, Alexander; von Twickel, Arndt; Büschges, Ansgar

    2015-06-29

    Walking is the most common terrestrial form of locomotion in animals. Its great versatility and flexibility has led to many attempts at building walking machines with similar capabilities. The control of walking is an active research area both in neurobiology and robotics, with a large and growing body of work. This paper gives an overview of the current knowledge on the control of legged locomotion in animals and machines and attempts to give walking control researchers from biology and robotics an overview of the current knowledge in both fields. We try to summarize the knowledge on the neurobiological basis of walking control in animals, emphasizing common principles seen in different species. In a section on walking robots, we review common approaches to walking controller design with a slight emphasis on biped walking control. We show where parallels between robotic and neurobiological walking controllers exist and how robotics and biology may benefit from each other. Finally, we discuss where research in the two fields diverges and suggest ways to bridge these gaps.

  16. [Psychotherapy of Depression as Neurobiological Process - Evidence from Neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubart, Antonie; Hohagen, Fritz; Zurowski, Bartosz

    2018-06-01

    Research on neurobiological effects of psychotherapy in depression facilitates the improvement of treatment strategies. The cortico-limbic dysregulation model serves as a framework for numerous studies on neurobiological changes in depression. In this model, depression is described as hypoactivation of dorsal cortical brain regions in conjunction with hyperactivation of ventral paralimbic regions. This assumption has been supported by various studies of structural and functional brain abnormalities in depression. However, also regions not included in the original cortico-limbic dysregulation model, such as the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, seem to play an important role in depression. Functional connectivity studies of depression have revealed an enhanced connectivity within the so-called default mode network which is involved in self-referential thinking. Studies also point to a normalization of limbic and cortical brain activity, especially in the anterior cingulate cortex, during psychotherapy. Some neurobiological markers like the activity of the anterior cingulate cortex, striatum and insula as well as hippocampal volume have been proposed to predict treatment response on a group-level. The activity of the anterior insula appears to be a candidate bio-marker for differential indication for psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy. The cortico-limbic dysregulation model and following research have inspired new forms of treatment for depression like deep brain stimulation of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, neurofeedback and attention training. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Bridging the divide between neuroprosthetic design, tissue engineering and neurobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Leach

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprosthetic devices have made a major impact in the treatment of a variety of disorders such as paralysis and stroke. However, a major impediment in the advancement of this technology is the challenge of maintaining device performance during chronic implantation (months to years due to complex intrinsic host responses such as gliosis or glial scarring. The objective of this review is to bring together research communities in neurobiology, tissue engineering, and neuroprosthetics to address the major obstacles encountered in the translation of neuroprosthetics technology into long-term clinical use. This article draws connections between specific challenges faced by current neuroprosthetics technology and recent advances in the areas of nerve tissue engineering and neurobiology. Within the context of the device-nervous system interface and central nervous system (CNS implants, areas of synergistic opportunity are discussed, including platforms to present cells with multiple cues, controlled delivery of bioactive factors, three-dimensional constructs and in vitro models of gliosis and brain injury, nerve regeneration strategies, and neural stem/progenitor cell (NPC biology. Finally, recent insights gained from the fields of developmental neurobiology and cancer biology are discussed as examples of exciting new biological knowledge that may provide fresh inspiration towards novel technologies to address the complexities associated with long-term neuroprosthetic device performance.

  18. Methodological Considerations on the Relationship Between the 1,500-M Rowing Ergometer Performance and Vertical Jump in National-Level Adolescent Rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Hugo; Rahmani, Abderrahmane; Chorin, Frédéric; Lardy, Julien; Samozino, Pierre; Ratel, Sébastien

    2018-03-12

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether three different approaches for evaluating squat jump performance were correlated to rowing ergometer performance in elite adolescent rowers. Fourteen young male competitive rowers (15.3 ± 0.6 years), who took part in the French rowing national championships, performed a 1,500-m all-out rowing ergometer performance (P1500) and a squat jump (SJ) test. The performance in SJ was determined by calculating the jump height (HSJ in cm), a jump index (ISJ = HSJ · body mass · gravity, in J) and the mean power output (PSJ in W) from the Samozino et al.'s method. Furthermore, allometric modelling procedures were used to consider the importance of body mass (BM) in the assessment of HSJ, ISJ and PSJ, and their relationships with between P1500 and jump scores. P1500 was significantly correlated to HSJ (r2 = 0.29, P jump and rowing ergometer performances at the same rate, and that PSJ could be the best correlate of P1500. Therefore, the calculation of power seems to be more relevant than HSJ and ISJ to (i) evaluate jump performance, and (ii) infer the capacity of adolescent rowers to perform 1,500-m all-out rowing ergometer performance, irrespective of their body mass. This could help coaches to improve their training program and potentially identify talented young rowers.

  19. Contributions of GABA to alcohol responsivity during adolescence: Insights from preclinical and clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveri, Marisa M.

    2015-01-01

    There is a considerable body of literature demonstrating that adolescence is a unique age period, which includes rapid and dramatic maturation of behavioral, cognitive, hormonal and neurobiological systems. Most notably, adolescence is also a period of unique responsiveness to alcohol effects, with both hyposensitivity and hypersensitivity observed to the various effects of alcohol. Multiple neurotransmitter systems are undergoing fine-tuning during this critical period of brain development, including those that contribute to the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. The role of developmental maturation of the γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) system, however, has received less attention in contributing to age-specific alcohol sensitivities. This review integrates GABA findings from human magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies as they may translate to understanding adolescent-specific responsiveness to alcohol effects. Better understanding of the vulnerability of the GABA system both during adolescent development, and in psychiatric conditions that include alcohol dependence, could point to a putative mechanism, boosting brain GABA, that may have increased effectiveness for treating alcohol abuse disorders. PMID:24631274

  20. Birds, primates, and spoken language origins: behavioral phenotypes and neurobiological substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, Christopher I; Jarvis, Erich D

    2012-01-01

    Vocal learners such as humans and songbirds can learn to produce elaborate patterns of structurally organized vocalizations, whereas many other vertebrates such as non-human primates and most other bird groups either cannot or do so to a very limited degree. To explain the similarities among humans and vocal-learning birds and the differences with other species, various theories have been proposed. One set of theories are motor theories, which underscore the role of the motor system as an evolutionary substrate for vocal production learning. For instance, the motor theory of speech and song perception proposes enhanced auditory perceptual learning of speech in humans and song in birds, which suggests a considerable level of neurobiological specialization. Another, a motor theory of vocal learning origin, proposes that the brain pathways that control the learning and production of song and speech were derived from adjacent motor brain pathways. Another set of theories are cognitive theories, which address the interface between cognition and the auditory-vocal domains to support language learning in humans. Here we critically review the behavioral and neurobiological evidence for parallels and differences between the so-called vocal learners and vocal non-learners in the context of motor and cognitive theories. In doing so, we note that behaviorally vocal-production learning abilities are more distributed than categorical, as are the auditory-learning abilities of animals. We propose testable hypotheses on the extent of the specializations and cross-species correspondences suggested by motor and cognitive theories. We believe that determining how spoken language evolved is likely to become clearer with concerted efforts in testing comparative data from many non-human animal species.

  1. Assessing the place of neurobiological explanations in accounts of a family member's addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurk, Carla; Fraser, Doug; Weier, Megan; Lucke, Jayne; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne

    2016-07-01

    The brain disease model of addiction posits that addiction is a persistent form of neural dysfunction produced by chronic drug use, which makes it difficult for addicted persons to become and remain abstinent. As part of an anticipatory policy analysis of addiction neuroscience, we engaged family members of addicted individuals to assess their views on the place and utility of brain-based accounts of addiction. Fifteen in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted and used to develop a quantitative online survey that was completed by 55 family members. This article reports responses on what addiction is and how it is caused and responses to explanations of the brain disease model of addiction. Participants gave multiple reasons for their family members developing an addiction and there was no single dominant belief about the best way to describe addiction. Participants emphasised the importance of both scientific and non-scientific perspectives on addiction by providing multifactorial explanations of their family members' addictions. Most family members acknowledged that repeated drug use can cause changes to the brain, but they varied in their reactions to labelling addiction a 'brain disease'. They believed that understanding addiction, and how it is caused, could help them support their addicted relative. Participants' beliefs about neurobiological information and the brain disease model of addiction appeared to be driven by empathetic, utilitarian considerations rather than rationalist ones. We discuss the importance of providing information about the nature and causes of addiction. [Meurk C, Fraser D, Weier M, Lucke J, Carter A, Hall W. Assessing the place of neurobiological explanations in accounts of a family member's addiction. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:461-469]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  2. Neurobiological, Psychosocial and Environmental Causes of Violence and Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozhan Yalcin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In psychiatric practice psychotic disorders, mania, substance and alcohol related disorders, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, mental retardation, organic brain syndrome, delirium, stereotypical movement disorders, trichotillomania, eating disorders and other obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, pervasive developmental disorders, major depressive disorder, mixt episodes are closely related with agression towards surrounding and other people and towards self. Although as in suicide agression and violence are not always related to prominent psychopatology, violence and agression are closely associated with crime. In some societies, especially ritualistic agressive behaviours towards self are perceived as culturally normative. Sex, temperamental and cognitive patterns, medical factors also neurobiological and neuropsychiatric causes like neurotransmitters and hormonal factors and their metabolism, glucocorticoid and cholesterol metabolism, genetic factors and also ecological, toxical, nutritional factors, psychosocial and psychodynamic factors can be related with development and severity of agression and violence towards surrounding, other people and towards self. Although it is accepted that there isn’t single explanation of the individual differences about the tendency to violence, there are contradicting points of view among researchers about the most significant risc factor. Probably development or alleveation of violent behavior is influenced by the reciprocal interaction between psychosocial, psychodynamic, temperamental, neuropsychiatric, enviromental, genetic factors, parenting styles, quality of nurturition and education and school mental health interventions. Positive psychosocial, familial, educational factors, psychiatric interventions, protective mental health quality and positive government political attitudes can restorate negative genetic

  3. Internet and Video Game Addictions: Diagnosis, Epidemiology, and Neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Clifford J; Harper, James M; Stahl, Jessica L; Weigle, Paul

    2018-04-01

    In the past 2 decades, there has been substantial increase in availability and use of digital technologies, including the Internet, computer games, smart phones, and social media. Behavioral addiction to use of technologies spawned a body of related research. The recent inclusion of Internet gaming disorder as a condition for further study in the DSM-V invigorated a new wave of researchers, thereby expanding our understanding of these conditions. This article reviews current research, theory, and practice regarding the diagnosis, epidemiology, and neurobiology of Internet and video game addictions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Neurobiological aspects of personality disorders and emotional instability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Predrag

    2016-12-06

    Neurobiological aspects of personality disorders and emotional instability ADHD and mental disorders encompassing emotional instability such as emotionally unstable personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder can potentially be explained by a suboptimal regulation of information processing in the brain. ADHD involves suboptimal function of non-emotional attentional regulatory processes and emotional instability involves suboptimal emotional regulation. A network including prefrontal areas, anterior cingulate cortex, basal ganglia and specific neuromodulatory systems such as the dopamine system are dysfunctional in both ADHD and emotional instability. One might suggest that a dimensional view better describes these mental states than categorical diagnoses.

  5. Diagnosis, treatment, and neurobiology of autism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainhart, J E; Piven, J

    1995-08-01

    Autism is a developmental neuropsychiatric disorder defined by the presence of social and communicative deficits, restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests, and a characteristic course. Research suggests that hereditary factors play a principal role in the etiology of most cases. A phenotype broader than autism, including milder social and language-based cognitive deficits, appears to be inherited. Although the pathogenesis is unknown, neurobiologic mechanisms clearly underlie the disorder. Neuropathologic studies have demonstrated abnormalities in limbic structures, the cerebellum, and the cortex. New advances in behavioral therapies and pharmacologic treatment are important components of successful multidisciplinary treatment of this disorder.

  6. Obsessive-Compulsive Homeland Security: Insights from the Neurobiological Security Motivation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    HOMELAND SECURITY: INSIGHTS FROM THE NEUROBIOLOGICAL SECURITY MOTIVATION SYSTEM by Marissa D. Madrigal March 2018 Thesis Advisor...FROM THE NEUROBIOLOGICAL SECURITY MOTIVATION SYSTEM 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Marissa D. Madrigal 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...how activation of the neurobiological security- motivation system can lead to securitization in response to a security speech act. It explores the model

  7. Importance of investing in adolescence from a developmental science perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Ronald E; Allen, Nicholas B; Wilbrecht, Linda; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff

    2018-02-21

    This review summarizes the case for investing in adolescence as a period of rapid growth, learning, adaptation, and formational neurobiological development. Adolescence is a dynamic maturational period during which young lives can pivot rapidly-in both negative and positive directions. Scientific progress in understanding adolescent development provides actionable insights into windows of opportunity during which policies can have a positive impact on developmental trajectories relating to health, education, and social and economic success. Given current global changes and challenges that affect adolescents, there is a compelling need to leverage these advances in developmental science to inform strategic investments in adolescent health.

  8. A developmental social neuroscience model for understanding loneliness in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nichol M L; Yeung, Patcy P S; Lee, Tatia M C

    2018-02-01

    Loneliness is prevalent in adolescents. Although it can be a normative experience, children and adolescents who experience loneliness are often at risk for anxiety, depression, and suicide. Research efforts have been made to identify the neurobiological basis of such distressful feelings in our social brain. In adolescents, the social brain is still undergoing significant development, which may contribute to their increased and differential sensitivity to the social environment. Many behavioral studies have shown the significance of attachment security and social skills in adolescents' interactions with the social world. In this review, we propose a developmental social neuroscience model that extends from the social neuroscience model of loneliness. In particular, we argue that the social brain and social skills are both important for the development of adolescents' perceived loneliness and that adolescents' familial attachment sets the baseline for neurobiological development. By reviewing the related behavioral and neuroimaging literature, we propose a developmental social neuroscience model to explain the heightened perception of loneliness in adolescents using social skills and attachment style as neurobiological moderators. We encourage future researchers to investigate adolescents' perceived social connectedness from the developmental neuroscience perspective.

  9. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder: a Three-Dimensional Model of Neurobiology with Implications for Etiology and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer J; Lawson, Elizabeth A; Micali, Nadia; Misra, Madhusmita; Deckersbach, Thilo; Eddy, Kamryn T

    2017-08-01

    DSM-5 defined avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) as a failure to meet nutritional needs leading to low weight, nutritional deficiency, dependence on supplemental feedings, and/or psychosocial impairment. We summarize what is known about ARFID and introduce a three-dimensional model to inform research. Because ARFID prevalence, risk factors, and maintaining mechanisms are not known, prevailing treatment approaches are based on clinical experience rather than data. Furthermore, most ARFID research has focused on children, rather than adolescents or adults. We hypothesize a three-dimensional model wherein neurobiological abnormalities in sensory perception, homeostatic appetite, and negative valence systems underlie the three primary ARFID presentations of sensory sensitivity, lack of interest in eating, and fear of aversive consequences, respectively. Now that ARFID has been defined, studies investigating risk factors, prevalence, and pathophysiology are needed. Our model suggests testable hypotheses about etiology and highlights cognitive-behavioral therapy as one possible treatment.

  10. Attachment, neurobiology, and mentalizing along the psychosis continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Debbané

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this review article, we outline the evidence linking attachment adversity to the psychosis, from the premorbid stages of the disorder to its clinical forms. To better understand the neurobiological mechanisms through which insecure attachment may contribute to psychosis, we identify at least five neurobiological pathways linking attachment to risk for developing psychosis. Besides its well documented influence on the hypothalamic-pituary-adrenal (HPA axis, insecure attachment may also contribute to neurodevelopmental risk through the dopaminergic and oxytonergic systems, as well as bear influence on neuroinflammation and oxidative stress responses. We further consider the neuroscientific and behavioural studies that underpin mentalization as a suite of processes potentially moderating the risk to transition to psychotic disorders. In particular, mentalization may help the individual compensate for endophenotypical impairments in the integration of sensory and metacognitive information. We propose a model where embodied mentalization would lie at the core of a protective, resilience response mitigating the adverse and potentially pathological influence of the neurodevelopmental cascade of risk for psychosis.

  11. Neurobiological Phenotypes Associated with a Family History of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cservenka, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals with a family history of alcoholism are at much greater risk for developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD) than youth or adults without such history. A large body of research suggests that there are premorbid differences in brain structure and function in family history positive (FHP) individuals relative to their family history negative (FHN) peers. Methods This review summarizes the existing literature on neurobiological phenotypes present in FHP youth and adults by describing findings across neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies. Results Neuroimaging studies have shown FHP individuals differ from their FHN peers in amygdalar, hippocampal, basal ganglia, and cerebellar volume. Both increased and decreased white matter integrity has been reported in FHP individuals compared with FHN controls. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have found altered inhibitory control and working memory-related brain response in FHP youth and adults, suggesting neural markers of executive functioning may be related to increased vulnerability for developing AUDs in this population. Additionally, brain activity differences in regions involved in bottom-up reward and emotional processing, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, have been shown in FHP individuals relative to their FHN peers. Conclusions It is critical to understand premorbid neural characteristics that could be associated with cognitive, reward-related, or emotional risk factors that increase risk for AUDs in FHP individuals. This information may lead to the development of neurobiologically informed prevention and intervention studies focused on reducing the incidence of AUDs in high-risk youth and adults. PMID:26559000

  12. Neurobiological phenotypes associated with a family history of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cservenka, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with a family history of alcoholism are at much greater risk for developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD) than youth or adults without such history. A large body of research suggests that there are premorbid differences in brain structure and function in family history positive (FHP) individuals relative to their family history negative (FHN) peers. This review summarizes the existing literature on neurobiological phenotypes present in FHP youth and adults by describing findings across neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies. Neuroimaging studies have shown FHP individuals differ from their FHN peers in amygdalar, hippocampal, basal ganglia, and cerebellar volume. Both increased and decreased white matter integrity has been reported in FHP individuals compared with FHN controls. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have found altered inhibitory control and working memory-related brain response in FHP youth and adults, suggesting neural markers of executive functioning may be related to increased vulnerability for developing AUDs in this population. Additionally, brain activity differences in regions involved in bottom-up reward and emotional processing, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, have been shown in FHP individuals relative to their FHN peers. It is critical to understand premorbid neural characteristics that could be associated with cognitive, reward-related, or emotional risk factors that increase risk for AUDs in FHP individuals. This information may lead to the development of neurobiologically informed prevention and intervention studies focused on reducing the incidence of AUDs in high-risk youth and adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bridging the interval: theory and neurobiology of trace conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybuck, Jonathan D; Lattal, K Matthew

    2014-01-01

    An early finding in the behavioral analysis of learning was that conditioned responding weakens as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) are separated in time. This "trace" conditioning effect has been the focus of years of research in associative learning. Theoretical accounts of trace conditioning have focused on mechanisms that allow associative learning to occur across long intervals between the CS and US. These accounts have emphasized degraded contingency effects, timing mechanisms, and inhibitory learning. More recently, study of the neurobiology of trace conditioning has shown that even a short interval between the CS and US alters the circuitry recruited for learning. Here, we review some of the theoretical and neurobiological mechanisms underlying trace conditioning with an emphasis on recent studies of trace fear conditioning. Findings across many studies have implications not just for how we think about time and conditioning, but also for how we conceptualize fear conditioning in general, suggesting that circuitry beyond the usual suspects needs to be incorporated into current thinking about fear, learning, and anxiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An interoceptive model of bulimia nervosa: A neurobiological systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klabunde, Megan; Collado, Danielle; Bohon, Cara

    2017-11-01

    The objective of our study was to examine the neurobiological support for an interoceptive sensory processing model of bulimia nervosa (BN). To do so, we conducted a systematic review of interoceptive sensory processing in BN, using the PRISMA guidelines. We searched PsychInfo, Pubmed, and Web of Knowledge databases to identify biological and behavioral studies that examine interoceptive detection in BN. After screening 390 articles for inclusion and conducting a quality assessment of articles that met inclusion criteria, we reviewed 41 articles. We found that global interoceptive sensory processing deficits may be present in BN. Specifically there is evidence of abnormal brain function, structure and connectivity in the interoceptive neural network, in addition to gastric and pain processing disturbances. These results suggest that there may be a neurobiological basis for global interoceptive sensory processing deficits in BN that remain after recovery. Data from taste and heart beat detection studies were inconclusive; some studies suggest interoceptive disturbances in these sensory domains. Discrepancies in findings appear to be due to methodological differences. In conclusion, interoceptive sensory processing deficits may directly contribute to and explain a variety of symptoms present in those with BN. Further examination of interoceptive sensory processing deficits could inform the development of treatments for those with BN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Attachment, Neurobiology, and Mentalizing along the Psychosis Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbané, Martin; Salaminios, George; Luyten, Patrick; Badoud, Deborah; Armando, Marco; Solida Tozzi, Alessandra; Fonagy, Peter; Brent, Benjamin K

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, we outline the evidence linking attachment adversity to psychosis, from the premorbid stages of the disorder to its clinical forms. To better understand the neurobiological mechanisms through which insecure attachment may contribute to psychosis, we identify at least five neurobiological pathways linking attachment to risk for developing psychosis. Besides its well documented influence on the hypothalamic-pituary-adrenal (HPA) axis, insecure attachment may also contribute to neurodevelopmental risk through the dopaminergic and oxytonergic systems, as well as bear influence on neuroinflammation and oxidative stress responses. We further consider the neuroscientific and behavioral studies that underpin mentalization as a suite of processes potentially moderating the risk to transition to psychotic disorders. In particular, mentalization may help the individual compensate for endophenotypical impairments in the integration of sensory and metacognitive information. We propose a model where embodied mentalization would lie at the core of a protective, resilience response mitigating the adverse and potentially pathological influence of the neurodevelopmental cascade of risk for psychosis.

  16. Progressing neurobiological strategies against proteostasis failure: Challenges in neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanullah, Ayeman; Upadhyay, Arun; Joshi, Vibhuti; Mishra, Ribhav; Jana, Nihar Ranjan; Mishra, Amit

    2017-12-01

    Proteins are ordered useful cellular entities, required for normal health and organism's survival. The proteome is the absolute set of cellular expressed proteins, which regulates a wide range of physiological functions linked with all domains of life. In aging cells or under unfavorable cellular conditions, misfolding of proteins generates common pathological events linked with neurodegenerative diseases and aging. Current advances of proteome studies systematically generates some progress in our knowledge that how misfolding of proteins or their accumulation can contribute to the impairment or depletion of proteome functions. Still, the underlying causes of this unrecoverable loss are not clear that how such unsolved transitions give rise to multifactorial challengeable degenerative pathological conditions in neurodegeneration. In this review, we specifically focus and systematically summarize various molecular mechanisms of proteostasis maintenance, as well as discuss progressing neurobiological strategies, promising natural and pharmacological candidates, which can be useful to counteract the problem of proteopathies. Our article emphasizes an urgent need that now it is important for us to recognize the fundamentals of proteostasis to design a new molecular framework and fruitful strategies to uncover how the proteome defects are associated with aging and neurodegenerative diseases. A enhance understanding of progress link with proteome and neurobiological challenges may provide new basic concepts in the near future, based on pharmacological agents, linked with impaired proteostasis and neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neurobiology of cognitive remediation therapy for schizophrenia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Anders Lillevik; Johansson, Kyrre; Løberg, Else-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is an important aspect of schizophrenia, where cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) is a promising treatment for improving cognitive functioning. While neurobiological dysfunction in schizophrenia has been the target of much research, the neural substrate of cognitive remediation and recovery has not been thoroughly examined. The aim of the present article is to systematically review the evidence for neural changes after CRT for schizophrenia. The reviewed studies indicate that CRT affects several brain regions and circuits, including prefrontal, parietal, and limbic areas, both in terms of activity and structure. Changes in prefrontal areas are the most reported finding, fitting to previous evidence of dysfunction in this region. Two limitations of the current research are the few studies and the lack of knowledge on the mechanisms underlying neural and cognitive changes after treatment. Despite these limitations, the current evidence suggests that CRT is associated with both neurobiological and cognitive improvement. The evidence from these findings may shed light on both the neural substrate of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, and how better treatment can be developed and applied.

  18. Aggression and anxiety: social context and neurobiological links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga D Neumann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathologies such as anxiety- and depression-related disorders are often characterized by impaired social behaviours including excessive aggression and violence. Excessive aggression and violence likely develop as a consequence of generally disturbed emotional regulation, such as abnormally high or low levels of anxiety. This suggests an overlap between brain circuitries and neurochemical systems regulating aggression and anxiety. In this review, we will discuss different forms of male aggression, rodent models of excessive aggression, and neurobiological mechanisms underlying male aggression in the context of anxiety. We will summarize our attempts to establish an animal model of high and abnormal aggression using rats selected for high (HAB versus low (LAB anxiety-related behaviour. Briefly, male LAB rats and, to a lesser extent, male HAB rats show high and abnormal forms of aggression compared with non-selected (NAB rats, making them a suitable animal model for studying excessive aggression in the context of extremes in innate anxiety. In addition, we will discuss differences in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, brain arginine vasopressin, and the serotonin systems, among others, which contribute to the distinct behavioural phenotypes related to aggression and anxiety. Further investigation of the neurobiological systems in animals with distinct anxiety phenotypes might provide valuable information about the link between excessive aggression and disturbed emotional regulation, which is essential for understanding the social and emotional deficits that are characteristic of many human psychiatric disorders.

  19. Artificial dirt: microfluidic substrates for nematode neurobiology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockery, S R; Lawton, K J; Doll, J C; Faumont, S; Coulthard, S M; Thiele, T R; Chronis, N; McCormick, K E; Goodman, M B; Pruitt, B L

    2008-06-01

    With a nervous system of only 302 neurons, the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful experimental organism for neurobiology. However, the laboratory substrate commonly used in C. elegans research, a planar agarose surface, fails to reflect the complexity of this organism's natural environment, complicates stimulus delivery, and is incompatible with high-resolution optophysiology experiments. Here we present a new class of microfluidic devices for C. elegans neurobiology and behavior: agarose-free, micron-scale chambers and channels that allow the animals to crawl as they would on agarose. One such device mimics a moist soil matrix and facilitates rapid delivery of fluid-borne stimuli. A second device consists of sinusoidal channels that can be used to regulate the waveform and trajectory of crawling worms. Both devices are thin and transparent, rendering them compatible with high-resolution microscope objectives for neuronal imaging and optical recording. Together, the new devices are likely to accelerate studies of the neuronal basis of behavior in C. elegans.

  20. Attachment, Neurobiology, and Mentalizing along the Psychosis Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbané, Martin; Salaminios, George; Luyten, Patrick; Badoud, Deborah; Armando, Marco; Solida Tozzi, Alessandra; Fonagy, Peter; Brent, Benjamin K.

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, we outline the evidence linking attachment adversity to psychosis, from the premorbid stages of the disorder to its clinical forms. To better understand the neurobiological mechanisms through which insecure attachment may contribute to psychosis, we identify at least five neurobiological pathways linking attachment to risk for developing psychosis. Besides its well documented influence on the hypothalamic-pituary-adrenal (HPA) axis, insecure attachment may also contribute to neurodevelopmental risk through the dopaminergic and oxytonergic systems, as well as bear influence on neuroinflammation and oxidative stress responses. We further consider the neuroscientific and behavioral studies that underpin mentalization as a suite of processes potentially moderating the risk to transition to psychotic disorders. In particular, mentalization may help the individual compensate for endophenotypical impairments in the integration of sensory and metacognitive information. We propose a model where embodied mentalization would lie at the core of a protective, resilience response mitigating the adverse and potentially pathological influence of the neurodevelopmental cascade of risk for psychosis. PMID:27597820

  1. The Neurobiological Impact of Ghrelin Suppression after Oesophagectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor F. Murphy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin, discovered in 1999, is a 28-amino-acid hormone, best recognized as a stimulator of growth hormone secretion, but with pleiotropic functions in the area of energy homeostasis, such as appetite stimulation and energy expenditure regulation. As the intrinsic ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R, ghrelin appears to have a broad array of effects, but its primary role is still an area of debate. Produced mainly from oxyntic glands in the stomach, but with a multitude of extra-metabolic roles, ghrelin is implicated in complex neurobiological processes. Comprehensive studies within the areas of obesity and metabolic surgery have clarified the mechanism of these operations. As a stimulator of growth hormone (GH, and an apparent inducer of positive energy balance, other areas of interest include its impact on carcinogenesis and tumour proliferation and its role in the cancer cachexia syndrome. This has led several authors to study the hormone in the cancer setting. Ghrelin levels are acutely reduced following an oesophagectomy, a primary treatment modality for oesophageal cancer. We sought to investigate the nature of this postoperative ghrelin suppression, and its neurobiological implications.

  2. Amygdala Activation and Emotional Processing in Adolescents at Risk for Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Dawn L.; Pajtek, Stefan; Tarter, Ralph E.; Long, Elizabeth C.; Clark, Duncan B.

    2014-01-01

    Studies are needed that examine neurobiological characteristics in high-risk individuals prior to substance use disorder (SUD) development. In this pilot study, 4 adolescent subjects at high risk for SUD (having at least 1 parent with an SUD) were compared with 4 adolescent reference subjects on a cortico-limbic reactivity paradigm, where they…

  3. Binge Drinking and the Young Brain: A Mini Review of the Neurobiological Underpinnings of Alcohol-Induced Blackout

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    Daniel F. Hermens

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Binge drinking has significant effects on memory, particularly with regards to the transfer of information to long-term storage. Partial or complete blocking of memory formation is known as blackout. Youth represents a critical period in brain development that is particularly vulnerable to alcohol misuse. Animal models show that the adolescent brain is more vulnerable to the acute and chronic effects of alcohol compared with the adult brain. This mini-review addresses the neurobiological underpinnings of binge drinking and associated memory loss (blackout in the adolescent and young adult period. Although the extent to which there are pre-existing versus alcohol-induced neurobiological changes remains unclear, it is likely that repetitive binge drinking in youth has detrimental effects on cognitive and social functioning. Given its role in learning and memory, the hippocampus is a critical region with neuroimaging research showing notable changes in this structure associated with alcohol misuse in young people. There is a great need for earlier identification of biological markers associated with alcohol-related brain damage. As a means to assess in vivo neurochemistry, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS has emerged as a particularly promising technique since changes in neurometabolites often precede gross structural changes. Thus, the current paper addresses how MRS biomarkers of neurotransmission (glutamate, GABA and oxidative stress (indexed by depleted glutathione in the hippocampal region of young binge drinkers may underlie propensity for blackouts and other memory impairments. MRS biomarkers may have particular utility in determining the acute versus longer-term effects of binge drinking in young people.

  4. Neurobiology of Schemas and Schema-Mediated Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Asaf; Marlatte, Hannah

    2017-08-01

    Schemas are superordinate knowledge structures that reflect abstracted commonalities across multiple experiences, exerting powerful influences over how events are perceived, interpreted, and remembered. Activated schema templates modulate early perceptual processing, as they get populated with specific informational instances (schema instantiation). Instantiated schemas, in turn, can enhance or distort mnemonic processing from the outset (at encoding), impact offline memory transformation and accelerate neocortical integration. Recent studies demonstrate distinctive neurobiological processes underlying schema-related learning. Interactions between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), hippocampus, angular gyrus (AG), and unimodal associative cortices support context-relevant schema instantiation and schema mnemonic effects. The vmPFC and hippocampus may compete (as suggested by some models) or synchronize (as suggested by others) to optimize schema-related learning depending on the specific operationalization of schema memory. This highlights the need for more precise definitions of memory schemas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Towards a neurobiological understanding of pain in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Søren S; Krauss, Theresa; Demir, Ihsan Ekin

    2017-01-01

    a chronic pain syndrome. Objectives: We aimed to characterize the neurobiological signature of pain associated with CP and to discuss its implications for treatment strategies. Methods: Relevant basic and clinical articles were selected for review following an extensive search of the literature. Results......: Pathophysiological changes in the peripheral (pancreatic gland) and central nervous system characterize the pain syndrome associated with CP; involved mechanisms can be broken down to 3 main branches: (1) peripheral sensitization, (2) pancreatic neuropathy, and (3) neuroplastic changes in the central pain pathways...... with those observed in neuropathic pain disorders and have important implications for treatment; adjuvant analgesics are effective in a subset of patients, and neuromodulation and neuropsychological interventions may prove useful in the future. Conclusion: Chronic pancreatitis is associated with abnormal...

  6. Sex differences in stress-related psychiatric disorders: neurobiological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangasser, Debra A; Valentino, Rita J

    2014-08-01

    Stress is associated with the onset and severity of several psychiatric disorders that occur more frequently in women than men, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Patients with these disorders present with dysregulation of several stress response systems, including the neuroendocrine response to stress, corticolimbic responses to negatively valenced stimuli, and hyperarousal. Thus, sex differences within their underlying circuitry may explain sex biases in disease prevalence. This review describes clinical studies that identify sex differences within the activity of these circuits, as well as preclinical studies that demonstrate cellular and molecular sex differences in stress responses systems. These studies reveal sex differences from the molecular to the systems level that increase endocrine, emotional, and arousal responses to stress in females. Exploring these sex differences is critical because this research can reveal the neurobiological underpinnings of vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders and guide the development of novel pharmacotherapies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Survey of Artistic Value: From Analytic Philosophy to Neurobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary P. Norwood

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytic philosophers have disputed the nature of “artistic value” for over six decades, bringing much needed clarity and rigor to a subject discussed with fashionable obscurity in other disciplines. This essay frames debates between analytic philosophers on artistic value and suggests new directions for future research. In particular, the problem of “intrinsic value” is considered, that is, whether a work’s value derives from its experienced properties, as a work of art, or from cultural trends outside the work’s properties. It is argued that neurobiological research helps resolve perceived differences between a work’s intrinsic and extrinsic values. A work can be both rewarding and punishing on its own, “intrinsic” merit—as a percipient, real thing in the world evoking predictable kinds of emotion—and with respect to ever shifting, “extrinsic” cultural norms.

  8. Unraveling the Neurobiology of Sleep and Sleep Disorders Using Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, L; Moscato, E H; Kayser, M S

    2017-01-01

    Sleep disorders in humans are increasingly appreciated to be not only widespread but also detrimental to multiple facets of physical and mental health. Recent work has begun to shed light on the mechanistic basis of sleep disorders like insomnia, restless legs syndrome, narcolepsy, and a host of others, but a more detailed genetic and molecular understanding of how sleep goes awry is lacking. Over the past 15 years, studies in Drosophila have yielded new insights into basic questions regarding sleep function and regulation. More recently, powerful genetic approaches in the fly have been applied toward studying primary human sleep disorders and other disease states associated with dysregulated sleep. In this review, we discuss the contribution of Drosophila to the landscape of sleep biology, examining not only fundamental advances in sleep neurobiology but also how flies have begun to inform pathological sleep states in humans. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Toward a neurobiology of temporal cognition: advances and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, J; Malapani, C; Dale, C L; Gallistel, C

    1997-04-01

    A rich tradition of normative psychophysics has identified two ubiquitous properties of interval timing: the scalar property, a strong form of Weber's law, and ratio comparison mechanisms. Finding the neural substrate of these properties is a major challenge for neurobiology. Recently, advances have been made in our understanding of the brain structures important for timing, especially the basal ganglia and the cerebellum. Surgical intervention or diseases of the cerebellum generally result in increased variability in temporal processing, whereas both clock and memory effects are seen for neurotransmitter interventions, lesions and diseases of the basal ganglia. We propose that cerebellar dysfunction may induce deregulation of tonic thalamic tuning, which disrupts gating of the mnemonic temporal information generated in the basal ganglia through striato-thalamo-cortical loops.

  10. Foraging for brain stimulation: toward a neurobiology of computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R

    1994-01-01

    The self-stimulating rat performs foraging tasks mediated by simple computations that use interreward intervals and subjective reward magnitudes to determine stay durations. This is a simplified preparation in which to study the neurobiology of the elementary computational operations that make cognition possible, because the neural signal specifying the value of a computationally relevant variable is produced by direct electrical stimulation of a neural pathway. Newly developed measurement methods yield functions relating the subjective reward magnitude to the parameters of the neural signal. These measurements also show that the decision process that governs foraging behavior divides the subjective reward magnitude by the most recent interreward interval to determine the preferability of an option (a foraging patch). The decision process sets the parameters that determine stay durations (durations of visits to foraging patches) so that the ratios of the stay durations match the ratios of the preferabilities.

  11. New Insights on Neurobiological Mechanisms underlying Alcohol Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Changhai; Noronha, Antonio; Morikawa, Hitoshi; Alvarez, Veronica A.; Stuber, Garret D.; Szumlinski, Karen K.; Kash, Thomas L.; Roberto, Marisa; Wilcox, Mark V.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol dependence/addiction is mediated by complex neural mechanisms that involve multiple brain circuits and neuroadaptive changes in a variety of neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems. Although recent studies have provided substantial information on the neurobiological mechanisms that drive alcohol drinking behavior, significant challenges remain in understanding how alcohol-induced neuroadaptations occur and how different neurocircuits and pathways cross-talk. This review article highlights recent progress in understanding neural mechanisms of alcohol addiction from the perspectives of the development and maintenance of alcohol dependence. It provides insights on cross talks of different mechanisms and reviews the latest studies on metaplasticity, structural plasticity, interface of reward and stress pathways, and cross-talk of different neural signaling systems involved in binge-like drinking and alcohol dependence. PMID:23159531

  12. Optogenetics: a new enlightenment age for zebrafish neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bene, Filippo; Wyart, Claire

    2012-03-01

    Zebrafish became a model of choice for neurobiology because of the transparency of its brain and because of its amenability to genetic manipulation. In particular, at early stages of development the intact larva is an ideal system to apply optical techniques for deep imaging in the nervous system, as well as genetically encoded tools for targeting subsets of neurons and monitoring and manipulating their activity. For these applications,new genetically encoded optical tools, fluorescent sensors, and light-gated channels have been generated,creating the field of "optogenetics." It is now possible to monitor and control neuronal activity with minimal perturbation and unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution.We describe here the main achievements that have occurred in the last decade in imaging and manipulating neuronal activity in intact zebrafish larvae. We provide also examples of functional dissection of neuronal circuits achieved with the applications of these techniques in the visual and locomotor systems.

  13. Recent advances in the neurobiology and neuropharmacology of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kushal; Kumar, Ashwani; Keegan, Richard M; Deshmukh, Rahul

    2018-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive deterioration of cognitive functions. The pathological hallmarks are extracellular deposits of amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles of tau protein. The cognitive deficits seen are thought to be due to synaptic dysfunction and neurochemical deficiencies. Various neurochemical abnormalities have been observed during progressive ageing, and are linked to cognitive abnormalities as seen with the sporadic form of AD. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are one of the major therapeutic strategies used for the treatment of AD. During the last decade, various new therapeutic strategies have shown beneficial effects in preclinical studies and under clinical development for the treatment of AD. The present review is aimed at discussing the neurobiology of AD and association of neurochemical abnormalities associated with cognitive deterioration and new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Neurobiological roots of language in primate audition: common computational properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Small, Steven L; Rauschecker, Josef P

    2015-03-01

    Here, we present a new perspective on an old question: how does the neurobiology of human language relate to brain systems in nonhuman primates? We argue that higher-order language combinatorics, including sentence and discourse processing, can be situated in a unified, cross-species dorsal-ventral streams architecture for higher auditory processing, and that the functions of the dorsal and ventral streams in higher-order language processing can be grounded in their respective computational properties in primate audition. This view challenges an assumption, common in the cognitive sciences, that a nonhuman primate model forms an inherently inadequate basis for modeling higher-level language functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Speech perception at the interface of neurobiology and linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeppel, David; Idsardi, William J; van Wassenhove, Virginie

    2008-03-12

    Speech perception consists of a set of computations that take continuously varying acoustic waveforms as input and generate discrete representations that make contact with the lexical representations stored in long-term memory as output. Because the perceptual objects that are recognized by the speech perception enter into subsequent linguistic computation, the format that is used for lexical representation and processing fundamentally constrains the speech perceptual processes. Consequently, theories of speech perception must, at some level, be tightly linked to theories of lexical representation. Minimally, speech perception must yield representations that smoothly and rapidly interface with stored lexical items. Adopting the perspective of Marr, we argue and provide neurobiological and psychophysical evidence for the following research programme. First, at the implementational level, speech perception is a multi-time resolution process, with perceptual analyses occurring concurrently on at least two time scales (approx. 20-80 ms, approx. 150-300 ms), commensurate with (sub)segmental and syllabic analyses, respectively. Second, at the algorithmic level, we suggest that perception proceeds on the basis of internal forward models, or uses an 'analysis-by-synthesis' approach. Third, at the computational level (in the sense of Marr), the theory of lexical representation that we adopt is principally informed by phonological research and assumes that words are represented in the mental lexicon in terms of sequences of discrete segments composed of distinctive features. One important goal of the research programme is to develop linking hypotheses between putative neurobiological primitives (e.g. temporal primitives) and those primitives derived from linguistic inquiry, to arrive ultimately at a biologically sensible and theoretically satisfying model of representation and computation in speech.

  16. Neuromorphic implementations of neurobiological learning algorithms for spiking neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Florian; Röhrbein, Florian; Knoll, Alois

    2015-12-01

    The application of biologically inspired methods in design and control has a long tradition in robotics. Unlike previous approaches in this direction, the emerging field of neurorobotics not only mimics biological mechanisms at a relatively high level of abstraction but employs highly realistic simulations of actual biological nervous systems. Even today, carrying out these simulations efficiently at appropriate timescales is challenging. Neuromorphic chip designs specially tailored to this task therefore offer an interesting perspective for neurorobotics. Unlike Von Neumann CPUs, these chips cannot be simply programmed with a standard programming language. Like real brains, their functionality is determined by the structure of neural connectivity and synaptic efficacies. Enabling higher cognitive functions for neurorobotics consequently requires the application of neurobiological learning algorithms to adjust synaptic weights in a biologically plausible way. In this paper, we therefore investigate how to program neuromorphic chips by means of learning. First, we provide an overview over selected neuromorphic chip designs and analyze them in terms of neural computation, communication systems and software infrastructure. On the theoretical side, we review neurobiological learning techniques. Based on this overview, we then examine on-die implementations of these learning algorithms on the considered neuromorphic chips. A final discussion puts the findings of this work into context and highlights how neuromorphic hardware can potentially advance the field of autonomous robot systems. The paper thus gives an in-depth overview of neuromorphic implementations of basic mechanisms of synaptic plasticity which are required to realize advanced cognitive capabilities with spiking neural networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Imaging the neurobiological substrate of atypical depression by SPECT

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    Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Salmaso, Dario [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Nardo, Davide [University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Psychology, Rome (Italy); Jonsson, Cathrine; Larsson, Stig A. [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, Hans [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Gardner, Ann [Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    Neurobiological abnormalities underlying atypical depression have previously been suggested. The purpose of this study was to explore differences at functional brain imaging between depressed patients with and without atypical features and healthy controls. Twenty-three out-patients with chronic depressive disorder recruited from a service for patients with audiological symptoms were investigated. Eleven fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for atypical depression (mood reactivity and at least two of the following: weight gain, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis and interpersonal rejection sensitivity). Twenty-three healthy subjects served as controls. Voxel-based analysis was applied to explore differences in {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO uptake between groups. Patients in the atypical group had a higher prevalence of bilateral hearing impairment and higher depression and somatic distress ratings at the time of SPECT. Significantly higher tracer uptake was found bilaterally in the atypical group as compared with the non-atypicals in the sensorimotor (Brodmann areas, BA1-3) and premotor cortex in the superior frontal gyri (BA6), in the middle frontal cortex (BA8), in the parietal associative cortex (BA5, BA7) and in the inferior parietal lobule (BA40). Significantly lower tracer distribution was found in the right hemisphere in the non-atypicals compared with the controls in BA6, BA8, BA44, BA45 and BA46 in the frontal cortex, in the orbito-frontal cortex (BA11, BA47), in the postcentral parietal cortex (BA2) and in the multimodal association parietal cortex (BA40). The differences found between atypical and non-atypical depressed patients suggest different neurobiological substrates in these patient groups. The putative links with the clinical features of atypical depression are discussed. These findings encourage the use of functional neuroimaging in psychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  18. Imaging the neurobiological substrate of atypical depression by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagani, Marco; Salmaso, Dario; Nardo, Davide; Jonsson, Cathrine; Larsson, Stig A.; Jacobsson, Hans; Gardner, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Neurobiological abnormalities underlying atypical depression have previously been suggested. The purpose of this study was to explore differences at functional brain imaging between depressed patients with and without atypical features and healthy controls. Twenty-three out-patients with chronic depressive disorder recruited from a service for patients with audiological symptoms were investigated. Eleven fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for atypical depression (mood reactivity and at least two of the following: weight gain, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis and interpersonal rejection sensitivity). Twenty-three healthy subjects served as controls. Voxel-based analysis was applied to explore differences in 99m Tc-HMPAO uptake between groups. Patients in the atypical group had a higher prevalence of bilateral hearing impairment and higher depression and somatic distress ratings at the time of SPECT. Significantly higher tracer uptake was found bilaterally in the atypical group as compared with the non-atypicals in the sensorimotor (Brodmann areas, BA1-3) and premotor cortex in the superior frontal gyri (BA6), in the middle frontal cortex (BA8), in the parietal associative cortex (BA5, BA7) and in the inferior parietal lobule (BA40). Significantly lower tracer distribution was found in the right hemisphere in the non-atypicals compared with the controls in BA6, BA8, BA44, BA45 and BA46 in the frontal cortex, in the orbito-frontal cortex (BA11, BA47), in the postcentral parietal cortex (BA2) and in the multimodal association parietal cortex (BA40). The differences found between atypical and non-atypical depressed patients suggest different neurobiological substrates in these patient groups. The putative links with the clinical features of atypical depression are discussed. These findings encourage the use of functional neuroimaging in psychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  19. The development of an RDoC based treatment program for adolescent depression Training for Awareness, Resilience, and Action (TARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eHenje Blom

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is one of the current leading causes of disability worldwide. Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the onset of depression, with MDD affecting 8-20% of all youth. Traditional treatment methods have not been sufficiently effective to slow the increasing prevalence of adolescent depression. We therefore propose a new model for the treatment of adolescent depression – Training for Awareness, Resilience, and Action (TARA – that is based on current understanding of developmental and depression neurobiology. The TARA model is aligned with the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC of the National Institute of Mental Health. In this article, we first address the relevance of RDoC to adolescent depression. Second, we identify the major RDoC domains of function involved in adolescent depression and organize them in a way that gives priority to domains thought to be driving the psychopathology. Third, we select therapeutic training strategies for TARA based on current scientific evidence of efficacy for the prioritized domains of function in a manner that maximizes time, resources, and feasibility. The TARA model takes into consideration the developmental limitation in top-down cognitive control in adolescence and promotes bottom-up strategies such as vagal afference to decrease limbic hyperactivation and its secondary effects. The program has been informed by mindfulness-based therapy and yoga, as well as modern psychotherapeutic techniques. The treatment program is semi-manualized, progressive, and applied in a module-based approach designed for a group setting that is to be conducted one session per week for 12 weeks. We hope that this work may form the basis for a novel and more effective treatment strategy for adolescent depression, as well as broaden the discussion on how to address this challenge.

  20. Habit Reversal Training for Tic Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, John; Chang, Susanna

    2005-01-01

    Chronic tic disorders, including Tourette's syndrome (TS), affect approximately .5% of children and adolescents. Although strong evidence exists supporting a neurobiological etiology, operant factors may play a role in the maintenance of tic behaviors. Pharmacological approaches remain the most commonly used intervention for chronic tic disorder…

  1. Neurobiological and psychosocial conditionings of rationality of criminal behaviour – review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Piotrowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The term “rationality” has been mentioned for ages in philosophical discourse, and later in science. No wonder that considerations regarding the reasons behind committing crimes involve the question of rationality of culprits. The article comprises a review of contemporary research on factors which, on a neurobiological, psychological or social level, modify the level of rationality of criminals. In case of the juveniles, factors such as not fully developed brain structures, the influence of hormonal changes resulting in emotional instability and peer pressure, should also be taken into account. Adult criminals often manifest a deficit of activity in the prefrontal cortex of the brain, combined with increased activity in the subcortex, resulting in an increased propensity for violence. Neurophysiologic disorders may be accompanied by factors reducing the rationality, such as: errors in thinking, habitual use of neutralisation techniques or being lead by the, typical for street culture, perception of justice. All of the above should be taken into account as a part of a multi-aspect analyses of the causes of crime.

  2. Social ‘wanting’ dysfunction in autism: neurobiological underpinnings and treatment implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohls Gregor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most behavioral training regimens in autism spectrum disorders (ASD rely on reward-based reinforcement strategies. Although proven to significantly increase both cognitive and social outcomes and successfully reduce aberrant behaviors, this approach fails to benefit a substantial number of affected individuals. Given the enormous amount of clinical and financial resources devoted to behavioral interventions, there is a surprisingly large gap in our knowledge of the basic reward mechanisms of learning in ASD. Understanding the mechanisms for reward responsiveness and reinforcement-based learning is urgently needed to better inform modifications that might improve current treatments. The fundamental goal of this review is to present a fine-grained literature analysis of reward function in ASD with reference to a validated neurobiological model of reward: the ‘wanting’/’liking’ framework. Despite some inconsistencies within the available literature, the evaluation across three converging sets of neurobiological data (neuroimaging, electrophysiological recordings, and neurochemical measures reveals good evidence for disrupted reward-seeking tendencies in ASD, particularly in social contexts. This is most likely caused by dysfunction of the dopaminergic–oxytocinergic ‘wanting’ circuitry, including the ventral striatum, amygdala, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Such a conclusion is consistent with predictions derived from diagnostic criteria concerning the core social phenotype of ASD, which emphasize difficulties with spontaneous self-initiated seeking of social encounters (that is, social motivation. Existing studies suggest that social ‘wanting’ tendencies vary considerably between individuals with ASD, and that the degree of social motivation is both malleable and predictive of intervention response. Although the topic of reward responsiveness in ASD is very new, with much research still needed, the current data

  3. Hispanic Adolescent Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Katherine F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses fertility of Hispanic adolescents in the United States. Summarizes what is known about sexuality, contraception, pregnancy, and childbearing among male and female Hispanics of various countries of origin. Indicates Hispanic adolescent birthrates fall between those of non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks, but there is considerable within-group…

  4. Object recognition memory: neurobiological mechanisms of encoding, consolidation and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Boyer D; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J

    2008-07-01

    Tests of object recognition memory, or the judgment of the prior occurrence of an object, have made substantial contributions to our understanding of the nature and neurobiological underpinnings of mammalian memory. Only in recent years, however, have researchers begun to elucidate the specific brain areas and neural processes involved in object recognition memory. The present review considers some of this recent research, with an emphasis on studies addressing the neural bases of perirhinal cortex-dependent object recognition memory processes. We first briefly discuss operational definitions of object recognition and the common behavioural tests used to measure it in non-human primates and rodents. We then consider research from the non-human primate and rat literature examining the anatomical basis of object recognition memory in the delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS) and spontaneous object recognition (SOR) tasks, respectively. The results of these studies overwhelmingly favor the view that perirhinal cortex (PRh) is a critical region for object recognition memory. We then discuss the involvement of PRh in the different stages--encoding, consolidation, and retrieval--of object recognition memory. Specifically, recent work in rats has indicated that neural activity in PRh contributes to object memory encoding, consolidation, and retrieval processes. Finally, we consider the pharmacological, cellular, and molecular factors that might play a part in PRh-mediated object recognition memory. Recent studies in rodents have begun to indicate the remarkable complexity of the neural substrates underlying this seemingly simple aspect of declarative memory.

  5. Psychoanalytic dream theory and recent neurobiological findings about REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, M D

    1984-01-01

    I have reviewed Hobson and McCarley's activation-synthesis hypothesis of dreaming which attempts to show that the instigation and certain formal aspects of dreaming are physiologically determined by a brainstem neuronal mechanism, their reasons for suggesting major revisions in psychoanalytic dream theory, and neurophysiological data that are inconsistent with their hypothesis. I then discussed the concept of mind-body isomorphism pointing out that they use this concept inconsistently, that despite their denials they regularly view physiology as primary and psychological processes as secondary, and that they frequently make the error of mixing the languages of physiology and psychology in their explanatory statements. Finally, in order to evaluate Hobson and McCarley's claim that their findings require revision of psychoanalytic dream theory, I examined their discussions of chase dreams, flying dreams, sexual dreams, the formal characteristics of dreams, the forgetting of dreams, and the instigation of dreams. I concluded that although their fascinating physiological findings may be central to understanding the neurobiology of REM sleep, they do not alter the meaning and interpretation of dreams gleaned through psychoanalytic study.

  6. The Neurobiology and Psychology of Pedophilia: Recent Advances and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilian eTenbergen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A pedophilic disorder is recognized for its impairment to the individual and for the harm it may cause others. Pedophilia is often considered a side issue and research into the nature of pedophilia is delayed in comparison to research into other psychiatric disorders. However, with the increasing use of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional and structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI, fMRI together with neuropsychological studies we are increasing our knowledge of predisposing and accompanying factors contributing to pedophilia development. At the same time we are faced with methodological challenges such as group differences between studies including age, intelligence, and comorbidities together with a lack of careful assessment and control of child sexual abuse. Having this in mind this review highlights the most important studies investigating pedophilia, with a strong emphasis on (neuro- biological studies, combined with a brief explanation of research into normal human sexuality. We focus on some of the recent theories on the etiology of pedophilia such as the concept of a general neurodevelopmental disorder and/or alterations of structure and function in frontal, temporal and limbic brain areas. With this approach we aim to not only provide an update and overview but also a framework for future research and to address one of the most significant questions of how pedophilia may be explained by neurobiological and developmental alterations.

  7. Neuroscience of exercise: from neurobiology mechanisms to mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta Mello Portugal, Eduardo; Cevada, Thais; Sobral Monteiro-Junior, Renato; Teixeira Guimarães, Thiago; da Cruz Rubini, Ercole; Lattari, Eduardo; Blois, Charlene; Camaz Deslandes, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The neuroscience of exercise is a growing research area that is dedicated to furthering our understanding of the effects that exercise has on mental health and athletic performance. The present study examined three specific topics: (1) the relationship between exercise and mental disorders (e.g. major depressive disorder, dementia and Parkinson's disease), (2) the effects of exercise on the mood and mental health of athletes, and (3) the possible neurobiological mechanisms that mediate the effects of exercise. Positive responses to regular physical exercise, such as enhanced functional capacity, increased autonomy and improved self-esteem, are frequently described in the recent literature, and these responses are all good reasons for recommending regular exercise. In addition, physical exercise may improve both mood and adherence to an exercise program in healthy individuals and might modulate both the performance and mental health of athletes. Exercise is associated with the increased synthesis and release of both neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors, and these increases may be associated with neurogenesis, angiogenesis and neuroplasticity. This review is a call-to-action that urges researchers to consider the importance of understanding the neuroscience of physical exercise and its contributions to sports science. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Downward Causation and the Neurobiology of Free Will

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Nancey; O’Connor, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    How is free will possible in the light of the physical and chemical underpinnings of brain activity and recent neurobiological experiments? How can the emergence of complexity in hierarchical systems such as the brain, based at the lower levels in physical interactions, lead to something like genuine free will? The nature of our understanding of free will in the light of present-day neuroscience is becoming increasingly important because of remarkable discoveries on the topic being made by neuroscientists at the present time, on the one hand, and its crucial importance for the way we view ourselves as human beings, on the other. A key tool in understanding how free will may arise in this context is the idea of downward causation in complex systems, happening coterminously with bottom up causation, to form an integral whole. Top-down causation is usually neglected, and is therefore emphasized in the other part of the book’s title. The concept is explored in depth, as are the ethical and legal implications of...

  9. The Neurobiology and Psychology of Pedophilia: Recent Advances and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbergen, Gilian; Wittfoth, Matthias; Frieling, Helge; Ponseti, Jorge; Walter, Martin; Walter, Henrik; Beier, Klaus M.; Schiffer, Boris; Kruger, Tillmann H. C.

    2015-01-01

    A pedophilic disorder is recognized for its impairment to the individual and for the harm it may cause to others. Pedophilia is often considered a side issue and research into the nature of pedophilia is delayed in comparison to research into other psychiatric disorders. However, with the increasing use of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI, fMRI), together with neuropsychological studies, we are increasing our knowledge of predisposing and accompanying factors contributing to pedophilia development. At the same time, we are faced with methodological challenges, such as group differences between studies, including age, intelligence, and comorbidities, together with a lack of careful assessment and control of child sexual abuse. Having this in mind, this review highlights the most important studies investigating pedophilia, with a strong emphasis on (neuro-) biological studies, combined with a brief explanation of research into normal human sexuality. We focus on some of the recent theories on the etiology of pedophilia such as the concept of a general neurodevelopmental disorder and/or alterations of structure and function in frontal, temporal, and limbic brain areas. With this approach, we aim to not only provide an update and overview but also a framework for future research and to address one of the most significant questions of how pedophilia may be explained by neurobiological and developmental alterations. PMID:26157372

  10. The Neurobiology and Psychology of Pedophilia: Recent Advances and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbergen, Gilian; Wittfoth, Matthias; Frieling, Helge; Ponseti, Jorge; Walter, Martin; Walter, Henrik; Beier, Klaus M; Schiffer, Boris; Kruger, Tillmann H C

    2015-01-01

    A pedophilic disorder is recognized for its impairment to the individual and for the harm it may cause to others. Pedophilia is often considered a side issue and research into the nature of pedophilia is delayed in comparison to research into other psychiatric disorders. However, with the increasing use of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI, fMRI), together with neuropsychological studies, we are increasing our knowledge of predisposing and accompanying factors contributing to pedophilia development. At the same time, we are faced with methodological challenges, such as group differences between studies, including age, intelligence, and comorbidities, together with a lack of careful assessment and control of child sexual abuse. Having this in mind, this review highlights the most important studies investigating pedophilia, with a strong emphasis on (neuro-) biological studies, combined with a brief explanation of research into normal human sexuality. We focus on some of the recent theories on the etiology of pedophilia such as the concept of a general neurodevelopmental disorder and/or alterations of structure and function in frontal, temporal, and limbic brain areas. With this approach, we aim to not only provide an update and overview but also a framework for future research and to address one of the most significant questions of how pedophilia may be explained by neurobiological and developmental alterations.

  11. The Neurobiology of Orofacial Pain and Sleep and Their Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, G J; Sessle, B J

    2016-09-01

    This article provides an overview of the neurobiology of orofacial pain as well as the neural processes underlying sleep, with a particular focus on the mechanisms that underlie pain and sleep interactions including sleep disorders. Acute pain is part of a hypervigilance system that alerts the individual to injury or potential injury of tissues. It can also disturb sleep. Disrupted sleep is often associated with chronic pain states, including those that occur in the orofacial region. The article presents many insights that have been gained in the last few decades into the peripheral and central mechanisms involved in orofacial pain and its modulation, as well as the circuits and processes in the central nervous system that underlie sleep. Although it has become clear that sleep is essential to preserve and maintain health, it has also been found that pain, particularly chronic pain, is commonly associated with disturbed sleep. In the presence of chronic pain, a circular relationship may prevail, with mutual deleterious influences causing an increase in pain and a disruption of sleep. This article also reviews findings that indicate that reducing orofacial pain and improving sleep need to be targeted together in the management of acute to chronic orofacial pain states in order to improve an orofacial pain patient's quality of life, to prevent mood alterations or exacerbation of sleep disorder (e.g., insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing) that can negatively affect their pain, and to promote healing and optimize their health. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  12. The Neurobiological Grounding of Persistent Stuttering: from Structure to Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Nicole E; Anwander, Alfred; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation provide insights into the neuronal mechanisms underlying speech disfluencies in chronic persistent stuttering. In the present paper, the goal is not to provide an exhaustive review of existing literature, but rather to highlight robust findings. We, therefore, conducted a meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies which have recently implicated disrupted white matter connectivity in stuttering. A reduction of fractional anisotropy in persistent stuttering has been reported at several different loci. Our meta-analysis revealed consistent deficits in the left dorsal stream and in the interhemispheric connections between the sensorimotor cortices. In addition, recent fMRI meta-analyses link stuttering to reduced left fronto-parieto-temporal activation while greater fluency is associated with boosted co-activations of right fronto-parieto-temporal areas. However, the physiological foundation of these irregularities is not accessible with MRI. Complementary, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) reveals local excitatory and inhibitory regulation of cortical dynamics. Applied to a speech motor area, TMS revealed reduced speech-planning-related neuronal dynamics at the level of the primary motor cortex in stuttering. Together, this review provides a focused view of the neurobiology of stuttering to date and may guide the rational design of future research. This future needs to account for the perpetual dynamic interactions between auditory, somatosensory, and speech motor circuits that shape fluent speech.

  13. Towards a neurobiology of creativity in nonhuman animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Allison B; Butt, Allen E; Kaufman, James C; Colbert-White, Erin N

    2011-08-01

    We propose a cognitive and neurobiological framework for creativity in nonhuman animals based on the framework previously proposed by Kaufman and Kaufman (2004), with additional insight from recent animal behavior research, behavioral neuroscience, and creativity theories. The additional information has lead to three major changes in the 2004 model-the addition of novelty seeking as a subcategory of novelty recognition, the addition of specific neurological processing sites that correspond to each of the processes, and the transformation of the model into a spectrum in which all three levels represent different degrees of the creative process (emphasis on process) and the top level, dubbed innovation, is defined by the creative product. The framework remains a three-level model of creativity. The first level is composed of both the cognitive ability to recognize novelty, a process linked to hippocampal function, and the seeking out of novelty, which is linked to dopamine systems. The next level is observational learning, which can range in complexity from imitation to the cultural transmission of creative behavior. Observational learning may critically depend on the cerebellum, in addition to cortical regions. At the peak of the model is innovative behavior, which can include creating a tool or exhibiting a behavior with the specific understanding that it is new and different. Innovative behavior may be especially dependent upon the prefrontal cortex and/or the balance between left and right hemisphere functions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Neurobiology of anxiety disorders and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garakani, Amir; Mathew, Sanjay J; Charney, Dennis S

    2006-11-01

    The neurobiology of the anxiety disorders, which include panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and specific phobias, among others, has been clarified by advances in the field of classical or Pavlovian conditioning, and in our understanding of basic mechanisms of memory and learning. Fear conditioning occurs when a neutral conditioned stimulus (such as a tone) is paired with an aversive, or unconditioned stimulus (such as a footshock), and then in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus, causes a conditioned fear response. Preclinical studies have shown that the amygdala plays a key role in fear circuitry, and that abnormalities in amygdala pathways can affect the acquisition and expression of fear conditioning. Drugs such as glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists, and blockers of voltage-gated calcium channels, in the amygdala, may block these effects. There is also preliminary evidence for the use of centrally acting beta-adrenergic antagonists, like propranolol, to inhibit consolidation of traumatic memories in PTSD. Finally, fear extinction, which entails new learning of fear inhibition, is central to the mechanism of effective anti-anxiety treatments. Several pharmacological manipulations, such as D-cycloserine, a partial NMDA agonist, have been found to facilitate extinction. Combining these medication approaches with psychotherapies that promote extinction, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), may offer patients with anxiety disorders a rapid and robust treatment with good durability of effect.

  15. Realistic Avatar Eye and Head Animation Using a Neurobiological Model of Visual Attention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Itti, L; Dhavale, N; Pighin, F

    2003-01-01

    We describe a neurobiological model of visual attention and eye/head movements in primates, and its application to the automatic animation of a realistic virtual human head watching an unconstrained...

  16. Towards a neurobiological understanding of pain in chronic pancreatitis: mechanisms and implications for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren S. Olesen

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion:. Chronic pancreatitis is associated with abnormal processing of pain at the peripheral and central level of the pain system. This neurobiological understanding of pain has important clinical implications for treatment and prevention of pain chronification.

  17. Love is more than just a kiss : A neurobiological perspective on love and affection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, A.; van Buel, E. M.; ter Horst, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Love, attachment, and truth of human monogamy have become important research themes in neuroscience. After the introduction of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET), neuroscientists have demonstrated increased interest in the neurobiology and

  18. Considerations for Serving Adolescents with Usher's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillman, Robyn D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Usher's syndrome is described, with emphasis on the visual symptomatology characteristic of retinitis pigmentosa. Also discussed are the services needed by individuals with Usher's Syndrome, the syndrome's psychosocial aspects, ways to prevent self-defeating behavior, orientation and mobility, and classroom adaptations. (JDD)

  19. Exercise and Early-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease: Theoretical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid M. Hooghiemstra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Although studies show a negative relationship between physical activity and the risk for cognitive impairment and late-onset Alzheimer’s disease, studies concerning early-onset Alzheimer’s disease (EOAD are lacking. This review aims to justify the value of exercise interventions in EOAD by providing theoretical considerations that include neurobiological processes. Methods: A literature search on key words related to early-onset dementia, exercise, imaging, neurobiological mechanisms, and cognitive reserve was performed. Results/Conclusion: Brain regions and neurobiological processes contributing to the positive effects of exercise are affected in EOAD and, thus, provide theoretical support for exercise interventions in EOAD. Finally, we present the design of a randomized controlled trial currently being conducted in early-onset dementia patients.

  20. Stress and Memory: Behavioral Effects and Neurobiological Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teresa Pinelo-Nava

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a potent modulator of learning and memory processes. Although there have been a few attempts in the literature to explain the diversity of effects (including facilitating, impairing, and lack of effects described for the impact of stress on memory function according to single classification criterion, they have proved insufficient to explain the whole complexity of effects. Here, we review the literature in the field of stress and memory interactions according to five selected classifying factors (source of stress, stressor duration, stressor intensity, stressor timing with regard to memory phase, and learning type in an attempt to develop an integrative model to understand how stress affects memory function. Summarizing on those conditions in which there was enough information, we conclude that high stress levels, whether intrinsic (triggered by the cognitive challenge or extrinsic (induced by conditions completely unrelated to the cognitive task, tend to facilitate Pavlovian conditioning (in a linear-asymptotic manner, while being deleterious for spatial/explicit information processing (which with regard to intrinsic stress levels follows an inverted U-shape effect. Moreover, after reviewing the literature, we conclude that all selected factors are essential to develop an integrative model that defines the outcome of stress effects in memory processes. In parallel, we provide a brief review of the main neurobiological mechanisms proposed to account for the different effects of stress in memory function. Glucocorticoids were found as a common mediating mechanism for both the facilitating and impairing actions of stress in different memory processes and phases. Among the brain regions implicated, the hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex were highlighted as critical for the mediation of stress effects.

  1. [The neurobiology of sleep: Cajal and present-day neuroscience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayos-Jorge, J L; Hernández-Roca, J J; Moleres-Echevarría, F J

    We briefly describe the most significant findings obtained recently concerning the sleep-waking cycle in comparison to the studies conducted by Cajal on the same subject. This paper includes a short biographical sketch of Santiago Ramón y Cajal, with special emphasis on his importance within the framework of neuroscience. Cajal represents the decisive turning point in neurobiological studies, with the discovery of the synapse and his law of dynamic polarization. We conduct a short survey of the current knowledge about the phases of sleep and oneiric phenomena, based on their anatomo-physiological foundations. We present a summary of the history of the subject and analyze the contributions made by Cajal to this field, i.e. his study of the associative cortices, which are essential in memory processes and related to the mechanisms governing the sleep-waking cycle. For Cajal the fine anatomy of the thalamus must be considered in relation to the specificity of its connections an idea that is still completely valid today. He did not observe any projections of the thalamic reticular nucleus towards the cerebral cortex, a fact that has been corroborated using modern-day techniques. He spoke of the involvement of neuroglia in the attentional and sleep processes, which is so, although not quite in the way Cajal thought. He considered the production of dreams to be based on intimate neural mechanisms, which is still so. He also studied other brain structures related with the regulation of the sleep waking cycle, although avoiding any specific mention of the mechanisms controlling such a cycle. Furthermore, he conducted self-observation studies with a high degree of insight. Cajal studied the phenomena of attention and sleep in an objective manner and contributed a number of significant interpretations, some of which are now somewhat outdated while others are still wholly valid today.

  2. Nicotine aversion: Neurobiological mechanisms and relevance to tobacco dependence vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Christie D.; Kenny, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine stimulates brain reward circuitries, most prominently the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, and this action is considered critical in establishing and maintaining the tobacco smoking habit. Compounds that attenuate nicotine reward are considered promising therapeutic candidates for tobacco dependence, but many of these agents have other actions that limit their potential utility. Nicotine is also highly noxious, particularly at higher doses, and aversive reactions to nicotine after initial exposure can decrease the likelihood of developing a tobacco habit in many first time smokers. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the mechanisms of nicotine aversion. The purpose of this review is to present recent new insights into the neurobiological mechanisms that regulate avoidance of nicotine. First, the role of the mesocorticolimbic system, so often associated with nicotine reward, in regulating nicotine aversion is highlighted. Second, genetic variation that modifies noxious responses to nicotine and thereby influences vulnerability to tobacco dependence, in particular variation in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit gene cluster, will be discussed. Third, the role of the habenular complex in nicotine aversion, primarily medial habenular projections to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) but also lateral habenular projections to rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) are reviewed. Forth, brain circuits that are enriched in nAChRs, but whose role in nicotine avoidance has not yet been assessed, will be proposed. Finally, the feasibility of developing novel therapeutic agents for tobacco dependence that act not by blocking nicotine reward but by enhancing nicotine avoidance will be considered. PMID:24055497

  3. Neurobiological indicators of disinhibition in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Naomi; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Miller, Mark W; Milberg, William P; Salat, David H; Amick, Melissa M; Fortier, Catherine B; McGlinchey, Regina E

    2015-08-01

    Deficits in impulse control are increasingly recognized in association with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To our further understanding of the neurobiology of PTSD-related disinhibition, we examined alterations in brain morphology and network connectivity associated with response inhibition failures and PTSD severity. The sample consisted of 189 trauma-exposed Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans (89% male, ages 19-62) presenting with a range of current PTSD severity. Disinhibition was measured using commission errors on a Go/No-Go (GNG) task with emotional stimuli, and PTSD was assessed using a measure of current symptom severity. Whole-brain vertex-wise analyses of cortical thickness revealed two clusters associated with PTSD-related disinhibition (Monte Carlo cluster corrected P < 0.05). The first cluster included portions of right inferior and middle frontal gyri and frontal pole. The second cluster spanned portions of left medial orbital frontal, rostral anterior cingulate, and superior frontal gyrus. In both clusters, commission errors were associated with reduced cortical thickness at higher (but not lower) levels of PTSD symptoms. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging analyses revealed alterations in the functional connectivity of the right frontal cluster. Together, study findings suggest that reductions in cortical thickness in regions involved in flexible decision-making, emotion regulation, and response inhibition contribute to impulse control deficits in PTSD. Furthermore, aberrant coupling between frontal regions and networks involved in selective attention, memory/learning, and response preparation suggest disruptions in functional connectivity may also play a role. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Stability and change of antisocial behavior in children and adolescents : the role of neurobiological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhoven, I. van

    2004-01-01

    Aggressive behavior has long been a major concern in our society. There is a growing consensus that disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) originates from the interaction of biologically based child characteristics with non-optimal characteristics of the child's environment. In this thesis, we

  5. Auditory object perception: A neurobiological model and prospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brefczynski-Lewis, Julie A; Lewis, James W

    2017-10-01

    Interaction with the world is a multisensory experience, but most of what is known about the neural correlates of perception comes from studying vision. Auditory inputs enter cortex with its own set of unique qualities, and leads to use in oral communication, speech, music, and the understanding of emotional and intentional states of others, all of which are central to the human experience. To better understand how the auditory system develops, recovers after injury, and how it may have transitioned in its functions over the course of hominin evolution, advances are needed in models of how the human brain is organized to process real-world natural sounds and "auditory objects". This review presents a simple fundamental neurobiological model of hearing perception at a category level that incorporates principles of bottom-up signal processing together with top-down constraints of grounded cognition theories of knowledge representation. Though mostly derived from human neuroimaging literature, this theoretical framework highlights rudimentary principles of real-world sound processing that may apply to most if not all mammalian species with hearing and acoustic communication abilities. The model encompasses three basic categories of sound-source: (1) action sounds (non-vocalizations) produced by 'living things', with human (conspecific) and non-human animal sources representing two subcategories; (2) action sounds produced by 'non-living things', including environmental sources and human-made machinery; and (3) vocalizations ('living things'), with human versus non-human animals as two subcategories therein. The model is presented in the context of cognitive architectures relating to multisensory, sensory-motor, and spoken language organizations. The models' predictive values are further discussed in the context of anthropological theories of oral communication evolution and the neurodevelopment of spoken language proto-networks in infants/toddlers. These phylogenetic

  6. The neurobiology of safety and threat learning in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debiec, Jacek; Sullivan, Regina M

    2017-09-01

    What an animal needs to learn to survive is altered dramatically as they change from dependence on the parent for protection to independence and reliance on self-defense. This transition occurs in most altricial animals, but our understanding of the behavioral neurobiology has mostly relied on the infant rat. The transformation from dependence to independence occurs over three weeks in pups and is accompanied by complex changes in responses to both natural and learned threats and the supporting neural circuitry. Overall, in early life, the threat system is quiescent and learning is biased towards acquiring attachment related behaviors to support attachment to the caregiver and proximity seeking. Caregiver-associated cues learned in infancy have the ability to provide a sense of safety throughout lifetime. This attachment/safety system is activated by learning involving presumably pleasurable stimuli (food, warmth) but also painful stimuli (tailpinch, moderate shock). At about the midway point to independence, pups begin to have access to the adult-like amygdala-dependent threat system and amygdala-dependent responses to natural dangers such as predator odors. However, pups have the ability to switch between the infant and adult-like system, which is controlled by maternal presence and modification of stress hormones. Specifically, if the pup is alone, it will learn fear but if with the mother it will learn attachment (10-15days of age). As pups begin to approach weaning, pups lose access to the attachment system and rely only on the amygdala-dependent threat system. However, pups learning system is complex and exhibits flexibility that enables the mother to override the control of the attachment circuit, since newborn pups may acquire threat responses from the mother expressing fear in their presence. Together, these data suggest that the development of pups' threat learning system is not only dependent upon maturation of the amygdala, but it is also exquisitely

  7. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS, environment, exposome and epigenetics: a molecular perspective of postnatal normal spinal growth and the etiopathogenesis of AIS with consideration of a network approach and possible implications for medical therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burwell R Geoffrey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic factors are believed to play an important role in the etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Discordant findings for monozygotic (MZ twins with AIS show that environmental factors including different intrauterine environments are important in etiology, but what these environmental factors may be is unknown. Recent evidence for common chronic non-communicable diseases suggests epigenetic differences may underlie MZ twin discordance, and be the link between environmental factors and phenotypic differences. DNA methylation is one important epigenetic mechanism operating at the interface between genome and environment to regulate phenotypic plasticity with a complex regulation across the genome during the first decade of life. The word exposome refers to the totality of environmental exposures from conception onwards, comprising factors in external and internal environments. The word exposome is used here also in relation to physiologic and etiopathogenetic factors that affect normal spinal growth and may induce the deformity of AIS. In normal postnatal spinal growth we propose a new term and concept, physiologic growth-plate exposome for the normal processes particularly of the internal environments that may have epigenetic effects on growth plates of vertebrae. In AIS, we propose a new term and concept pathophysiologic scoliogenic exposome for the abnormal processes in molecular pathways particularly of the internal environment currently expressed as etiopathogenetic hypotheses; these are suggested to have deforming effects on the growth plates of vertebrae at cell, tissue, structure and/or organ levels that are considered to be epigenetic. New research is required for chromatin modifications including DNA methylation in AIS subjects and vertebral growth plates excised at surgery. In addition, consideration is needed for a possible network approach to etiopathogenesis by constructing AIS diseasomes. These approaches may

  8. Using cross-species comparisons and a neurobiological framework to understand early social deprivation effects on behavioral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Zoë H; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Fleming, Alison S; Kraemer, Gary W; Drury, Stacy S

    2015-05-01

    Building upon the transactional model of brain development, we explore the impact of early maternal deprivation on neural development and plasticity in three neural systems: hyperactivity/impulsivity, executive function, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning across rodent, nonhuman primate, and human studies. Recognizing the complexity of early maternal-infant interactions, we limit our cross-species comparisons to data from rodent models of artificial rearing, nonhuman primate studies of peer rearing, and the relations between these two experimental approaches and human studies of children exposed to the early severe psychosocial deprivation associated with institutional care. In addition to discussing the strengths and limitations of these paradigms, we present the current state of research on the neurobiological impact of early maternal deprivation and the evidence of sensitive periods, noting methodological challenges. Integrating data across preclinical animal models and human studies, we speculate about the underlying biological mechanisms; the differential impact of deprivation due to temporal factors including onset, offset, and duration of the exposure; and the possibility and consequences of reopening of sensitive periods during adolescence.

  9. A review of the neurobiological basis of dyslexia in the adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Ferrer, M; Piedra Martínez, E

    Adult dyslexia affects about 4% of the population. However, studies on the neurobiological basis of dyslexia in adulthood are scarce compared to paediatric studies. This review investigates the neurobiological basis of dyslexia in adulthood. Using PsycINFO, a database of psychology abstracts, we identified 11 studies on genetics, 9 neurostructural studies, 13 neurofunctional studies and 24 neurophysiological studies. Results from the review show that dyslexia is highly heritable and displays polygenic transmission. Likewise, adult neuroimaging studies found structural, functional, and physiological changes in the parieto-occipital and occipito-temporal regions, and in the inferior frontal gyrus, in adults with dyslexia. According to different studies, aetiology in cases of adult dyslexia is complex. We stress the need for neurobiological studies of dyslexia in languages with transparent spelling systems. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. [Neurobiological determinism: questionable inferences on human freedom of choice and forensic criminal responsibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniok, F; Hardegger, J; Rossegger, A; Endrass, J

    2006-08-01

    Several authors argue that criminal behavior is generally caused by neurobiological deficits. Based on this neurobiological perspective of assumed causality, the concept of free will is questioned, and the theory of neurobiological determinism of all human behavior is put forward, thus maintaining that human beings are not responsible for their actions, and consequently the principle of guilt should be given up in criminal law. In this context the controversial debate on determinism and indeterminism, which has been held for centuries, has flared up anew, especially within the science of criminal law. When critically examining the current state of research, it becomes apparent that the results do not support the existence of a universally valid neurobiological causality of criminal behavior, nor a theory of an absolute neurobiological determinism. Neither is complete determination of all phenomena in the universe--as maintained--the logical conclusion of the principle of causality, nor is it empirically confirmed. Analyzed methodically, it cannot be falsified, and thus, as a theory which cannot be empirically tested, it represents a dogma against which plausible objections can be made. The criticism of the concept of free will, and even more so of human accountability and criminal responsibility, is not put forward in a valid way. The principle of relative determinism--the evaluation of the degree of determinism of personality factors potentially reducing criminal responsibility, which includes concrete observations and analysis of behavior--thus remains a central and cogent approach to the assessment of criminal responsibility. To sum up, the theories proposed by some authors on the complete neurobiological determinism of human behavior, and the subsequent impossibility of individual responsibility and guilt, reveal both methodical misconception and a lack of empirical foundation.

  11. Can understanding the neurobiology of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) inform treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossell, Susan L; Harrison, Ben J; Castle, David

    2015-08-01

    We aim to provide a clinically focused review of the neurobiological literature in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), with a focus on structural and functional neuroimaging. There has been a recent influx of studies examining the underlying neurobiology of BDD using structural and functional neuroimaging methods. Despite obvious symptom similarities with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), no study to date has directly compared the two groups using neuroimaging techniques. Studies have established that there are limbic and visual cortex abnormalities in BDD, in contrast to fronto-striatal differences in OCD. Such data suggests affect or visual training maybe useful in BDD. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  12. [Is it still the "royal way"? The dream as a junction of neurobiology and psychoanalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Mária

    2011-01-01

    Some decades ago the dream seemed to be randomly generated by brain stem mechanisms in the cortical and subcortical neuronal networks. However, most recent empirical data, studies on brain lesions and functional neuroimaging results have refuted this theory. Several data support that motivation pathways, memory systems, especially implicit, emotional memory play an important role in dream formation. This essay reviews how the results of neurobiology and cognitive psychology can be fitted into the theoretical frameworks and clinical practice of the psychoanalysis. The main aim is to demonstrate that results of neurobiology and empirical observations of psychoanalysis are complementary rather than contradictory.

  13. Altered White Matter Microstructure in Adolescents with Major Depression: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Kathryn R.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Muetzel, Ryan; Mueller, Bryon A.; Camchong, Jazmin; Houri, Alaa; Kurma, Sanjiv; Lim, Kelvin O.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Major depressive disorder (MDD) occurs frequently in adolescents, but the neurobiology of depression in youth is poorly understood. Structural neuroimaging studies in both adult and pediatric populations have implicated frontolimbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which measures white…

  14. Emotional conflict processing in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome: A pilot study using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Bakke, Laura A Wortinger; Endestad, Tor; Melinder, Annika Maria D; Øie, Merete Glenne; Sulheim, Dag; Fagermoen, Frode Even; Wyller, Vegard Bruun

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Studies of neurocognition suggest that abnormalities in cognitive control contribute to the pathophysiology of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in adolescents, yet these abnormalities remain poorly understood at the neurobiological level. Reports indicate that adolescents with CFS are significantly impaired in conflict processing, a primary element of cognitive control. Method: In this study, we examine whether emotional conflict processing is altered on behavioral and neural leve...

  15. The neurobiology of food intake in an obesogenic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this non-systematic review of the literature is to highlight some of the neural systems and pathways that are affected by the various intake-promoting aspects of the modern food environment and explore potential modes of interaction between core systems such as hypothalamus and brainstem primarily receptive to internal signals of fuel availability and forebrain areas such as the cortex, amygdala and meso-corticolimbic dopamine system, primarily processing external signals. The modern lifestyle with its drastic changes in the way we eat and move puts pressure on the homoeostatic system responsible for the regulation of body weight, which has led to an increase in overweight and obesity. The power of food cues targeting susceptible emotions and cognitive brain functions, particularly of children and adolescents, is increasingly exploited by modern neuromarketing tools. Increased intake of energy-dense foods high in fat and sugar is not only adding more energy, but may also corrupt neural functions of brain systems involved in nutrient sensing as well as in hedonic, motivational and cognitive processing. It is concluded that only long-term prospective studies in human subjects and animal models with the capacity to demonstrate sustained over-eating and development of obesity are necessary to identify the critical environmental factors as well as the underlying neural systems involved. Insights from these studies and from modern neuromarketing research should be increasingly used to promote consumption of healthy foods.

  16. The Central Role of Recognition in Auditory Perception: A Neurobiological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Neil; Wilson, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The model presents neurobiologically plausible accounts of sound recognition (including absolute pitch), neural plasticity involved in pitch, loudness and location information integration, and streaming and auditory recall. It is proposed that a cortical mechanism for sound identification modulates the spectrotemporal response fields of inferior…

  17. Neurobiological Correlates and Predictors of Two Distinct Personality Trait Pathways to Escalated Alcohol Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malak Abu Shakra

    2018-01-01

    Interpretation: This double dissociation provides evidence of distinct neurobiological profiles in a priori identified personality trait-based risk groups for AUDs, and links these signatures to clinically relevant substance use outcomes at follow-up. AUD subtypes might benefit from motivationally and personality-specific ameliorative and preventative interventions.

  18. Formation and adaptation of memory : Neurobiological mechanisms underlying learning and reversal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havekes, Robbert

    2008-01-01

    The hippocampus is a brain region that plays a critical role in memory formation. In addition, it has been suggested that this brain region is important for ‘updating’ information that is incorrect or outdated. The main goal of this thesis project was to investigate which neurobiological processes

  19. Frontostriatal development and probabilistic reinforcement learning during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasque, Samantha; Galván, Adriana

    2017-09-01

    Adolescence has traditionally been viewed as a period of vulnerability to increased risk-taking and adverse outcomes, which have been linked to neurobiological maturation of the frontostriatal reward system. However, growing research on the role of developmental changes in the adolescent frontostriatal system in facilitating learning will provide a more nuanced view of adolescence. In this review, we discuss the implications of existing research on this topic for learning during adolescence, and suggest that the very neural changes that render adolescents vulnerable to social pressure and risky decision making may also stand to play a role in scaffolding the ability to learn from rewards and from performance-related feedback. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Molecular Neurobiological Approach to Understanding the Aetiology of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (Myalgic Encephalomyelitis or Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease) with Treatment Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Jean A; Puri, Basant K

    2018-02-06

    Currently, a psychologically based model is widely held to be the basis for the aetiology and treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)/myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME)/systemic exertion intolerance disease (SEID). However, an alternative, molecular neurobiological approach is possible and in this paper evidence demonstrating a biological aetiology for CFS/ME/SEID is adduced from a study of the history of the disease and a consideration of the role of the following in this disease: nitric oxide and peroxynitrite, oxidative and nitrosative stress, the blood-brain barrier and intestinal permeability, cytokines and infections, metabolism, structural and chemical brain changes, neurophysiological changes and calcium ion mobilisation. Evidence is also detailed for biologically based potential therapeutic options, including: nutritional supplementation, for example in order to downregulate the nitric oxide-peroxynitrite cycle to prevent its perpetuation; antiviral therapy; and monoclonal antibody treatment. It is concluded that there is strong evidence of a molecular neurobiological aetiology, and so it is suggested that biologically based therapeutic interventions should constitute a focus for future research into CFS/ME/SEID.

  1. Inner Speech: Development, Cognitive Functions, Phenomenology, and Neurobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Inner speech—also known as covert speech or verbal thinking—has been implicated in theories of cognitive development, speech monitoring, executive function, and psychopathology. Despite a growing body of knowledge on its phenomenology, development, and function, approaches to the scientific study of inner speech have remained diffuse and largely unintegrated. This review examines prominent theoretical approaches to inner speech and methodological challenges in its study, before reviewing current evidence on inner speech in children and adults from both typical and atypical populations. We conclude by considering prospects for an integrated cognitive science of inner speech, and present a multicomponent model of the phenomenon informed by developmental, cognitive, and psycholinguistic considerations. Despite its variability among individuals and across the life span, inner speech appears to perform significant functions in human cognition, which in some cases reflect its developmental origins and its sharing of resources with other cognitive processes. PMID:26011789

  2. Evidence for the triadic model of adolescent brain development: Cognitive load and task-relevance of emotion differentially affect adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven C. Mueller

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In adults, cognitive control is supported by several brain regions including the limbic system and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC when processing emotional information. However, in adolescents, some theories hypothesize a neurobiological imbalance proposing heightened sensitivity to affective material in the amygdala and striatum within a cognitive control context. Yet, direct neurobiological evidence is scarce. Twenty-four adolescents (12–16 and 28 adults (25–35 completed an emotional n-back working memory task in response to happy, angry, and neutral faces during fMRI. Importantly, participants either paid attention to the emotion (task-relevant condition or judged the gender (task-irrelevant condition. Behaviorally, for both groups, when happy faces were task-relevant, performance improved relative to when they were task-irrelevant, while performance decrements were seen for angry faces. In the dlPFC, angry faces elicited more activation in adults during low relative to high cognitive load (2-back vs. 0-back. By contrast, happy faces elicited more activation in the amygdala in adolescents when they were task-relevant. Happy faces also generally increased nucleus accumbens activity (regardless of relevance in adolescents relative to adults. Together, the findings are consistent with neurobiological models of adolescent brain development and identify neurodevelopmental differences in cognitive control emotion interactions.

  3. Evidence for the triadic model of adolescent brain development: Cognitive load and task-relevance of emotion differentially affect adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sven C; Cromheeke, Sofie; Siugzdaite, Roma; Nicolas Boehler, C

    2017-08-01

    In adults, cognitive control is supported by several brain regions including the limbic system and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) when processing emotional information. However, in adolescents, some theories hypothesize a neurobiological imbalance proposing heightened sensitivity to affective material in the amygdala and striatum within a cognitive control context. Yet, direct neurobiological evidence is scarce. Twenty-four adolescents (12-16) and 28 adults (25-35) completed an emotional n-back working memory task in response to happy, angry, and neutral faces during fMRI. Importantly, participants either paid attention to the emotion (task-relevant condition) or judged the gender (task-irrelevant condition). Behaviorally, for both groups, when happy faces were task-relevant, performance improved relative to when they were task-irrelevant, while performance decrements were seen for angry faces. In the dlPFC, angry faces elicited more activation in adults during low relative to high cognitive load (2-back vs. 0-back). By contrast, happy faces elicited more activation in the amygdala in adolescents when they were task-relevant. Happy faces also generally increased nucleus accumbens activity (regardless of relevance) in adolescents relative to adults. Together, the findings are consistent with neurobiological models of adolescent brain development and identify neurodevelopmental differences in cognitive control emotion interactions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Searching for a neurobiological basis for self-medication theory in ADHD comorbid with substance use disorders: an in vivo study of dopamine transporters using (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1 SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neivo; Szobot, Claudia M; Shih, Ming C; Hoexter, Marcelo Q; Anselmi, Carlos Eduardo; Pechansky, Flavio; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2014-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders (SUD) frequently co-occur. Although several studies have shown changes in striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) density in these disorders, little is known about the neurobiological basis of the comorbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate striatal DAT density in treatment-naive ADHD adolescents with SUD (ADHD + SUD) and without SUD (ADHD), compared to SUD adolescents without ADHD (SUD) and healthy control subjects (HC). Sixty-two male age-matched subjects diagnosed with DSM-IV criteria were included: ADHD + SUD (n = 18), SUD (n = 14), HC (n = 19), and ADHD (n = 11). Urine tests confirmed participants' drug use. All subjects performed SPECT scans with Tc-TRODAT-1 to evaluate DAT density in the striatum. The mean right striatum specific binding were 1.68 (ADHD), 1.38 (ADHD + SUD), 1.19 (HC), 1.17 (SUD), and in left striatum 1.65 (ADHD), 1.39 (ADHD + SUD), 1.19 (HC), and 1.17 (SUD). The ADHD group presented significantly higher striatal DAT density compared with ADHD + SUD, SUD, and HC groups. Adolescents with ADHD + SUD had significantly lower DAT density than those with ADHD, but significantly higher DAT density than those with SUD only and no significant difference from the healthy control group. The ADHD + SUD group had lower striatal DAT density in comparison with ADHD without SUD. It is possible to speculate that the use of cannabis and cocaine is responsible for the lower striatal DAT density in this group which would help in understanding the neurobiological basis for the self-medication theory in ADHD adolescents.

  5. The neurobiology of sexual partner preferences in rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Charles E; Stormshak, Fred

    2009-05-01

    The question of what causes a male animal to seek out and choose a female as opposed to another male mating partner is unresolved and remains an issue of considerable debate. The most developed biologic theory is the perinatal organizational hypothesis, which states that perinatal hormone exposure mediates sexual differentiation of the brain. Numerous animal experiments have assessed the contribution of perinatal testosterone and/or estradiol exposure to the development of a male-typical mate preference, but almost all have used hormonally manipulated animals. In contrast, variations in sexual partner preferences occur spontaneously in domestic rams, with as many as 8% of the population exhibiting a preference for same-sex mating partners (male-oriented rams). Thus, the domestic ram is an excellent experimental model to study possible links between fetal neuroendocrine programming of neural mechanisms and adult sexual partner preferences. In this review, we present an overview of sexual differentiation in relation to sexual partner preferences. We then summarize results that test the relevance of the organizational hypothesis to expression of same-sex sexual partner preferences in rams. Finally, we demonstrate that the sexual differentiation of brain and behavior in sheep does not depend critically on aromatization of testosterone to estradiol.

  6. The Neurobiology of Sexual Partner Preferences in Rams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Charles E.; Stormshak, Fred

    2009-01-01

    The question of what causes a male animal to seek out and choose a female as opposed to another male mating partner is unresolved and remains an issue of considerable debate. The most developed biologic theory is the perinatal organizational hypothesis, which states that perinatal hormone exposure mediates sexual differentiation of the brain. Numerous animal experiments have assessed the contribution of perinatal testosterone and/or estradiol exposure to the development of a male-typical mate preference, but almost all have used hormonally manipulated animals. In contrast, variations in sexual partner preferences occur spontaneously in domestic rams, with as many as 8% of the population exhibiting a preference for same-sex mating partners (male-oriented rams). Thus, the domestic ram is an excellent experimental model to study possible links between fetal neuroendocrine programming of neural mechanisms and adult sexual partner preferences. In this review, we present an overview of sexual differentiation in relation to sexual partner preferences. We then summarize results that test the relevance of the organizational hypothesis to expression of same-sex sexual partner preferences in rams. Finally, we demonstrate that the sexual differentiation of brain and behavior in sheep do not depend critically on aromatization of testosterone to estradiol. PMID:19446078

  7. Identity Styles and Conflict Resolution Styles: Associations in Mother-Adolescent Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missotten, Lies Christine; Luyckx, Koen; Branje, Susan; Vanhalst, Janne; Goossens, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent identity and parent-adolescent conflict have each attracted considerable research interest. However, few studies have examined the important link between the two constructs. The present study examined the associations between adolescent identity processing styles and adolescent conflict resolution styles in the mother-adolescent dyad.…

  8. Neurobiological factors as predictors of cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome in individuals with antisocial behavior: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Liza J M; de Kogel, Catharina H; Nijman, Henk L I; Raine, Adrian; van der Laan, Peter H

    2014-11-01

    This review focuses on the predictive value of neurobiological factors in relation to cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Ten relevant studies were found. Although the literature on this topic is scarce and diverse, it appears that specific neurobiological characteristics, such as physiological arousal levels, can predict treatment outcome. The predictive value of neurobiological factors is important as it could give more insight into the causes of variability in treatment outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Furthermore, results can contribute to improvement in current treatment selection procedures and to the development of alternative treatment options. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Implementation is crucial but must be neurobiologically grounded. Comment on “Toward a computational framework for cognitive biology: Unifying approaches from cognitive neuroscience and comparative cognition” by W. Tecumseh Fitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Small, Steven L.

    2014-09-01

    From the perspective of language, Fitch's [1] claim that theories of cognitive computation should not be separated from those of implementation surely deserves applauding. Recent developments in the Cognitive Neuroscience of Language, leading to the new field of the Neurobiology of Language [2-4], emphasise precisely this point: rather than attempting to simply map cognitive theories of language onto the brain, we should aspire to understand how the brain implements language. This perspective resonates with many of the points raised by Fitch in his review, such as the discussion of unhelpful dichotomies (e.g., Nature versus Nurture). Cognitive dichotomies and debates have repeatedly turned out to be of limited usefulness when it comes to understanding language in the brain. The famous modularity-versus-interactivity and dual route-versus-connectionist debates are cases in point: in spite of hundreds of experiments using neuroimaging (or other techniques), or the construction of myriad computer models, little progress has been made in their resolution. This suggests that dichotomies proposed at a purely cognitive (or computational) level without consideration of biological grounding appear to be "asking the wrong questions" about the neurobiology of language. In accordance with these developments, several recent proposals explicitly consider neurobiological constraints while seeking to explain language processing at a cognitive level (e.g. [5-7]).

  10. Alcohol advertising and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2002-04-01

    Considerable research now exists that the media may exert a powerful influence on adolescents' drug-taking behavior. Teens view an average of 2,000 beer and wine ads per year in the US. In addition, television shows, movies, and music videos contain considerable amounts of alcohol use. This article will discuss the available research and offers suggestions to make the media healthier for teenagers.

  11. Peers and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus, Kimberly

    2003-05-01

    There is a considerable body of empirical research that has identified adolescent peer relationships as a primary factor involved in adolescent cigarette smoking. Despite this large research base, many questions remain unanswered about the mechanisms by which peers affect youths' smoking behavior. Understanding these processes of influence is key to the development of prevention and intervention programs designed to address adolescent smoking as a significant public health concern. In this paper, theoretical frameworks and empirical findings are reviewed critically which inform the current state of knowledge regarding peer influences on teenage smoking. Specifically, social learning theory, primary socialization theory, social identity theory and social network theory are discussed. Empirical findings regarding peer influence and selection, as well as multiple reference points in adolescent friendships, including best friendships, romantic relationships, peer groups and social crowds, are also reviewed. Review of this work reveals the contribution that peers have in adolescents' use of tobacco, in some cases promoting use, and in other cases deterring it. This review also suggests that peer influences on smoking are more subtle than commonly thought and need to be examined more carefully, including consideration of larger social contexts, e.g. the family, neighborhood, and media. Recommendations for future investigations are made, as well as suggestions for specific methodological approaches that offer promise for advancing our knowledge of the contribution of peers on adolescent tobacco use.

  12. fMRI correlates of risky decision-making in adolescent alcohol users : : the role of abstinence

    OpenAIRE

    Bazinet, Alissa Dyan

    2013-01-01

    A neurobiological model of risk-taking suggests that differential timing in the maturation of the brain networks associated with emotional processing and cognitive control may predispose adolescents to risky behavior, including alcohol and other substance use. Heavy alcohol use during adolescence has been shown to alter normative brain functioning, though it remains unknown whether alterations normalize with sustained abstinence or persist after cessation of use. The present study utilized fM...

  13. Do post-trauma symptoms mediate the relation between neurobiological stress parameters and conduct problems in girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Kimberly A; Jambroes, Tijs; Oostermeijer, Sanne; van de Ven, Peter M; Popma, Arne; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Jansen, Lucres M C

    2016-01-01

    Attenuated activity of stress-regulating systems has consistently been reported in boys with conduct problems. Results in studies of girls are inconsistent, which may result from the high prevalence of comorbid post-trauma symptoms. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate post-trauma symptoms as a potential mediator in the relation between stress-regulation systems functioning and conduct problems in female adolescents. The sample consisted of 78 female adolescents (mean age 15.4; SD 1.1) admitted to a closed treatment institution. The diagnosis of disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD) was assessed by a structured interview-the diagnostic interview schedule for children version IV (DISC-IV). To assess post-trauma symptoms and externalizing behaviour problems, self-report questionnaires, youth self report (YSR) and the trauma symptom checklist for Children (TSCC) were used. The cortisol awakenings response (CAR) measured hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, whereas autonomous nervous system (ANS) activity was assessed by heart rate (HR), pre-ejection period (PEP) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Independent t-tests were used to compare girls with and without DBD, while path analyses tested for the mediating role of post- trauma symptoms in the relation between stress regulating systems and externalizing behaviour. Females with DBD (n = 37) reported significantly higher rates of post-trauma symptoms and externalizing behaviour problems than girls without DBD (n = 39). Path analysis found no relation between CAR and externalizing behaviour problems. With regard to ANS activity, positive direct effects on externalizing behaviour problems were present for HR (standardized β = 0.306, p = 0.020) and PEP (standardized β = -0.323, p = 0.031), though not for RSA. Furthermore, no relation-whether direct or indirect-could be determined from post-trauma symptoms. Present findings demonstrate that the neurobiological

  14. Behavioral and neurobiological correlates of childhood apraxia of speech in Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilosi, Anna Maria; Lorenzini, Irene; Fiori, Simona; Graziosi, Valentina; Rossi, Giuseppe; Pasquariello, Rosa; Cipriani, Paola; Cioni, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a neurogenic Speech Sound Disorder whose etiology and neurobiological correlates are still unclear. In the present study, 32 Italian children with idiopathic CAS underwent a comprehensive speech and language, genetic and neuroradiological investigation aimed to gather information on the possible behavioral and neurobiological markers of the disorder. The results revealed four main aggregations of behavioral symptoms that indicate a multi-deficit disorder involving both motor-speech and language competence. Six children presented with chromosomal alterations. The familial aggregation rate for speech and language difficulties and the male to female ratio were both very high in the whole sample, supporting the hypothesis that genetic factors make substantial contribution to the risk of CAS. As expected in accordance with the diagnosis of idiopathic CAS, conventional MRI did not reveal macrostructural pathogenic neuroanatomical abnormalities, suggesting that CAS may be due to brain microstructural alterations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. To what extent do neurobiological sleep-waking processes support psychoanalysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesmann, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Sigmund Freud's thesis was that there is a censorship during waking that prevents memory of events, drives, wishes, and feelings from entering the consciousness because they would induce anxiety due to their emotional or ethical unacceptability. During dreaming, because the efficiency of censorship is decreased, latent thought contents can, after dream-work involving condensation and displacement, enter the dreamer's consciousness under the figurative form of manifest content. The quasi-closed dogma of psychoanalytic theory as related to unconscious processes is beginning to find neurobiological confirmation during waking. Indeed, there are active processes that suppress (repress) unwanted memories from entering consciousness. In contrast, it is more difficult to find neurobiological evidence supporting an organized dream-work that would induce meaningful symbolic content, since dream mentation most often only shows psychotic-like activities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR (BDNF): NEUROBIOLOGY AND MARKER VALUE IN NEUROPSYCHIATRY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levada, O A; Cherednichenko, N V

    2015-01-01

    In this review current publications about neurobiology and marker value of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in neuropsychiatry are analyzed. It is shown that BDNF is an important member of the family of neurotrophins which widely represented in various structures of the CNS. In prenatal period BDNF is involved in all stages of neuronal networks formation, and in the postnatal period its main role is maintaining the normal brain architectonics, involvement in the processes of neurogenesis and realization of neuroprotective functions. BDNF plays an important role in learning and memory organization, food and motor behavior. BDNF brain expression decreases with age, as well as in degenerative and vascular dementias, affective, anxiety, and behavioral disorders. The reducing of BDNF serum, level reflects the decreasing of its cerebral expression and could be used as a neurobiological marker of these pathological processes but the rising of its concentration could indicate the therapy effectiveness.

  17. Trait and neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Mark; Pace-Schott, Edward F

    2010-01-01

    Individuals differ greatly in their dream recall frequency, in their incidence of recalling types of dreams, such as nightmares, and in the content of their dreams. This chapter reviews work on the waking life correlates of these differences between people in their experience of dreaming and reviews some of the neurobiological correlates of these individual differences. The chapter concludes that despite there being trait-like aspects of general dream recall and of dream content, very few psychometrically assessed correlates for dream recall frequency and dream content have been found. More successful has been the investigation of correlates of frequency of particular types of dreams, such as nightmares and lucid dreams, and also of how waking-life experience is associated with dream content. There is also potential in establishing neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content, and recent work on this is reviewed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Humanization in newborn care: interpersonal relationships and their importance to the neurobiological organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Cypel

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Humanization in newborn care is an ever more emphasized proposalin maternity ward care, both in normal delivery conditions andespecially, when medical intercurrences (prematurity, infections, etc.occur in neonatal intensive care units. The relevance of this approachis based on the current understanding and valorization of the earlyinterpersonal relationships in the organization of the neurobiologicalfoundations to which more complex living and learning experienceswill successively add, building what is currently conceptualized asDevelopmental Neurobiology. The present paper has the objectiveof stressing these aspects, attempting to correlate them with thecorresponding neurobiological structures, stressing the fact thatthe early bonds established by the newborn will shape the neuronalcircuitry responsible for future behaviors and actions of this child.

  19. A Biometric for Neurobiology of Influence with Social Informatics Using Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Rahmes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is constructed on the premise that human belief dependent emotions can be triggered by story-telling or narratives. With recent technological advancements to measure neurobiological measurements of the brain, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and non-invasive brain computing interface (BCI equipment, these technologies can allow for visualization and data collection of brain activation patterns showing unconsciously controlled responses to narratives or stories. Current game theory application to belief networks has been modeled to help explain observed behavior when material payoffs of others matters to the individual. We discuss a method of how game theory, utilizing communication packet theory, can now be modeled to belief dependent emotions and intentions measured through a new biometric tool correlating neurobiological emotional states and responses.

  20. A Biometric for Neurobiology of Influence with Social Informatics Using Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Rahmes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is constructed on the premise that human belief dependent emotions can be triggered by story-telling or narratives. With recent technological advancements to measure neurobiological measurements of the brain, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and non-invasive brain computing interface (BCI equipment, these technologies can allow for visualization and data collection of brain activation patterns showing unconsciously controlled responses to narratives or stories. Current game theory application to belief networks has been modeled to help explain observed behavior when material payoffs of others matters to the individual. We discuss a method of how game theory, utilizing communication packet theory, can now be modeled to belief dependent emotions and intentions measured through a new biometric tool correlating neurobiological emotional states and responses.

  1. Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: The road from similarities and clinical heterogeneity to neurobiological types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacquino, Claudia; De Rossi, Pietro; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2015-09-20

    Although diagnosis is a central issue in medical care, in psychiatry its value is still controversial. The function of diagnosis is to indicate treatments and to help clinicians take better care of patients. The fundamental role of diagnosis is to predict outcome and prognosis. To date serious concern persists regarding the clinical utility and predictive validity of the diagnosis system in psychiatry, which is at the most syndromal. Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, which nosologists consider two distinct disorders, are the most discussed psychiatric illnesses. Recent findings in different fields of psychiatric research, such as neuroimaging, neuropathology, neuroimmunology, neuropsychology and genetics, have led to other conceptualizations. Individuals with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder vary greatly with regard to symptoms, illness course, treatment response, cognitive and functional impairment and biological correlates. In fact, it is possible to find heterogeneous correlates even within the same syndrome, i.e., from one stage of the disorder to another. Thus, it is possible to identify different subsyndromes, which share some clinical and neurobiological characteristics. The main goal of modern psychiatry is to ovethrow these barriers and to obtain a better understanding of the biological profiles underlying heterogeneous clinical features and thus reduce the variance and lead to a homogeneous definition. The translational research model, which connects the basic neuroscience research field with clinical experience in psychiatry, aims to investigate different neurobiological features of syndromes and of the shared neurobiological features between two syndromes. In fact, this approach should help us to better understand the neurobiological pathways underlying clinical entities, and even to distinguish different, more homogeneous, diagnostic subtypes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Neurobiologic Correlates of Attention and Memory Deficits Following Critical Illness in Early Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Raisa M; IJsselstijn, Hanneke; Madderom, Marlous J; Rietman, André B; Smits, Marion; van Heijst, Arno F J; Tibboel, Dick; White, Tonya; Muetzel, Ryan L

    2017-10-01

    Survivors of critical illness in early life are at risk of long-term-memory and attention impairments. However, their neurobiologic substrates remain largely unknown. A prospective follow-up study. Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Thirty-eight school-age (8-12 yr) survivors of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and/or congenital diaphragmatic hernia with an intelligence quotient greater than or equal to 80 and a below average score (z score ≤ -1.5) on one or more memory tests. None. Intelligence, attention, memory, executive functioning, and visuospatial processing were assessed and compared with reference data. White matter microstructure and hippocampal volume were assessed using diffusion tensor imaging and structural MRI, respectively. Global fractional anisotropy was positively associated with selective attention (β = 0.53; p = 0.030) and sustained attention (β = 0.48; p = 0.018). Mean diffusivity in the left parahippocampal region of the cingulum was negatively associated with visuospatial memory, both immediate (β = -0.48; p = 0.030) and delayed recall (β = -0.47; p = 0.030). Mean diffusivity in the parahippocampal region of the cingulum was negatively associated with verbal memory delayed recall (left: β = -0.52, p = 0.021; right: β = -0.52, p = 0.021). Hippocampal volume was positively associated with verbal memory delayed recall (left: β = 0.44, p = 0.037; right: β = 0.67, p = 0.012). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation type did not influence the structure-function relationships. Our findings indicate specific neurobiologic correlates of attention and memory deficits in school-age survivors of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and congenital diaphragmatic hernia. A better understanding of the neurobiology following critical illness, both in early and in adult life, may lead to earlier identification of patients at risk for impaired

  3. Mindfulness and Emotion Regulation: Insights from Neurobiological, Psychological, and Clinical Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Guendelman, Simón; Medeiros, Sebastián; Rampes, Hagen

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the beneficial clinical effects of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). Research has demonstrated their efficacy in a wide range of psychological conditions characterized by emotion dysregulation. Neuroimaging studies have evidenced functional and structural changes in a myriad of brain regions mainly involved in attention systems, emotion regulation, and self-referential processing. In this article we review studies on psychological and neurobiological corr...

  4. Genetic and neurobiological aspects of attention deficit hyperactive disorder: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Hechtman, L

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews key studies that have addressed genetic and neurobiological aspects in attention deficit hyperactive disorder. Genetic studies can be divided into three distinct types: twin, adoption, and family studies. Evidence for a particular mode of inheritance and the possible specific genetic abnormalities are also explored. There is strong evidence of genetic involvement in this condition, although a clear-cut mode of inheritance and specific genetic abnormalities are yet to be det...

  5. Unmasking feigned sanity: a neurobiological model of emotion processing in primary psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Honk, Jack; Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2006-05-01

    The neurobiological basis of primary psychopathy, an emotional disorder characterised by a lack of fear and empathy, on the one hand, and extremely violent, antisocial tendencies, on the other, is relatively unknown. Nevertheless, theoretical models that emphasise the role of fearlessness, imbalanced motivation, defective somatic markers, and dysfunctional violence inhibition mechanisms have complementary proposals regarding motivations and brain mechanisms involved. Presently, incorporating the heuristic value of these models and further theorising on the basis of recent data from neuropsychology, neuroendocrinology, neuroimaging, and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), an attempt is made to construct a neurobiological framework of emotion processing in primary psychopathy with clinical applicability. According to this framework, defective emotional processing in primary psychopathy results from bottom-up hormone-mediated imbalances at: (1) the subcortical level; (2) in subcortico-cortical "cross-talk"; that end up in an instrumental stance at the cortical level (3). An endocrine dual-system approach for the fine-tuned restoration of these hormone-mediated imbalances is proposed as a possible clinical application. This application may be capable of laying a neurobiological foundation for more successful sociotherapeutic interventions in primary psychopathy.

  6. Experimental medicine in drug addiction: towards behavioral, cognitive and neurobiological biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duka, Theodora; Crombag, Hans S; Stephens, David N

    2011-09-01

    Several theoretical frameworks have been developed to understand putative processes and mechanisms involved in addiction. Whilst these 'theories of addiction' disagree about importance and/or nature of a number of key psychological processes (e.g. the necessity of craving and/or the involvement of drug-value representations), a number of commonalities exist. For instance, it is widely accepted that Pavlovian associations between cues and environmental contexts and the drug effects acquired over the course of addiction play a critical role, especially in relapse vulnerability in detoxified addicts. Additionally, all theories of addiction (explicitly or implicitly) propose that chronic drug exposure produces persistent neuroplastic changes in neurobiological circuitries underlying critical emotional, cognitive and motivational processes, although disagreement exists as to the precise nature of these neurobiological changes and/or their psychological consequences. The present review, rather than limiting itself to any particular theoretical stance, considers various candidate psychological, neurobiological and/or behavioral processes in addiction and outlines conceptual and procedural approaches for the experimental medicine laboratory. The review discusses (1) extinction, renewal and (re)consolidation of learned associations between cues and drugs, (2) the drug reward value, (3) motivational states contributing to drug seeking and (4) reflective (top-down) and sensory (bottom-up) driven decision-making. In evaluating these psychological and/or behavioral processes and their relationship to addiction we make reference to putative underlying brain structures identified by basic animal studies and/or imaging studies with humans.

  7. A tribute to Peter H Seeburg (1944-2016: a founding father of molecular neurobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Wisden

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available On 22nd August 2016, the fields of molecular neurobiology and endocrinology lost one of their pioneers and true giants, Peter Seeburg, who died aged 72, a day after his birthday. His funeral ceremony took place in Heidelberg where he had worked since 1988, first as a professor at the University of Heidelberg (ZMBH and then since 1996 as a director of the Max Plank Institute (Dept. of Molecular Neurobiology. Many of Peter’s former colleagues, students and postdocs came together with his family members to celebrate his life. Touching eulogies were given by no less than two Nobel prize winners: the physiologist Bert Sakmann, who collaborated with Peter for many years, and the developmental biologist Christiane Nüsslein-Vollhard, who was a friend and fellow PhD student with Peter. His professional contemporary, Heinrich Betz, gave a warm and endearing assessment of Peter’s contributions to the field of molecular neurobiology. One of Peter’s sons, Daniel P. Seeburg, now a neuroradiologist in the USA, and biotechnologist Karoly Nikolics, one of Peter’s friends from the days of Genentech, both emotionally summed up the warm and intense character of the man that many of his former students and postdocs knew.

  8. The neurobiology of reward and cognitive control systems and their role in incentivizing health behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavan, Hugh; Weierstall, Karen

    2012-11-01

    This article reviews the neurobiology of cognitive control and reward processes and addresses their role in the treatment of addiction. We propose that the neurobiological mechanisms involved in treatment may differ from those involved in the etiology of addiction and consequently are worthy of increased investigation. We review the literature on reward and control processes and evidence of differences in these systems in drug addicted individuals. We also review the relatively small literature on neurobiological predictors of abstinence. We conclude that prefrontal control systems may be central to a successful recovery from addiction. The frontal lobes have been shown to regulate striatal reward-related processes, to be among the regions that predict treatment outcome, and to show elevated functioning in those who have succeeded in maintaining abstinence. The evidence of the involvement of the frontal lobes in recovery is consistent with the hypothesis that recovery is a distinct process that is more than the undoing of those processes involved in becoming addicted and a return to the pre-addiction state of the individual. The extent to which these frontal systems are engaged by treatment interventions may contribute to their efficacy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Predicting Neural Activity Patterns Associated with Sentences Using a Neurobiologically Motivated Model of Semantic Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Andrew James; Binder, Jeffrey R; Fernandino, Leonardo; Humphries, Colin J; Conant, Lisa L; Aguilar, Mario; Wang, Xixi; Doko, Donias; Raizada, Rajeev D S

    2017-09-01

    We introduce an approach that predicts neural representations of word meanings contained in sentences then superposes these to predict neural representations of new sentences. A neurobiological semantic model based on sensory, motor, social, emotional, and cognitive attributes was used as a foundation to define semantic content. Previous studies have predominantly predicted neural patterns for isolated words, using models that lack neurobiological interpretation. Fourteen participants read 240 sentences describing everyday situations while undergoing fMRI. To connect sentence-level fMRI activation patterns to the word-level semantic model, we devised methods to decompose the fMRI data into individual words. Activation patterns associated with each attribute in the model were then estimated using multiple-regression. This enabled synthesis of activation patterns for trained and new words, which were subsequently averaged to predict new sentences. Region-of-interest analyses revealed that prediction accuracy was highest using voxels in the left temporal and inferior parietal cortex, although a broad range of regions returned statistically significant results, showing that semantic information is widely distributed across the brain. The results show how a neurobiologically motivated semantic model can decompose sentence-level fMRI data into activation features for component words, which can be recombined to predict activation patterns for new sentences. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The Distracted Brain : The neurobiology and neuropsychology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Mous (Sabine)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis focuses on the neurobiology and neuropsychology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems in the general population. The notion that child psychopathology might be better described within a dimensional framework, rather than with clearly defined diagnostic categories,

  11. Parent and adolescent reports in assessing adolescent sleep problems: results from a large population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Yaqoot; Doi, Suhail A R; O'Callaghan, Michael; Williams, Gail; Najman, Jake M; Mamun, Abdullah Al

    2016-09-01

    To compare parent and adolescent reports in exploring adolescent sleep problems and to identify the factors associated with adolescent sleep problem disclosures. Parent (n = 5185) and adolescent reports (n = 5171, age=13.9 ± 0.3 years), from a birth cohort were used to explore adolescent sleep problems. Kappa coefficients were used to assess the agreement, whereas, conditional agreement and disagreement ratios were used to identify the optimal informant. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors affecting adolescent sleep problem disclosure. Parental reports identified only about one-third of the sleep problems reported by adolescents. Whereas adolescent reports identified up to two-thirds of the sleep problems reported by parents. Combined reports of parents and adolescent did not show any considerable difference from the adolescent report. Adolescent and parent health, maternal depression, and family communication were significantly associated with adolescents sleep problem disclosures. Adolescent reports could be used as the preferred source to explore adolescent sleep problems. Parental reports should be used when parents as observers are more reliable reporters, or where adolescents are cognitively unable to report sleep problems. Additionally, the impact of poor health, maternal depression and family communication on sleep problems disclosure should be considered for adolescent sleep problem diagnosis. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A window of vulnerability: impaired fear extinction in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kathryn D; Den, Miriam L; Graham, Bronwyn M; Richardson, Rick

    2014-09-01

    There have been significant advances made towards understanding the processes mediating extinction of learned fear. However, despite being of clear theoretical and clinical significance, very few studies have examined fear extinction in adolescence, which is often described as a developmental window of vulnerability to psychological disorders. This paper reviews the relatively small body of research examining fear extinction in adolescence. A prominent finding of this work is that adolescents, both humans and rodents, exhibit a marked impairment in extinction relative to both younger (e.g., juvenile) and older (e.g., adult) groups. We then review some potential mechanisms that could produce the striking extinction deficit observed in adolescence. For example, one neurobiological candidate mechanism for impaired extinction in adolescence involves changes in the functional connectivity within the fear extinction circuit, particularly between prefrontal cortical regions and the amygdala. In addition, we review research on emotion regulation and attention processes that suggests that developmental changes in attention bias to threatening cues may be a cognitive mechanism that mediates age-related differences in extinction learning. We also examine how a differential reaction to chronic stress in adolescence impacts upon extinction retention during adolescence as well as in later life. Finally, we consider the findings of several studies illustrating promising approaches that overcome the typically-observed extinction impairments in adolescent rodents and that could be translated to human adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Amygdala habituation to emotional faces in adolescents with internalizing disorders, adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related PTSD and healthy adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca G. van den Bulk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related post-traumatic stress disorder (CSA-related PTSD show a large overlap in symptomatology. In addition, brain research indicated hyper-responsiveness and sustained activation instead of habituation of amygdala activation to emotional faces in both groups. Little is known, however, about whether the same patterns of amygdala habituation are present in these two groups. The current study examined habituation patterns of amygdala activity to emotional faces (fearful, happy and neutral in adolescents with a DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorder (N = 25, adolescents with CSA-related PTSD (N = 19 and healthy controls (N = 26. Behaviourally, the adolescents from the internalizing and CSA-related PTSD group reported more anxiety to fearful and neutral faces than adolescents from the control group and adolescents from the CSA-related PTSD group reacted slower compared to the internalizing group. At the whole brain level, there was a significant interaction between time and group within the left amygdala. Follow-up ROI analysis showed elevated initial activity in the amygdala and rapid habituation in the CSA-related PTSD group compared to the internalizing group. These findings suggest that habituation patterns of amygdala activation provide additional information on problems with emotional face processing. Furthermore, the results suggest there are differences in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms related to emotional face processing for adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD. Possibly CSA-related PTSD is characterized by a stronger primary emotional response driven by the amygdala.

  14. Amygdala habituation to emotional faces in adolescents with internalizing disorders, adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related PTSD and healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bulk, Bianca G; Somerville, Leah H; van Hoof, Marie-José; van Lang, Natasja D J; van der Wee, Nic J A; Crone, Eveline A; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2016-10-01

    Adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related post-traumatic stress disorder (CSA-related PTSD) show a large overlap in symptomatology. In addition, brain research indicated hyper-responsiveness and sustained activation instead of habituation of amygdala activation to emotional faces in both groups. Little is known, however, about whether the same patterns of amygdala habituation are present in these two groups. The current study examined habituation patterns of amygdala activity to emotional faces (fearful, happy and neutral) in adolescents with a DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorder (N=25), adolescents with CSA-related PTSD (N=19) and healthy controls (N=26). Behaviourally, the adolescents from the internalizing and CSA-related PTSD group reported more anxiety to fearful and neutral faces than adolescents from the control group and adolescents from the CSA-related PTSD group reacted slower compared to the internalizing group. At the whole brain level, there was a significant interaction between time and group within the left amygdala. Follow-up ROI analysis showed elevated initial activity in the amygdala and rapid habituation in the CSA-related PTSD group compared to the internalizing group. These findings suggest that habituation patterns of amygdala activation provide additional information on problems with emotional face processing. Furthermore, the results suggest there are differences in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms related to emotional face processing for adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD. Possibly CSA-related PTSD is characterized by a stronger primary emotional response driven by the amygdala. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Hormonal and developmental influences on adolescent suicide: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manceaux, Pauline; Jacques, Denis; Zdanowicz, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    Teen suicide is a major public health problem. In the United States, it is the third cause of death among the 10-24 year olds. Adolescence involves numerous changes, whether physical, social, emotional or hormonal. At a neurobiological level, a teenager's nervous system is also affected and undergoes significant modifications. We conducted a systematic review of electronic literature published between January 1990 and August 2014 via MEDLINE, PubMED and PsychINFO to list articles concerning the risk of teen depression and suicide risks in adolescents as well as those relating to the adolescent's neuro-anatomical brain and the effect that puberty has on it. When analyzing the various studies, it is clear that all support the idea that adolescence is a special period, both at neuroanatomical and biological levels. The risk of impulsiveness and depression is explained, anatomically, by a faster maturation of the limbic system, and biologically, by a higher sensitivity of the serotoninergic system and to glucocorticoids, which themselves are influenced by the specific hormonal environment during this period. Moreover and above all, adolescence is a vulnerable time for many reasons: physical, hormonal, social, cognitive, and emotional changes, self-development, etc. We should not restrict it to structural neurological changes without taking into account the other factors or compartmentalize young people into a reductive model based on determinism. Adolescence is a time of change, transformation, and adaptation. The hormonal events that occur during this period have significant effects on brain development, neuro-cerebral chemistry, adolescent behavior and risks of depression. It is important to try to prevent suicide and depression in adolescents considering its entirety and complexity but also by paying attention to neuro-biological factors even if, at present, many research projects are currently underway to develop an appropriate drug therapy strategy.

  16. Rationale and consequences of reclassifying obesity as an addictive disorder: neurobiology, food environment and social policy perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Patricia J; Batra, Payal; Geiger, Brenda M; Wommack, Tara; Gilhooly, Cheryl; Pothos, Emmanuel N

    2012-08-20

    The rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity is a priority for investigators from across numerous disciplines, including biology, nutritional science, and public health and policy. In this paper, we systematically examine the premise that common dietary obesity is an addictive disorder, based on the criteria for addiction described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association, version IV, and consider the consequences of such a reclassification of obesity for public policy. Specifically, we discuss evidence from both human and animal studies investigating the effects of various types and amounts of food and the food environment in obese individuals. Neurobiological studies have shown that the hedonic brain pathways activated by palatable food overlap considerably with those activated by drugs of abuse and suffer significant deficits after chronic exposure to high-energy diets. Furthermore, food as a stimulus can induce the sensitization, compulsion and relapse patterns observed in individuals who are addicted to illicit drugs. The current food environment encourages these addictive-like behaviors where increased exposure through advertisements, proximity and increased portion sizes are routine. Taking lessons from the tobacco experience, it is clear that reclassifying common dietary obesity as an addictive disorder would necessitate policy changes (e.g., regulatory efforts, economic strategies, and educational approaches). These policies could be instrumental in addressing the obesity epidemic, by encouraging the food industry and the political leadership to collaborate with the scientific and medical community in establishing new and more effective therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Addicted to palatable foods: comparing the neurobiology of Bulimia Nervosa to that of drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Natalie A; Knackstedt, Lori A

    2014-05-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) is highly comorbid with substance abuse and shares common phenotypic and genetic predispositions with drug addiction. Although treatments for the two disorders are similar, controversy remains about whether BN should be classified as addiction. Here, we review the animal and human literature with the goal of assessing whether BN and drug addiction share a common neurobiology. Similar neurobiological features are present following administration of drugs and bingeing on palatable food, especially sugar. Specifically, both disorders involve increases in extracellular dopamine (DA), D1 binding, D3 messenger RNA (mRNA), and ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Animal models of BN reveal increases in ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA and enzymes involved in DA synthesis that resemble changes observed after exposure to addictive drugs. Additionally, alterations in the expression of glutamate receptors and prefrontal cortex activity present in human BN or following sugar bingeing in animals are comparable to the effects of addictive drugs. The two disorders differ in regards to alterations in NAc D2 binding, VTA DAT mRNA expression, and the efficacy of drugs targeting glutamate to treat these disorders. Although additional empirical studies are necessary, the synthesis of the two bodies of research presented here suggests that BN shares many neurobiological features with drug addiction. While few Food and Drug Administration-approved options currently exist for the treatment of drug addiction, pharmacotherapies developed in the future, which target the glutamate, DA, and opioid systems, may be beneficial for the treatment of both BN and drug addiction.

  18. The Molecular Neurobiology of Twelve Steps Program & Fellowship: Connecting the Dots for Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Thompson, Benjamin; Demotrovics, Zsolt; Femino, John; Giordano, John; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Teitelbaum, Scott; Smith, David E; Roy, A Kennison; Agan, Gozde; Fratantonio, James; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Gold, Mark S

    There are some who suggest that alcoholism and drug abuse are not diseases at all and that they are not consequences of a brain disorder as espoused recently by the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM). Some would argue that addicts can quit on their own and moderate their alcohol and drug intake. When they present to a treatment program or enter the 12 Step Program & Fellowship, many addicts finally achieve complete abstinence. However, when controlled drinking fails, there may be successful alternatives that fit particular groups of individuals. In this expert opinion, we attempt to identify personal differences in recovery, by clarifying the molecular neurobiological basis of each step of the 12 Step Program. We explore the impact that the molecular neurobiological basis of the 12 steps can have on Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) despite addiction risk gene polymorphisms. This exploration has already been accomplished in part by Blum and others in a 2013 Springer Neuroscience Brief. The purpose of this expert opinion is to briefly, outline the molecular neurobiological and genetic links, especially as they relate to the role of epigenetic changes that are possible in individuals who regularly attend AA meetings. It begs the question as to whether "12 steps programs and fellowship" does induce neuroplasticity and continued dopamine D2 receptor proliferation despite carrying hypodopaminergic type polymorphisms such as DRD2 A1 allele. "Like-minded" doctors of ASAM are cognizant that patients in treatment without the " psycho-social-spiritual trio ," may not be obtaining the important benefits afforded by adopting 12-step doctrines. Are we better off with coupling medical assisted treatment (MAT) that favors combining dopamine agonist modalities (DAM) as possible histone-deacetylase activators with the 12 steps followed by a program that embraces either one or the other? While there are many unanswered questions, at least we have reached a time when

  19. The neurobiology of pleasure, reward processes, addiction and their health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Tobias; Stefano, George B

    2004-08-01

    Modern science begins to understand pleasure as a potential component of salutogenesis. Thereby, pleasure is described as a state or feeling of happiness and satisfaction resulting from an experience that one enjoys. We examine the neurobiological factors underlying reward processes and pleasure phenomena. Further, health implications related to pleasurable activities are analyzed. With regard to possible negative effects of pleasure, we focus on addiction and motivational toxicity. Pleasure can serve cognition, productivity and health, but simultaneously promotes addiction and other negative behaviors, i.e., motivational toxicity. It is a complex neurobiological phenomenon, relying on reward circuitry or limbic activity. These processes involve dopaminergic signaling. Moreover, endorphin and endogenous morphinergic mechanisms may play a role. Natural rewarding activities are necessary for survival and appetitive motivation, usually governing beneficial biological behaviors like eating, sex and reproduction. Social contacts can further facilitate the positive effects exerted by pleasurable experiences. However, artificial stimulants can be detrimental, since flexibility and normal control of behavior are deteriorated. Additionally, addictive drugs are capable of directly acting on reward pathways. Thus, the concrete outcome of pleasant experiences may be a question of dose. Moderate pleasurable experiences are able to enhance biological flexibility and health. Hence, pleasure can be a resistance resource or may serve salutogenesis. Natural rewards are mediated by sensory organ stimulation, thereby exhibiting a potential association with complementary medical approaches. Trust and belief can be part of a self-healing potential connected with rewarding stimuli. Further, the placebo response physiologically resembles pleasure phenomena, since both involve brain's reward circuitry stimulation and subjective feelings of well-being. Pleasurable activities can stimulate

  20. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline

  1. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  2. Microbial endocrinology: Why the intersection of microbiology and neurobiology matters to poultry health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villageliu, Daniel N; Lyte, Mark

    2017-08-01

    The union of microbiology and neurobiology has led to a revolution in the way we view the microbiome. Now recognized as important symbionts, the microorganisms which inhabit multiple niches in mammalian and avian (chicken) hosts, such as the intestinal tract and skin, serve and influence many important physiological functions. The realization that the gut microbiome serves as a kind of "microbial organ" has important implications for many areas of biology. In this paper advances in the field of microbial endocrinology which may hold relevance for the poultry industry are examined. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. The Neurobiological Impact of Postpartum Maternal Depression: Prevention and Intervention Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Stacy S; Scaramella, Laura; Zeanah, Charles H

    2016-04-01

    The lasting negative impact of postpartum depression (PPD) on offspring is well established. PPD seems to have an impact on neurobiological pathways linked to socioemotional regulation, cognitive and executive function, and physiologic stress response systems. This review focus on examining the current state of research defining the effect of universal, selected, and indicated interventions for PPD on infant neurodevelopment. Given the established lasting, and potentially intergenerational, negative implications of maternal depression, enhanced efforts targeting increased identification and early intervention approaches for PPD that have an impact on health outcomes in both infants and mothers represent a critical public health concern. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Professor Eric Can't See: A Project-Based Learning Case for Neurobiology Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Judith Mosinger; Ribbens, Eric

    2016-01-01

    "Professor Eric Can't See" is a semi-biographical case study written for an upper level undergraduate Neurobiology of Disease course. The case is integrated into a unit using a project-based learning approach to investigate the retinal degenerative disorder Retinitis pigmentosa and the visual system. Some case study scenes provide specific questions for student discussion and problem-based learning, while others provide background for student inquiry and related active learning exercises. The case was adapted from "'Chemical Eric' Can't See," and could be adapted for courses in general neuroscience or sensory neuroscience.

  5. The Self-Organizing Psyche: Nonlinear and Neurobiological Contributions to Psychoanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, A. H.

    Sigmund Freud attempted to align nineteenth century biology (and the dynamically conservative, continuous, Newtonian mechanics that underlie it) with discontinuous conscious experience. His tactics both set the future course for psychoanalytic development and introduced seemingly intractable complications into its metapsychology. In large part, these arose from what we now recognize were biological errors and dynamical oversimplifications amid his physical assumptions. Their correction, brought about by integrating nonlinear dynamics and neuro-biological research findings with W. Bion's reading of metapsychology, fundamentally supports a psychoanalysis based upon D. W. Winnicott's ideas surrounding play within transitional space.

  6. [Neurousurpation--the expropriation and suppression of Dölle's neurobiological pioneer work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Wulf

    2011-08-01

    The discovery of a hitherto unpublished dissertational thesis in the archive of a publishing house has lead to a lost publication by Ernst August Dölle. In this manuscript, the author reports on the stimulation of a cerebral libido area in the dog, long before Olds and Milner published their work on the discovery of the rewarding area. The reasons for the suppression of this early publication by Dölle are investigated and are ascribed to an effort to use his neurobiologic research for secret mental manipulation experiments of the CIA at the beginning of the Cold War. George Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Frontal glutamate and reward processing in adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleich, Tobias; Lorenz, Robert C; Pöhland, Lydia; Raufelder, Diana; Deserno, Lorenz; Beck, Anne; Heinz, Andreas; Kühn, Simone; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    The fronto-limbic network interaction, driven by glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission, represents a core mechanism of motivated behavior and personality traits. Reward seeking behavior undergoes tremendous changes in adolescence paralleled by neurobiological changes of this network including the prefrontal cortex, striatum and amygdala. Since fronto-limbic dysfunctions also underlie major psychiatric diseases beginning in adolescence, this investigation focuses on network characteristics separating adolescents from adults. To investigate differences in network interactions, the brain reward system activity (slot machine task) together with frontal glutamate concentration (anterior cingulate cortex, ACC) was measured in 28 adolescents and 26 adults employing functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. An inverse coupling of glutamate concentrations in the ACC and activation of the ventral striatum was observed in adolescents. Further, amygdala response in adolescents was negatively correlated with the personality trait impulsivity. For adults, no significant associations of network components or correlations with impulsivity were found. The inverse association between frontal glutamate concentration and striatal activation in adolescents is in line with the triadic model of motivated behavior stressing the important role of frontal top-down inhibition on limbic structures. Our data identified glutamate as the mediating neurotransmitter of this inhibitory process and demonstrates the relevance of glutamate on the reward system and related behavioral traits like impulsivity. This fronto-limbic coupling may represent a vulnerability factor for psychiatric disorders starting in adolescence but not in adulthood.

  8. Preventing toxicomania and addictive behaviour in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manceaux, Pauline; Maricq, Aurélie; Zdanowicz, Nicolas; Reynaert, Christine

    2013-09-01

    Drug addicts are more and more stigmatized in our society. Recent data show a connection between substance abuse and other behaviors considered normal, such as passionate love. Adolescence is characterized by a biopsychosocial, cognitive and neurodevelopmental immaturity. This article aims to understand if these subjects are more likely to develop addictions to certain products or addictive behaviors such as passionate love. It also offers a better understanding of the current models for prevention of substance abuse during adolescence. After defining the roles played, in the brain, by dopamine and by the reward circuit, as well as the different stages of development of the human brain, we compared neurobiological data and imaging studies both in cases of passionate love and substance addiction during adolescence. The brain imaging studies highlight the role of the prefrontal cortex in the cognitive and behavioral aspects of the addictive phenomenon. Now, the maturation of the prefrontal cortex occurs during adolescence, as do significant peaks in the expression of dopamine. These studies also suggest an increase in cortical activation (nucleus accumbens and amygdala) when processing emotional information, which is also increased during adolescence. Taken together, the results show a parallel between addiction and love relations, both at the level of neuroscience and imaging. A greater emotional lability and sensitivity may play a role in the higher incidence of substance abuse and dependence in love observed at this age. Preventing the use of illegal substances among young people therefore requires a very specific approach.

  9. Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Deborah A

    2003-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder among reproductive-age women, yet the diagnosis may be overlooked during adolescence. Although the clinical and metabolic features are similar to those found in adult women, it can be difficult to distinguish the young woman with PCOS from a normal adolescent. Irregular menses, anovulatory cycles, and acne are not uncommon in adolescent women. Adolescents with a history of premature pubarche, a family history of PCOS, Caribbean-Hispanic and African-American ancestry, and/or obesity are at risk for PCOS and deserve close surveillance. The laboratory evaluation of the adolescent with suspected PCOS or hyperandrogenism should be individualized based on the history, symptoms, and examination findings. The cornerstone of management of PCOS in adolescence includes either a combination oral contraceptive or progestin. Consideration of insulin-sensitizing agents, antiandrogens, topical treatments for acne, and various treatments for hair removal are dependent on the patient's symptoms and concerns. Healthy eating, regular exercise, and for the overweight adolescent, weight reduction, are encouraged to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. Numerous studies have shown that weight loss and exercise decrease androgen levels, improve insulin sensitivity, and lead to the resumption of ovulation. Although initial studies suggest that Metformin may be particularly useful for treating the PCOS adolescent with insulin resistance and obesity, additional studies are needed to determine the efficacy and long-term outcome. Management of the adolescent with PCOS is challenging and requires a supportive, multidisciplinary team approach for optimal results.

  10. Who Is Doing Well? A Typology of Newly Homeless Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Norweeta; Liang, Li-Jung; Lee, Sung-Jae; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Rosenthal, Doreen; Mallett, Shelley; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Lester, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    There is growing evidence to support developing new typologies for homeless adolescents. Current typologies focus on the risks associated with being homeless, with less consideration of the positive attributes of homeless adolescents. The authors examined both risk and protective factors in a sample of newly homeless adolescents. Using cluster…

  11. Neurobiology of comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol-use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, N. W.; Weiner, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol-use disorder (AUD) are highly comorbid in humans. Although we have some understanding of the structural and functional brain changes that define each of these disorders, and how those changes contribute to the behavioral symptoms that define them, little is known about the neurobiology of comorbid PTSD and AUD, which may be due in part to a scarcity of adequate animal models for examining this research question. The goal of this review is to summarize the current state-of-the-science on comorbid PTSD and AUD. We summarize epidemiological data documenting the prevalence of this comorbidity, review what is known about the potential neurobiological basis for the frequent co-occurrence of PTSD and AUD and discuss successes and failures of past and current treatment strategies. We also review animal models that aim to examine comorbid PTSD and AUD, highlighting where the models parallel the human condition, and we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each model. We conclude by discussing key gaps in our knowledge and strategies for addressing them: in particular, we (1) highlight the need for better animal models of the comorbid condition and better clinical trial design, (2) emphasize the need for examination of subpopulation effects and individual differences and (3) urge cross-talk between basic and clinical researchers that is reflected in collaborative work with forward and reverse translational impact. PMID:27749004

  12. Dynamically stable associative learning: a neurobiologically based ANN and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Thomas P.; Blackwell, Kim L.; Barbour, Garth; Alkon, Daniel L.

    1992-07-01

    Most currently popular artificial neural networks (ANN) are based on conceptions of neuronal properties that date back to the 1940s and 50s, i.e., to the ideas of McCullough, Pitts, and Hebb. Dystal is an ANN based on current knowledge of neurobiology at the cellular and subcellular level. Networks based on these neurobiological insights exhibit the following advantageous properties: (1) A theoretical storage capacity of bN non-orthogonal memories, where N is the number of output neurons sharing common inputs and b is the number of distinguishable (gray shade) levels. (2) The ability to learn, store, and recall associations among noisy, arbitrary patterns. (3) A local synaptic learning rule (learning depends neither on the output of the post-synaptic neuron nor on a global error term), some of whose consequences are: (4) Feed-forward, lateral, and feed-back connections (as well as time-sensitive connections) are possible without alteration of the learning algorithm; (5) Storage allocation (patch creation) proceeds dynamically as associations are learned (self- organizing); (6) The number of training set presentations required for learning is small (different expressions and/or corrupted by noise, and on reading hand-written digits (98% accuracy) and hand-printed Japanese Kanji (90% accuracy) is demonstrated.

  13. Neurobiology of empathy and callousness: implications for the development of antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Vitacco, Michael J; Graf, Alexander R; Gostisha, Andrew J; Merz, Jenna L; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Information on the neurobiology of empathy and callousness provides clinicians with an opportunity to develop sophisticated understanding of mechanisms underpinning antisocial behavior and its counterpart, moral decision-making. This article provides an integrated in-depth review of hormones (e.g. peripheral steroid hormones such as cortisol) and brain structures (e.g. insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and amygdala) implicated in empathy, callousness, and psychopathic-like behavior. The overarching goal of this article is to relate these hormones and brain structures to moral decision-making. This review will begin in the brain, but will then integrate information about biological functioning in the body, specifically stress-reactivity. Our aim is to integrate understanding of neural processes with hormones such as cortisol, both of which have demonstrated relationships to empathy, psychopathy, and antisocial behavior. The review proposes that neurobiological impairments in individuals who display little empathy are not necessarily due to a reduced ability to understand the emotions of others. Instead, evidence suggests that individuals who show little arousal to the distress of others likewise show decreased physiological arousal to their own distress; one manifestation of reduced stress reactivity may be a dysfunction in empathy, which supports psychopathic-like constructs (e.g. callousness). This integration will assist in the development of objective methodologies that can inform and monitor treatment interventions focused on decreasing antisocial behavior. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The psychological development of panic disorder: implications for neurobiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosci, Fiammetta

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the available literature on psychological development of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia [PD(A)] and its relationship with the neurobiology and the treatment of panic. Both a computerized (PubMed) and a manual search of the literature were performed. Only English papers published in peer-reviewed journals and referring to PD(A) as defined by the diagnostic classifications of the American Psychiatric Association or of the World Health Organization were included. A staging model of panic exists and is applicable in clinical practice. In a substantial proportion of patients with PD(A), a prodromal phase and, despite successful treatment, residual symptoms can be identified. Both prodromes and residual symptoms allow the monitoring of disorder evolution during recovery via the rollback phenomenon. The different stages of the disorder, as well as the steps of the rollback, have a correspondence in the neurobiology and in the treatment of panic. However, the treatment implications of the longitudinal model of PD(A) are not endorsed, and adequate interventions of enduring effects are missing.

  15. The Dissociative Subtype of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: Research Update on Clinical and Neurobiological Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huijstee, Jytte; Vermetten, Eric

    2017-10-21

    Recently, a dissociative subtype of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been included in the DSM-5. This review focuses on the clinical and neurobiological features that distinguish the dissociative subtype of PTSD from non-dissociative PTSD. Clinically, the dissociative subtype of PTSD is associated with high PTSD severity, predominance of derealization and depersonalization symptoms, a more significant history of early life trauma, and higher levels of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, PTSD patients with dissociative symptoms exhibit different psychophysiological and neural responses to the recall of traumatic memories. While individuals with non-dissociative PTSD exhibit an increased heart rate, decreased activation of prefrontal regions, and increased activation of the amygdala in response to traumatic reminders, individuals with the dissociative subtype of PTSD show an opposite pattern. It has been proposed that dissociation is a regulatory strategy to restrain extreme arousal in PTSD through hyperinhibition of limbic regions. In this research update, promises and pitfalls in current research studies on the dissociative subtype of PTSD are listed. Inclusion of the dissociative subtype of PTSD in the DSM-5 stimulates research on the prevalence, symptomatology, and neurobiology of the dissociative subtype of PTSD and poses a challenge to improve treatment outcome in PTSD patients with dissociative symptoms.

  16. The default mode network and recurrent depression: a neurobiological model of cognitive risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Igor; Koster, Ernst H W; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J; De Raedt, Rudi

    2012-09-01

    A neurobiological account of cognitive vulnerability for recurrent depression is presented based on recent developments of resting state neural networks. We propose that alterations in the interplay between task positive (TP) and task negative (TN) elements of the Default Mode Network (DMN) act as a neurobiological risk factor for recurrent depression mediated by cognitive mechanisms. In the framework, depression is characterized by an imbalance between TN-TP components leading to an overpowering of TP by TN activity. The TN-TP imbalance is associated with a dysfunctional internally-focused cognitive style as well as a failure to attenuate TN activity in the transition from rest to task. Thus we propose the TN-TP imbalance as overarching neural mechanism involved in crucial cognitive risk factors for recurrent depression, namely rumination, impaired attentional control, and cognitive reactivity. During remission the TN-TP imbalance persists predisposing to vulnerability of recurrent depression. Empirical data to support this model is reviewed. Finally, we specify how this framework can guide future research efforts.

  17. Studying the neurobiology of human social interaction: Making the case for ecological validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, Robert A; aan het Rot, Marije

    2015-01-01

    With this commentary we make the case for an increased focus on the ecological validity of the measures used to assess aspects of human social functioning. Impairments in social functioning are seen in many types of psychopathology, negatively affecting the lives of psychiatric patients and those around them. Yet the neurobiology underlying abnormal social interaction remains unclear. As an example of human social neuroscience research with relevance to biological psychiatry and clinical psychopharmacology, this commentary discusses published experimental studies involving manipulation of the human brain serotonin system that included assessments of social behavior. To date, these studies have mostly been laboratory-based and included computer tasks, observations by others, or single-administration self-report measures. Most laboratory measures used so far inform about the role of serotonin in aspects of social interaction, but the relevance for real-life interaction is often unclear. Few studies have used naturalistic assessments in real life. We suggest several laboratory methods with high ecological validity as well as ecological momentary assessment, which involves intensive repeated measures in naturalistic settings. In sum, this commentary intends to stimulate experimental research on the neurobiology of human social interaction as it occurs in real life.

  18. A Targeted Review of the Neurobiology and Genetics of Behavioral Addictions: An Emerging Area of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Robert F.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes neurobiological and genetic findings in behavioral addictions, draws parallels with findings pertaining to substance use disorders and offers suggestions for future research. Articles concerning brain function, neurotransmitter activity and family history/genetics findings for behavioral addictions involving gambling, internet use, video game playing, shopping, kleptomania and sexual activity were reviewed. Behavioral addictions involve dysfunction in several brain regions, particularly the frontal cortex and striatum. Findings from imaging studies incorporating cognitive tasks have arguably been more consistent than cue-induction studies. Early results suggest white and gray matter differences. Neurochemical findings suggest roles for dopaminergic and serotonergic systems, but results from clinical trials seem more equivocal. While limited, family history/genetic data support heritability for pathological gambling and that those with behavioral addictions are more likely to have a close family member with some form of psychopathology. Parallels exist between neurobiological and genetic/family history findings in substance and non-substance addictions, suggesting that compulsive engagement in these behaviors may constitute addictions. Findings to date are limited, particularly for shopping, kleptomania and sexual behavior. Genetic understandings are at an early stage. Future research directions are offered. PMID:23756286

  19. Mind from genes and neurons: a neurobiological model of Freudian psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Gilberto N O

    2002-10-01

    A hypothetical neurobiological model of Freud's architecture of the mind is presented in an attempt to unify concepts and data derived from molecular biology (e.g., genomic imprinting), systems neuroscience (e.g., neuroanatomochemical circuitries), evolutionary psychology (e.g., human mating strategies), and Freudian psychology. The model posits that events related to genomic imprinting can be regulated in a tissue-specific manner over the course of neural development such that imprinting along the matriline would favor the development of corticostriatal structures whereas imprinting along the patriline would favor the development of limbic-subcortical structures. A neuropsychological analysis of the brain requirements for successful mating presumably would put an evolutionary premium on the corticostriatal system (matrilineal) in men and limbic-subcortical systems (patrilineal) in women. Additionally, the model emphasizes that the ego and the super-ego of Freudian psychology are dependent on corticostriatal mechanisms (matriline-related), while the id is dependent on brainstem processes (patriline-related). It is hoped that the model herein presented has heuristic value for a rapprochement of psychoanalysis and neurobiology.

  20. Neurobiology of comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol-use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, N W; Weiner, J L

    2017-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol-use disorder (AUD) are highly comorbid in humans. Although we have some understanding of the structural and functional brain changes that define each of these disorders, and how those changes contribute to the behavioral symptoms that define them, little is known about the neurobiology of comorbid PTSD and AUD, which may be due in part to a scarcity of adequate animal models for examining this research question. The goal of this review is to summarize the current state-of-the-science on comorbid PTSD and AUD. We summarize epidemiological data documenting the prevalence of this comorbidity, review what is known about the potential neurobiological basis for the frequent co-occurrence of PTSD and AUD and discuss successes and failures of past and current treatment strategies. We also review animal models that aim to examine comorbid PTSD and AUD, highlighting where the models parallel the human condition, and we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each model. We conclude by discussing key gaps in our knowledge and strategies for addressing them: in particular, we (1) highlight the need for better animal models of the comorbid condition and better clinical trial design, (2) emphasize the need for examination of subpopulation effects and individual differences and (3) urge cross-talk between basic and clinical researchers that is reflected in collaborative work with forward and reverse translational impact. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  1. Love is more than just a kiss: a neurobiological perspective on love and affection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, A; van Buel, E M; Ter Horst, G J

    2012-01-10

    Love, attachment, and truth of human monogamy have become important research themes in neuroscience. After the introduction of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET), neuroscientists have demonstrated increased interest in the neurobiology and neurochemistry of emotions, including love and affection. Neurobiologists have studied pair-bonding mechanisms in animal models of mate choice to elucidate neurochemical mechanisms underlying attachment and showed possible roles for oxytocin, vasopressin, and dopamine and their receptors in pair-bonding and monogamy. Unresolved is whether these substances are also critically involved in human attachment. The limited number of available imaging studies on love and affection is hampered by selection bias on gender, duration of a love affair, and cultural differences. Brain activity patterns associated with romantic love, shown with fMRI, overlapped with regions expressing oxytocin receptors in the animal models, but definite proof for a role of oxytocin in human attachment is still lacking. There is also evidence for a role of serotonin, cortisol, nerve growth factor, and testosterone in love and attachment. Changes in brain activity related to the various stages of a love affair, gender, and cultural differences are unresolved and will probably become important research themes in this field in the near future. In this review we give a resume of the current knowledge of the neurobiology of love and attachment and we discuss in brief the truth of human monogamy. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A targeted review of the neurobiology and genetics of behavioural addictions: an emerging area of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Robert F; Potenza, Marc N

    2013-05-01

    This review summarizes neurobiological and genetic findings in behavioural addictions, draws parallels with findings pertaining to substance use disorders, and offers suggestions for future research. Articles concerning brain function, neurotransmitter activity, and family history and (or) genetic findings for behavioural addictions involving gambling, Internet use, video game playing, shopping, kleptomania, and sexual activity were reviewed. Behavioural addictions involve dysfunction in several brain regions, particularly the frontal cortex and striatum. Findings from imaging studies incorporating cognitive tasks have arguably been more consistent than cue-induction studies. Early results suggest white and grey matter differences. Neurochemical findings suggest roles for dopaminergic and serotonergic systems, but results from clinical trials seem more equivocal. While limited, family history and genetic data support heritability for pathological gambling and that people with behavioural addictions are more likely to have a close family member with some form of psychopathology. Parallels exist between neurobiological and genetic and family history findings in substance and nonsubstance addictions, suggesting that compulsive engagement in these behaviours may constitute addictions. To date, findings are limited, particularly for shopping, kleptomania, and sexual behaviour. Genetic understandings are at an early stage. Future research directions are offered.

  3. Unlock The Genıus Within:NEUROBIOLOGICAL TRAUMA, TEACHING, AND TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tojde

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, Daniel S. Janik, MD, PhD, argues replacing education and teaching with non-traumatic, curiosity-based, discovery-driven, and mentor-assisted transformational learning. Unlock the Genius Within is an easy read that explains-in conversational manner-the newest ideas on neurobiological and transformational learning beginning with what's wrong with education and ending with a call for reader participation in developing an applying neurobiological learning and transformational learning theory and methodology. Janik draws extensively from his own experiences first as a physician working with psychological recovery from trauma, and then as an educator and linguist in applying neurobiological-based transformational learning in clinics, classrooms, and tutoring. Features:· Descriptions of classical and contemporary research alongside allusions to popular movies and television programs· Suggested further readings· Neurobiological learning web resourcesThroughout this book, the author incorporates humor, wisdom, and anecdotes to draw readers into traditionally incomprehensible concepts and information that demonstrates transformational learning. It will be of interest to teachers (postsecondary, secondary, and ESL, administrators, counselors, parents, students, and medical researchers. http://www.rowmaneducation.com/ISBN/1578862914 Throughout this book, the author incorporates humor, wisdom, and anecdotes to draw readers into traditionally incomprehensible concepts and information that demonstrates transformational learning. It will be of interest to teachers (postsecondary, secondary, and ESL, administrators, counselors, parents, students, and medical researchers. About The Author Dr. Daniel S. Janik is a physician and University Studies Coordinator at Intercultural Communications College, a private English second language and college preparation school in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. Reviews for Unlock the Genius Within: Neurobiological Trauma

  4. An interactive visualization tool for multi-channel confocal microscopy data in neurobiology research

    KAUST Repository

    Yong Wan,

    2009-11-01

    Confocal microscopy is widely used in neurobiology for studying the three-dimensional structure of the nervous system. Confocal image data are often multi-channel, with each channel resulting from a different fluorescent dye or fluorescent protein; one channel may have dense data, while another has sparse; and there are often structures at several spatial scales: subneuronal domains, neurons, and large groups of neurons (brain regions). Even qualitative analysis can therefore require visualization using techniques and parameters fine-tuned to a particular dataset. Despite the plethora of volume rendering techniques that have been available for many years, the techniques standardly used in neurobiological research are somewhat rudimentary, such as looking at image slices or maximal intensity projections. Thus there is a real demand from neurobiologists, and biologists in general, for a flexible visualization tool that allows interactive visualization of multi-channel confocal data, with rapid fine-tuning of parameters to reveal the three-dimensional relationships of structures of interest. Together with neurobiologists, we have designed such a tool, choosing visualization methods to suit the characteristics of confocal data and a typical biologist\\'s workflow. We use interactive volume rendering with intuitive settings for multidimensional transfer functions, multiple render modes and multi-views for multi-channel volume data, and embedding of polygon data into volume data for rendering and editing. As an example, we apply this tool to visualize confocal microscopy datasets of the developing zebrafish visual system.

  5. Student-Designed Service-Learning Projects in an Undergraduate Neurobiology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine V. Northcutt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges in teaching a service-learning course is obtaining student buy-in from all students in the course. To circumvent this problem, I have let students in my undergraduate Neurobiology course design their own service-learning projects at the beginning of the semester. Although this can be chaotic because it requires last-minute planning, I have made it successful through facilitating student communication in the classroom, requiring thorough project proposals, meeting with students regularly, and monitoring group progress through written reflection papers. Most of my students have strong opinions about the types of projects that they want to carry out, and many students have used connections that they have already made with local organizations. Almost all projects that students have designed to this point involve teaching basic concepts of neurobiology to children of various ages while simultaneously sparking their interest in science. Through taking ownership of the project and designing it such that it works well with their strengths, interests, and weekly schedule, students have become more engaged in service learning and view it as a valuable experience. Despite some class time being shifted away from more traditional assignments, students have performed equally well in the course, and they are more eager to talk with others about course concepts. Furthermore, the feedback that I have received from community partners has been excellent, and some students have maintained their work with the organizations.

  6. The shared neuroanatomy and neurobiology of comorbid chronic pain and PTSD: therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scioli-Salter, Erica R; Forman, Daniel E; Otis, John D; Gregor, Kristin; Valovski, Ivan; Rasmusson, Ann M

    2015-04-01

    Chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are disabling conditions that affect biological, psychological, and social domains of functioning. Clinical research demonstrates that patients who are affected by chronic pain and PTSD in combination experience greater pain, affective distress, and disability than patients with either condition alone. Additional research is needed to delineate the interrelated pathophysiology of chronic pain and PTSD, with the goal of facilitating more effective therapies to treat both conditions more effectively; current treatment strategies for chronic pain associated with PTSD have limited efficacy and place a heavy burden on patients, who must visit various specialists to manage these conditions separately. This article focuses on neurobiological factors that may contribute to the coprevalence and synergistic interactions of chronic pain and PTSD. First, we outline how circuits that mediate emotional distress and physiological threat, including pain, converge. Secondly, we discuss specific neurobiological mediators and modulators of these circuits that may contribute to chronic pain and PTSD symptoms. For example, neuropeptide Y, and the neuroactive steroids allopregnanolone and pregnanolone (together termed ALLO) have antistress and antinociceptive properties. Reduced levels of neuropeptide Y and ALLO have been implicated in the pathophysiology of both chronic pain and PTSD. The potential contribution of opioid and cannabinoid system factors also will be discussed. Finally, we address potential novel methods to restore the normal function of these systems. Such novel perspectives regarding disease and disease management are vital to the pursuit of relief for the many individuals who struggle with these disabling conditions.

  7. Neurobiological response to EMDR therapy in clients with different psychological traumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCO ePAGANI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We assessed cortical activation differences in real-time upon exposure to traumatic memory between two distinct groups of psychologically traumatised clients also in comparison with healthy controls. We used electroencephalography (EEG to compare neuronal activation throughout the bilateral stimulation phase of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR sessions. We compared activation between the first (T0 and the last (T1 session, the latter performed after processing the index trauma. The group including all clients showed significantly higher cortical activity in orbito-frontal cortex at T0 shifting at T1 towards posterior associative regions. However the subgroup of clients with chronic exposure to the traumatic event showed a cortical firing at both stages which was closer to that of controls. For the first time EEG monitoring enabled to disclose neurobiological differences between groups of clients with different trauma histories during the reliving of the traumatic event. Cortical activations in clients chronically exposed to traumatic memories were moderate, suggesting an association between social and environmental contexts with the neurobiological response to trauma exposure and psychotherapy.

  8. The neurobiology of addiction: the perspective from magnetic resonance imaging present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Liam J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims Addiction is associated with severe economic and social consequences and personal tragedies, the scientific exploration of which draws upon investigations at the molecular, cellular and systems levels with a wide variety of technologies. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been key to mapping effects observed at the microscopic and mesoscopic scales. The range of measurements from this apparatus has opened new avenues linking neurobiology to behaviour. This review considers the role of MRI in addiction research, and what future technological improvements might offer. Methods A hermeneutic strategy supplemented by an expansive, systematic search of PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases, covering from database inception to October 2015, with a conjunction of search terms relevant to addiction and MRI. Formal meta‐analyses were prioritized. Results Results from methods that probe brain structure and function suggest frontostriatal circuitry disturbances within specific cognitive domains, some of which predict drug relapse and treatment response. New methods of processing imaging data are opening opportunities for understanding the role of cerebral vasculature, a global view of brain communication and the complex topology of the cortical surface and drug action. Future technological advances include increases in MRI field strength, with concomitant improvements in image quality. Conclusions The magnetic resonance imaging literature provides a limited but convergent picture of the neurobiology of addiction as global changes to brain structure and functional disturbances to frontostriatal circuitry, accompanied by changes in anterior white matter. PMID:27452960

  9. Revisiting the Basic Symptom Concept: Towards Translating Risk Symptoms for Psychosis into Neurobiological Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke eSchultze-Lutter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In its initial formulation, the concept of basic symptoms (BSs integrated findings on the early symptomatic course of schizophrenia and first in vivo evidence of accompanying brain aberrations. It argued that the subtle subclinical disturbances in mental processes described as BSs were the most direct self-experienced expression of the underlying neurobiological aberrations of the disease. Other characteristic symptoms of psychosis (e.g., delusions, hallucinations were conceptualized as secondary phenomena, resulting from dysfunctional beliefs and suboptimal coping styles with emerging BSs and/or concomitant stressors. While BSs can occur in many mental disorders, in particular affective disorders, a subset of perceptive and cognitive BSs appear to be specific to psychosis and are currently employed in two alternative risk criteria. However, despite their clinical recognition in the early detection of psychosis, neurobiological research on the aetiopathology of psychosis with neuroimaging methods has only just begun to consider the neural correlate of BSs. This perspective paper reviews the emerging evidence of an association between BSs and aberrant brain activation, connectivity patterns, and metabolism, and outlines promising routes for the use of BSs in aetiopathological research on psychosis.

  10. The neurobiology of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: from neurotransmitters to neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Chris

    2018-01-30

    Impulse control disorders (ICD) are common neuropsychiatric disorders that can arise in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients after commencing dopamine replacement therapy. Approximately 15% of all patients develop these disorders and many more exhibit subclinical symptoms of impulsivity. ICD is thought to develop due to an interaction between the use of dopaminergic medication and an as yet unknown neurobiological vulnerability that either pre-existed before PD onset (possibly genetic) or is associated with neural alterations due to the PD pathology. This review discusses genes, neurotransmitters and neural networks that have been implicated in the pathophysiology of ICD in PD. Although dopamine and the related reward system have been the main focus of research, recently, studies have started to look beyond those systems to find new clues to the neurobiological underpinnings of ICD and come up with possible new targets for treatment. Studies on the whole-brain connectome to investigate the global alterations due to ICD development are currently lacking. In addition, there is a dire need for longitudinal studies that are able to disentangle the contributions of individual (genetic) traits and secondary effects of the PD pathology and chronic dopamine replacement therapy to the development of ICD in PD.

  11. Behavioral characteristics and neurobiological substrates shared by Pavlovian sign-tracking and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Grimes, Kathryn L; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2008-06-01

    Drug abuse researchers have noted striking similarities between behaviors elicited by Pavlovian sign-tracking procedures and prominent symptoms of drug abuse. In Pavlovian sign-tracking procedures, repeated paired presentations of a small object (conditioned stimulus, CS) with a reward (unconditioned stimulus, US) elicits a conditioned response (CR) that typically consists of approaching the CS, contacting the CS, and expressing consummatory responses at the CS. Sign-tracking CR performance is poorly controlled and exhibits spontaneous recovery and long-term retention, effects that resemble relapse. Sign-tracking resembles psychomotor activation, a syndrome of behavioral responses evoked by addictive drugs, and the effects of sign-tracking on corticosterone levels and activation of dopamine pathways resemble the neurobiological effects of abused drugs. Finally, the neurobiological profile of individuals susceptible to sign-tracking resembles the pathophysiological profile of vulnerability to drug abuse, and vulnerability to sign-tracking predicts vulnerability to impulsive responding and alcohol self-administration. Implications of sign-tracking for models of drug addiction are considered.

  12. Aspects of Piaget's cognitive developmental psychology and neurobiology of psychotic disorders - an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Stefan; Grant, Phillip; von Georgi, Richard; Huber, Martin T

    2008-09-01

    Psychological, neurobiological and neurodevelopmental approaches have frequently been used to provide pathogenic concepts on psychotic disorders. However, aspects of cognitive developmental psychology have hardly been considered in current models. Using a hypothesis-generating approach an integration of these concepts was conducted. According to Piaget (1896-1980), assimilation and accommodation as forms of maintenance and modification of cognitive schemata represent fundamental processes of the brain. In general, based on the perceived input stimuli, cognitive schemata are developed resulting in a conception of the world, the realistic validity and the actuality of which is still being controlled and modified by cognitive adjustment processes. In psychotic disorders, however, a disproportion of environmental demands and the ability to activate required neuronal adaptation processes occurs. We therefore hypothesize a failure of the adjustment of real and requested output patterns. As a consequence autonomous cognitive schemata are generated, which fail to adjust with reality resulting in psychotic symptomatology. Neurobiological, especially neuromodulatory and neuroplastic processes play a central role in these perceptive and cognitive processes. In conclusion, integration of cognitive developmental psychology into the existing pathogenic concepts of psychotic disorders leads to interesting insights into basic disease mechanisms and also guides future research in the cognitive neuroscience of such disorders.

  13. Beyond Informed Consent: Ethical Considerations in the Design and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    people will inevitably be offered services that have only been tested ... capacity to make informed decisions about their long-term best ... autonomy of the adolescent and yet balance this with other .... their own. These children make considerable decisions for themselves. .... essence of their engagement as critical community.

  14. Gender dysphoria in adolescence: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Bergman, Hannah; Työläjärvi, Marja; Frisén, Louise

    2018-01-01

    Increasing numbers of adolescents are seeking treatment at gender identity services in Western countries. An increasingly accepted treatment model that includes puberty suppression with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs starting during the early stages of puberty, cross-sex hormonal treatment starting at ~16 years of age and possibly surgical treatments in legal adulthood, is often indicated for adolescents with childhood gender dysphoria (GD) that intensifies during puberty. However, virtually nothing is known regarding adolescent-onset GD, its progression and factors that influence the completion of the developmental tasks of adolescence among young people with GD and/or transgender identity. Consolidation of identity development is a central developmental goal of adolescence, but we still do not know enough about how gender identity and gender variance actually evolve. Treatment-seeking adolescents with GD present with considerable psychiatric comorbidity. There is little research on how GD and/or transgender identity are associated with completion of developmental tasks of adolescence. PMID:29535563

  15. A Qualitative Examination of Ethical and Legal Considerations Regarding Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, April; Walley, Cynthia; Hays, Danica G.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increased attention to dating violence among adolescents and young adults, limited information is available on ethical and legal considerations specific to this population. Therefore, this qualitative study explores 21 trainees' and practitioners' conceptualization of ethical and legal issues pertaining to adolescent dating violence.…

  16. Adolescent rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshman, David

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents are commonly seen as irrational, a position supported to varying degrees by many developmentalists, who often appeal to recent research on adolescent brains. Careful review of relevant evidence, however, shows that (1) adults are less rational than is generally assumed, (2) adolescents (and adults) are categorically different from children with respect to the attainment of advanced levels of rationality and psychological functioning, and (3) adolescents and adults do not differ categorically from each other with respect to any rational competencies, irrational tendencies, brain structures, or neurological functioning. Development often continues in adolescence and beyond but categorical claims about adolescents as distinct from adults cannot be justified. A review of U.S. Supreme Court decisions concerning intellectual freedom, reproductive freedom, and criminal responsibility shows ongoing ambivalence and confusion about the rationality of adolescents. Developmental theory and research suggest that adolescents should be conceptualized as young adults, not immature brains, with important implications for their roles, rights, and responsibilities.

  17. Treatment of adolescent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeck, Katharine S; Lister, Natalie B; Gow, Megan L; Baur, Louise A

    2018-04-13

    The increased prevalence of adolescent obesity and associated short-term and long-term complications emphasize the need for effective treatment. In this Review, we aim to describe the evidence for, and elements of, behaviour management and adjunctive therapies and highlight the opportunities and challenges presented by obesity management in adolescence. The broad principles of treatment include management of obesity-associated complications; a developmentally appropriate approach; long-term behaviour modification (dietary change, increased physical activity, decreased sedentary behaviours and improved sleep patterns); long-term weight maintenance strategies; and consideration of the use of pharmacotherapy, more intensive dietary therapies and bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery should be considered in those with severe obesity and be undertaken by skilled bariatric surgeons affiliated with teams experienced in the medical and psychosocial management of adolescents. Adolescent obesity management strategies are more reliant on active participation than those for childhood obesity and should recognize the emerging autonomy of the patient. The challenges in adolescent obesity relate primarily to the often competing demands of developing autonomy and not yet having attained neurocognitive maturity.

  18. Investigation on the neurobiological correlates of social anxiety disorder using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sladky, R.

    2012-01-01

    Functional MRI is based on the very intuitive principle that neuronal activity leads to locally increased energy demand, which can be measured due to the different magnetic properties of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Interdisciplinary research and development in MR physics, engineering, bioinformatics and neuroscience have made fMRI an indispensible research tool for all domains of cognitive science. Besides basic research, fMRI has become a gold standard diagnostic method for clinical applications, as well. The main goal of the present doctoral thesis was to contribute to the understanding of the neural mechanisms of social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients. SAD is a disabling psychiatric conditions that impairs social interactions and acts as a major risk factor for depression and addiction. To this end, an fMRI study has been conducted on a population of SAD patients and healthy controls to highlight functional aberrations within the emotion regulation network. Failed adaptation towards social stressors, such as emotional faces, is a characterizing symptom of SAD. And indeed, in this study, which involved an emotion discrimination task, group differences in neural habituation of SAD patients were found in the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), two central nodes of the emotion regulation network. To highlight the causal neurobiological mechanisms, the same data were analyzed using dynamic causal modeling (DCM). In this study, a difference in effective connectivity between the OFC and the amygdala was found. In healthy subjects, the OFC showed to down-regulate amygdalar activation, which corresponds to the conception of cognitive top-down control over affective influences. In SAD patients, however, a positive effective connectivity from OFC to amygdala was found, indicating a positive feedback loop between these regions. This finding, thus, nurtures a neurobiological model that could explain the decreased inhibition of affective stimuli by cognitive

  19. Quantum neurophysics: From non-living matter to quantum neurobiology and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlacı, Sultan; Pregnolato, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    The concepts of quantum brain, quantum mind and quantum consciousness have been increasingly gaining currency in recent years, both in scientific papers and in the popular press. In fact, the concept of the quantum brain is a general framework. Included in it are basically four main sub-headings. These are often incorrectly used interchangeably. The first of these and the one which started the quantum mind/consciousness debate was the place of consciousness in the problem of measurement in quantum mechanics. Debate on the problem of quantum measurement and about the place of the conscious observer has lasted almost a century. One solution to this problem is that the participation of a conscious observer in the experiment will radically change our understanding of the universe and our relationship with the outside world. The second topic is that of quantum biology. This topic has become a popular field of research, especially in the last decade. It concerns whether or not the rules of quantum physics operate in biological structures. It has been shown in the latest research on photosynthesis, the sense of smell and magnetic direction finding in animals that the laws of quantum physics may operate in warm-wet-noisy biological structures. The third sub-heading is quantum neurobiology. This topic has not yet gained wide acceptance and is still in its early stages. Its primary purpose is directed to understand whether the laws of quantum physics are effective in the biology of the nervous system or not. A further step in brain neurobiology, toward the understanding of consciousness formation, is the research of quantum laws effects upon neural network functions. The fourth and final topic is quantum psychopathology. This topic takes its basis and its support from quantum neurobiology. It comes from the idea that if quantum physics is involved in the normal working of the brain, diseased conditions of the brain such as depression, anxiety, dementia, schizophrenia and

  20. State Estimates of Adolescent Cigarette Use and Perceptions of Risk of Smoking: 2012 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in this report suggest that efforts to reduce smoking and change attitudes about smoking among adolescents have resulted in considerable ... at the center of efforts to reduce adolescent smoking, examining adolescents’ attitudes about the risks associated with smoking provides needed ...

  1. Gender differences in leisure-time versus non-leisure-time physical activity among Saudi adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Al-Sobayel

    2015-05-01

    The study showed that female adolescents are much less active than males, especially in leisure-time physical activities. Programmes to promote physical activity among adolescents are urgently needed, with consideration of gender differences.

  2. Entrepreneurship: Some Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Martinho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work it is presented some considerations about entrepreneurship. Most of these questions are linked with Portuguese context. Portugal has some particularities, namely because the asymmetries between the littoral and the interior. This situation carried out some problems that complicate and prevent the appearance of new innovated business. In a situation of crisis like that we have today this context can become a really problem to solve some questions.

  3. Fusion facility siting considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussell, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    Inherent in the fusion program's transition from hydrogen devices to commercial power machines is a general increase in the size and scope of succeeding projects. This growth will lead to increased emphasis on safety, environmental impact, and the external effects of fusion in general, and of each new device in particular. A critically important consideration in this regard is site selection. The purpose of this paper is to examine major siting issues that may affect the economics, safety, and environmental impact of fusion

  4. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  5. Review. The neurobiology of pathological gambling and drug addiction: an overview and new findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Marc N

    2008-10-12

    Gambling is a prevalent recreational behaviour. Approximately 5% of adults have been estimated to experience problems with gambling. The most severe form of gambling, pathological gambling (PG), is recognized as a mental health condition. Two alternate non-mutually exclusive conceptualizations of PG have considered it as an obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder and a 'behavioural' addiction. The most appropriate conceptualization of PG has important theoretical and practical implications. Data suggest a closer relationship between PG and substance use disorders than exists between PG and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This paper will review data on the neurobiology of PG, consider its conceptualization as a behavioural addiction, discuss impulsivity as an underlying construct, and present new brain imaging findings investigating the neural correlates of craving states in PG as compared to those in cocaine dependence. Implications for prevention and treatment strategies will be discussed.

  6. NEUROBIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL MECHANISMS UNDERLYING ADDICTION-LIKE BEHAVIORS: AN OVERVIEW AND THEMATIC SYNTHESIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Scala

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The term dependency is increasingly being used also to explain symptoms resulting from the repetition of a behavior or legalized and socially accepted activities that do not involve substance assumption. These activities, although considered normal habits of daily life can become real addictions that may affect and disrupt socio-relational and working functioning. Growing evidence suggests to consider behavioral addictions similar to drug dependence for their common symptoms, the high frequency of poly-dependence conditions, and the correlation in risk (impulsivity, sensation seeking, early exposure, familiarity and protective (parental control, adequate metacognitive skills factors. The aim of this paper is to describe addiction in its general aspects, highlighting the underlying neurobiological and psychopathological mechanisms.

  7. Pulvinar neurons reveal neurobiological evidence of past selection for rapid detection of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Le, Quan; Isbell, Lynne A; Matsumoto, Jumpei; Nguyen, Minh; Hori, Etsuro; Maior, Rafael S; Tomaz, Carlos; Tran, Anh Hai; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2013-11-19

    Snakes and their relationships with humans and other primates have attracted broad attention from multiple fields of study, but not, surprisingly, from neuroscience, despite the involvement of the visual system and strong behavioral and physiological evidence that humans and other primates can detect snakes faster than innocuous objects. Here, we report the existence of neurons in the primate medial and dorsolateral pulvinar that respond selectively to visual images of snakes. Compared with three other categories of stimuli (monkey faces, monkey hands, and geometrical shapes), snakes elicited the strongest, fastest responses, and the responses were not reduced by low spatial filtering. These findings integrate neuroscience with evolutionary biology, anthropology, psychology, herpetology, and primatology by identifying a neurobiological basis for primates' heightened visual sensitivity to snakes, and adding a crucial component to the growing evolutionary perspective that snakes have long shaped our primate lineage.

  8. Gain weight by "going diet?" Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings: Neuroscience 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing

    2010-06-01

    America's obesity epidemic has gathered much media attention recently. A rise in the percent of the population who are obese coincides with an increase in the widespread use of non-caloric artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame (e.g., Diet Coke) and sucralose (e.g., Pepsi One), in food products (Figure 1). Both forward and reverse causalities have been proposed. While people often choose "diet" or "light" products to lose weight, research studies suggest that artificial sweeteners may contribute to weight gain. In this mini-review, inspired by a discussion with Dr. Dana Small at Yale's Neuroscience 2010 conference in April, I first examine the development of artificial sweeteners in a historic context. I then summarize the epidemiological and experimental evidence concerning their effects on weight. Finally, I attempt to explain those effects in light of the neurobiology of food reward.

  9. "More than skin deep": stress neurobiology and mental health consequences of racial discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Maximus; Sarnyai, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups across the world face a complex set of adverse social and psychological challenges linked to their minority status, often involving racial discrimination. Racial discrimination is increasingly recognized as an important contributing factor to health disparities among non-dominant ethnic minorities. A growing body of literature has recognized these health disparities and has investigated the relationship between racial discrimination and poor health outcomes. Chronically elevated cortisol levels and a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis appear to mediate effects of racial discrimination on allostatic load and disease. Racial discrimination seems to converge on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and may impair the function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hence showing substantial similarities to chronic social stress. This review provides a summary of recent literature on hormonal and neural effects of racial discrimination and a synthesis of potential neurobiological pathways by which discrimination affects mental health.

  10. Epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacological interventions related to suicide deaths and suicide attempts in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Isometsä, Erkki T; Tondo, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    associations with suicide attempts and deaths in bipolar disorder, but few replication studies. Data on treatment with lithium or anticonvulsants are strongly suggestive for prevention of suicide attempts and deaths, but additional data are required before relative anti-suicide effects can be confirmed......, and the most common methods, are important building blocks to greater awareness and improved interventions for suicide prevention in bipolar disorder. Replication of genetic findings and stronger prospective data on treatment options are required before more decisive conclusions can be made regarding......OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder is associated with elevated risk of suicide attempts and deaths. Key aims of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide included examining the extant literature on epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacotherapy related to suicide attempts...

  11. [The "diagnosis" in the light of Charles S. Peirce, Sherlock Holmes, Sigmund Freud and modern neurobiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, R H

    2006-05-10

    A diagnostic hypothesis is a causa ficta. It is an assumption, suitable to explain phenomena, which are not yet proven to be the only and valid explanation of the observed. One of Wilhelm Hauff's faitales illustrates how a hypothesis is generated. It is based on the interpretation of signs. Signs are of an ikonic, an indexical or a symbolic nature. According to S. Peirce, a hypothesis is created by abduction, to Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes by immersion into thoughts, and to S. Freud by free floating attention. The three procedures are alike. Neurobiological structures and functions, which correspond to these processes, are described; especially the emotional-implicite memory. The technique of hypothesis-generation is meaningful to clinical medicine.

  12. Post-traumatic stress disorder: the neurobiological impact of psychological trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherin, Jonathan E.; Nemeroff, Charles B.

    2011-01-01

    The classic fight-or-flight response to perceived threat is a reflexive nervous phenomenon thai has obvious survival advantages in evolutionary terms. However, the systems that organize the constellation of reflexive survival behaviors following exposure to perceived threat can under some circumstances become dysregulated in the process. Chronic dysregulation of these systems can lead to functional impairment in certain individuals who become “psychologically traumatized” and suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), A body of data accumulated over several decades has demonstrated neurobiological abnormalities in PTSD patients. Some of these findings offer insight into the pathophysiology of PTSD as well as the biological vulnerability of certain populations to develop PTSD, Several pathological features found in PTSD patients overlap with features found in patients with traumatic brain injury paralleling the shared signs and symptoms of these clinical syndromes. PMID:22034143

  13. Highly impulsive rats: modelling an endophenotype to determine the neurobiological, genetic and environmental mechanisms of addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Jupp

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Impulsivity describes the tendency of an individual to act prematurely without foresight and is associated with a number of neuropsychiatric co-morbidities, including drug addiction. As such, there is increasing interest in the neurobiological mechanisms of impulsivity, as well as the genetic and environmental influences that govern the expression of this behaviour. Tests used on rodent models of impulsivity share strong parallels with tasks used to assess this trait in humans, and studies in both suggest a crucial role of monoaminergic corticostriatal systems in the expression of this behavioural trait. Furthermore, rodent models have enabled investigation of the causal relationship between drug abuse and impulsivity. Here, we review the use of rodent models of impulsivity for investigating the mechanisms involved in this trait, and how these mechanisms could contribute to the pathogenesis of addiction.

  14. Imaging and Modeling Laboratory in Neurobiology and Oncology - IMNC. Activity report 2008-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charon, Yves; Arlaud, Nathalie; Mastrippolito, Roland

    2014-09-01

    The Imaging and Modeling Laboratory in Neurobiology and Oncology (IMNC) is an interdisciplinary unit shared between the Paris-Sud and Paris-Diderot universities and the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3). Created in January 2006, the laboratory activities are structured around three main topics: the clinical and pre-clinical multi-modal imaging (optical and isotopic), the modeling of tumoral processes, and radiotherapy. This report presents the activities of the laboratory during the years 2008-2012: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Highlights; 3 - Research teams: Small animal imaging; Metabolism, imaging and olfaction; Surgery imaging in oncology; Quantification in molecular imaging; Modeling of biological systems; 4 - Technical innovations: Instrumentation, Scientific calculation, Biology department, valorisation and open-source softwares; 5 - Publications; 6 - Scientific life, communication and teaching activities; 7 - Laboratory operation; 8 - Perspectives

  15. Neurobiological mechanisms behind the spatiotemporal illusions of awareness that are used for advocating prediction or postdiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talis eBachmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fact that it takes time for the brain to process information from the changing environment underlies many experimental phenomena of awareness of spatiotemporal events, including a number of astonishing illusions. These phenomena have been explained from the predictive and postdictive theoretical perspectives. Here I describe the most extensively studied phenomena in order to see how well the two perspectives can explain them. Next, the neurobiological perceptual retouch mechanism of producing stimulation awareness is characterized and its work in causing the listed illusions is described. A perspective on how brain mechanisms of conscious perception produce the phenomena supportive of the postdictive view is presented in this article. At the same time, some of the phenomena cannot be explained by the traditional postdictive account, but can be interpreted from the perceptual retouch theory perspective.

  16. Neurobiology of rodent self-grooming and its value for translational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalueff, Allan V; Stewart, Adam Michael; Song, Cai; Berridge, Kent C; Graybiel, Ann M; Fentress, John C

    2016-01-01

    Self-grooming is a complex innate behaviour with an evolutionarily conserved sequencing pattern and is one of the most frequently performed behavioural activities in rodents. In this Review, we discuss the neurobiology of rodent self-grooming, and we highlight studies of rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders--including models of autism spectrum disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder--that have assessed self-grooming phenotypes. We suggest that rodent self-grooming may be a useful measure of repetitive behaviour in such models, and therefore of value to translational psychiatry. Assessment of rodent self-grooming may also be useful for understanding the neural circuits that are involved in complex sequential patterns of action.

  17. Behavioral effects of chronic adolescent stress are sustained and sexually dimorphic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Chase H.; Neigh, Gretchen N.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that women are more susceptible to stress-related disorders than men. Animal studies demonstrate a similar female sensitivity to stress and have been used to examine the underlying neurobiology of sex-specific effects of stress. Although our understanding of the sex-specific effects of chronic adolescent stress has grown in recent years, few studies have reported the effects of adolescent stress on depressive-like behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine if a chronic mixed modality stressor (consisting of isolation, restraint, and social defeat) during adolescence (PND37-49) resulted in differential and sustained changes in depressive-like behavior in male and female Wistar rats. Female rats exposed to chronic adolescent stress displayed decreased sucrose consumption, hyperactivity in the elevated plus maze, decreased activity in the forced swim test, and a blunted corticosterone response to an acute forced swim stress compared to controls during both adolescence (PND48-57) and adulthood (PND96-104). Male rats exposed to chronic adolescent stress did not manifest significant behavioral changes at either the end of adolescence or in adulthood. These data support the proposition that adolescence may be a stress sensitive period for females and exposure to stress during adolescence results in behavioral effects that persist in females. Studies investigating the sex-specific effects of chronic adolescent stress may lead to a better understanding of the sexually dimorphic incidence of depressive and anxiety disorders in humans and ultimately improve prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:21466807

  18. Personality, Executive Control, and Neurobiological Characteristics Associated with Different Forms of Risky Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Brown

    Full Text Available Road crashes represent a huge burden on global health. Some drivers are prone to repeated episodes of risky driving (RD and are over-represented in crashes and related morbidity. However, their characteristics are heterogeneous, hampering development of targeted intervention strategies. This study hypothesized that distinct personality, cognitive, and neurobiological processes are associated with the type of RD behaviours these drivers predominantly engage in.Four age-matched groups of adult (19-39 years males were recruited: 1 driving while impaired recidivists (DWI, n = 36; 2 non-alcohol reckless drivers (SPEED, n = 28; 3 drivers with a mixed RD profile (MIXED, n = 27; and 4 low-risk control drivers (CTL, n = 47. Their sociodemographic, criminal history, driving behaviour (by questionnaire and simulation performance, personality (Big Five traits, impulsivity, reward sensitivity, cognitive (disinhibition, decision making, behavioural risk taking, and neurobiological (cortisol stress response characteristics were gathered and contrasted.Compared to controls, group SPEED showed greater sensation seeking, disinhibition, disadvantageous decision making, and risk taking. Group MIXED exhibited more substance misuse, and antisocial, sensation seeking and reward sensitive personality features. Group DWI showed greater disinhibition and more severe alcohol misuse, and compared to the other RD groups, the lowest level of risk taking when sober. All RD groups exhibited less cortisol increase in response to stress compared to controls.Each RD group exhibited a distinct personality and cognitive profile, which was consistent with stimulation seeking in group SPEED, fearlessness in group MIXED, and poor behavioural regulation associated with alcohol in group DWI. As these group differences were uniformly accompanied by blunted cortisol stress responses, they may reflect the disparate behavioural consequences of dysregulation of the stress system. In sum, RD

  19. The amygdala as a neurobiological target for ghrelin in rats: neuroanatomical, electrophysiological and behavioral evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayte Alvarez-Crespo

    Full Text Available Here, we sought to demonstrate that the orexigenic circulating hormone, ghrelin, is able to exert neurobiological effects (including those linked to feeding control at the level of the amygdala, involving neuroanatomical, electrophysiological and behavioural studies. We found that ghrelin receptors (GHS-R are densely expressed in several subnuclei of the amygdala, notably in ventrolateral (LaVL and ventromedial (LaVM parts of the lateral amygdaloid nucleus. Using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology to record from cells in the lateral amygdaloid nucleus, we found that ghrelin reduced the frequency of mEPSCs recorded from large pyramidal-like neurons, an effect that could be blocked by co-application of a ghrelin receptor antagonist. In ad libitum fed rats, intra-amygdala administration of ghrelin produced a large orexigenic response that lasted throughout the 4 hr of testing. Conversely, in hungry, fasted rats ghrelin receptor blockade in the amygdala significantly reduced food intake. Finally, we investigated a possible interaction between ghrelin's effects on feeding control and emotional reactivity exerted at the level of the amygdala. In rats allowed to feed during a 1-hour period between ghrelin injection and anxiety testing (elevated plus maze and open field, intra-amygdala ghrelin had no effect on anxiety-like behavior. By contrast, if the rats were not given access to food during this 1-hour period, a decrease in anxiety-like behavior was observed in both tests. Collectively, these data indicate that the amygdala is a valid target brain area for ghrelin where its neurobiological effects are important for food intake and for the suppression of emotional (anxiety-like behaviors if food is not available.

  20. The Neurobiology of Imagination: Possible Role of Interaction-Dominant Dynamics and Default Mode Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Francesco Agnati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at presenting some hypotheses about the potential neurobiological substrate of imagery and imagination. For the present purposes, we will define imagery as the production of mental images associated with previous percepts, and imagination as the faculty of forming mental images of a novel character relating to something that has never been actually experienced by the subject but at a great extent emerges from his inner world.The two processes appear intimately related and imagery can arguably be considered as one of the main components of imagination. In this proposal, we argue that exaptation and redeployment, two basic concepts capturing important aspects of the evolution of biological structures and functions (Anderson 2007, could also be useful in explaining imagery and imagination. As far as imagery is concerned it is proposed that neural structures originally implicated in performing certain functions, e.g. motor actions, can be reused for the imagery of the virtual execution of that function. As far as imagination is concerned we speculate that it can be the result of a tinkering that combines and modifies stored perceptual information and concepts leading to the creation of novel mental objects that are shaped by the subject peculiar inner world. Hence it is related to his self-awareness. The neurobiological substrate of the tinkering process could be found in a hierarchical model of the brain characterized by a multiplicity of functional modules (FMs that can be assembled according to different spatial and temporal scales. Thus, it is surmised that a possible mechanism for the emergence of imagination could be represented by modulatory mechanisms controlling the perviousness of modifiers along the communication channels within and between FMs leading to their dynamically reassembling into novel configurations.

  1. The role of BDNF and HPA axis in the neurobiology of burnout syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onen Sertoz, Ozen; Tolga Binbay, Ibrahim; Koylu, Ersin; Noyan, Aysin; Yildirim, Emre; Elbi Mete, Hayriye

    2008-08-01

    Chronic stress is known to affect the HPA axis. The few clinical studies which have been conducted on HPA-axis function in burnout have produced inconsistent results. The etiological relationship between sBDNF and burnout has not yet been studied. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of BDNF and HPA axis in the neurobiology of burnout. In the current study 37 clinically diagnosed burnout participants were compared with 35 healthy controls in terms of BDNF, HPA axis, burnout symptoms, depression, anxiety and psychosomatic complaints. Basal serum cortisol, sBDNF and cortisol level after 1 mg DST was sampled. We found no significant differences in terms of HPA-axis function (for basal serum cortisol, p=0.592; for cortisol level after 1 mg DST, p=0.921), but we did find lowered sBDNF levels in burnout group (88.66+/-18.15 pg/ml) as compared to healthy controls (102.18+/-20.92 pg/ml) and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.005). Logistic Regression Analysis revealed that emotional exhaustion (p=0.05), depersonalization (p=0.005) and depression (p=0.025) were significantly associated with burnout. sBDNF levels correlated negatively with emotional exhaustion (r=-,268, p=0.026), depersonalization (r=-,333, p=0.005) and correlated positively with competence (r=0.293, p=0.015) sub-scales of burnout inventory. However, there were no significant relationships between cortisol levels and sBDNF levels (r=0.80, p=0.51), depression, anxiety, psychosomatic complaints and burnout inventory. Our results suggest that low BDNF might contribute to the neurobiology of burnout syndrome and it seems to be associated with burnout symptoms including altered mood and cognitive functions.

  2. Structural neurobiological correlates of Mayer-Salovery-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test performance in early course schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtalik, Jessica A; Eack, Shaun M; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2013-01-10

    The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is a key measure of social cognition in schizophrenia that has good psychometric properties and is recommended by the MATRICS committee. As a way to further investigate the validity of the MSCEIT, this study sought to examine the neurobiological correlates of MSCEIT performance in patients with early course schizophrenia. A total of 51 patients diagnosed with early course, stabilized schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder completed structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and the MSCEIT. Investigation of the associations between MSCEIT performance and gray matter morphology was examined by conducting voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses across hypothesized social-cognitive regions of interest using automated anatomical labeling in Statistical Parametric Mapping Software, version 5 (SPM5). All VBM analyses utilized general linear models examining gray matter density partitioned images, adjusting for demographic and illness-related confounds. VBM results were then followed up with confirmatory volumetric analyses. Patients with poorer overall and Facilitating, Understanding, and Managing Emotions subscale performances on the MSCEIT showed significantly reduced gray matter density in the left parahippocampal gyrus. Additionally, attenuated performance on the Facilitating and Managing Emotions subscales was significantly associated with reduced right posterior cingulate gray matter density. All associations observed between MSCEIT performance and gray matter density were supported with confirmatory gray matter volumetric analyses, with the exception of the association between the right posterior cingulate and the facilitation of emotions. These findings provide additional evidence for the MSCEIT as a valid social-cognitive measure by elucidating its correlates with neurobiological structures commonly implicated in emotion processing. These findings provide additional biological evidence

  3. ALL OUR SONS: THE DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY AND NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY OF BOYS AT RISK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schore, Allan N

    2017-01-01

    Why are boys at risk? To address this question, I use the perspective of regulation theory to offer a model of the deeper psychoneurobiological mechanisms that underlie the vulnerability of the developing male. The central thesis of this work dictates that significant gender differences are seen between male and female social and emotional functions in the earliest stages of development, and that these result from not only differences in sex hormones and social experiences but also in rates of male and female brain maturation, specifically in the early developing right brain. I present interdisciplinary research which indicates that the stress-regulating circuits of the male brain mature more slowly than those of the female in the prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal critical periods, and that this differential structural maturation is reflected in normal gender differences in right-brain attachment functions. Due to this maturational delay, developing males also are more vulnerable over a longer period of time to stressors in the social environment (attachment trauma) and toxins in the physical environment (endocrine disruptors) that negatively impact right-brain development. In terms of differences in gender-related psychopathology, I describe the early developmental neuroendocrinological and neurobiological mechanisms that are involved in the increased vulnerability of males to autism, early onset schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorders as well as the epigenetic mechanisms that can account for the recent widespread increase of these disorders in U.S. culture. I also offer a clinical formulation of early assessments of boys at risk, discuss the impact of early childcare on male psychopathogenesis, and end with a neurobiological model of optimal adult male socioemotional functions. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. The Neurobiology of Speech Perception and Production-Can Functional Imaging Tell Us Anything We Did Not Already Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sophie K.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the neurobiological basis for human speech production and perception has benefited from insights from psychology, neuropsychology and neurology. In this overview, I outline some of the ways that functional imaging has added to this knowledge and argue that, as a neuroanatomical tool, functional imaging has led to some…

  5. Investigating biological traces of traumatic stress in changing societies: challenges and directions from the ESTSS Task Force on Neurobiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomaes, Kathleen; de Kloet, Carien; Wilker, Sarah; El-Hage, Wissam; Schäfer, Ingo; Kleim, Birgit; Schmahl, Christian; van Zuiden, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic stress can have severe consequences for both mental and physical health. Furthermore, both psychological and biological traces of trauma increase as a function of accumulating traumatic experiences. Neurobiological research may aid in limiting the impact of traumatic stress, by leading to

  6. A Neural Systems-Based Neurobiology and Neuropsychiatry Course: Integrating Biology, Psychodynamics, and Psychology in the Psychiatric Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Timothy; Hughes, John D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Psychotherapy and biological psychiatry remain divided in psychiatry residency curricula. Behavioral neurobiology and neuropsychiatry provide a systems-level framework that allows teachers to integrate biology, psychodynamics, and psychology. Method: The authors detail the underlying assumptions and outline of a neural systems-based…

  7. Neurobiological correlates of externalizing and prosocial behavior in school-age children : A study on truths and lies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Thijssen (Sandra)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis describes a series of studies on the neurobiological correlates of externalizing and prosocial behavior in six-to ten-year old children. Chapter 1 provides an outline and describes the background and aims of our work. The studies described in this thesis are embedded in

  8. The Significance of Human-Animal Relationships as Modulators of Trauma Effects in Children: A Developmental Neurobiological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorke, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Emotional stress and trauma impacts the neurobiology of children. They are especially vulnerable given the developmental plasticity of the brain. The neural synaptic circular processes between the anterior cingulated cortex, prefrontal cortex, amygdala and the hypothalamus are altered. Trauma results in the release of the peptide glucocortisoid,…

  9. Social phobia : diagnosis and epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacology, comorbidity and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunello, N; den Boer, JA; Judd, LL; Kasper, S; Kelsey, JE; Lader, M; Lecrubier, Y; Lepine, JP; Lydiard, RB; Mendlewicz, J; Montgomery, SA; Racagni, G; Stein, MB; Wittchen, HU

    2000-01-01

    Social phobia is a common disorder associated with significant psychosocial impairment, representing a substantial public health problem largely determined by the high prevalence, and the lifelong chronicity. Social phobia starts in early childhood or adolescence and is often comorbid with

  10. A pilot study of depressed adolescents' cortisol patterns during parent-adolescent conflict and response to interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunlicks-Stoessel, Meredith; Mufson, Laura; Cullen, Kathryn R; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2013-09-25

    This study examined functioning of the Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) axis, a neurobiological stress system centrally implicated in depression, as a predictor of treatment response to Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescents (IPT-A; Mufson et al., 2004. Interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents. (second ed.). New York, Guilford Press). The sample consisted of fifteen depressed adolescents (age 12-17; mean age=15.2; 86.7% female) experiencing high levels of conflict with their parents who were recruited to participate in a pilot study of individual IPT-A and IPT-A delivered with greater and more structured involvement of parents. Adolescents came primarily from low-income Latino (93.3%) families. Prior to treatment, adolescents participated in a 15 min conflict negotiation task with their parents in which salivary cortisol was collected prior to and 10, 20, and 30 min post-conflict. Adolescents' depression symptoms were assessed pre-treatment and post-treatment (week 16) using the Children's Depression Rating Scale (CDRS-R). Higher levels of cortisol 30 min after the conflict task were associated with greater improvement in depression symptoms with IPT-A, controlling for baseline levels of depression. The study has a small sample size. This is the first study to examine HPA functioning as a predictor of depressed adolescents' response to a psychotherapeutic intervention. If replicated with larger samples, these results have important implications for advancing the use of neurobiological markers to personalize psychotherapeutic interventions for depressed adolescents. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Part 8. Deployment considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, K.D.; Chang, Y.I.; Daly, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    This report addresses considerations of fast breeder reactor development and deployment from a national perspective. Nations vary greatly in their expertise and interest relative to nuclear power, and hence a single set of steps to be taken by a nation in decision-making on breeder development and deployment cannot be presented. The approach taken in this report is to present discussions on key factors influencing the breeder development and deployment decisions, especially in non-breeder nations, by drawing upon historical perspectives of the Light Water Reactor for comparison

  12. Geophysical considerations of geothermics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, M

    1967-01-01

    The development and utilization of geothermal energy is described from the standpoint of geophysics. The internal temperature of the Earth and the history and composition of magmas are described. Methods of exploration such as gravity, magnetic, thermal and electrical surveys are discussed, as are geochemical and infrared photogrammetric techniques. Examples are provided of how these techniques have been used in Italy and at the Matsukawa geothermal field in Japan. Drilling considerations such as muds, casings and cementing materials are discussed. Solutions are proposed for problems of environmental pollution and plant expansion.

  13. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water-reflected (i.e. surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established

  14. Tipping points in adolescent adjustment: predicting social functioning from adolescents' conflict with parents and friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Katherine B; Dykas, Matthew J; Cassidy, Jude

    2012-10-01

    Despite widespread interest in examining the role of conflict for adolescent development, researchers only rarely have examined adolescents' experiences of conflict across relationships. The present study examined how adolescents' experiences of conflict with parents and friends were linked to their social functioning. Adolescents (n = 189) and their mothers and fathers participated in semistructured discussions about areas of parent-adolescent conflict in the laboratory. In addition, adolescents reported about conflict in their best friendships, and peers reported about adolescents' social acceptance and behavior in social settings. Parent-adolescent conflict was associated with peer-reported aggression and delinquency, and friendship conflict was associated with delinquency and prosocial behavior. In addition, significant Parent-Adolescent Conflict × Friend-Adolescent Conflict interactions revealed that parent-adolescent conflict was associated with poor social functioning only when conflict with best friends was also high. The findings suggest that consideration of conflict across relationships may yield insight into the specific contexts in which conflict is associated with negative outcomes for adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Adolescent Social Isolation as a Model of Heightened Vulnerability to Comorbid Alcoholism and Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Tracy R; Karkhanis, Anushree N; Jones, Sara R; Weiner, Jeffrey L

    2016-06-01

    Individuals diagnosed with anxiety-related illnesses are at increased risk of developing alcoholism, exhibit a telescoped progression of this disease and fare worse in recovery, relative to alcoholics that do not suffer from a comorbid anxiety disorder. Similarly, preclinical evidence supports the notion that stress and anxiety represent major risk factors for the development of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Despite the importance of understanding the link between anxiety and alcoholism, much remains unknown about the neurobiological substrates underlying this relationship. One stumbling block has been the lack of animal models that reliably reproduce the spectrum of behaviors associated with increased vulnerability to these diseases. Here, we review the literature that has examined the behavioral and neurobiological outcomes of a simple rodent adolescent social isolation procedure and discuss its validity as a model of vulnerability to comorbid anxiety disorders and alcoholism. Recent studies have provided strong evidence that adolescent social isolation of male rats leads to the expression of a variety of behaviors linked with increased vulnerability to anxiety and/or AUD, including deficits in sensory gating and fear extinction, and increases in anxiety measures and ethanol drinking. Neurobiological studies are beginning to identify mesolimbic adaptations that may contribute to the behavioral phenotype engendered by this model. Some of these changes include increased excitability of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons and pyramidal cells in the basolateral amygdala and significant alterations in baseline and stimulated catecholamine signaling. A growing body of evidence suggests that adolescent social isolation may represent a reliable rodent model of heightened vulnerability to anxiety disorders and alcoholism in male rats. These studies provide initial support for the face, construct, and predictive validity of this model and highlight its utility in

  16. The impact of junk foods on the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Amy C; Rank, Michelle M

    2017-12-01

    Adolescence is a significant period of physical, social, and emotional development, and is characterized by prominent neurobiological changes in the brain. The maturational processes that occur in brain regions responsible for cognitive control and reward seeking may underpin excessive consumption of palatable high fat and high sugar "junk" foods during adolescence. Recent studies have highlighted the negative impact of these foods on brain function, resulting in cognitive impairments and altered reward processing. The increased neuroplasticity during adolescence may render the brain vulnerable to the negative effects of these foods on cognition and behavior. In this review, we describe the mechanisms by which junk food diets influence neurodevelopment during adolescence. Diet can lead to alterations in dopamine-mediated reward signaling, and inhibitory neurotransmission controlled by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), two major neurotransmitter systems that are under construction across adolescence. We propose that poor dietary choices may derail the normal adolescent maturation process and influence neurodevelopmental trajectories, which can predispose individuals to dysregulated eating and impulsive behaviors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Developmental imaging genetics: linking dopamine function to adolescent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Luna, Beatriz

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence is a period of development characterized by numerous neurobiological changes that significantly influence behavior and brain function. Adolescence is of particular interest due to the alarming statistics indicating that mortality rates increase two to three-fold during this time compared to childhood, due largely to a peak in risk-taking behaviors resulting from increased impulsivity and sensation seeking. Furthermore, there exists large unexplained variability in these behaviors that are in part mediated by biological factors. Recent advances in molecular genetics and functional neuroimaging have provided a unique and exciting opportunity to non-invasively study the influence of genetic factors on brain function in humans. While genes do not code for specific behaviors, they do determine the structure and function of proteins that are essential to the neuronal processes that underlie behavior. Therefore, studying the interaction of genotype with measures of brain function over development could shed light on critical time points when biologically mediated individual differences in complex behaviors emerge. Here we review animal and human literature examining the neurobiological basis of adolescent development related to dopamine neurotransmission. Dopamine is of critical importance because of (1) its role in cognitive and affective behaviors, (2) its role in the pathogenesis of major psychopathology, and (3) the protracted development of dopamine signaling pathways over adolescence. We will then focus on current research examining the role of dopamine-related genes on brain function. We propose the use of imaging genetics to examine the influence of genetically mediated dopamine variability on brain function during adolescence, keeping in mind the limitations of this approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impacts of stress and sex hormones on dopamine neurotransmission in the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Duncan; Purves-Tyson, Tertia D; Allen, Katherine M; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2014-04-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period of complex neurobiological change and heightened vulnerability to psychiatric illness. As a result, understanding factors such as sex and stress hormones which drive brain changes in adolescence, and how these factors may influence key neurotransmitter systems implicated in psychiatric illness, is paramount. In this review, we outline the impact of sex and stress hormones at adolescence on dopamine neurotransmission, a signaling pathway which is critical to healthy brain function and has been implicated in psychiatric illness. We review normative developmental changes in dopamine, sex hormone, and stress hormone signaling during adolescence and throughout postnatal life, then highlight the interaction of sex and stress hormones and review their impacts on dopamine neurotransmission in the adolescent brain. Adolescence is a time of increased responsiveness to sex and stress hormones, during which the maturing dopaminergic neural circuitry is profoundly influenced by these factors. Testosterone, estrogen, and glucocorticoids interact with each other and have distinct, brain region-specific impacts on dopamine neurotransmission in the adolescent brain, shaping brain maturation and cognitive function in adolescence and adulthood. Some effects of stress/sex hormones on cortical and subcortical dopamine parameters bear similarities with dopaminergic abnormalities seen in schizophrenia, suggesting a possible role for sex/stress hormones at adolescence in influencing risk for psychiatric illness via modulation of dopamine neurotransmission. Stress and sex hormones may prove useful targets in future strategies for modifying risk for psychiatric illness.

  19. Adolescent murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, A; Bradford, J M; Bourget, D; Jones, B; Carmichael, M

    1991-10-01

    Clinical, developmental and environmental factors were retrospectively studied in 14 adolescent murderers who had been referred to a forensic psychiatric clinic over an 11 year period. Results of these analyses were compared with findings from previous reports. The majority of subjects came from split families. There was a greater than expected degree of psychiatric illness in the adolescents. Previous psychiatric contact, antisocial behaviour and substance abuse were common among these adolescents. A tentative profile of adolescents who are likely to commit murder can therefore be drawn up, which may suggest direction for preventive action and rehabilitation.

  20. [The normative concept of guilt in criminal law between freedom of will and neurobiological determinism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerner, Frank

    2006-01-01

    To make criminal conduct liable to punishment, criminal responsibility, defined as individual blameworthiness in terms of social ethics, is required as point of reference--both to create and limit the state's right to punish the offender. Neurobiological findings and more recent investigations in brain research have given rise to serious doubts regarding this "conditio sine qua non" of the state's power monopoly. As a result of preceding unconscious decisions, so the argument goes, Man is not free in his will, and the normative principle of culpability would need to be relinquished in favour of a "law of measures" detached from guilt. A detailed analysis of the underlying experimental setups, in particular the investigations by Benjamin Libet involving the measurement of the readiness potential, has shown, however, that the results of the test methods do not justify the demand for a profound change up to the point of a total revision of criminal law, and that they cannot invalidate the concept of freedom of will apostrophised on principle. The empirical data obtained fail to demonstrate if and why decisions of the will should not be free, the more so as the nomothetic method used ignores completely the idiographic understanding and interpretation of the always context-related and socio-structurally (pre)-moulded personality of the offender. Performed in a laboratory setting as individual actions with a comparatively simple structure and unrelated to a concrete situation, they can by no means be translated to the (more) complex situation under which an offence is committed including the decision-making processes determined by psychodynamic, motivational and intentional aspects as well as highly specific reciprocal interactions within the offender-victim constellation. Even if these experiments had shown the determined nature of human decisions, they would not necessarily have to bring about a conceptual change of paradigms of the normative concept of guilt, because

  1. Epigenetic considerations in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenzie R. Gavery

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetics has attracted considerable attention with respect to its potential value in many areas of agricultural production, particularly under conditions where the environment can be manipulated or natural variation exists. Here we introduce key concepts and definitions of epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNA, review the current understanding of epigenetics in both fish and shellfish, and propose key areas of aquaculture where epigenetics could be applied. The first key area is environmental manipulation, where the intention is to induce an ‘epigenetic memory’ either within or between generations to produce a desired phenotype. The second key area is epigenetic selection, which, alone or combined with genetic selection, may increase the reliability of producing animals with desired phenotypes. Based on aspects of life history and husbandry practices in aquaculture species, the application of epigenetic knowledge could significantly affect the productivity and sustainability of aquaculture practices. Conversely, clarifying the role of epigenetic mechanisms in aquaculture species may upend traditional assumptions about selection practices. Ultimately, there are still many unanswered questions regarding how epigenetic mechanisms might be leveraged in aquaculture.

  2. Consequences of Parenting on Adolescent Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Hancock Hoskins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, substantial gains have been made in our understanding of the influence of parenting behaviors and styles on adolescent emotional and behavioral outcomes. Empirical work focusing on the associations between parenting and adolescent outcomes is important because the influence of parenting during adolescence continues to affect behaviors into adulthood. Additionally, there has been considerable attention paid to the mechanisms that shape parenting that then influence adolescent outcomes. For instance, researchers have found that neighborhood conditions moderated the association between parenting and adolescent development. In this paper, several covariates and contextual effects associated with parenting and adolescent outcomes will be discussed. Also, parental behaviors, parental styles and adolescent outcomes are discussed in this literature review. This review provides an assessment of the literature on parenting and adolescent outcomes from the past decade and includes advancements in parenting research. The review concludes with a summary of major research findings, as well as a consideration of future directions and implications for practice and policy.

  3. Medical Considerations in Children and Adolescents with Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DerMarderosian, Diane; Chapman, Heather A; Tortolani, Christina; Willis, Matthew D

    2018-01-01

    Eating disorders are a group of psychiatric disorders with potentially fatal medical complications. Early integrated care including the family as well as pediatric medicine, nutrition, psychology and psychiatry is critical for improving prognosis and limiting negative outcomes. Mental health services are a critical component of treatment; timely weight restoration maximizes efficacy. Despite being relatively common, there are many misperceptions about eating disorders, their severity, and the associated morbidity and mortality. Opportunities exist within the medical and psychiatric communities for a better understanding of the complexity of diagnosing and treating patients with eating disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adolescent Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Susan; Seligman, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Discusses legal and developmental aspects of adolescent abuse, as distinguished from child abuse. The role of the school counselor in identifying and counseling abused adolescents and their families is discussed and several forms of intervention and support services are described. (JAC)

  5. Commentary: Transdiagnostic neuroscience of child and adolescent mental disorders--differentiating decision-making in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, depression and anxiety. A commentary on Sonuga-Barke et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2016-03-01

    Sonuga-Barke, Cortese, Fairchild, and Stringaris offer us new insights not only on the neuropsychological processes and neurobiological mechanisms involved in the decision-making process but also how some of the most relevant child mental disorders might impact this process through a very comprehensive review of the pertinent literature. Although it is difficult to select specific points for discussing in a so dense review, I would like to highlight some aspects for 'whetting readers appetite' and seduce them to be in contact with the fascinating neurobiology behind an essential aspect of our lives. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  6. Neurobiology of Chronic Stress-Related Psychiatric Disorders: Evidence from Molecular Imaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Margaret T.; Holmes, Sophie E.; Pietrzak, Robert H.; Esterlis, Irina

    2018-01-01

    Chronic stress accounts for billions of dollars of economic loss annually in the United States alone, and is recognized as a major source of disability and mortality worldwide. Robust evidence suggests that chronic stress plays a significant role in the onset of severe and impairing psychiatric conditions, including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Application of molecular imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography in recent years has begun to provide insight into the molecular mechanisms by which chronic stress confers risk for these disorders. The present paper provides a comprehensive review and synthesis of all positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography imaging publications focused on the examination of molecular targets in individuals with major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, or bipolar disorder to date. Critical discussion of discrepant findings and broad strengths and weaknesses of the current body of literature is provided. Recommended future directions for the field of molecular imaging to further elucidate the neurobiological substrates of chronic stress-related disorders are also discussed. This article is part of the inaugural issue for the journal focused on various aspects of chronic stress. PMID:29862379

  7. The neurobiology of focus and distraction: The case for incorporating mindfulness into leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapel, Paul

    2018-05-01

    Increasingly health leaders are experiencing greater demands and pressures, which require the need for better focus while limiting unwarranted distractions. This article offers a neurobiological explanation of how the brain focuses and becomes distracted, in order to help health leaders gain insight into their own effectiveness. Two main neural circuits are contrasted: the mind-wandering default mode circuit and the attentional central executive system. These two systems act in an antagonistic pairing, where the degree of toggling between systems is associated with the degree a person can sustain focus and filter out unwarranted distractions. Excessive multitasking appears to compromise the neural switch of these two systems, thereby diminishing our focus and concentration. In contrast, mindfulness practice is shown to have the opposite effect by enhancing the neural switch, thereby enhancing leadership focus that can lead to greater flexibility, foresight, regulation, and creativity. To conclude, leaders who are excessively distracted, such as with multitasking, may be compromising cognitive brain functioning, while engaging in mindfulness may replenish the brain and thereby enhance leaders' ability to sustain focus and tap into higher cognitive functioning.

  8. Clinical and Neurobiological Relevance of Current Animal Models of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Chan; Gonzales, Edson Luck; Lázaro, María T.; Choi, Chang Soon; Bahn, Geon Ho; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Shin, Chan Young

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social and communication impairments, as well as repetitive and restrictive behaviors. The phenotypic heterogeneity of ASD has made it overwhelmingly difficult to determine the exact etiology and pathophysiology underlying the core symptoms, which are often accompanied by comorbidities such as hyperactivity, seizures, and sensorimotor abnormalities. To our benefit, the advent of animal models has allowed us to assess and test diverse risk factors of ASD, both genetic and environmental, and measure their contribution to the manifestation of autistic symptoms. At a broader scale, rodent models have helped consolidate molecular pathways and unify the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying each one of the various etiologies. This approach will potentially enable the stratification of ASD into clinical, molecular, and neurophenotypic subgroups, further proving their translational utility. It is henceforth paramount to establish a common ground of mechanistic theories from complementing results in preclinical research. In this review, we cluster the ASD animal models into lesion and genetic models and further classify them based on the corresponding environmental, epigenetic and genetic factors. Finally, we summarize the symptoms and neuropathological highlights for each model and make critical comparisons that elucidate their clinical and neurobiological relevance. PMID:27133257

  9. The Relationship between Sleep Problems, Neurobiological Alterations, Core Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder, and Psychiatric Comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Mazzone

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD are at an increased risk for sleep disturbances, and studies indicate that between 50 and 80% of children with ASD experience sleep problems. These problems increase parental stress and adversely affect family quality of life. Studies have also suggested that sleep disturbances may increase behavioral problems in this clinical population. Although understanding the causes of sleep disorders in ASD is a clinical priority, the causal relationship between these two conditions remains unclear. Given the complex nature of ASD, the etiology of sleep problems in this clinical population is probably multi-factorial. In this overview, we discuss in detail three possible etiological explanations of sleep problems in ASD that can all contribute to the high rate of these symptoms in ASD. Specifically, we examine how neurobiological alterations, genetic mutations, and disrupted sleep architecture can cause sleep problems in individuals with ASD. We also discuss how sleep problems may be a direct result of core symptoms of ASD. Finally, a detailed examination of the relationship between sleep problems and associated clinical features and psychiatric comorbidities in individuals with ASD is described.

  10. Neurobiological Foundations of Acupuncture: The Relevance and Future Prospect Based on Neuroimaging Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Bai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is currently gaining popularity as an important modality of alternative and complementary medicine in the western world. Modern neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and magnetoencephalography open a window into the neurobiological foundations of acupuncture. In this review, we have summarized evidence derived from neuroimaging studies and tried to elucidate both neurophysiological correlates and key experimental factors involving acupuncture. Converging evidence focusing on acute effects of acupuncture has revealed significant modulatory activities at widespread cerebrocerebellar brain regions. Given the delayed effect of acupuncture, block-designed analysis may produce bias, and acupuncture shared a common feature that identified voxels that coded the temporal dimension for which multiple levels of their dynamic activities in concert cause the processing of acupuncture. Expectation in acupuncture treatment has a physiological effect on the brain network, which may be heterogeneous from acupuncture mechanism. “Deqi” response, bearing clinical relevance and association with distinct nerve fibers, has the specific neurophysiology foundation reflected by neural responses to acupuncture stimuli. The type of sham treatment chosen is dependent on the research question asked and the type of acupuncture treatment to be tested. Due to the complexities of the therapeutic mechanisms of acupuncture, using multiple controls is an optimal choice.

  11. The Neurobiology Shaping Affective Touch: Expectation, Motivation, and Meaning in the Multisensory Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Dan-Mikael; Leknes, Siri; Løseth, Guro; Wessberg, Johan; Olausson, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    Inter-individual touch can be a desirable reward that can both relieve negative affect and evoke strong feelings of pleasure. However, if other sensory cues indicate it is undesirable to interact with the toucher, the affective experience of the same touch may be flipped to disgust. While a broad literature has addressed, on one hand the neurophysiological basis of ascending touch pathways, and on the other hand the central neurochemistry involved in touch behaviors, investigations of how external context and internal state shapes the hedonic value of touch have only recently emerged. Here, we review the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the integration of tactile “bottom–up” stimuli and “top–down” information into affective touch experiences. We highlight the reciprocal influences between gentle touch and contextual information, and consider how, and at which levels of neural processing, top-down influences may modulate ascending touch signals. Finally, we discuss the central neurochemistry, specifically the μ-opioids and oxytocin systems, involved in affective touch processing, and how the functions of these neurotransmitters largely depend on the context and motivational state of the individual. PMID:26779092

  12. Drug Addiction and Its Underlying Neurobiological Basis: Neuroimaging Evidence for the Involvement of the Frontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Rita Z.; Volkow, Nora D.

    2005-01-01

    Objective Studies of the neurobiological processes underlying drug addiction primarily have focused on limbic subcortical structures. Here the authors evaluated the role of frontal cortical structures in drug addiction. Method An integrated model of drug addiction that encompasses intoxication, bingeing, withdrawal, and craving is proposed. This model and findings from neuroimaging studies on the behavioral, cognitive, and emotional processes that are at the core of drug addiction were used to analyze the involvement of frontal structures in drug addiction. Results The orbitofrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate gyrus, which are regions neuroanatomically connected with limbic structures, are the frontal cortical areas most frequently implicated in drug addiction. They are activated in addicted subjects during intoxication, craving, and bingeing, and they are deactivated during withdrawal. These regions are also involved in higher-order cognitive and motivational functions, such as the ability to track, update, and modulate the salience of a reinforcer as a function of context and expectation and the ability to control and inhibit prepotent responses. Conclusions These results imply that addiction connotes cortically regulated cognitive and emotional processes, which result in the overvaluing of drug reinforcers, the undervaluing of alternative reinforcers, and deficits in inhibitory control for drug responses. These changes in addiction, which the authors call I-RISA (impaired response inhibition and salience attribution), expand the traditional concepts of drug dependence that emphasize limbic-regulated responses to pleasure and reward. PMID:12359667

  13. Role of altered cerebello-thalamo-cortical network in the neurobiology of essential tremor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenka, Abhishek; Bhalsing, Ketaki Swapnil; Jhunjhunwala, Ketan [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Neurology, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Panda, Rajanikant; Saini, Jitender; Bharath, Rose Dawn [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Neuroimaging and Interventional Radiology, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Naduthota, Rajini M.; Yadav, Ravi; Pal, Pramod Kumar [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Neurology, Bangalore, Karnataka (India)

    2017-02-15

    Essential tremor (ET) is the most common movement disorder among adults. Although ET has been recognized as a mono-symptomatic benign illness, reports of non-motor symptoms and non-tremor motor symptoms have increased its clinical heterogeneity. The neural correlates of ET are not clearly understood. The aim of this study was to understand the neurobiology of ET using resting state fMRI. Resting state functional MR images of 30 patients with ET and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were obtained. The functional connectivity of the two groups was compared using whole-brain seed-to-voxel-based analysis. The ET group had decreased connectivity of several cortical regions especially of the primary motor cortex and the primary somatosensory cortex with several right cerebellar lobules compared to the controls. The thalamus on both hemispheres had increased connectivity with multiple posterior cerebellar lobules and vermis. Connectivity of several right cerebellar seeds with the cortical and thalamic seeds had significant correlation with an overall score of Fahn-Tolosa-Marin tremor rating scale (FTM-TRS) as well as the subscores for head tremor and limb tremor. Seed-to-voxel resting state connectivity analysis revealed significant alterations in the cerebello-thalamo-cortical network in patients with ET. These alterations correlated with the overall FTM scores as well as the subscores for limb tremor and head tremor in patients with ET. These results further support the previous evidence of cerebellar pathology in ET. (orig.)

  14. Neurobiology of pair bonding in fishes; convergence of neural mechanisms across distant vertebrate lineages

    KAUST Repository

    Nowicki, Jessica; Pratchett, Morgan; Walker, Stefan; Coker, Darren James; O'Connell, Lauren A.

    2017-01-01

    Pair bonding has independently evolved numerous times among vertebrates. The governing neural mechanisms of pair bonding have only been studied in depth in the mammalian model species, the prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster. In this species, oxytocin (OT), arginine vasopressin (AVP), dopamine (DA), and opioid (OP) systems play key roles in signaling in the formation and maintenance of pair bonding by targeting specific social and reward-mediating brain regions. By contrast, the neural basis of pair bonding is poorly studied in other vertebrates, and especially those of early origins, limiting our understanding of the evolutionary history of pair bonding regulatory mechanisms. We compared receptor gene expression between pair bonded and solitary individuals across eight socio-functional brain regions. We found that in females, ITR and V1aR receptor expression varied in the lateral septum-like region (the Vv/Vl), while in both sexes D1R, D2R, and MOR expression varied within the mesolimbic reward system, including a striatum-like region (the Vc); mirroring sites of action in M. ochrogaster. This study provides novel insights into the neurobiology of teleost pair bonding. It also reveals high convergence in the neurochemical mechanisms governing pair bonding across actinopterygians and sarcopterygians, by repeatedly co-opting and similarly assembling deep neurochemical and neuroanatomical homologies that originated in ancestral osteithes.

  15. The Cannabis Pathway to Non-Affective Psychosis may Reflect Less Neurobiological Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løberg, Else-Marie; Helle, Siri; Nygård, Merethe; Berle, Jan Øystein; Kroken, Rune A.; Johnsen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of cannabis use reported in non-affective psychosis. Early prospective longitudinal studies conclude that cannabis use is a risk factor for psychosis, and neurochemical studies on cannabis have suggested potential mechanisms for this effect. Recent advances in the field of neuroscience and genetics may have important implications for our understanding of this relationship. Importantly, we need to better understand the vulnerability × cannabis interaction to shed light on the mediators of cannabis as a risk factor for psychosis. Thus, the present study reviews recent literature on several variables relevant for understanding the relationship between cannabis and psychosis, including age of onset, cognition, brain functioning, family history, genetics, and neurological soft signs (NSS) in non-affective psychosis. Compared with non-using non-affective psychosis, the present review shows that there seem to be fewer stable cognitive deficits in patients with cannabis use and psychosis, in addition to fewer NSS and possibly more normalized brain functioning, indicating less neurobiological vulnerability for psychosis. There are, however, some familiar and genetic vulnerabilities present in the cannabis psychosis group, which may influence the cannabis pathway to psychosis by increasing sensitivity to cannabis. Furthermore, an earlier age of onset suggests a different pathway to psychosis in the cannabis-using patients. Two alternative vulnerability models are presented to integrate these seemingly paradoxical findings PMID:25477825

  16. Animal Models of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Recent Neurobiological Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Annie M.; Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Edwards, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by the intrusive re-experiencing of past trauma, avoidant behavior, enhanced fear, and hyperarousal following a traumatic event in vulnerable populations. Preclinical animal models do not replicate the human condition in its entirety, but seek to mimic symptoms or endophenotypes associated with PTSD. Although many models of traumatic stress exist, few adequately capture the complex nature of the disorder and the observed individual variability in susceptibility of humans to develop PTSD. In addition, various types of stressors may produce different molecular neuroadaptations that likely contribute to the various behavioral disruptions produced by each model, although certain consistent neurobiological themes related to PTSD have emerged. For example, animal models report traumatic stress- and trauma reminder-induced alterations in neuronal activity in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, in agreement with the human PTSD literature. Models have also provided a conceptual framework for the often observed combination of PTSD and co-morbid conditions such as alcohol use disorder (AUD). Future studies will continue to refine preclinical PTSD models in hopes of capitalizing on their potential to deliver new and more efficacious treatments for PTSD and associated psychiatric disorders. PMID:25083568

  17. Behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of extinction in Pavlovian and instrumental learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Travis P; Vurbic, Drina; Bouton, Mark E

    2014-02-01

    This article reviews research on the behavioral and neural mechanisms of extinction as it is represented in both Pavlovian and instrumental learning. In Pavlovian extinction, repeated presentation of a signal without its reinforcer weakens behavior evoked by the signal; in instrumental extinction, repeated occurrence of a voluntary action without its reinforcer weakens the strength of the action. In either case, contemporary research at both the behavioral and neural levels of analysis has been guided by a set of extinction principles that were first generated by research conducted at the behavioral level. The review discusses these principles and illustrates how they have informed the study of both Pavlovian and instrumental extinction. It shows that behavioral and neurobiological research efforts have been tightly linked and that their results are readily integrated. Pavlovian and instrumental extinction are also controlled by compatible behavioral and neural processes. Since many behavioral effects observed in extinction can be multiply determined, we suggest that the current close connection between behavioral-level and neural-level analyses will need to continue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mindfulness and Emotion Regulation: Insights from Neurobiological, Psychological, and Clinical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Simón; Medeiros, Sebastián; Rampes, Hagen

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the beneficial clinical effects of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). Research has demonstrated their efficacy in a wide range of psychological conditions characterized by emotion dysregulation. Neuroimaging studies have evidenced functional and structural changes in a myriad of brain regions mainly involved in attention systems, emotion regulation, and self-referential processing. In this article we review studies on psychological and neurobiological correlates across different empirically derived models of research, including dispositional mindfulness, mindfulness induction, MBIs, and expert meditators in relation to emotion regulation. From the perspective of recent findings in the neuroscience of emotion regulation, we discuss the interplay of top-down and bottom-up emotion regulation mechanisms associated with different mindfulness models. From a phenomenological and cognitive perspective, authors have argued that mindfulness elicits a “mindful emotion regulation” strategy; however, from a clinical perspective, this construct has not been properly differentiated from other strategies and interventions within MBIs. In this context we propose the distinction between top-down and bottom-up mindfulness based emotion regulation strategies. Furthermore, we propose an embodied emotion regulation framework as a multilevel approach for understanding psychobiological changes due to mindfulness meditation regarding its effect on emotion regulation. Finally, based on clinical neuroscientific evidence on mindfulness, we open perspectives and dialogues regarding commonalities and differences between MBIs and other psychotherapeutic strategies for emotion regulation. PMID:28321194

  19. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: definition, epidemiology, risk factors, neurobiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceravolo, Roberto; Frosini, Daniela; Rossi, Carlo; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2009-12-01

    There is increasing awareness that impulse control disorders (ICDs), including pathological gambling, hyper-sexuality, compulsive eating and buying, can occur as a complication of Parkinson's disease (PD). In addition, other impulsive or compulsive disorders have been reported to occur, including dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) and punding. Case reports and prospective studies have reported an association between ICDs and the use of dopamine receptor agonists at higher doses, and DDS has been associated with L-dopa at higher doses or short-acting dopamine receptor agonists. Risk factors for ICDs include male sex, younger age or younger age at PD onset, a pre-PD history of ICD symptoms, history of substance use or bipolar disorder, and a personality profile characterized by impulsiveness. The management of clinically significant ICD symptoms should consist of modifications to dopamine replacement therapy, particularly dopamine receptor agonists, which is usually associated with an improvement of ICDs. There is no empirical evidence supporting the use of psychiatric drugs for ICDs in PD. Functional neuroimaging studies such as functional MRI and PET can investigate in vivo the neurobiological basis of these pathological behaviours. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Using New Approaches in Neurobiology to Rethink Stress-Induced Amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulovic, Jelena

    2017-03-01

    Psychological stress can impact memory systems in several different ways. In individuals with healthy defense and coping systems, stress results in the formation of negatively valenced memories whose ability to induce emotional and somatic distress subsides with time. Vulnerable individuals, however, go on to develop stress-related disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and suffer from significant memory abnormalities. Whether expressed as intrusive trauma memories, partial amnesia, or dissociative amnesia, such abnormalities are thought to be the core source of patients' symptoms, which are often debilitating and implicate an entire socio-cognitive-affective spectrum. With this in mind, and focusing on stress-responsive hippocampal microcircuits, this article highlights recent advances in the neurobiology of memory that allow us to (1) isolate and visualize memory circuits, (2) change their activity using genetic tools and state-dependent manipulations, and (3) directly examine their impact on socio-affective circuits and global network connectivity. By integrating these approaches, we are now in a position to address important questions that have troubled psychiatry for a long time-questions such as are traumatic memories special, and why are stress effects on memory diverse. Furthering our fundamental understanding of memory in the framework of adaptive and maladaptive stress responses has the potential to boost the development of new treatments that can benefit patients suffering from psychological trauma.

  1. The Role of Pleasure Neurobiology and Dopamine in Mental Health Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Julie

    2017-09-01

    Recent evidence and research has demonstrated that the pleasure response and associated neurotransmitters and brain circuits play a significant role in substance use disorders (SUDs). It was thought that negative behaviors associated with SUDs resulted from negative choices, but it is now known that chemical changes in the brain drive those behaviors. Several mental health disorders (e.g., eating disorders, non-suicidal self-injury, compulsive sex behaviors, internet gaming, gambling) are also thought to involve those same pleasure responses, neurotransmitters, and brain regions. Studies have shown that the use of naltrexone, a dopamine antagonist, can reduce symptoms of these disorders. It is important for nurses to understand the underlying physiology of mental health disorders that are thought to have an addictive or craving component. This understanding can help reduce stigma. Educating patients about likely neurobiological causes for their disorders can also help reduce guilt and shame. Nurses should educate patients about these disorders and evidence-based treatments, including off-label use of naltrexone. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(9), 17-21.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. A systematic review of neurobiological and clinical features of mindfulness meditations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, A; Serretti, A

    2010-08-01

    Mindfulness meditation (MM) practices constitute an important group of meditative practices that have received growing attention. The aim of the present paper was to systematically review current evidence on the neurobiological changes and clinical benefits related to MM practice in psychiatric disorders, in physical illnesses and in healthy subjects. A literature search was undertaken using Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane collaboration database and references of retrieved articles. Controlled and cross-sectional studies with controls published in English up to November 2008 were included. Electroencephalographic (EEG) studies have revealed a significant increase in alpha and theta activity during meditation. Neuroimaging studies showed that MM practice activates the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and that long-term meditation practice is associated with an enhancement of cerebral areas related to attention. From a clinical viewpoint, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) has shown efficacy for many psychiatric and physical conditions and also for healthy subjects, Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is mainly efficacious in reducing relapses of depression in patients with three or more episodes, Zen meditation significantly reduces blood pressure and Vipassana meditation shows efficacy in reducing alcohol and substance abuse in prisoners. However, given the low-quality designs of current studies it is difficult to establish whether clinical outcomes are due to specific or non-specific effects of MM. Despite encouraging findings, several limitations affect current studies. Suggestions are given for future research based on better designed methodology and for future directions of investigation.

  3. Genetics, Cognition and Neurobiology of Schizotypal Personality: A Review of the Overlap with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich eEttinger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Schizotypy refers to a set of temporally stable traits that are observed in the general population and that resemble the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia. Here, we review evidence from studies on genetics, cognition, perception, motor and oculomotor control, brain structure, brain function and psychopharmacology in schizotypy. We specifically focused on identifying areas of overlap between schizotypy and schizophrenia. Evidence was corroborated that significant overlap exists between the two, covering the behavioural, brain structural and functional as well molecular levels. In particular, several studies showed that individuals with high levels of schizotypal traits exhibit alterations in neurocognitive task performance and underlying brain function similar to the deficits seen in patients with schizophrenia. Studies of brain structure have shown both volume reductions and increases in schizotypy, pointing to schizophrenia-like deficits as well as possible protective or compensatory mechanisms. Experimental pharmacological studies have shown that high levels of schizotypy are associated with (i enhanced dopaminergic response in striatum following administration of amphetamine and (ii improvement of cognitive performance following administration of antipsychotic compounds. Together, this body of work suggests that schizotypy shows overlap with schizophrenia across multiple behavioural and neurobiological domains, suggesting that the study of schizotypal traits may be useful in improving our understanding of the aetiology of schizophrenia.

  4. Neuroimaging assessment of early and late neurobiological sequelae of traumatic brain injury: implications for CTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eSundman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI has been increasingly accepted as a major external risk factor for neurodegenerative morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence indicates that the resultant chronic neurobiological sequelae following head trauma may, at least in part, contribute to a pathologically distinct disease known as Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE. The clinical manifestation of CTE is variable, but the symptoms of this progressive disease include impaired memory and cognition, affective disorders (i.e., impulsivity, aggression, depression, suicidality, etc., and diminished motor control. Notably, mounting evidence suggests that the pathology contributing to CTE may be caused by repetitive exposure to subconcussive hits to the head, even in those with no history of a clinically evident head injury. Given the millions of athletes and military personnel with potential exposure to repetitive subconcussive insults and TBI, CTE represents an important public health issue. However, the incidence rates and pathological mechanisms are still largely unknown, primarily due to the fact that there is no in vivo diagnostic tool. The primary objective of this manuscript is to address this limitation and discuss potential neuroimaging modalities that may be capable of diagnosing CTE in vivo through the detection of tau and other known pathological features. Additionally, we will discuss the challenges of TBI research, outline the known pathology of CTE (with an emphasis on Tau, review current neuroimaging modalities to assess the potential routes for in vivo diagnosis, and discuss the future directions of CTE research.

  5. Behavioural, hormonal and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behaviour in human and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Rosa Maria Martins; Cabral, João Carlos Centurion; Narvaes, Rodrigo

    2015-05-01

    Aggression is a key component for social behaviour and can have an adaptive value or deleterious consequences. Here, we review the role of sex-related differences in aggressive behaviour in both human and nonhuman primates. First, we address aggression in primates, which varies deeply between species, both in intensity and in display, ranging from animals that are very aggressive, such as chimpanzees, to the nonaggressive bonobos. Aggression also influences the hierarchical structure of gorillas and chimpanzees, and is used as the main tool for dealing with other groups. With regard to human aggression, it can be considered a relevant adaptation for survival or can have negative impacts on social interaction for both sexes. Gender plays a critical role in aggressive and competitive behaviours, which are determined by a cascade of physiological changes, including GABAergic and serotonergic systems, and sex neurosteroids. The understanding of the neurobiological bases and behavioural determinants of different types of aggression is fundamental for minimising these negative impacts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Playing Music for a Smarter Ear: Cognitive, Perceptual and Neurobiological Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana; Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Human hearing depends on a combination of cognitive and sensory processes that function by means of an interactive circuitry of bottom-up and top-down neural pathways, extending from the cochlea to the cortex and back again. Given that similar neural pathways are recruited to process sounds related to both music and language, it is not surprising that the auditory expertise gained over years of consistent music practice fine-tunes the human auditory system in a comprehensive fashion, strengthening neurobiological and cognitive underpinnings of both music and speech processing. In this review we argue not only that common neural mechanisms for speech and music exist, but that experience in music leads to enhancements in sensory and cognitive contributors to speech processing. Of specific interest is the potential for music training to bolster neural mechanisms that undergird language-related skills, such as reading and hearing speech in background noise, which are critical to academic progress, emotional health, and vocational success. PMID:22993456

  7. Role of altered cerebello-thalamo-cortical network in the neurobiology of essential tremor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenka, Abhishek; Bhalsing, Ketaki Swapnil; Jhunjhunwala, Ketan; Panda, Rajanikant; Saini, Jitender; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Naduthota, Rajini M.; Yadav, Ravi; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is the most common movement disorder among adults. Although ET has been recognized as a mono-symptomatic benign illness, reports of non-motor symptoms and non-tremor motor symptoms have increased its clinical heterogeneity. The neural correlates of ET are not clearly understood. The aim of this study was to understand the neurobiology of ET using resting state fMRI. Resting state functional MR images of 30 patients with ET and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were obtained. The functional connectivity of the two groups was compared using whole-brain seed-to-voxel-based analysis. The ET group had decreased connectivity of several cortical regions especially of the primary motor cortex and the primary somatosensory cortex with several right cerebellar lobules compared to the controls. The thalamus on both hemispheres had increased connectivity with multiple posterior cerebellar lobules and vermis. Connectivity of several right cerebellar seeds with the cortical and thalamic seeds had significant correlation with an overall score of Fahn-Tolosa-Marin tremor rating scale (FTM-TRS) as well as the subscores for head tremor and limb tremor. Seed-to-voxel resting state connectivity analysis revealed significant alterations in the cerebello-thalamo-cortical network in patients with ET. These alterations correlated with the overall FTM scores as well as the subscores for limb tremor and head tremor in patients with ET. These results further support the previous evidence of cerebellar pathology in ET. (orig.)

  8. Neurobiología de la agresión y la violencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Ortega-Escobar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La neurobiología de la agresión y la violencia es de interés para la psicología jurídica porque buena parte de la conducta delictiva tiene componentes violentos. En esta revisión se definen en primer lugar ambos conceptos, para diferenciar a continuación los tipos de agresión (impulsiva vs. instrumental que aparecen en la literatura científica y finalmente analizar las estructuras nerviosas que según los estudios sobre lesiones cerebrales o de neuroimagen están asociadas con la agresión. Esta revisión destaca: a las estructuras subcorticales como el hipotálamo/tronco del encéfalo, donde se genera la conducta agresiva y la amígdala, implicada en procesar estímulos emocionalmente destacados; b las estructuras corticales como la corteza prefrontal (que comprende la corteza orbitofrontal, la corteza prefrontal ventromedial y la corteza cingulada anterior, que parecen ser hipofuncionales en los sujetos violentos. Por último, se revisan estudios sobre el papel del neurotransmisor serotonina en la manifestación del comportamiento agresivo.

  9. Incision and stress regulation in borderline personality disorder: neurobiological mechanisms of self-injurious behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Sarah; Kluetsch, Rosemarie; Niedtfeld, Inga; Knorz, Teresa; Lis, Stefanie; Paret, Christian; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder frequently show non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). In these patients, NSSI often serves to reduce high levels of stress. Investigation of neurobiological mechanisms of NSSI in borderline personality disorder. In total, 21 women with borderline personality disorder and 17 healthy controls underwent a stress induction, followed by either an incision into the forearm or a sham treatment. Afterwards participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging while aversive tension, heart rate and heart rate variability were assessed. We found a significant influence of incision on subjective and objective stress levels with a stronger decrease of aversive tension in the borderline personality disorder group following incision than sham. Amygdala activity decreased more and functional connectivity with superior frontal gyrus normalised after incision in the borderline personality disorder group. Decreased stress levels and amygdala activity after incision support the assumption of an influence of NSSI on emotion regulation in individuals with borderline personality disorder and aids in understanding why these patients use self-inflicted pain to reduce inner tension. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  10. Craving to quit: psychological models and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness training as treatment for addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Judson A; Elwafi, Hani M; Davis, Jake H

    2013-06-01

    Humans suffer heavily from substance use disorders and other addictions. Despite much effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms of the addictive process, treatment strategies have remained suboptimal over the past several decades. Mindfulness training, which is based on ancient Buddhist models of human suffering, has recently shown preliminary efficacy in treating addictions. These early models show remarkable similarity to current models of the addictive process, especially in their overlap with operant conditioning (positive and negative reinforcement). Further, they may provide explanatory power for the mechanisms of mindfulness training, including its effects on core addictive elements, such as craving, and the underlying neurobiological processes that may be active therein. In this review, using smoking as an example, we will highlight similarities between ancient and modern views of the addictive process, review studies of mindfulness training for addictions and their effects on craving and other components of this process, and discuss recent neuroimaging findings that may inform our understanding of the neural mechanisms of mindfulness training. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  11. The cannabis pathway to non-affective psychosis may reflect less neurobiological vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Marie eLøberg

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a high prevalence of cannabis use reported in non-affective psychosis. Early prospective longitudinal studies conclude that cannabis use is a risk factor for psychosis, and neurochemical studies on cannabis have suggested potential mechanisms for this effect. Recent advances in the field of neuroscience and genetics may have important implications for our understanding of this relationship. Importantly, we need to better understand the vulnerability x cannabis interaction to shed light on the mediators of cannabis as a risk factor for psychosis. Thus, the present study reviews recent literature on several variables relevant for understanding the relationship between cannabis and psychosis, including age of onset, cognition, brain functioning, family history, genetics and neurological soft signs (NSS in non-affective psychosis. Compared with non-using non-affective psychosis, the present review shows that there seem to be fewer stable cognitive deficits in patients with cannabis use and psychosis, in addition to fewer NSS and possibly more normalized brain functioning, indicating less neurobiological vulnerability for psychosis. There are, however, some familiar and genetic vulnerabilities present in the cannabis psychosis group which may influence the cannabis pathway to psychosis by increasing sensitivity to cannabis. Furthermore, an earlier age of onset suggests a different pathway to psychosis in the cannabis-using patients. Two alternative vulnerability models are presented to integrate these seemingly paradoxical findings.

  12. Chocolate and the brain: neurobiological impact of cocoa flavanols on cognition and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Alexander N; Pavlova, Marina A; Klosterhalfen, Sibylle; Enck, Paul

    2013-12-01

    Cocoa products and chocolate have recently been recognized as a rich source of flavonoids, mainly flavanols, potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents with established benefits for cardiovascular health but largely unproven effects on neurocognition and behavior. In this review, we focus on neuromodulatory and neuroprotective actions of cocoa flavanols in humans. The absorbed flavonoids penetrate and accumulate in the brain regions involved in learning and memory, especially the hippocampus. The neurobiological actions of flavanols are believed to occur in two major ways: (i) via direct interactions with cellular cascades yielding expression of neuroprotective and neuromodulatory proteins that promote neurogenesis, neuronal function and brain connectivity, and (ii) via blood-flow improvement and angiogenesis in the brain and sensory systems. Protective effects of long-term flavanol consumption on neurocognition and behavior, including age- and disease-related cognitive decline, were shown in animal models of normal aging, dementia, and stroke. A few human observational and intervention studies appear to corroborate these findings. Evidence on more immediate action of cocoa flavanols remains limited and inconclusive, but warrants further research. As an outline for future research on cocoa flavanol impact on human cognition, mood, and behavior, we underscore combination of functional neuroimaging with cognitive and behavioral measures of performance. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Acid-base physiology, neurobiology and behaviour in relation to CO2-induced ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, Martin; Hamilton, Trevor J

    2017-06-15

    Experimental exposure to ocean and freshwater acidification affects the behaviour of multiple aquatic organisms in laboratory tests. One proposed cause involves an imbalance in plasma chloride and bicarbonate ion concentrations as a result of acid-base regulation, causing the reversal of ionic fluxes through GABA A receptors, which leads to altered neuronal function. This model is exclusively based on differential effects of the GABA A receptor antagonist gabazine on control animals and those exposed to elevated CO 2 However, direct measurements of actual chloride and bicarbonate concentrations in neurons and their extracellular fluids and of GABA A receptor properties in aquatic organisms are largely lacking. Similarly, very little is known about potential compensatory mechanisms, and about alternative mechanisms that might lead to ocean acidification-induced behavioural changes. This article reviews the current knowledge on acid-base physiology, neurobiology, pharmacology and behaviour in relation to marine CO 2 -induced acidification, and identifies important topics for future research that will help us to understand the potential effects of predicted levels of aquatic acidification on organisms. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. The neurobiology shaping affective touch: Expectation, motivation, and meaning in the multisensory context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Mikael eEllingsen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inter-individual touch can be a desirable reward that can both relieve negative affect and evoke strong feelings of pleasure. However, if other sensory cues indicate it is undesirable to interact with the toucher, the affective experience of the same touch may be flipped to disgust. While a broad literature has addressed, on one hand the neurophysiological basis of ascending touch pathways, and on the other hand the central neurochemistry involved in touch behaviors, investigations of how external context and internal state shapes the hedonic value of touch have only recently emerged. Here, we review the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the integration of tactile bottom-up stimuli and top-down information into affective touch experiences. We highlight the reciprocal influences between gentle touch and contextual information, and consider how, and at which levels of neural processing, top-down influences may modulate ascending touch signals. Finally, we discuss the central neurochemistry, specifically the µ-opioids and oxytocin systems, involved in affective touch processing, and how the functions of these neurotransmitters largely depend on the context and motivational state of the individual.

  15. Endocrine function and neurobiology of the longest-living rodent, the naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrey, Yael H; Park, Thomas J; Kang, Hyesin; Biney, Adriana; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2011-01-01

    Animals that have evolved exceptional capabilities, such as extraordinary longevity may reveal pertinent and potentially critical insights into biomedical research that are not readily apparent in standard laboratory animals. Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber; NMRs) are extremely long-lived (30 years) mouse-sized rodents. They clearly have evolved superior anti-aging mechanisms as evident by the markedly attenuated age-related decline in physiological function, sustained reproductive capacity and pronounced cancer resistance throughout their long-lives. These eusocial rodents, like the social insects, live in colonies with breeding restricted to one female and a few males. Subordinates are sexually monomorphic, yet retain the ability to become breeders, and can undergo growth surges and neural modifications at any time throughout their life. This plasticity in physiological and behavioral aspects may have contributed to their long-lives. Naked mole-rats show numerous adaptations to life underground including extreme tolerance of hypoxia, acid insensitivity, as well as independence of photoendocrine systems. Here we review what is known about their unique social structure, sensory systems, endocrinology and neurobiology, and highlight areas that may be pertinent to biogerontology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neurobiology of Insight Deficits in Schizophrenia: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shad, Mujeeb U.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has shown insight deficits in schizophrenia to be associated with specific neuroimaging changes (primarily structural) especially in the prefrontal sub-regions. However, little is known about the functional correlates of impaired insight. Seventeen patients with schizophrenia (mean age 40.0±10.3; M/F= 14/3) underwent fMRI on a Philips 3.0 T Achieva system while performing on a self-awareness task containing self- vs. other-directed sentence stimuli. SPM5 was used to process the imaging data. Preprocessing consisted of realignment, coregistration, and normalization, and smoothing. A regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between brain activation in response to self-directed versus other-directed sentence stimuli and average scores on behavioral measures of awareness of symptoms and attribution of symptoms to the illness from Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorders. Family Wise Error correction was employed in the fMRI analysis. Average scores on awareness of symptoms (1 = aware; 5 = unaware) were associated with activation of multiple brain regions, including prefrontal, parietal and limbic areas as well as basal ganglia. However, average scores on correct attribution of symptoms (1 = attribute; 5 = misattribute) were associated with relatively more localized activation of prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia. These findings suggest that unawareness and misattribution of symptoms may have different neurobiological basis in schizophrenia. While symptom unawareness may be a function of a more complex brain network, symptom misattribution may be mediated by specific brain regions. PMID:25957484

  17. Brain reward circuitry beyond the mesolimbic dopamine system: a neurobiological theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemoto, Satoshi

    2010-11-01

    Reductionist attempts to dissect complex mechanisms into simpler elements are necessary, but not sufficient for understanding how biological properties like reward emerge out of neuronal activity. Recent studies on intracranial self-administration of neurochemicals (drugs) found that rats learn to self-administer various drugs into the mesolimbic dopamine structures-the posterior ventral tegmental area, medial shell nucleus accumbens and medial olfactory tubercle. In addition, studies found roles of non-dopaminergic mechanisms of the supramammillary, rostromedial tegmental and midbrain raphe nuclei in reward. To explain intracranial self-administration and related effects of various drug manipulations, I outlined a neurobiological theory claiming that there is an intrinsic central process that coordinates various selective functions (including perceptual, visceral, and reinforcement processes) into a global function of approach. Further, this coordinating process for approach arises from interactions between brain structures including those structures mentioned above and their closely linked regions: the medial prefrontal cortex, septal area, ventral pallidum, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, preoptic area, lateral hypothalamic areas, lateral habenula, periaqueductal gray, laterodorsal tegmental nucleus and parabrachical area. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Mozart, Mozart Rhythm and Retrograde Mozart Effects: Evidences from Behaviours and Neurobiology Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yingshou; Xia, Yang; Kendrick, Keith; Liu, Xiuxiu; Wang, Maosen; Wu, Dan; Yang, Hua; Jing, Wei; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-21

    The phenomenal finding that listening to Mozart K.448 enhances performance on spatial tasks has motivated a continuous surge in promoting music education over the past two decades. But there have been inconsistent reports in previous studies of the Mozart effect. Here conducted was a systematic study, with Mozart and retrograde Mozart music, Mozart music rhythm and pitch, behaviours and neurobiology tests, rats and humans subjects. We show that while the Mozart K.448 has positive cognitive effects, the retrograde version has a negative effect on rats' performance in the Morris water maze test and on human subjects' performance in the paper folding and cutting test and the pencil-and-paper maze test. Such findings are further confirmed by subsequent immunohistochemical analyses in rats on the neurogenesis and protein levels of BDNF and its receptor, TrkB. Furthermore, when the rhythm and pitch of the normal and retrograde Mozart music are manipulated independently, the learning performance of the rats in the Morris water maze test indicated that rhythm is a crucial element in producing the behavioural effects. These findings suggest that the nature of Mozart effect is the Mozart rhythm effect, and indicate that different music may have quite different to opposite effects. Further study on rhythm effect may provide clues to understand the common basis over animals from rats to humans.

  19. Neurobiology of pair bonding in fishes; convergence of neural mechanisms across distant vertebrate lineages

    KAUST Repository

    Nowicki, Jessica

    2017-11-14

    Pair bonding has independently evolved numerous times among vertebrates. The governing neural mechanisms of pair bonding have only been studied in depth in the mammalian model species, the prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster. In this species, oxytocin (OT), arginine vasopressin (AVP), dopamine (DA), and opioid (OP) systems play key roles in signaling in the formation and maintenance of pair bonding by targeting specific social and reward-mediating brain regions. By contrast, the neural basis of pair bonding is poorly studied in other vertebrates, and especially those of early origins, limiting our understanding of the evolutionary history of pair bonding regulatory mechanisms. We compared receptor gene expression between pair bonded and solitary individuals across eight socio-functional brain regions. We found that in females, ITR and V1aR receptor expression varied in the lateral septum-like region (the Vv/Vl), while in both sexes D1R, D2R, and MOR expression varied within the mesolimbic reward system, including a striatum-like region (the Vc); mirroring sites of action in M. ochrogaster. This study provides novel insights into the neurobiology of teleost pair bonding. It also reveals high convergence in the neurochemical mechanisms governing pair bonding across actinopterygians and sarcopterygians, by repeatedly co-opting and similarly assembling deep neurochemical and neuroanatomical homologies that originated in ancestral osteithes.

  20. Is it possible to delete a philosophical consciousness? Metaphysical aspects of Ssearle’s neurobiological approach of free will

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić Snežana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to adjust his theoretical comprehension to the existing natural-scientific paradigm, Searle develops neurobiological naturalism, an approach which should rely on basic facts obtained from the neuroscience researches of living organisms when solving basic philosophical problems. This paper briefly presents this view’s theory leading to the argumentation that Searle’s point of view is of metaphysical characteristics which is exactly what he was trying to avoid. The metaphysical character of Searle’s neurobiological naturalism has been seen through the problem of free will resulting from his understanding of consciousness. The argumentation is based on an analysis of the concepts, the gap and the self, as well as on possible solutions of the problem of free will (hypothesis 1 and 2.

  1. Theoretical and practical insights for anorexia nervosa and major depression: novel neurobiological targets for pharmacology and brain stimulation therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Keating, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Major Depression (MD) and Anorexia Nervosa (AN) often present co-morbidly and both share neurobiological abnormalities. MD presents up to 3 times as often in females than males and AN presents in up to 95% of females. In the illness phase, pathophysiological evidence indicates similar abnormalities in both clinical groups including; dysfunction in the serotonin system (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) (of which some abnormalities persist following recovery) and between 60-80% of patients in both gr...

  2. Neurobiological correlates of externalizing and prosocial behavior in school-age children: A study on truths and lies

    OpenAIRE

    Thijssen, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis describes a series of studies on the neurobiological correlates of externalizing and prosocial behavior in six-to ten-year old children. Chapter 1 provides an outline and describes the background and aims of our work. The studies described in this thesis are embedded in the Generation R study, a prospective cohort from fetal life onwards in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. We describe both structural (chapter 2, 3, and 6) and functional neuroimaging studies (chapter 4 a...

  3. Investigating biological traces of traumatic stress in changing societies: challenges and directions from the ESTSS Task Force on Neurobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Thomaes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic stress can have severe consequences for both mental and physical health. Furthermore, both psychological and biological traces of trauma increase as a function of accumulating traumatic experiences. Neurobiological research may aid in limiting the impact of traumatic stress, by leading to advances in preventive and treatment interventions. To promote the possibility for clinical implementation of novel research findings, this brief review describes timely conceptual and methodological challenges and directions in neurobiological trauma research on behalf of the Task Force “Neurobiology of Traumatic Stress” of the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS. The most important conceptual challenges are the heterogeneity of disorders and existence of subtypes across diagnostic categories: differential latent profiles and trajectories regarding symptom expression and neural correlates are being unraveled; however, similar latent classes’ approaches for treatment response and neurobiological data remain scarce thus far. The key to improving the efficacy of currently available preventive interventions and treatments for trauma-related disorders lies in a better understanding and characterization of individual differences in response to trauma and interventions. This could lead to personalized treatment strategies for trauma-related disorders, based on objective information indicating whether individuals are expected to benefit from them. The most important methodological challenge identified here is the need for large consortia and meta-analyses or, rather, mega-analyses on existent data as a first step. In addition, large multicenter studies, combining novel methods for repeated sampling with more advanced statistical modeling techniques, such as machine learning, should aim to translate identified disease mechanisms into molecular blood-based biomarker combinations to predict disorder vulnerability and treatment responses.

  4. The acceptability, feasibility, and possible benefits of a neurobiologically-informed 5-day multifamily treatment for adults with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierenga, Christina E; Hill, Laura; Knatz Peck, Stephanie; McCray, Jason; Greathouse, Laura; Peterson, Danika; Scott, Amber; Eisler, Ivan; Kaye, Walter H

    2018-05-02

    Novel treatments for adults with anorexia nervosa (AN) are lacking. Recent scientific advances have identified neurobiologically-driven temperament contributors to AN symptoms that may guide development of more effective treatments. This preliminary study evaluates the acceptability, feasibility and possible benefits of a multicenter open trial of an intensive 5-day neurobiologically-informed multifamily treatment for adults with AN and their supports (SU). The temperament-focused treatment combines psychoeducation of AN neurobiology and SU involvement to develop skills to manage traits contributing to disease chronicity. Fifty-four adults with AN and at least one SU (n = 73) received the 5-day treatment. Acceptability, feasibility, and attrition were measured post-treatment. Clinical outcome (BMI, eating disorder psychopathology, family function) was assessed post-treatment and at >3-month follow-up. The treatment had low attrition, with only one drop-out. Patients and SU rated the intervention as highly acceptable, and clinicians reported good feasibility. At post-treatment, patients demonstrated significantly increased BMI, reduced eating disorder psychopathology, and improved family function. Benefits were maintained in the 39 patients who completed follow-up assessment, with 62% reporting full or partial remission. Preliminary results are promising and suggest this novel treatment is feasible and acceptable. To establish treatment efficacy, fully-powered randomized controlled trials are necessary. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Is lead exposure in early life an environmental risk factor for Schizophrenia? Neurobiological connections and testable hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilarte, Tomás R; Opler, Mark; Pletnikov, Mikhail

    2012-06-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating neuropsychiatric disorder of unknown etiology. There is general agreement in the scientific community that schizophrenia is a disorder of neurodevelopmental origin in which both genes and environmental factors come together to produce a schizophrenia phenotype later in life. The challenging questions have been which genes and what environmental factors? Although there is evidence that different chromosome loci and several genes impart susceptibility for schizophrenia; and epidemiological studies point to broad aspects of the environment, only recently there has been an interest in studying gene × environment interactions. Recent evidence of a potential association between prenatal lead (Pb(2+)) exposure and schizophrenia precipitated the search for plausible neurobiological connections. The most promising connection is that in schizophrenia and in developmental Pb(2+) exposure there is strong evidence for hypoactivity of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of excitatory amino acid receptors as an underlying neurobiological mechanism in both conditions. A hypofunction of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) complex during critical periods of development may alter neurobiological processes that are essential for brain growth and wiring, synaptic plasticity and cognitive and behavioral outcomes associated with schizophrenia. We also describe on-going proof of concept gene-environment interaction studies of early life Pb(2+) exposure in mice expressing the human mutant form of the disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC-1) gene, a gene that is strongly associated with schizophrenia and allied mental disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neurobiological Programming of Early Life Stress: Functional Development of Amygdala-Prefrontal Circuitry and Vulnerability for Stress-Related Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTieghem, Michelle R; Tottenham, Nim

    2017-04-25

    Early adverse experiences are associated with heighted vulnerability for stress-related psychopathology across the lifespan. While extensive work has investigated the effects of early adversity on neurobiology in adulthood, developmental approaches can provide further insight on the neurobiological mechanisms that link early experiences and long-term mental health outcomes. In the current review, we discuss the role of emotion regulation circuitry implicated in stress-related psychopathology from a developmental and transdiagnostic perspective. We highlight converging evidence suggesting that multiple forms of early adverse experiences impact the functional development of amygdala-prefrontal circuitry. Next, we discuss how adversity-induced alterations in amygdala-prefrontal development are associated with symptoms of emotion dysregulation and psychopathology. Additionally, we discuss potential mechanisms through which protective factors may buffer the effects of early adversity on amygdala-prefrontal development to confer more adaptive long-term outcomes. Finally, we consider limitations of the existing literature and make suggestions for future longitudinal and translational research that can better elucidate the mechanisms linking early adversity, neurobiology, and emotional phenotypes. Together, these findings may provide further insight into the neuro-developmental mechanisms underlying the emergence of adversity-related emotional disorders and facilitate the development of targeted interventions that can ameliorate risk for psychopathology in youth exposed to early life stress.

  7. Is Lead Exposure in Early Life An Environmental Risk Factor for Schizophrenia? Neurobiological Connections and Testable Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilarte, Tomás R.; Opler, Mark; Pletnikov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating neuropsychiatric disorder of unknown etiology. There is general agreement in the scientific community that schizophrenia is a disorder of neurodevelopmental origin in which both genes and environmental factors come together to produce a schizophrenia phenotype later in life. The challenging questions have been which genes and what environmental factors? Although there is evidence that different chromosome loci and several genes impart susceptibility for schizophrenia; and epidemiological studies point to broad aspects of the environment, only recently there has been an interest in studying gene × environment interactions. Recent evidence of a potential association between prenatal lead (Pb2+) exposure and schizophrenia precipitated the search for plausible neurobiological connections. The most promising connection is that in schizophrenia and in developmental Pb2+ exposure there is strong evidence for hypoactivity of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of excitatory amino acid receptors as an underlying neurobiological mechanism in both conditions. A hypofunction of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) complex during critical periods of development may alter neurobiological processes that are essential for brain growth and wiring, synaptic plasticity and cognitive and behavioral outcomes associated with schizophrenia. We also describe on-going proof of concept gene-environment interaction studies of early life Pb2+ exposure in mice expressing the human mutant form of the disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC-1) gene, a gene that is strongly associated with schizophrenia and allied mental disorders. PMID:22178136

  8. Direitos sexuais e reprodutivos: algumas considerações para auxiliar a pensar o lugar da psicologia e sua produção teórica sobre a adolescência Sexual and reproductive rights: some considerations to assist the thinking about the role of psychology and its theorethical production about adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Juracy Filgueiras Toneli

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste texto é discutir questões que dizem respeito à saúde sexual e reprodutiva dos adolescentes, considerando-se dois eixos fundamentais: a noção de direitos sexuais e reprodutivos fundamentada no que as grandes conferências promovidas pela ONU na década de 90 do século passado preconizam e o discurso médico-científico como dispositivo que oscila entre as estratégias de governo das populações (governamentalidade e a incitação do sujeito para se ocupar de si mesmo (tecnologias/governo de si. A noção de biopoder, segundo Foucault, mostra-se promissora nesta discussão que inclui o olhar sobre os dispositivos que constituem o sujeito em sua dupla dimensão: sujeito a alguém ou a algo e atado à sua identidade pela consciência e autoconhecimento.The objective of this text is to discuss some issues regarding adolescents' sexual and reproductive health, considering two fundamental axes: the notion of sexual and reproductive rights based on what the great conferences promoted by United Nations on the nineties of last century praised and the medical-scientific speech as device which oscillates between government strategies of the populations ("governmentability" and the subject's incitation to be occupied with himself (technologies/self-goverment. The notion of "biopower", according to Foucault, seems to be promising in this discussion which includes the view on the devices that constitute the subject in his double dimension: subjected to someone or to something and tied to his identity through conscience and self-knowledge.

  9. The neuropsychology and neurobiology of late-onset schizophrenia and very-late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis : a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Assche, Van, Lies; Morrens, Manuel; Luyten, Patrick; Ven, Van de, Luc; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The current review discusses neuropsychological profiles and the longitudinal course of cognitive dysfunction in Late Onset Schizophrenia (LOS) and Very-late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis (VLOSLP), and attempts to clarify its neurobiological underpinnings. METHOD: A systematic literature search resulted in 29 publications describing original research on the neuropsychology of LOS/VLOSLP and 46 studies focussing on neurobiology. RESULTS: Although mildly progressive co...

  10. Prefrontal-Amygdala Connectivity and State Anxiety during Fear Extinction Recall in Adolescents

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    Despina E. Ganella

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While deficits in fear extinction recall have been suggested to underlie vulnerability to anxiety disorders in adolescents, the neurobiology of these deficits remain underexplored. Here we investigate the functional connectivity (FC of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC and dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC underlying extinction recall in healthy adolescents, and assess associations between FC and state/trait anxiety. Adolescents (17 and adults (14, for comparison completed a fear-learning paradigm involving extinction and extinction recall during a functional magnetic resonance imaging session, in which skin conductance response (SCR was recorded. Psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed that during extinction recall there was significant negative connectivity between the vmPFC and amygdala in adults, but not adolescents. vmPFC-amygdala connectivity was positively correlated with SCR. Adolescents showed significant negative FC between the dlPFC and the left and right hippocampus, and the amygdala, which was positively correlated with state anxiety. Recall was also associated with negative connectivity between the dlPFC and thalamus, posterior cingulate cortex, fusiform gyrus, and pallidum in adolescents. These results demonstrate that fear extinction recall in healthy adolescents is associated with FC between prefrontal and limbic brain regions, and suggest that alterations in connectivity may be associated with vulnerability to anxiety in adolescence.

  11. Emotional conflict processing in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome: A pilot study using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortinger, Laura Anne; Endestad, Tor; Melinder, Annika Maria D; Øie, Merete Glenne; Sulheim, Dag; Fagermoen, Even; Wyller, Vegard Bruun

    2017-05-01

    Studies of neurocognition suggest that abnormalities in cognitive control contribute to the pathophysiology of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in adolescents, yet these abnormalities remain poorly understood at the neurobiological level. Reports indicate that adolescents with CFS are significantly impaired in conflict processing, a primary element of cognitive control. In this study, we examine whether emotional conflict processing is altered on behavioral and neural levels in adolescents with CFS and a healthy comparison group. Fifteen adolescent patients with CFS and 24 healthy adolescent participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing an emotional conflict task that involved categorizing facial affect while ignoring overlaid affect labeled words. Adolescent CFS patients were less able to engage the left amygdala and left midposterior insula (mpINS) in response to conflict than the healthy comparison group. An association between accuracy interference and conflict-related reactivity in the amygdala was observed in CFS patients. A relationship between response time interference and conflict-related reactivity in the mpINS was also reported. Neural responses in the amygdala and mpINS were specific to fatigue severity. These data demonstrate that adolescent CFS patients displayed deficits in emotional conflict processing. Our results suggest abnormalities in affective and cognitive functioning of the salience network, which might underlie the pathophysiology of adolescent CFS.

  12. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation Exposure in Scoliosis Kyphosis Adolescent Back Pain Spondylolysis For Adolescents For Adults Common Questions & Glossary Resources ... Radiation Exposure in Scoliosis Kyphosis Adolescent Back Pain Spondylolysis For Adolescents For Adults Juvenile Idiopathic Scoliosis Diagnosed ...

  13. Gender dysphoria in adolescence: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltiala-Heino R

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino,1–3 Hannah Bergman,4 Marja Työläjärvi,2 Louise Frisén4 1Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland; 2Department of Adolescent Psychiatry, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland; 3Vanha Vaasa Hospital, Vaasa, Finland; 4Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Abstract: Increasing numbers of adolescents are seeking treatment at gender identity services in Western countries. An increasingly accepted treatment model that includes puberty suppression with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs starting during the early stages of puberty, cross-sex hormonal treatment starting at ~16 years of age and possibly surgical treatments in legal adulthood, is often indicated for adolescents with childhood gender dysphoria (GD that intensifies during puberty. However, virtually nothing is known regarding adolescent-onset GD, its progression and factors that influence the completion of the developmental tasks of adolescence among young people with GD and/or transgender identity. Consolidation of identity development is a central developmental goal of adolescence, but we still do not know enough about how gender identity and gender variance actually evolve. Treatment-seeking adolescents with GD present with considerable psychiatric comorbidity. There is little research on how GD and/or transgender identity are associated with completion of developmental tasks of adolescence. Keywords: gender dysphoria, gender identity, adolescence, developmental tasks

  14. Neurobiologia dos transtornos do controle dos impulsos The neurobiology of impulse control disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendol A Williams

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar os artigos sobre substratos neurobiológicos dos transtornos do controle dos impulsos. O jogo patológico é o foco central desta revisão na medida em que a maioria dos estudos biológicos dos formalmente classificados como transtornos do controle dos impulsos examinou este transtorno. MÉTODO: Foi feita uma busca no banco de dados Medline de artigos publicados de 1966 até o presente para identificar aqueles relevantes para serem revisados neste artigo. DESFECHOS: Estudos pré-clínicos sugerem que a neuromodulação das monoaminas cerebrais está associada à tomada de decisões impulsivas e aos comportamentos de risco. Os estudos clínicos implicam diversos sistemas de neurotransmissores (serotoninérgico, dopaminérgico, adrenérgico e opióide na fisiopatologia do jogo patológico e de outros transtornos do controle dos impulsos. Estudos de neuroimagem preliminares têm indicado o córtex pré-frontal ventromedial e o estriato ventral como atuantes na fisiopatologia do jogo patológico e de outros transtornos do controle dos impulsos. As contribuições genéticas para o jogo patológico parecem substanciais e os estudos iniciais têm relacionado esse transtorno a polimorfismos alélicos específicos, ainda que os achados de varredura genômica ainda tenham que ser publicados. CONCLUSÃO: Mesmo que tenham sido logrados avanços significativos em nossa compreensão sobre os transtornos do controle dos impulsos, mais pesquisas são necessárias para ampliar o conhecimento existente e traduzir esses achados em avanços clínicos.OBJECTIVE: To review the neurobiological substrates of impulse control disorders. Pathological gambling is a main focus of the review in that most biological studies of the formal impulse control disorders have examined this disorder. METHOD: The medical database Medline from 1966 to present was searched to identify relevant articles that were subsequently reviewed to generate this manuscript

  15. Aging and risk taking: toward an integration of cognitive, emotional, and neurobiological perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao R

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Robin Shao,1,2 Tatia MC Lee1–31Laboratory of Neuropsychology, 2Laboratory of Social Cognitive Affective Neuroscience, 3The State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong KongAbstract: In this article, we characterize the relationship between natural aging and risky decision making through an integration of cognitive, emotional, and neurobiological theories on the effects of natural aging. Based on the existing evidence, we propose that the positivity emotional bias in elderly adults steers them away from taking high risks and toward more conservative approaches during decision making as part of their positive emotional regulatory strategies. However, aging is also associated with marked declines in cognitive functioning, such as attention and working memory, as well as impaired reinforcement-based associative learning, which arises from anatomical and functional declines in the dopaminergic transmission systems and in distinct brain regions such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. In consequence, elderly adults may deviate from their usual conservative stance and toward more risk-taking tendencies, as observed in a subset of studies, if the demands of the risk-taking task exceed their cognitive and learning capacities. More empirical investigations are needed to determine the key factors that influence elderly individuals' decision making and behavior in risky situations. Research in this field is likely to have important practical implications for the financial and medical decision making of elderly adults, as well as promoting designated help targeting the elderly population in making important life decisions.Keywords: risky decision making, aging, insula, cognition, dopaminergic system

  16. The neurobiological drive for overeating implicated in Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Guansheng; Zhu, Qiang; Cai, Weiwei; Tian, Jie; Zhang, Yi Edi; Miller, Jennifer L; Wen, Xiaotong; Ding, Mingzhou; Gold, Mark S; Liu, Yijun

    2015-09-16

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic imprinting disorder characterized mainly by hyperphagia and early childhood obesity. Previous fMRI studies examined the activation of eating-related neural circuits in PWS patients with or without exposures to food cues and found an excessive eating motivation and a reduced inhibitory control of cognitive processing of food. However, the effective connectivity between various brain areas or neural circuitry critically implicated in both the biological and behavioral control of overeating in PWS is largely unexplored. The current study combined resting-state fMRI and Granger causality analysis (GCA) techniques to investigate interactive causal influences among key neural pathways underlying overeating in PWS. We first defined the regions of interest (ROIs) that demonstrated significant alterations of the baseline brain activity levels in children with PWS (n = 21) as compared to that of their normal siblings controls (n = 18), and then carried out GCA to characterize the region-to-region interactions among these ROIs. Our data revealed significantly enhanced causal influences from the amygdala to the hypothalamus and from both the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex to the amygdala in patients with PWS (P < 0.001). These alterations offer new explanations for hypothalamic regulation of homeostatic energy intake and impairment in inhibitory control circuit. The deficits in these dual aspects may jointly contribute to the extreme hyperphagia in PWS. This study provides both a new methodological and a neurobiological perspective to aid in a better understanding of neural mechanisms underlying obesity in the general public. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 1618. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Neurobiological mechanisms associated with facial affect recognition deficits after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Dawn; McDonald, Brenna C; West, John; Keiski, Michelle A; Wang, Yang

    2016-06-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms that underlie facial affect recognition deficits after traumatic brain injury (TBI) have not yet been identified. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), study aims were to 1) determine if there are differences in brain activation during facial affect processing in people with TBI who have facial affect recognition impairments (TBI-I) relative to people with TBI and healthy controls who do not have facial affect recognition impairments (TBI-N and HC, respectively); and 2) identify relationships between neural activity and facial affect recognition performance. A facial affect recognition screening task performed outside the scanner was used to determine group classification; TBI patients who performed greater than one standard deviation below normal performance scores were classified as TBI-I, while TBI patients with normal scores were classified as TBI-N. An fMRI facial recognition paradigm was then performed within the 3T environment. Results from 35 participants are reported (TBI-I = 11, TBI-N = 12, and HC = 12). For the fMRI task, TBI-I and TBI-N groups scored significantly lower than the HC group. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals for facial affect recognition compared to a baseline condition of viewing a scrambled face, revealed lower neural activation in the right fusiform gyrus (FG) in the TBI-I group than the HC group. Right fusiform gyrus activity correlated with accuracy on the facial affect recognition tasks (both within and outside the scanner). Decreased FG activity suggests facial affect recognition deficits after TBI may be the result of impaired holistic face processing. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed.

  18. The brain decade in debate: I. Neurobiology of learning and memory

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    Baddeley A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a transcription of an electronic symposium in which some active researchers were invited by the Brazilian Society for Neuroscience and Behavior (SBNeC to discuss the last decade's advances in neurobiology of learning and memory. The way different parts of the brain are recruited during the storage of different kinds of memory (e.g., short-term vs long-term memory, declarative vs procedural memory and even the property of these divisions were discussed. It was pointed out that the brain does not really store memories, but stores traces of information that are later used to create memories, not always expressing a completely veridical picture of the past experienced reality. To perform this process different parts of the brain act as important nodes of the neural network that encode, store and retrieve the information that will be used to create memories. Some of the brain regions are recognizably active during the activation of short-term working memory (e.g., prefrontal cortex, or the storage of information retrieved as long-term explicit memories (e.g., hippocampus and related cortical areas or the modulation of the storage of memories related to emotional events (e.g., amygdala. This does not mean that there is a separate neural structure completely supporting the storage of each kind of memory but means that these memories critically depend on the functioning of these neural structures. The current view is that there is no sense in talking about hippocampus-based or amygdala-based memory since this implies that there is a one-to-one correspondence. The present question to be solved is how systems interact in memory. The pertinence of attributing a critical role to cellular processes like synaptic tagging and protein kinase A activation to explain the memory storage processes at the cellular level was also discussed.

  19. Evidence of Neurobiological Changes in the Presymptomatic PINK1 Knockout Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Craig F; Morrison, Thomas R; Iriah, Sade; Malmberg, Samantha; Kulkarni, Praveen; Hartner, Jochen C; Trivedi, Malav

    2018-01-01

    Genetic models of Parkinson's disease (PD) coupled with advanced imaging techniques can elucidate neurobiological disease progression, and can help identify early biomarkers before clinical signs emerge. PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) helps protect neurons from mitochondrial dysfunction, and a mutation in the associated gene is a risk factor for recessive familial PD. The PINK1 knockout (KO) rat is a novel model for familial PD that has not been neuroradiologically characterized for alterations in brain structure/function, alongside behavior, prior to 4 months of age. To identify biomarkers of presymptomatic PD in the PINK1 -/- rat at 3 months using magnetic resonance imaging techniques. At postnatal weeks 12-13; one month earlier than previously reported signs of motor and cognitive dysfunction, this study combined imaging modalities, including assessment of quantitative anisotropy across 171 individual brain areas using an annotated MRI rat brain atlas to identify sites of gray matter alteration between wild-type and PINK1 -/- rats. The olfactory system, hypothalamus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, and cerebellum showed differences in anisotropy between experimental groups. Molecular analyses revealed reduced levels of glutathione, ATP, and elevated oxidative stress in the substantia nigra, striatum and deep cerebellar nuclei. Mitochondrial genes encoding proteins in Complex IV, along with mRNA levels associated with mitochondrial function and genes involved in glutathione synthesis were reduced. Differences in brain structure did not align with any cognitive or motor impairment. These data reveal early markers, and highlight novel brain regions involved in the pathology of PD in the PINK1 -/- rat before behavioral dysfunction occurs.

  20. Comorbid substance use disorder in schizophrenia: a selective overview of neurobiological and cognitive underpinnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Patrizia; Daum, Irene

    2013-09-01

    Although individuals with schizophrenia show a lifetime prevalence of 50% for suffering from a comorbid substance use disorder, substance abuse usually represents an exclusion criterion for studies on schizophrenia. This implies that surprisingly little is known about a large group of patients who are particularly difficult to treat. The aim of the present work is to provide a brief and non-exhaustive overview of the current knowledgebase about neurobiological and cognitive underpinnings for dual diagnosis schizophrenia patients. Studies published within the last 20 years were considered using computerized search engines. The focus was on nicotine, caffeine, alcohol, cannabis and cocaine being among the most common substances of abuse. All drugs of abuse target dopaminergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission which are also involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Current literature suggests that neurocognitive function might beless disrupted in substance-abusing compared to non-abusing schizophrenia patients, but in particular the neuroimaging database on this topic is sparse. Detrimental effects on brain structure and function were shown for patients for whom alcohol is the main substance of abuse. It is as yet unclear whether this finding might be an artifact of age differences of patient subgroups with different substance abuse patterns. More research is warranted on the specific neurocognitive underpinnings of schizophrenia patients abusing distinct psychoactive substances. Treatment programs might either benefit from preserved cognitive function as a resource or specifically target cognitive impairment in different subgroups of addicted schizophrenia patients. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  1. The Neurobiology and Psychiatric Perspective of Vaginismus: Linking the Pharmacological and Psycho-Social Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Zuri Shahidii; Sidi, Hatta; Kumar, Jaya; Das, Srijit; Midin, Marhani; Baharuddin, Najwa

    2018-01-01

    Vaginismus is an involuntary muscle contraction of the outer third of vaginal barrel causing sexual penetration almost impossible. It is generally classified under sexual pain disorder (SPD). In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition (DSM-5), it is classified under the new rubric of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Sexual Penetration Disorder. This fear-avoidance condition poses an ongoing significant challenge to the medical and health professionals due to the very demanding needs in health care despite its unpredictable prognosis. The etiology of vaginismus is complex: through multiple biopsycho- social processes, involving bidirectional connections between pelvic-genital (local) and higher mental function (central regulation). It has robust neural and psychological-cognitive loop feedback involvement. The internal neural circuit involves an inter-play of at least two-pathway systems, i.e. both "quick threat assessment" of occipital-limbic-occipital-prefrontal-pelvic-genital; and the chronic pain pathways through the genito-spinothalamic-parietal-pre-frontal system, respectively. In this review, a neurobiology root of vaginismus is deliberated with the central role of an emotional-regulating amygdala, and other neural loop, i.e. hippocampus and neo-cortex in the core psychopathology of fear, disgust, and sexual avoidance. Many therapists view vaginismus as a neglected art-and-science which demands a better and deeper understanding on the clinico-pathological correlation to enhance an effective model for the bio-psycho-social treatment. As vaginismus has a strong presentation in psychopathology, i.e. fear of penetration, phobic avoidance, disgust, and anticipatory anxiety, we highlighted a practical psychiatric approach to the clinical management of vaginismus, based on the current core knowledge in the perspective of neuroscience. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Neurobiological approaches to a better understanding of human nature and human values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Hüther

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The most important finding made in the field of neurobiological research during the last decade is the discovery of the enormous experience-dependent plasticity of the human brain. The elaboration and stabilization of synaptic connectivity, and therefore, the complexity of neuronal networks in the higher brain centres depend to a far greater extent than previously believed on how – or rather, for which purpose – an individual uses his brain, the goals pursued, the experiences made in the course of his life, the models used for orientation, the values providing stability and eliciting a sense of commitment. The transmission and internalization of culture-specific abilities and of culture-specific values is achieved primarily during childhood by nonverbal communication (mirror neuron system, imitation learning as well as by implicit and explicit experiences (reward system, avoidance and reinforcement learning. Therefore the structural and functional organization of the human brain is crucially determined by social and cultural factors. Especially the frontal cortex with its highly complex neuronal networks involved in executive functions, evaluation an decision making must be conceptualized as a social, culturally shaped construct. The most important prerequisites for the transgenerational transmission of human values and their deep implementation into the higher frontocortical networks of the brains of subsequent generations are secure affectional relationships and a broad spectrum of different challenges. Only under such conditions, children are able to stabilize sufficiently complex networks and internal representations for metacognitive competences in their brains. This delicate process of experience-dependent organization of neuronal connectivity is seriously and often also persistently hampered or prematurely terminated by uncontrollable stress experiences. This danger ought be minimized by education programs aiming at the implementation

  3. Systematic review of the neurobiological relevance of chemokines to psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eStuart

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent and disabling conditions of increasing public health relevance. Much recent research has focused on the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders; however the related family of immune proteins designated chemokines has been relatively neglected. Chemokines were originally identified as having chemotactic function on immune cells, however recent evidence has begun to elucidate novel, brain-specific functions of these proteins of relevance to the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. A systematic review of both human and animal literature in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases was undertaken. After application of all inclusion and exclusion criteria, 157 references were remained for the review. Some early mechanistic evidence does associate select chemokines with the neurobiological processes, including neurogenesis, modulation of the neuroinflammatory response, regulation of the HPA axis, and modulation of neurotransmitter systems. This early evidence however does not clearly demonstrate any specificity for a certain psychiatric disorder, but is primarily relevant to mechanisms which are shared across disorders. Notable exceptions include CCL11 which has recently been shown to impair hippocampal function in aging - of distinct relevance to Alzheimer’s disease and depression in the elderly, and prenatal exposure to CXCL8 that may disrupt early neurodevelopmental periods predisposing to schizophrenia. Pro-inflammatory chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL7, CCL8, CCL12, CCL13, have been shown to drive chemotaxis of pro-inflammatory cells to the inflamed or injured CNS. Likewise, CX3CL has been implicated in promoting glial cells activation, proinflammatory cytokines secretion, expression of ICAM-1 and recruitment of CD4+ T-cells into the CNS during neuroinflammatory processes. With further translational research, chemokines may present novel diagnostic and/or therapeutic targets in

  4. Systematic Review of the Neurobiological Relevance of Chemokines to Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Michael J; Singhal, Gaurav; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent and disabling conditions of increasing public health relevance. Much recent research has focused on the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders; however, the related family of immune proteins designated chemokines has been relatively neglected. Chemokines were originally identified as having chemotactic function on immune cells; however, recent evidence has begun to elucidate novel, brain-specific functions of these proteins of relevance to the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. A systematic review of both human and animal literature in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases was undertaken. After application of all inclusion and exclusion criteria, 157 references were remained for the review. Some early mechanistic evidence does associate select chemokines with the neurobiological processes, including neurogenesis, modulation of the neuroinflammatory response, regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, and modulation of neurotransmitter systems. This early evidence however does not clearly demonstrate any specificity for a certain psychiatric disorder, but is primarily relevant to mechanisms which are shared across disorders. Notable exceptions include CCL11 that has recently been shown to impair hippocampal function in aging - of distinct relevance to Alzheimer's disease and depression in the elderly, and pre-natal exposure to CXCL8 that may disrupt early neurodevelopmental periods predisposing to schizophrenia. Pro-inflammatory chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL7, CCL8, CCL12, and CCL13, have been shown to drive chemotaxis of pro-inflammatory cells to the inflamed or injured CNS. Likewise, CX3CL has been implicated in promoting glial cells activation, pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion, expression of ICAM-1, and recruitment of CD4+ T-cells into the CNS during neuroinflammatory processes. With further translational research, chemokines may present novel diagnostic and

  5. Induction of innate immune genes in brain create the neurobiology of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, F T; Zou, Jian; Qin, Liya

    2011-06-01

    Addiction occurs through repeated abuse of drugs that progressively reduce behavioral control and cognitive flexibility while increasing limbic negative emotion. Recent discoveries indicate neuroimmune signaling underlies addiction and co-morbid depression. Low threshold microglia undergo progressive stages of innate immune activation involving astrocytes and neurons with repeated drug abuse, stress, and/or cell damage signals. Increased brain NF-κB transcription of proinflammatory chemokines, cytokines, oxidases, proteases, TLR and other genes create loops amplifying NF-κB transcription and innate immune target gene expression. Human post-mortem alcoholic brain has increased NF-κB and NF-κB target gene message, increased microglial markers and chemokine-MCP1. Polymorphisms of human NF-κB1 and other innate immune genes contribute to genetic risk for alcoholism. Animal transgenic and genetic studies link NF-κB innate immune gene expression to alcohol drinking. Human drug addicts show deficits in behavioral flexibility modeled pre-clinically using reversal learning. Binge alcohol, chronic cocaine, and lesions link addiction neurobiology to frontal cortex, neuroimmune signaling and loss of behavioral flexibility. Addiction also involves increasing limbic negative emotion and depression-like behavior that is reflected in hippocampal neurogenesis. Innate immune activation parallels loss of neurogenesis and increased depression-like behavior. Protection against loss of neurogenesis and negative affect by anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant, opiate antagonist and abstinence from ethanol dependence link limbic affect to changes in innate immune signaling. The hypothesis that innate immune gene induction underlies addiction and affective disorders creates new targets for therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neurobiology of apathy in Alzheimer's disease Neurobiologia da apatia na doença de Alzheimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Cerqueira Guimarães

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Apathy is considered the most frequent neuropsychiatric disturbance in dementia and its outcome is generally deleterious. Apathy can be related to a dysfunction of the anatomical-system that supports the generation of voluntary actions, namely the prefrontal cortex and/or the prefrontal-subcortical circuits. In Alzheimer's disease, pathological and neuroimaging data indicate that apathy is likely due to a dysfunction of the medial prefrontal cortex. Accordingly, in this review article, we propose a pathophysiological model to explain apathetic behavior in Alzheimer's disease, combining data from neuroimaging, neuropathology and experimental research on the role of orbito-frontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, basal ganglia and dopamine in decision-making neurobiology.Apatia é considerada a alteração neuropsiquiátrica mais freqüente nas demências e suas conseqüências são habitualmente deletérias. Apatia pode ser relacionada à disfunção do sistema anatômico responsável pela geração de ações voluntárias, conhecido com córtex pré-frontal e/ou circuitos pré-frontais-subcorticais. Na doença de Alzheimer, evidências neuropatológicas e de neuroimagem funcional indicam que a apatia é provavelmente decorrente da disfunção do córtex pré-frontal medial. Assim, neste artigo de revisão, apresentamos uma proposta de um modelo fisiopatológico para explicar o comportamento apático na doença de Alzheimer, combinando dados de neuropatologia, neuroimagem e experimentação animal sobre o papel do córtex órbito-frontal, cíngulo anterior, núcleos da base e dopamina na neurobiologia da tomada de decisão.

  7. Role of addiction and stress neurobiology on food intake and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rajita

    2018-01-01

    The US remains at the forefront of a global obesity epidemic with a significant negative impact on public health. While it is well known that a balance between energy intake and expenditure is homeostatically regulated to control weight, growing evidence points to multifactorial social, neurobehavioral and metabolic determinants of food intake that influence obesity risk. This review presents factors such as the ubiquitous presence of rewarding foods in the environment and increased salience of such foods that stimulate brain reward motivation and stress circuits to influence eating behaviors. These rewarding foods via conditioned and reinforcing effects stimulate not only metabolic, but also stress hormones, that, in turn, hijack the brain emotional (limbic) and motivational (striatal) pathways, to promote food craving and excessive food intake. Furthermore, the impact of high levels of stress and trauma and altered metabolic environment (e.g. higher weight, altered insulin sensitivity) on prefrontal cortical self-control processes that regulate emotional, motivational and visceral homeostatic mechanisms of food intake and obesity risk are also discussed. A heuristic framework is presented in which the interactive dynamic effects of neurobehavioral adaptations in metabolic, motivation and stress neurobiology may further support food craving, excessive food intake and weight gain in a complex feed-forward manner. Implications of such adaptations in brain addictive-motivational and stress pathways and their effects on excessive food intake and weight gain are discussed to highlight key questions that requires future research attention in order to better understand and address the growing obesity epidemic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical and neurobiological effects of aerobic exercise in dental phobia: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberger, Brigitt L; Plag, Jens; Schumacher, Sarah; Gaudlitz, Katharina; Bischoff, Sophie; Bobbert, Thomas; Dimeo, Fernando; Petzold, Moritz B; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Dudás, Zsuzsa; Ströhle, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    Physical activity has shown to be effective in anxiety disorders. For specific phobia, no studies are available that systematically examined the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on phobic fear within a randomized-controlled design. Therefore, we investigated the acute effect of a standardized aerobic training on clinical symptoms of dental phobia as well as on stress-related neurobiological markers. Within a crossover design, 30 patients with dental phobia (mean age: 34.1 years; mean score of the Dental Anxiety Scale: 18.8) underwent two minor dental interventions separated by 7 days. Dental treatment was performed after 30 min of physical activity at either 20% VO 2 max (control) or 70% VO 2 max (intervention), respectively. To control for habituation, patients were randomly assigned to one of the two conditions prior to the first intervention. Moreover, saliva samples were collected at five times in order to determine changes in salivary cortisol (sC) and alpha-amylase (sAA) due to treatment. In comparison to baseline, aerobic exercise within 70% VO 2 max significantly reduced clinical anxiety and sC concentrations before, during, and after the dental treatment. In contrast, the control condition led to decreased sAA levels at different time points of measurement. Habituation occurred at the second study day, independent of the order. Our study provides evidence for an effect of moderate-intense exercise on clinical symptoms and sC in patients with dental phobia. Therefore, acute aerobic exercise might be a simple and low-cost intervention to reduce disorder-specific phobic fear. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Imaging genetics and the neurobiological basis of individual differences in vulnerability to addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweitzer, Maggie M; Donny, Eric C; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2012-06-01

    Addictive disorders are heritable, but the search for candidate functional polymorphisms playing an etiological role in addiction is hindered by complexity of the phenotype and the variety of factors interacting to impact behavior. Advances in human genome sequencing and neuroimaging technology provide an unprecedented opportunity to explore the impact of functional genetic variants on variability in behaviorally relevant neural circuitry. Here, we present a model for merging these technologies to trace the links between genes, brain, and addictive behavior. We describe imaging genetics and discuss the utility of its application to addiction. We then review data pertaining to impulsivity and reward circuitry as an example of how genetic variation may lead to variation in behavioral phenotype. Finally, we present preliminary data relating the neural basis of reward processing to individual differences in nicotine dependence. Complex human behaviors such as addiction can be traced to their basic genetic building blocks by identifying intermediate behavioral phenotypes, associated neural circuitry, and underlying molecular signaling pathways. Impulsivity has been linked with variation in reward-related activation in the ventral striatum (VS), altered dopamine signaling, and functional polymorphisms of DRD2 and DAT1 genes. In smokers, changes in reward-related VS activation induced by smoking abstinence may be associated with severity of nicotine dependence. Variation in genes related to dopamine signaling may contribute to heterogeneity in VS sensitivity to reward and, ultimately, to addiction. These findings illustrate the utility of the imaging genetics approach for investigating the neurobiological basis for vulnerability to addiction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. "Ouch!" Recruitment of Overweight and Obese Adolescent Boys for Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Zachary; Gregory, David; Thibodeau, Steven; Copeland, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the complexities of recruiting overweight and obese adolescent boys for qualitative research, discuss specific recruitment considerations for this population, and offer guidance to researchers interested in recruiting overweight adolescent boys. Three overweight adolescent boys and six community…

  11. Parental Mediation of Television Viewing and Videogaming of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Melissa H.; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder spend considerable time in media activities. Parents play an important role in shaping adolescents' responses to media. This study explored the mediation strategies that parents of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder used to manage television and video game use, factors associated with their use of…

  12. Personality and Parenting Processes Associated with Problem Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents in Santiago, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Cristina B.; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Andrade, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Considerable research in the United States has established that adolescent antisocial, aggressive, and attention problem behaviors negatively influence adolescents' ability to become productive members of society. However, little is known about the development of these problems among adolescents in other countries. This study contributes to our…

  13. Social phobia: diagnosis and epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacology, comorbidity and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Brunello, Nicoletta; den Boer, Johan A.; Judd, Lewis L.; Kasper, Siegfried; Kelsey, Jeffrey E.; Lader, Malcolm; Lecrubier, Yves; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Lydiard, R. B.; Mendlewicz, Julien; Montgomery, Stuart A.; Racagni, Giorgio; Stein, Murray B.; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Social phobia is a common disorder associated with significant psychosocial impairment, representing a substantial public health problem largely determined by the high prevalence, and the lifelong chronicity. Social phobia starts in early childhood or adolescence and is often comorbid with depression, other anxiety disorders, alcohol and substance abuse or eating disorders. This cascade of comorbidity, usually secondary to social phobia, increases the disability associated with the condition....

  14. Adolescent Gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Carly E; Divasta, Amy D

    2017-06-01

    Gynecomastia, defined as the presence of glandular breast tissue in men, is a common, typically benign physical exam finding during adolescence. Although the exact pathogenesis of gynecomastia is unknown, it is likely due to a hormonal imbalance between estrogens and androgens. Most cases are idiopathic and do not require further evaluation if the history and physical examination are reassuring. Although the majority of cases will resolve spontaneously, surgical correction may be an option for adolescents with persistent and problematic gynecomastia. Gynecomastia can have significant negative impact on one's self-esteem, and it is crucial that primary care providers screen adolescents with gynecomastia for mental health concerns. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the true incidence and prevalence of gynecomastia in adolescent males, and to further investigate the short-term and long-term physical and emotional effects of gynecomastia. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.

  15. On Certain Aspects of the Problem of Adolescent Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, L.

    2004-01-01

    Adolescent prostitution is a particular social phenomenon characterized by the fact that adolescents (those under the age of eighteen), either females or males, engage more than once (at least two times) in extramarital sexual relations with a large number of people for some particular (material) consideration owing to social, economic,…

  16. Trajectories of Global Self-Esteem Development during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Melkevik, Ole; Holsen, Ingrid; Wold, Bente

    2012-01-01

    Based on data from a 17-year longitudinal study of 1083 adolescents, from the ages of 13 to 30 years, the average development of self-reported global self-esteem was found to be high and stable during adolescence. However, there is considerable inter-individual variance in baseline and development of global self-esteem. This study used latent…

  17. The National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA): A Multisite Study of Adolescent Development and Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sandra A; Brumback, Ty; Tomlinson, Kristin; Cummins, Kevin; Thompson, Wesley K; Nagel, Bonnie J; De Bellis, Michael D; Hooper, Stephen R; Clark, Duncan B; Chung, Tammy; Hasler, Brant P; Colrain, Ian M; Baker, Fiona C; Prouty, Devin; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V; Pohl, Kilian M; Rohlfing, Torsten; Nichols, B Nolan; Chu, Weiwei; Tapert, Susan F

    2015-11-01

    During adolescence, neurobiological maturation occurs concurrently with social and interpersonal changes, including the initiation of alcohol and other substance use. The National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) is designed to disentangle the complex relationships between onset, escalation, and desistance of alcohol use and changes in neurocognitive functioning and neuromaturation. A sample of 831 youth, ages 12-21 years, was recruited at five sites across the United States, oversampling those at risk for alcohol use problems. Most (83%) had limited or no history of alcohol or other drug use, and a smaller portion (17%) exceeded drinking thresholds. A comprehensive assessment of biological development, family background, psychiatric symptomatology, and neuropsychological functioning-in addition to anatomical, diffusion, and functional brain magnetic resonance imaging-was completed at baseline. The NCANDA sample of youth is nationally representative of sex and racial/ethnic groups. More than 50% have at least one risk characteristic for subsequent heavy drinking (e.g., family history, internalizing or externalizing symptoms). As expected, those who exceeded drinking thresholds (n = 139) differ from those who did not (n = 692) on identified factors associated with early alcohol use and problems. NCANDA successfully recruited a large sample of adolescents and comprehensively assessed psychosocial functioning across multiple domains. Based on the sample's risk profile, NCANDA is well positioned to capture the transition into drinking and alcohol problems in a large portion of the cohort, as well as to help disentangle the associations between alcohol use, neurobiological maturation, and neurocognitive development and functioning.

  18. What develops during emotional development? A component process approach to identifying sources of psychopathology risk in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Garrad, Megan C.; Somerville, Leah H.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a phase of the lifespan associated with widespread changes in emotional behavior thought to reflect both changing environments and stressors, and psychological and neurobiological development. However, emotions themselves are complex phenomena that are composed of multiple subprocesses. In this paper, we argue that examining emotional development from a process-level perspective facilitates important insights into the mechanisms that underlie adolescents' shifting emotions and intensified risk for psychopathology. Contrasting the developmental progressions for the antecedents to emotion, physiological reactivity to emotion, emotional regulation capacity, and motivation to experience particular affective states reveals complex trajectories that intersect in a unique way during adolescence. We consider the implications of these intersecting trajectories for negative outcomes such as psychopathology, as well as positive outcomes for adolescent social bonds. PMID:26869841

  19. What develops during emotional development? A component process approach to identifying sources of psychopathology risk in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Garrad, Megan C; Somerville, Leah H

    2015-12-01

    Adolescence is a phase of the lifespan associated with widespread changes in emotional behavior thought to reflect both changing environments and stressors, and psychological and neurobiological development. However, emotions themselves are complex phenomena that are composed of multiple subprocesses. In this paper, we argue that examining emotional development from a process-level perspective facilitates important insights into the mechanisms that underlie adolescents' shifting emotions and intensified risk for psychopathology. Contrasting the developmental progressions for the antecedents to emotion, physiological reactivity to emotion, emotional regulation capacity, and motivation to experience particular affective states reveals complex trajectories that intersect in a unique way during adolescence. We consider the implications of these intersecting trajectories for negative outcomes such as psychopathology, as well as positive outcomes for adolescent social bonds.

  20. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P.

    1997-01-01

    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper

  1. Revealed preference with limited consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.; Seel, C.

    2014-01-01

    We derive revealed preference tests for models where individuals use consideration sets to simplify their consumption problem. Our basic test provides necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency of observed choices with the existence of consideration set restrictions. The same conditions can

  2. Ethical Considerations in Technology Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines ethical considerations involved in the transfer of appropriate information technology to less developed countries. Approaches to technology are considered; two philosophical frameworks for studying ethical considerations are discussed, i.e., the Kantian approach and the utilitarian perspective by John Stuart Mill; and integration of the…

  3. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper.

  4. Adolescent Pregnancy Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Nathalie; O'Driscoll, Teresa; Becker, Gisela; Spitzer, Rachel F

    2015-08-01

    on contraceptive methods, especially long-acting reversible contraception methods, as a means to decrease the high rates of repeat pregnancy in this population; discussion of contraception should begin before delivery. (III-A) 18. Breastfeeding should be recommended and sufficient support given to this population at high risk for discontinuation. (II-2A) 19. Postpartum care programs should be available to support adolescent parents and their children, to improve the mothers' knowledge of parenting, to increase breastfeeding rates, to screen for and manage postpartum depression, to increase birth intervals, and to decrease repeated unintended pregnancy rates. (III-B) 20. Adolescent women in rural, remote, northern, and Aboriginal communities should be supported to give birth as close to home as possible. (II-2A) 21. Adolescent pregnant women who need to be evacuated from a remote community should be able to have a family member or other person accompany them to provide support and encouragement. (II-2A) 22. Culturally safe prenatal care including emotional, educational, and clinical support to assist adolescent parents in leading healthier lives should be available, especially in northern and Aboriginal communities. (II-3A) 23. Cultural beliefs around miscarriage and pregnancy issues, and special considerations in the handling of fetal remains, placental tissue, and the umbilical cord, must be respected. (III).

  5. Study of mouse behavioural response in microgravity: ethogram and neurobiological related

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, Daniela; Francia, Nadia; Schwartz, Silvia; Biticchi, Roberta; Liu, Yi; Cancedda, Ranieri; Aloe, Luigi

    The conquest of space, which started with the dog Laika in 1966 to be followed few years later by Yuri Gagarin, has witnessed an increasing numbers of both vertebrates (tadpoles, frogs, rats mice etc.) and invertebrates (flies, scorpions, protozoa) species exposed to zero gravity levels. Animals are sent into orbit to proactively foresee possible health problems in humans. The issue of animal exposure to un-physiological gravity is of primary importance to i) understand behavioural and physiological adaptations in such environment as well as ii) develop coun-termeasures to improve 0-g life conditions and reduce possible animal suffering. The Mouse Drawer System (MDS), an Italian facility, has been transferred to the International Space Sta-tion with a first experiment investigating mechanisms underlying bone mass loss in microgravity in mice. Preliminary and ground-based control experiments have been conducted with six mice housed individually inside the MDS facility for 20 and 100 days. The behavioural repertoire of wild-type and transgenic mice housed in the MDS has been videorecorded with the observation subsystem, which allows to monitor animal's behavior through the use of 6 video cameras. The behavioural patterns characterizing mice in the MDS system have been finely analysed at several time points during the the experiment. Moreover, neurobiological parameters, known to be involved in the response to stress, have been evaluated. In particular, NGF and BDNF levels have been measured in the central nervous system (hippocampus, striatum, and cortex), adrenal gland and limbs. Preliminary data from ground based experiment revealed Several dif-ferences in behavioural profile between wt and tg mice, with transgenic ones apparently more active than wild type controls. Moreover a clear difference in time spent in different areas of the MDS cage was observed. Finally changes in neurotrophins levels were observed in relation to both genotype and environmental

  6. Aspectos neurobiológicos de la psicopatía Neurobiological aspects of psychopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Gil Restrepo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available La psicopatía es un constructo psiquiátrico caracterizado por un patrón permanente de déficit afectivo y una falta de respeto por los derechos de los demás y por las normas sociales. El término equivale al “trastorno de personalidad antisocial” DSM-IV-TR y al “Trastorno disocial de personalidad” de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades (CIE-10. Los individuos afectados comienzan a presentar características psicopáticas desde la niñez, son propensos a involucrarse en conductas criminales pero no a resocializarse con los programas penitenciarios, y reinciden con más rapidez, crueldad y violencia que los criminales no psicópatas. La etiopatogenia parece basarse en la interacción compleja de factores biológicos y psicosociales. El objetivo del presente artículo es presentar una revisión actualizada de los aspectos neurobiológicos de la psicopatía entre los cuales se encuentran los obstétricos, neuroanatómicos, neuroquímicos y genéticos. Psychopathy is a psychiatric construct characterized by a permanent pattern of affective deficit, and a lack of respect for the rights of other people and the social norms. The term is equivalent to the “Antisocial personality disorder” of the DSMIV-TR, and to the “Dissocial personality disorder” of the CIE-10. Since childhood, the affected individuals begin to display psychopathic characteristics and they have tendency to become involved in criminal behaviors but not to resocialice themselves with penitentiary programs; they reoffend more rapidly, with more cruelty and violence than non-psychopathic criminals. Etiopathogenesis of psychopathy is based on the complex interaction of biological and psychosocial factors. The objective of the present article is to provide an updated review about the neurobiological aspects of psychopathy among them the obstetric, neuroanatomical, neurochemical and genetic.

  7. Avatar's neurobiological traces in the self-concept of massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, Julia; Hill, Holger; Sell, Madlen; Reinhard, Iris; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Kiefer, Falk; Mann, Karl; Leménager, Tagrid

    2015-02-01

    Psychometric studies suggest that observed self-concept deficits in addicted massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) are compensated through the replacement of their ideal (i.e., how an individual would like to be) by their own avatar (i.e., graphical agent in the virtual world). Neurobiological studies indicate that increased identification with their own avatar in regular MMORPG gamers is possibly reflected by enhanced avatar-referential brain activation in the left angular gyrus (AG). However, the neurobiological correlates reflecting the relations of the avatar to addicted gamers' self and ideal are still unexplored. Therefore, we compare these relations between addicted and nonaddicted MMORPG gamers. A sample of n = 15 addicted and n = 17 nonaddicted players underwent functional MRI (fMRI) while completing a Giessen-Test (GT)-derived paradigm assessing self-, ideal-, and avatar-related self-concept domains. Neurobiological analyses included the comparisons avatar versus self, avatar versus ideal, and avatar versus self, ideal. Psychometrically, addicts showed significantly lower scores on the self-concept subscale of 'social resonance,' that is, social popularity. In all avatar-related contrasts, within-group comparisons showed addicted players to exhibit significantly higher brain activations in the left AG. The between-groups comparisons revealed avatar-related left AG hyperactivations in addicts. Our results may suggest that addicted MMORPG players identify significantly more with their avatar than nonaddicted gamers. The concrete avatar might increasingly replace the rather abstract ideal in the transition from normal- controlled to addictive-compulsive MMORPG usage. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced prefrontal-amygdala connectivity following childhood adversity as a protective mechanism against internalizing in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herringa, Ryan J; Burghy, Cory A; Stodola, Diane E; Fox, Michelle E; Davidson, Richard J; Essex, Marilyn J

    2016-07-01

    Much research has focused on the deleterious neurobiological effects of childhood adversity that may underlie internalizing disorders. While most youth show emotional adaptation following adversity, the corresponding neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this longitudinal community study, we examined the associations among childhood family adversity, adolescent internalizing symptoms, and their interaction on regional brain activation and amygdala/hippocampus functional connectivity during emotion processing in 132 adolescents. Consistent with prior work, childhood adversity predicted heightened amygdala reactivity to negative, but not positive, images in adolescence. However, amygdala reactivity was not related to internalizing symptoms. Furthermore, childhood adversity predicted increased fronto-amygdala connectivity to negative, but not positive, images, yet only in lower internalizing adolescents. Childhood adversity also predicted increased fronto-hippocampal connectivity to negative images, but was not moderated by internalizing. These findings were unrelated to adolescence adversity or externalizing symptoms, suggesting specificity to childhood adversity and adolescent internalizing. Together, these findings suggest that adaptation to childhood adversity is associated with augmentation of fronto-subcortical circuits specifically for negative emotional stimuli. Conversely, insufficient enhancement of fronto-amygdala connectivity, with increasing amygdala reactivity, may represent a neural signature of vulnerability for internalizing by late adolescence. These findings implicate early childhood as a critical period in determining the brain's adaptation to adversity, and suggest that even normative adverse experiences can have significant impact on neurodevelopment and functioning. These results offer potential neural mechanisms of adaptation and vulnerability which could be used in the prediction of risk for psychopathology following childhood

  9. Attention networks in adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbach, Noam; Sher, Helene; Lock, James D; Henik, Avishai

    2018-03-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) usually develops during adolescence when considerable structural and functional brain changes are taking place. Neurocognitive inefficiencies have been consistently found in adults with enduring AN and were suggested to play a role in maintaining the disorder. However, such findings are inconsistent in children and adolescents with AN. The current study conducted a comprehensive assessment of attention networks in adolescents with AN who were not severely underweight during the study using an approach that permits disentangling independent components of attention. Twenty partially weight-restored adolescents with AN (AN-WR) and 24 healthy adolescents performed the Attention Network Test which assesses the efficiency of three main attention networks-executive control, orienting, and alerting. The results revealed abnormal function in the executive control network among adolescents with AN-WR. Specifically, adolescents with AN-WR demonstrated superior ability to suppress attention to task-irrelevant information while focusing on a central task. Moreover, the alerting network modulated this ability. No difference was found between the groups in the speed of orienting attention, but reorienting attention to a target resulted in higher error rates in the AN-WR group. The findings suggest that adolescents with AN have attentional abnormalities that cannot be explained by a state of starvation. These attentional dysregulations may underlie clinical phenotypes of the disorder such as increased attention of details.

  10. Stochastic modeling of neurobiological time series: Power, coherence, Granger causality, and separation of evoked responses from ongoing activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yonghong; Bressler, Steven L.; Knuth, Kevin H.; Truccolo, Wilson A.; Ding, Mingzhou

    2006-06-01

    In this article we consider the stochastic modeling of neurobiological time series from cognitive experiments. Our starting point is the variable-signal-plus-ongoing-activity model. From this model a differentially variable component analysis strategy is developed from a Bayesian perspective to estimate event-related signals on a single trial basis. After subtracting out the event-related signal from recorded single trial time series, the residual ongoing activity is treated as a piecewise stationary stochastic process and analyzed by an adaptive multivariate autoregressive modeling strategy which yields power, coherence, and Granger causality spectra. Results from applying these methods to local field potential recordings from monkeys performing cognitive tasks are presented.

  11. Collective motion in animal groups from a neurobiological perspective: the adaptive benefits of dynamic sensory loads and selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasson, B H; Anderson, J J; Goodwin, R A

    2009-12-21

    We explore mechanisms associated with collective animal motion by drawing on the neurobiological bases of sensory information processing and decision-making. The model uses simplified retinal processes to translate neighbor movement patterns into information through spatial signal integration and threshold responses. The structure provides a mechanism by which individuals can vary their sets of influential neighbors, a measure of an individual's sensory load. Sensory loads are correlated with group order and density, and we discuss their adaptive values in an ecological context. The model also provides a mechanism by which group members can identify, and rapidly respond to, novel visual stimuli.

  12. A case report of hypertensive bleed presenting with pathological laughter: Focus on neurobiological correlates and pharmacological management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujita Kumar Kar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathological laughter and crying are episodes of either laughter or crying, which is intense and uncontrollable, usually lasting for brief periods and occurring in paroxysms. In the literature, pathological laughing and crying, emotionalism, pseudo-bulbar affect are synonymously used. Favorable evidences exist with regard to the use of antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and anti-glutaminergic agents for the management of pathological laughter and crying. In this case report, we highlight the clinical presentation of hypertensive bleed in the form of pathological laughter and its management with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor - sertraline along with literature review regarding its neurobiological basis and pharmacological management.

  13. Multi-modal neuroimaging of adolescents with non-suicidal self-injury: Amygdala functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlund Schreiner, Melinda; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Mueller, Bryon A; Eberly, Lynn E; Reigstad, Kristina M; Carstedt, Patricia A; Thomas, Kathleen M; Hunt, Ruskin H; Lim, Kelvin O; Cullen, Kathryn R

    2017-10-15

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a significant mental health problem among adolescents. Research is needed to clarify the neurobiology of NSSI and identify candidate neurobiological targets for interventions. Based on prior research implicating heightened negative affect and amygdala hyperactivity in NSSI, we pursued a systems approach to characterize amygdala functional connectivity networks during rest (resting-state functional connectivity [RSFC)]) and a task (task functional connectivity [TFC]) in adolescents with NSSI. We examined amygdala networks in female adolescents with NSSI and healthy controls (n = 45) using resting-state fMRI and a negative emotion face-matching fMRI task designed to activate the amygdala. Connectivity analyses included amygdala RSFC, amygdala TFC, and psychophysiological interactions (PPI) between amygdala connectivity and task conditions. Compared to healthy controls, adolescents with NSSI showed atypical amygdala-frontal connectivity during rest and task; greater amygdala RSFC in supplementary motor area (SMA) and dorsal anterior cingulate; and differential amygdala-occipital connectivity between rest and task. After correcting for depression symptoms, amygdala-SMA RSFC abnormalities, among others, remained significant. This study's limitations include its cross-sectional design and its absence of a psychiatric control group. Using a multi-modal approach, we identified widespread amygdala circuitry anomalies in adolescents with NSSI. While deficits in amygdala-frontal connectivity (driven by depression symptoms) replicates prior work in depression, hyperconnectivity between amygdala and SMA (independent of depression symptoms) has not been previously reported. This circuit may represent an important mechanism underlying the link between negative affect and habitual behaviors. These abnormalities may represent intervention targets for adolescents with NSSI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Design Considerations | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  15. State/Federal Regulatory Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains presentations from the Brown to Green: Make the Connection to Renewable Energy workshop held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, during December 10-11, 2008, regarding State/Federal Regulatory Considerations.

  16. Punishing adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Should an adolescent offender be punished more leniently than an adult offender? Many theorists believe the answer to be in the affirmative. According to the diminished culpability model, adolescents are less mature than adults and, therefore, less responsible for their wrongdoings and should...... consequently be punished less harshly. This article concerns the first part of the model: the relation between immaturity and diminished responsibility. It is argued that this relation faces three normative challenges which do not allow for easy answers and which are still widely ignored in the comprehensive...

  17. Contraceptive counseling for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Julia; Santelli, John S

    2015-11-01

    The majority of adolescents become sexually active during their teenage years, making contraceptive counseling an important aspect of routine adolescent healthcare. However, many healthcare providers express discomfort when it comes to counseling adolescents about contraceptive options. This Special Report highlights the evidence supporting age-appropriate contraceptive counseling for adolescents and focuses on best practices for addressing adolescents' questions and concerns about contraceptive methods.

  18. Nature and autonomy: an organizational view of social and neurobiological aspects of self-regulation in behavior and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, R M; Kuhl, J; Deci, E L

    1997-01-01

    The concepts of self-regulation and autonomy are examined within an organizational framework. We begin by retracing the historical origins of the organizational viewpoint in early debates within the field of biology between vitalists and reductionists, from which the construct of self-regulation emerged. We then consider human autonomy as an evolved behavioral, developmental, and experiential phenomenon that operates at both neurobiological and psychological levels and requires very specific supports within higher order social organizations. We contrast autonomy or true self-regulation with controlling regulation (a nonautonomous form of intentional behavior) in phenomenological and functional terms, and we relate the forms of regulation to the developmental processes of intrinsic motivation and internalization. Subsequently, we describe how self-regulation versus control may be characterized by distinct neurobiological underpinnings, and we speculate about some of the adaptive advantages that may underlie the evolution of autonomy. Throughout, we argue that disturbances of autonomy, which have both biological and psychological etiologies, are central to many forms of psychopathology and social alienation.

  19. The nuclear receptor Tlx regulates motor, cognitive and anxiety-related behaviours during adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, James D; Kozareva, Danka A; Hueston, Cara M; O'Leary, Olivia F; Cryan, John F; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2016-06-01

    The nuclear receptor Tlx is a key regulator of embryonic and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and has been genetically linked to bipolar disorder. Mice lacking Tlx (Nr2e1(-/-)) display deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and behavioural abnormalities. However, whether Tlx regulates behaviour during adolescence or in a sex-dependent manner remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the role of Tlx in a series of behavioural tasks in adolescent male and female mice with a spontaneous deletion of Tlx (Nr2e1(-/-) mice). Testing commenced at adolescence (postnatal day 28) and continued until adulthood (postnatal day 67). Adolescent male and female Nr2e1(-/-) mice were hyperactive in an open field, an effect that persisted in adulthood. Male but not female Nr2e1(-/-) mice exhibited reduced thigmotaxis during adolescence and adulthood. Impairments in rotarod motor performance developed in male and female Nr2e1(-/-) mice at the onset of adulthood. Spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze, a hippocampus-dependent task, was impaired in adolescent but not adult male and female Nr2e1(-/-) mice. Contextual fear conditioning was impaired in adolescent male Nr2e1(-/-) mice only, but both male and female adolescent Nr2e1(-/-) mice showed impaired cued fear conditioning, a hippocampal-amygdala dependent cognitive process. These deficits persisted into adulthood in males but not females. In conclusion, deletion of Tlx impairs motor, cognitive and anxiety-related behaviours during adolescence and adulthood in male and female mice with most effects occurring during adolescence rather than adulthood, independent of housing conditions. This suggests that Tlx has functions beyond regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and may be an important target in understanding neurobiological disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Adolescent homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronski Huwiler, S M; Remafedi, G

    1998-01-01

    Homosexuality has existed in all civilizations, but societal disapproval and cultural taboos have negatively influenced its recognition. A significant percentage of youths identify themselves as homosexual, and even more experience sex with the same sex or are confused about sexual feelings. A unifying etiological theory attributes the expression of sexual orientation to genes that shape the central nervous system's development, organization, and structure via prenatal sex steroids. Environmental factors may influence the expression of genetic potential. Several models of psychosocial development describe initial stages of awareness and confusion about same-sex attractions, followed by acknowledgement of homosexuality, disclosure to others, and eventual integration of sexual identity into a comprehensive sense of self. Stressors related to isolation, stigma, and violence may predispose homosexual adolescents to impaired social, emotional, and physical health, resulting in depression and suicide, school problems, substance abuse, running away eating disorders, risky sexual behavior, and illegal conduct. As with all adolescents, the overall goals in the care of homosexual youth are to promote normal adolescent development, social and emotional well-being, and physical health. A comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach is required to address medical, mental health, and psychosocial issues within the context of the adolescents' community and culture.

  1. [Adolescent sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2010-01-01

    The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions.

  2. [Preliminary evidence of neurobiological and behavioral consequences of exposure to childhood maltreatment on regional brain development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Akemi

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, the topic of child abuse as an issue facing Japanese society has gained considerable attention with regard to the field of medicine and education and also in scenarios that relate to child care. The definition of child abuse includes abusing children verbally or psychologically, and is not limited to abusing children physically such as beating, sexual abuse, or neglect. Recent studies have revealed that emotional trauma during childhood development could be much more difficult to treat than physical abuse. Severe abuse during childhood can cause abnormal brain development and have a negative impact later in life. In this review, I will introduce the mechanisms of brain damage due to child abuse with consideration of how and when child abuse can have an impact on the victims' brains. The information presented is based on a collaborative study with the Psychiatry Department at Harvard University on the relationship between brain functions and the human mind.

  3. Ayahuasca in adolescence: a preliminary psychiatric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier; Grob, Charles S; de Rios, Marlene Dobkin; Lopez, Enrique; Alonso, Luisa K; Tacla, Cristiane; Doering-Silveira, Evelyn

    2005-06-01

    Ayahuasca is believed to be harmless for those (including adolescents) drinking it within a religious setting. Nevertheless controlled studies on the mental/ psychiatric status of ritual hallucinogenic ayahuasca concoction consumers are still lacking. In this study, 40 adolescents from a Brazilian ayahuasca sect were compared with 40 controls matched on sex, age, and educational background for psychiatric symptomatology. Screening scales for depression, anxiety, alcohol consumption patterns (abuse), attentional problems, and body dysmorphic disorders were used. It was found that, compared to controls, considerable lower frequencies of positive scoring for anxiety, body dismorphism, and attentional problems were detected among ayahuasca-using adolescents despite overall similar psychopathological profiles displayed by both study groups. Low frequencies of psychiatric symptoms detected among adolescents consuming ayahuasca within a religious context may reflect a protective effect due to their religious affiliation. However further studies on the possible interference of other variables in the outcome are necessary.

  4. An avant-garde professorship of neurobiology in education: Christofredo Jakob (1866-1956) and the 1920s lead of the National University of La Plata, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théodoridou, Zoe D; Koutsoklenis, Athanasios; del Cerro, Manuel; Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2013-01-01

    The interdisciplinary trend in "Mind, Brain, and Education" has witnessed dynamic international growth in recent years. Yet, it remains little known that the National University of La Plata in Argentina probably holds the historical precedent as the world's first institution of higher education that formally included neurobiology in the curriculum of an educational department, having done so as early as 1922. The responsibility of teaching neurobiology to educators was assigned to Professor Christofredo Jakob (1866-1956). In the present article, we highlight Jakob's emphasis on interdisciplinarity and, in particular, on the neuroscientific foundations of education, including special education.

  5. Adolescent emotional maturation through divergent models of brain organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Víctor Orón Semper

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce the hypothesis that neuropsychological adolescent maturation, and in particular emotional management, may have opposing explanations depending on the interpretation of the assumed brain architecture, that is, whether a componential computational account (CCA or a dynamic systems perspective (DSP is used. According to CCA, cognitive functions are associated with the action of restricted brain regions, and this association is temporally stable; by contrast, DSP argues that cognitive functions are better explained by interactions between several brain areas, whose engagement in specific functions is temporal and context-dependent and based on neural reuse. We outline the main neurobiological facts about adolescent maturation, focusing on the neuroanatomical and neurofunctional processes associated with adolescence. We then explain the importance of emotional management in adolescent maturation. We explain the interplay between emotion and cognition under the scope of CCA and DSP, both at neural and behavioral levels. Finally, we justify why, according to CCA, emotional management is understood as regulation, specifically because the cognitive aspects of the brain are in charge of regulating emotion-related modules. However, the key word in DSP is integration, since neural information from different brain areas is integrated from the beginning of the process. Consequently, although the terms should not be conceptually confused, there is no cognition without emotion, and vice versa. Thus, emotional integration is not an independent process that just happens to the subject, but a crucial part of personal growth. Considering the importance of neuropsychological research in the development of educational and legal policies concerning adolescents, we intend to expose that the holistic view of adolescents is dependent on whether one holds the implicit or explicit interpretation of brain functioning.

  6. FDA cigarette warning labels lower craving and elicit frontoinsular activation in adolescent smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Kathy T.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an economically and epidemiologically expensive public health concern. Most adult smokers become addicted during adolescence, rendering it a crucial period for prevention and intervention. Although litigation claims have delayed implementation, graphic warning labels proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may be a promising way to achieve this goal. We aimed to determine the efficacy of the labels in reducing in-scanner craving and to characterize the neurobiological responses in adolescent and adult smokers and non-smokers. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, thirty-nine 13- to 18-year-old adolescent and forty-one 25- to 30-year-old adult smokers and non-smokers rated their desire to smoke when presented with emotionally graphic warning labels and comparison non-graphic labels. Compared with adult smokers, adolescent smokers exhibited greater craving reduction in response to the warning labels. Although smokers evinced overall blunted recruitment of insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) relative to non-smokers, an effect that was stronger in adolescent smokers, parametrically increasing activation of these regions was associated with greater craving reduction. Functional connectivity analyses suggest that greater DLPFC regulation of limbic regions predicted cigarette craving. These data underscore a prominent role of frontoinsular circuitry in predicting the efficacy of FDA graphic warning labels in craving reduction in adult and adolescent smokers. PMID:25887154

  7. Becoming a sexual being: The ‘elephant in the room’ of adolescent brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahna Ballonoff Suleiman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The onset of adolescence is a time of profound changes in motivation, cognition, behavior, and social relationships. Existing neurodevelopmental models have integrated our current understanding of adolescent brain development; however, there has been surprisingly little focus on the importance of adolescence as a sensitive period for romantic and sexual development. As young people enter adolescence, one of their primary tasks is to gain knowledge and experience that will allow them to take on the social roles of adults, including engaging in romantic and sexual relationships. By reviewing the relevant human and animal neurodevelopmental literature, this paper highlights how we should move beyond thinking of puberty as simply a set of somatic changes that are critical for physical reproductive maturation. Rather, puberty also involves a set of neurobiological changes that are critical for the social, emotional, and cognitive maturation necessary for reproductive success. The primary goal of this paper is to broaden the research base and dialogue about adolescent romantic and sexual development, in hopes of advancing understanding of sex and romance as important developmental dimensions of health and well-being in adolescence.

  8. Becoming a sexual being: The 'elephant in the room' of adolescent brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Galván, Adriana; Harden, K Paige; Dahl, Ronald E

    2017-06-01

    The onset of adolescence is a time of profound changes in motivation, cognition, behavior, and social relationships. Existing neurodevelopmental models have integrated our current understanding of adolescent brain development; however, there has been surprisingly little focus on the importance of adolescence as a sensitive period for romantic and sexual development. As young people enter adolescence, one of their primary tasks is to gain knowledge and experience that will allow them to take on the social roles of adults, including engaging in romantic and sexual relationships. By reviewing the relevant human and animal neurodevelopmental literature, this paper highlights how we should move beyond thinking of puberty as simply a set of somatic changes that are critical for physical reproductive maturation. Rather, puberty also involves a set of neurobiological changes that are critical for the social, emotional, and cognitive maturation necessary for reproductive success. The primary goal of this paper is to broaden the research base and dialogue about adolescent romantic and sexual development, in hopes of advancing understanding of sex and romance as important developmental dimensions of health and well-being in adolescence. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Association of Elevated Reward Prediction Error Response With Weight Gain in Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGuzman, Marisa; Shott, Megan E; Yang, Tony T; Riederer, Justin; Frank, Guido K W

    2017-06-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric disorder of unknown etiology. Understanding associations between behavior and neurobiology is important in treatment development. Using a novel monetary reward task during functional magnetic resonance brain imaging, the authors tested how brain reward learning in adolescent anorexia nervosa changes with weight restoration. Female adolescents with anorexia nervosa (N=21; mean age, 16.4 years [SD=1.9]) underwent functional MRI (fMRI) before and after treatment; similarly, healthy female control adolescents (N=21; mean age, 15.2 years [SD=2.4]) underwent fMRI on two occasions. Brain function was tested using the reward prediction error construct, a computational model for reward receipt and omission related to motivation and neural dopamine responsiveness. Compared with the control group, the anorexia nervosa group exhibited greater brain response 1) for prediction error regression within the caudate, ventral caudate/nucleus accumbens, and anterior and posterior insula, 2) to unexpected reward receipt in the anterior and posterior insula, and 3) to unexpected reward omission in the caudate body. Prediction error and unexpected reward omission response tended to normalize with treatment, while unexpected reward receipt response remained significantly elevated. Greater caudate prediction error response when underweight was associated with lower weight gain during treatment. Punishment sensitivity correlated positively with ventral caudate prediction error response. Reward system responsiveness is elevated in adolescent anorexia nervosa when underweight and after weight restoration. Heightened prediction error activity in brain reward regions may represent a phenotype of adolescent anorexia nervosa that does not respond well to treatment. Prediction error response could be a neurobiological marker of illness severity that can indicate individual treatment needs.

  10. Design considerations for mechanical snubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.; Summers, G.D.

    1980-03-01

    The use of mechanical snubbers to restrain piping during an earthquake event is becoming more common in design of nuclear power plants. The design considerations and qualification procedures for mechanical snubbers used on the Fast Flux Test Facility will be presented. Design precautions and requirements for both normal operation and seismic operation are necessary. Effects of environmental vibration (nonseismic) induced through the piping by pump shaft imbalance and fluid flow oscillations will be addressed. Also, the snubber dynamic characteristics of interest to design and snubber design application considerations will be discussed

  11. Nuclear energy applications - ethical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoermann, K.

    1980-01-01

    Following an Austrian referendum in 1978 which showed a small majority against operation of nuclear power stations, the economic penalties involved by this decision are qualitatively discussed, with emphasis on reduced standards of living. Religious considerations are examined and the difficulty of obtaining informed public opinion is stressed. Alternative sources of energy, including nuclear fusion, are briefly referred to. (G.M.E.)

  12. LABORATORY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR SAFETY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Safety Council, Chicago, IL. Campus Safety Association.

    THIS SET OF CONSIDERATIONS HAS BEEN PREPARED TO PROVIDE PERSONS WORKING ON THE DESIGN OF NEW OR REMODELED LABORATORY FACILITIES WITH A SUITABLE REFERENCE GUIDE TO DESIGN SAFETY. THERE IS NO DISTINCTION BETWEEN TYPES OF LABORATORY AND THE EMPHASIS IS ON GIVING GUIDES AND ALTERNATIVES RATHER THAN DETAILED SPECIFICATIONS. AREAS COVERED INCLUDE--(1)…

  13. General B factory design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    We describe the general considerations that go into the design of an asymmetric B factory collider. Justification is given for the typical parameters of such a facility, and the physics and technology challenges that arise from these parameter choices are discussed. Cost and schedule issues for a B factory are discussed briefly. A summary of existing proposals is presented, noting their similarities and differences

  14. Practical considerations for effective microendoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Thanassis; Papazoglou, Theodore G.; Daykhovsky, Leon; Gershman, Alex; Segalowitz, Jacob; Reznik, G.; Beeder, Clain; Chandra, Mudjianto; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports on the application of angioscopic technology to the endoscopy of previously inaccessible body cavities. Necessary instruments including endoscopes, light sources, cameras, video recorders, monitors, and other accessories are described. Practical considerations for effective instrumentation are discussed. An overview of our clinical microendoscopic applications in more than 630 patients is presented.

  15. Understanding the neurobiology of fear conditioning and emergence of posttraumatic stress disorder psychobiology: commentary on Blanchard et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A; Figley, Charles R

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we discuss the historical evolution of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after the Vietnam War, with a focus on an article by Blanchard, Kolb, Prins, Gates, and McCoy (J Nerv Ment Dis 179:371-373, 1991) published in this Journal in 1991 entitled Changes in Plasma Norepinephrine to Combat-Related Stimuli Among Vietnam Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. In this commentary, we discuss the significance of this brief article and the developments in the PTSD field before, during, and after the Blanchard publication. Within this context, we discuss the eventual recognition in both the clinical and scientific fields that PTSD had a major neurobiological foundation. Finally, we examine the key implication of these discoveries from an epidemiological, a clinical, and a public health perspective.

  16. The neuropsychology and neurobiology of late-onset schizophrenia and very-late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, Lies; Morrens, Manuel; Luyten, Patrick; Van de Ven, Luc; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2017-12-01

    The current review discusses neuropsychological profiles and the longitudinal course of cognitive dysfunction in Late Onset Schizophrenia (LOS) and Very-late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis (VLOSLP), and attempts to clarify its neurobiological underpinnings. A systematic literature search resulted in 29 publications describing original research on the neuropsychology of LOS/VLOSLP and 46 studies focussing on neurobiology. Although mildly progressive cognitive impairment is usually present, only a subgroup of LOS/VLOSLP develops dementia during a 10-year follow-up succeeding the onset of psychosis. This coincides with the absence of neuropathological evidence for neurodegeneration in many cases. Cognitive deterioration is characterized by deficits in (working) memory, language, psychomotor speed and executive functioning. Underlying neurobiological changes encompass white matter pathology, increased ventricle-to-brain ratio (VBR) with coinciding atrophy and hypo-metabolism of frontal, temporal and subcortical areas. Multiple changes in neurobiology and cognition contributing to LOS/VLOSLP may reflect stress-related accelerated brain aging rather than neurodegenerative pathology. Their involvement in the onset of illness, however, might be inversely proportional to pre-existing (psychosocial and/or genetic) vulnerability to psychosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring in vitro neurobiological effects and high-pressure liquid chromatography-assisted quantitation of chlorogenic acid in 18 Turkish coffee brands

    OpenAIRE

    Erdem, Sinem Aslan; Senol, F. Sezer; Budakoglu, Esin; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Sener, Bilge

    2016-01-01

    The hydroalcoholic extracts of the Turkish traditional coffee samples from 18 commercial brands were tested for their neurobiological effects through enzyme inhibition based on enzyme-linked immunosorbance microtiter assays against acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and tyrosinase, linked to Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The extracts were also subjected to several antioxidant test systems to define their antiradical, metal-chelation capacity, and reducing power. Total phenol...

  18. Habit reversal training for tic disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, John; Chang, Susanna

    2005-11-01

    Chronic tic disorders, including Tourette's syndrome (TS), affect approximately .5% of children and adolescents. Although strong evidence exists supporting a neurobiological etiology, operant factors may play a role in the maintenance of tic behaviors. Pharmacological approaches remain the most commonly used intervention for chronic tic disorder in children and adults. Nevertheless, the unpredictable efficacy and serious side effects associated with medication along with parental concerns about long-term medication use in children underlie the need for nonpharmacological interventions for tics in this age group. This article reviews the rationale and evidence base for the use of habit reversal training (HRT), a multicomponent behavioral treatment package, as a treatment for childhood tics. Each of the primary treatment components of HRT is described and implementation is illustrated in case report format. A growing body of data suggests that HRT is a well-tolerated and efficacious intervention for tic disorders in this age group.

  19. Neurobiological circuits regulating attention, cognitive control, motivation, and emotion: disruptions in neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnsten, Amy F T; Rubia, Katya

    2012-04-01

    between anatomical circuitry mediating compromised functions and patterns of brain structure and function changes in children with neuropsychiatric disorders. Medications may optimize the neurochemical environment in PFC and associated circuitries, and improve structure and function. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dimensions of Adolescent Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mael, Fred A.; Morath, Ray A.; McLellan, Jeffrey A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines positive and negative correlates of adolescent work as a function of work dimensions. Results indicate that concurrent costs and benefits of adolescent employment may depend on dimensions of work as well as adolescent characteristics. Adolescent employment was generally related to subsequent work motivation and nonacademic performance.…

  1. Spirituality in adolescent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Meaghann S; Wratchford, Dale

    2017-07-01

    Adolescence, the transition between childhood and adulthood, represents a time of rapid biological, neurocognitive, and psychosocial changes. These changes have important implications for the development and evolution of adolescent spirituality, particularly for adolescents with chronic or life-limiting illnesses. To contribute positively to adolescent spiritual formation, palliative care teams benefit from understanding the normative changes expected to occur during adolescence. This paper provides a narrative review of adolescent spirituality while recognizing the role of religious, familial, and cultural influences on spiritual development during the teenage years. By giving explicit attention to the contextual norms surrounding adolescence and still recognizing each adolescent-aged patient as unique, palliative care teams can help adolescents transition toward meaningful and sustainable spiritual growth. This paper reviews the clinical and research implications relevant to integrating adolescent spiritual health as part of comprehensive palliative care.

  2. Risk factors for adolescents' attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Poulsen, Henrik Day; Nielsen, Anne

    was also found among adolescents who had psychiatric disorder or a physical handicap, those who had been sentenced, were addicted to drugs, or had unstable education and unemployment records. A common feature of these significant risk factors seemed to be stigmatisation or social exclusion......This paper has been submitted to a journal for consideration, so please do not quote without permission. Adolescents' first-time suicide attempt tends to be characterized by parental psychiatric disorder or suicidal behaviour, family violence, especially child abuse and neglect. An increased risk...

  3. Development of Adolescent Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    de Goede, I.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation on “Development of Adolescent Relationships” addresses relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners in adolescence from a developmental perspective. By studying both parent-adolescent relationships and peer relationships at the same time, as well as interrelations between these types of relationships, this dissertation provides more information on the processes taking place in relationships during adolescence. Findings indicate that parent-adolescent relationsh...

  4. Family and physician influence on asthma research participation decisions for adolescents: the effects of adolescent gender and research risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Janet L; Scherer, David G; Annett, Robert D; Turner, Charles; Dalen, Jeanne

    2006-08-01

    There is considerable ethical and legal ambiguity surrounding the role of adolescents in the decision-making process for research participation. Depending on the nature of the study and the regulations involved, adolescents may have independent responsibility for providing informed consent, they may be asked to provide their assent, or they may be completely excluded from the decision-making process. This study examined parent and adolescent perceptions of decision-making authority and sources of influence on adolescent research participation decisions, and examined whether perceptions of influence differed based on adolescent gender and level of research risk. Adolescents (n = 36) with asthma and their parents reviewed 9 pediatric research protocols, decided whether they would choose to participate, rated the extent they would be responsible for the actual decision, and indicated the ability of family and physician to influence their decisions. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to evaluate differences in perceptions of decision-making authority and sources of influence on the decisions. Adolescents were less willing to cede decision making authority to parents than parents anticipated. Parents and adolescents acknowledged a greater openness to influence from physicians than from family for above minimal risk studies. Parents were more willing to consider opinions from male adolescents. Adolescents desire responsibility for research participation decisions, though parents may not share these views. Physicians' views on research participation are important to families, especially for above minimal risk studies. Parents may grant more decision-making autonomy to adolescent males than to females. Researchers, physicians, and institutions play a key role in facilitating the ethical enrollment of adolescents into biomedical research. Educational, policy, and oversight processes that support both adolescent autonomy and parental responsibility for research

  5. Race, Ethnicity, and Adolescent Violent Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Tillyer, Rob

    2016-07-01

    The risk of adolescent violent victimization in the United States varies considerably across racial and ethnic populations; it is unknown whether the sources of risk also vary by race and ethnicity. This study examined the correlates of violent victimization for White, Black, and Hispanic youth. Data collected from 11,070 adolescents (51 % female, mean age = 15.04 years) during the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were used to estimate group-specific multilevel logistic regression models. The results indicate that male, violent offending, peer deviance, gang membership, and low self-control were significantly associated with increased odds of violent victimization for all groups. Some activities-including getting drunk, sneaking out, and unstructured socializing with peers-were risk factors for Black adolescents only; skipping school was a risk factor only for Hispanic adolescents. Although there are many similarities across groups, the findings suggest that minority adolescents are particularly vulnerable to violent victimization when they engage in some activities and minor forms of delinquency.

  6. Adolescents, sex, and the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2012-04-01

    In the absence of effective sex education in the United States, the media have arguably become the leading sex educator for children and teenagers. Considerable research now exists that attests to the ability of the media to influence adolescents' attitudes and beliefs about sex and sexuality. In addition, new research has found a significant link between exposure to sexual content in the media and earlier onset of sexual intercourse. Although there is little research on the behavioral effects of "new" media, they are discussed as well. Suggestions for clinicians, parents, the federal government, and the entertainment industry are provided.

  7. The Programming of the Social Brain by Stress During Childhood and Adolescence: From Rodents to Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanoulinou, Stamatina; Sandi, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The quality and quantity of social experience is fundamental to an individual's health and well-being. Early life stress is known to be an important factor in the programming of the social brain that exerts detrimental effects on social behaviors. The peri-adolescent period, comprising late childhood and adolescence, represents a critical developmental window with regard to the programming effects of stress on the social brain. Here, we discuss social behavior and the physiological and neurobiological consequences of stress during peri-adolescence in the context of rodent paradigms that model human adversity, including social neglect and isolation, social abuse, and exposure to fearful experiences. Furthermore, we discuss peri-adolescent stress as a potent component that influences the social behaviors of individuals in close contact with stressed individuals and that can also influence future generations. We also discuss the temporal dynamics programmed by stress on the social brain and debate whether social behavior alterations are adaptive or maladaptive. By revising the existing literature and defining open questions, we aim to expand the framework in which interactions among peri-adolescent stress, the social brain, and behavior can be better conceptualized.

  8. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-10-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well.

  9. [Diagnostic validity of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: from phenomenology to neurobiology (I)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Orrego, N; Pineda, D A; Uribe, L H

    2012-03-01

    The diagnostic criteria for the attentional deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), were defined by the American Psychiatric Association in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth version (DSM-IV) and World Health Organization in the ICD-10. The American Psychiatric Association used an internal validity analysis to select specific behavioral symptoms associated with the disorder and to build five cross-cultural criteria for its use in the categorical diagnosis. The DSM has been utilized for clinicians and researchers as a valid and stable approach since 1968. We did a systematic review of scientific literature in Spanish and English, aimed to identify the historical origin that supports ADHD as a psychiatric construct. This comprehensive review started exploring the concept of minimal brain dysfunction, hyper-activity, inattention, impulsivity since 1932 to 2011. This paper summarize all the DSM versions that include the definition of ADHD or its equivalent, and it point out the statistical and methodological approach implemented for defining ADHD as a valid epidemiological and psychometric construct. Finally the paper discusses some considerations and suggestions for the new versions of the manual.

  10. Connecting prosocial behavior to improved physical health: Contributions from the neurobiology of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephanie L; Brown, R Michael

    2015-08-01

    Although a growing body of evidence suggests that giving to (helping) others is linked reliably to better health and longevity for the helper, little is known about causal mechanisms. In the present paper we use a recently developed model of caregiving motivation to identify possible neurophysiological mechanisms. The model describes a mammalian neurohormonal system that evolved to regulate maternal care, but over time may have been recruited to support a wide variety of helping behaviors in humans and other social animals. According to the model, perception of need or distress in others activates caregiving motivation, which in turn, can facilitate helping behavior. Motivational regulation is governed by the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus, interacting with certain other brain regions, hormones, and neuromodulators (especially oxytocin and progesterone). Consideration of neurohormonal circuitry and related evidence raises the possibility that it is these hormones, known to have stress-buffering and restorative properties, that are responsible, at least in part, for health and longevity benefits associated with helping others. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The neurobiology of social environmental risk for schizophrenia: an evolving research field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdeniz, Ceren; Tost, Heike; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe and complex brain disorder that usually manifests in early adulthood and disturbs a wide range of human functions. More than 100 years after its initial description, the pathophysiology of the disorder is still incompletely understood. Many epidemiological studies strongly suggest a complex interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors for the development of the disorder. While there is considerable evidence for a social environmental component of this risk, the links between adverse social factors and altered brain function have just come into focus. In the present review, we first summarize epidemiological evidence for the significance of social environmental risk factors, outline the role of altered social stress processing in mental illness, and review the latest experimental evidence for the neural correlates of social environmental risk for schizophrenia. The studies we have discussed in this review provide a selection of the current work in the field. We suggest that many of the social environmental risk factors may impact on perceived social stress and engage neural circuits in the brain whose functional and structural architecture undergoes detrimental change in response to prolonged exposure. We conclude that multidisciplinary approaches involving various fields and thoroughly constructed longitudinal designs are necessary to capture complex structure of social environmental risks.

  12. Considerations Regarding Students’ Social Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Cenar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper entitled “Considerations Regarding Students’ Social Protection” addresses the main forms of support offered to students and their families, divided in relation to the aim pursued, which may be relate to stimulating students’ performance and discipline, material and financial support (social assistance, supplementing family income. For these components there were taken into account: the circumstances in which it acquires to status of beneficiary, evolutionary dimensions in terms of beneficiary numbers, the amounts awarded, the need to ensure the complementarities with the informal side of social protection.

  13. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented

  14. Childhood Predictors and Adult Life Success of Adolescent Delinquency Abstainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, N; Farrington, D P; Ttofi, M M; Keijsers, L; Branje, S; Meeus, W

    2016-04-01

    While much is known about adolescent delinquency, considerably less attention has been given to adolescent delinquency abstention. Understanding how or why some adolescents manage to abstain from delinquency during adolescence is informative for understanding and preventing adolescent (minor) delinquency. Using data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (N = 411 males) to compare abstainers, self-report delinquents and convicted delinquents we found five childhood factors (ages 8-10) that predicted adolescent abstention (ages 10-18). First, we find that adolescent abstainers possess characteristics opposite to those of convicted delinquents (namely, abstainers are high on honesty, conformity and family income). However, we also found that abstainers also share some childhood characteristics with convicted delinquents (namely, low popularity and low school achievement). A latent class analysis indicated that the mixed factors predicting abstention can be accounted for by two groups of abstainers: an adaptive group characterized by high honesty, and a maladaptive group characterized by low popularity and low school achievement. Further, validation of these two types of abstainers using data collected at age 48 suggested that adaptive abstainers outperform all other adolescents in general life success, whereas maladaptive abstainers only fare better than delinquent adolescents in terms of lower substance use and delinquency later in life.

  15. 28 CFR 51.34 - Expedited consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited consideration. 51.34 Section 51... consideration. (a) When a submitting authority is required under State law or local ordinance or otherwise finds... the submission be given expedited consideration. The submission should explain why such consideration...

  16. 46 CFR 114.550 - Special consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 114.550 Section 114.550 Shipping... consideration. In applying the provisions of this subchapter, the OCMI may give special consideration to... vessel operates must approve any special consideration granted to the vessel. ...

  17. Parent-adolescent sexual communication and its association with adolescent sexual behaviors: a nationally representative analysis in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Looze, Margaretha; Constantine, Norman A; Jerman, Petra; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; ter Bogt, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Sexual communication is a principal means of transmitting sexual values, beliefs, expectations, and knowledge from parents to children. Although this area has received considerable research attention, more studies with representative samples are needed to assure that findings are reflective of populations of interest. A nationally representative sample of parent-adolescent dyads (N = 2,965; mean adolescent age = 13.8 years) in the Netherlands was employed to examine the frequency of parent-adolescent sexual communication and its association with adolescent sexual behaviors (defined as sexual initiation, condom use, and contraceptive pill use). Nine communication topics in the areas of anatomy, relationships and rights, and protection and contraception were examined. In all, 75%of parents reported having discussed at least one topic multiple times with their adolescents. Romantic relationships were discussed most frequently. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses indicated that parent-adolescent sexual communication on protection and contraception was positively associated with adolescent sexual initiation and contraceptive pill use but not condom use. This may reflect that adolescents, when they become sexually active, are more likely to discuss sexuality with their parents. Findings are interpreted within the context of Dutch culture, which is generally accepting of adolescent sexuality and characterized by open sexual communication.

  18. Always look on the bright side of life? : The quest for an online cognitive training to prevent adolescent anxiety and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogd, E.L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate whether online cognitive training could increase emotional resilience and reduce anxiety and depression in adolescents. Given the peak prevalence of anxiety and depression in adolescence, and the considerable amount of adolescents not using or profiting from

  19. Understanding links between punitive parenting and adolescent adjustment: The relevance of context and reciprocal associations

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, Kathleen M.; Ghazarian, Sharon R.; Little, Todd D.; Leventhal, Tama

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable debate regarding the extent to which punitive parenting adversely impacts youth well being. Using an ecological-transactional model of human development, we examined reciprocity and contextual variability in associations between maternal punitive discipline and adolescent adjustment among 1,147 low-income, urban youth followed through adolescence. Longitudinal SEM results indicated that delinquency and depressive symptoms during pre- and early adolescence (Time 1) were a...

  20. Adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol exposure leads to persistent global reductions of choline acetyltransferase expressing neurons in brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Vetreno

    Full Text Available During the adolescent transition from childhood to adulthood, notable maturational changes occur in brain neurotransmitter systems. The cholinergic system is composed of several distinct nuclei that exert neuromodulatory control over cognition, arousal, and reward. Binge drinking and alcohol abuse are common during this stage, which might alter the developmental trajectory of this system leading to long-term changes in adult neurobiology. In Experiment 1, adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, i.g., 2-day on/2-day off from postnatal day [P] 25 to P55 treatment led to persistent, global reductions of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT expression. Administration of the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide to young adult rats (P70 produced a reduction in ChAT+IR that mimicked AIE. To determine if the binge ethanol-induced ChAT decline was unique to the adolescent, Experiment 2 examined ChAT+IR in the basal forebrain following adolescent (P28-P48 and adult (P70-P90 binge ethanol exposure. Twenty-five days later, ChAT expression was reduced in adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol-exposed animals. In Experiment 3, expression of ChAT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter expression was found to be significantly reduced in the alcoholic basal forebrain relative to moderate drinking controls. Together, these data suggest that adolescent binge ethanol decreases adult ChAT expression, possibly through neuroimmune mechanisms, which might impact adult cognition, arousal, or reward sensitivity.