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Sample records for adolescents international comparative

  1. An Internationally Comparative Study of Immigration and Adolescent Emotional and Behavioral Problems : Effects of Generation and Gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Walsh, Sophie D; Huijts, Tim; Maes, Marlies; Madsen, Katrine Rich; Cavallo, Franco; Molcho, Michal

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although the potential consequences of immigration for adolescent problem behaviors have been addressed in many former studies, internationally comparative research is scarce. This study investigated the impact of immigration on four indicators of adolescents' emotional and behavioral probl

  2. Socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents: international comparative study in 37 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Currie, Candace; Boyce, Will;

    2009-01-01

    ' absolute wealth and economic inequality explained part of the individual level socio-economic variation in health complaints. METHODS: The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) international study from 2005/06 provided data on 204,534 11-, 13- and 15-year old students from nationally random......OBJECTIVES: To use comparable data from many countries to examine 1) socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents, 2) whether the countries' absolute wealth and economic inequality was associated with symptom load among adolescents, and 3) whether the countries...... samples of schools in 37 countries in Europe and North America. The outcome measure was prevalence of at least two daily health complaints, measured by the HBSC Symptom Check List. We included three independent variables at the individual level (sex, age group, family affluence measured by the Family...

  3. An Internationally Comparative Study of Immigration and Adolescent Emotional and Behavioral Problems:Effects of Generation and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Walsh, Sophie D; Huijts, Tim;

    2015-01-01

    problems in 10 countries, taking into account gender and immigrant generation as moderating factors. METHODS: Analyses were based on data from 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old adolescents participating in the Health Behavior in School-aged Children study in Denmark, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy......PURPOSE: Although the potential consequences of immigration for adolescent problem behaviors have been addressed in many former studies, internationally comparative research is scarce. This study investigated the impact of immigration on four indicators of adolescents' emotional and behavioral...... psychosomatic symptoms than native adolescents. Effect sizes varied considerable for the different outcomes, and similar effects were found for first- and second-generation immigrant adolescents. Differences in these indicators of emotional and behavioral problems between immigrant and native adolescents did...

  4. An internationally comparative study of immigration and adolescent emotional and behavioral problems: Effects of generation and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Walsh, Sophie D.; Huijts, Tim; Maes, Marlies; Madsen, Katrine R.; Cavallo, Franco; Molcho, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Although the potential consequences of immigration for adolescent problem behaviors have been addressed in many former studies, internationally comparative research is scarce. This study investigated the impact of immigration on four indicators of adolescents’ emotional and behavioral problems in 10 countries, taking into account gender and immigrant generation as moderating factors. Methods: Analyses were based on data from11-,13-, and 15-year-old adolescents participating in th...

  5. Internalizing and externalizing problems in immigrant boys and girls : Comparing native Dutch and Moroccan immigrant adolescents across time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paalman, Carmen; Van Domburgh, Lieke; Stevens, Gonneke; Vermeiren, Robert; Van De Ven, Peter; Branje, Susan; Frijns, Tom; Meeus, Wim; Koot, Hans; Van Lier, Pol; Jansen, Lucres; Doreleijers, Theo

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study explores differences between native Dutch and immigrant Moroccan adolescents in the relationship between internalizing and externalizing problems across time. By using generalized estimating equations (GEE), the strength and stability of associations between internalizing and

  6. Adaptation and mental-hygienic characteristics of internally displaced adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Miloš

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The change in socio-economic status, drastic decrease in living standards, war, and the introduction of sanctions to our country were complicated in addition by a large number of internally displaced people from Kosovo, which culminated with the 1999 NATO bombing. The aim of this investigation was to estimate the influence of internal displacement on the adaptation and mental health of adolescents. The investigation was conducted on 238 adolescents, comprising a control group of 206 adolescents from Belgrade and 32 internally displaced adolescents from Kosovo. A specific questionnaire regarding habits, behavior, and psychosomatic state was used, as well as the Cornell Medical Index and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Internally displaced adolescents from Kosovo exhibited greater difficulties in adapting and had worse school records than adolescents from Belgrade, one year after the change in their location. Immediately after the NATO bombing, both groups reacted in the same way: they often talked about the events they had survived, they were afraid of the sounds of alarm sirens and of airplanes, and in addition had similar dreams (no statistical variation between the groups. Emotional disturbances, one year after the bombing, were not observed in 40.6% of adolescents from Kosovo, compared to the figure of 74.8% for adolescents from Belgrade. Adolescents from Belgrade consumed alcohol significantly more often: 75.7% compared to 56.3% for adolescents from Kosovo. In addition, 20.4% of adolescents from Belgrade consumed psychoactive substances compared to 6.3% of adolescents from Kosovo. There was no significant difference between the examined groups in the total scores on the scale for neuroticism. All in all, the girls from both examined groups displayed neurotic tendencies more frequently than the boys.

  7. [Adaptation and mental-hygienic characteristics of internally displaced adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimović, Milos; Kocijancić, Radojka; Backović, Dusan; Ille, Tatjana; Paunović, Katarina

    2005-01-01

    The change in socio-economic status, drastic decrease in living standards, war, and the introduction of sanctions to our country were complicated in addition by a large number of internally displaced people from Kosovo, which culminated with the 1999 NATO bombing. The aim of this investigation was to estimate the influence of internal displacement on the adaptation and mental health of adolescents. The investigation was conducted on 238 adolescents, comprising a control group of 206 adolescents from Belgrade and 32 internally displaced adolescents from Kosovo. A specific questionnaire regarding habits, behaviour, and psychosomatic state was used, as well as the Cornell Medical Index and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Internally displaced adolescents from Kosovo exhibited greater difficulties in adapting and had worse school records than adolescents from Belgrade, one year after the change in their location. Immediately after the NATO bombing, both groups reacted in the same way: they often talked about the events they had survived, they were afraid of the sounds of alarm sirens and of aeroplanes, and in addition had similar dreams (no statistical variation between the groups). Emotional disturbances, one year after the bombing, were not observed in 40.6% of adolescents from Kosovo, compared to the figure of 74.8% for adolescents from Belgrade. Adolescents from Belgrade consumed alcohol significantly more often: 75.7% compared to 56.3% for adolescents from Kosovo. In addition, 20.4% of adolescents from Belgrade consumed psychoactive substances compared to 6.3% of adolescents from Kosovo. There was no significant difference between the examined groups in the total scores on the scale for neuroticism. All in all, the girls from both examined groups displayed neurotic tendencies more frequently than the boys. PMID:16392285

  8. Amygdala habituation to emotional faces in adolescents with internalizing disorders, adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related PTSD and healthy adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca G. van den Bulk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related post-traumatic stress disorder (CSA-related PTSD show a large overlap in symptomatology. In addition, brain research indicated hyper-responsiveness and sustained activation instead of habituation of amygdala activation to emotional faces in both groups. Little is known, however, about whether the same patterns of amygdala habituation are present in these two groups. The current study examined habituation patterns of amygdala activity to emotional faces (fearful, happy and neutral in adolescents with a DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorder (N = 25, adolescents with CSA-related PTSD (N = 19 and healthy controls (N = 26. Behaviourally, the adolescents from the internalizing and CSA-related PTSD group reported more anxiety to fearful and neutral faces than adolescents from the control group and adolescents from the CSA-related PTSD group reacted slower compared to the internalizing group. At the whole brain level, there was a significant interaction between time and group within the left amygdala. Follow-up ROI analysis showed elevated initial activity in the amygdala and rapid habituation in the CSA-related PTSD group compared to the internalizing group. These findings suggest that habituation patterns of amygdala activation provide additional information on problems with emotional face processing. Furthermore, the results suggest there are differences in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms related to emotional face processing for adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD. Possibly CSA-related PTSD is characterized by a stronger primary emotional response driven by the amygdala.

  9. International comparative indicators on teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelsvoort, van H.W.C. Gonnie; Scheerens, Jaap

    1996-01-01

    The main objective of this chapter is to discuss the relevance and feasibility of international comparative indicators on teachers. Three rationales for the selection of teacher indicators are described. Data availability and interpretation problems due to lack of standard definitions appear to be i

  10. Adolescents' information management: comparing ideas about why adolescents disclose to or keep secrets from their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton-Weaver, Lauree

    2014-05-01

    Recognizing that adolescents providing or withholding information about their activities is a strong predictor of parental knowledge, this article compares several ideas about what prompts adolescents to disclose information or keep secrets from their parents. Using a sample of 874 Northern European adolescents (aged 12-16 years; 49.8 % were girls), modified cross-lagged models examined parental monitoring (solicitation and monitoring rules), adolescent delinquency, and perceived parental support as predictors and consequences of adolescents disclosing to parents or keeping secrets, with adolescents' acceptance of parental authority as a moderator. Results suggest that, when adolescents view their parents as supportive, they subsequently disclose more and keep fewer secrets. Engaging in delinquent behavior was related reciprocally to keeping secrets. By comparison, the results generally did not support the idea that adolescents who are monitored provide information to parents, even when they accept parental authority. These results suggest that relationship dynamics and adolescents' delinquent behaviors play an important role in adolescents' information management.

  11. Adolescents' Emotion Regulation Strategies, Self-Concept, and Internalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Manying; Stright, Anne Dopkins

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among adolescents' emotion regulation strategies (suppression and cognitive reappraisal), self-concept, and internalizing problems using structural equation modeling. The sample consisted of 438 early adolescents (13 to 15 years old) in Taiwan, including 215 boys and 223 girls. For both boys and girls,…

  12. Self-Consciousness, Friendship Quality, and Adolescent Internalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2009-01-01

    The correlates between public and private self-consciousness and internalizing difficulties were examined during early adolescence. Friendship quality was assessed as a possible moderator of the relation between self-consciousness and maladjustment. One hundred and thirty-seven young adolescents (N = 87 girls; M age = 13.98 years) reported on…

  13. Adaptation and mental-hygienic characteristics of internally displaced adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Maksimović Miloš; Kocijančić Radojka; Backović Dušan; Ille Tatjana; Paunović Katarina

    2005-01-01

    The change in socio-economic status, drastic decrease in living standards, war, and the introduction of sanctions to our country were complicated in addition by a large number of internally displaced people from Kosovo, which culminated with the 1999 NATO bombing. The aim of this investigation was to estimate the influence of internal displacement on the adaptation and mental health of adolescents. The investigation was conducted on 238 adolescents, comprising a control group of 206 adolescen...

  14. Pituitary Volume Prospectively Predicts Internalizing Symptoms in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipursky, Amy R.; Whittle, Sarah; Yucel, Murat; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Wood, Stephen J.; Lubman, Dan I.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Early adolescence is a critical time for the development of both internalizing and externalizing disorders. We aimed to investigate whether pituitary volume, an index of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, represents a vulnerability factor for the emergence of internalizing and externalizing symptoms during adolescence…

  15. Schumpeter School International Comparative Institutions Database

    OpenAIRE

    Jovicic, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    For our international comparative research on the impact of institutions on economic trends, we put together the Schumpeter School International Comparative Institutions Database.1 The database comprises the panel data set on various indicators of employment, inequality and labor market institutions in twenty-one OECD countries during the time period 1970-2013. Countries included in the dataset are Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy,...

  16. Internal exposure to pollutants and sexual maturation in Flemish adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Den Hond, Elly; Dhooge, Willem; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Schoeters, Greet; Nelen, Vera; Van de Mieroop, Els; Koppen, Gudrun; Bilau, Maaike; Schroijen, Carmen; Keune, Hans; Baeyens, Willy; van Larebeke, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Flanders is densely populated with much industry and intensive farming. Sexual maturation of adolescents (aged 14-15 years) was studied in relation to internal exposure to pollutants. Serum levels of pollutants and sex hormones were measured in 1679 participants selected as a random sample of the adolescents residing in the study areas. Data on sexual development were obtained from the medical school examination files. Self-assessment questionnaires provided information on health, use of medi...

  17. Influence of Risk Factors and Cultural Assets on Latino Adolescents' Trajectories of Self-Esteem and Internalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul Richard; Rose, Roderick A.; Bacallao, Martica

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined longitudinal, person-centered trajectories of acculturation, internalizing symptoms, and self-esteem in 349 Latino adolescents. We compared acculturation measures (time in the US, culture-of-origin involvement, US cultural involvement, for both parents and adolescents); acculturation stressors (perceived discrimination,…

  18. Comparative and International Education: A Bibliography (2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative Education Review, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 "Comparative Education Review" bibliography of refereed journal articles on topics relevant to comparative and international education covers all 12 months in 2014 and includes 3,389 entries--a full 30 percent increase over the set of references assembled in the 2013 bibliography. They are drawn from 280 refereed journals, both…

  19. The relationship between attachment styles and internalizing or externalizing symptoms in clinical and nonclinical adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lacasa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies regarding the relationship between attachment and psychopathology during adolescence have been performed separately for clinical and nonclinical adolescents and have used different assessment measures, which together might produce a methodological bias that increases the association between attachment and psychopathology. With the aim of avoiding this bias, the present study used identical measures to explore the relationship between attachment styles and internalizing or externalizing symptoms in clinical and nonclinical samples of adolescents. The sample consisted of 258 adolescents, 129 clinical and 129 nonclinical, aged between 14 and 18 years. The adolescents in each sample were matched for age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Attachment was assessed using the CaMir Q-sort, and psychopathological symptoms were assessed by means of the Youth Self Report (YSR. The relationships between attachment and psychopathology were similar for clinical and nonclinical adolescents. A preoccupied attachment style predicted internalizing and externalizing symptoms, somatic complaints, anxious-fearful behavior, verbal aggression, attention-seeking behavior, and thinking problems. Compared to previous studies, this research has made it possible to identify broader, stronger, and more specific associations between preoccupied attachment style and psychopathological symptoms in adolescents.

  20. Characteristics of adolescent excessive drinkers compared with consumers and abstainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomcikova, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Aims. This study aimed at comparing adolescent abstainers, consumers and excessive drinkers in terms of family characteristics (structure of family, socioeconomic factors), perceived social support, personality characteristics (extraversion, self-esteem, aggression) and well-being.

  1. Central Asia's comparative advantage in international trade

    OpenAIRE

    Lücke, Matthias; Rothert, Jacek

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines a strategy for identifying the pattern of Central Asia’s comparative advantage in international trade, based on factor prices and transport costs, historical production patterns, and recent trends in the geographical and product composition of Central Asian trade. The paper focuses on Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, along with Azerbaijan and Mongolia. A country’s comparative advantage cannot be determined at the level of individual industries o...

  2. Comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Stanwood W; Lee, Stephen M

    1922-01-01

    Thin metal diaphragms form a satisfactory means for comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines. The diaphragm is clamped between two metal washers in a spark plug shell and its thickness is chosen such that, when subjected to explosion pressure, the exposed portion will be sheared from the rim in a short time.

  3. ‘‘I feel free’’: Experiences of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems

    OpenAIRE

    Duberg, Anna; Möller, Margareta; Sunvinsson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent girls today suffer from internalizing problems such as somatic symptoms and mental health problems at higher rates compared to those of previous decades, and effective interventions are warranted. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of participating in an 8-month dance intervention. This qualitative study was embedded in a randomized controlled trial of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. A total of 112 girls aged 13–18 were inclu...

  4. Comparing three feedback internal multiple elimination methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiawen; Verschuur, Eric; Chen, Xiaohong

    2013-08-01

    Multiple reflections have posed a great challenge for current seismic imaging and inversion methods. Compared to surface multiples, internal multiples are more difficult to remove due to poorer move-out discrimination with primaries and we are left with wave equation-based prediction and subtraction methods. In this paper, we focus on the comparison of three data-driven internal multiple elimination (IME) methods based on the feedback model, where two are well established prediction-and-subtraction methods using back-propagated data and surface data, referred to as CFP-based method and surface-based method, respectively, and the third one, an inversion-based method, has been recently extended from estimation of primaries by sparse inversion (EPSI). All these three methods are based on the separation of events from above and below a certain level, after which internal multiples are predicted by convolutions and correlations. We begin with theory review of layer-related feedback IME methods, where implementation steps for each method are discussed, and involved event separation are further analyzed. Then, recursive application of the three IME methods is demonstrated on synthetic data and field data. It shows that the two well established prediction-and-subtraction methods provide similar primary estimation results, with most of the internal multiples being removed while multiple leakage and primary distortion have been observed where primaries and internal multiples interfere. In contrast, generalized EPSI provides reduced multiple leakage and better primary restoration which is of great value for current seismic amplitude-preserved processing. As a main conclusion, with adaptive subtraction avoided, the inversion-based method is more effective than the prediction-and-subtraction methods for internal multiple elimination when primaries and internal multiples overlap. However, the inversion-based method is quite computationally intensive, and more researches on

  5. Repository site characterization - Comparing international experience - 16082

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important part of the work described here was a study of existing international experience in investigating deep geological repository sites. The objective of this study was to derive a basis for planning the content and extent of investigations which might be carried out in Germany in the future. Such investigations would be required in the course of a site selection process for a repository for HLW (high level radioactive waste). For this purpose information on suitable sites was gathered, mainly from literature sources. Suitable in this context meant two things. Firstly, the investigated site should be in rock similar to four being considered in Germany (salt, clay, crystalline and other hard rock under a clay cover). Secondly, the investigations carried out could reasonably be considered as being intended to lead to the use of the site as a repository. The investigation processes were presented, analysed and compared. The comparison was based on the quality and the intensity of the methods employed to obtain the information necessary for deciding between candidate repository sites in terms of safety and the feasibility of construction. In the final stage of the work the analysis and presentation method developed for the international sites was applied to the investigations already carried out at three German sites (Gorleben - a prospective HLW repository, Morsleben - an existing but now not operational repository for radioactive waste and Konrad - a repository currently under construction). The reported investigatory work was compared with the ideal investigations developed on the basis of the existing international experience. (authors)

  6. International Comparative Student Affairs: How International and Comparative Higher Education Impacts Our Work with Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Darbi L.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the field of international higher education (IHE) and its application to the practice of student affairs. The author proposes that IHE is a crossroads between international comparative education and higher education, exploring their shared historical roots. She gives an overview of the current state of the IHE field, looking…

  7. Developmental pathways linking childhood and adolescent internalizing, externalizing, academic competence, and adolescent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Murray; Ploubidis, George B; Cairney, John; Wild, T Cameron; Naicker, Kiyuri; Colman, Ian

    2016-08-01

    This study examined longitudinal pathways through three domains of adaptation from ages 4-5 to 14-15 (internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and academic competence) towards depressive symptoms at age 16-17. Participants were 6425 Canadian children followed bi-annually as part of the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth. Within-domain (i.e., stability) effects were moderate in strength. We found longitudinal cross-domain effects across one time point (i.e., one-lag cascades) between internalizing and externalizing in early childhood (positive associations), and between academic competence and externalizing in later childhood and adolescence (negative associations). We also found cascade effects over multiple time points (i.e., multi-lag cascades); lower academic competence at age 4-5 and greater internalizing at age 6-7 predicted greater age 12-13 externalizing, and greater age 6-7 externalizing predicted greater age 16-17 depression. Important pathways towards adolescent depression include a stability path through childhood and adolescent internalizing, as well as a number of potential paths involving all domains of adaptation, highlighting the multifactorial nature of adolescent depression. PMID:27288965

  8. Comparative International Communication Projects: Overcoming the Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Esser

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 10-20 years, comparative research in the feld of communication has almost become fashionable. Many factors are responsible for this, for example: an increased awareness of globalisation as a communication-driven process; an awareness of increased transnational conglomerization of media organizations; and the increasing use of the Internet which facilitates easier access to information around the world. But the big question is how to organize collaborative international communication research efectively? Which models of cooperation are available to us, and what are their advantages and disadvantages? In this article, I analyze fve ways of doing collaborative researches and their respective challenges.

  9. Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Magnus J.

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…

  10. Psychiatric Diagnostic Interviews for Children and Adolescents: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angold, Adrian; Erkanli, Alaattin; Copeland, William; Goodman, Robert; Fisher, Prudence W.; Costello, E. Jane

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare examples of three styles of psychiatric interviews for youth: the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) ("respondent-based"), the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA) ("interviewer-based"), and the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) ("expert judgment"). Method: Roughly equal numbers of…

  11. Body mass index in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents: a national reference and comparison with international standards

    OpenAIRE

    P J Foster, A S Al Herbish, M I El Mouzan, A A Al Salloum, M M Al Qureshi, A A Al Omar, T Kecojevic.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Because there are no reference standards for body mass index (BMI) in Saudi children, we established BMI reference percentiles for normal Saudi Arabian children and adolescents and compared them with international standards. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data from a stratified multistage probability sample were collected from the 13 health regions in Saudi Arabia, as part of a nationwide health profile survey of Saudi Arabian children and adolescents conducted to establish ...

  12. Interpersonal Mediators Linking Acculturation Stressors to Subsequent Internalizing Symptoms and Self-Esteem in Latino Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul Richard; Bacallao, Martica; Buchanan, Rachel Lee

    2009-01-01

    The specific aim of this study was to examine pathways leading to internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in Latino adolescents. Adolescent feelings of interpersonal humiliation, family conflict and commitment, and friendships with peers were investigated as potential mediators linking acculturation stress to subsequent adolescent self-esteem and…

  13. Comparing International Curriculum Systems: The International Instructional Systems Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creese, Brian; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Isaacs, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This paper sets out the main findings of the International Instructional Systems Study (IISS), conducted by the UCL Institute of Education and funded by the Center on International Education Benchmarking (CIEB). The study examined the instructional systems and intended curricula of six "high performing" countries and two US states. The…

  14. INTERNAL AUDIT COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS - MANAGEMENT CONTROL CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAI-DOREL JURCHESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Given Romania's integration into the European Union we consider it appropriate to clarify some terms used in auditing activities of both public funds and European funds. International practice requires a clear separation of internal audit activities from other management control concepts and recommend to establish an internal controlling system as well as an internal audit structure under the coordination of the manager as being the only ways cap able to respond to current risks faced by public entities. Internal Audit, along its evolution - characterized by complex dynamics and adaptability - created confusion regarding the concept of control. The research presented in this paper is based on works published to date regarding the conceptual boundaries of this notion.

  15. Mothers' and fathers' autonomy-relevant parenting: longitudinal links with adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Laird, Robert D; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this study was to advance the understanding of separate and joint effects of mothers' and fathers' autonomy-relevant parenting during early and middle adolescence. In a sample of 518 families, adolescents (49 % female; 83 % European American, 16 % African American, 1 % other ethnic groups) reported on their mothers' and fathers' psychological control and knowledge about adolescents' whereabouts, friends, and activities at ages 13 and 16. Mothers and adolescents reported on adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behaviors at ages 12, 14, 15, and 17. Adolescents perceived their mothers as using more psychological control and having more knowledge than their fathers, but there was moderate concordance between adolescents' perceptions of their mothers and fathers. More parental psychological control predicted increases in boys' and girls' internalizing problems and girls' externalizing problems. More parental knowledge predicted decreases in boys' externalizing and internalizing problems. The perceived levels of behavior of mothers and fathers did not interact with one another in predicting adolescent adjustment. The results generalize across early and late adolescence and across mothers' and adolescents' reports of behavior problems. Autonomy-relevant mothering and fathering predict changes in behavior problems during early and late adolescence, but only autonomy-relevant fathering accounts for unique variance in adolescent behavior problems.

  16. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  17. Help-seeking behaviour for internalizing problems : Perceptions of adolescent girls from different ethnic backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.J.E. Flink (Ilse); T.M.J. Beirens (Tinneke); D. Butte (Dick); H. Raat (Hein)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective Although adolescent girls from ethnic minorities are at an increased risk of internalizing problems (e.g. depression), only a small fraction seeks formal help for these problems. To enhance help-seeking for internalizing problems among ethnic minority adolescent girls, insight

  18. "I feel free": Experiences of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duberg, Anna; Möller, Margareta; Sunvisson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent girls today suffer from internalizing problems such as somatic symptoms and mental health problems at higher rates compared to those of previous decades, and effective interventions are warranted. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of participating in an 8-month dance intervention. This qualitative study was embedded in a randomized controlled trial of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. A total of 112 girls aged 13-18 were included in the study. The dance intervention group comprised 59 girls, 24 of whom were strategically chosen to be interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. The experiences of the dance intervention resulted in five generic categories: (1) An Oasis from Stress, which represents the fundamental basis of the intervention; (2) Supportive Togetherness, the setting; (3) Enjoyment and Empowerment, the immediate effect; (4) Finding Acceptance and Trust in Own Ability, the outcome; and (5) Dance as Emotional Expression, the use of the intervention. One main category emerged, Finding Embodied Self-Trust That Opens New Doors, which emphasizes the increased trust in the self and the ability to approach life with a sense of freedom and openness. The central understanding of the adolescent girls' experiences was that the dance intervention enriched and gave access to personal resources. With the non-judgmental atmosphere and supportive togetherness as a safe platform, the enjoyment and empowerment in dancing gave rise to acceptance, trust in ability, and emotional expression. Taken together, this increased self-trust and they discovered a new ability to "claim space." Findings from this study may provide practical information on designing future interventions for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. PMID:27416014

  19. “I feel free”: Experiences of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duberg, Anna; Möller, Margareta; Sunvisson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent girls today suffer from internalizing problems such as somatic symptoms and mental health problems at higher rates compared to those of previous decades, and effective interventions are warranted. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of participating in an 8-month dance intervention. This qualitative study was embedded in a randomized controlled trial of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. A total of 112 girls aged 13–18 were included in the study. The dance intervention group comprised 59 girls, 24 of whom were strategically chosen to be interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. The experiences of the dance intervention resulted in five generic categories: (1) An Oasis from Stress, which represents the fundamental basis of the intervention; (2) Supportive Togetherness, the setting; (3) Enjoyment and Empowerment, the immediate effect; (4) Finding Acceptance and Trust in Own Ability, the outcome; and (5) Dance as Emotional Expression, the use of the intervention. One main category emerged, Finding Embodied Self-Trust That Opens New Doors, which emphasizes the increased trust in the self and the ability to approach life with a sense of freedom and openness. The central understanding of the adolescent girls’ experiences was that the dance intervention enriched and gave access to personal resources. With the non-judgmental atmosphere and supportive togetherness as a safe platform, the enjoyment and empowerment in dancing gave rise to acceptance, trust in ability, and emotional expression. Taken together, this increased self-trust and they discovered a new ability to “claim space.” Findings from this study may provide practical information on designing future interventions for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. PMID:27416014

  20. “I feel free”: Experiences of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Duberg

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent girls today suffer from internalizing problems such as somatic symptoms and mental health problems at higher rates compared to those of previous decades, and effective interventions are warranted. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of participating in an 8-month dance intervention. This qualitative study was embedded in a randomized controlled trial of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. A total of 112 girls aged 13–18 were included in the study. The dance intervention group comprised 59 girls, 24 of whom were strategically chosen to be interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. The experiences of the dance intervention resulted in five generic categories: (1 An Oasis from Stress, which represents the fundamental basis of the intervention; (2 Supportive Togetherness, the setting; (3 Enjoyment and Empowerment, the immediate effect; (4 Finding Acceptance and Trust in Own Ability, the outcome; and (5 Dance as Emotional Expression, the use of the intervention. One main category emerged, Finding Embodied Self-Trust That Opens New Doors, which emphasizes the increased trust in the self and the ability to approach life with a sense of freedom and openness. The central understanding of the adolescent girls’ experiences was that the dance intervention enriched and gave access to personal resources. With the non-judgmental atmosphere and supportive togetherness as a safe platform, the enjoyment and empowerment in dancing gave rise to acceptance, trust in ability, and emotional expression. Taken together, this increased self-trust and they discovered a new ability to “claim space.” Findings from this study may provide practical information on designing future interventions for adolescent girls with internalizing problems.

  1. "We've Got a Gun?": Comparing Reports of Adolescents and Their Parents about Household Firearms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Susan B.; Cook, Philip J.

    2008-01-01

    Firearms are a leading cause of mortality among adolescents, and the guns that adolescents use to harm themselves or others often come from their own homes. In this statewide, multilanguage, community-based survey of 5,704 coresiding pairs of adolescents and their parents, we asked about guns in the home and compared their responses. The…

  2. Metropolitan planning from an international comparative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel; Grønning, Marius

    2016-01-01

    other themes to be treated at a lower scale, i.e. to the municipal planning authorities. Early observations of the two individual cases suggest that the focus as well as the orientation of these metropolitan plans merge characteristics associated with project-based and strategy-based spatial plans......Over the last few years new practices of spatial strategy making at different planning scales have emerged. At the metropolitan level, such spatial strategies are reminiscent of national and supranational competitive strategies (e.g. EU policies) as well as ratifications of international...... conventions and agreements. A particular feature that metropolitan spatial strategies seem to have in common is the increasingly discretionary planning practices, often, however, within different institutional contexts. It might be assumed, hence, that the regional authorities may adopt different roles...

  3. Self-esteem: a comparative study of adolescents from mainstream and minority religious groups in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ahmad, Riaz; Ayub, Nadia

    2013-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the level of self-esteem among religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) by making a comparison with their dominant counterparts (Muslims) in Pakistan. It was hypothesized that adolescents of religious minorities would have lower level of self-esteem than their dominant counterparts. In the present study 320 adolescents participated, in which 160 adolescents belonged to minority religious groups (i.e. 76 Christians and 84 Hindus) and 160 adolescents belonged to dominant religious group i.e. Muslims. To assess self-esteem of the participants, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg in Society and the adolescent self image, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1965) was used. One Way Analysis of Variance reveals that religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) inclined to have lower self-esteem as compared to their dominant counterpart (Muslim adolescents).

  4. Catatonic schizophrenia: an international comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasena, R

    1986-04-01

    Thirty-five hospitalized catatonic schizophrenic patients from Sri Lanka were compared with 22 patients in the U.K. and 13 in Canada. The phenomenology was established using the Present State Examination. Results suggest that ethnicity, chronicity of illness and reception of neuroleptic treatment may influence the lower prevalence of catatonic symptoms among the U.K. and Canadian schizophrenics. Onset of illness appears to be among young adults and mutism, stupor, mannerisms, stereotypes and negativism were the common catatonic symptoms observed.

  5. International energy conservation: comparative law and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    Ernest C. Baynard III, in the Foreword to the conference, told of the purpose of the conference - to compare and discuss the policies and laws that highly industrialized nations have used and considered to meet the challenge of energy conservation. The following countries participated in the conference: U.K.; Australia; Federal Republic of Germany; Japan; France; Canada; Sweden; Italy; the Netherlands; and the U.S. The IEA and the Commission of the European Communities also participated. The conference format consisted of ministerial addresses to the conference, interspersed with panel discussions focusing on energy conservation in transportation, industry, agriculture, and utilities; residential, commercial, and industrial buildings; and emergency situations. There was also a panel discussion on the role of government in energy conservation and energy information collection. The panels were composed of participating countries' representatives. (MCW)

  6. Sex Differences in Internalizing Problems during Adolescence in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Tasha M.; Winter-Messiers, Mary Ann; Gibson, Brandon; Schmidt, Alexandra M.; Herr, Cynthia M.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that the double hit conferred by sex and diagnosis increases the risk for internalizing disorders in adolescent females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In a sample of 32 adolescents with ASD and 32 controls, we examined the effects of sex, diagnostic factors, and developmental stages on depression and anxiety. A 3-way…

  7. Clarifying Co-Rumination: Associations with Internalizing Symptoms and Romantic Involvement among Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Lisa R.; Davila, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    Co-rumination, or excessive discussion of problems within friendships, has been associated with internalizing symptoms and is especially prevalent among adolescent girls. Eighty-three early adolescent girls participated in a prospective study further examining this construct. Co-rumination was positively correlated with depressive symptoms and…

  8. The Role of Parenting and Mother-Adolescent Attachment in the Intergenerational Similarity of Internalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenning, Katrijn; Soenens, Bart; Braet, Caroline; Bal, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Parental depression has been identified as a risk factor for children's and adolescents' internalizing problems. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of maternal parenting behaviors (i.e., responsiveness and autonomy-support) and adolescents' representations of attachment to their mother (i.e., anxiety and avoidance) in the…

  9. Emotion Dysregulation as a Mechanism Linking Peer Victimization to Internalizing Symptoms in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Hilt, Lori M.

    2009-01-01

    Peer victimization experiences represent developmentally salient stressors among adolescents and are associated with the development of internalizing symptoms. However, the mechanisms linking peer victimization to adolescent psychopathology remain inadequately understood. This study examined emotion dysregulation as a mechanism linking peer stress…

  10. Developmental Pathways Linking Externalizing Symptoms, Internalizing Symptoms, and Academic Competence to Adolescent Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Michelle M.; Siebenbruner, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This study extends previous research investigating the developmental pathways predicting adolescent alcohol and marijuana use by examining the cascading effects of externalizing and internalizing symptoms and academic competence in the prediction of use and level of use of these substances in adolescence. Participants (N = 191) were drawn from a…

  11. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: Moderating Effects of Socially Demanding Kin Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D.; Lopez, Elizabeth I.; Budescu, Mia; McGill, Rebecca Kang

    2012-01-01

    Association of socially demanding kin relations, mother's emotional support, behavioral control/monitoring, family organization and psychological control with adolescent's internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed in 200 economically disadvantaged, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations and mother's…

  12. Changes in Externalizing and Internalizing Problems of Adolescents in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWey, Lenore M.; Cui, Ming; Pazdera, Andrea L.

    2010-01-01

    Using a developmental psychopathology framework, this study aimed to examine changes in externalizing and internalizing problems of adolescents in foster care and to determine whether type of maltreatment, gender, and age influenced trajectories. Authors used 3 waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Growth-curve…

  13. Towards International Comparative Research on the Professionalisation of Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freathy, Rob; Parker, Stephen G.; Schweitzer, Friedrich; Simojoki, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    This article calls for international comparative research on the professionalisation of Religious Education (RE). To this end, it provides a rationale for focusing upon the concept of professionalisation and a theoretical justification for international comparative research, particularly identifying its significance in terms of the development of…

  14. Mechanisms underlying heightened risk taking in adolescents as compared with adults

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Suzanne H.; Schoel, Christiane; Stevens, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    Self-report surveys and behavioral tasks indicate greater risk-taking behavior in adolescents as compared with adults. However, the underlying causes of these behavioral differences remain unclear. The present study examined the possibility that adolescents may be more susceptible to immediate positive and negative outcomes than adults. We compared the behavior of adolescents and adults on a modified version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (Lejuez et al., 2002). The task required that parti...

  15. Sleep quality among internally displaced Georgian adolescents and population-based controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhelashvili, Irine; Eliozishvili, Marine; Lortkipanidze, Nani; Oniani, Nikoloz; Cervena, Katerina; Darchia, Nato

    2016-09-01

    Sleep problems in children and adolescents are a significant public health concern and may be linked to a variety of psychoemotional difficulties. This study aimed to evaluate sleep quality and associated factors in conflict-affected Georgian adolescents after 9 months of forced displacement. Thirty-three internally displaced adolescents (mean age 11.4 years) and 33 adolescents (mean age 10.8 years) from the general population completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Parents completed the Children's Sleep-Wake Scale and provided information on their socioeconomic status (SES) and the adolescents' sleep behavior, academic performance, and peer social relationships. The groups differed significantly in sleep quality, peer relationships, SES, and CDI scores. In the internally displaced group, the only significant predictor of sleep quality was SES, which increased the predictive capacity of the model (demographic and psychosocial variables) by 20% in the hierarchical analyses. The most significant predictor in the non-internally displaced group was CDI. This research indicates that displacement may affect sleep quality and psychosocial functioning. The importance of family SES as a contributing factor to displaced adolescents' poor sleep quality is highlighted. An integrated approach designed to improve the psychosocial environment of internally displaced adolescents is needed for their protection. PMID:26311481

  16. Peer influences on internalizing and externalizing problems among adolescents: a longitudinal social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuin, Janna; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents who like each other may become more similar to each other with regard to internalizing and externalizing problems, though it is not yet clear which social mechanisms explain these similarities. In this longitudinal study, we analyzed four mechanisms that may explain similarity in adolescent peer networks with regard to externalizing and internalizing problems: selection, socialization, avoidance and withdrawal. At three moments during one school-year, we asked 542 adolescents (8th grade, M-age = 13.3 years, 51 % female) to report who they liked in their classroom, and their own internalizing and externalizing problems. Adolescents tend to prefer peers who have similar externalizing problem scores, but no significant selection effect was found for internalizing problems. Adolescents who share the same group of friends socialize each other and then become more similar with respect to externalizing problems, but not with respect to internalizing problems. We found no significant effects for avoidance or withdrawal. Adolescents may choose to belong to a peer group that is similar to them in terms of externalizing problem behaviors, and through peer group socialization (e.g., enticing, modelling, mimicking, and peer pressure) become more similar to that group over time. PMID:25119729

  17. Estimating International Poverty Lines from Comparable National Thresholds

    OpenAIRE

    Jolliffe, Dean; Prydz, Espen Beer

    2016-01-01

    World Bank's international poverty line of $1.90/day, at 2011 purchasing power parity, is based on a collection of national poverty lines, which were originally used to set the international poverty line of $1.25/day at 2005 purchasing power parity. This paper proposes an approach for estimating a more recent, complete, and comparable collection of national poverty thresholds from reported...

  18. A comparative study of language strategies in international organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Ylinen, Anna-Maria

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study of language strategies in international organizations Objectives of the study The study focuses on language strategies and their existence among international organizations. The goal is to find out if organizations have a written language strategy at all and if they do, what the language strategy contains. Also, in case a language strategy does not exist, the language practices are researched. After that the strategies and practices are compared. The main research q...

  19. The impact of internalizing symptoms on autistic traits in adolescents with restrictive anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calderoni S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sara Calderoni,1,* Pamela Fantozzi,1,* Giulia Balboni,2 Veronica Pagni,1 Emilio Franzoni,3 Fabio Apicella,1 Antonio Narzisi,1 Sandra Maestro,1 Filippo Muratori1,4 1IRCCS Stella Maris Foundation, 2Department of Surgery, Medical, Molecular and Critical Area Pathology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 3Child Neuropsychiatric Unit, Women, Children and Adolescents Health Department, University Hospital S Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna, Italy; 4Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Although previous studies indicated a positive association between restrictive anorexia-nervosa (AN-R and autistic traits, the potential interference of psychiatric internalizing comorbidity on this association is not yet fully investigated.Materials and methods: The aim of this study was to explore autistic traits and internalizing psychopathology in adolescents (age range: 11.7–17.2 years with AN-R. Twenty-five patients referred to two tertiary-care hospitals were compared to a large control group (N=170 with no differences in age and sex. AN-R patients and controls filled out instruments assessing autistic traits (autism spectrum quotient [AQ], psychopathology (youth self-report [YSR] 11–18, and eating patterns (eating attitude test [EAT]. In order to disentangle the possible mediating role of internalizing symptoms on autistic traits, two separate control groups (called True and False healthy control, both composed of 25 eating-problem-free participants were derived from the whole control group on the basis of the presence or absence of internalizing problems in the YSR.Results: AN-R patients scored significantly higher on AQ compared to the whole control group and to controls without internalizing problems (True HC, but these differences disappeared when only controls with internalizing problems (False HC were considered.Conclusion: Autistic traits in AN

  20. Eating behavior: do adolescents with diabetes eat differently compared to healthy adolescent?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaufort, C d; Damsgaard, M T; Ahluwalia, N;

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Comparison between eating habits of 11 and 15 years healthy adolescents and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in 18 countries worldwide. The Health Behaviour in School-age children (HBSC) study, a WHO collaborative cross-national study, (www.HBSC.org) has started to evaluate different...... aspects of health of adolescents world wide since 1983. As the diet is one of the corner stones of the treatment of diabetes, the Hvidoere study group has investigated whether eating habits in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) differ from their healthy peers, in using the same questions as developed...

  1. Stressful Life Events, Anxiety Sensitivity, and Internalizing Symptoms in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity represents a robust risk factor for the development of anxiety symptoms among both adolescents and adults. However, the development of anxiety sensitivity among adolescents remains inadequately understood. In this study, the authors examined the role of stressful life events as a risk factor for the development of elevated anxiety sensitivity. Anxiety sensitivity was then examined in a longitudinal design as a mechanism linking stressful life events to changes in anxiety s...

  2. Mediators for internalizing problems in adolescents of parents with chronic medical condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.S. Sieh; F.J. Oort; J.M.A. Visser-Meily; A.M. Meijer

    2014-01-01

    Parents’ chronic medical condition (CMC) is related to internalizing problem behavior in adolescents. Following the transactional stress and coping (TSC) model of Hocking and Lochman, our study examines whether the effect of illness and demographic parameters on the child’s internalizing problems is

  3. Emotion Regulation and Internalizing Symptoms in a Longitudinal Study of Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sexual minority adolescents appear to be at increased risk for internalizing disorders relative to their heterosexual peers, but there is a paucity of research explaining this elevated risk. Emotion regulation deficits are increasingly understood as important predictors of internalizing psychopathology among general samples of…

  4. Prenatal Smoking and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Children Studied from Childhood to Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Janka; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Timmermans, Maartje; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate whether prenatal smoking was only related to externalizing or both internalizing and externalizing problems in children from childhood to early adolescence. Results indicated that maternal smoking during pregnancy is an accurate predictor of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology among children.

  5. Cultural Affiliation and Self-Esteem as Predictors of Internalizing Symptoms among Mexican American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Elizabeth J.; McCabe, Kristen; Yeh, May; Lau, Anna; Garland, Ann; Hough, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the relations between affiliation with Mexican culture and self-esteem at baseline (Time 1 [T1]), and internalizing symptoms 2 years later (Time 2 [T2]) among a sample of high-risk Mexican American adolescents. Results indicated that T1 affiliation with Mexican culture was not related to T2 internalizing symptoms, controlling for…

  6. Gravidez na adolescência: estudo comparativo Adolescent pregnancy: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Viviana Lopez Alegria

    1989-12-01

    compared with 14.7% and 19.7%, respectively, for the adult pregnant women. A larger proportion of intra-parturition intercurrencies was registered for the pregnant adolescents (12.9%, as against 8.2% for the adult pregnant women, hemorrhagia and toxemia being the most important. During the puerperium there were complications in 15.7% of the pregnant adolescents and 11.8% of the adults post partum anemia, toxemia and puerperal infection being the commonest disorders.

  7. Relations of Parenting to Adolescent Externalizing and Internalizing Distress Moderated by Perception of Neighborhood Danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, Jonathan S; Quimby, Dakari; Richards, Maryse H; Zakaryan, Arie; Miller, Steve; Dickson, Daniel; Chilson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Parental monitoring and warmth have traditionally been studied in the context of White, middle-class families. This article explores optimal levels of these parenting behaviors in preventing adolescent psychopathology in impoverished, urban high-crime areas while accounting for child perceptions of neighborhood danger. In this study, data were collected longitudinally at 2 time points 1 year apart from a sample of 254 African American young adolescents (T1: M age = 12.6 years, 41% male) and their parents. Parental monitoring and warmth, child perception of neighborhood danger, and child internalizing and externalizing behaviors were measured using questionnaires. Child internalizing behaviors were also measured using a time sampling technique capturing in vivo accounts of daily distress. Findings indicated associations between parental monitoring and children's externalizing behaviors along with linear and quadratic associations between parental monitoring and internalizing behaviors. Monitoring and warmth were differentially related to symptoms depending on neighborhood danger level. When children perceived less danger, more monitoring related to less externalizing. When children perceived more danger, more warmth related to less internalizing. In addition, adolescents' perceptions of neighborhood danger emerged as equally strong as monitoring and warmth in predicting symptoms. This study underscores the influence of carefully considering parenting approaches and which techniques optimally prevent adolescents' externalizing, as well as prevent internalizing difficulties. It also highlights how context affects mental health, specifically how perceptions of danger negatively influence adolescents' psychopathology, emphasizing the importance of initiatives to reduce violence in communities.

  8. Relations of Parenting to Adolescent Externalizing and Internalizing Distress Moderated by Perception of Neighborhood Danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, Jonathan S; Quimby, Dakari; Richards, Maryse H; Zakaryan, Arie; Miller, Steve; Dickson, Daniel; Chilson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Parental monitoring and warmth have traditionally been studied in the context of White, middle-class families. This article explores optimal levels of these parenting behaviors in preventing adolescent psychopathology in impoverished, urban high-crime areas while accounting for child perceptions of neighborhood danger. In this study, data were collected longitudinally at 2 time points 1 year apart from a sample of 254 African American young adolescents (T1: M age = 12.6 years, 41% male) and their parents. Parental monitoring and warmth, child perception of neighborhood danger, and child internalizing and externalizing behaviors were measured using questionnaires. Child internalizing behaviors were also measured using a time sampling technique capturing in vivo accounts of daily distress. Findings indicated associations between parental monitoring and children's externalizing behaviors along with linear and quadratic associations between parental monitoring and internalizing behaviors. Monitoring and warmth were differentially related to symptoms depending on neighborhood danger level. When children perceived less danger, more monitoring related to less externalizing. When children perceived more danger, more warmth related to less internalizing. In addition, adolescents' perceptions of neighborhood danger emerged as equally strong as monitoring and warmth in predicting symptoms. This study underscores the influence of carefully considering parenting approaches and which techniques optimally prevent adolescents' externalizing, as well as prevent internalizing difficulties. It also highlights how context affects mental health, specifically how perceptions of danger negatively influence adolescents' psychopathology, emphasizing the importance of initiatives to reduce violence in communities. PMID:25425100

  9. Glycemic Control, Coping, and Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Luyckx, Koen; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Hampson, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examines how active coping and withdrawal, psychological (internalizing and externalizing) symptoms, and glycemic control (A1C values) influence each other across time in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS One hundred and nine adolescents participated in a four-wave longitudinal study spanning four years (mean age at Time 1 was 13.77). Patients were visited at home and completed questionnaires measuring coping and psychological symptoms. The tre...

  10. Reproductive outcomes in adolescents who had a previous birth or an induced abortion compared to adolescents' first pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzlaff Paul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, attention has been focused on subsequent pregnancies among teenage mothers. Previous studies that compared the reproductive outcomes of teenage nulliparae and multiparae often did not consider the adolescents' reproductive histories. Thus, the authors compared the risks for adverse reproductive outcomes of adolescent nulliparae to teenagers who either have had an induced abortion or a previous birth. Methods In this retrospective cohort study we used perinatal data prospectively collected by obstetricians and midwives from 1990–1999 (participation rate 87–98% of all hospitals in Lower Saxony, Germany. From the 9742 eligible births among adolescents, women with multiple births, >1 previous pregnancies, or a previous spontaneous miscarriage were deleted and 8857 women Results In bivariate logistic regression analyses, compared to nulliparous teenagers, adolescents with a previous birth had higher risks for perinatal [OR = 2.08, CI = 1.11,3.89] and neonatal [OR = 4.31, CI = 1.77,10.52] mortality and adolescents with a previous abortion had higher risks for stillbirths [OR = 3.31, CI = 1.01,10.88] and preterm births [OR = 2.21, CI = 1.07,4.58]. After adjusting for maternal nationality, partner status, smoking, prenatal care and pre-pregnancy BMI, adolescents with a previous birth were at higher risk for perinatal [OR = 2.35, CI = 1.14,4.86] and neonatal mortality [OR = 4.70, CI = 1.60,13.81] and adolescents with a previous abortion had a higher risk for very low birthweight infants [OR = 2.74, CI = 1.06,7.09] than nulliparous teenagers. Conclusion The results suggest that teenagers who give birth twice as adolescents have worse outcomes in their second pregnancy compared to those teenagers who are giving birth for the first time. The prevention of the second pregnancy during adolescence is an important public health objective and should be addressed by health care providers who attend the first birth or the abortion

  11. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Thin-Ideal Internalization across Puberty and Pre-Adolescent, Adolescent, and Young Adult Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suisman, Jessica L.; Thompson, J. Kevin; Keel, Pamela K.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Neale, Michael; Boker, Steven; Sisk, Cheryl; Klump, Kelly L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Mean-levels of thin-ideal internalization increase during adolescence and pubertal development, but it is unknown whether these phenotypic changes correspond to developmental changes in etiological (i.e., genetic and environmental) risk. Given the limited knowledge on risk for thin-ideal internalization, research is needed to guide the identification of specific types of risk factors during critical developmental periods. The present twin study examined genetic and environmental influences on thin-ideal internalization across adolescent and pubertal development. Method Participants were 1,064 female twins (ages 8–25 years) from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Thin-ideal internalization and pubertal development were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Twin moderation models were used to examine if age and/or pubertal development moderate genetic and environmental influences on thin-ideal internalization. Results Phenotypic analyses indicated significant increases in thin-ideal internalization across age and pubertal development. Twin models suggested no significant differences in etiologic effects across development. Nonshared environmental influences were most important in the etiology of thin-ideal internalization, with genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental accounting for approximately 8%, 15%, and 72%, respectively, of the total variance. Discussion Despite mean-level increases in thin-ideal internalization across development, the relative influence of genetic versus environmental risk did not differ significantly across age or pubertal groups. The majority of variance in thin-ideal internalization was accounted for by environmental factors, suggesting that mean-level increases in thin-ideal internalization may reflect increases in the magnitude/strength of environmental risk across this period. Replication is needed, particularly with longitudinal designs that assess thin-ideal internalization across key

  12. Reducing Internalizing Symptoms Among High-Risk, Hispanic Adolescents: Mediators of a Preventive Family Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrino, Tatiana; Brincks, Ahnalee; Howe, George; Brown, C Hendricks; Prado, Guillermo; Pantin, Hilda

    2016-07-01

    Familias Unidas is a family-focused preventive intervention that has been found to reduce drug use and sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic adolescents. In some trials, Familias Unidas has also been found to be efficacious in reducing adolescent internalizing symptoms (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms), even though the intervention did not specifically target internalizing symptoms. This study examines potential mediators or mechanisms by which Familias Unidas influences internalizing symptoms, specifically the role of intervention-targeted improvements in parent-adolescent communication and reductions in youth externalizing behaviors. A total of 213 Hispanic eighth grade students with a history of externalizing behavior problems and their primary caregivers were recruited from the public school system. Participants, with a mean age of 13.8 years, were randomized into the Familias Unidas intervention or community practice control condition and assessed at baseline, 6, 18, and 30 months post-baseline. A cascading mediation model was tested in which the Familias Unidas intervention was hypothesized to decrease adolescent internalizing symptoms through two mediators: improvements in parent-adolescent communication leading to decreases in externalizing behaviors. Findings show that the intervention had significant direct effects on youth internalizing symptoms at 30 months post-baseline. In addition, the cascading mediation model was supported in which the Familias Unidas intervention predicted significant improvements in parent-adolescent communication at 6 months, subsequently decreasing externalizing behaviors at 18 months, and ultimately reducing youth internalizing symptoms at 30 months post-baseline. Implications for prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:27154768

  13. Reducing Internalizing Symptoms Among High-Risk, Hispanic Adolescents: Mediators of a Preventive Family Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrino, Tatiana; Brincks, Ahnalee; Howe, George; Brown, C Hendricks; Prado, Guillermo; Pantin, Hilda

    2016-07-01

    Familias Unidas is a family-focused preventive intervention that has been found to reduce drug use and sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic adolescents. In some trials, Familias Unidas has also been found to be efficacious in reducing adolescent internalizing symptoms (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms), even though the intervention did not specifically target internalizing symptoms. This study examines potential mediators or mechanisms by which Familias Unidas influences internalizing symptoms, specifically the role of intervention-targeted improvements in parent-adolescent communication and reductions in youth externalizing behaviors. A total of 213 Hispanic eighth grade students with a history of externalizing behavior problems and their primary caregivers were recruited from the public school system. Participants, with a mean age of 13.8 years, were randomized into the Familias Unidas intervention or community practice control condition and assessed at baseline, 6, 18, and 30 months post-baseline. A cascading mediation model was tested in which the Familias Unidas intervention was hypothesized to decrease adolescent internalizing symptoms through two mediators: improvements in parent-adolescent communication leading to decreases in externalizing behaviors. Findings show that the intervention had significant direct effects on youth internalizing symptoms at 30 months post-baseline. In addition, the cascading mediation model was supported in which the Familias Unidas intervention predicted significant improvements in parent-adolescent communication at 6 months, subsequently decreasing externalizing behaviors at 18 months, and ultimately reducing youth internalizing symptoms at 30 months post-baseline. Implications for prevention interventions are discussed.

  14. Reducing Internalizing Symptoms among High-Risk, Hispanic Adolescents: Mediators of a Preventive Family Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrino, Tatiana; Brincks, Ahnalee; Howe, George; Brown, C. Hendricks; Prado, Guillermo; Pantin, Hilda

    2016-01-01

    Familias Unidas is a family-focused preventive intervention that has been found to reduce drug use and sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic adolescents. In some trials, Familias Unidas has also been found to be efficacious in reducing adolescent internalizing symptoms (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms), even though the intervention did not specifically target internalizing symptoms. This study examines potential mediators or mechanisms by which Familias Unidas influences internalizing symptoms, specifically the role of intervention-targeted improvements in parent-adolescent communication and reductions in youth externalizing behaviors. A total of 213 Hispanic eighth grade students with a history of externalizing behavior problems and their primary caregivers were recruited from the public school system. Participants, with a mean age of 13.8 years, were randomized into the Familias Unidas intervention or community practice control condition, and assessed at baseline, 6-months, 18-months, and 30-months post-baseline. A cascading mediation model was tested in which the Familias Unidas intervention was hypothesized to decrease adolescent internalizing symptoms through two mediators: improvements in parent-adolescent communication leading to decreases in externalizing behaviors. Findings show that the intervention had significant direct effects on youth internalizing symptoms at 30-months post-baseline. In addition, the cascading mediation model was supported in which the Familias Unidas intervention predicted significant improvements in parent-adolescent communication at 6-months, subsequently decreasing externalizing behaviors at 18-months, and ultimately reducing youth internalizing symptoms at 30-months post-baseline. Implications for prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:27154768

  15. Bullying and symptoms among school-aged children: international comparative cross sectional study in 28 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn E; Lynch, John;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There have been no large-scale international comparisons on bullying and health among adolescents. This study examined the association between bullying and physical and psychological symptoms among adolescents in 28 countries. METHODS: This international cross-sectional survey included...... 123,227 students 11, 13 and 15 years of age from a nationally representative sample of schools in 28 countries in Europe and North America in 1997-98.The main outcome measures were physical and psychological symptoms. RESULTS: The proportion of students being bullied varied enormously across countries...... adolescents in all 28 countries....

  16. Crossing Borders: Research in Comparative and International Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jesse; Addy, Nii Antiyae; Samoff, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Published articles permit mapping international and comparative education research. We reviewed 605 articles published 2004-2008 in four major journals. Using title, abstract, and entire text we explored thematic focus, geographic focus, level/type of education studied, method, and funding. The economic, political, and social context of education…

  17. Spatial Theorizing in Comparative and International Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Marianne A.; Beech, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The authors argue for a critical spatial perspective in comparative and international education. We briefly summarize how time and space have been conceptualized within our field. We then review mainstream social science literature that reflects a metanarrative, which we critique for contributing to false dichotomies between space and place and…

  18. International Developments in Youth Ministry Research: A Comparative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebben, Bert

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the emerging field of youth ministry research is presented and interpreted through the lens of practical theology. International developments are described and compared as local responses to the ongoing global dynamics of youth culture. After an overview of four different contexts in which youth ministry research can be situated,…

  19. International cooperation between organizations conducting independent comparative product tests

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Szarek

    2011-01-01

    The paper aims at analysing the fields and the rules of international cooperation between organizations conducting independent comparative product tests. It identifies the benefits and limitations of this cooperation. As a result, it formulates a set of recommendations regarding further integration of these organizations in the days of globalization and dissemination of the Internet.

  20. The Professionalization of Comparative and International Education: Promises and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Alexander W.; Matherly, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify, describe, and analyze historical trends in the professionalization of the field of comparative and international education, as indicated by the founding, expansion, and evolution of the professional associations and graduate programs serving the field. Using historical and university data as well as unique…

  1. Steroid hormones, stress and the adolescent brain : a comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Gillian Ruth; Spencer, Karen Anne

    2013-01-01

    Steroid hormones, including those produced by the gonads and the adrenal glands, are known to influence brain development during sensitive periods of life. Until recently, most brain organisation was assumed to take place during early stages of development, with relatively little neurogenesis or brain re-organisation during later stages. However, an increasing body of research has shown that the developing brain is also sensitive to steroid hormone exposure during adolescence (broadly defined...

  2. A Comparison of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised and Leiter International Performance Scale for a Group of Educationally Handicapped Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Melanie Walton; Ratcliffe, Kevin J.

    1980-01-01

    Compared the WISC-R and Leiter International Performance Scale IQs for a sample of educationally handicapped adolescents. Results indicated positive correlations between WISC-R Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale scores and Leiter scores. Findings suggest the same pattern exists for the WISC-R and Leiter as for the WISC and Leiter. (Author)

  3. Emotion dysregulation as a mechanism linking peer victimization to internalizing symptoms in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Hilt, Lori M

    2009-10-01

    Peer victimization experiences represent developmentally salient stressors among adolescents and are associated with the development of internalizing symptoms. However, the mechanisms linking peer victimization to adolescent psychopathology remain inadequately understood. This study examined emotion dysregulation as a mechanism linking peer stress to changes in internalizing symptoms among adolescents in a longitudinal design. Peer victimization was assessed with the Revised Peer Experiences Questionnaire (M. J. Prinstein, J. Boergers, & E. M. Vernberg, 2001) in a large (N = 1,065), racially diverse (86.6% non-White) sample of adolescents 11-14 years of age. Emotion dysregulation and symptoms of depression and anxiety were also assessed. Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent construct of emotion dysregulation from measures of discrete emotion processes and of peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. Peer victimization was associated with increased emotion dysregulation over a 4-month period. Increases in emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between relational and reputational, but not overt, victimization and changes in internalizing symptoms over a 7-month period. Evidence for a reciprocal relationship between internalizing symptoms and relational victimization was found, but emotion dysregulation did not mediate this relationship. The implications for preventive interventions are discussed.

  4. Explaining the judicial independence of international courts: a comparative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek

    condition. The paper first develops three sets of competing explanatory variables that potentially can explain variations in the judicial independence of ICs. The causal effects of these explanatory variables upon variance in judicial independence are investigated in a comparative analysis of the ACJ, ECJ......What factors allow some international courts (ICs) to rule against the express preferences of powerful member states, whereas others routinely defer to governments? While judicial independence is not the only factor explaining the strength of a given international institution, it is a necessary...

  5. Self-Concept Clarity Across Adolescence : Longitudinal Associations With Open Communication With Parents and Internalizing Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Marloes; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Hawk, Skyler T.; Hale, William W.; Meeus, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Higher self-concept clarity is related to several adjustment indices and may be promoted by open communication with parents, while problems with self-concept clarity development could enhance internalizing problems (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms) in adolescence. This longitudinal study exami

  6. Improving adolescent sexual and reproductive health in Latin America: reflections from an International Congress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Córdova Pozo; V. Chandra-Mouli; P. Decat; E. Nelson; S. de Meyer; L. Jaruseviciene; B. Vega; Z. Segura; N. Auquilla; A. Hagens; D. van Braeckel; K. Michielsen

    2015-01-01

    In February 2014, an international congress on Promoting Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health (ASRH) took place in Cuenca, Ecuador. Its objective was to share evidence on effective ASRH intervention projects and programs in Latin America, and to link this evidence to ASRH policy and program dev

  7. Interpersonal Stress Generation as a Mechanism Linking Rumination to Internalizing Symptoms in Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Rumination is a risk factor for depressive and anxiety symptoms in adolescents. Previous investigations of the mechanisms linking rumination to internalizing problems have focused primarily on cognitive factors. We investigated whether interpersonal stress generation plays a role in the longitudinal relationship between rumination and…

  8. Internalizing symptoms and rumination: The prospective prediction of familial and peer emotional victimization experiences during adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Shapero, Benjamin G.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Liu, Richard T.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is marked by increases in stressful life events. Although research has demonstrated that depressed individuals generate stress, few studies investigate the generation of emotional victimization. The current study examined the effects of rumination and internalizing symptoms on experiences of peer victimization and familial emotional abuse.

  9. Comparing Adolescent Only Children with Those Who Have Siblings on Academic Related Outcomes and Psychosocial Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng-yin Chen; Liu, Ruth X.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses a large and representative sample of adolescents to test the theoretically informed hypotheses comparing adolescent singletons with those who have siblings. The results found that, for academic related outcomes (educational expectations, time spent on homework, and self-reported grades), there are no differences between singletons and firstborns who have any number of younger siblings. Singletons are also not different from laterborns from two-child families. In contrast, sing...

  10. Comparative Research on Substance Abuse and Self-Perception Among Adolescents with Physical Handicap

    OpenAIRE

    Janeković, Koraljka

    2003-01-01

    The research on substance (alcohol, tobacco and drug) abuse and on self-perception was done by comparing a test group of physically disabled adolescents and a test group of non-disabled adolescents. The respondents of the experimental group were students of the only special high school for physically handicapped persons in Croatia, Zagreb. The respondents of the control group were the students of two regular high schools in the capital of Croatia. The instrument used in this re...

  11. Gender differences in child/adolescent personality traits: Slovenes and Russians compared

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Zupančič; Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Knyazev, Gennady G.

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared gender differences in parental perceptions of child personality trait expression across different age groups in Slovenia and Russia. The patterns of gender differences in adolescents were further explored using parent and self-rating methods of assessment. Employing the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003) reports on large samples of children/ adolescents (2 to 15 years) in both countries were obtained. Gender differences were small...

  12. Gender differences in child/adolescent personality traits: Slovene and Russians compared:

    OpenAIRE

    Knyazev, Gennady G.; Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Zupančič, Maja

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared gender differences in parental perceptions of child personality trait expression across different age groups in Slovenia and Russia. The patterns of gender differences in adolescents were further explored using parent and self-rating methods of assessment. Employing the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003) reports on large samples of children/ adolescents (2 to 15 years) in both countries were obtained. Gender differences were small and...

  13. Sexual Behavior and Knowledge among Adolescents with Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Compared to HIV-Uninfected Adolescents at an Urban Tertiary Center in New Jersey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlesha Kaushik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sexual behaviors and knowledge among PHIV-infected (PHIV+ adolescents in comparison with HIV-uninfected youths are not well understood and continue to be studied actively. Objective. To compare sexual behavior and sexual knowledge of PHIV+ and HIV-uninfected adolescents at an urban, tertiary-care center in New Jersey. Study Design. Modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance questionnaire was administered to PHIV+ and HIV-uninfected adolescents to assess and compare sexual behavior and knowledge over a 1-year-period. Results. Twenty-seven PHIV+ and 100 HIV-uninfected adolescents were studied; 59% PHIV+ and 52% HIV-uninfected adolescents were sexually active. A significantly higher proportion of PHIV+ adolescents compared to HIV-uninfected adolescents reported ≥1 occasion of unprotected penetrative sex (p4 sexual partners (p=0.037. Significantly more PHIV+ males reported receptive anal intercourse (p80% adolescents in both groups did not consider multiple sexual partners a risk factor for HIV transmission. Only 25% PHIV+ adolescents reported disclosing their seropositive status to their first sexual partners. Conclusions. High risk sexual behaviors were significantly more prevalent among PHIV+ youths; however both groups demonstrated considerable gaps in sexual knowledge. There is an urgent need for heightening awareness about risky behaviors, interventions for prevention, and reproductive health promotion among adolescents.

  14. Sexual Behavior and Knowledge among Adolescents with Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Compared to HIV-Uninfected Adolescents at an Urban Tertiary Center in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Carol; Kest, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sexual behaviors and knowledge among PHIV-infected (PHIV+) adolescents in comparison with HIV-uninfected youths are not well understood and continue to be studied actively. Objective. To compare sexual behavior and sexual knowledge of PHIV+ and HIV-uninfected adolescents at an urban, tertiary-care center in New Jersey. Study Design. Modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance questionnaire was administered to PHIV+ and HIV-uninfected adolescents to assess and compare sexual behavior and knowledge over a 1-year-period. Results. Twenty-seven PHIV+ and 100 HIV-uninfected adolescents were studied; 59% PHIV+ and 52% HIV-uninfected adolescents were sexually active. A significantly higher proportion of PHIV+ adolescents compared to HIV-uninfected adolescents reported ≥1 occasion of unprotected penetrative sex (p 4) sexual partners (p = 0.037). Significantly more PHIV+ males reported receptive anal intercourse (p 80% adolescents in both groups did not consider multiple sexual partners a risk factor for HIV transmission. Only 25% PHIV+ adolescents reported disclosing their seropositive status to their first sexual partners. Conclusions. High risk sexual behaviors were significantly more prevalent among PHIV+ youths; however both groups demonstrated considerable gaps in sexual knowledge. There is an urgent need for heightening awareness about risky behaviors, interventions for prevention, and reproductive health promotion among adolescents. PMID:27595131

  15. Sexual Behavior and Knowledge among Adolescents with Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Compared to HIV-Uninfected Adolescents at an Urban Tertiary Center in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Ashlesha; Pineda, Carol; Kest, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sexual behaviors and knowledge among PHIV-infected (PHIV(+)) adolescents in comparison with HIV-uninfected youths are not well understood and continue to be studied actively. Objective. To compare sexual behavior and sexual knowledge of PHIV(+) and HIV-uninfected adolescents at an urban, tertiary-care center in New Jersey. Study Design. Modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance questionnaire was administered to PHIV(+) and HIV-uninfected adolescents to assess and compare sexual behavior and knowledge over a 1-year-period. Results. Twenty-seven PHIV(+) and 100 HIV-uninfected adolescents were studied; 59% PHIV(+) and 52% HIV-uninfected adolescents were sexually active. A significantly higher proportion of PHIV(+) adolescents compared to HIV-uninfected adolescents reported ≥1 occasion of unprotected penetrative sex (p 4) sexual partners (p = 0.037). Significantly more PHIV(+) males reported receptive anal intercourse (p sexual abstinence can prevent HIV transmission and >80% adolescents in both groups did not consider multiple sexual partners a risk factor for HIV transmission. Only 25% PHIV(+) adolescents reported disclosing their seropositive status to their first sexual partners. Conclusions. High risk sexual behaviors were significantly more prevalent among PHIV(+) youths; however both groups demonstrated considerable gaps in sexual knowledge. There is an urgent need for heightening awareness about risky behaviors, interventions for prevention, and reproductive health promotion among adolescents. PMID:27595131

  16. Familism, Parent-Adolescent Conflict, Self-Esteem, Internalizing Behaviors and Suicide Attempts among Adolescent Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Pena, Juan B.; Zayas, Luis H.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent Latinas continue to report higher levels of suicide attempts than their African-American and White peers. The phenomenon is still not understood and is theorized to be the result of the confluence of many cultural, familial, and individual level factors. In Latino cultures, belief in the importance of the family, the value known as…

  17. Coming out during adolescence: Perceived parents' reactions and internalized sexual stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, Roberto; Fontanesi, Lilybeth; Santamaria, Federica; Ioverno, Salvatore; Baumgartner, Emma; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2016-08-01

    Disclosing sexual orientation to parents is a challenging developmental task for lesbian and gay adolescents. The aim of the study is to investigate parental negative reaction to coming out, which is associated with high levels of internalized sexual stigma and psychological problems. Participants' perceptions of their parents' reactions, age at coming out, gender, parental political orientation and religiosity, family functioning, and internalized sexual stigma were assessed in 150 Italian homosexual adolescents. Findings confirm that negative parental reactions are connected to poor family functioning and strong beliefs in traditional values. Path analysis results identified that negative reaction to coming out mediates the effect between a more rigid family functioning and internalized sexual stigma. Implications for clinical and social fields are discussed. PMID:25538141

  18. Childhood Internalizing and Externalizing Problems Predict the Onset of Clinical Panic Attacks over Adolescence: The TRAILS Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mathyssek, Christina M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oort, Floor V. A.

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Panic attacks are a source of individual suffering and are an independent risk factor for later psychopathology. However, much less is known about risk factors for the development of panic attacks, particularly during adolescence when the incidence of panic attacks increases dramatically. We examined whether internalizing and externalizing problems in childhood predict the onset of panic attacks in adolescence. Method: This study is part of the TRacking Adolescents' In...

  19. Overrepresentation of Internationally Adopted Adolescents in Swedish §12-institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Elmund, Anna Mi Ra

    2007-01-01

    In order to study internationally adopted delinquents, internationally adopted controls, delinquent controls and an additional group of healthy non-adopted, non-delinquent controls, the following tests were used: WISC/WAIS, TOL, WCST, a questionnaire, I think I am, ISSI, an attachment test, KSP, and SCL-90. In the register study, data were obtained from the registers of The National Board of Health and Welfare and Statistics Sweden and multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regre...

  20. Developmental Pathways to Adolescent Cannabis Abuse and Dependence: Child Maltreatment, Emerging Personality, and Internalizing versus Externalizing Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Burnette, Mandi; Cicchetti, Dante

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment is strongly associated with adolescent psychopathology and substance abuse and dependence (Clark, Thatcher, & Martin, 2010; Ellis & Wolfe, 2009). However, developmental processes unfolding from childhood into adolescence that delineate this trajectory are not well understood. The current study uses path analysis in a structural equation modeling framework to examine multiple mediator models, including ego control, ego resiliency, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms...

  1. Acculturation, Internalizing Mental Health Symptoms, and Self-Esteem: Cultural Experiences of Latino Adolescents in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R.; Bacallao, Martica L.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examined acculturation risk factors and cultural assets, internalizing behavioral problems, and self-esteem in 323 Latino adolescents living in North Carolina. Multiple regression analyses revealed two risk factors--perceived discrimination and parent-adolescent conflict--as highly significant predictors of adolescent…

  2. Self-Disclosure to the Best Friend: Friendship Quality and Internalized Sexual Stigma in Italian Lesbian and Gay Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, Roberto; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Di Pomponio, Ileana; Nigito, Concetta Simona

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first contribution to the understanding of gender differences in best friendship patterns of adolescents sexual minorities. We explored friendship patterns, self-disclosure, and internalized sexual stigma in an Italian sample of lesbian (N = 202) and gay (N = 201) adolescents (aged 14-22 years). We found gender differences in…

  3. Association of acculturative stress, Islamic practices, and internalizing symptoms among Arab American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Anisa N; Pham, Andy V; Chun, Heejung; Castro-Olivo, Sara M; Yosai, Erin R

    2016-06-01

    Although the numbers of Arab American immigrant youth in schools is increasing, there is little understanding of their mental health and the sociocultural factors that might influence it. This study examined the relationship between 2 sociocultural factors (i.e., acculturative stress and religious practices) and internalizing symptoms in first- and second-generation Muslim Arab American adolescents. Adolescents (n = 88) ages 11 to 18 completed measures related to acculturative stress, religious practices, internalizing symptoms, and general demographic information. Results of multiple regression analyses found that acculturative stress significantly predicted internalizing symptoms. Gender was found to moderate this association. No differences in the reported acculturative stress and internalizing symptoms were found between youth of different generational status (i.e., first- vs. second-generation). Finally, adolescents' organizational religious practices, but not their private religious practices, were found to be associated with lower acculturative stress. Implications are discussed related to how school psychologists can provide culturally responsive services to this population. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27243243

  4. Family relations, stressful events and internalizing symptoms in adolescence: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Adriana Raquel Binsfeld; Teodoro, Maycoln Leoni Martins; Falcke, Denise

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine how emotional and behavioral problems of parents and children and the characteristics of family relationships can be predictors of internalizing symptoms manifested by children after one year. This was a quantitative research study, of the longitudinal type, with a one year interval between the first and second evaluation. Participants were 139 adolescents, and their parents, with ages ranged from 11 to 16 years (M age = 12.90, SD = 1.07). The instruments used were: a Socio-Demographic Data Sheet, Youth Self-Report of 11 to 18 years old (YSR), Adult Self-Report of 18 to 59 years old (ASR), Familiogram (FG), the Family Climate Inventory (FCI) and Inventory of Stressful Events in Adolescence (ISEA). Results indicated that family relationships did not have a significant explanatory power in relation to internalizing symptoms of the adolescent after a year. Based on this study, it is possible to think that during adolescence, the power of the family to influence becomes more restricted in comparison with social and peer influence. PMID:24230920

  5. CIVIL LIABILITY FOR NUCLEAR DAMAGE: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL TREATIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rimšaitė

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It was widely accepted that nuclear damage might be extensive and spread to other countries. International civil liability for nuclear damage is embodied by two major instruments: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil liability for Nuclear Damage and Paris Convention of 1960 on third party liability (OECD with its amending protocols. Major problem arises because of lack of coherence and for this reason supplementary conventions and protocols has been adopted but sufficient results has not been achieved. International treaties on civil liability for nuclear damage are mostly based upon principles of operator’s exclusive, channeling, strict liability for nuclear damage, mandatory financial coverage, compensation without discrimination. These principles set ground for the appropriate compensation standard thus minimizing the difficulty level of complicated legal cross-actions and identifies certain subjects in individual cases who are liable also allows a concentration of the insurance capacity. Although Conventions sets similar principles, Europe remains in two different liability regimes which cover differences of liability amounts, scope of application, rules of jurisdiction conflicts. Problem of legal coherence at European Union level also arises because Member States are either parties to the Paris Convention or Vienna Convention at different speeds. This research paper provides an in-depth analysis of international legal framework development and impetus to create trans-boundary compensation mechanisms thus to foster development of European Union nuclear energy market and to provide higher protection for victims inside and outside the country where the incident has occurred. Purpose – provide comparative analysis of international treaties which regulate civil liability for nuclear damage in the context of European Union nuclear energy market development. Design/methodology - paper is based on document

  6. Exploring Adolescents' Thinking about Globalization in an International Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John P.

    2010-01-01

    This research examined US high school students' thinking about economic and cultural globalization during their participation in an international education program. The findings mapped the students' categories for the two aspects of globalization and showed that the students' positions were shaped by relatively stable narratives characterizing the…

  7. Peer Cybervictimization Among Adolescents and the Associated Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Benjamin W; Gardella, Joseph H; Teurbe-Tolon, Abbie R

    2016-09-01

    Numerous adolescents in the United States experience peer cybervictimization, which is associated with a series of internalizing (e.g., depression, anxiety, anger) and externalizing (e.g., aggression, substance use, risky sexual behavior) problems. The current study provides a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing research on these relationships. Included in the meta-analyses are 239 effect sizes from 55 reports, representing responses from 257,678 adolescents. The results of a series of random effects meta-analyses using robust variance estimation indicated positive and significant relationships between peer cybervictimization and a series of internalizing and externalizing problems, with point estimates of this relationship ranging from Pearson's r = .14 to .34. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:27447707

  8. Percentiles of percentage body fat in German children and adolescents: An international comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Schwandt; Arnold von Eckardstein; Gerda-Maria Haas

    2012-01-01

    Background: Age- and gender-specific percentiles of body mass index in children and adolescents are a cornerstone categorizing overweight and obesity in youths worldwide. Since corresponding worldwide growth curves of percent body fat (% BF) are missing, the purpose was to contribute smoothed percentiles of percentage body fat from a large urban sample of German youths and to include them in actual national and international percentile curves. Methods: We estimated % BF in 22 113 German y...

  9. Child Immunization Status among a Sample of Adolescent Mothers: Comparing the Validity of Measurement Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Clarissa; Cota-Robles, Sonia; Knight, Margaret; Francis, Judith; Phillips, Elizabeth; Mazerbo, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This study of adolescent mothers sought to identify whether a single general question asked by phone or a detailed, vaccine-specific question asked in a self-report questionnaire best captured infant immunization status at 6 months postpartum, by comparing them with immunization record books. Responses to a global question about whether infants…

  10. Comparing Relations of Motivation, Engagement, and Achievement among Struggling and Advanced Adolescent Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauda, Susan Lutz; Guthrie, John T.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of reading motivation, engagement, and achievement in early adolescence by comparing interrelations of these variables in struggling and advanced readers. Participants were 183 pairs of seventh grade students matched in gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and school attended. They completed…

  11. Alexithymia in parents and adolescent anorexic daughters: comparing the responses to TSIA and TAS-20 scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balottin L

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Laura Balottin,1 Renata Nacinovich,2 Monica Bomba,2 Stefania Mannarini1 1Interdepartmental Center of Family Research, Department of Philosophy, Sociology, Education, and Applied Psychology, Section of Applied Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; 2Childhood and Adolescence Neuropsychiatric Unit, San Gerardo Hospital, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza, Italy Background: A growing body of literature has been focusing on individual alexithymia in anorexia nervosa, while there are only scarce and conflicting studies on alexithymia in the families of anorexic patients, despite the important role played by family dynamics in the development of the anorexic disorder, especially in adolescent patients. The aim of this study is to assess alexithymia in anorexic adolescent patients and in their parents using a multimethod measurement to gain more direct, in-depth knowledge of the problem. Methods: Forty-six subjects, anorexic adolescent patients and their parents, underwent the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20 along with the Toronto Structured Interview for Alexithymia (TSIA, which represents the first comprehensive clinically structured interview focused specifically on assessing alexithymia. The use of latent trait Rasch analysis allowed a comparison of the two instruments’ sensitivity and ability to detect the presence and intensity of alexithymic components in patients and parents. Results: Significant discordance was found between the two measures. The clinical instrument allowed detection of a greater level of alexithymia compared with the self-report, in particular in our adult parent sample. Moreover, a significant alexithymic gap emerged within families, particularly within parental couples, with noticeably more alexithymic fathers compared with the mothers. Conclusion: The TSIA clinical interview may be a more sensitive instrument in detecting alexithymia, minimizing parents’ negation tendency. Clinical questions have arisen on

  12. Children and adolescents' internal models of food-sharing behavior include complex evaluations of contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Benenson, Joyce F; Kramer, Donald L

    2003-01-01

    This study examined internal representations of food sharing in 589 children and adolescents (8-19 years of age). Questionnaires, depicting a variety of contexts in which one person was asked to share a resource with another, were used to examine participants' expectations of food-sharing behavior. Factors that were varied included the value of the resource, the relation between the two depicted actors, the quality of this relation, and gender. Results indicate that internal models of food-sharing behavior showed systematic patterns of variation, demonstrating that individuals have complex contextually based internal models at all ages, including the youngest. Examination of developmental changes in use of individual patterns is consistent with the idea that internal models reflect age-specific patterns of interactions while undergoing a process of progressive consolidation. PMID:14669890

  13. Comparability of Degrees and Diplomas in International Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Rene Jean; Tunkin, Gregory

    University exchanges, as well as the high degree of mobility that is a feature of certain professions, demand a system of international equivalences of degrees. This study deals with degrees in international law, and includes under this term: (1) public international law, defined as the body of rules that apply to states and others subject to…

  14. Comparing International and American Students' Challenges: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cody J.

    2016-01-01

    International student numbers have increased drastically in the past few years. International students provide benefits to universities and American students such as greater revenue, and more open-mindedness. There have been myriad studies that have examined the international student experience, but most have focused solely on international…

  15. Comparing patterns of sexual risk among adolescent and young women in a mixed-method study in Tanzania: implications for adolescent participation in HIV prevention trials

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    Elizabeth E Tolley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the disproportionate impact of HIV on women, and adolescents in particular, those below age 18 years are underrepresented in HIV prevention trials due to ethical, safety and logistical concerns. This study examined and compared the sexual risk contexts of adolescent women aged 15–17 to young adult women aged 18–21 to determine whether adolescents exhibited similar risk profiles and the implications for their inclusion in future trials. Methods: We conducted a two-phase, mixed-method study to assess the opportunities and challenges of recruiting and retaining adolescents (aged 15–17 versus young women (18–21 in Tanzania. Phase I, community formative research (CFR, used serial in-depth interviews with 11 adolescent and 12 young adult women from a range of sexual risk contexts in preparation for a mock clinical trial (MCT. For Phase II, 135 HIV-negative, non-pregnant adolescents and young women were enrolled into a six-month MCT to assess and compare differences in sexual and reproductive health (SRH outcomes, including risky sexual behaviour, incident pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs, reproductive tract infections (RTIs and HIV. Results: In both research phases, adolescents appeared to be at similar, if not higher, risk than their young adult counterparts. Adolescents reported earlier sexual debut, and similar numbers of lifetime partners, pregnancy and STI/RTI rates, yet had lower perceived risk. Married women in the CFR appeared at particular risk but were less represented in the MCT. In addition, adolescents were less likely than their older counterparts to have accessed HIV testing, obtained gynaecological exams or used protective technologies. Conclusions: Adolescent women under 18 are at risk of multiple negative SRH outcomes and they underuse preventive services. Their access to new technologies such as vaginal microbicides or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP may similarly be compromised unless

  16. Open reduction and internal fixation of displaced clavicle fractures in adolescents

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    Harish S. Hosalkar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The literature available on patient oriented outcomes of operative management for clavicle fractures in adolescents is fairly limited. The purpose of this study was to analyze the potential of open reduction and internal fixation for displaced mid-shaft clavicle fractures in adolescent patients. We reviewed our series of surgical cases performed in 19 adolescents (mean age: 14.6 years with displaced unilateral clavicle fractures. Baseline data acquisition included demographic and radiographic variables. A Synthes® LCP clavicular plate was utilized for fixation in all cases. Follow-up data included functional outcome assessment using the Quick Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Questionnaire (DASH, the simple shoulder test (SST and additional binary questions. At a mean follow-up of 16 months, quick DASH scores were 4.0 (range: 0-35.5 and mean number of positive yes responses on the SST for all operative patients was 11 (range: 9-12. All cases proved complete radiological union at the 3-month follow-up. All patients returned to full athletics at a mean time of 14 weeks (range: 12-17 weeks. Two patients had minimal hypertrophic scars while no patient was noted with keloid formation or neurovascular deficit. One patient complained of implant prominence and occasional symptoms of discomfort at the 15 month follow-up and opted for implant removal. This was successfully performed with uneventful full recovery. All patients were fully satisfied with their choice for surgical intervention. Anatomical reduction with internal fixation and early mobilization of adolescent displaced clavicle fractures remains a viable treatment option with predictable results and no major complications in reliable hands.

  17. EFFECT OF CONVENTIONAL TENS VERSUS SPINAL MOBILIZATION IN PRIMARY DYSMENORRHEA IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

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    Manisha Mistry

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary dysmenorrhea is a common disabilitating factor in most of the adolescent girls. It is a major cause of inability to concentrate on their work or studies, class or school absenteeism, inability to perform in their academic activities. This study conducted to assess the effect of non-invasive treatments for pain relief during dysmenorrhea. Aim and Objectives: To study the effect of Conventional TENS and Spinal mobilization on pain in Primary Dysmenorrhea in adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: Fifty adolescent girls aged between 14-18 years were selected for the study that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Quasi experimental study was done to compare the effect of TENS and Maitland’s spinal mobilisation in Adolscent girls suffering from primary dysmenorrhea. They were randomly divided in two groups: Group A for TENS (n= 24 and Group B for spinal mobilisation (n= 26 and participant’s menstrual history was recorded. Girls with severe dysmenorrhea, pelvic pathology and spinal pathology were excluded from this study. Treatment was given on 1st and 2nd day of menstruation period. Adolescent girls marked the Short form Mc gill Pain Questionnaire (SFMPQ which includes PPI and VAS before and just after the treatment. Total scores were noted and subjected to statistical analysis. Result: Data was analyzed using Mann Whitney U test which compared data between groups; results were not statistically significant (p> 0.05 for SFMPQ, PPI and VAS. Pain relief was approximately the same for the two groups. Conclusion: The study concludes that TENS and mobilisation both are effective reducing pain among adolescent girls who suffer from primary dysmenorrhea.

  18. Adolescents, adults and rewards: comparing motivational neurocircuitry recruitment using fMRI.

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    James M Bjork

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adolescent risk-taking, including behaviors resulting in injury or death, has been attributed in part to maturational differences in mesolimbic incentive-motivational neurocircuitry, including ostensible oversensitivity of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc to rewards. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test whether adolescents showed increased NAcc activation by cues for rewards, or by delivery of rewards, we scanned 24 adolescents (age 12-17 and 24 adults age (22-42 with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they performed a monetary incentive delay (MID task. The MID task was configured to temporally disentangle potential reward or potential loss anticipation-related brain signal from reward or loss notification-related signal. Subjects saw cues signaling opportunities to win or avoid losing $0, $.50, or $5 for responding quickly to a subsequent target. Subjects then viewed feedback of their trial success after a variable interval from cue presentation of between 6 to 17 s. Adolescents showed reduced NAcc recruitment by reward-predictive cues compared to adult controls in a linear contrast with non-incentive cues, and in a volume-of-interest analysis of signal change in the NAcc. In contrast, adolescents showed little difference in striatal and frontocortical responsiveness to reward deliveries compared to adults. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In light of divergent developmental difference findings between neuroimaging incentive paradigms (as well as at different stages within the same task, these data suggest that maturational differences in incentive-motivational neurocircuitry: 1 may be sensitive to nuances of incentive tasks or stimuli, such as behavioral or learning contingencies, and 2 may be specific to the component of the instrumental behavior (such as anticipation versus notification.

  19. Behavioral and emotional problems on the Teacher's Report Form: a cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis of gender dysphoric children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, Thomas D; Zucker, Kenneth J; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Vanderlaan, Doug P; Wood, Hayley; Fuentes, Amanda; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2014-05-01

    For gender dysphoric children and adolescents, the school environment may be challenging due to peer social ostracism and rejection. To date, information on the psychological functioning and the quality of peer relations in gender dysphoric children and adolescents has been studied via parental report, peer sociometric methods, and social interactions in laboratory play groups. The present study was the first cross-national investigation that assessed behavior and emotional problems and the quality of peer relations, both measured by the Teacher's Report Form (TRF), in a sample of 728 gender dysphoric patients (554 children, 174 adolescents), who were referred to specialized gender identity clinics in the Netherlands and Canada. The gender dysphoric adolescents had significantly more teacher-reported emotional and behavioral problems than the gender dysphoric children. In both countries, gender dysphoric natal boys had poorer peer relations and more internalizing than externalizing problems compared to the gender dysphoric natal girls. Furthermore, there were significant between-clinic differences: both the children and the adolescents from Canada had more emotional and behavioral problems and a poorer quality of peer relations than the children and adolescents from the Netherlands. In conclusion, gender dysphoric children and adolescents showed the same pattern of emotional and behavioral problems in both countries. The extent of behavior and emotional problems was, however, higher in Canada than in the Netherlands, which appeared, in part, an effect of a poorer quality of peer relations. Per Bronfenbrenner's (American Psychologist, 32, 513-531, 1977) ecological model of human development and well-being, we consider various interpretations of the cross-national, cross-clinic differences on TRF behavior problems at the level of the family, the peer group, and the culture at large. PMID:24114528

  20. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with a population based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangerud, Wenche Langfjord; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Lydersen, Stian; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use by diagnostic category in 566 adolescent psychiatric patients, comparing this sample with 8173 adolescents from the general population in Norway who completed the Young-HUNT 3 survey. Frequencies of current alcohol use were high in both samples but were lower among psychiatric patients. Compared with adolescents in the general population, adolescents in the clinical sample had a higher prevalence of current smoking and over four times higher odds of having tried illicit drugs. In the clinical sample, those with mood disorders reported the highest frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use, whereas those with autism spectrum disorders reported the lowest frequencies. Our results show an increased prevalence of risky health behaviors among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with the general population. The awareness of disorder-specific patterns of smoking and substance use may guide preventive measures.

  1. Acceptance of cosmetic surgery, body appreciation, body ideal internalization, and fashion blog reading among late adolescents in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunde, Carolina

    2013-09-01

    This study examined adolescents' attitudes of cosmetic surgery, as well as the relationships between these attitudes, body appreciation, body ideal internalization, and fashion blog reading. The sample comprised 110 (60 boys, 50 girls) late adolescents (mean age 16.9 years) from a Swedish high school. The results indicated that younger adolescents seem somewhat more accepting of cosmetic surgery. This was especially the case for boys' acceptance of social motives for obtaining cosmetic surgery (boys' M=2.3±1.55 vs. girls' M=1.7±0.89). Girls', and to a limited extent boys', internalization of the thin ideal was related to more favorable cosmetic surgery attitudes. Athletic ideal internalization and body appreciation were unrelated to these attitudes. Finally, girls who frequently read fashion blogs reported higher thin ideal internalization, and also demonstrated a slight tendency of more cosmetic surgery consideration.

  2. Prospective associations of internalizing and externalizing problems and their co-occurrence with early adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colder, Craig R; Scalco, Matthew; Trucco, Elisa M; Read, Jennifer P; Lengua, Liliana J; Wieczorek, William F; Hawk, Larry W

    2013-05-01

    The literature is equivocal regarding the role of internalizing problems in the etiology of adolescent substance use. In this study, we examined the association of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and their co-occurrence with early adolescent substance use to help clarify whether internalizing problems operate as a risk or protective factor. A large community sample (N = 387; mean age at the first assessment 12 years old; 83 % White/non-Hispanic) was assessed annually for 3 years. Externalizing problem behavior in the absence of internalizing problems showed the strongest prospective association with alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. A weaker, albeit statistically significant prospective positive association was found between co-occurring internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and substance use. Internalizing problems in the absence of externalizing problems protected adolescents against cigarette and marijuana use. Clarifying the role of internalizing problems in the etiology of adolescent substance use can inform the development of early intervention and prevention efforts. Our results highlight the importance of further considering the co-occurrence of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in developmental pathways to substance use. PMID:23242624

  3. Comparative Kinematic Analysis of the Snatch Lifts in Elite Male Adolescent Weightlifters

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    Erbil Harbili

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare the linear kinematics of the barbell and the angular kinematics of the lower limb during the snatch lifts of two different barbell weights in elite male adolescent weightlifters. In the national team level, nine elite male adolescent weightlifters participated in the study. The snatch lifts were recorded by two video cameras under competitive conditions in preparation period before the European Junior Championship (Sony MiniDv PAL- 50 field/s and the two heaviest successful lifts were selected for kinematic analysis. The little toe, ankle, knee, hip, and shoulder on the body and one point on the barbell were digitized using Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS, San Diego, CA, USA. Significant decreases were found in the maximum barbell height, the relative power output during the second pull, and the maximum vertical velocity of the barbell during the second pull of the heaviest lift (p < 0.05. Maximum extension velocity of the hip joint significantly increased during the first pull of the heaviest lift (p < 0.05. As the mass of the barbell increased, the maximum vertical velocity and the maximum height of the barbell and relative power output during the second pull decreased in the heaviest lift performed by adolescent weightlifters. Coaches should pay attention to assistant exercises to increase explosive strength during the second pull with maximum strength in male adolescent weightlifters.

  4. Health behaviour in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes compared to a representative reference population.

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    Sebastian Kummer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We provide a population-based overview of health behaviours of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in comparison to the general population, and analyse their relevance for glycaemic control and self-rated health status. METHODS: Data from questionnaires of 11- to 17-year-old children and adolescents with diabetes (n = 629 were compared to a representative sample (n = 6,813. RESULTS: Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes had a significantly increased odds of infrequent physical activity (adjusted OR 1.56, short overall duration of physical activity per week (OR 1.55, difference -1.3 hours/week, and high daily computer use (OR 2.51. They had a lower odds of active and passive smoking (OR 0.31 and OR 0.29, and high daily television time (OR 0.68. The odds of an at least good and excellent self-rated health status was increased with intense physical activity, and decreased with active smoking and prolonged daily use of computer and television. Active smoking and prolonged daily use of computer were associated with higher HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS: Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes showed a different profile of health behaviour. Their overall health may improve if their education stresses specifically frequent physical activity with longer overall duration and less frequent television or computer use.

  5. Menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls of West Bengal, India: A school based comparative study

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    Adrija Datta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are often less informed, less experienced, and less comfortable accessing reproductive health information and services than adults. In many developing countries, a culture of silence surrounds the topic of menstruation and related issues; as a result many young girls lack appropriate and sufficient information regarding menstrual hygiene. This may result in incorrect and unhealthy behaviour during their menstrual period. Objectives: To assess and compare knowledge, belief, ideas, source of knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene between school-going adolescents in an urban and a rural school of West Bengal, India. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among adolescent female students of Howrah district of West Bengal, India in the year 2011. Data was collected by pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured self administered questionnaire. Results: The mean age at menarche was 12.1 years among urban and 12.2 years among the rural participants. More than 80% participants had some restrictions imposed during menstruation. Significantly higher number of urban girls had pre-menarchal knowledge on menstruation and used sanitary napkins. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. For improvement of menstrual hygiene, sanitary napkins should be made universally available and affordable.

  6. Comparing among the Experiences of Self-Cutting, Hitting, and Scratching in Chinese Adolescents Attending Secondary Schools: An Interview Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jianing; Ma, Congfen; Lin, Min-Pei; Leung, Freedom

    2015-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' experiences associated with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and compared among the experiences of self-cutting, hitting, and scratching. Participants included 42 Chinese adolescents attending secondary schools. They had at least three NSSI episodes in the preceding year. Information about their experiences of NSSI…

  7. Comparative International Media Ethics: In Search of Universals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Thomas W.

    This paper reviews the major studies of international and national approaches to media ethics and describes the various academic and global contexts for international media ethics study. It suggests methodology for helpful, if embryonic, comparison and for accurate pattern recognition. The paper explores the question of whether there are…

  8. Malocclusion prevalence and orthodontic treatment need in central Anatolian adolescents compared to European and other nations' adolescents

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    Fundagul Bilgic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in a large sample of Central Anatolian adolescents and compare them with European-other nations' adolescents. Methods: The sample included 1125 boys and 1204 girls aged between 12 and 16 years with no previous orthodontic treatment history. Occlusal variables examined were molar relationship, overjet, overbite, crowding, midline diastema, posterior crossbite, and scissors bite. The dental health (DHC and aesthetic components (AC of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN were used as an assessment measure of the need for orthodontic treatment for the total sample. Results: The results indicated a high prevalence of Class I (34.9% and Class II, Division 1 malocclusions (40.0%. Moreover, increased (18% and reduced bites (14.%, and increased (25.1% and reversed overjet (10.% were present in the sample. Conclusion: Using the DHC of the IOTN, the proportion of subjects estimated to have great and very great treatment need (grades 4 and 5 was 28.%. However, only 16.7% of individuals were in need (grades 8-10 of orthodontic treatment according to the AC.

  9. Childhood internalizing and externalizing problems predict the onset of clinical panic attacks over adolescence: the TRAILS study.

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    Christina M Mathyssek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Panic attacks are a source of individual suffering and are an independent risk factor for later psychopathology. However, much less is known about risk factors for the development of panic attacks, particularly during adolescence when the incidence of panic attacks increases dramatically. We examined whether internalizing and externalizing problems in childhood predict the onset of panic attacks in adolescence. METHOD: This study is part of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS, a Dutch longitudinal population cohort study (N = 1,584. Internalizing and Externalizing Problems were collected using the Youth Self-Report (YSR and the parent-report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL at baseline (age 10-12. At age 18-20, DSM-IV defined panic attacks since baseline were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. We investigated whether early adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Problems predicted panic attacks between ages 10-20 years, using survival analysis in univariate and multivariate models. RESULTS: There were N = 314 (19.8% cases who experienced at least one DSM-IV defined panic attack during adolescence and N = 18 (1.2% who developed panic disorder during adolescence. In univariate analyses, CBCL Total Problems, Internalizing Problems and three of the eight syndrome scales predicted panic attack onset, while on the YSR all broad-band problem scales and each narrow-band syndrome scale predicted panic attack onset. In multivariate analyses, CBCL Social Problems (HR 1.19, p<.05, and YSR Thought Problems (HR 1.15, p<.05 and Social Problems (HR 1.26, p<.01 predicted panic attack onset. CONCLUSION: Risk indicators of panic attack include the wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems. Yet, when adjusted for co-occurring problem behaviors, Social Problems were the most consistent risk factor for panic attack onsets in adolescence.

  10. Parenting, identity development, internalizing symptoms, and alcohol use: a cross-sectional study in a group of Italian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Pellerone M; Tolini G; Polopoli C

    2016-01-01

    Monica Pellerone, Giacomo Tolini, Caterina Polopoli Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, “Kore” University of Enna, Enna, Italy Background: Literature has demonstrated the adaptive function of identity development and parenting toward manifestation of problem behaviors in adolescence. These dimensions act on both internalizing and externalizing symptoms.Methods: The objective is to investigate the relationship between identity status, parenting, and adolescent problems, which m...

  11. A Comparative Study of International Insurance Markets*

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Zheng; Yongdong Liu; Yiting Deng

    2009-01-01

    By proposing the Benchmark Ratio of Insurance Penetration (BRIP) as a new paradigm for international insurance comparison, this paper makes a new assessment and comparison of insurance growth levels of certain countries as well as certain economic groups, and further discusses the policy implications. The main conclusions of this paper are as follows. First, it is necessary to have a new recognition of the international insurance growth pattern: the relative level of insurance growth in devel...

  12. Comparing Local and International Chinese Students’ English Language Learning Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Margreat Aloysious Anthony; Sree Nithya Ganesen

    2012-01-01

    According to Horwitz (1987) learners’ belief about language learning are influenced by previous language learning experiences as well as cultural background. This study examined the English Language Learning Strategies between local and international Chinese students who share the same cultural background but have been exposed to different learning experiences. Given the significant number of local and international Chinese students enrolled in educational institutions, there is a need to und...

  13. The Effects of Using the International Versus Comprehensive System Rorschach Norms For Children, Adolescents, and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglione, Donald J; Giromini, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is some debate about whether to use Comprehensive System norms (CS; Exner, 2003 ) or the Composite International Reference Values (CIRV; Meyer, Erdberg, & Shaffer, 2007 ) when interpreting Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM; Rorschach, 1921 ) protocols administered with the CS method. The goal of this study is to assist clinicians in making this decision by providing information about the effects of choosing one option or the other. Accordingly, this research evaluates the effects of using the CS versus CIRV norms with children, adolescents, and adults. First, we identified 43 variables for which the CS and the CIRV for children and adolescents differ from each other by at least a Cohen's d value of .50. Next, we evaluated whether these divergent variables are the same as those previously identified as divergent for the adult population. Results showed that for both children and adolescents, as well as for adults, relying on CS norms versus CIRV would result in interpretations that are more pathological in terms of (a) perception and thinking, (b) psychological resources and cognitive and emotional abilities, and (c) representations of human relationships. A discussion on the clinical effects of using one versus the other set of norms follows. PMID:26829463

  14. Peremptory Norms in International Law; Development or Revolution of Sources of International Law (A Comparative Analysis of National Legal Systems)

    OpenAIRE

    Sayyed Fazlollah Mosavi; Hossein Khalaf Rezaee

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary international law introduces a notion of peremptory norms comparable to hierarchy of norms in national legal system. A jus cogens is a norm of international law considered so fundamental that it overrides all other sources of international law. A rule of jus cogens has a specific process of emergence that will be essentially different from other sources of international law which reflected in Article 38(1) of ICJ Statute. Unfortunately, there is not a precise definition of jus co...

  15. Comparing measures of childhood loneliness: internal consistency and confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Luc; Beyers, Wim

    2002-06-01

    Compared 6 self-rating measures of loneliness and associated phenomena, designed for use with elementary-school children. Three samples of children in Grades 5 and 6 (total N = 758) completed various combinations of these instruments. In terms of internal consistency, the Children's Loneliness Scale (CLS) and the peer-related loneliness subscale of the Loneliness and Aloneness Scale for Children and Adolescents (LACA) were most reliable. Substantial support was obtained for the convergent validity of the measures. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on 2 samples and exploratory factor analysis on a third sample indicated that the 13 scales and derivative subscales of the 6 measures tapped 4 different but interrelated latent constructs: peer-related loneliness, family-related loneliness (in some cases restricted to parent-related loneliness), negative attitude toward being alone, and positive attitude toward being alone. Recommendations are offered for conditions under which each scale may be useful. Limitations of this study are discussed and suggestions for future research are offered. PMID:12056108

  16. Comparative risk assessment: an international comparison of methodologies and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, R D; Shih, J; Sessions, S L

    2000-11-01

    Comparative risk assessment (CRA) is a systematic procedure for evaluating the environmental problems affecting a geographic area. This paper looks beyond the U.S. border and examines the experience with CRAs conducted in various developing countries and economies in transition, including Bangkok, Thailand, Cairo, Egypt and Quito, Ecuador, as well as other locations in Eastern Europe, Asia and Central and South America. A recent pilot CRA conducted in Taiwan is also considered. Comparisons are made of both the methodologies and the results across the relatively diverse international literature. The most robust finding is that conventional air pollutants (e.g., particulate matter and lead) consistently rank as high health risks across all of the CRAs examined. Given the varied nature of the settings studied in the CRAs, including level of economic development, urban-rural differences, and climate, this finding is particularly significant. Problems involving drinking water are also ranked as a high or medium health risk in almost all the countries studied. This is consistent with the results of analyses conducted by the World Bank suggesting contamination, limited coverage and erratic service by water supply systems. Beyond the major air pollutants and drinking water, the CRA results diverge significantly across countries. A number of problems involving toxic chemicals, e. g., hazardous air pollutants, rank as high health risks in the US but do not appear as consistent areas of concerns in the other countries studied. This likely reflects the so-called "risk transition" - the shift from sanitation and infection disease problems to those involving industry, vehicles and toxic substances - that often occurs with economic development. It may also reflect the greater information about sources of toxic pollutants in the U.S. For other problems, there are important differences across the developing countries and economies in transition. For example, hazardous and

  17. Development of adaptable and flexible treatment manuals for externalizing and internalizing disorders in children and adolescents

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    Bauermeister José J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the process used to develop treatment manuals for internalizing and externalizing disorders in children and adolescents. These manuals were developed to offer health care providers and others working in child mental health a flexible intervention that could be adapted to different countries and localities based on: 1 the amount of health care and school resources that are available; 2 the nature and severity of the types of problems children have; and 3 the preferences and cultural factors that are important within these communities. We also discuss the experiences and cultural issues faced by sites in Egypt, Lebanon, Israel, and Brazil who volunteered to implement the manualized treatment programs. The feedback received from these sites indicates that the manuals can be implemented to help children with internalizing and externalizing problems.

  18. Sexual selection and sex differences in the prevalence of childhood externalizing and adolescent internalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Despite the well-established sex difference in prevalence of many childhood and adolescent psychopathological conditions, no integrative metatheory of sex differences in psychopathology exists. This review attempts to provide a metatheoretical framework to guide empirical examination of sex differences in prevalence of childhood-onset "externalizing" and adolescent-onset "internalizing" disorders, based on sexual selection evolutionary theory. Sexual selection theory suggests important between-sex differences in markers, mechanisms, etiology, and developmental timing of risk and resilience relevant to psychopathology. Namely, sexual selection theory hypothesizes that disinhibition and sensation-seeking may be important proximate risk markers for childhood-onset externalizing disorders in males. The theory suggests that these male-biased markers may be a product of their higher exposure to prenatal testosterone, which makes them more susceptible to prenatal stressors with downstream effects on dopaminergic neurotransmission, especially for those with genetic alleles associated with lower dopaminergic function. In contrast, sexual selection theory hypothesizes that negative emotionality, empathy, and cognitive rumination may be important proximate risk markers for adolescent-onset internalizing disorders in females. The theory suggests that these markers are propagated by rapidly rising levels of estradiol at puberty that interact with cortisol and oxytocin. These hormones exert downstream effects on the serotonergic system in such a way as to increase females' sensitivity to interpersonal stressors particularly at puberty and especially for those with lower functional serotonergic activity. Such a metatheory can help integrate prior ideas about sex differences and can also generate new predictions of sex differences in markers, etiology, mechanisms, and developmental timing of common forms of psychopathology. PMID:23627633

  19. Gender Differences in Internalizing Symptoms and Suicide Risk Among Men and Women Seeking Treatment for Cannabis Use Disorder from Late Adolescence to Middle Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Katherine T; Li, Ningfei; McClure, Erin A; Sonne, Susan C; Gray, Kevin M

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis continues to rise in popularity as the perception of its harmfulness decreases and evidence of its deleterious developmental effect increases. While internalizing distress and suicide risk have been linked with cannabis use problems [DSM-5 cannabis use disorder (CUD); DSM-IV cannabis abuse and dependence] it remains unclear how this association varies over the course of development in treatment-seeking men and women. The current study utilized the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) to conduct a cross-sectional comparison of internalizing distress and suicide risk among men (n=437) and women (n=163) spanning ages 18-50 who met DSM-5 criteria for CUD. Interactions between gender and developmental stage (i.e., late adolescence, early adulthood, and middle adulthood) were observed for suicide risk and anxiety but not depression problems. Specifically, women seeking CUD treatment in late adolescence and middle adulthood exhibited significantly higher rates of anxiety and suicide risk compared to men seeking treatment during the same developmental stages. Internalizing distress and suicide risk did not differ between treatment-seeking men and women in the early adult stage. Overall, results suggest that the structure of risk for CUD may differ in men and women across the lifespan and that women presenting for CUD treatment during late adolescence and middle adulthood may uniquely benefit from intervention designed to address these elevations in anxiety and suicide risk. PMID:27211992

  20. Principal Leadership and Mathematics Achievement: An International Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seon-Hi; Slater, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the differences and similarities in the impact of school leadership on student mathematics achievement in different global regions using TIMSS international data. Three-level unconditional and conditional hierarchical models were fitted to the data in each country. The findings showed that the variables of teacher…

  1. International Comparative Studies in Teaching and Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Bob

    2012-01-01

    This review of eight papers published in "Teaching and Teacher Education" over the past twenty years shows how the profession has been impacted by the forces of globalisation. The impact varies in different contexts, according to local factors. The review looks at papers that use explicit international comparisons as a means to bring local…

  2. Comparing Local and International Chinese Students’ English Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreat Aloysious Anthony

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available According to Horwitz (1987 learners’ belief about language learning are influenced by previous language learning experiences as well as cultural background. This study examined the English Language Learning Strategies between local and international Chinese students who share the same cultural background but have been exposed to different learning experiences. Given the significant number of local and international Chinese students enrolled in educational institutions, there is a need to understand the differences and similarities in the learning strategies of these two groups. The sample for the study comprised of 60 local and 50 international Chinese students currently enrolled at a local private college. The Oxford Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL was administered as a measure of learning strategy preferences. The study reveals that language learning experiences as well as socioeconomic status impact the learning strategy adopted by both local and international Chinese students. The findings of this study point to the need to address the needs of these students in order to enhance their English language learning experience in Malaysia.

  3. International prevalence of adolescent non-suicidal self-injury and deliberate self-harm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muehlenkamp Jennifer J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The behaviours of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI and deliberate self-harm (DSH are prevalent among adolescents, and an increase of rates in recent years has been postulated. There is a lack of studies to support this postulation, and comparing prevalence across studies and nations is complicated due to substantial differences in the methodology and nomenclature of existing research. Methods We conducted a systematic review of current (2005 - 2011 empirical studies reporting on the prevalence of NSSI and DSH in adolescent samples across the globe. Results Fifty-two studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria were obtained for analysis. No statistically significant differences were found between NSSI (18.0% SD = 7.3 and DSH (16.1% SD = 11.6 studies. Assessment using single item questions led to lower prevalence rates than assessment with specific behaviour checklists. Mean prevalence rates have not increased in the past five years, suggesting stabilization. Conclusion NSSI and DSH have a comparable prevalence in studies with adolescents from different countries. The field would benefit from adopting a common approach to assessment to aide cross-cultural study and comparisons.

  4. Peremptory Norms in International Law; Development or Revolution of Sources of International Law (A Comparative Analysis of National Legal Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Fazlollah Mosavi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary international law introduces a notion of peremptory norms comparable to hierarchy of norms in national legal system. A jus cogens is a norm of international law considered so fundamental that it overrides all other sources of international law. A rule of jus cogens has a specific process of emergence that will be essentially different from other sources of international law which reflected in Article 38(1 of ICJ Statute. Unfortunately, there is not a precise definition of jus cogens norms. The vagueness of the definition and thereby its instances is one problematic issue that harden realization of ideals of the international community.

  5. Gender differences in child/adolescent personality traits: Slovenes and Russians compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared gender differences in parental perceptions of child personality trait expression across different age groups in Slovenia and Russia. The patterns of gender differences in adolescents were further explored using parent and self-rating methods of assessment. Employing the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003 reports on large samples of children/ adolescents (2 to 15 years in both countries were obtained. Gender differences were small and similar across countries, and their patterns were closer to each other for the same data source across countries than they were for the two sources of information within the country. The parents in both countries concurred in rating daughters as somewhat more achievement orientated, compliant, considerate, and organized, whereas sons were assessed as slightly more active, antagonistic, and distractible. At the higher-order trait level, girls were perceived to be more conscientious and agreeable relative to the boys, especially from middle childhood onwards. Regarding self-reports, adolescent girls also scored significantly higher on Considerate and Positive Emotions scales than boys, while the former reported on higher agreeableness relative to the latter in Slovenia only. Gender differences were evident even in parental assessments of the youngest group but they did not systematically increase over children's age.

  6. Improving adolescent sexual and reproductive health in Latin America: reflections from an International Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova Pozo, Kathya; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Decat, Peter; Nelson, Erica; De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Vega, Bernardo; Segura, Zoyla; Auquilla, Nancy; Hagens, Arnold; Van Braeckel, Dirk; Michielsen, Kristien

    2015-01-01

    In February 2014, an international congress on Promoting Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health (ASRH) took place in Cuenca, Ecuador. Its objective was to share evidence on effective ASRH intervention projects and programs in Latin America, and to link this evidence to ASRH policy and program development. Over 800 people participated in the three-day event and sixty-six presentations were presented.This paper summarizes the key points of the Congress and of the Community Embedded Reproductive Health Care for Adolescents (CERCA) project. It aims at guiding future ASRH research and policy in Latin America. 1. Context matters. Individual behaviors are strongly influenced by the social context in which they occur, through determinants at the individual, relational, family, community and societal levels. Gender norms/attitudes and ease of communication are two key determinants. 2. Innovative action. There is limited and patchy evidence of effective approaches to reach adolescents with the health interventions they need at scale. Yet, there exist several promising and innovative examples of providing comprehensive sexuality education through conventional approaches and using new media, improving access to health services, and reaching adolescents as well as families and community members using community-based interventions were presented at the Congress. 3. Better measurement. Evaluation designs and indicators chosen to measure the effect and impact of interventions are not always sensitive to subtle and incremental changes. This can create a gap between measured effectiveness and the impact perceived by the targeted populations. Thus, one conclusion is that we need more evidence to better determine the factors impeding progress in ASRH in Latin American, to innovate and respond flexibly to changing social dynamics and cultural practices, and to better measure the impact of existing intervention strategies. Yet, this Congress offered a starting point from which to

  7. Internalizing behavior in adolescent girls affects parental emotional overinvolvement: a cross-lagged twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberg, Therese; Lichtenstein, Paul; Forsman, Mats; Larsson, Henrik

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the direction and the etiology of the association between different parenting styles (parental emotional overinvolvement [EOI] and parental criticism) and internalizing behavior from adolescence to early adulthood. A longitudinal genetically informative cross-lagged design was applied to a population-based sample of Swedish twins contacted at age 16-17 (n = 2369) and at age 19-20 (n = 1705). Sex-limitation modelling revealed different effects for boys and girls. For girls, genetic influences on internalizing problems at age 16-17 independently explained 2.7% of the heritability in parental EOI at age 19-20. These results suggest that emotionally overinvolved and self-sacrificing parental behavior stems in part from daughters (but not sons) genetic predisposition for internalizing behavior. These findings highlight the importance of genetically influenced child-driven effects underlying the parenting-internalizing association, and clarify that the role of such effects may differ depending on sex, type of parenting and developmental period.

  8. Comparative analysis of concepts for internal exposure regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results on comparison of new ICRP approaches (26 and 30 ICRP publications) to exposure regulation by a whole body effective dose equivalent with a concept of internal occupational exposure regulation by the maximum permissible dose equivalent to a critical organ are presented. The last concept was recommended in the 2 and 9 ICRP publications and regulated by the radiation protection guide-76 (RPG-76). It is shown that the concept of a critical organ and dose limits regulated by RPG-76 provide to a great extent personnel protection both relative to stochastic and non-stochastic radiation effects

  9. Comparative analysis of international environmental liability arising from maritime accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Luciana Vianna; Victorio, Glaucia Lima [Trench, Rossi e Watanabe Advogados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The oil industry is dynamic and global, being performed worldwide and by investors from several countries. In this sense, it is essential for investors to be informed of the legal frameworks in target countries and the differences between the legislation in those countries and their own legal systems. In this article, we will analyze the main differences on the environmental liability in Brazil, which is, currently, one of the most attractive markets in the oil and gas industry, the United States of America (US), the largest consumer of oil and the third producer around the world; and the European Union (EU) which concentrates the second largest global consumer, besides being the main player in the international and diplomatic relationships. Thus, the present paper, without the intent to exhaust the subject matter, aims at presenting comparisons between the legal environment of the three main players in the international oil and gas scenario, specifying not only the legal aspects of each of them, but also outlining the economic impacts generated over business investors from the oil industry, determining that although the differences in the basis of legal framework, all players have presented the liability and the duty to compensate. (author)

  10. Michael Byers, International Law and the Arctic (Cambridge: Cambridge Studies in International and Comparative law, Cambridge University Press, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael L. Johnstone

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of: Michael Byers, International Law and the Arctic, Cambridge Studies in International and Comparative law, Cambridge University Press, 2013. pp. 314 + xviii, 65.00 GBP (hardcover; 16.56GBP (kindle edition ISBN: 9781107042759 ISBN: 9781107042759

  11. The Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) and the World Council of Comparative Education Societies (WCCES): Leadership, Ambiguities and Synergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzon, Maria; Bray, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) has, throughout its 50 years of existence, exercised leadership in the field of comparative education. It was one of the five societies that founded the World Council of Comparative Education Societies (WCCES) in 1970, an umbrella body that by 2006 brought together 35 national,…

  12. International conference on comparative assessments of solar power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many regions in the world which lack fossil fuel resources but possess ample sunshine seek to identify near-term solar technologies capable of gradually replacing their fuel imports in cost-effective fashion. The conference addresses the following topics: technical and economical studies specifying their underlying basic assumption, methods and rules for evaluation in order to enable meaningful comparison between different technologies and systems. Detailed delineation of numerical and graphical representations, critical analysis and comparison between simulations, and test validity. Generalized performance indicators for systems and subsystems, problems of measuring and evaluating physical parameters, of terminology and conceptual tools for comparative evaluations. Advances in research development, engineering and field performance, including implications pertaining to comparative assessments and definitions of criteria and standards helpful to comparative evaluation. Assessments of the full (and hidden) cost of fossil energies as compared to solar, including environmental costs. Cost/benefit studies for remote versus centralized systems. (ed.)

  13. Comparing Adolescent Only Children with Those Who Have Siblings on Academic Related Outcomes and Psychosocial Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-yin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses a large and representative sample of adolescents to test the theoretically informed hypotheses comparing adolescent singletons with those who have siblings. The results found that, for academic related outcomes (educational expectations, time spent on homework, and self-reported grades, there are no differences between singletons and firstborns who have any number of younger siblings. Singletons are also not different from laterborns from two-child families. In contrast, singletons are more advantageous compared to laterborns who have two or more siblings on educational expectations and grades. Singletons also spend more time on homework than laterborns who have three or more siblings. For psychosocial outcomes (psychological distress, susceptibility to negative peer pressure, and problem behaviors, singletons are not different from both firstborns and laterborns with any number of siblings. The findings suggest that singletons are not at any disadvantage compared to their peers who have siblings and they enjoy some advantages over laterborns from medium to large families on academic related outcomes.

  14. SCHOLASTIC UNDERACHIEVEMENT IN ADOLESCENTS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY IN GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS AND JR. COLLEGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a lot of concern expressed regarding the present day Adolescent youth, as the problems/ health challenges faced by them are different from those of the past decades. It is in this context we have designed the study. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the psychological, Adjustments and Intelligence factors in scholastically underachieving of adolescents and to compare these factors among the Govt. and Private Schools and Jr. Colleges of Hyderabad. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was designed as a community based cross sectional observational study in 197 adolescents at Govt. and Private schools and Jr. Colleges of Hyderabad and approved by Institutional Ethics Committee. 47 students from Govt. school, Vijayanagar Colony, 32 from Sri Vaishnavi Techno Schools, Kukatpally, 62 from B.J.R.Govt. Jr. College, Golkonda and 56 from Sri Arabindo Jr. College, Mehidipatnam were taken in to the study. The study period is from September-2011 to June-2012. Adolescents between 10-19 years getting grades (<50% aggregated ware included and adolescents with neurological diseases, mental retardation and sensory impairment ware excluded from study. Psychological, Adjustment and Intelligence Factors were included in a semi structured Proforma which is designed especially for the study and data was collected using Binet Kamat Test, etc. RESULTS: Our current study has mean Intelligence scores (by T-Test of females in schools (87.47 is higher than males (79.87 and has scholastic significance (P < 0.00l and mean intelligence scores of females in Jr. Colleges (88.38 is higher than males (80.93 and statistically significant (P< 0.00l by independent sample T-Test and is similar to previous studies. Psychological parameters in current study in school mean scores are found to be higher in males than females. In colleges Social, Thought, Rule Breaking and Aggressive Behaviors are common in males than females. Regarding Adjustment problems all parameters were

  15. International Commercial Remote Sensing Practices and Policies: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Timothy

    In recent years, there has been much discussion about U.S. commercial remoteUnder the Act, the Secretary of Commerce sensing policies and how effectively theylicenses the operations of private U.S. address U.S. national security, foreignremote sensing satellite systems, in policy, commercial, and public interests.consultation with the Secretaries of Defense, This paper will provide an overview of U.S.State, and Interior. PDD-23 provided further commercial remote sensing laws,details concerning the operation of advanced regulations, and policies, and describe recentsystems, as well as criteria for the export of NOAA initiatives. It will also addressturnkey systems and/or components. In July related foreign practices, and the overall2000, pursuant to the authority delegated to legal context for trade and investment in thisit by the Secretary of Commerce, NOAA critical industry.iss ued new regulations for the industry. Licensing and Regulationsatellite systems. NOAA's program is The 1992 Land Remote Sensing Policy Act ("the Act"), and the 1994 policy on Foreign Access to Remote Sensing Space Capabilities (known as Presidential Decision Directive-23, or PDD-23) put into place an ambitious legal and policy framework for the U.S. Government's licensing of privately-owned, high-resolution satellite systems. Previously, capabilities afforded national security and observes the international obligations of the United States; maintain positive control of spacecraft operations; maintain a tasking record in conjunction with other record-keeping requirements; provide U.S. Government access to and use of data when required for national security or foreign policy purposes; provide for U.S. Government review of all significant foreign agreements; obtain U.S. Government approval for any encryption devices used; make available unenhanced data to a "sensed state" as soon as such data are available and on reasonable cost terms and conditions; make available unenhanced data as requested

  16. Training international medical graduate clinical fellows: the challenges and opportunities for adolescent medicine programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Eudice

    2016-08-01

    Adolescent medicine achieved accreditation status first in the United States in 1994 and then in Canada in 2008 and even if it is not an accredited subspecialty in most other Western nations, it has still become firmly established as a distinct discipline. This has not necessarily been the case in some developing countries, where even the recognition of adolescence as a unique stage of human development is not always acknowledged. The program at SickKids in Toronto has prided itself in treating its international medical graduates (IMG) clinical fellows the same as their Canadian subspecialty residents by integrating them seamlessly into the training program. Although this approach has been laudable to a great extent, it may have fallen short in formally acknowledging and addressing the challenges that the IMG trainees have had to overcome. Moving forward, faculty must be trained and supports instituted that are geared specifically towards these challenges. This must be done on a formal basis to ensure both the success of the trainees as well as the overall enrichment of the fellowship training programs. PMID:26115499

  17. Relations between Parenting and Externalizing and Internalizing Problem Behaviour in Early Adolescence: Child Behaviour as Moderator and Predictor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, E.; Dekovic, M.; Meijer, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this longitudinal study we investigated relations between parenting and externalizing and internalizing problem behaviour during early adolescence. First, we examined parenting effects on problem behaviour, including child behaviour as a moderator. Second, we examined child behaviour as predictor of parenting, also including moderator effects.…

  18. The Contribution of Background Variables, Internal and External Resources to Life Satisfaction among Adolescents in Residential Treatment Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschitz-Elhawi, Racheli; Itzhaky, Haya; Michal, Hefetz

    2008-01-01

    The article deals with the contribution of background variables (gender, years of residence in a treatment center, and family status), internal resource (self-esteem), and external resources (peer, family and significant other support, sense of belonging to the community) to life satisfaction among adolescents living in residential treatment…

  19. Bias in Self-Perceptions and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Adjustment During Early Adolescence: A Prospective Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, David L.; Silverthorn, Naida

    2004-01-01

    We investigated bias in self-perceptions of competence (relative to parent ratings) for family, school, and peer domains as predictors of adjustment problems among 139 young adolescents over a 1-year period using a prospective design. Regressions examined measures of bias at Time 1 (T1) as predictors of ratings of internalizing and externalizing…

  20. The Effects of Child Abuse and Exposure to Domestic Violence on Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Moylan, Carrie A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Sousa, Cindy; Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects of child abuse and domestic violence exposure in childhood on adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Data for this analysis are from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, a prospective study of 457 youth addressing outcomes of family violence and resilience in individuals and families. Results show that child abuse, domestic violence, and both in combination (i.e., dual exposure) increase a child’s risk for internalizing and externalizing outcomes in ad...

  1. [Adolescence and choice of contraceptive].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, L

    1986-11-01

    The majority of books, studies, and publications on adolescence are written by adults, whose frequent focus on unbridled adolescent sexuality, adolescents in crisis, or immature adolescents does not seem to correspond to the self-image of adolescents. All authors agree that adolescence is the period between childhood and adulthood beginning at puberty, but opinions differ as to the termination of adolescence and entrance into adulthood. The most significant consensus about adolescence is its tendency to become prolonged. The majority of authors regard adolescence as a preparation for adult life and hence as a natural phase necessary and indispensable to human existence. Ethnographic studies of societies that do not acknowledge adolescence demonstrate, however, that it is not a natural phase. It is also evident that comparatively few roles in modern society require lengthy periods of preparation such as adolescence. It is therefore difficult to regard adolescence as a time of preparation for adult life. From a historic perspective, adolescence emerged with the socioeconomic transformations of industrialization. Mechanization and automation excluded numerous types of workers, especially young workers, from the labor force. Adolescence represents marginalization of young people in response to socioeconomic exigencies rather than a period of preparation for a better adult life. The marginalization is internalized in the consciousness of adults and youth alike and in their hierarchical relations. The marginalization of young people is expressed in the domain of sexuality by the fact that, although physiologically mature, adolescents are not viewed as psychologically mature enough to have children. Adolescents have sexual relations at increasingly young ages, but unlike adults they are not permitted by society the choice of having a child. Contraception, an option for adults, becomes obligatory for sexually active adolescents. The refusal of contraception or failure to

  2. The Relationship between Motor Skills, Perceived Social Support, and Internalizing Problems in a Community Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Vincent O.; Rigoli, Daniela; Heritage, Brody; Roberts, Lynne D.; Piek, Jan P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive) symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills had an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. Methods: This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12–16 years). Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other), depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables. Results: Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required. PMID:27148149

  3. International note: Prediction of mathematics work ethic and performance from behavioral, normative, and control beliefs among Qatari adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Abdelfattah, Faisal; Mahasneh, Randa Ali; Khine, Myint Swe; Welch, Anita G; Melkonian, Michael; Al Nuaimi, Samira Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Over half-a-million adolescents take part in each cycle of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Yet often, researchers and policy makers across the globe tend to focus their attention primarily on the academic trajectories of adolescents hailing from highly successful education systems. Hence, a vast majority of the adolescent population who regionally and globally constitute the 'long tail of underachievement' often remain unnoticed and underrepresented in the growing literature on adolescents' academic trajectories. The present study, therefore, explored the relations of dispositions toward mathematics, subjective norms in mathematics, and perceived control of success in mathematics to mathematics work ethic as well as mathematics performance; and the mediational role of mathematics work ethic in the association between dispositional, normative, and control beliefs and mathematics performance among adolescents in one of the lowest performing education systems, Qatar. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses revealed that Qatari adolescents' dispositional, normative, and control beliefs about mathematics were significantly associated with their mathematics work ethic and mathematics performance, and mathematics work ethic significantly mediated the relationship between dispositional, normative, and control beliefs about mathematics and mathematics performance. However, multi-group SEM analyses indicated that these relationships were not invariant across the gender and the SES groups.

  4. International note: Are Emirati parents' attitudes toward mathematics linked to their adolescent children's attitudes toward mathematics and mathematics achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Khine, Myint Swe; Melkonian, Michael; Welch, Anita G; Al Nuaimi, Samira Ahmed; Rashad, Fatimah F

    2015-10-01

    Drawing on data from the 2012 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and employing multilevel modeling as an analytic strategy, this study examined the relations of adolescent children's perceptions of their parents' attitudes towards mathematics to their own attitudes towards mathematics and mathematics achievement among a sample of 5116 adolescents from 384 schools in the United Arab Emirates. The results of this cross-sectional study revealed that adolescents who perceived that their parents liked mathematics and considered mathematics was important for their children not only to study but also for their career tended to report higher levels of intrinsic and instrumental motivation to learn mathematics, mathematics self-concept and self-efficacy, and mathematics work ethic. Moreover, adolescents who perceived that their parents liked mathematics and considered mathematics was important for their children's career tended to report positive intentions and behaviors toward mathematics. However, adolescents who perceived that their parents considered mathematics was important for their children's career tended to report higher levels of mathematics anxiety. Finally, adolescents who perceived that their parents considered mathematics was important for their children to study performed significantly better on the mathematics assessment than did their peers whose parents disregarded the importance of learning mathematics.

  5. International note: Are Emirati parents' attitudes toward mathematics linked to their adolescent children's attitudes toward mathematics and mathematics achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Khine, Myint Swe; Melkonian, Michael; Welch, Anita G; Al Nuaimi, Samira Ahmed; Rashad, Fatimah F

    2015-10-01

    Drawing on data from the 2012 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and employing multilevel modeling as an analytic strategy, this study examined the relations of adolescent children's perceptions of their parents' attitudes towards mathematics to their own attitudes towards mathematics and mathematics achievement among a sample of 5116 adolescents from 384 schools in the United Arab Emirates. The results of this cross-sectional study revealed that adolescents who perceived that their parents liked mathematics and considered mathematics was important for their children not only to study but also for their career tended to report higher levels of intrinsic and instrumental motivation to learn mathematics, mathematics self-concept and self-efficacy, and mathematics work ethic. Moreover, adolescents who perceived that their parents liked mathematics and considered mathematics was important for their children's career tended to report positive intentions and behaviors toward mathematics. However, adolescents who perceived that their parents considered mathematics was important for their children's career tended to report higher levels of mathematics anxiety. Finally, adolescents who perceived that their parents considered mathematics was important for their children to study performed significantly better on the mathematics assessment than did their peers whose parents disregarded the importance of learning mathematics. PMID:26189150

  6. Smoothing internal migration age profiles for comparative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Bernard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age patterns are a key dimension to compare migration between countries and over time. Comparative metrics can be reliably computed only if data capture the underlying age distribution of migration. Model schedules, the prevailing smoothing method, fit a composite exponential function, but are sensitive to function selection and initial parameter setting. Although non-parametric alternatives exist, their performance is yet to be established. Objective: We compare cubic splines and kernel regressions against model schedules by assessingwhich method provides an accurate representation of the age profile and best performs on metrics for comparing aggregate age patterns. Methods: We use full population microdata for Chile to perform 1,000 Monte-Carlo simulations for nine sample sizes and two spatial scales. We use residual and graphic analysis to assess model performance on the age and intensity at which migration peaks and the evolution of migration age patterns. Results: Model schedules generate a better fit when (1 the expected distribution of the age profile is known a priori, (2 the pre-determined shape of the model schedule adequately describes the true age distribution, and (3 the component curves and initial parameter values can be correctly set. When any of these conditions is not met, kernel regressions and cubic splines offer more reliable alternatives. Conclusions: Smoothing models should be selected according to research aims, age profile characteristics, and sample size. Kernel regressions and cubic splines enable a precise representation of aggregate migration age profiles for most sample sizes, without requiring parameter setting or imposing a pre-determined distribution, and therefore facilitate objective comparison.

  7. Publication Delay of International Scientific Papers: A Multidisciplinary Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Namvar; Kayvan Kousha

    2013-01-01

    In this research the contribution of different factors resulting in the delay of publication of papers from submitting through publication process was studied. Due to the fact that publication delay might happen in different phases in other majors and fields so we have compared and studied this phenomenon in seven sciences and social sciences disciplines. We have examined 11,598 papers which have been published in 102 journals in 2009. The results showed that maximum and minimum time period i...

  8. International Commercial Remote Sensing Practices and Policies: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Timothy

    In recent years, there has been much discussion about U.S. commercial remoteUnder the Act, the Secretary of Commerce sensing policies and how effectively theylicenses the operations of private U.S. address U.S. national security, foreignremote sensing satellite systems, in policy, commercial, and public interests.consultation with the Secretaries of Defense, This paper will provide an overview of U.S.State, and Interior. PDD-23 provided further commercial remote sensing laws,details concerning the operation of advanced regulations, and policies, and describe recentsystems, as well as criteria for the export of NOAA initiatives. It will also addressturnkey systems and/or components. In July related foreign practices, and the overall2000, pursuant to the authority delegated to legal context for trade and investment in thisit by the Secretary of Commerce, NOAA critical industry.iss ued new regulations for the industry. Licensing and Regulationsatellite systems. NOAA's program is The 1992 Land Remote Sensing Policy Act ("the Act"), and the 1994 policy on Foreign Access to Remote Sensing Space Capabilities (known as Presidential Decision Directive-23, or PDD-23) put into place an ambitious legal and policy framework for the U.S. Government's licensing of privately-owned, high-resolution satellite systems. Previously, capabilities afforded national security and observes the international obligations of the United States; maintain positive control of spacecraft operations; maintain a tasking record in conjunction with other record-keeping requirements; provide U.S. Government access to and use of data when required for national security or foreign policy purposes; provide for U.S. Government review of all significant foreign agreements; obtain U.S. Government approval for any encryption devices used; make available unenhanced data to a "sensed state" as soon as such data are available and on reasonable cost terms and conditions; make available unenhanced data as requested

  9. Growth or Steady State? A Bibliometric Focus on International Comparative Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmützky, Anna; Krücken, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The study combines a bibliometric approach with a content analysis of abstracts of articles to explore the patterns of international comparative higher education research in leading international journals. The overall data set covers 4,095 publications from the Web of Science for the period 1992-2012 and the amount of international comparative…

  10. Socioeconomic inequality in exposure to bullying during adolescence: a comparative, cross-sectional, multilevel study in 35 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Merlo, Juan; Harel-Fisch, Yossi;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined the socioeconomic distribution of adolescent exposure to bullying internationally and documented the contribution of the macroeconomic environment. METHODS: We used an international survey of 162,305 students aged 11, 13, and 15 years from nationally representative samples...... of 5998 schools in 35 countries in Europe and North America for the 2001-2002 school year. The survey used standardized measures of exposure to bullying and socioeconomic affluence. RESULTS: Adolescents from families of low affluence reported higher prevalence of being victims of bullying (odds ratio [OR......] = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10, 1.16). International differences in prevalence of exposure to bullying were not associated with the economic level of the country (as measured by gross national income) or the school, but wide disparities in affluence at a school and large economic...

  11. Internal Structure Quality Control of Solid Pharmaceuticals. A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Silvia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was a comparative investigation by spectral and thermal analysis in order to asses a number of characteristics of different varieties ofrawmaterials of ursodeoxycholic acid and ibuprofen. The different dissolution behavior of two ursodeoxycholic acid pharmaceutical product by crystallinity pattern was investigated. Methods: Raw materials of ursodeoxycholic acid and ibuprofen were used. IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray Diffraction Analysis were applied. Results: The results show no crystallinitydifferences for different batches of the tested drugs. No solid solid transition was proved during sample preparation for transmission IR analysis. Conclusions: A combination of two more affordabletests by IR spectrometry and differential scanning calorimetry lead to the same results as X-Ray diffraction analysis for crystallinity similarity assessment of the studied substances. The dissolution differences of test drugs were not related to the polymorphism of the raw materials.

  12. International Migration and Gender in Latin America: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S; Fischer, Mary J; Capoferro, Chiara

    2006-12-01

    We review census data to assess the standing of five Latin American nations on a gender continuum ranging from patriarchal to matrifocal. We show that Mexico and Costa Rica lie close to one another with a highly patriarchal system of gender relations whereas Nicaragua and the Dominican Republic are similar in having a matrifocal system. Puerto Rico occupies a middle position, blending characteristics of both systems. These differences yield different patterns of female relative to male migration. Female householders in the two patriarchal settings displayed low rates of out-migration compared with males, whereas in the two matrifocal countries the ratio of female to male migration was much higher, in some case exceeding their male counterparts. Multivariate analyses showed that in patriarchal societies, a formal or informal union with a male dramatically lowers the odds of female out-migration, whereas in matrifocal societies marriage and cohabitation have no real effect. The most important determinants of female migration from patriarchal settings are the migrant status of the husband or partner, having relatives in the United States, and the possession of legal documents. In matrifocal settings, however, female migration is less related to the possession of documents, partner's migrant status, or having relatives in the United States and more strongly related to the woman's own migratory experience. Whereas the process of cumulative causation appears to be driven largely by men in patriarchal societies, it is women who dominate the process in matrifocal settings. PMID:21399742

  13. Comparative international studies of osteoporosis using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis (IVNAA) and Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) are routinely used in our laboratory for clinical and research investigation of Bone Mineral Content (BMC) and Bone Mineral Density (BMD in g/sq.cm). These two techniques differ in many respects. IVNAA is an established technique where 49Ca radioisotope induced by the 48Ca(n,gamma)49Ca reaction is measured to determine BMC. In DEXA, two X-rays of different energies are used and based on the known attenuation characteristics of bone and soft tissue and the measured attenuated signals, the BMC is calculated. Very little radiation dose (<0.1 mSv) is given in DEXA compared to IVNAA (3 to 5 mSv). Site specific information can be obtained in the former. Although DEXA is easier to use both the techniques are in use in the investigation of Osteopenia. The BMD, a clinical useful parameter, is a function of age and not height. The body calcium content determined by IVNAA is a function of height and not age. These differences are not yet clearly understood. Work is underway to determine the influence of several factors e.g. age, weight on BMD. We are also conducting experiments to determine the peak BMC and BMD of Canadians. The role of various life styles e.g. exercise, diet, ethnicity are being investigated as a determinant of BMD and BMC. Also the effects and safety of many drugs in the treatment of osteopenia and osteoporosis are also being studied. (author)

  14. Parenting, identity development, internalizing symptoms, and alcohol use: a cross-sectional study in a group of Italian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerone, Monica; Tolini, Giacomo; Polopoli, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Background Literature has demonstrated the adaptive function of identity development and parenting toward manifestation of problem behaviors in adolescence. These dimensions act on both internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Methods The objective is to investigate the relationship between identity status, parenting, and adolescent problems, which may manifest through internalized (phobias, obsessions, depression, eating disorders, entropy) and externalized modes (alcohol use and school discomfort). The research involved 198 Italian students (104 males and 94 females) in the 4th year (mean =16.94 years, standard deviation =0.35) and 5th year (mean =17.94 years, standard deviation =0.43) of senior secondary schools, who live in Caltanissetta, a town located in Sicily, Italy. The research lasted for 1 school year. The general group consisted of 225 students with a mortality rate of 12%. They completed an anamnestic questionnaire to provide 1) basic information, 2) alcohol consumption attitude in the past 30 days, and 3) their beliefs about alcohol; the “Ego Identity Process Questionnaire” to investigate identity development; the “Parental Bonding Instrument” to measure the perception of parenting during childhood; and the “Constraints of Mind” to value the presence of internalizing symptoms. Results Data show that identity status influences alcohol consumption. Low-profile identity and excessive maternal control affect the relational dependence and the tendency to perfectionism in adolescents. Among the predictors of alcohol use, there are socioeconomic status, parental control, and the presence of internalizing symptoms. Conclusion Family is the favored context of learning beliefs, patterns, and values that affect the broader regulatory social environment, and for this reason, it is considered the privileged context on which to intervene to reduce the adolescents’ behavior problems. This deviance could be an external manifestation of the difficulty

  15. Parenting, identity development, internalizing symptoms, and alcohol use: a cross-sectional study in a group of Italian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerone, Monica; Tolini, Giacomo; Polopoli, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Background Literature has demonstrated the adaptive function of identity development and parenting toward manifestation of problem behaviors in adolescence. These dimensions act on both internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Methods The objective is to investigate the relationship between identity status, parenting, and adolescent problems, which may manifest through internalized (phobias, obsessions, depression, eating disorders, entropy) and externalized modes (alcohol use and school discomfort). The research involved 198 Italian students (104 males and 94 females) in the 4th year (mean =16.94 years, standard deviation =0.35) and 5th year (mean =17.94 years, standard deviation =0.43) of senior secondary schools, who live in Caltanissetta, a town located in Sicily, Italy. The research lasted for 1 school year. The general group consisted of 225 students with a mortality rate of 12%. They completed an anamnestic questionnaire to provide 1) basic information, 2) alcohol consumption attitude in the past 30 days, and 3) their beliefs about alcohol; the “Ego Identity Process Questionnaire” to investigate identity development; the “Parental Bonding Instrument” to measure the perception of parenting during childhood; and the “Constraints of Mind” to value the presence of internalizing symptoms. Results Data show that identity status influences alcohol consumption. Low-profile identity and excessive maternal control affect the relational dependence and the tendency to perfectionism in adolescents. Among the predictors of alcohol use, there are socioeconomic status, parental control, and the presence of internalizing symptoms. Conclusion Family is the favored context of learning beliefs, patterns, and values that affect the broader regulatory social environment, and for this reason, it is considered the privileged context on which to intervene to reduce the adolescents’ behavior problems. This deviance could be an external manifestation of the difficulty

  16. The Relationship between Motor Skills, Perceived Social Support, and Internalizing Problems in a Community Adolescent Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Oreste Mancini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills has an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. Methods: This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12-16 years. Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other, depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables.Results: Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required.

  17. Longitudinal Study of Social-environmental Predictors of Behavior: Children of Adolescent and Older Mothers Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letourneau, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishCompared to older, more educated mothers, adolescent mothers are more prone to less than optimal parenting interactions with their children. Moreover, adolescents' children are more likely to experience developmental challenges. In this study, effects of social-environmental factors in the first two years of life on children's anxiety and hyperactivity from age 2 to 8 were examined by analyzing Canadian longitudinal data. Initial levels of anxiety and hyperactivity were higher for children of adolescent mothers, and anxiety increased with age for all children. Female children displayed lower initial levels of hyperactivity than males, and females of adolescent mothers showed a steeper decrease in hyperactivity while males of adolescent mothers showed a steeper increase in hyperactivity than their counterparts parented by older mothers. Parenting,social support and other demographic factors were controlled for and the effects of these predictor variables on trajectories of anxiety and hyperactivity are discussed.FrenchEn comparaison aux mères plus âgées et ayant reçu une meilleure éducation, lesmères adolescentes ont tendance à avoir des interactions parentales moinsqu’idéales. De plus, les enfants d’adolescentes souffrent plus souvent detroubles de développement. Dans cette étude, les facteurs socioenvironnementauxpendant les deux premières années de vie ainsi que leurseffets sur l’anxiété et l’hyperactivité entre 2 et 8 ans ont été étudiés en analysantdes données longitudinales canadiennes. Il a été trouvé que les niveaux initiauxd’anxiété et d’hyperactivité sont plus élevés chez les enfants de mèresadolescentes et cette anxiété accroît avec l’âge pour tous les enfants. Le niveaud’hyperactivité chez les filles était moins élevé initialement que chez les garçonset il diminuait rapidement chez les filles de mères adolescentes alors qu’ilaugmentait rapidement avec l’âge chez les

  18. Twenty years after International Conference on Population and Development: where are we with adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Svanemyr, Joar; Amin, Avni; Fogstad, Helga; Say, Lale; Girard, Françoise; Temmerman, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    The International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994 laid out a bold, clear, and comprehensive definition of reproductive health and called for nations to meet the educational and service needs of adolescents to enable them to deal in a positive and responsible way with their sexuality. In the context of the ongoing review of the International Conference on Population and Development Programme of Action and the considerations for a post-2015 development agenda, this article summarizes the findings of the articles presented in this volume and identifies key challenges and critical answers that need to be tackled in addressing adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights. The key recommendations are to link the provision of sexuality education and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services; build awareness, acceptance, and support for youth-friendly SRH education and services; address gender inequality in terms of beliefs, attitudes, and norms; and target the early adolescent period (10-14 years). The many knowledge gaps, however, point to the pressing need for further research on how to best design effective adolescent SRH intervention packages and how best to deliver them.

  19. Emotional variability in mother-adolescent conflict interactions and internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents: dyadic and individual processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Van der Giessen; T. Hollenstein; W.W., III Hale; H.M. Koot; W. Meeus; S. Branje

    2014-01-01

    Emotional variability reflects the ability to flexibly switch among a broad range of positive and negative emotions from moment-to-moment during interactions. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions is considered to be important for healthy socio-emotional functioning of

  20. Parental Depression and Economic Disadvantage: The Role of Parenting in Associations with Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    REISING, MICHELLE M.; Watson, Kelly H.; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and parenting behaviors in 180 children and adolescents of depressed parents (ages 9–15 years-old). Analyses revealed that while parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and disrupted parenting behaviors were related to children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms, disrupted parenting (e.g., intrusive, neglectful parenting) accounted for the association of parental depressive symptoms an...

  1. Polyamines: total daily intake in adolescents compared to the intake estimated from the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations Objectified (SNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Atiya Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary polyamines have been shown to give a significant contribution to the body pool of polyamines. Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in different foods and the contribution of daily food choice to polyamine intake is of interest, due to the association of these bioactive amines to health and disease. Objective: To estimate polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake in adolescents compared to a diet fulfilling the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations. Design: A cross-sectional study of dietary intake in adolescents and an ‘ideal diet’ (Swedish nutrition recommendations objectified [SNO] list of foods was used to compute polyamine intake using a database of polyamine contents of foods. For polyamine intake estimation, 7-day weighed food records collected from 93 adolescents were entered into dietetic software (Dietist XP including data on polyamine contents of foods. The content of polyamines in foods recommended according to SNO was entered in the same way. Results: The adolescents’ mean daily polyamine intake was 316±170 µmol/day, while the calculated contribution according to SNO was considerably higher with an average polyamine intake of 541 µmol/day. In both adolescent's intake and SNO, fruits contributed to almost half of the total polyamine intake. The reason why the intake among the adolescents was lower than the one calculated from SNO was mainly due to the low vegetable consumption in the adolescents group. Conclusions: The average daily total polyamine intake was similar to that previously reported in Europe. With an ‘ideal’ diet according to Swedish nutrition recommendations, the intake of this bioactive non-nutrient would be higher than that reported by our adolescents and also higher than that previously reported from Europe.

  2. Parenting, identity development, internalizing symptoms, and alcohol use: a cross-sectional study in a group of Italian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellerone M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Monica Pellerone, Giacomo Tolini, Caterina Polopoli Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, “Kore” University of Enna, Enna, Italy Background: Literature has demonstrated the adaptive function of identity development and parenting toward manifestation of problem behaviors in adolescence. These dimensions act on both internalizing and externalizing symptoms.Methods: The objective is to investigate the relationship between identity status, parenting, and adolescent problems, which may manifest through internalized (phobias, obsessions, depression, eating disorders, entropy and externalized modes (alcohol use and school discomfort. The research involved 198 Italian students (104 males and 94 females in the 4th year (mean =16.94 years, standard deviation =0.35 and 5th year (mean =17.94 years, standard deviation =0.43 of senior secondary schools, who live in Caltanissetta, a town located in Sicily, Italy. The research lasted for 1 school year. The general group consisted of 225 students with a mortality rate of 12%. They completed an anamnestic questionnaire to provide 1 basic information, 2 alcohol consumption attitude in the past 30 days, and 3 their beliefs about alcohol; the “Ego Identity Process Questionnaire” to investigate identity development; the “Parental Bonding Instrument” to measure the perception of parenting during childhood; and the “Constraints of Mind” to value the presence of internalizing symptoms.Results: Data show that identity status influences alcohol consumption. Low-profile identity and excessive maternal control affect the relational dependence and the tendency to perfectionism in adolescents. Among the predictors of alcohol use, there are socioeconomic status, parental control, and the presence of internalizing symptoms.Conclusion: Family is the favored context of learning beliefs, patterns, and values that affect the broader regulatory social environment, and for this reason, it is considered the privileged

  3. The strength of primary care in Europe : an international comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kringos, D.S.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Bourgueil, Y.; Cartier, T.; Dedeu, T.; Hasvold, T.; Groenewegen, P.P.; et al, [No Value

    2013-01-01

    Background A suitable definition of primary care to capture the variety of prevailing international organisation and service-delivery models is lacking. Aim Evaluation of strength of primary care in Europe. Design and setting International comparative cross-sectional study performed in 2009–2010, in

  4. The Impact of Globalisation on Qualitative Research in Comparative and International Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulliamy, Graham

    2004-01-01

    This is a revised version of the 2003 British Association for International and Comparative Education (BAICE) Presidential Address delivered at the 7th Oxford International Conference on Education and Development. The processes of globalisation have been viewed by some as a major threat to the qualitative research tradition in education. Two main…

  5. Impact of parenting styles on adolescents' self-esteem and internalization of values in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Isabel; García, José Fernando

    2007-11-01

    The relationship of parenting styles with adolescents' outcomes was analyzed within a sample of Spanish adolescents. A sample of 1456 teenagers from 13 to 16 years of age, of whom 54.3% were females, reported on their parents' child-rearing practices. The teenagers' parents were classified into one of four groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful). The adolescents were then contrasted on two different outcomes: (1) priority given to Schwartz's self-transcendence (universalism and benevolence) and conservation (security, conformity, and tradition) values and (2) level of self-esteem (appraised in five domains: academic, social, emotional, family and physical). The results show that Spanish adolescents from indulgent households have the same or better outcomes than adolescents from authoritative homes. Parenting is related with two self-esteem dimensions--academic and family--and with all the self-transcendence and conservation values. Adolescents of indulgent parents show highest scores in self-esteem whereas adolescents from authoritarian parents obtain the worst results. In contrast, there were no differences between the priority given by adolescents of authoritative and indulgent parents to any of the self-transcendence and conservation values, whereas adolescents of authoritarian and neglectful parents, in general, assign the lowest priority to all of these values.

  6. Impact of parenting styles on adolescents' self-esteem and internalization of values in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Isabel; García, José Fernando

    2007-11-01

    The relationship of parenting styles with adolescents' outcomes was analyzed within a sample of Spanish adolescents. A sample of 1456 teenagers from 13 to 16 years of age, of whom 54.3% were females, reported on their parents' child-rearing practices. The teenagers' parents were classified into one of four groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful). The adolescents were then contrasted on two different outcomes: (1) priority given to Schwartz's self-transcendence (universalism and benevolence) and conservation (security, conformity, and tradition) values and (2) level of self-esteem (appraised in five domains: academic, social, emotional, family and physical). The results show that Spanish adolescents from indulgent households have the same or better outcomes than adolescents from authoritative homes. Parenting is related with two self-esteem dimensions--academic and family--and with all the self-transcendence and conservation values. Adolescents of indulgent parents show highest scores in self-esteem whereas adolescents from authoritarian parents obtain the worst results. In contrast, there were no differences between the priority given by adolescents of authoritative and indulgent parents to any of the self-transcendence and conservation values, whereas adolescents of authoritarian and neglectful parents, in general, assign the lowest priority to all of these values. PMID:17992960

  7. Impairment and Coping in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Comparative Study with Other Paediatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garralda, M. Elena; Rangel, Luiza

    2004-01-01

    Background: Functional impairment is a key feature of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) of childhood. Aim: To compare impairment, illness attitudes and coping mechanisms in childhood CFS and in other paediatric disorders. Method: Participants were 28 children and adolescents with CFS, 30 with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and 27 with emotional…

  8. Self-Concept and Ego Development in Deaf Adolescents: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gent, Tiejo; Goedhart, Arnold W.; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Westenberg, P. Michiel; Treffers, Philip D. A.

    2012-01-01

    Self-concept and ego development, two intertwined aspects of self-indicating well-being and social-cognitive maturation, respectively, were examined in a representative sample of deaf adolescents of normal intelligence (N = 68), using translated and adapted versions of Harter's (1988, "Manual for the self-perception profile for adolescents".…

  9. Coping behavior of international late adolescent students in selected Australian educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrill, Masitah; Mundia, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Using the Adolescent Coping Scale, ACS (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993) we surveyed 45 randomly selected foreign adolescents in Australian schools. The coping strategies used most by the participants were: focus on solving the problem; seeking relaxing diversions; focusing on the positive; seeking social support; worry; seeking to belong; investing in close friends; wishful thinking; and keep to self (Table 4). With regard to coping styles, the most widely used was the productive coping followed by non-productive coping while the least used style was reference to others (Table 4). In terms of both genders the four coping strategies used most often were:  work hard to achieve; seeking relaxing diversions; focus on solving the problem; and focus on the positive (Table 5). The most noticeable gender difference was the use of the physical recreation coping strategy in which male students engaged more (Fig 1). The usage of four coping strategies (solving problem; work hard; focus on positive; and social support) was higher for students who have been away from family more than once as compared to those who have been away once only while the usage of seeking relaxing diversions was higher for the first timers (Table 6). No significant differences were obtained on the sample's performance on the ACS subscales by gender (Table 7), frequency of leaving own country (Table 8), country of origin (Table 9), and length of stay in Australia (Table 11). However, foundation students scored significantly higher on the reference to others variable than their secondary school peers (Table 10). We recommended counseling for students with high support needs and further large-scale mixed-methods research to gain additional insights. PMID:24373267

  10. Adolescent Development of Global Competencies through a Short-Term International Study-Travel Experience to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Rachel Zucker

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of adolescents to develop global competencies was examined by collecting and analyzing data from 62 student-travelers before, during, and after a short-term study-travel experience to China. The Global Perspectives Inventory was used to compare the student-travelers' perspectives before and after travel with a comparison group of…

  11. Conductas internalizantes y externalizantes en adolescentes / Internalizing and externalizing behavior in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danitsa Alarcón Parco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La adolescencia es un periodo de cambios rápidos en todos los aspectos del desarrollo humano. Es en esta etapa en la que se suelen presentar dificultades y manifestaciones de problemas de salud mental. El objetivo del estudio es conocer las conductas internalizantes y externalizantes reportadas por adolescentes estudiantes de secundaria. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 298 estudiantes entre 12 a 18 años (M = 14.98, DE = 1.28 de ambos sexos (54.4 % mujeres de dos instituciones educativas públicas donde la mayoría se encontraba cursando el 4.o año de secundaria (33.6 %. La muestra se seleccionó de manera no probabilística, por conveniencia, y se informó a todos los participantes del objetivo y actividades del estudio, del carácter voluntario de su participación, y del cuidado en mantener el anonimato y la confidencialidad de todos los datos recogidos. Se utilizó el autorreporte de jóvenes entre 11 y 18 años (YSR 11-18, Achenbach y Rescorla, 2001 para identificar las conductas internalizantes y externalizantes y sus respectivas dimensiones. Los resultados muestran diferencias significativas por sexo. Las mujeres puntuaron más alto que los hombres en ansiedaddepresión, quejas somáticas, problemas de atención, y conductas internalizantes, mientras que los hombres puntuaron más alto en rompimiento de reglas y conductas externalizantes. ABSTRACT Adolescence is a period of rapid changes in all aspects of human development. It is at this stage that difficulties and mental health problems occur more often. The purpose of the study was to identify both internalizing and externalizing behavior reported by adolescent in high school. The sample was composed by 298 participants between 12 and 18 years old (M = 14.98, SD = 1.28, of both sexes, (54.4 % women from two public educational institutions where the majority was enrolled in the 4th year of high school (33.6 %. The sample was selected in a non-probabilistic manner for

  12. Adolescent Peer Relations and Socioemotional Development in Latin America: Translating International Theory into Local Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christian; Lisboa, Carolina; Cuadros, Olga; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Peer relations constitute a main developmental context for adolescents. Peers offer an instance for identity definition and set the norms of acceptable and valued characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes, representing a societal model that allows and restrains avenues for adolescents' socioemotional development. The present article departs from…

  13. Underweight, overweight and obesity among zaboli adolescents: A comparison between international and Iranians′ national criteria

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    Amin Salehi-Abargouei

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions : Almost all definitions revealed coexistence of underweight, overweight, and obesity among Zaboli adolescents. Huge differences exist between different criteria. To understand the best appropriate criteria for Iranian adolescents, future studies should focus on the predictability of obesity-related co-morbidities by these criteria.

  14. How Low Is Low? Low Self-Esteem as an Indicator of Internalizing Psychopathology in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomaa, Rasmus; Vaananen, Juha-Matti; Frojd, Sari; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri

    2013-01-01

    Schools are among the most important setting for preventive interventions among adolescents. There are evidence-based intervention programs for adolescents at risk for and with early signs of mental health problems but one demanding task is to detect the ones who are in need of an intervention. The aim of the present study was to analyze…

  15. Comparative Study for Modeling Reactor Internal Geometry in CFD Simulation of PHWR Internal Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gong Hee; Woo, Sweng Woong; Cheong, Ae Ju [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The main objective of the present study is to compare the results predicted by using either the real geometry of tubes or porous medium assumption and to assess the prediction performance of both methods. Estimating the local subcooling of the moderator in a CANDU calandria under transient conditions is one of the major concerns in the CANDU safety analysis. Therefore extensive CFD analyses have been performed for predicting the moderator temperature in a CANDU calandria or its similar shape. However most of previous studies used a porous medium assumption instead of considering the real geometry of calandria tube. A porous medium assumption has some possible weaknesses; The increased production of turbulence due to vortex shedding in the wake of the individual tubes is not considered in the turbulence model. It is difficult to identify the true effects of the outer ring of calandria tubes on the generation of the highly non-uniform flows in the reflector region. It is not clear how well the pressure loss models quantitatively represent the three-dimensional effects of the turbulent flows through the calandria tubes.

  16. The Future of Comparative and International Education in a Globalised World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David N.

    2003-03-01

    This article examines the history and future prospects of comparative and international education with particular reference to the impact of globalisation and Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs). Connections and interactions between comparative educationists and the technologies of printing and electronic communications are examined in a historical context. The global nature of communications in comparative and international education is demonstrated both spatially and historically, using information from all regions of the world. The changing nature of technologies is noted to have broadened the audience for comparative insights. The development of textbooks, journals, conferences, international agencies, the Internet, web-based communications, and professional comparative education societies is related to the themes of communications and globalisation.

  17. Comparative Education and Research Capacity Building: Reflections on International Transfer and the Significance of Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Crossley

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in comparative and international education, along with a fundamental reconceptualisation of this distinctive multidisciplinary field of study. The nature and significance of these developments are explored with particular reference to their implications for broader research capacity building initiatives worldwide. In doing so, a critique of the international transfer of globally dominant research modalities and strategies is presented--along with arguments for increased attention to context sensitivity in both international development cooperation and educational research in general. Illustrative examples that support these arguments are drawn from the author's own research, from an analysis of emergent educational policy debates in the UK, and from related studies being carried out in Malaysia. In concluding, the strategic role of comparative research traditions and perspectives in a rapidly globalizing world is highlighted, while supporting the promotion of new initiative and research centres for comparative and international education.

  18. Quality of life of Portuguese and Spanish adolescents. A comparative study between natives and immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cristina; Hernando, Ángel; Lemos, Ida; Ayala-Nunes, Lara; Oliva, Cristina Romero; Coronado, Cecilia Montilla

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse differences in quality of life (QOL) between Spanish and Portuguese immigrant and native adolescents. In total, 475 native and immigrant adolescents (52% boys) from Algarve (Portugal) and Huelva (Spain), aged between 12 and 17 years old, were assessed with the KIDSCREEN-52. QOL dimensions were not related to most academic variables, with the exception of number of school failures, Financial Resources and Social Support from Peers. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to examine statistical differences in adolescents QOL. Age differences in QOL levels were not found. Girls reported worse QOL levels on Physical Wellbeing than boys (F = 10.32, p = .001, η2 =.02). Immigrant Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Mood (F = 17.57, p = .000, η2 =.11), and native Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Social Acceptance (F = 4.87, p = .002, η2=.033). Immigrant and native adolescents had similar levels of perceived QOL. Overall, it seems that in both countries, the living contexts for immigrant and native adolescents are fairly homogeneous.

  19. Quality of life of Portuguese and Spanish adolescents. A comparative study between natives and immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Nunes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse differences in quality of life (QOL between Spanish and Portuguese immigrant and native adolescents. In total, 475 native and immigrant adolescents (52% boys from Algarve (Portugal and Huelva (Spain, aged between 12 and 17 years old, were assessed with the KIDSCREEN-52. QOL dimensions were not related to most academic variables, with the exception of number of school failures, Financial Resources and Social Support from Peers. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was used to examine statistical differences in adolescents QOL. Age differences in QOL levels were not found. Girls reported worse QOL levels on Physical Wellbeing than boys (F = 10.32, p = .001, η2 =.02. Immigrant Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Mood (F = 17.57, p = .000, η2 =.11, and native Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Social Acceptance (F = 4.87, p = .002, η2=.033. Immigrant and native adolescents had similar levels of perceived QOL. Overall, it seems that in both countries, the living contexts for immigrant and native adolescents are fairly homogeneous.

  20. Quality of life of Portuguese and Spanish adolescents. A comparative study between natives and immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cristina; Hernando, Ángel; Lemos, Ida; Ayala-Nunes, Lara; Oliva, Cristina Romero; Coronado, Cecilia Montilla

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse differences in quality of life (QOL) between Spanish and Portuguese immigrant and native adolescents. In total, 475 native and immigrant adolescents (52% boys) from Algarve (Portugal) and Huelva (Spain), aged between 12 and 17 years old, were assessed with the KIDSCREEN-52. QOL dimensions were not related to most academic variables, with the exception of number of school failures, Financial Resources and Social Support from Peers. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to examine statistical differences in adolescents QOL. Age differences in QOL levels were not found. Girls reported worse QOL levels on Physical Wellbeing than boys (F = 10.32, p = .001, η2 =.02). Immigrant Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Mood (F = 17.57, p = .000, η2 =.11), and native Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Social Acceptance (F = 4.87, p = .002, η2=.033). Immigrant and native adolescents had similar levels of perceived QOL. Overall, it seems that in both countries, the living contexts for immigrant and native adolescents are fairly homogeneous. PMID:27076012

  1. A Randomized Depression Prevention Trial Comparing Interpersonal Psychotherapy--Adolescent Skills Training to Group Counseling in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jami F; Benas, Jessica S; Schueler, Christie M; Gallop, Robert; Gillham, Jane E; Mufson, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Given the rise in depression disorders in adolescence, it is important to develop and study depression prevention programs for this age group. The current study examined the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a group prevention program for adolescent depression, in comparison to group programs that are typically delivered in school settings. In this indicated prevention trial, 186 adolescents with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST delivered by research staff or group counseling (GC) delivered by school counselors. Hierarchical linear modeling examined differences in rates of change in depressive symptoms and overall functioning from baseline to the 6-month follow-up assessment. Cox regression compared rates of depression diagnoses. Adolescents in IPT-AST showed significantly greater improvements in self-reported depressive symptoms and evaluator-rated overall functioning than GC adolescents from baseline to the 6-month follow-up. However, there were no significant differences between the two conditions in onset of depression diagnoses. Although both intervention conditions demonstrated significant improvements in depressive symptoms and overall functioning, results indicate that IPT-AST has modest benefits over groups run by school counselors which were matched on frequency and duration of sessions. In particular, IPT-AST outperformed GC in reduction of depressive symptoms and improvements in overall functioning. These findings point to the clinical utility of this depression prevention program, at least in the short-term. Additional follow-up is needed to determine the long-term effects of IPT-AST, relative to GC, particularly in preventing depression onset.

  2. Quality of life among adolescents with sickle cell disease: Mediation of pain by internalizing symptoms and parenting stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lauren C

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to clarify associations between pain, psychological adjustment, and family functioning with health-related quality of life (HRQOL in a sample of adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD utilizing teen- and parent-report. Methods Forty-two adolescents (between the ages of 12 and 18 with SCD and their primary caregivers completed paper-and-pencil measures of pain, teen's psychological adjustment, and HRQOL. In addition, primary caregivers completed a measure of disease-related parenting stress. Medical file review established disease severity. Results Pearson correlations identified significant inverse associations of pain frequency with physical and psychosocial domains of HRQOL as rated by the teen and primary caregiver. Generally, internalizing symptoms (i.e. anxiety and depression and disease-related parenting stress were also significantly correlated with lower HRQOL. Examination of possible mediator models via a series of regression analyses confirmed that disease-related parenting stress served as a mediator between pain frequency and physical and psychosocial HRQOL. Less consistent were findings for mediation models involving internalizing symptoms. For these, parent-rated teen depression and teen anxiety served as mediators of the association of pain frequency and HRQOL. Conclusion Results are consistent with extant literature that suggests the association of pain and HRQOL and identify concomitant pain variables of internalizing symptoms and family variables as mediators. Efforts to improve HRQOL should aim to address internalizing symptoms associated with pain as well as parenting stress in the context of SCD management.

  3. INTERNAL CONSISTENCY AND FACTORIAL ANALYSIS OF THE SCOFF QUESTIONNAIRE FOR SCREENING EATING DISORDERS AMONG ADOLESCENT STUDENTS: A GENDER COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADALBERTO CAMPO-ARIAS

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms of eating disorders (ED have increased among males recently. The SCOFF questionnairefor screening ED counts on a formal validation in Colombian only on girl students. However, psychometricproperties of this questionnaire in males are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determinethe internal consistency and factors of the SCOFF questionnaire and make a gender comparisonamong adolescent students from Bucaramanga, Colombia. A probabilistic sample of 2496 male and2375 female, aged 10-19 year-old, completed the SCOFF questionnaire and the CAGE questionnairethat identifies abusive alcohol consumption (divergent validation. The internal consistency of the SCOFFwas established with the Kuder-Richardson’s formula 20, and the divergence with the CAGE questionnairewith the Pearson’s correlation. Results showed among male an internal consistency 0.521, andamong female a consistency of 0.584. One factor explained 34.7% of the variance in males, and one especifactor was responsible of 37.5% of variance in females. Finally, SCOFF scores and CAGE scorespresented a poor correlation both males and females. In conclusion the SCOFF questionnaire presents an acceptable internal consistency, and a high divergence with the CAGE questionnaire among male and female adolescents. Further, the criterion validation of SCOFF questionnaire is needed for males.

  4. Psychological Symptoms of Sexually Victimized Children and Adolescents Compared With Other Maltreatment Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzer, Annika; Fegert, Jörg M; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    The differential effects of sexual victimization and other forms of maltreatment on psychological functioning are not well understood. A sample of sexually victimized children and adolescents (N = 70; 6.3-17.9 years) and a group of youth with a history of nonsexual maltreatment (N = 108; 6.7-16.9 years) were compared using measures of mental health and psychosocial functioning. Assessments included standardized clinical interviews on individual maltreatment history and current psychopathology as well as questionnaires on behavioral and emotional symptoms, including posttraumatic stress symptoms. The results from this study suggest that the risk of experiencing any current mental disorders was independent of type of maltreatment. The risk of meeting the criteria for a current diagnosis of major depression, however, is greater among youth with a history of maltreatment that includes sexual victimization. The significant impact of sexual victimization on posttraumatic stress symptoms was found to be nonsignificant after controlling for age and gender effects. The results indicate that the outcomes of child maltreatment depend on type of maltreatment, but age and gender must be taken into account. PMID:27135385

  5. The Fundamental Concept of a Crime in International Criminal Law: A Comparative Law Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchuk, Iryna

    This book examines the rapid development of the fundamental concept of a crime in international criminal law from a comparative law perspective in light of the catalyzing impact of the criminal law theory developed in major world legal systems on the crystallization of the substantive part...... comparative analysis of substantive criminal laws in selected legal jurisdictions....

  6. The Development of the International Baccalaureate in Spanish Speaking Countries: A Global Comparative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Julia

    2016-01-01

    This paper compares the development of International Baccalaureate (IB) schools in four different settings: Argentine, Chile, Spain and Ecuador. The global comparative approach used in this study, based on actor-network theory (ANT), allows us to analyse the connections and interactions between global actors and the plurality of national,…

  7. International note: what factors are associated with reading, mathematics, and science literacy of Indian adolescents? A multilevel examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2014-06-01

    A sample of 15-year-olds in India took part in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) for the first time in 2010. The PISA reading, mathematics, and science literacy scores of Indian adolescents were considerably lower than their counterparts in most PISA participating countries. In order to explore potential reasons for this, the present study, therefore, drawing on data from the fourth cycle of PISA and employing multilevel modeling, examined the relations of student- and school-level factors to reading, mathematics, and science literacy among 4826 15-year-old students from 213 schools in India. Gender, metacognitive learning strategies, students' positive attitudes toward school, and students' positive perceptions of classroom climate were found to be significantly associated with Indian adolescents' performance on the PISA assessment.

  8. The Comparative Effectiveness of Outpatient Treatment for Adolescent Substance Abuse: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Wilson, Sandra Jo; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Meta-analysis was used to synthesize research on the effects of outpatient treatment on substance use outcomes for adolescents with substance use disorders. An extensive literature search located 45 eligible experimental or quasi-experimental studies reporting 73 treatment-comparison group pairs, with many of the comparison groups also receiving some treatment. The first analysis examined 250 effect sizes for the substance use outcomes of adolescents receiving different types of treatment rel...

  9. EFFECT OF CONVENTIONAL TENS VERSUS SPINAL MOBILIZATION IN PRIMARY DYSMENORRHEA IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Manisha Mistry; Vishnu Vardhan; Tushar Palekar; Rasika Panse

    2015-01-01

    Background: Primary dysmenorrhea is a common disabilitating factor in most of the adolescent girls. It is a major cause of inability to concentrate on their work or studies, class or school absenteeism, inability to perform in their academic activities. This study conducted to assess the effect of non-invasive treatments for pain relief during dysmenorrhea. Aim and Objectives: To study the effect of Conventional TENS and Spinal mobilization on pain in Primary Dysmenorrhea in adolescent gi...

  10. A Comparative Study of the Taste Choice of Adolescents in Terms of Gender and BMI

    OpenAIRE

    Saime Kucukkmurler

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the attitudes and choices of taste of adolescents, the conditions that affect these choices, and its variations with respect to BMI and gender. METHODS: 385 adolescents between the ages of 11 and 14, in Ankara, Turkey, participated in the research. In order to determine taste choices and attitudes towards taste, a Likert-type questionnaire was applied. Independent Samples t-test and correlational analysis were conducted. RESULTS: Boys prefe...

  11. The strength of primary care in Europe : an international comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Kringos, D.S.; Boerma, W. G. W.; Bourgueil, Y.; Cartier, T.; Dedeu, T; Hasvold, T.; Groenewegen, P.P.; et al, [No Value

    2013-01-01

    Background A suitable definition of primary care to capture the variety of prevailing international organisation and service-delivery models is lacking. Aim Evaluation of strength of primary care in Europe. Design and setting International comparative cross-sectional study performed in 2009–2010, involving 27 EU member states, plus Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, and Turkey. Method Outcome measures covered three dimensions of primary care structure: primary care governance, economic conditions ...

  12. Analysis Of Comparative Law, Arbitration Rules Of The United Nations Commission On International Trade Law (Uncitral)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Carolina Donoso Bustamante

    2013-01-01

    It is a study of comparative law between the Arbitration Rules of the United Nations Commission for International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), specifically established in the Arbitration Rules, and the arbitration in Ecuadorian system. The paper first defines the concept of arbitration, international arbitration differentiating domestic arbitration. In a second time, there are a historical reference both as an institution and the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules. Following, the author show a background st...

  13. Adolescent Peer Relations and Socioemotional Development in Latin America: Translating International Theory into Local Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christian; Lisboa, Carolina; Cuadros, Olga; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo

    2016-06-01

    Peer relations constitute a main developmental context for adolescents. Peers offer an instance for identity definition and set the norms of acceptable and valued characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes, representing a societal model that allows and restrains avenues for adolescents' socioemotional development. The present article departs from these considerations to review research on adolescents' peer relations in Latin America from a socioemotional perspective. First, approaches to adolescence are discussed, with a main focus on attachment and identity theories, based on a bioecological framework. Then, a review of research in Latin America on friendships, school climate, and intergroup relations is presented. The discussion addresses the tension between theories and evidence generated in developed societies and highlights the particularities of Latin American youth, stressing the need for collecting local data. PMID:27254826

  14. Coping Behavior of International Late Adolescent Students in Selected Australian Educational Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrill, Masitah; MUNDIA, LAWRENCE

    2013-01-01

    Using the Adolescent Coping Scale, ACS (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993) we surveyed 45 randomly selected foreign adolescents in Australian schools. The coping strategies used most by the participants were: focus on solving the problem; seeking relaxing diversions; focusing on the positive; seeking social support; worry; seeking to belong; investing in close friends; wishful thinking; and keep to self (Table 4). With regard to coping styles, the most widely used was the productive coping followed by...

  15. Trust Building as a Strategy to Avoid Unintended Consequences of Education. The Case Study of International Summer Camps Designed to Promote Peace and Intercultural Dialogue among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farini, Federico

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to offer both a theoretical contribution and examples of practices of trust building in peace education; the article presents an empirical analysis of videotaped interactions in the context of peace education activities in international groups of adolescents. The analysis regards two international summer camps promoted by the…

  16. Irritable and Defiant Sub-Dimensions of ODD: Their Stability and Prediction of Internalizing Symptoms and Conduct Problems from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Homel, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Emerging research has identified sub-dimensions of oppositional defiant disorder – irritability and defiance -that differentially predict internalizing and externalizing symptoms in preschoolers, children, and adolescents. Using a theoretical approach and confirmatory factor analyses to distinguish between irritability and defiance, we investigate the associations among these dimensions and internalizing (anxiety and depression) and externalizing problems (conduct problems) within and across ...

  17. A Comparative Approach to Turkey and England Higher Education: The Internationalism Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ŞEREMET

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the internationalism strategies and policies of Turkish higher education institutions and their reflections has been compared with the way in which the higher education institutions practise in the United Kingdom. This study has been conducted with regard to the foreign students enrolled on the Turkish programmes, the position of the universities at the international rankings (Times Higher Education Rankings and the number of the international academic staff in Turkish universities. The results showed that although Turkish universities and Turkish Council of Higher Education have not completed their process of making a compatible internationalism policy, especially the internationalism strategies of the foundation universities have been more successful and these universities have showed much better results in the rankings by means of their successful internationalism strategies and policies. Nevertheless, it is not necessarily true that the internationalism strategies in the non-profit universities are very healthy due to the fact that the state universities showed great success in recruiting more international students.

  18. Accuracy of Prediction Equations to Assess Percentage of Body Fat in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome Compared to Air Displacement Plethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Aguero, A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, G.; Ara, I.; Moreno, L. A.; Casajus, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of the published percentage body fat (%BF) prediction equations (Durnin et al., Johnston et al., Brook and Slaughter et al.) from skinfold thickness compared to air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in children and adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Twenty-eight children and adolescents with DS (10-20 years old; 12…

  19. Analysis Of Comparative Law, Arbitration Rules Of The United Nations Commission On International Trade Law (Uncitral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Donoso Bustamante

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a study of comparative law between the Arbitration Rules of the United Nations Commission for International Trade Law (UNCITRAL, specifically established in the Arbitration Rules, and the arbitration in Ecuadorian system. The paper first defines the concept of arbitration, international arbitration differentiating domestic arbitration. In a second time, there are a historical reference both as an institution and the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules. Following, the author show a background study, Arbitration and Mediation Ecuadorian Law. Finally appears the comparation between the two systems, with the resulting conclusions.

  20. Non-anaplastic peripheral T cell lymphoma in children and adolescents-an international review of 143 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellgren, K; Attarbaschi, A; Abla, O; Alexander, S; Bomken, S; Bubanska, E; Chiang, A; Csóka, M; Fedorova, A; Kabickova, E; Kapuscinska-Kemblowska, L; Kobayashi, R; Krenova, Z; Meyer-Wentrup, F; Miakova, N; Pillon, M; Plat, G; Uyttebroeck, A; Williams, D; Wróbel, G; Kontny, U

    2016-08-01

    Peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCL) are rare in children and adolescents, and data about outcome and treatment results are scarce. The present study is a joint, international, retrospective analysis of 143 reported cases of non-anaplastic PTCL in patients event-free survival was (pEFS) 0.45 ± 0.05. Patients with SP TCL had a good outcome with 5-year pOS of 0.78 ± 0.1 while patients with HS TCL were reported with 5-year pOS of only 0.13 ± 0.12. Twenty-five percent of the patients were reported to have a pre-existing condition, and this group had a dismal outcome with 5-year pOS of 0.29 ± 0.09. The distribution of non-anaplastic PTCL subtypes in pediatric and adolescent patients differs from what is reported in adult patients. Overall outcome depends on the subtype with some doing better than others. Pre-existing conditions are frequent and associated with poor outcomes. There is a clear need for subtype-based treatment recommendations for children and adolescents with PTCL. PMID:27270301

  1. A Comparative Cost Analysis of Undergraduate Business Degrees for International Students in Selected Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Shilpa Iyanna; Jaya Abraham

    2012-01-01

    International student enrolments are an increasingly important part of global higher education. Researchindicates that the cost of education is an important factor which influences the students’ choice of studydestination. Given the rising cost of education, a comparative analysis of the cost of education is likely to givecertain countries a competitive edge. The primary focus of this paper is to compare the cost of undergraduatebusiness education in countries competing for a share in the int...

  2. Where should the pharmacy researcher look first? Comparing International Pharmaceutical Abstracts and MEDLINE.

    OpenAIRE

    Fishman, D L; Stone, V L; DiPaula, B A

    1996-01-01

    This study compared the usefulness of various CD-ROM versions of International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA) and MEDLINE for pharmacy research. Journal coverage as well as the strengths and weaknesses of database structure and contents were considered. The journals indexed in each database were compared to those identified in a survey of the research journals most important to University of Maryland at Baltimore pharmacy faculty and in a similar North Carolina study rating pharmacy journals....

  3. Comparing Chinese International and American-born Graduate Students' Beliefs about Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fangxia

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the educational beliefs about teaching and learning of Chinese international and American-born graduate students in the disciplines of pure and applied sciences and mathematics at Auburn University by comparing their similarities and differences. The study reported (a) participants' demographic characteristics, (b) the dominant…

  4. Advancing Research on Comparative and International Education in Asia: Contribution of the "Asia Pacific Education Review"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok, Enes; Weidman, John C.

    2015-01-01

    This article explored the contribution of Asia Pacific Education Review (APER) to expanding the scope of research on comparative and international education in Asia. We developed a rubric based on extensive studies (Rust et al. in "Comp Educ Rev," 43(1):86-109, 1999; Foster et al. in "Int J Educ Dev" 32:711-732, 2012) of…

  5. Embedding Research on International Development in the Discourse of Comparative Education in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, I-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    In the wake of the recent ASEAN-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA) launch in 2010, this paper argues for the greater scholarly contribution of international development studies in the discourse of comparative education in East Asia. The argument is based on three premises. The first acknowledges the growing relations of East Asian countries to…

  6. Researching Civil Remedies for International Corruption: The Choice of the Functional Comparative Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.O. Makinwa (Abiola)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper motivates the choice of the functional comparative method to research the issue of civil remedies for international corruption. It shows how the social, economic and political factors that have shaped the normative context of the research question point to the functional co

  7. International Organisations and the Evaluation of Education Systems: A Critical Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to develop research involving a macro-level critical comparative analysis of reference documents produced by international organisations (UNDP, OECD, UNESCO, the World Bank and the European Union) which guide world education policy decisions. The primary objective was to consider the key guidelines currently defined for…

  8. Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness among Schizophrenic Patients and Their Families (Comparative Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Sahar; Zaki, Rania A.

    2015-01-01

    This study was a comparative study aiming to assess the extent of internalized stigma of mental illness among patients with schizophrenia & identify stigma as perceived by family members caring schizophrenic patients. The study was conducted in two settings 1st clinic was outpatient clinic for psychiatric patient affiliated to Abbasia…

  9. International note: Maternal warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control: Relations to adjustment of Ghanaian early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaam, Braima; Mounts, Nina S

    2016-06-01

    This investigation addressed the relation between maternal warmth, behavioral control, psychological control, and psychological adjustment in a sample of 119 Ghanaian adolescents (42% boys) living in an urban area (mean age = 14.19). Adolescents in the sample reported clinically elevated levels of depression and anxiety. Significant associations were found between warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control and adolescents' anxiety, physical aggression, relational aggression, positive friendship quality, and conflict with friends. Warmth moderated the effect of behavioral control on anxiety, physical aggression, and relational aggression such that higher levels of warmth in combination with higher levels of behavioral control were related to more positive adjustment. Higher levels of warmth in conjunction with higher psychological control were related to higher levels of anxiety. Boys who reported lower levels of warmth in combination with higher behavioral control reported higher levels of physical aggression. For boys reporting higher levels of warmth, higher behavioral control was associated with lower physical aggression.

  10. International note: Maternal warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control: Relations to adjustment of Ghanaian early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaam, Braima; Mounts, Nina S

    2016-06-01

    This investigation addressed the relation between maternal warmth, behavioral control, psychological control, and psychological adjustment in a sample of 119 Ghanaian adolescents (42% boys) living in an urban area (mean age = 14.19). Adolescents in the sample reported clinically elevated levels of depression and anxiety. Significant associations were found between warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control and adolescents' anxiety, physical aggression, relational aggression, positive friendship quality, and conflict with friends. Warmth moderated the effect of behavioral control on anxiety, physical aggression, and relational aggression such that higher levels of warmth in combination with higher levels of behavioral control were related to more positive adjustment. Higher levels of warmth in conjunction with higher psychological control were related to higher levels of anxiety. Boys who reported lower levels of warmth in combination with higher behavioral control reported higher levels of physical aggression. For boys reporting higher levels of warmth, higher behavioral control was associated with lower physical aggression. PMID:27038973

  11. Poor peer relations predict parent- and self-reported behavioral and emotional problems of adolescents with gender dysphoria: a cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Annelou L C; Steensma, Thomas D; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; VanderLaan, Doug P; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2016-06-01

    This study is the third in a series to examine behavioral and emotional problems in children and adolescents with gender dysphoria in a comparative analysis between two clinics in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. In the present study, we report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR) data on adolescents assessed in the Toronto clinic (n = 177) and the Amsterdam clinic (n = 139). On the CBCL and the YSR, we found that the percentage of adolescents with clinical range behavioral and emotional problems was higher when compared to the non-referred standardization samples but similar to the referred adolescents. On both the CBCL and the YSR, the Toronto adolescents had a significantly higher Total Problem score than the Amsterdam adolescents. Like our earlier studies of CBCL data of children and Teacher's Report Form data of children and adolescents, a measure of poor peer relations was the strongest predictor of CBCL and YSR behavioral and emotional problems in gender dysphoric adolescents. PMID:26373289

  12. Diversity, Discussion, and Participation: Comparing Web-Based and Campus-Based Adolescent Literature Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulecky, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Explores differences in the range and types of graduate students in a campus-based and a Web-based graduate course on teaching adolescent literature. Finds useful discussion in all class settings, with spontaneity and surprise being more apparent in face-to-face classes and in-depth discussion more apparent in electronic discussion on the issue of…

  13. Self-concept and Ego Development in Deaf Adolescents: A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gent, T. van; Goedhart, A.W.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Westenberg, P.M.; Treffers, P.D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Self-concept and ego development, two intertwined aspects of self-indicating well-being and social-cognitive maturation, respectively, were examined in a representative sample of deaf adolescents of normal intelligence (N = 68), using translated and adapted versions of Harter's (1988, Manual for the

  14. Authoritarianism: Adolescents from East and West Germany and the United States Compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippl, Susanne; Boehnke, Klaus

    1995-01-01

    Examined whether the former East Germany has produced authoritarian personalities and whether there is age and gender variation on authoritarianism regardless of culture. Subjects were 552 West German, 320 East German, and 619 American adolescents. Found that all three cultures have similar proclivities to exhibit an authoritarian character…

  15. Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borremans, Erwin; Rintala, Pauli; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    While physical activity is beneficial for youth with developmental disabilities, little is known about those individuals' fitness profile and levels of activity. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the physical fitness profile and physical activity level of 30 adolescents with and without Asperger syndrome (AS). Evaluations were…

  16. Comparative Kinetic Methods used for the Therapy of Idiopathic Scoliosis in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena AMARICĂI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Scoliosis is one of the most common axial deviations of the spine. Because of its incidence and the fact that, with the evolution of technology, adolescents spend increasingly more time sitting at desk, adopting positions often incorrect, this paper aims to study the evolution of adolescent patients diagnosed with scoliosis using different kinetic methods of treatment. Another objective is to highlight the most effective method of treatment in terms of overall rehabilitation period, the time spent by the patient in the rehabilitation centre and the preservation of scoliosis correction. 9 adolescents patients (aged between 14 and 17 years with idiopathic scoliosis were divided into three groups based on the followed kinetic method. Three patients underwent a physical therapy program based on the conventional Klapp and Cotrel method, three patients performed Schroth method, and the other three patients performed Vojta method. All patients were monitored for 6 months. They followed a certain rehabilitation therapy in a specialized centre under the guidance of specialized therapist. Height, weight and scoliosis curvature (measured by the Cobb angle were assessed at the beginning of the program and after 6 months of kinetic program. The small number of patients in each group could not issue conclusions regarding the statistical efficiency of the three methods of therapy. However, besides the conventional therapy, both Schroth method and Vojta method represent possibilities to treat the adolescent patients with idiopathic scoliosis.

  17. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Gerber, Markus; Kalak, Nadeem; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J; Calabrese, Pasquale; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5–3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA) at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT) as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD), and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. Methods A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females), 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females), and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females) took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Results Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy adolescents and healthy young adults, and equivalent levels of moderate-intensity PA and SD as young adults. MS patients reported lower levels of vigorous PA compared to both healthy adolescents and young adults. Conclusion The pattern of the results of the present study suggests that the onset of MS is not associated with poor MT, poor sleep, or reduced moderate-intensity PA. Lower levels of vigorous PA were observed in MS patients. Low levels of vigorous PA may lead to decreased cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with MS and, in the long run, to reduced cardiovascular health and degraded psychological functioning. PMID:27390520

  18. Depression during gestation in adolescent mothers interferes with neonatal neurobehavior

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Carvalho de Moraes Barros; Sandro Sendim Mitsuhiro; Elisa Chalem; Ronaldo Ramos Laranjeira; Ruth Guinsburg

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the neurobehavior of neonates born to adolescent mothers with and without depression during gestation. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study included healthy term neonates born to adolescent mothers with untreated depression during gestation, without exposure to legal or illicit drugs, and compared them with infants born to adolescent mothers without psychiatric disorders. Maternal psychiatric diagnoses were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic ...

  19. International Quit and Win 1996: comparative evaluation study in China and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, S.; Korhonen, T.; Uutela, A.; Korhonen, H.; Puska, P.; Jun, Y.; Chonghua, Y.; Zeyu, G.; Yonghao, W.; Wenqing, X.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To compare background and process variables, as well as follow up status, of the participants in the International Quit and Win '96 contests of China and Finland, and analyse factors contributing to sustained maintenance.
DESIGN—A standardised 12 month follow up was conducted in both countries with random samples of participants. The sample sizes were 3119 in China and 1448 in Finland, with response rates of 91.2% and 65.2%, respectively.
INTERVENTIONS—The International Quit and Wi...

  20. International Comparative Study on Domestic and Foreign Films in the Perspective of Social Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗淞译

    2015-01-01

    The culture industry is a country’s important pillar industry, and films play an irreplaceable and important role in the culture industry. Nowadays, films have become a kind of world language which represents the image of a country. And the development of the film industry has also accelerated the improvement of international cultural competitiveness. In the perspective of contemporary social culture, we should have an international comparative study on domestic and foreign films and then make the best of the both to help Chinese film culture industry to go a good way of internationalization.

  1. Interaction between international trade and economic growth: evidence from qualitative comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Seda Bilman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between international trade and growth is one of the most popular debates in international economics literature. Although there are numerous theoretical approaches and empirical studies about the issue, the direction of the causality and the magnitude of the interaction still remain unclear. In this study, qualitative comparative analysis introduced by Ragin (1987 is applied, different from the previous empirical studies on the topic. The results present the conditions for growth in the country groups involved. The findings imply that trade policy is still of great importance in terms of stimulating growth in developing countries, while it has little importance in developed countries.

  2. Brief Report: Adolescents' Co-Rumination with Mothers, Co-Rumination with Friends, and Internalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Erika M.; Rose, Amanda J.

    2013-01-01

    The current research examined co-rumination (extensively discussing, rehashing, and speculating about problems) with mothers and friends. Of interest was exploring whether adolescents who co-ruminate with mothers were especially likely to co-ruminate with friends as well as the interplay among co-rumination with mothers, co-rumination with…

  3. Externalizing and Internalizing Problems in Low-Income Latino Early Adolescents: Risk, Resource, and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Alexandra; Prelow, Hazel M.

    2004-01-01

    The current investigation examined the role of cumulative risk, family routines, maternal monitoring, mother-child relationship quality, and youth socioemotional competence in adjustment outcomes of 521 10- to 14-year-old low-income Latino early adolescents. Results showed that, as the number of risk factors increased, levels of externalizing and…

  4. Effects of Functional Impairment on Internalizing Symptom Trajectories in Adolescence: A Longitudinal, Growth Curve Modelling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleverley, Kristin; Bennett, Kathryn; Duku, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that psychosocial and functional impairment has long been acknowledged as an important aspect of psychiatric diagnosis and treatment, relatively little is known about the longitudinal relationship between psychiatric symptoms and functional impairment. This is particularly true in childhood and adolescence. Understanding how…

  5. A Limited Repertoire of Emotion Regulation Strategies Is Associated with Internalizing Problems in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougheed, Jessica P.; Hollenstein, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to test whether the beneficial effects of emotion regulation (ER) have less to do with the use of singular, "adaptive" strategies and more to do with using a range of strategies. Using a community sample of adolescents (N = 177, M = 13.6 years), groups based on five measures of ER (reappraisal, suppression,…

  6. The development of personality extremity from childhood to adolescence: relations to internalizing and externalizing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. van den Akker; P. Prinzie; M. Deković; A.D. de Haan; J.J. Asscher; T. Widiger

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of personality extremity (deviation of an average midpoint of all 5 personality dimensions together) across childhood and adolescence, as well as relations between personality extremity and adjustment problems. For 598 children (mean age at Time 1 = 7.5 years)

  7. SELF-ESTEEM OF DEAF AND HARD OF HEARING COMPARED WITH HEARING ADOLESCENTS IN SLOVENIA – THE CONTEXT OF SOCIAL AND COMMUNICATION FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjana KOGOVSEK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study focuses on the self-esteem of deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH and hearing adolescents (HA in Slovenia. The aim of this study is a comparison of self-esteem between D/HH and HA regarding the hearing status, age, gender, and the comparison among D/HH adolescents regarding communication and education settings. It is hypothesized that deaf and hard of hearing adolescents have lower self-esteem than their hearing peers. Methods: The final sample included 130 adolescents who were split into two groups with the method of equal pairs: 65 D/HH adolescents and 65 HA, which were established on the basis of gender, age, nationality, and educational programme of schooling. The phenomenon of self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, which was translated and adapted into the Slovenian Sign Language (SSL. Results: The results show significant differrences in self-esteem between D/HH and HA adolescents. D/HH adolescents have, on average, lower self-esteem than HA. There are differences in self-esteem regarding gender and also regarding ages of 16 and of 20. D/HH adolescents who use speech or sign language in their communication have higher self-esteem than those who use mostly sign language. D/HH adolescents in mainstream schools have higher self-esteem than those included into a segregated form of schooling. Discussion: There are differences among adolescents in how they view themselves. Self-esteem can be a significant predictor of life satisfaction. Conclusion: D/HH adolescents experience lower self-esteem when compared with HA peers.

  8. Comparing the neural bases of self-referential processing in typically developing and 22q11.2 adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maude; Debbané, Martin; Lagioia, Annalaura; Salomon, Roy; d'Argembeau, Arnaud; Eliez, Stephan

    2012-04-01

    The investigation of self-reflective processing during adolescence is relevant, as this period is characterized by deep reorganization of the self-concept. It may be the case that an atypical development of brain regions underlying self-reflective processing increases the risk for psychological disorders and impaired social functioning. In this study, we investigated the neural bases of self- and other-related processing in typically developing adolescents and youths with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a rare neurogenetic condition associated with difficulties in social interactions and increased risk for schizophrenia. The fMRI paradigm consisted in judging if a series of adjectives applied to the participant himself/herself (self), to his/her best friend or to a fictional character (Harry Potter). In control adolescents, we observed that self- and other-related processing elicited strong activation in cortical midline structures (CMS) when contrasted with a semantic baseline condition. 22q11DS exhibited hypoactivation in the CMS and the striatum during the processing of self-related information when compared to the control group. Finally, the hypoactivation in the anterior cingulate cortex was associated with the severity of prodromal positive symptoms of schizophrenia. The findings are discussed in a developmental framework and in light of their implication for the development of schizophrenia in this at-risk population.

  9. Human Papillomavirus (HPV Vaccination and Adolescent Girls' Knowledge and Sexuality in Western Uganda: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kampikaho Turiho

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination on adolescent girls' knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine, perception of sexual risk and intentions for sexual debut. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in Ibanda and Mbarara districts. Data was collected using a standardized self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences computer software. Univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were conducted with significance level set at p < .05. Results showed that HPV vaccination was associated with being knowledgeable (Crude OR: 5.26, CI: 2.32-11.93; p = 0.000. Vaccination against HPV did not predict perception of sexual risk. Knowledge was low (only 87/385 or 22.6% of vaccinated girls were knowledgeable, but predicted perception of a high sexual risk (Adjusted OR: 3.12, CI: 1.37-3.63; p = 0.008. HPV vaccination, knowledge and perceived sexual risk did not predict sexual behaviour intentions. High parental communication was associated with adolescent attitudes that support postponement of sexual debut in both bivariate and multiple regression analyses. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that HPV vaccination is not likely to encourage adolescent sexual activity. Influence of knowledge on sexual behaviour intentions was not definitively explained. Prospective cohort studies were proposed to address the emerging questions.

  10. Do adolescent drug use consequences predict externalizing and internalizing problems in emerging adulthood as well as traditional drug use measures in a Hispanic sample?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, Timothy J; Forster, Myriam; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Unger, Jennifer B

    2014-03-01

    The present study compares statistical models for three conceptualizations of drug use in 11th grade (past 30 day ever/never use, past 30 day frequency of drug use and past 30 day drug use consequences) with externalizing and internalizing problems in emerging adulthood when controlling for age, academic achievement and socioeconomic status in a Hispanic sample. Multivariate logistic regression models for the different drug use variables were compared when modeling weapon carrying, arrest, multiple lifetime sex partners, drug/alcohol use before sex and condom use in emerging adulthood. A multivariate linear regression model was used to model depression in emerging adulthood as a function of drug use measurement controlling for other covariates and depression in adolescence. Our findings suggest that any conceptualization of drug use will produce equitable results and model fit statistics when examining externalizing problems. However, when investigating internalizing problems, such as depression, lower frequency drug use-and not high frequency-was more strongly associated with depression whereas experiencing high levels of drug use consequences-and not low levels of consequences-was associated with depression in emerging adulthood despite similar model fit values. Variation between drug use and the experience of drug use consequences may lead to misspecification of "at-risk" subgroups of drug users. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:24345310

  11. Policy lessons from comparing mortality from two global forces: international terrorism and tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nick

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare the mortality burdens from two global impacts on mortality: international terrorism and the major cause of preventable death in developed countries – tobacco use. We also sought to examine the similarities and differences between these two causes of mortality so as to better inform the policy responses directed at prevention. Methods Data on deaths from international terrorism were obtained from a US State Department database for 1994–2003. Estimates for tobacco-attributable deaths were based on Peto et al 2003. The countries were 37 developed and East European countries. Results and discussion The collective annualized mortality burden from tobacco was approximately 5700 times that of international terrorism. The ratio of annual tobacco to international terrorism deaths was lowest for the United States at 1700 times, followed by Russia at 12,900 times. The tobacco death burden in all these countries was equivalent to the impact of an 11 September type terrorist attack every 14 hours. Different perceptions of risk may contribute to the relative lack of a policy response to tobacco mortality, despite its relatively greater scale. The lack is also despite tobacco control having a stronger evidence base for the prevention measures used. Conclusion This comparison highlights the way risk perception may determine different policy responses to global forces causing mortality. Nevertheless, the large mortality differential between international terrorism and tobacco use has policy implications for informing the rational use of resources to prevent premature death.

  12. Alexithymia in parents and adolescent anorexic daughters: comparing the responses to Tsia and Tas-20 scales

    OpenAIRE

    Balottin L; Nacinovich R; Bomba M; Mannarini S

    2014-01-01

    Laura Balottin,1 Renata Nacinovich,2 Monica Bomba,2 Stefania Mannarini1 1Interdepartmental Center of Family Research, Department of Philosophy, Sociology, Education, and Applied Psychology, Section of Applied Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; 2Childhood and Adolescence Neuropsychiatric Unit, San Gerardo Hospital, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza, Italy Background: A growing body of literature has been focusing on individual alexithymia in anorexia nervosa, while there are on...

  13. A Comparative Study of the Taste Choice of Adolescents in Terms of Gender and BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saime Kucukkmurler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the attitudes and choices of taste of adolescents, the conditions that affect these choices, and its variations with respect to BMI and gender. METHODS: 385 adolescents between the ages of 11 and 14, in Ankara, Turkey, participated in the research. In order to determine taste choices and attitudes towards taste, a Likert-type questionnaire was applied. Independent Samples t-test and correlational analysis were conducted. RESULTS: Boys preferred sweet and bitter tastes more than girls, but girls preferred salty tastes more than boys (p<0.05. It was found that when the BMI of adolescents increases, their taste scores decrease significantly (p<0.05. As the BMI increases, the sum preferences of sweet, sour, umami and salty taste scores decrease. There is a positive relation between sour and bitter and umami and bitter with umami (p< 0.01 CONCLUSION: . It is fair to argue that as BMI increases tendencies towards tastes decrease and that boys preferred sweet and bitter tastes more than girls did whereas girls preferred salty tastes more than boys.The fact that the tendencies towards tastes decrease with increasing BMI, and that taste preferences vary with respect to gender may imply that physiological requirements drive taste preferences. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(6.000: 451-458

  14. Comparative analysis of pedicle screw versus hybrid instrumentation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafi, Sohail; Munshi, Naseem; Abbas, Asad; Shaikh, Rabia Hassan; Hashmi, Imtiaz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common type of scoliosis. A Cobb angle of 50° will progress beyond the age of spinal maturity. Surgery over bracing is advised at a Cobb angle above or equal to 50°. The aim of surgery is to bring the Cobb angle down below 50° to prevent reprogression as well as improve the quality of life. The objective of the study is to analyze the efficacy and significance in lifestyle improvement of pedicle screw-only fixation system versus the more common hybrid instrumentation system used for the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted involving two groups of patients were included in the study. One group was operated with pedicle screw-only method while the other with hybrid instrumentation system. The pre- and post-operative Cobb's angles were taken across a follow-up of 4 years. An SRS-30 questionnaire was given in a yearly follow-up to assess the lifestyle improvement of the patient. Results: Pedicle screw-only method was significantly more effective in reducing Cobb's angle (P = 0.0487). It was showed less loss of correction (P = 0.009) pedicle screw-only surgery was also better at reducing thoracic curves (P = 0.001). There seemed a better recovery time with pedicle screw surgery (P = 0.003). Conclusion: Pedicle screws are more effective and durable than hybrid systems at when treating adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:27695235

  15. Comparative analysis of pedicle screw versus hybrid instrumentation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Rafi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common type of scoliosis. A Cobb angle of 50° will progress beyond the age of spinal maturity. Surgery over bracing is advised at a Cobb angle above or equal to 50°. The aim of surgery is to bring the Cobb angle down below 50° to prevent reprogression as well as improve the quality of life. The objective of the study is to analyze the efficacy and significance in lifestyle improvement of pedicle screw-only fixation system versus the more common hybrid instrumentation system used for the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted involving two groups of patients were included in the study. One group was operated with pedicle screw-only method while the other with hybrid instrumentation system. The pre- and post-operative Cobb's angles were taken across a follow-up of 4 years. An SRS-30 questionnaire was given in a yearly follow-up to assess the lifestyle improvement of the patient. Results: Pedicle screw-only method was significantly more effective in reducing Cobb's angle (P = 0.0487. It was showed less loss of correction (P = 0.009 pedicle screw-only surgery was also better at reducing thoracic curves (P = 0.001. There seemed a better recovery time with pedicle screw surgery (P = 0.003. Conclusion: Pedicle screws are more effective and durable than hybrid systems at when treating adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

  16. THE ROLE OF GENERATIONAL COHORTS: COMPARING APPROACHES TO INNOVATION USING INTERNAL NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    ROD FARR-WHARTON; BEN FARR-WHARTON; YVONNE BRUNETTO; FERRUCCIO BRESOLIN

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a range of theories to compare the use of internal networks for seeking the next innovative idea by two countries experiencing different examined the effect of variation in macroeconomic conditions to determine motivational differences between SME owners/managers in Australia and Italy. The paper used interviews from SME owner/managers from Italy and Australia. The findings confirm a small generational cohort impact across the two countries in affecting how SMEs owner/managers...

  17. Comparing the Effects of CAFTA on Internal Trade of China and ASEAN Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Supriana, Tavi

    2016-01-01

    This paper compares the effects of CAFTA on internal trade of China and ASEAN Countries. ASEAN countries are analyzed individually, by developing two gravity models and using the panel data of7 samples countries and areas from 2002 to 2010. The empirical result shows that GDP, distance, exchange rate, population and policy framework of CAFTA are trade detenninant factors for China and ASEAN countries. The effects of CAFTA implementation in this study can be divided in four categories. Firstly...

  18. International Trade And Business Practices: A Comparative Attempt In The Apparel Market

    OpenAIRE

    Kavvadia, Helen

    2012-01-01

    The apparel industry is an important branch of Greek manufacturing, with a significant contribution to GDP, employment and exports. Greek companies have established production facilities in the Balkan countries, as a way to improve competitiveness by reducing production costs. Competition, however, is not based on production costs alone. A comparative analysis of three successful international companies is reviewed in this paper, as an attempt to shed light in non-production cost aspects. The...

  19. Skills for adolescence: experience with the International Lions-Quest program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunger, B; Pellaux, D

    1989-04-01

    This article describes the development of the Lions-Quest Skills for Adolescence program. The primary purpose of this program is to respond to the needs of young people by helping them become more self aware, more skilled, more able to make positive and healthy choices, and better able to make informed, aware, and considered decisions about their own behavior. Skills for Adolescence is one school/community/parent-based curricular program that attempts to address health, life skills, and prevention issues in ways that have clearly struck a common chord in numerous countries. The program's emphasis on effective communication, on self-efficacy and social skills, and on strengthening the family appear to have a strong appear in many different contexts and cultures. Careful attention to local needs during adaptation while employing collaborative strategies is an essential ingredient to crossing cultural and national boundaries.

  20. Discrimination-related stress effects on the development of internalizing symptoms among Latino adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Selcuk R; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren; Cressen, Jessica; Gupta, Taveeshi; Ahmed, Sammy F; Novoa, Alfredo D

    2015-01-01

    This three-wave longitudinal study of 173 Latino adolescents (M = 16.16 years, SD = 0.65) is designed to understand the role of discrimination-related stress in mental health trajectories during middle to late adolescence with attention to differences due to immigration status. The results of the growth curve analysis showed that anxious-depressed, withdrawn-depressed, and somatic complaints significantly decreased over time. Furthermore, although discrimination-related stress was found to be significantly related to the trajectories of three types of mental health symptoms, the results revealed that immigration status moderated these relations such that discrimination-related stress was significantly related to these outcomes for Latino youth whose parents were born in the United States, while this relation was not significant for Latino children of immigrants. PMID:25676605

  1. International PV QA Task Force's Proposed Comparative Rating System for PV Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S.

    2014-10-01

    The International PV Quality Assurance Task Force is developing a rating system that provides comparative information about the relative durability of PV modules. Development of accelerated stress tests that can provide such comparative information is seen as a major step toward being able to predict PV module service life. This paper will provide details of the ongoing effort to determine the format of such an overall module rating system. The latest proposal is based on using three distinct climate zones as defined in IEC 60721-2-1 for two different mounting systems. Specific stresses beyond those used in the qualification tests are being developed for each of the selected climate zones.

  2. International PV QA Task Force's proposed comparative rating system for PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, John; Kurtz, Sarah

    2014-10-01

    The International PV Quality Assurance Task Force is developing a rating system that provides comparative information about the relative durability of PV modules. Development of accelerated stress tests that can provide such comparative information is seen as a major step toward being able to predict PV module service life. This paper will provide details of the ongoing effort to determine the format of such an overall module rating system. The latest proposal is based on using three distinct climate zones as defined in IEC 60721-2-1 for two different mounting systems. Specific stresses beyond those used in the qualification tests are being developed for each of the selected climate zones.

  3. Structure and Etiology of Co-occurring Internalizing and Externalizing Disorders in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Cosgrove, Victoria E; Rhee, Soo H.; Gelhorn, Heather L.; Boeldt, Debra; Corley, Robin C.; Ehringer, Marissa A.; Young, Susan E.; Hewitt, John K.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies suggest that a two-factor model positing internalizing and externalizing factors explains the interrelationships among psychiatric disorders. However, it is unclear whether the covariation between internalizing and externalizing disorders is due to common genetic or environmental influences. We examined whether a model positing two latent factors, internalizing and externalizing, explained the interrelationships among six psychiatric disorders (major depressive disorder, gener...

  4. Revealed Comparative Advantage and the Alternatives as Measures of International Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of Balassa's 'revealed comparative advantage' (RCA). It shows that when using RCA, it should be adjusted such that it becomes symmetric around its neutral value. The proposed adjusted index is called 'revealed symmetric comparative advantage' (RSCA). The theoretical...... Balance, Chi Square, and Bowen's Net Trade Index. The result of the analysis is that RSCA-on balance-is the best measure of comparative advantage....... discussion focuses on the properties of RSCA and empirical evidence, based on the Jarque-Bera test for normality of the regression error terms, using both the RCA and RSCA indices. We compare RSCA to other measures of international trade specialization including the Michaely index, the Contribution to Trade...

  5. Child and adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems 12 months postburn : the potential role of preburn functioning, parental posttraumatic stress, and informant bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egberts, M.R.; van de Schoot, R.; Boekelaar, A.; Hendrickx, H.; Geenen, R.; Van Loey, N.E.E.

    2016-01-01

    Adjustment after pediatric burn injury may be a challenge for children as well as their parents. This prospective study examined associations of internalizing and externalizing problems in children and adolescents 12 months postburn with preburn functioning, and parental acute and chronic posttrauma

  6. Elevated serum levels of free triiodothyronine in adolescent boys with gynaecomastia compared with controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglæde, Lise;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pubertal gynaecomastia is a frequent phenomenon occurring in 20-40% of otherwise healthy adolescent boys. Little is known about the aetiology of pubertal gynaecomastia. Markedly elevated thyroid hormone levels in adults with hyperthyroidism are associated with gynaecomastia. DESIGN: A...... cross-sectional examination of 444 healthy boys with and without pubertal gynaecomastia. METHODS: We evaluated TSH, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), free T4 and free T3 in a cohort of healthy boys with and without pubertal gynaecomastia. RESULTS: Boys with gynaecomastia had significantly higher...

  7. Fat-free mass prediction equations for bioelectric impedance analysis compared to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in obese adolescents: a validation study

    OpenAIRE

    Hofsteenge, Geesje H.; Chinapaw, Mai JM; Weijs, Peter JM

    2015-01-01

    Background In clinical practice, patient friendly methods to assess body composition in obese adolescents are needed. Therefore, the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) related fat-free mass (FFM) prediction equations (FFM-BIA) were evaluated in obese adolescents (age 11–18 years) compared to FFM measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (FFM-DXA) and a new population specific FFM-BIA equation is developed. Methods After an overnight fast, the subjects attended the outpatient clinic. Af...

  8. What can comparative effectiveness research contribute to integrative health in international perspective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Claudia M; Rafferty Withers, Shelly; Grant, Suzanne; Lauer, Michael S; Tunis, Sean; Berman, Brian M

    2014-11-01

    The interest in Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) in the international community is growing. A panel titled "What Can Comparative Effectiveness Research Contribute to Integrative Health in International Perspective?" took place at the 3rd International Research Congress on Integrative Medicine and Health in Portland, Oregon, in 2012. The presentations at this panel highlighted different perspectives on CER, including the funders' and the stakeholders' perspectives from the United States, as well as experiences with economic evaluations from Australia and pragmatic trials in Europe. The funders' perspective emphasized the need for innovation and controlling costs in large-scale studies. The stakeholder's perspective stressed the need to gather the input of stakeholders in shaping the framework for more informative, more decision-maker-driven research. Several examples of cost-effectiveness analyses were offered from Australia. The importance of balancing rigor and pragmatism was also discussed in a presentation of the efficacy-effectiveness continuum. A wide-ranging discussion explored additional questions concerning the translation of evidence into practice; the effect of pragmatic trials on funding or policy; evidentiary distinctions between and among pragmatic trials and traditional randomized clinical trials; and the multiple roles of stakeholders, particularly in generating new information and knowledge. The presentations and discussions showed that more development of methods is needed. This includes developments on study design and statistical approaches, as well as methods for stakeholder involvement and mechanisms to bring these results into practice. PMID:25372702

  9. Internalizing Symptoms and Affect of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Comparative Study with an Urban African American Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Deanna E.; Merrell, Kenneth W.; Cobb, Harriet C.

    1999-01-01

    Self-reported internalizing symptoms of seriously emotionally disturbed (SED) and regular education students were compared using the Internalizing Symptoms Scale for Children. The SED group reported significantly higher levels of internalizing distress than the regular education group. Results are discussed in terms of future research needs and…

  10. Internal/external locus of control, self-esteem, and parental verbal interaction of at-risk black male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enger, J M; Howerton, D L; Cobbs, C R

    1994-06-01

    We investigated the relationship between three factors--internal/external locus of control, self-esteem, and parental verbal interaction--for at-risk Black male adolescents in the United States. Forty-two male students in Grades 6, 7, and 8 who had been identified by their teachers as being at risk completed the Locus of Control Scale for Children (Nowicki & Strickland, 1973), the Self-Esteem Inventory (Coopersmith, 1967), and the Verbal Interaction Questionnaire (Blake, 1991). A moderate positive relationship found between self-esteem and parental verbal interaction was consistent with a previous finding for White high school students. A moderate negative relationship found between locus of control and self-esteem differed from a previous finding of no significant relationship for Black elementary children. A weak, yet significant, negative relationship was found between locus of control and parental verbal interaction.

  11. Internal/external locus of control, self-esteem, and parental verbal interaction of at-risk black male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enger, J M; Howerton, D L; Cobbs, C R

    1994-06-01

    We investigated the relationship between three factors--internal/external locus of control, self-esteem, and parental verbal interaction--for at-risk Black male adolescents in the United States. Forty-two male students in Grades 6, 7, and 8 who had been identified by their teachers as being at risk completed the Locus of Control Scale for Children (Nowicki & Strickland, 1973), the Self-Esteem Inventory (Coopersmith, 1967), and the Verbal Interaction Questionnaire (Blake, 1991). A moderate positive relationship found between self-esteem and parental verbal interaction was consistent with a previous finding for White high school students. A moderate negative relationship found between locus of control and self-esteem differed from a previous finding of no significant relationship for Black elementary children. A weak, yet significant, negative relationship was found between locus of control and parental verbal interaction. PMID:8057628

  12. Nutritional status of children and adolescents based on body mass index: agreement between World Health Organization and International Obesity Task Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Gustavo Cavazzotto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the agreement between two international criteria for classification of children and adolescents nutritional status. Methods: The study included 778 girls and 863 boys aged from six to 13 years old. Body mass and height were measured and used to calculate the body mass index. Nutritional status was classified according to the cut-off points defined by the World Health Organization and the International Obesity Task Force. The agreement was evaluated using Kappa statistic and weighted Kappa. Results: In order to classify the nutritional status, the agreement between the criteria was higher for the boys (Kappa 0.77 compared to girls (Kappa 0.61. The weighted Kappa was also higher for boys (0.85 in comparison to girls (0.77. Kappa index varied according to age. When the nutritional status was classified in only two categories - appropriate (thinness + accentuated thinness + eutrophy and overweight (overweight + obesity + severe obesity -, the Kappa index presented higher values than those related to the classification in six categories. Conclusions : A substantial agreement was observed between the criteria, being higher in males and varying according to the age.

  13. Keynote address at the Fifth Congress of the International Association for Adolescent Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransome-Kuti, O

    1992-07-01

    This Nigerian Ministry of Health speech reiterates the importance of focusing on the problems of youth and adolescents which was 1st identified in 1989 at a World Health Assembly. Every stage of the life cycle is important because mental, physical, psychological, and social scars are carried into the future. It is important to make the transition to adulthood as smooth as possible. Of the 30% (1.5 billion) of the World's population that are adolescents 10-24 years old, 80% live in developing countries. 50% of the world population is 25 years. In the preparation for adulthood, age-old customs, culture, and tradition have ensured the stability and survival of societies, but great changes have taken place due to colonialism, modern education, urban migration, rapid travel an communication, tourism, and trade. There is weakening of traditional marriage. Foreign cultural influence has armed youths to challenge community cultural norms and parental authority to direct their development. There is social tension, disruption, an instability. Adults as role models have sometimes failed to represent integrity and honesty. There is a need for sensitive support and guidance from adults. Peer pressure operates for both good or ill. Some will react to this stress to conform in unhealthy ways. The health care system may not fill adolescent needs because they are too old for the pediatrician and too young for the physician. Girls are particularly vulnerable to the problems of premarital pregnancy, induced abortion, out-of-wedlock births, and sexually transmitted diseases. The pressure is to grow up fast, particularly in polygamous societies where the woman has security only in her children. Opportunities for dialogue degenerate into sessions of being "talked at" and forced compliance. Unemployment is very high which can lead to loss of self-esteem, psychological stress, and hopelessness and sometimes street fighting, thuggery, drug pushing, and armed robbery. Attempts worldwide are

  14. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Bahmani D

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,1 Markus Gerber,2 Nadeem Kalak,1 Sakari Lemola,3 Peter J Clough,4 Pasquale Calabrese,5 Vahid Shaygannejad,6 Uwe Pühse,2 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,1 Serge Brand1,2 1Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 2Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Coventry, 4Department of Psychology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK; 5Division of Molecular and Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Department of Neurology and Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5–3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD, and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. Methods: A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females, 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females, and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Results: Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy

  15. The mediating role of perceived peer support in the relation between quality of attachment and internalizing problems in adolescence: a longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Ugo; Zappulla, Carla; Di Maggio, Rosanna

    2016-10-01

    The study was aimed to verify, from a longitudinal perspective, whether perceived peer support would mediate the relationship between attachment and internalizing problems. Longitudinal participants included 482 adolescents (245 boys) aged 14-15 years in Wave 1 and 17-18 years in Wave 2. Participants in Wave 1 completed the Relationship Questionnaire, and those in Wave 2 completed the Social Support Questionnaire and the Youth Self-Report. Results showed that secure attachment positively predicted high levels of perceived peer support and negatively predicted internalizing problems, whereas fearful and preoccupied attachment negatively predicted perceived peer support and positively predicted internalizing problems. The mediation models showed that perceived peer support partially mediated the relationship between secure attachment and internalizing problems as well as between preoccupied attachment and internalizing problems and between fearful attachment and internalizing problems. Our results confirm the role of subjective perception of peer support in contributing to the prediction of internalizing problems beyond attachment styles.

  16. Frameworks for comparing emissions associated with production, consumption, and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Lenzen, Manfred; Peters, Glen P; Moran, Daniel D; Geschke, Arne

    2012-01-01

    While the problem of climate change is being perceived as increasingly urgent, decision-makers struggle to agree on the distribution of responsibility across countries. In particular, representatives from countries hosting emissions-intensive exporting industries have argued that the importers of emissions-intensive goods should bear the responsibility, and ensuing penalties. Indeed, international trade and carbon leakage appear to play an increasingly important role in the carbon emissions debate. However, definitions of quantities describing the embodiment of carbon emissions in internationally traded products, and their measurement, have to be sufficiently robust before being able to underpin global policy. In this paper we critically examine a number of emissions accounting concepts, examine whether the ensuing carbon balances are compatible with monetary trade balances, discuss their different interpretations, and highlight implications for policy. In particular, we compare the emissions embodied in bilateral trade (EEBT) method which considers total trade flows with domestic emission intensities, with the multi-regional input-output (MRIO) method which considers trade only into final consumption with global emission intensities. If consumption-based emissions of different countries were to be compared, we would suggest an MRIO approach because of the global emissions coverage inherent in this method. If trade-adjusted emission inventories were to be compared, we would suggest an EEBT approach due to the consistency with a monetary trade balance. PMID:22077096

  17. Comparative internal anatomy of Staurozoa (Cnidaria), with functional and evolutionary inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Allen G.; Hirano, Yayoi M.; Mills, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    Comparative efforts to understand the body plan evolution of stalked jellyfishes are scarce. Most characters, and particularly internal anatomy, have neither been explored for the class Staurozoa, nor broadly applied in its taxonomy and classification. Recently, a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis was derived for Staurozoa, allowing for the first broad histological comparative study of staurozoan taxa. This study uses comparative histology to describe the body plans of nine staurozoan species, inferring functional and evolutionary aspects of internal morphology based on the current phylogeny of Staurozoa. We document rarely-studied structures, such as ostia between radial pockets, intertentacular lobules, gametoducts, pad-like adhesive structures, and white spots of nematocysts (the last four newly proposed putative synapomorphies for Staurozoa). Two different regions of nematogenesis are documented. This work falsifies the view that the peduncle region of stauromedusae only retains polypoid characters; metamorphosis from stauropolyp to stauromedusa occurs both at the apical region (calyx) and basal region (peduncle). Intertentacular lobules, observed previously in only a small number of species, are shown to be widespread. Similarly, gametoducts were documented in all analyzed genera, both in males and females, thereby elucidating gamete release. Finally, ostia connecting adjacent gastric radial pockets appear to be universal for Staurozoa. Detailed histological studies of medusozoan polyps and medusae are necessary to further understand the relationships between staurozoan features and those of other medusozoan cnidarians.

  18. Comparison of self-esteem scores: American and Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, P C; Hillman, S B; Sawilowsky, S S

    1995-04-01

    The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory was administered to 112 African American adolescents who were academically at-risk for dropping out of high school. Results were similar to those of a previous study comparing a heterogeneous group of 100 American adolescents with 100 youths from India. Differences on scores of self-esteem for the two international groups were noted. PMID:7667445

  19. Psychosocial Stress, Internalized Symptoms, and the Academic Achievement of Hispanic Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, Sylvia Alatorre; de Los Reyes, Rydda

    1999-01-01

    Examined the relationship between stressful life events, internalized symptoms of stress, and academic achievement in urban Hispanic high school students. Found direct effects of stressful life events and perceived competence on school grades and internalized symptoms. Multiplicative interactions for perceived competence were not significant…

  20. Globalisation plus Comparative and International Education: Towards a Theory of the Confluence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emefa Amoako

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to contribute to ways by which confluence, referring to a meeting point for the different agents to cooperate and communicate on education policy processes, can be understood. Pertinent national education policies in countries receiving aid, in particular, are formed and implemented in a complex nexus. Cultural and context sensitivity can be stimulated through a thorough understanding of this confluence, which subsequently can enable the different policy agents, which function at this meeting point, collaborate to alleviate some of the educational challenges. Comparative and international education, in this respect, has a significant role to play.

  1. Approaches to comparative risk assessments of national and international radioactive waste disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pangea Resources International AG, Switzerland, has put forward the concept of an international geological repository in an Australian desert area, for final disposal of certain of the world's high-level radioactive wastes and surplus fissile materials. Already publicly contentious in Australia, the concept raises unusual issues in safety and environmental assessment. It is timely, therefore, to consider why and how an initial case for such a repository might be made, in comparison with national options for high-level waste disposal that it might displace. There are several stages ahead of development of a formal safety case for an international repository. The first, and almost certainly the most challenging, is winning of public and political acceptance in the host country that such a repository is the 'best' solution to a global problem. We consider the basic need to identify and encompass the concerns of widely disparate stakeholders - industry, governments, national and international regulators, environmental interest groups and the public at large - so that public and political debates can be informed effectively. Many key issues will require comparison both of risks arising from very different operations, and of dissimilar prospective safety performances of complete disposal systems over periods spanning thousands of generations. Nevertheless, we conclude that the validity of such a comparative assessment could be assured by consistent application of a judicious blend of assessment techniques across the alternatives. We also conclude that its usefulness as a vehicle for public discussion would be enhanced by careful attention to public concerns, and by transparently independent review by scientific, technical, sociological and ethical specialists. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  2. Comparative study among simulations of an internal monitoring system using different Monte Carlo codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computational Monte Carlo (MC) codes have been used for simulation of nuclear installations mainly for internal monitoring of workers, the well known as Whole Body Counters (WBC). The main goal of this project was the modeling and simulation of the counting efficiency (CE) of a WBC system using three different MC codes: MCNPX, EGSnrc and VMC in-vivo. The simulations were performed for three different groups of analysts. The results shown differences between the three codes, as well as in the results obtained by the same code and modeled by different analysts. Moreover, all the results were also compared to the experimental results obtained in laboratory for meaning of validation and final comparison. In conclusion, it was possible to detect the influence on the results when the system is modeled by different analysts using the same MC code and in which MC code the results were best suited, when comparing to the experimental data result. (author)

  3. Multilevel risk factors and developmental assets for internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in disadvantaged adolescents: modeling longitudinal trajectories from the Rural Adaptation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Rose, Roderick; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Bacallao, Martica

    2014-11-01

    The current study filled significant gaps in our knowledge of developmental psychopathology by examining the influence of multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in an exceptionally culturally diverse sample of rural adolescents. Integrating ecological and social capital theories, we explored if positive microsystem transactions are associated with self-esteem while negative microsystem transactions increase the chances of internalizing problems. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle school students from 28 public schools in two rural, disadvantaged counties in North Carolina. Three-level hierarchical linear modeling models were estimated to predict internalizing symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety) and self-esteem. Relative to other students, risk for internalizing problems and low self-esteem was elevated for aggressive adolescents, students who were hassled or bullied at school, and those who were rejected by peers or in conflict with their parents. Internalizing problems were also more common among adolescents from socioeconomically disadvantaged families and neighborhoods, among those in schools with more suspensions, in students who reported being pressured by peers, and in youth who required more teacher support. It is likely that these experiences left adolescents disengaged from developing social capital from ecological microsystems (e.g., family, school, peers). On the positive side, support from parents and friends and optimism about the future were key assets associated with lower internalizing symptoms and higher self-esteem. Self-esteem was also positively related to religious orientation, school satisfaction, and future optimism. These variables show active engagement with ecological microsystems. The implications and limitations were discussed.

  4. Multilevel risk factors and developmental assets for internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in disadvantaged adolescents: modeling longitudinal trajectories from the Rural Adaptation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Rose, Roderick; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Bacallao, Martica

    2014-11-01

    The current study filled significant gaps in our knowledge of developmental psychopathology by examining the influence of multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in an exceptionally culturally diverse sample of rural adolescents. Integrating ecological and social capital theories, we explored if positive microsystem transactions are associated with self-esteem while negative microsystem transactions increase the chances of internalizing problems. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle school students from 28 public schools in two rural, disadvantaged counties in North Carolina. Three-level hierarchical linear modeling models were estimated to predict internalizing symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety) and self-esteem. Relative to other students, risk for internalizing problems and low self-esteem was elevated for aggressive adolescents, students who were hassled or bullied at school, and those who were rejected by peers or in conflict with their parents. Internalizing problems were also more common among adolescents from socioeconomically disadvantaged families and neighborhoods, among those in schools with more suspensions, in students who reported being pressured by peers, and in youth who required more teacher support. It is likely that these experiences left adolescents disengaged from developing social capital from ecological microsystems (e.g., family, school, peers). On the positive side, support from parents and friends and optimism about the future were key assets associated with lower internalizing symptoms and higher self-esteem. Self-esteem was also positively related to religious orientation, school satisfaction, and future optimism. These variables show active engagement with ecological microsystems. The implications and limitations were discussed. PMID:25422975

  5. Mild Dermatoglyphic Deviations in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Average Intellectual Abilities as Compared to Typically Developing Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther I. de Bruin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatoglyphics, ridge constellations on the hands and feet, are permanently formed by the second trimester of pregnancy. Consequently, they are considered “fossilized” evidence of a specific prenatal period. A high frequency of dermatoglyphic anomalies, or a high rate of dermatoglyphic asymmetry (discordance, is an indication of developmental instability (prenatal disturbances prior to 24-week gestation. Most dermatoglyphic studies in psychiatry focus on adult schizophrenia. Studies on dermatoglyphic deviances and autism are sparse, include severely disturbed and intellectually retarded patients with autism, and are carried out mainly in non-Western European populations. In this study, finger print patterns, atd-angles, and palmar flexion crease patterns (PFCs are compared between Western European adolescent teenage males, of average intellect, with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD; n=46 and typically developing adolescent teenage males (TD; n=49. Boys with ASD had a higher rate of discordance in their finger print patterns than TD boys. Thus, the hypothesized prenatal disturbances that play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia and severe autism might not be specific to these severe psychiatric disorders but might also be involved in the etiology of varying degrees of ASD.

  6. Mild Dermatoglyphic Deviations in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Average Intellectual Abilities as Compared to Typically Developing Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Esther I.; Graham, John H.; Huizink, Anja C.

    2014-01-01

    Dermatoglyphics, ridge constellations on the hands and feet, are permanently formed by the second trimester of pregnancy. Consequently, they are considered “fossilized” evidence of a specific prenatal period. A high frequency of dermatoglyphic anomalies, or a high rate of dermatoglyphic asymmetry (discordance), is an indication of developmental instability (prenatal disturbances) prior to 24-week gestation. Most dermatoglyphic studies in psychiatry focus on adult schizophrenia. Studies on dermatoglyphic deviances and autism are sparse, include severely disturbed and intellectually retarded patients with autism, and are carried out mainly in non-Western European populations. In this study, finger print patterns, atd-angles, and palmar flexion crease patterns (PFCs) are compared between Western European adolescent teenage males, of average intellect, with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD; n = 46) and typically developing adolescent teenage males (TD; n = 49). Boys with ASD had a higher rate of discordance in their finger print patterns than TD boys. Thus, the hypothesized prenatal disturbances that play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia and severe autism might not be specific to these severe psychiatric disorders but might also be involved in the etiology of varying degrees of ASD. PMID:25478224

  7. Comparative analysis of quality control tests on computed tomography in accordance with national and international laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to perform a comparative analysis between the Brazilian legislation and internationals protocols, with respect to the quality control tests for computerized tomography. We used 07 references, published from 1998-2012: the Protocolo Brasileiro - Portaria 453/98 SVS/MS and the Guia de Radiodiagnostico Medico da ANVISA; Quality Assurance Programme for Computed Tomography: Diagnostic and Therapy Applications of the IAEA; European Protocol - European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Computed Tomography of the EUR No. 16262 EN; Radiation Protection No. 162 - Criteria for Acceptability of Medical Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy of the European Commission; the Protocols of Control de Calidad en Radiodiagnostico IAEA / ARCAL XLIX; and the Protocolo Espanol de Control de Calidad en Radiodignostico. The comparative analysis of these legislations was based on aspects of tolerance / limit, frequency and objectives of the recommended tests. Were found 18 tests in the Brazilian legislation. The tests were grouped according to their nature (dosimetric tests / exposure and geometric tests and image quality tests). Among the evaluated protocols was identified divergence between tests contained in the documents and the criteria of assessment set out in this work. It is clear, moreover, that for certain documents are not observed tolerances, well-defined methodologies and even frequency of testing. We conclude that the current legislation in Brazil differs in certain respects from international protocols analyzed, although this has a great numbers of quality control tests. However, it is necessary that the Brazilian legislation takes into account technological advances presented to time

  8. Workload of consultant radiologists in a large DGH and how it compares to international benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To measure radiologist workloads in a UK radiology department using relative value units (RVUs), and compared these data to current international standards from Australia and Ireland. Materials and methods: Data on reporting throughput was gathered for 13.5 whole-time equivalent (WTE) consultants at the DGHs of East Lancashire Hospitals Trust (ELHT) between April 2010 to March 2011. RVUs were assigned to the reported imaging studies to create a crude RVU/WTE score. This was compared to benchmarks from Australia and results from a similar study in Ireland. Time spent on teaching, multidisciplinary teams, and administration was factored in to create a net RVU/WTE score, more accurately assessing workload. Results: Radiologists in ELHT reported 110,315 imaging studies, producing a total of 649,617 RVUs. Crude reporting workloads were 48,119.78 RVUs/WTE, and net workloads were 83,674.00 RVUs/WTE (with consultants spending 42.49% of their time on non-reporting commitments). These crude and net workloads are far above the Australian maximum reporting benchmark of 45,000 RVUs. Conclusion: The workload is much higher than international benchmarks, indicating high-quality service and excellent value for money, but also highlights understaffing. Foreign RVU systems do not accurately reflect current UK practices and a UK-specific RVU system should be developed to assess staffing and analyse performance

  9. National states and international science: A comparative history of international science congresses in Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia, and cold war United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, Ronald E; Hoffmann, Dieter; Krementsov, Nikolai

    2005-01-01

    Prior studies of modern scientific internationalism have been written primarily from the point of view of scientists, with little regard to the influence of the state. This study examines the state's role in international scientific relations. States sometimes encouraged scientific internationalism; in the mid-twentieth century, they often sought to restrict it. The present study examines state involvement in international scientific congresses, the primary intersection between the national and international dimensions of scientists' activities. Here we examine three comparative instances in which such restrictions affected scientific internationalism: an attempt to bring an international aerodynamics congress to Nazi Germany in the late 1930s, unsuccessful efforts by Soviet geneticists to host the Seventh International Genetics Congress in Moscow in 1937, and efforts by U.S. scientists to host international meetings in 1950s cold war America. These case studies challenge the classical ideology of scientific internationalism, wherein participation by a nation in a scientist's fame spares the scientist conflict between advancing his science and advancing the interests of his nation. In the cases we consider, scientists found it difficult to simultaneously support scientific universalism and elitist practices. Interest in these congresses reached the top levels of the state, and access to patronage beyond state control helped determine their outcomes. PMID:20503758

  10. Internalizing and externalizing problem behavior and early adolescent substance use: a test of a latent variable interaction and conditional indirect effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalco, Matthew D; Colder, Craig R; Hawk, Larry W; Read, Jennifer P; Wieczorek, William F; Lengua, Liliana J

    2014-09-01

    Externalizing problem behavior is a robust predictor of early adolescent substance use (SU); however, findings regarding internalizing problems have been mixed, suggesting that there may be important moderators of the relationship between internalizing problems and SU. The present study used a community sample (mean age was 12.1 at the first assessment, 55% women, 83% White) to test a longitudinal latent variable interaction structural equation model to examine whether externalizing problems moderated the relationship between internalizing problems and SU. Peer delinquency was tested as a mediator in the model and prior levels of the mediator and outcome were controlled at each wave to establish temporal precedence. Results suggested that (1) internalizing problems were protective against associating with deviant peers, but only at high levels of externalizing symptomatology, (2) higher levels of peer delinquency were associated with increases in SU, and (3) peer delinquency mediated the effect of the problem behavior interaction on SU. Our findings suggest that the impact of internalizing problems on peer delinquency and SU needs to be considered in the context of externalizing problems. Moreover, developmental models involving internalizing symptoms should consider that internalizing symptoms are generally protective against substance use in early adolescence. PMID:25134030

  11. The effects of the interplay of genetics and early environmental risk on the course of internalizing symptoms from late childhood through adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musci, Rashelle J; Masyn, Katherine E; Benke, Kelly; Maher, Brion; Uhl, George; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2016-02-01

    Internalizing symptoms during adolescence and beyond is a major public health concern, particularly because severe symptoms can lead to the diagnosis of a number of serious psychiatric conditions. This study utilizes a unique sample with a complex statistical method in order to explore Gene × Environment interactions found in internalizing symptoms during adolescence. Data for this study were drawn from a longitudinal prevention intervention study (n = 798) of Baltimore city school children. Internalizing symptom data were collected using self-report and blood or saliva samples genotyped using Affymetrix 6.0 microarrays. A major depression polygenic score was created for each individual using information from the major depressive disorder Psychiatric Genetics Consortium and used as a predictor in a latent trait-state-occasion model. The major depressive disorder polygenic score was a significant predictor of the stable latent trait variable, which captures time-independent phenotypic variability. In addition, an early childhood stressor of death or divorce was a significant predictor of occasion-specific variables. A Gene × Environment interaction was not a significant predictor of the latent trait or occasion variables. These findings support the importance of genetics on the stable latent trait portion of internalizing symptoms across adolescence. PMID:25936925

  12. A Cross-Comparative International Study on the Concept of Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Escobedo, Pedro; Park, Kyubin; Hollingworth, Liz; Misiuniene, Jurga; Ivanova, Liena

    2014-01-01

    The article aims to depict the most common ideas regarding wisdom from young people across different countries: Latvia, Lithuania, Mexico, Republic of Korea and the United States. A questionnaire was administered to nearly 800 adolescents from these countries and comparisons by country and gender were made regarding participants' perceptions…

  13. Prognostic significance of functional somatic symptoms in adolescence: a 15-year community-based follow-up study of adolescents with depression compared with healthy peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohman Hannes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of population-based long-term longitudinal research on mental health status and functional physical/somatic symptoms. Little is known about the long-term mental health outcomes associated with somatic symptoms or the temporal relationship between depression and such symptoms. This 15-year study followed up adolescents with depression and matched controls, screened from a population-based sample, who reported different numbers of somatic symptoms. Methods The total population of 16–17-year-olds in Uppsala, Sweden, was screened for depression in 1991–1993. Adolescents who screened positive and an equal number of healthy controls took part in a semi-structured diagnostic interview. In addition, 21 different self-rated somatic symptoms were assessed. Sixty-four percent of those adolescents participated in a follow-up structured interview 15 years later. Results Somatic symptoms in adolescence predicted depression and other adult mental disorders regardless of the presence of adolescent depression. In adolescents with depression, the number of functional somatic symptoms predicted, in a dose response relationship, suicidal behavior, bipolar episodes, and psychotic episodes as well as chronic and recurrent depression. Contrary to expectations, the somatic symptoms of abdominal pain and perspiration without exertion better predicted depression than all DSM-IV depressive symptoms. Abdominal pain persisted as an independent strong predictor of depression and anxiety, even after controlling for other important confounders. Conclusions Somatic symptoms in adolescence can predict severe adult mental health disorders. The number of somatic symptoms concurrent with adolescent depression is, in a stepwise manner, linked to suicidal attempts, bipolar disorders, psychotic disorders, and recurrent and chronic depression. These findings can be useful in developing treatment guidelines for patients with somatic symptoms.

  14. Comparative assessment and essential analysis on new international GHG emission reduction proposals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Dongmei; Wang Can; Lv Xuedu; Huang Shanfeng

    2009-01-01

    Since Kyoto Protocol came into force on February 16,2005,the endeavor by international society to combat the climate change has stepped into a new milestone.The greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement mechanisms in Kyoto Protocol have served a remarkable functian but also been questioned during the practices of past three years about its environmental effectiveness.A lot of new international GHG emission reduction proposals are proposed from many new aspects,some of which especially impose pressure on developing countries.So it is of great importance to research on these new proposals in time for negotiation beyond Kyoto and institution of Chinese relevant climate polieies.As this paper focuses on the way of commitment distribution of mechanisms,the mechanisms here are categorized in one of two types:those distribute commitment based on countries and those based on sectors.Some of the typical mechanisms are selected to be analyzed comparatively,especially about their influence on developing countries.

  15. A comparative study of seismic provisions between International Building Code 2003 and Uniform Building Code 1997

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenshen Pong; Zu-Hsu Lee; Anson Lee

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the comparison of the Uniform Building Code (UBC) 1997 and International Building Code (IBC) 2003 in relation to the seismic design and analysis of special steel moment resisting frame buildings (SMRF).This paper formulates a numerical study of a steel SMRF building, studied in four different situations, namely: as an office building in San Francisco; as an office building in Sacramento; as an essential facility in San Francisco, and as an essential facility in Sacramento. The analytical results of the model buildings are then compared and analyzed taking note of any significant differences. This case study explores variations in the results obtained using the two codes, particularly the design base shear and drift ratios as they relate to different locations and occupancy use. This study also proves that IBC 2003is more stringent for the redundancy factor under design category E for the SMRF building, and drift limits for essential facilities.

  16. The Global Sporting Arms Race: an International Comparative Study on Sports Policy Factors Leading to International Sporting Success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosscher, Veerle de; Bingham, Jerry; Shibli, Simon; Bottenburg, Maarten van; Knop, Paul de

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few decades the power struggle between nations to win medals in major international competitions has intensified. This has led to national sports organisations and governments throughout the world spending increasing sums of money on elite sport. Several nations have indeed shown that

  17. Mediators of the Associations between Externalizing Behaviors and Internalizing Symptoms in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Minglee; Fleming, Charles B.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the predictive associations between externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms and examines the mediating roles of social competence, parent-child conflicts, and academic achievement. Using youth-, parent-, and teacher-reported longitudinal data on a sample of 523 boys and 460 girls from late childhood to early…

  18. Association of Acculturative Stress, Islamic Practices, and Internalizing Symptoms among Arab American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Anisa N.; Pham, Andy V.; Chun, Heejung; Castro-Olivo, Sara M.; Yosai, Erin R.

    2016-01-01

    Although the numbers of Arab American immigrant youth in schools is increasing, there is little understanding of their mental health and the sociocultural factors that might influence it. This study examined the relationship between 2 sociocultural factors (i.e., acculturative stress and religious practices) and internalizing symptoms in first-…

  19. Narcissistic Features in Young Adolescents: Relations to Aggression and Internalizing Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Jason J.; McMahon, Susan D.; King, Cheryl A.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silver, Carrie

    2004-01-01

    Recent research and theory suggest narcissistic features contribute to aggression in adults. The present study examined the association of narcissistic features with aggression and internalizing symptoms in 233 students of 5th-8th grade at three inner-city schools. A factor analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory in this sample revealed…

  20. Can Organized Youth Activities Protect against Internalizing Problems among Adolescents Living in Violent Homes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Margo; Browning, Christopher; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from a subsample of Hispanic, African American, and White youth enrolled in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 1,419), we examined the effects of both parental involvement in domestic violence and youth participation in organized out-of-school-time activities on internalizing symptoms during…

  1. Gender differences and the influence of classroom discussion on adolescents' relationship to the threat of nuclear war after international crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this research was to explore the differences in attitudes of females and males to the stress of living under the threat of nuclear war with respect to sex and nuclear education. The differences in attitudes of 231 adolescents, from five California schools, aged 15-18, were analyzed. They were asked three questions regarding nuclear war within 2 weeks of the shooting down of Korean Airliner 007 in 1983. A quantitative content analysis was used to assess gender and educational influences on the responses to the three questions which were: Do I think there will be a war? Do I care? Why? and What do I think about fallout shelters? Theoretical constructs of Chodorow and Gilligan were used to relate recent developments in the psychology of women to issues of war and peace. There were significant gender differences with respect to adolescents' opinions on nuclear war. Compared to males, the expression of loss of family or friends, fear, humanitarian concerns, and blaming was significantly higher in females, while knowledge of fallout shelters was significantly lower. For both males and females, verbal anger was expressed equally. One hundred twelve students who had no education on nuclear war were compared with 119 students who had informal classroom discussion on nuclear war. With informal nuclear education, females had decreased expression of local loss and males increased expression of self loss. Both males and females with informal nuclear education had decreased their expression of blame. For females, the knowledge of fallout shelters was increased. Both males and females cited the shooting down of KAL/007, only 12.6% suggesting that psyche numbing can occur for knowledge as well as affect. Both males and females offered few solutions to nuclear war, a possible manifestation of an attitude of hopelessness in our youth

  2. Selective internal radiation therapy compared with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumoural portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a major prognostic factor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The efficacy of sorafenib, the only treatment approved at an advanced stage, is limited. Based on previous data, selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT), or 90Y radioembolization, seems an interesting option. We aimed to compare both treatments in this population. We retrospectively compared patients treated in two centres for HCC with tumoural PVT. We compared overall survival (OS) between patients treated with SIRT and patients treated with sorafenib. Analyses were performed before and after 1:1 matching with a propensity score for controlling indication bias, using a Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 151 patients were analysed, 34 patients treated with SIRT and 117 patients treated with sorafenib only. In the whole population, SIRT was associated with a higher median OS as compared with sorafenib: 18.8 vs 6.5 months (log-rank p < 0.001). There was an imbalance of baseline characteristics between patients treated by SIRT and sorafenib, which justified patient matching with use of a propensity score: 24 patients treated with SIRT could be matched with 24 patients treated with sorafenib. OS was estimated with a median of 26.2 vs 8.7 months in patients treated with SIRT vs sorafenib, respectively (log-rank p = 0.054). Before and after patient matching, the adjusted hazard ratio related to treatment by SIRT was estimated at 0.62 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.97] (p = 0.037) and 0.40 (95 % CI 0.19-0.82) (p = 0.013), respectively. SIRT seems more effective than sorafenib in patients presenting with HCC and tumoural PVT. This hypothesis is being tested in prospective randomized trials. (orig.)

  3. Comparative analysis of three simulation models applied on a motored internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Three simulation models of increasing complexity have been comparatively evaluated. ► All models adequately predict the cylinder pressure diagram at all engine speeds. ► For engine simulation, 1D, Q-D and CFD models need 1 s, 6 min and 20 h respectively. ► Q-D model predicts qualitatively correctly the in-cylinder temperature and velocity field. ► Q-D model offers a compromise between the detailed CFD models and the multi-zone ones. - Abstract: The motivation of the present work is to comparatively evaluate the computational time and the results obtained using three computational models of increasing complexity, for the simulation of the closed part of the cycle of an internal combustion engine with a bowl-in-piston design, running under motoring conditions in the range of 1200–3000 rpm. The first model is a single-zone thermodynamic model, the second one is a hybrid quasi-dimensional model, and the third one is a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. From the analysis conducted it is concluded that the single-zone model calculates with reasonable accuracy the in-cylinder pressure, while it rather underestimates the peak in-cylinder mean gas temperature near the top dead center (TDC). Its main advantageous feature is the very low computational time (1 s) compared to the 6 min and 20 h required by the quasi-dimensional and CFD models, respectively. On the other hand, the quasi-dimensional model provides information concerning the local in-cylinder temperature distribution, and describes qualitatively correctly the way the cylinder design affects the in-cylinder flow and temperature fields, as revealed by comparing its results with the corresponding ones obtained with the more accurate and time consuming CFD model.

  4. Selective internal radiation therapy compared with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edeline, Julien [Centre Eugene Marquis, Medical Oncology Department, Rennes (France); Inserm UMR991, Rennes (France); Crouzet, Laurence; Pracht, Marc; Boucher, Eveline [Centre Eugene Marquis, Medical Oncology Department, Rennes (France); Campillo-Gimenez, Boris [Centre Eugene Marquis, Clinical Research Department, Rennes (France); Rolland, Yan; Rohou, Tanguy [Centre Eugene Marquis, Imaging Department, Rennes (France); Guillygomarc' h, Anne [CHU Pontchaillou, Hepatology Department, Rennes (France); Boudjema, Karim [CHU Pontchaillou, Hepatobiliary Surgery, Rennes (France); Lenoir, Laurence [Centre Eugene Marquis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rennes (France); Adhoute, Xavier [Hopital Saint-Joseph, Hepato-Gastroenterology Department, Marseille (France); Clement, Bruno [Inserm UMR991, Rennes (France); Blanc, Jean-Frederic [Hopital Saint-Andre, Hepato-Gastroenterology Department, Bordeaux (France); Garin, Etienne [Inserm UMR991, Rennes (France); Centre Eugene Marquis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rennes (France)

    2016-04-15

    Tumoural portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a major prognostic factor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The efficacy of sorafenib, the only treatment approved at an advanced stage, is limited. Based on previous data, selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT), or {sup 90}Y radioembolization, seems an interesting option. We aimed to compare both treatments in this population. We retrospectively compared patients treated in two centres for HCC with tumoural PVT. We compared overall survival (OS) between patients treated with SIRT and patients treated with sorafenib. Analyses were performed before and after 1:1 matching with a propensity score for controlling indication bias, using a Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 151 patients were analysed, 34 patients treated with SIRT and 117 patients treated with sorafenib only. In the whole population, SIRT was associated with a higher median OS as compared with sorafenib: 18.8 vs 6.5 months (log-rank p < 0.001). There was an imbalance of baseline characteristics between patients treated by SIRT and sorafenib, which justified patient matching with use of a propensity score: 24 patients treated with SIRT could be matched with 24 patients treated with sorafenib. OS was estimated with a median of 26.2 vs 8.7 months in patients treated with SIRT vs sorafenib, respectively (log-rank p = 0.054). Before and after patient matching, the adjusted hazard ratio related to treatment by SIRT was estimated at 0.62 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.97] (p = 0.037) and 0.40 (95 % CI 0.19-0.82) (p = 0.013), respectively. SIRT seems more effective than sorafenib in patients presenting with HCC and tumoural PVT. This hypothesis is being tested in prospective randomized trials. (orig.)

  5. Screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: an information statement by the scoliosis research society international task force

    OpenAIRE

    Labelle, Hubert; Richards, Stephens B; de Kleuver, Marinus; Grivas, Theodoros B; Luk, Keith D. K.; Wong, Hee Kit; Thometz, John; Beauséjour, Marie; Turgeon, Isabelle; Fong, Daniel Y.T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Routine screening of scoliosis is a controversial subject and screening efforts vary greatly around the world. Methods Consensus was sought among an international group of experts (seven spine surgeons and one clinical epidemiologist) using a modified Delphi approach. The consensus achieved was based on careful analysis of a recent critical review of the literature on scoliosis screening, performed using a conceptual framework of analysis focusing on five main dimensions: technical...

  6. Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) Facing the Twenty-First Century: Challenges and Contributions. Presidential Address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnove, Robert F.

    2001-01-01

    Examines challenges to comparative and international education in the areas of epistemological approaches, research methodology, philosophical considerations, and dissemination of findings; the field's contributions in questioning assumptions about school-society relationships, identifying the benefits and dangers of "borrowing" educational…

  7. Comparing perceived and objectively measured access to recreational facilities as predictors of physical activity in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Molly M; Evenson, Kelly R; Cohen, Deborah A; Cox, Christine E

    2007-05-01

    A number of studies in recent years have identified both self-report and objectively measured accessibility of recreational facilities as important predictors of physical activity in youth. Yet, few studies have: (1) examined the relationship between the number and proximity of objectively measured neighborhood physical activity facilities and respondents' perceptions and (2) compared objective and self-report measures as predictors of physical activity. This study uses data on 1,367 6th-grade girls who participated in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) to explore these issues. Girls reported whether nine different types of recreational facilities were easily accessible. These facilities included basketball courts, golf courses, martial arts studios, playing fields, tracks, skating rinks, swimming pools, tennis courts, and dance/gymnastic clubs. Next, geographic information systems (GIS) were used to identify all the parks, schools, and commercial sites for physical activity located within a mile of each girl's home. These sites were then visited to inventory the types of facilities available. Girls wore accelerometers to measure their weekly minutes of non-school metabolic equivalent weighted moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MW-MVPA). The number of facilities within a half-mile of girls' homes strongly predicted the perception of easy access to seven out of nine facility types. Both individual facility perceptions and the total number of facilities perceived were associated with increased physical activity. For each additional facility perceived, girls clocked 3% more metabolic equivalent weighted moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (p basketball court within a mile of their homes, objective facility measures were otherwise unrelated to physical activity. The results from this study suggest that raising the profile of existing facilities may help increase physical activity among adolescent girls. PMID:17401691

  8. Comparing sports vision among three groups of soft tennis adolescent athletes: Normal vision, refractive errors with and without correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Tsun; Liu, Yen-Hsiu; Lee, Jiahn-Shing; See, Lai-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of correcting static vision on sports vision is still not clear. Aim: To examine whether sports vision (depth perception [DP], dynamic visual acuity [DVA], eye movement [EM], peripheral vision [PV], and momentary vision [MV],) were different among soft tennis adolescent athletes with normal vision (Group A), with refractive error and corrected with (Group B) and without eyeglasses (Group C). Setting and Design: A cross-section study was conducted. Soft tennis athletes aged 10–13 who played softball tennis for 2–5 years, and who were without any ocular diseases and without visual training for the past 3 months were recruited. Materials and Methods: DPs were measured in an absolute deviation (mm) between a moving rod and fixing rod (approaching at 25 mm/s, receding at 25 mm/s, approaching at 50 mm/s, receding at 50 mm/s) using electric DP tester. A smaller deviation represented better DP. DVA, EM, PV, and MV were measured on a scale from 1 (worse) to 10 (best) using ATHLEVISION software. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare the data among the three study groups. Results: A total of 73 athletes (37 in Group A, 8 in Group B, 28 in Group C) were enrolled in this study. All four items of DP showed significant difference among the three study groups (P = 0.0051, 0.0004, 0.0095, 0.0021). PV displayed significant difference among the three study groups (P = 0.0044). There was no significant difference in DVA, EM, and MV among the three study groups. Conclusions: Significant better DP and PV were seen among soft tennis adolescent athletes with normal vision than those with refractive error regardless whether they had eyeglasses corrected. On the other hand, DVA, EM, and MV were similar among the three study groups. PMID:26632127

  9. Comparing sports vision among three groups of soft tennis adolescent athletes: Normal vision, refractive errors with and without correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Tsun Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of correcting static vision on sports vision is still not clear. Aim: To examine whether sports vision (depth perception [DP], dynamic visual acuity [DVA], eye movement [EM], peripheral vision [PV], and momentary vision [MV], were different among soft tennis adolescent athletes with normal vision (Group A, with refractive error and corrected with (Group B and without eyeglasses (Group C. Setting and Design: A cross-section study was conducted. Soft tennis athletes aged 10–13 who played softball tennis for 2–5 years, and who were without any ocular diseases and without visual training for the past 3 months were recruited. Materials and Methods: DPs were measured in an absolute deviation (mm between a moving rod and fixing rod (approaching at 25 mm/s, receding at 25 mm/s, approaching at 50 mm/s, receding at 50 mm/s using electric DP tester. A smaller deviation represented better DP. DVA, EM, PV, and MV were measured on a scale from 1 (worse to 10 (best using ATHLEVISION software. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare the data among the three study groups. Results: A total of 73 athletes (37 in Group A, 8 in Group B, 28 in Group C were enrolled in this study. All four items of DP showed significant difference among the three study groups (P = 0.0051, 0.0004, 0.0095, 0.0021. PV displayed significant difference among the three study groups (P = 0.0044. There was no significant difference in DVA, EM, and MV among the three study groups. Conclusions: Significant better DP and PV were seen among soft tennis adolescent athletes with normal vision than those with refractive error regardless whether they had eyeglasses corrected. On the other hand, DVA, EM, and MV were similar among the three study groups.

  10. The Prosecution of Human Traffickers? : A Comparative Analysis of Enslavement Judgments Among International Courts and Tribunals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siller, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Despite its international construction and codification, the criminal offense of ‘trafficking in persons’ is absent from the statutes of international judicial institutions. Does this result in the inability to hold those who engage in the traffic of human beings accountable under international crim

  11. A Comparative Study on Information-Seeking Behaviors of Domestic and International Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yoo-Seong

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates information-seeking behavior of one particular segment of international students--international students seeking degrees in the field of business. The author surveyed domestic and international business students enrolled in the College of Business at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The survey was designed to…

  12. Comparing global alcohol and tobacco control efforts: network formation and evolution in international health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gneiting, Uwe; Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Smoking and drinking constitute two risk factors contributing to the rising burden of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Both issues have gained increased international attention, but tobacco control has made more sustained progress in terms of international and domestic policy commitments, resources dedicated to reducing harm, and reduction of tobacco use in many high-income countries. The research presented here offers insights into why risk factors with comparable levels of harm experience different trajectories of global attention. The analysis focuses particular attention on the role of dedicated global health networks composed of individuals and organizations producing research and engaging in advocacy on a given health problem. Variation in issue characteristics and the policy environment shape the opportunities and challenges of global health networks focused on reducing the burden of disease. What sets the tobacco case apart was the ability of tobacco control advocates to create and maintain a consensus on policy solutions, expand their reach in low- and middle-income countries and combine evidence-based research with advocacy reaching beyond the public health-centered focus of the core network. In contrast, a similar network in the alcohol case struggled with expanding its reach and has yet to overcome divisions based on competing problem definitions and solutions to alcohol harm. The tobacco control network evolved from a group of dedicated individuals to a global coalition of membership-based organizations, whereas the alcohol control network remains at the stage of a collection of dedicated and like-minded individuals. PMID:26733720

  13. Diagnostic Classification of Eating Disorders in Children and Adolescents: How Does DSM-IV-TR Compare to Empirically-Derived Categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Kamryn T.; Le Grange, Daniel; Crosby, Ross D.; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Doyle, Angela Celio; Smyth, Angela; Herzog, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to empirically derive eating disorder phenotypes in a clinical sample of children and adolescents using latent profile analysis (LPA), and to compare these latent profile (LP) groups to the DSM-IV-TR eating disorder categories. Method: Eating disorder symptom data collected from 401 youth (aged 7 through 19…

  14. Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement: A Comparative Study of Adolescent Students in England and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Gerard, Jean M.

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing mixed methodology, this paper investigates the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement for young adolescents within two Western cultural contexts: the United States and England. Quantitative and qualitative data from 86 North American and 86 British adolescents were utilized to examine the links between self-esteem and…

  15. A internação de adolescentes pela lente dos tribunais Adolescent internment by the court's point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Minahim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde sua entrada em vigor, o Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente sofre sistemáticas críticas no debate público não havendo, entretanto, no campo da doutrina especializada e da jurisprudência efetivos esforços para uma compreensão do alcance da lei e de seus princípios sobretudo quando o tema é a imposição de medidas de internação a adolescentes autores de infração penal. Este texto procura demonstrar a feição homogênea e estável da jurisprudência brasileira nos Tribunais Estaduais nessa matéria à luz dos principais argumentos utilizados como fundamentação das decisões em sede recursal. Alguns resultados da pesquisa "Responsabilidade e garantias ao adolescente autor de ato infracional: uma proposta de revisão do ECA em seus 18 anos de vigência" apoiada pela Secretaria de Assuntos Legislativos do Ministério da Justiça, ilustram as dificuldades de mplementação dos preceitos legais, possibilitando refletir se é a textura aberta da lei o que vem favorecendo a persistência de argumentos extrajurídicos e ideológicos em sua interpretação.Since its approval, The Child and Adolescent Act has been attacked for several critics in the public debate. However neither the specialized dogmatic nor jurisprudence have presented effective efforts to the comprehension of the law or its principles, especially related to internment measures applied to young offenders. the text shows the homogeneous appearance of the brazilian jurisprudence into the State Courts, according to the most used arguments by the decisions. some results from the "Responsibility and Guarantees to young offender: a revision proposal for the child and adolescent act in 18 years of existence" research illustrate these difficulties to implement the legislation, avoiding the consideration regarding the open texture of the law as a possible cause for the persistence of extralegal and ideological arguments on its interpretation.

  16. Nutrient intakes among children and adolescents eating usual pizza products in school lunch compared with pizza meeting HealthierUS School Challenge criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, In Young; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla

    2014-05-01

    Pizza is a popular food that can contribute to high intakes of saturated fat and sodium among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to compare daily nutrient intakes when a pizza product meeting the US Department of Agriculture's criteria for competitive food entrées under the HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) was substituted for usual pizza products consumed during foodservice-prepared school lunch. The study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2008) dietary recall data from a cross-sectional sample of US children and adolescents (age 5 to 18 years, n=337) who ate pizza during school lunch on 1 day of dietary recall. Daily nutrient intakes based on the consumption of usual pizza products for school lunch (pre-modeled) were compared with intakes modeled by substituting nutrient values from an HUSSC whole-grain pizza product (post-modeled). Paired t tests were used to make the comparison. Post-modeled intakes were lower in daily energy, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium compared with pre-modeled intakes among children and adolescents (Ppizza product for usual pizza products may significantly improve dietary quality of children and adolescents eating pizza for school lunch, indicating that it could be an effective approach to improve the nutritional quality of school lunch programs.

  17. Emotion Recognition in Animated Compared to Human Stimuli in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark; Johnson, Hilary; Grawmeyer, Beate; Chapman, Emma; Benton, Laura

    2015-01-01

    There is equivocal evidence as to whether there is a deficit in recognising emotional expressions in Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study compared emotion recognition in ASD in three types of emotion expression media (still image, dynamic image, auditory) across human stimuli (e.g. photo of a human face) and animated stimuli (e.g. cartoon…

  18. Amusement Machine Playing in Childhood and Adolescence: A Comparative Analysis of Video Games and Fruit Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark D.

    1991-01-01

    Attempts to put ongoing U.S. and United Kingdom amusement machine debates into empirical perspective. Conducts comparative analysis of video games and fruit machines (slot machines) by examining incidence of play, sex differences and psychological characteristics of machine players, observational findings in arcade settings, alleged negative…

  19. Strengthening the Impact and Value of International Marketing Curriculum outcomes: A Comparative Study of Turkish and European Business Students Perception of coursework and careers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Gegez, Ercan; Venable, Beverly

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the perceptions of business school students regarding international marketing courses and careers. A comparative study of Turkish and Northern European students' perceptions towards international marketing courses and international marketing careers was con...

  20. Comparing Digital Sunspot Number Counts to the New International Sunspot Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Henry, Timothy

    2016-05-01

    The International Sunspot Numbers (ISN; Version 2) have been recently (2015) revised at the Sunspot Index and Long Term Solar Observations maintained at Royal Observatory of Belgium (http://www.sidc.be/silso/datafiles). ISN is a reconciled aggregate over several ground-based observatories, mostly using hand-drawn sunspot recordings. We make a detailed 10-year comparisons between the Improved Solar Observing Optical Network’s prototype digital data (2002-2011) and the ISN V1 (Version 1; pre-2015), and ISN V2. Over the ~ 10-year period, ISN V1 underestimates the sunspot number counts by up to 40% while the ISN V2 overestimates by a similar amount. We also compare the hand-drawn data from a single telescope at the National Solar Observatory with the digital data and ISN numbers. These comparisons reveal caveats that need to be taken into account, as sunspot numbers are used to forecast both the solar cycle and the near term climatology of solar cycle impacts on the space environment.

  1. Enhanced jump performance when providing augmented feedback compared to an external or internal focus of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Martin; Lauber, Benedikt; Gottschalk, Marius; Taube, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Factors such as an external focus of attention (EF) and augmented feedback (AF) have been shown to improve performance. However, the efficacy of providing AF to enhance motor performance has never been compared with the effects of an EF or an internal focus of attention (IF). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify which of the three conditions (AF, EF or IF) leads to the highest performance in a countermovement jump (CMJ). Nineteen volunteers performed 12 series of 8 maximum CMJs. Changes in jump height between conditions and within the series were analysed. Jump heights differed between conditions (P jump heights at the end of the series in AF (+1.60%) and lower jump heights at the end of the series in EF (-1.79%) and IF (-1.68%) were observed. Muscle activity did not differ between conditions. The differences between conditions and within the series provide evidence that AF leads to higher performance and better progression within one series than EF and IF. Consequently, AF seems to outperform EF and IF when maximising jump height.

  2. Comparative analysis of acetic and citric acid on internal milieu of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Capcarova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE The aim of the present study was to analyse the effect of two organic acids (acetic and citric acid inclusion on serum parameters and the level of antioxidant status of broiler chickens. Some organic acidifiers reduce the growth of many intestinal bacteria, reduce intestinal colonisation and reduce infectious processes, decrease inflammatory processes at the intestinal mucosa, increase villus height and function of secretion, digestion and absorption of nutrients. Broiler chickens hybrid Ross 308 (n=180 were divided into 3 groups: one control (C and two experimental groups (E1, E2. Experimental animals received acetic and citric acid per os in water in single dose 0.25% for 42 days. After 42 days of feeding blood samples were collected (n=10 in each group. Significant decrease of serum triglycerides in citric acid group when compared with the control group was recorded. Acetic acid administration resulted in increased sodium level. Significant increase of albumin content in both experimental groups and increase of bilirubin content in citric group was recorded. Acids administration had no significant effect on other serum and antioxidant parameters. Acetic and citric acid had no harmful influenced on internal milieu of broiler chickens. The research on the field of organic acid will be worthy of further investigation.

  3. International multicenter comparative trial of transluminal EUS-guided biliary drainage via hepatogastrostomy vs. choledochoduodenostomy approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashab, Mouen A.; Messallam, Ahmed A.; Penas, Irene; Nakai, Yousuke; Modayil, Rani J.; De la Serna, Carlos; Hara, Kazuo; El Zein, Mohamad; Stavropoulos, Stavros N.; Perez-Miranda, Manuel; Kumbhari, Vivek; Ngamruengphong, Saowanee; Dhir, Vinay K.; Park, Do Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) can be performed entirely transgastrically (hepatogastrostomy/EUS-HG) or transduodenally (choledochoduodenostomy/EUS-CDS). It is unknown how both techniques compare. The aims of this study were to compare efficacy and safety of both techniques and identify predictors of adverse events. Patients and methods: Consecutive jaundiced patients with distal malignant biliary obstruction who underwent EUS-BD at multiple international centers were included. Technical/clinical success, adverse events, stent complications, and survival were assessed. Results: A total of 121 patients underwent EUS-BD (CDS 60, HG 61). Technical success was achieved in 112 (92.56 %) patients (EUS-CDS 93.3 %, EUS-HG 91.8 %, P = 0.75). Clinical success was attained in 85.5 % of patients who underwent EUS-CDS group as compared to 82.1 % of patients who underwent EUS-HG (P = 0.64). Adverse events occurred more commonly in the EUS-HG group (19.67 % vs. 13.3 %, P = 0.37). Both plastic stenting (OR 4.95, 95 %CI 1.41 – 17.38, P = 0.01) and use of non-coaxial electrocautery (OR 3.95, 95 %CI 1.16 – 13.40, P = 0.03) were independently associated with adverse events. Length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the CDS group (5.6 days vs. 12.7 days, P stent patency probability was greater in the EUS-CDS group [0.98 (95 %CI 0.76 – 0.96) vs 0.60 (95 %CI 0.35 – 0.78)] but overall patency was not significantly different. There was no difference in median survival times between the groups (P = 0.36) Conclusions: Both EUS-CDS and EUS-HG are effective and safe techniques for the treatment of distal biliary obstruction after failed ERCP. However, CDS is associated with shorter hospital stay, improved stent patency, and fewer procedure- and stent-related complications. Metallic stents should be placed whenever feasible and non-coaxial electrocautery should be

  4. Debt and Equity in Domestic and International Tax Law : A Comparative Policy Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Martin; Schön, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The demarcation between debt and equity is a long-standing core constituent of company and taxation law the world over. However, its sustainability for national and international taxation regimes is increasingly the subject of doubt. Domestic and international proposals for reform are directed towar

  5. Some gender issues in educational computer use: results of an international comparative survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen Reinen, Ingeborg; Plomp, Tjeerd

    1993-01-01

    In the framework of the Computers in Education international study of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), data have been collected concerning the use of computers in 21 countries. This article examines some results regarding the involvement of women in

  6. Toward International Comparability of Survey Statistics on Visual Impairment: The DISTAB Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershot, Gerry E.; Crews, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from recent national disability surveys in Australia, Canada, France, the Netherlands, South Africa, and the United States, an international team of researchers coded indicators of several types of disability using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. This article discusses the Disability Tabulations…

  7. Reconciling Comparative and Internal Reconstruction: The Case of Old Japanese /ti, ri, ni/.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, J. Marshall

    2000-01-01

    Some Korean-Japanese coronals complicate the internal reconstruction of pre-old Japanese (OJ). Conflicting results of various studies can be resolved if other pre-OJ sound changes supported by Korean etymologies are properly integrated into the internal reconstruction of Japanese verb paradigms. (Author/VWL)

  8. Comparing group-based acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) with enhanced usual care for adolescents with functional somatic syndromes: a study protocol for a randomised trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallesøe, Karen Hansen; Schröder, Andreas; Wicksell, Rikard K; Fink, Per; Ørnbøl, Eva; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Functional somatic syndromes (FSS) are common in adolescents, characterised by severe disability and reduced quality of life. Behavioural treatments such as acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has shown promising results in children and adolescents with FSS, but has focused on specific syndromes such as functional pain. The current study will compare the efficacy of group-based ACT with that of enhanced usual care (EUC) in adolescents with a range of FSS operationalised by the unifying construct of multiorgan bodily distress syndrome (BDS). Methods and analysis A total of 120 adolescents aged 15–19 and diagnosed with multiorgan BDS, of at least 12 months duration, will be assessed and randomised to either: (1) EUC: a manualised consultation with a child and adolescent psychiatrist and individualised treatment plan or (2) manualised ACT-based group therapy plus EUC. The ACT programme consists of 9 modules (ie, 27 hours) and 1 follow-up meeting (3 hours). The primary outcome is physical health, assessed by an Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) aggregate score 12 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes include self-reported symptom severity, symptom interference, depression and anxiety, illness worry, perceived stress and global improvement; as well as objective physical activity and bodily stress response measured by heart rate variability, hair cortisol and inflammatory biomarkers. Process measures are illness perception, illness-related behaviour and psychological flexibility. Ethics and dissemination The study is conducted in accordance with Helsinki Declaration II. Approval has been obtained from the Science Ethics Committee of the Central Denmark Region and the Danish Data Protection. The results will be sought to be published according to the CONSORT statement in peer-reviewed journals. Discussion This is one of the first larger randomised clinical trials evaluating the effect of a group-based intervention for adolescents with a

  9. Girls feeling good at school: School gender environment, internalization and awareness of socio-cultural attitudes associations with self-esteem in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Victoria L; Haase, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    As society continues to advocate an unrealistically thin body shape, awareness and internalization of appearance and its consequent impact upon self-esteem has become increasingly of concern, particularly in adolescent girls. School gender environment may influence these factors, but remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to assess differences between two different school environments in appearance attitudes, social influences and associations with self-esteem. Two hundred and twelve girls (M = 13.8 years) attending either a single-sex or co-educational school completed measures on socio-cultural attitudes towards appearance, social support and self-esteem. Though marginal differences between school environments were found, significantly higher internalization was reported among girls at the co-educational school. School environment moderated relations between internalization and self-esteem such that girls in co-educational environments had poorer self-esteem stemming from greater internalization. Thus, in a single-sex school environment, protective factors may attenuate negative associations between socio-cultural attitudes towards appearance and self-esteem in adolescent girls.

  10. Comparative study on stress distribution around internal tapered connection implants according to fit of cement- and screw-retained prostheses

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Mi-Young; Heo, Seong-Joo; Park, Eun-Jin; Park, Ji-Man

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to compare the passivity of implant superstructures by assessing the strain development around the internal tapered connection implants with strain gauges. MATERIALS AND METHODS A polyurethane resin block in which two implants were embedded served as a measurement model. Two groups of implant restorations utilized cement-retained design and internal surface of the first group was adjusted until premature contact between the restoration and the abutment comple...

  11. Dosimetric Advantages of Midventilation Compared With Internal Target Volume for Radiation Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lens, Eelco, E-mail: e.lens@amc.uva.nl; Horst, Astrid van der; Versteijne, Eva; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Bel, Arjan

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: The midventilation (midV) approach can be used to take respiratory-induced pancreatic tumor motion into account during radiation therapy. In this study, the dosimetric consequences for organs at risk and tumor coverage of using a midV approach compared with using an internal target volume (ITV) were investigated. Methods and Materials: For each of the 18 patients, 2 treatment plans (25 × 2.0 Gy) were created, 1 using an ITV and 1 using a midV approach. The midV dose distribution was blurred using the respiratory-induced motion from 4-dimensional computed tomography. The resulting planning target volume (PTV) coverage for this blurred dose distribution was analyzed; PTV coverage was required to be at least V{sub 95%} >98%. In addition, the change in PTV size and the changes in V{sub 10Gy}, V{sub 20Gy}, V{sub 30Gy}, V{sub 40Gy}, D{sub mean} and D{sub 2cc} for the stomach and for the duodenum were analyzed; differences were tested for significance using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Using a midV approach resulted in sufficient target coverage. A highly significant PTV size reduction of 13.9% (P<.001) was observed. Also, all dose parameters for the stomach and duodenum, except the D{sub 2cc} of the duodenum, improved significantly (P≤.002). Conclusions: By using the midV approach to account for respiratory-induced tumor motion, a significant PTV reduction and significant dose reductions to the stomach and to the duodenum can be achieved when irradiating pancreatic tumors.

  12. Internal Consistency and Power When Comparing Total Scores from Two Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchard, Kimberly A; Brouwers, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Researchers now know that when theoretical reliability increases, power can increase, decrease, or stay the same. However, no analytic research has examined the relationship of power to the most commonly used type of reliability-internal consistency-and the most commonly used measures of internal consistency, coefficient alpha and ICC(A,k). We examine the relationship between the power of independent samples t tests and internal consistency. We explicate the mathematical model upon which researchers usually calculate internal consistency, one in which total scores are calculated as the sum of observed scores on K measures. Using this model, we derive a new formula for effect size to show that power and internal consistency are influenced by many of the same parameters but not always in the same direction. Changing an experiment in one way (e.g., lengthening the measure) is likely to influence multiple parameters simultaneously; thus, there are no simple relationships between such changes and internal consistency or power. If researchers revise measures to increase internal consistency, this might not increase power. To increase power, researchers should increase sample size, select measures that assess areas where group differences are largest, and use more powerful statistical procedures (e.g., ANCOVA).

  13. Internal Consistency and Power When Comparing Total Scores from Two Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchard, Kimberly A; Brouwers, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Researchers now know that when theoretical reliability increases, power can increase, decrease, or stay the same. However, no analytic research has examined the relationship of power to the most commonly used type of reliability-internal consistency-and the most commonly used measures of internal consistency, coefficient alpha and ICC(A,k). We examine the relationship between the power of independent samples t tests and internal consistency. We explicate the mathematical model upon which researchers usually calculate internal consistency, one in which total scores are calculated as the sum of observed scores on K measures. Using this model, we derive a new formula for effect size to show that power and internal consistency are influenced by many of the same parameters but not always in the same direction. Changing an experiment in one way (e.g., lengthening the measure) is likely to influence multiple parameters simultaneously; thus, there are no simple relationships between such changes and internal consistency or power. If researchers revise measures to increase internal consistency, this might not increase power. To increase power, researchers should increase sample size, select measures that assess areas where group differences are largest, and use more powerful statistical procedures (e.g., ANCOVA). PMID:27269041

  14. Age estimation in Indian children and adolescents in the NCR region of Haryana: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Swati; Mehendiratta, Monica; Rehani, Shweta; Kumra, Madhumani; Nagpal, Ruchi; Gupta, Ramakant

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Age estimation is a preliminary step in the identification of an individual. It is a crucial and often most critical step for forensic experts. The assessment has been standardized utilizing common dental diagnostic x-rays, but most such age-estimating systems are European population-based and their applicability has not been determined in the context of the Indian population. Aims and Objectives: To assess the applicability and to compare the methods of dental age estimation by Demirjian's method and the same method as modified by Willems (i.e. the Willems method) in Indian children of the National Capital Region (NCR). Also, to find a correlation among skeletal maturity using the Cervical vertebrae maturation index (CVMI), dental maturity, and chronological age in the same population. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using dental radiographs of 70 orthodontic patients (37 males, 33 females) in the age range 9-16 years selected by simple random sampling. pantomogram were used to estimate dental age by Demirjian's method and the Willems method using their scoring tables. Lateral cephalograms were used to estimate skeletal maturity using CVMI. The latter was compared with Demirjian's stage for mandibular left second molar. Results: Overestimation of age among males by 0.856 years and 0.496 years was found by Demirjian's and the Willems methods, respectively. Among females, both the methods underestimated the age by 0.31 years and 0.45 years, respectively. Demirjian's stage G corresponded to CVMI stage 3 in males and stage 2 in females. Conclusion: In our study, the Willems method has proved to be more accurate for age estimation among Indian males, and Demirjian's method for Indian females. A statistically significant association appeared between Demirjian's stages and CVMI among both males and females. Our study recommends the derivation of a regression formula by studying a larger section of the Indian population

  15. New Indicators to Compare and Evaluate Harmful Drug Use Among Adolescents in 38 European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mammone Alessia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – New trends in drug consumption reveal increasing polydrug use. Epidemiological indicators in the current use are based on the prevalence and the associated potential harm of a single “main” substance. We propose new indicators to evaluate frequency and potential harm of poly-drug use. The indicators are used to compare drug use among countries based on survey data on adolescents’ substance use in 38 European countries. METHODS – The approach is based on analysis of the frequency of use in the various population samples: lifetime use, twelve months use or last thirty days, depending on available data, and on the risk of harm for the substances used. Two indicators are provided: the frequency of use score (FUS by summing the frequency of use of each substance, and the polydrug use score (PDS that weight all the substances used by their risk. RESULTS – The indicators FUS and PDS were calculated and the distribution functions were used to characterise substance use across ESPAD countries. The analysis shows important differences in poly-substance use severity among countries presenting similar prevention policies. CONCLUSIONS – Systematic analysis of substance use and the related risk are of paramount interest. The proposed indicators are designed to better monitor and understand consequences of polydrug use and to measure the resulting risk at country or population level. The indicators may also be used to assess the effects of policy interventions.

  16. Prognostic significance of functional somatic symptoms in adolescence: a 15-year community-based follow-up study of adolescents with depression compared with healthy peers

    OpenAIRE

    Bohman Hannes; Jonsson Ulf; Päären Aivar; von Knorring Lars; Olsson Gunilla; von Knorring Anne-Liis

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a lack of population-based long-term longitudinal research on mental health status and functional physical/somatic symptoms. Little is known about the long-term mental health outcomes associated with somatic symptoms or the temporal relationship between depression and such symptoms. This 15-year study followed up adolescents with depression and matched controls, screened from a population-based sample, who reported different numbers of somatic symptoms. Methods Th...

  17. Comparative Analysis of Czech Accounting with International Regulation from SMEs Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří STROUHAL; Paseková, Marie; Müllerová, Libuše

    2011-01-01

    Use of harmonized accounting standards may reduce investor’s uncertainty and can thus reduce the cost of capital. It can significantly improve the communication between business users and all their statements. Due to the globalization of business and international harmonization of financial reporting Czech Republic experiences a shift in paradigms from historical costs accounting towards fair value measurement. Paper provides an analysis between national accounting legislature and internation...

  18. Cannabis use disorders are comparatively prevalent among nonwhite racial/ethnic groups and adolescents: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Brady, Kathleen T; Mannelli, Paolo; Killeen, Therese K

    2014-03-01

    The racial/ethnic composition of the US population is shifting, with the nonwhite population growing faster than whites. We examined cannabis use disorder (CUD) prevalences and correlates in seven racial/ethnic groups. We included cannabis use (CU) prevalence as a comparison. Data were from the 2005-2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N = 394,400). Substance use among respondents aged ≥12 years was assessed by computer-assisted, self-interviewing methods. The following were included as control variables: age, sex, family income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode history, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder, and survey year. Past-year CU prevalence increased significantly from 10.45% in 2005 to 11.41-11.54% during 2009-2011. Compared with whites, mixed-race individuals had higher odds of CU; Asian Americans and Hispanics had lower odds of CU. There were no significant yearly changes in CUD prevalence in the sample during 2005-2011 (1.58-1.73%). Compared with whites, individuals who were mixed-race, black, and Native American had higher odds of CUD; Asian Americans had lower odds. In aggregate, 15.35% of past-year cannabis users met criteria for a CUD in the 12-month period. Past-year cannabis users who were black, Native American, Hispanic, or Asian American had higher odds of CUD than white users. In each racial/ethnic group, adolescent cannabis users generally showed greater odds of CUD than adult users. Behavioral health indicators (major depressive episode, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder) were associated with CU and CUD. In conclusion, CUD disproportionally affects nonwhite groups and youth. PMID:24342767

  19. What Deters Crime? Comparing the Effectiveness of Legal, Social, and Internal Sanctions Across Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather eMann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The question of what deters crime is of both theoretical and practical interest. The present paper focuses on what factors deter minor, non-violent crimes, i.e. dishonest actions that violate the law. Much research has been devoted to testing the effectiveness of legal sanctions on crime, while newer models also include social sanctions (judgment of friends or family and internal sanctions (feelings of guilt. Existing research suggests that both internal sanctions and, to a lesser extent, legal sanctions deter crime, but it is unclear whether this pattern is unique to Western countries or robust across cultures. We administered a survey study to participants in China, Colombia, Germany, Portugal, and USA, five countries from distinct cultural regions of the world. Participants were asked to report the likelihood of engaging in seven dishonest and illegal actions, and were asked to indicate the probability and severity of consequences for legal, friend, family, and internal sanctions. Results indicated that across countries, internal sanctions had the strongest deterrent effects on crime. The deterrent effects of legal sanctions were weaker and varied across countries. Furthermore, the deterrent effects of legal sanctions were strongest when internal sanctions were lax. Unexpectedly, social sanctions were positively related to likelihood of engaging in crime. Taken together, these results suggest that the relative strengths of legal and internal sanctions are robust across cultures and dishonest actions.

  20. Quality of life among adolescents with sickle cell disease: Mediation of pain by internalizing symptoms and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Lauren C; Dampier Carlton; Patterson Chavis A; Barakat Lamia P

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aimed to clarify associations between pain, psychological adjustment, and family functioning with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a sample of adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD) utilizing teen- and parent-report. Methods Forty-two adolescents (between the ages of 12 and 18) with SCD and their primary caregivers completed paper-and-pencil measures of pain, teen's psychological adjustment, and HRQOL. In addition, primary caregivers completed a mea...

  1. An Overview of International Literature on School Interventions to Promote Mental Health and Well-being in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Fiandra, Teresa Di; Rampazzo, Lorenzo; Contu, Paolo; Preti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : Mental disorders are the largest cause of the burden of disease in the world. Most of the burden affecting adult life has its onset during childhood and adolescence. The European Pact for Mental Health and Wellbeing calls for immediate action and investments in the mental health of children and adolescents. Schools may be the ideal location for promoting health and delivering healthcare services, since schools are a location where young people usually spend their daytime and so...

  2. Overview and comparative study of GPR international standards and guidelines - COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian; Benedetto, Andrea; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar." The Authors thank COST (www.cost.eu) for funding the Action TU1208 (www.GPRadar.eu). Part of this work was carried out during the Short-Term Scientific Mission STSM-TU1208-24656 "Comparative study of GPR international standards and guidelines" (Dr Lara Pajewski, Italy, visiting Prof Marian Marciniak, Poland).

  3. The mediating role of perceived peer support in the relation between quality of attachment and internalizing problems in adolescence: a longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Ugo; Zappulla, Carla; Di Maggio, Rosanna

    2016-10-01

    The study was aimed to verify, from a longitudinal perspective, whether perceived peer support would mediate the relationship between attachment and internalizing problems. Longitudinal participants included 482 adolescents (245 boys) aged 14-15 years in Wave 1 and 17-18 years in Wave 2. Participants in Wave 1 completed the Relationship Questionnaire, and those in Wave 2 completed the Social Support Questionnaire and the Youth Self-Report. Results showed that secure attachment positively predicted high levels of perceived peer support and negatively predicted internalizing problems, whereas fearful and preoccupied attachment negatively predicted perceived peer support and positively predicted internalizing problems. The mediation models showed that perceived peer support partially mediated the relationship between secure attachment and internalizing problems as well as between preoccupied attachment and internalizing problems and between fearful attachment and internalizing problems. Our results confirm the role of subjective perception of peer support in contributing to the prediction of internalizing problems beyond attachment styles. PMID:27354278

  4. Comparing the content of participation instruments using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Joel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of participation is recognized as an important rehabilitation outcome and instruments have been developed to measure participation using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. To date, few studies have examined the content of these instruments to determine how participation has been operationalized. The purpose of this study was to compare the content of participation instruments using the ICF classification. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted to identify instruments that assess participation according to the ICF. Instruments were considered to assess participation and were included if the domains contain content from a minimum of three ICF chapters ranging from Chapter 3 Communication to Chapter 9 Community, social and civic life in the activities and participation component. The instrument content was examined by first identifying the meaningful concepts in each question and then linking these concepts to ICF categories. The content analysis included reporting the 1 ICF chapters (domains covered in the activities and participation component, 2 relevance of the meaningful concepts to the activities and participation component and 3 context in which the activities and participation component categories are evaluated. Results Eight instruments were included: Impact on Participation and Autonomy, Keele Assessment of Participation, Participation Survey/Mobility, Participation Measure-Post Acute Care, Participation Objective Participation Subjective, Participation Scale (P-Scale, Rating of Perceived Participation and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II. 1351 meaningful concepts were identified in the eight instruments. There are differences among the instruments regarding how participation is operationalized. All the instruments cover six to eight of the nine chapters in the activities and participation component. The P

  5. A comparative study of internal customer management practices within service sector firms and the National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaston, I

    1994-02-01

    In responding to the UK government's market forces model, some National Health Service (NHS) managers have introduced private sector concepts such as 'customer care' and 'total quality management' (TQM). Private sector firms find that success of these techniques is dependent upon creating an internal marketing orientation across the entire organization. To determine how internal marketing is being applied, a comparative survey of UK service sector firms and NHS units was undertaken using a modified version of Parasuraman's SERVQUAL model. All respondents indicated existence of type 1, 2, 3 and 4 gaps in the internal customer management process within their organizations. Major influencers of service gaps include departments placing internal efficiency ahead of internal customers and insufficient understanding of internal customer requirements. The survey indicated that, in certain areas of managing service quality, the NHS is performing better than its private sector counterparts. Nevertheless, opportunity for enhancing service quality in the NHS is possible through improving the flow of information between departments, stronger orientation towards meeting customer needs, upgrading provision systems and changing intradepartmental culture. The constraint facing the NHS manager is the limited availability of resources. One solution is to allocate resources in relation to service priorities. A directional planning matrix is presented as a tool for developing an optimum internal customer management strategy within an NHS unit.

  6. The power of a smile: Stronger working memory effects for happy faces in adolescents compared to adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromheeke, Sofie; Mueller, Sven C

    2016-01-01

    Theories of adolescent behaviour attribute increases in risk-taking and sensation-seeking in this age group to a heightened sensitivity to emotional stimuli on the one hand and a relatively immature cognitive control system on the other hand. However, little research has outlined to what extent relevant and irrelevant emotional stimuli bias the imbalance between affective processing and cognitive control. Thirty-three adolescents (19 females, aged 12-14) and 37 adults (18 females, aged 18-29) completed two attentional conditions of an emotional face working memory (WM) 0-back/2-back task. Participants were asked to attend to the emotional facial expression in the "relevant" emotion condition, and to the gender of the face in the "irrelevant" condition. The results revealed a WM improvement for happy faces in the relevant condition in both age groups, and an impairment for irrelevant happy faces in adolescents, but not adults. Furthermore, the difference between both attentional conditions for happy faces was larger in adolescents than adults. Results are discussed within the framework of theories of adolescent behaviour. PMID:25650124

  7. Pedagogical practices and ICT use around the world: Findings from the IEA international comparative study SITES2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, T.; Voogt, J.

    2009-01-01

    This special issue presents a number of secondary analyses of data collected in 2006 in the Second Information Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006). This study is the last of a number of international comparative surveys on information and communication technology (ICT) in education conducted

  8. Comparative measurement and quantitative risk assessment of alcohol consumption through wastewater-based epidemiology: An international study in 20 cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Barceló, Damià; Barron, Leon P.;

    2016-01-01

    consumption biomarker, ethyl sulfate (EtS) was determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The EtS concentrations were used for estimation of per capita alcohol consumption in each city, which was further compared with international reports and applied for risk assessment by MOE...

  9. Reflections on International Comparative Education Survey Methodology: A Case Study of the European Survey on Language Competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reflects on the methodology used in international comparative education surveys by conducting a systematic review of the European Survey on Language Competences (ESLC). The ESLC was administered from February to March 2011, with final results released in June 2012. The survey tested approximately 55,000 students across 14 European…

  10. Singapore Pre-Service Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Content Knowledge: Findings from an International Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Tin Lam; Kaur, Berinderjeet; Koay, Phong Lee

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we explore the mathematical content knowledge of one entire cohort of pre-service teachers (N = 107) through analysing their performance in a Secondary Mathematics Audit that was developed for the International Comparative Studies in Mathematics Teacher Training that was initiated by the University of Plymouth. We study how their…

  11. Simultaneous and Comparable Numerical Indicators of International, National and Local Collaboration Practices in English-Medium Astrophysics Research Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, David I.; Alcaraz, M. Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We report an investigation on collaboration practices in research papers published in the most prestigious English-medium astrophysics journals. Method: We propose an evaluation method based on three numerical indicators to study and compare, in absolute terms, three different types of collaboration (international, national and…

  12. Do Mathematicians Integrate Computer Algebra Systems in University Teaching? Comparing a Literature Review to an International Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Neil; Buteau, Chantal; Jarvis, Daniel H.; Lavicza, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    We present a comparative study of a literature review of 326 selected contributions (Buteau, Marshall, Jarvis & Lavicza, 2010) to an international (US, UK, Hungary) survey of mathematicians (Lavicza, 2008) regarding the use of Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) in post-secondary mathematics education. The comparison results are organized with respect…

  13. U.S. Comparative and International Graduate Programs: An Overview of Programmatic Size, Relevance, Philosophy, and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has concentrated on the epistemological foundation of comparative and international education (CIE) graduate programs. This study focuses on programmatic size, philosophy, methodology, and pedagogy. It begins by reviewing previous studies. It then provides a theoretical framework and describes the size, relevance, content, and…

  14. Comparing Cross-Cultural Dimensions of the Experiences of International Tourists in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuy-Huong Truong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam’s location in South East Asia places it well to benefit from tourism growth trends regionally and globally. It appeals to international tourists because of its long history, its culture and its unique customs and habits. Vietnam is experiencing rapid international tourism growth of visitors from different cultural backgrounds which places pressure on tourism service providers. If development is to be well managed, tourism professionals will need to broaden their understanding of both Western and Asian visitors, and managers need to encourage an atmosphere of familiarity and comfort amongst tourist groups, thus enhancing visitor satisfaction. However, appealing to diverse tourists markets is difficult because the needs of visitors are culturally determined and complex. Despite the importance of tourism for Vietnam, no research has attempted to measure tourist satisfaction in a cross-cultural context. In the present paper, a conceptual framework is proposed to explain the determinants of satisfaction amongst international tourists from different cultures when holidaying in Vietnam. In developing the proposed model, a review is undertaken of the concepts of culture, rules of behaviour, tourist perception and satisfaction. A range of factors are take into account including internal factors (such as cultural values, rules of behaviour, socio-demographics, behavioural and other travel characteristics and external factors including tourist perceptions of their hosts and of products and services.

  15. The Phoenix: Vocational Education and Training in Singapore. International Comparative Study of Leading Vocational Education Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Marc S.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first in a series of reports from the Center on International Education Benchmarking (CIEB) exploring the leading vocational and technical education systems from around the world to draw out what makes these systems great and what other countries can learn from them. This first report was based on a visit of several days to Singapore…

  16. Linguistic Barriers among Internationally Educated Teachers in Ireland and Canada: A Critical Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Clea; McDaid, Rory

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on qualitative interview and focus group data collected from Internationally Educated Teachers (IETs) in the context of two different research studies conducted in Ireland and Manitoba, Canada, this article critically examines how national/regional linguistic requirements and expectations of a hidden curriculum are experienced as barriers…

  17. Comparing national home-keeping and the regulation of translational stem cell applications: An international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret; Chekar, Choon Key; Faulkner, Alex; Heitmeyer, Carolyn; Marouda, Marina; Rosemann, Achim; Chaisinthop, Nattaka; Chang, Hung-Chieh Jessica; Ely, Adrian; Kato, Masae; Patra, Prasanna K; Su, Yeyang; Sui, Suli; Suzuki, Wakana; Zhang, Xinqing

    2016-03-01

    A very large grey area exists between translational stem cell research and applications that comply with the ideals of randomised control trials and good laboratory and clinical practice and what is often referred to as snake-oil trade. We identify a discrepancy between international research and ethics regulation and the ways in which regulatory instruments in the stem cell field are developed in practice. We examine this discrepancy using the notion of 'national home-keeping', referring to the way governments articulate international standards and regulation with conflicting demands on local players at home. Identifying particular dimensions of regulatory tools - authority, permissions, space and acceleration - as crucial to national home-keeping in Asia, Europe and the USA, we show how local regulation works to enable development of the field, notwithstanding international (i.e. principally 'western') regulation. Triangulating regulation with empirical data and archival research between 2012 and 2015 has helped us to shed light on how countries and organisations adapt and resist internationally dominant regulation through the manipulation of regulatory tools (contingent upon country size, the state's ability to accumulate resources, healthcare demands, established traditions of scientific governance, and economic and scientific ambitions). PMID:26921839

  18. International Schools: Current Issues and Future Prospects. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Mary, Ed.; Thompson, Jeff, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    The foundation of the first international schools of the modern era well over a century ago, and their burgeoning growth over recent years, provides the context in this book for a series of personal perspectives written by some of those who have been involved centrally in their development. As the schools themselves have increased not only in…

  19. Community Colleges in South Africa? Assessment of Potential from Comparative International Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolhuter, C. C.

    2011-01-01

    While South African higher education has, in many respects, achieved remarkable achievements since 1994, a series of serious problems continue to beset the system, and a low internal (high attrition rate) and external (alignment with the employment market) efficiency. There also exist the problems of large scale youth unemployment and the policy…

  20. Comparing national home-keeping and the regulation of translational stem cell applications: An international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret; Chekar, Choon Key; Faulkner, Alex; Heitmeyer, Carolyn; Marouda, Marina; Rosemann, Achim; Chaisinthop, Nattaka; Chang, Hung-Chieh Jessica; Ely, Adrian; Kato, Masae; Patra, Prasanna K; Su, Yeyang; Sui, Suli; Suzuki, Wakana; Zhang, Xinqing

    2016-03-01

    A very large grey area exists between translational stem cell research and applications that comply with the ideals of randomised control trials and good laboratory and clinical practice and what is often referred to as snake-oil trade. We identify a discrepancy between international research and ethics regulation and the ways in which regulatory instruments in the stem cell field are developed in practice. We examine this discrepancy using the notion of 'national home-keeping', referring to the way governments articulate international standards and regulation with conflicting demands on local players at home. Identifying particular dimensions of regulatory tools - authority, permissions, space and acceleration - as crucial to national home-keeping in Asia, Europe and the USA, we show how local regulation works to enable development of the field, notwithstanding international (i.e. principally 'western') regulation. Triangulating regulation with empirical data and archival research between 2012 and 2015 has helped us to shed light on how countries and organisations adapt and resist internationally dominant regulation through the manipulation of regulatory tools (contingent upon country size, the state's ability to accumulate resources, healthcare demands, established traditions of scientific governance, and economic and scientific ambitions).

  1. Using Comparative International Studies for Modeling Educational Effectiveness: A Secondary Analysis of PISA-2009 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azigwe, John Bosco

    2016-01-01

    International surveys of student achievement are becoming increasingly popular with governments around the world, as they try to measure the performance of their country's education system. The main reason for this trend is the shared opinion that countries will need to be able to compete in the "knowledge economy" to assure the economic…

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Internal Communication and Public Relations Audits. State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, David M.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    A review of current literature regarding the state of the art in the conduct of internal communication and public relations audits by public relations practitioners reveals that these two related measurement activities are of considerable importance to the practice of public relations. Public relations audits are concerned with exploratory…

  3. Therenewal of th old economy : Europe in an internationally comparative perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ark, Bart van

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with international comparisons of the contribution of information and communication technology (ICT) to growth during the 1990s. It makes a distinction between ICT-producing industries and services on the one hand and industries and services that are intensive users of ICT on the ot

  4. Embryo transfer: a comparative biosecurity advantage in international movements of germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibier, M

    2011-04-01

    This paper uses cattle as a model to provide an overview of the hazards involved in the transfer of in vivo-derived and in vitro-produced embryos. While scientific studies in recent decades have led to the identification of pathogens that may be associated with both in vivo- and in vitro-derived embryos, those studies have also been the basis of appropriate disease control measures to reduce the risks to a negligible level. These disease control measures have been identified and assessed by the International Embryo Transfer Society's (lETS) Health and Safety Advisory Committee, the expert body that advises the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) on matters related to the safety of embryo transfer. Through the OIE's processes for developing and adopting international standards, the disease control measures identified by the IETS have been incorporated into the Terrestrial Animal Health Code. The basic principles rely on the crucial ethical roles of the embryo collection team and embryo transfer team, under the leadership of approved veterinarians. Decades of experience, with nearly 10 million embryos transferred, have demonstrated the very significant biosecurity advantage that embryo transfer technology has when moving germplasm internationally, provided that the international standards developed by the IETS and adopted by the OIE are strictly followed. PMID:21809763

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Curriculum in International Marketing and Business between Peruvian and Guatemalan University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestonjee, Daanish D.; Spillan, John E.; Song, Hongwei; Virzi, Nicholas D.

    2010-01-01

    Business education is important for economic development. A skilled workforce allows for greater advancements in productivity, the creation of new business opportunities, increased employment, and enhances the quality of life of the citizenry. With the changing international business environment it is important for academics and practitioners…

  6. Long-term results of Galeazzi-equivalent injuries in adolescents--open reduction and internal fixation of the ulna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Soo Min; Shin, Hyun Dae; Jeon, Je Hyung

    2016-03-01

    We diagnosed 10 Galeazzi-equivalent injuries. We report the radiological and clinical results at the end of growth in adolescents, including the results of ulnar lengthening. This study included 10 Galeazzi-equivalent injuries (seven patients requiring open reduction and three requiring closed reduction for ulnar lesions) seen since 2004. The periosteum was entrapped around the fractured physis in five patients and the extensor carpi ulnaris to the periosteum was interposed in two patients. Among the seven patients, ulnar lengthening was performed in only three patients. Ulnar variances at the time of the lengthening were -6, -6, and -5 mm. Gradual lengthening was performed. Radiologic abnormalities, including the ulnar variances, were investigated at the end of growth. In addition, pain scores, the range of wrist motion, and grip strength were evaluated and compared with nonlengthened ulnas. The mean age of the patients at the final follow-up was 19.7 years, and the mean total follow-up period was 6 years. The final ulnar variances were -5, -5, -3, and 0 mm in four patients with nonlengthened ulnas among the seven patients. Three patients with lengthened ulnas showed final neutral variances. In four nonlengthened ulnas, three ulnas bowed to the radial side and two ulnar heads had an inclined and deformed shape. Joint mismatch of the distal radioulnar joint surface was found in one patient with lengthened and one with nonlengthened ulnas. Three patients with nonlengthened ulnas showed decreased range of wrist motions. Comparison of contralateral grip strength indicated a significant difference between patients with or without lengthened ulnas. Long-term follow-up after Galeazzi-equivalent injuries may be essential to check for premature epiphyseal closure, length discrepancies, or joint incongruency. A procedure for a shortened ulna could be needed; however, the appropriate time and degree of lengthening remain to be investigated.

  7. Internationally Comparable Statistics on Education, Training and Skills: Current State and Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descy, Pascaline; Nestler, Katja; Tessaring, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    Comparable statistics on education, training and skills are not only used by research and analysis to provide explanation and evidence of the functioning of European labour markets and of education and training systems, but also to construct indicators comparing EU Member States, comparing the EU with competitors and assessing the achievement of…

  8. Traditional and new strategies in the primary prevention of eating disorders: a comparative study in Spanish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera1, Pilar León Lozano2, Patricia Bolaños Ríos3, Juan Romero Candau2, Gregorio Sánchez del Villar y Lebreros4, M Teresa Morales Millán1,5, M Teresa Montaña González1,5, Lourdes Andrés Martín2, Isabela Justo Villalobos2, Nuria Vargas Sánchez21Área de Nutrición y Bromatología, Universidad Pablo de Olavide; 2Colegio Oficial de Farmacéuticos; 3Instituto de Ciencias de la Conducta; 4Instituto de Enseñanza Secundaria “Murillo”; 5Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, SpainBackground: Research conducted to date into the primary prevention of eating disorders (ED has mainly considered the provision of information regarding risk factors. Consequently, there is a need to develop new methods that go a step further, promoting a change in attitudes and behavior in the target population.Objective: This study describes an adaptation of the Girls’ Group model to the Spanish context, the main objective being to compare two types of intervention, ie, one based on this model and the other following the traditional approach of providing information. The ultimate aim was to implement a prevention program that reduces the risk factors and boosts the protection factors that have been empirically shown to be related to ED.Methods: On the basis of previous research on the primary prevention of ED, and taking into account recognized risk and protective factors, the following topics were addressed: nutritional aspects; self-esteem; coping strategies; the ideal image of what is attractive and role of the media; and body image. The total sample (174 girls and 197 boys was divided into 12 work groups, six for the intervention group (one school and six for the control group (two schools. School-based input (intervention group was provided by a pharmacist, a psychologist, a qualified nutritionist/dietician, and specialist support staff (psychologists and/or educators and teachers of the three schools

  9. Adoptive parenting and attachment: association of the Internal Working Models between adoptive mothers and their late-adopted children during adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Serena ePace

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recent literature has shown that the good outcome of adoption would mostly depend on the quality of adoptive parenting, which is strongly associated with the security of parental internal working models (IWMs of attachment. Specifically, attachment states-of-mind of adoptive mothers classified as free and autonomous and without lack of resolution of loss or trauma could represent a good protective factor for adopted children previously maltreated and neglected. While most research on adoptive families has focused on pre-school and school-aged children, the aim of this study was to assess the concordance of IWMs of attachment in adoptive dyads during adolescence.Method. Our pilot-study involved 76 participants: 30 adoptive mothers (mean age=51.5±4.3, and their 46 late-adopted adolescents (mean age = 13.9 ± 1.6, who were all aged four to nine years old at time of adoption (M = 6.3 ± 1.5. Attachment representations of adopted adolescents were assessed by the Friend and Family Interview (FFI, while adoptive mothers’ state-of-mind with respect to attachment was classified by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI. Adolescents’ verbal intelligence was controlled.Results. Late-adopted adolescents were classified as follows: 67% secure, 26% dismissing and 7% preoccupied in the FFI, while their adoptive mothers’ AAI classifications were 70% free-autonomous, 7% dismissing, and 23% unresolved. We found a significant concordance of 70% (32 dyads between the secure-insecure FFI and AAI classifications. Specifically adoptive mothers with high coherence of transcript and low unresolved loss tend to have late-adopted children with high secure attachment, even if the adolescents’ verbal intelligence made a significant contribution to this prediction.Discussion. Our results provides an empirical contribution to the literature concerning the concordance of attachment in adoptive dyads, highlighting the beneficial impact of highly coherent

  10. Romanian Advertising between Specificity and Globalization. A Comparative Analysis of Local and International Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Moraru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Advertising today has conquered national boundaries, reaching consumers everywhere; however, local commercials retain their cultural background, combining global and local features. This is the new “glocalization” phenomenon, or the specificity of globalization. During the past two decades, Romanian advertising developed spectacularly, making up for the time it was forbidden. Life-styles, consumer insight, economy and market dynamics changed the relationship between global and local advertising. Today, national advertising promotes surviving pre-Revolution brands, new, post-1990 brands, and international brands adapted to the local market. This chapter analyzes the local and global features of Romanian TV commercials for national and international brands according to the following criteria: positioning, visual/verbal identity, social/cultural background.

  11. In focus, Hungarian and Central Eastern European characteristics of hunman resource management: An international comparative survey

    OpenAIRE

    Karoliny, Mártonné; Ferenc FARKAS; Poór, József

    2009-01-01

    The HR practices of the former state-socialist countries have gone through significant changes. The analysis of the developments, built on the Cranet (2004) survey, intends to describe the similarities and differences found between 6 countries of the Central Eastern European region and the total sample of 32 countries participating in the survey. The primary aim of the paper is to highlight the strands of international human resource management, investigating the main focuses, strong and weak...

  12. BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT, FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE: A policy and economic comparative analysis for Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Husid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to achieve an overall view of Foreign Direct Investment and International Trade in Canada, analyzing both the current situation and the actions and policies being implemented by several provinces to promote this subject. This study will be valuable to companies and governments to understand what has been done and to support strategic planning to invest and trade with Canada, especially for the Brazilian market.

  13. Pedagogy and ICT in an Information Society: Perspectives from International Comparative Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Plomp, T

    2007-01-01

    Rapid social changes brought about by technological advances and globalization have made impacts on the goals and processes of education both in terms of national/regional policies and classroom practices in many countries around the world. The roles and impacts of ICT use in the classroom have taken on different dimensions in the context of these global changes since the 1990s. The IEA (International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, which is holding its 48th General...

  14. Comparative analyses for selected clean coal technologies in the international marketplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1990-07-01

    Clean coal technologies (CCTs) are being demonstrated in research and development programs under public and private sponsorship. Many of these technologies could be marketed internationally. To explore the scope of these international opportunities and to match particular technologies with markets appearing to have high potential, a study was undertaken that focused on seven representative countries: Italy, Japan, Morocco, Turkey, Pakistan, the Peoples' Republic of China, and Poland. The results suggest that there are international markets for CCTs and that these technologies can be cost competitive with more conventional alternatives. The identified markets include construction of new plants and refurbishment of existing ones, especially when decision makers want to decrease dependence on imported oil. This report describes potential international market niches for U.S. CCTs and discusses the status and implications of ongoing CCT demonstration activities. Twelve technologies were selected as representative of technologies under development for use in new or refurbished industrial or electric utility applications. Included are the following: Two generic precombustion technologies: two-stage froth-flotation coal beneficiation and coal-water mixtures (CWMs); Four combustion technologies: slagging combustors, integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors (AFBCs), and pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (PFBCs); and Six postcombustion technologies: limestone-injection multistage burner (LIMB) systems, gas-reburning sorbent-injection (GRSI) systems, dual-alkali flue-gas desulfurization (FGD), spray-dryer FGD, the NOXSO process, and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. Major chapters of this report have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  15. Cyberbullying in a Diverse Society: Comparing Jewish and Arab Adolescents in Israel through the Lenses of Individualistic versus Collectivist Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidot-Lefler, Noam; Hosri, Hanan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in cyberbullying (bystanders, victims, bullies) between Jewish and Arab adolescents in Israel. The findings could uncover critical implications for children, educators, and policymakers for understanding Cyberbullying in a diverse society. In particular, the differences in cyberbullying…

  16. A Comparative Analysis of Well-Being and Coping among Mothers of Toddlers and Mothers of Adolescents with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Leann E.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Greenberg, Jan S.; Carter, Alice S.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of autism symptoms and coping strategies on the well-being of mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The sample consisted of 153 mothers of toddlers and 201 mothers of adolescents drawn from two ongoing, longitudinal studies of families of individuals with ASD. For mothers of toddlers, lower…

  17. A Comparative Investigation of the Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Practices and Psychodrama on Adolescent Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Zeynep; Gokcakan, Zafer

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate whether cognitive-behavioral group practices and psychodrama decrease adolescent aggression. This is a quasi-experimental, pre-post and follow up study with two experiments and one control group. The Aggression Scale (Buss & Warren, 2000) adapted to Turkish by Can (2002) was administered as a pretest to…

  18. A Cross-Lag Panel Analysis of Low Self-Esteem as a Predictor of Adolescent Internalizing Symptoms in a Prospective Longitudinal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In-Albon, Tina; Meyer, Andrea H; Metzke, Christa Winkler;

    2016-01-01

    Self-esteem, generally regarded as an important indicator of adolescents' mental health, was assessed by a self-report questionnaire in a school sample of 593 subjects who had been assessed at 3 time points over 7 years between 11 and 25 years of age within the Zurich Psychology and Psychopathology...... Study (ZAPPS). Cross-lagged panel analyses of the longitudinal data from ZAPPS indicated that self-esteem was predictive of internalizing problems and had an impact on internalizing symptoms when the analyses were adjusted for coping behavior, efficiency of social networks, and impact of stressful life...... events. Self-esteem was also stable (r = .37-.60) within the observed age range, after controlling for prior levels of the predicted variables. The findings support the impact of self-esteem on mental health and indicate the importance of addressing self-esteem in prevention and intervention programs....

  19. Validation of the internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and its link to academic performance and psychological adjustment among Asian American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Miller, Matthew J; Yip, Pansy

    2015-04-01

    There is limited research examining psychological correlates of a uniquely racialized experience of the model minority stereotype faced by Asian Americans. The present study examined the factor structure and fit of the only published measure of the internalization of the model minority myth, the Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4; Yoo et al., 2010), with a sample of 155 Asian American high school adolescents. We also examined the link between internalization of the model minority myth types (i.e., myth associated with achievement and myth associated with unrestricted mobility) and psychological adjustment (i.e., affective distress, somatic distress, performance difficulty, academic expectations stress), and the potential moderating effect of academic performance (cumulative grade point average). Results suggested the 2-factor model of the IM-4 had an acceptable fit to the data and supported the factor structure using confirmatory factor analyses. Internalizing the model minority myth of achievement related positively to academic expectations stress; however, internalizing the model minority myth of unrestricted mobility related negatively to academic expectations stress, both controlling for gender and academic performance. Finally, academic performance moderated the model minority myth associated with unrestricted mobility and affective distress link and the model minority myth associated with achievement and performance difficulty link. These findings highlight the complex ways in which the model minority myth relates to psychological outcomes.

  20. Adolescents' Exposure to Disasters and Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Miriam; Fang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    This paper reviews the impact of exposure to man-made or natural disasters on adolescent substance use. It covers empirical studies published from 2005 to 2015 concerning (a) the scope of the problem, (b) vulnerable groups and risk and protective factors, and (c) evidence-based interventions. The review suggests a strong link between adolescent substance use and exposure to either man-made or natural disaster. Vulnerable groups include adolescents with previous exposure to traumatic events, living in areas that are continually exposed to disasters, and ethnic minorities. Risk and protective factors at the individual, familial, community, and societal levels are described based on the bioecological model of mass trauma. Given that mass trauma is unfortunately a global problem, it is important to establish international interdisciplinary working teams to set gold standards for comparative studies on the etiology for adolescent substance use in the context of disasters. PMID:27087347

  1. An international randomized trial comparing four thrombolytic strategies for acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Simoons (Maarten); E.J. Topol (Eric); R.M. Califf (Robert); F.J.J. van de Werf (Frans); P.W. Armstrong (Paul); P.E. Aylward (Philip Edmund); G.I. Barbash; E.R. Bates (Eric); A. Betriu; J.H. Chesebro (James); J.J. Col (Jacques); D.P. de Bono (David); J.M. Gore (Joel); A.D. Guerci (Alan); J.R. Hampton (John)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The relative efficacy of streptokinase and tissue plasminogen activator and the roles of intravenous as compared with subcutaneous heparin as adjunctive therapy in acute myocardial infarction are unresolved questions. The current trial was designed to compare new, aggressive

  2. Wall thickness measurements of tubes by Internal Rotary Inspection System (IRIS)- a comparative study with metallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal Rotary Inspection System (IRIS) is a relatively new ultrasonic system of heat exchanger/ steam condenser tubes and pipelines for measurement of wall thinning and pitting due to corrosion. The wall thickness measurements made during a scan around the circumference of the tube are displayed as a stationary rectilinear display of circumferential cross section (Bscan) of the tube. The paper describes the results obtained on tubes of various materials used in process industries having corrosion on inner and outer surfaces of the tube. (author)

  3. 国际大都市信息化水平测算与比较研究%Comparative study of the informatization level of some international metropolitans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国际统计信息中心

    2003-01-01

    The paper designs a set of indicators tomeasure and compare the informatization level of Beijing and some other international metropolitans. The conclusion is that it is still huge the distance Beijing lags behind other international metropolitans.

  4. Influence of Perceived Parental Rearing on Adolescent Self-Concept and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Saori; Sundbom, Elisabet; Hagglof, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    We examined the associations between perceived parental rearing, attachment style, self-concept, and mental health problems among Japanese adolescents. About 193 high school students (143 boys and 50 girls, mean = 16.4) completed a set of self-report questionnaires including EMBU-C (My Memories of Child Upbringing for Children), AQC (Attachment…

  5. Perceived Support and Internalizing Symptoms in African American Adolescents: Self-Esteem and Ethnic Identity as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Ragsdale, Brian L.; Mandara, Jelani; Richards, Maryse H.; Petersen, Anne C.

    2007-01-01

    Existing research leaves a gap in explaining why African American adolescents do not exhibit more anxiety and depression than other youth, at the same time that they experience more contextual risk factors. The current study examined the roles of social support as well as possible mediators self-esteem and ethnic identity (sense of belonging to…

  6. Changes in maternal depression are associated with MST outcomes for adolescents with co-occurring externalizing and internalizing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimbos, T.; Granic, I.

    2010-01-01

    he efficacy of Multisystemic therapy (MST) in treating adolescent aggression has been established, however, not all youth and their families benefit from MST. One reason for this treatment variability could be the failure to distinguish between different aggressive Subtypes with different risk facto

  7. Changes in Maternal Depression Are Associated with MST Outcomes for Adolescents with Co-Occurring Externalizing and Internalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimbos, Teresa; Granic, Isabela

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of Multisystemic therapy (MST) in treating adolescent aggression has been established, however, not all youth and their families benefit from MST. One reason for this treatment variability could be the failure to distinguish between different aggressive subtypes with different risk factors, developmental prognoses and treatment needs.…

  8. Childhood Internalizing and Externalizing Problems Predict the Onset of Clinical Panic Attacks over Adolescence: The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Mathyssek (Christina); T.M. Olino (Thomas); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Panic attacks are a source of individual suffering and are an independent risk factor for later psychopathology. However, much less is known about risk factors for the development of panic attacks, particularly during adolescence when the incidence of panic attacks increases

  9. Adolescent-Peer Relationships, Separation and Detachment from Parents, and Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors: Linkages and Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin; Yuen, Cynthia X.; Putnick, Diane L.; Hendricks, Charlene; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    Most research exploring the interplay between context and adolescent separation and detachment has focused on the family; in contrast, this investigation directs its attention outside of the family to peers. Utilizing a latent variable approach for modeling interactions and incorporating reports of behavioral adjustment from 14-year-old…

  10. International note: exploring differences in native and immigrant adolescents' mathematics achievement and dispositions towards mathematics in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Melkonian, Michael; Khine, Myint Swe

    2015-04-01

    The burgeoning immigrant population in major immigrant-receiving countries in North America and Europe has necessitated researchers and policymakers in these countries to examine the academic success of children of immigration and the factors contributing to their academic success. However, there is sparse research on the academic trajectories of children of immigration in other continents, such as Asia. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to examine first- and second-generation immigrant adolescents' mathematics achievement and dispositions towards mathematics in comparison to their native peers in one of the Middle Eastern countries in Asia, Qatar. The results of the study indicated that both first- and second-generation immigrant adolescents tended to have higher mathematics achievement, intrinsic motivation to learn mathematics, instrumental motivation to learn mathematics, mathematics self-efficacy, and mathematics self-concept than did their native counterparts. Moreover, immigrant adolescents tended to have lower mathematics anxiety than did their native peers. The study also revealed significant differences between first- and second-generation immigrant adolescents with respect to their mathematics achievement and dispositions towards mathematics.

  11. Cumulative Risk and Adolescent's Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: The Mediating Roles of Maternal Responsiveness and Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Stacey N.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Evans, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine longitudinal associations among maternal responsiveness, self-regulation, and behavioral adjustment in adolescents. The authors used structural equation modeling to test a model that demonstrates that the effects of early cumulative risk on behavioral problems is mediated by maternal responsiveness…

  12. The 'Independence' and 'Impartiality' of Arbitrator; Synonymy or Distinction? (A Comparative Study in International Commercial Arbitration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghayegh Vahed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of utilization of arbitration as a method of dispute resolution depends on the public confidence in the method. In this regard, the independence of arbitrators and their impartiality are necessary conditions for the realization of such confidence. Independence and impartiality of arbitrators ensure a fair trial in arbitration and the lack of aforementioned features makes it impossible to trust the fairness of the dispute settlement process and its result. The importance of confidence in the health of the dispute settlement system is to the extent that many international instruments have frequently emphasised on the necessity of the two above-mentioned features. In the recent decade, contemporaneous with the incredible development of arbitration, the debate over independence and impartiality of arbitrator has become important and controversial because neither national laws nor international provisions provide a clear difinition of the said concepts. This article set out to explain the exact point that the independence and impartiality are distinct concepts and are not interchangeable with each other; Independence is concerned with the relationships between the arbitrator and disputing parties, while impartiality considers the arbitrator's conduct over the equal treatment with the parties. The aforesaid distinction includes such a legal effect that each of these two concepts shall be considered as an autonomous and separate cause for challenging arbitrators.

  13. Comparative Study of Commercial CFD Software Performance for Prediction of Reactor Internal Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even if some CFD software developers and its users think that a state-of-the-art CFD software can be used to reasonably solve at least single-phase nuclear reactor safety problems, there remain limitations and uncertainties in the calculation result. From a regulatory perspective, the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) is presently conducting the performance assessment of commercial CFD software for nuclear reactor safety problems. In this study, to examine the prediction performance of commercial CFD software with the porous model in the analysis of the scale-down APR (Advanced Power Reactor Plus) internal flow, a simulation was conducted with the on-board numerical models in ANSYS CFX R.14 and FLUENT R.14. It was concluded that depending on the CFD software, the internal flow distribution of the scale-down APR was locally somewhat different. Although there was a limitation in estimating the prediction performance of the commercial CFD software owing to the limited amount of measured data, CFX R.14 showed more reasonable prediction results in comparison with FLUENT R.14. Meanwhile, owing to the difference in discretization methodology, FLUENT R.14 required more computational memory than CFX R.14 for the same grid system. Therefore, the CFD software suitable to the available computational resource should be selected for massively parallel computations

  14. Comparison among Different Screening Tests for Diagnosis of Adolescent Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Totaro, Silvia; Rabbia, Franco; Rabbone, Ivana; Covella, Michele; Berra, Elena; Fulcheri, Chiara; Di Monaco, Silvia; Testa, Elisa; Veglio, Franco

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of childhood hypertension based upon percentile tables proposed by the international guidelines is complex and often a cause of underdiagnosis, particularly among physicians who have not had specific training in the field of adolescent hypertension. The use of a simple and accurate screening test may improve hypertension diagnosis in adolescents. The aim of our study is to compare the different screening methods currently used in the literature to improve the diagnosis of childh...

  15. Elite female soccer players perform more high-intensity running when playing in international games compared with domestic league games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Helena Å.; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Heiner-Møller, Anja;

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare movement pattern, fatigue development, and heart rate (HR) for top-class elite female players when playing international (INT) vs. domestic league games (DOM). Video-based time-motion analyses and HR recordings were performed on 17 players during INT and DOM...... no differences were observed between the game types for defenders. No difference in the HR response was found between INT and DOM. In conclusion, more HIR and sprinting occur in international compared with domestic games, which may affect the fatigue development for players in physically demanding roles. Thus....... The distances covered in high-intensity running (HIR) and sprinting were longer (p game types...

  16. A comparative study on normal fear of Chinese adolescents between urban and rural areas%城乡青少年恐惧内容的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海燕; 李玲玲; 李淑娜

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the features of adolescents' normal fear between urban and rural areas in China. Methods 648 Urban and 478 rural adolescents were investigated with the revised Fear Survey Schedule For Children -II . Results (1)The most common fear of adolescents in urban and rural areas was very same,namely taking dangerous drugs,someone in my family having an accident,not being able to breath,someone in my family dying,nuclear war,my parents separating or getting divorced,being kidnapped,but only one item was not same ,namely urban adolescents fear having no friends ,rural adolescents fear AIDS. (2)The amount of fear items( t =11.42,P <0.01) and the degree of general fear (urban =1.62±0.28,rural =1.83±0.26,t =12.72,P <0.01) ,each dimension fear(P <0.01) of rural adolescents were significantly higher than that of urban adolescents.(3)The degree of fear about danger and injure( F =85.46,P <0.01),animal (female=1.84±0.47,male=1.54±0.45,F =156.86,P <0.01),social relationship ( F =32.23,P <0.01)of female adolescents were significantly higher than that of male adolescents.(4) In all adolescents ,the degree of the general fears( F =13.781,P <0.01) danger and injure fears( F =17.164,,P <0.01) decreased gradually as they grew up ,and the degree of unknown and uncertainty fear(( F =5.01,P <0.01),social fear ( F =4.42,P <0.05)of middle school students were higher than that of high school students; urban middle school students were significantly higher than that of urban high school students in failure and punishment fear.Conclusion (1)There are significant consistency on the most normal fears,the trend of development about the general fears,danger and injure fears,unknown and uncertainty fear,social fear for adolescents between urban and rural areas .(2)The amount of fear items and the degree of general fear ,each dimension fear of school-aged rural adolescents were significantly higher than that of urban adolescents;and there isn't common trend of development on

  17. Comparative study of the sectional slice of the anterior commissure and the internal capsule with its MRI images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dandan; MA Wenyi; Zhang Xiaoyang; YUAN Lixiang; YUAN Wu; LI Yunsheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective:The brain of 100 normal persons were performed MRI scan and image analysis. 12 adult female brain specimens fixed by formalin, were made into the thickness of 0. 5mm by celloidin embedding technique. We analyzed the anatomical position of the relationship about the anterior limb of internal capsule and the anterior commissure in eollodion-embedded plans, and then compared with the brain MRI of normal people. We also further compared the statistical differences of the internal capsule’ s volume. This research aimed to pro-vide a reliable sectional anatomic basis for the study of the central nervous system and deep brain stimulation to treat the mental neurological diseases. Results:1. Continous observation of celloid in brain slices horizontal section:Approximately 130 slices of each specimen, from the parietal lobe,the internal capsule was the typical structure"><" on the level of about 35 mm . On the level of about 41mm, the anterior commissure was"arc" through the bot-tom head of the caudate nucleus connecting the bilateral anterior limb, which located between the caudate nucleus and the lentiform nucleus. The posterior limb of internal capsule situated between the dorsal thalamus and the lenti-form nucleus on the level of about 46 mm. Coronal section:about 150 slices of per specimen, from the former lat-eral ventricle horn back,on the level of about 16 mm the anterior commissure was "arch" connecting the anterior limb. About 28 mm dimension, the interior capsule fore limb located between the caudate nucleus and the puta-men, the posterior limb of internal capsule located between the globus pallidus and the dorsal thalamus, extending down to the cerebral peduncle. Sagittal section:about 180 slices of per specimen, from the outside to the inside at the beginning of the temporal lobe, the corona radia taextends between the putamen and dorsal thalamus, and then formsthe posterior limb of the internal capsule at the level of about 21 mm. About 25 mm level

  18. Vulnerability or resilience? Psycho-social factors associated with deliberate self-harm among adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Elaine M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is common among adolescents in Ireland and internationally. Psychological factors, negative life events and lifestyle factors have been found to be associated with self-harm in this group. However, large scale population-based studies of adolescent selfharm and its correlates have been lacking, and internationally a standardised methodology was needed to facilitate comparative studies. The focus on vulnerability which has been prevalent in ...

  19. Adolescent differences in knee stability following computer-assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Christino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL surgery is being increasingly performed in the adolescent population. Computer navigation offers a reliable way to quantitatively measure knee stability during ACL reconstruction. A retrospective review of all adolescent patients (<18 years old who underwent computer-assisted primary single bundle ACL reconstruction by a single surgeon from 2007 to 2012 was performed. The average age was 15.8 years (SD 3.3. Female adolescents were found to have higher internal rotation than male adolescents both pre- (25.6° vs 21.7°, P=0.026 and post-reconstruction (20.1° vs 15.1°, P=0.005. Compared to adults, adolescents demonstrated significantly higher internal rotation both pre- (23.3° vs 21.5°, P=0.047 and post-reconstruction (17.1° vs 14.4°, P=0.003. They also had higher total rotation both pre- (40.9° vs 38.4°, P=0.02 and post-reconstruction when compared to adults (31.56° vs 28.67°, P=0.005. In adolescent patients, anterior translation was corrected more than rotation. Females had higher pre- and residual post-reconstruction internal rotation compared to males. When compared to adults, adolescents had increased internal rotation and total rotation both pre- and post-reconstruction. 

  20. Comparative anatomy of the internal reproductive organs of Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Matos de Morais

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the internal reproductive organs of Grapholita molesta males and females are described, illustrated and measured, considering virgin individuals of one and eight days of age and mated individuals of eight days. In females, the ovaries, lateral oviducts, common oviduct, bursa copulatrix and seminal receptacle were evaluated. The most evident alterations were observed in the ovaries, which were significantly larger in eight-day-old virgin females, and also in the bursa copulatrix of mated specimens. In males, we observed one pair of fused testes, paired vas deferens, seminal vesicles, duplex ejaculatory ducts and glands, and simplex ejaculatory duct and aedeagus. The testis of eight-day-old specimens, both virgin and mated, were significantly smaller than they were in one-day-old virgin males.

  1. Brazilian standardised norms for a set of pictures are comparable with those obtained internationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompéia Sabine

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Snodgrass & Vanderwart (1980 standardized a set of 260 pictures in the USA for use in studies of cognitive processes that employ pictured objects as laboratory analogues of object themselves. Since then similar norms for this set were obtained in Britain, Spain, Japan and Iceland and a larger set of 400 pictures (including the original 260: Cycowicz et al., 1997 was studied in France and Brazil. The present article provides a comparison of the norms obtained in Brazil and internationally. The pattern of correlations among the Brazilian and other standardizations were equivalent to that previously observed: despite pictures being judged to be of similar familiarity and visual complexity (high positive correlations, name agreement was less correlated, possibly due to differences in the languages spoken in each country and/or in the sample size used in each study. Results confirm the adequacy of the Brazilian norms.

  2. Implementation of International Standards for Environmental Management in Visegrad Countries: a Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Urbaniec, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The paper  aims  at  identifying  the  importance  and  relevant  practices related  to  international  standards  for  environmental  management  system  (EMS)  in the  countries  of  the  Visegrad  Group  (including  Slovakia,  the  Czech  Republic,  Poland and Hungary). A  review  of  mainstream  literature  on  EMS  will  be conducted followed by document-based research as well  as statistics database used as  the  methodological  approach.  Data  will  be  gathered  through  the ...

  3. The Ability to Go about without Shame: A Proposal for Internationally Comparable Indicators of Shame and Humiliation

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Zavaleta

    2007-01-01

    Shame and humiliation are central to the understanding of poverty yet internationally comparable data on this dimension are missing. Based on existing indicators from related fields, this article suggests eight indicators to measure specific aspects of shame and humiliation that could start an in-depth debate around this topic. The indicators are the following: whether respondents would feel shame if they were poor; levels of shame proneness; perceptions of respectful treatment, unfair treatm...

  4. Overview and comparative study of GPR international standards and guidelines - COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian; Benedetto, Andrea; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) can be effectively used for non-destructive testing of composite structures and diagnostics affecting the whole life-cycle of civil engineering works. Nevertheless, few recognised international standards exist in this field and inhomogeneous recommendations are present in different countries. Moreover, the levels of knowledge, awareness and experience regarding the use of GPR in civil engineering vary strongly across different European areas. The COST Action TU1208 is working hard on leveraging these differences, by sharing and disseminating knowledge and experience, as well as by developing guidelines and protocols for a safe and effective use of GPR in civil engineering. GPR users need to know which is the best way to conduct GPR measurements and what the quality level for the results should be. The TU1208 guidelines will ensure a higher efficiency and quality of GPR services and they will constitute a scientific basis for the introduction of European Standards on the application of GPR in civil engineering. The aim of this contribution is to present an in-depth overview and critical analysis of the existing GPR international and national standards and guidelines. The main documents considered in our work are listed and briefly described in the following. Three standards are provided by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), to guide the GPR use for subsurface investigation, evaluation of asphalt-covered concrete bridge decks, and determination of pavement-layer thickness: 1. ASTM D6432-11, Standard Guide for Using the Surface Ground Penetrating Radar Method for Subsurface Investigation, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011, www.astm.org, DOI: 10.1520/D6432-11. 2. ASTM D6087-08, Standard Test Method for Evaluating Asphalt-Covered Concrete Bridge Decks Using Ground Penetrating Radar, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2008, www.astm.org, DOI: 10.1520/D6087-08. 3. ASTM D4748-10, Standard Test Method

  5. Accuracy of computer-aided ultrasound as compared with magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese and eutrophic adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: to compare the accuracy of computer-aided ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by means of hepatorenal gradient analysis in the evaluation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adolescents. Materials and methods: this prospective, cross-sectional study evaluated 50 adolescents (aged 11-17 years), including 24 obese and 26 eutrophic individuals. All adolescents underwent computer-aided US, MRI, laboratory tests, and anthropometric evaluation. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy were evaluated for both imaging methods, with subsequent generation of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and calculation of the area under the ROC curve to determine the most appropriate cutoff point for the hepatorenal gradient in order to predict the degree of steatosis, utilizing MRI results as the gold-standard. Results: the obese group included 29.2% girls and 70.8% boys, and the eutrophic group, 69.2% girls and 30.8% boys. The prevalence of NAFLD corresponded to 19.2% for the eutrophic group and 83% for the obese group. The ROC curve generated for the hepatorenal gradient with a cutoff point of 13 presented 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. As the same cutoff point was considered for the eutrophic group, false-positive results were observed in 9.5% of cases (90.5% specificity) and false-negative results in 0% (100% sensitivity). Conclusion: computer-aided US with hepatorenal gradient calculation is a simple and noninvasive technique for semiquantitative evaluation of hepatic echogenicity and could be useful in the follow-up of adolescents with NAFLD, population screening for this disease as well as for clinical studies. (author)

  6. Accuracy of computer-aided ultrasound as compared with magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese and eutrophic adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Jose Hermes Ribas do, E-mail: josehermesnascimento@gmail.com [Instituto Cenecista de Ensino Superior de Santo Angelo (IESA), Santo Angelo, RS (Brazil); Soder, Ricardo Bernardi; Epifanio, Matias; Baldisserotto, Matteo [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (InsCer/PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto do Cerebro

    2015-07-15

    Objective: to compare the accuracy of computer-aided ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by means of hepatorenal gradient analysis in the evaluation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adolescents. Materials and methods: this prospective, cross-sectional study evaluated 50 adolescents (aged 11-17 years), including 24 obese and 26 eutrophic individuals. All adolescents underwent computer-aided US, MRI, laboratory tests, and anthropometric evaluation. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy were evaluated for both imaging methods, with subsequent generation of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and calculation of the area under the ROC curve to determine the most appropriate cutoff point for the hepatorenal gradient in order to predict the degree of steatosis, utilizing MRI results as the gold-standard. Results: the obese group included 29.2% girls and 70.8% boys, and the eutrophic group, 69.2% girls and 30.8% boys. The prevalence of NAFLD corresponded to 19.2% for the eutrophic group and 83% for the obese group. The ROC curve generated for the hepatorenal gradient with a cutoff point of 13 presented 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. As the same cutoff point was considered for the eutrophic group, false-positive results were observed in 9.5% of cases (90.5% specificity) and false-negative results in 0% (100% sensitivity). Conclusion: computer-aided US with hepatorenal gradient calculation is a simple and noninvasive technique for semiquantitative evaluation of hepatic echogenicity and could be useful in the follow-up of adolescents with NAFLD, population screening for this disease as well as for clinical studies. (author)

  7. Accuracy of computer-aided ultrasound as compared with magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese and eutrophic adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Hermes Ribas do Nascimento

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective:To compare the accuracy of computer-aided ultrasound (US and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI by means of hepatorenal gradient analysis in the evaluation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in adolescents.Materials and Methods:This prospective, cross-sectional study evaluated 50 adolescents (aged 11–17 years, including 24 obese and 26 eutrophic individuals. All adolescents underwent computer-aided US, MRI, laboratory tests, and anthropometric evaluation. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy were evaluated for both imaging methods, with subsequent generation of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and calculation of the area under the ROC curve to determine the most appropriate cutoff point for the hepatorenal gradient in order to predict the degree of steatosis, utilizing MRI results as the gold-standard.Results:The obese group included 29.2% girls and 70.8% boys, and the eutrophic group, 69.2% girls and 30.8% boys. The prevalence of NAFLD corresponded to 19.2% for the eutrophic group and 83% for the obese group. The ROC curve generated for the hepatorenal gradient with a cutoff point of 13 presented 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. As the same cutoff point was considered for the eutrophic group, false-positive results were observed in 9.5% of cases (90.5% specificity and false-negative results in 0% (100% sensitivity.Conclusion:Computer-aided US with hepatorenal gradient calculation is a simple and noninvasive technique for semiquantitative evaluation of hepatic echogenicity and could be useful in the follow-up of adolescents with NAFLD, population screening for this disease as well as for clinical studies.

  8. International BMI-for-age references underestimate thinness and overestimate overweigth and obesity in Bolivian adolescents Las referencias internacionales de IMC por edad subestiman delgadez y sobreestiman sobrepeso y obesidad en adolescentes bolivianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baya Botti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since no growth standards for adolescents exist and a single reference applicable everywhere is still in debate, it is recognized that the best reference should be derived from the growth pattern of the healthy population that will use it. In 2007 a study developed references for body mass index for 12th to 18th y Bolivian school adolescent (BAP. Objectives: To compare nutritional status outcomes applying BMI references from the BAP, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention CDC 2000, the International Task Force (IOTF, and the 2007 WHO, to determine appropriateness of use in Bolivian adolescents. Subjects/methods: References were applied in 3306 adolescents, 45.0% male, 55% female, 12th to 18th y selected from a nationally representative sample. Results: Main findings reveal that the CDC and the 2007 WHO underestimate underweight (p Introducción: Puesto que no existen estándares de crecimiento para adolescentes y la aplicación de una sola referencia a nivel mundial es aún debatible, se reconoce que la mejor referencia es aquella derivada del patrón de crecimiento de la población saludable en la que será posteriormente utilizada. Por ello en 2007 se efectuó un estudio para desarrollar la Referencia Boliviana de IMC poredad (BAP para adolescentes entre 12 a 18 años. Objetivos: Comparar la clasificación de adolescentes por categorías nutricionales, aplicando las referencias de IMC boliviano (BAP, la referencia CDC 2000, los puntosde corte de IOTF y de la OMS, 2007. Métodos y población: Las referencias se aplicaron a los datos medidos de peso y talla de 3.306 adolescentes, 45% varones y 55% mujeres seleccionados de una muestrarepresentativa de la población boliviana. Resultados: Se observa que CDC y OMS 2007 subestiman la prevalencia de delgadez (P < 0,001 mientras que las tres referencias internacionales sobreestiman el sobrepeso(p < 0,001 con variaciones por edad y género. Conclusión: Se recomienda al personal de

  9. A Comparative Study of Breakfast Habits of Romanian and Spanish Adolescents Enrolled in Southern Spain Schools1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soriano-Ayala Encarnación

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globalization has favored intra-European Commission (EC and extra-EC migration to Spain. One of the most numerous cultural groups that have settled in the southern Spain is from Romania. Coexistence, especially in schools, has made us become interested in knowing the eating habits at breakfast of Romanian and Spanish populations. Numerous studies show that the food intake at breakfast, mostly made before leaving home, has an incidence on the physic wellbeing of adolescent throughout the day. The processes of acculturation are also inseparable from the eating habits, health and life, that maintain the migrant teenagers. Breakfast is analyzed as one of the habits more associated with diet quality; paradoxically, one of the findings of our study, many adolescents do not take a proper breakfast every day.

  10. Comparative light- and electro microscopic characteristics of thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents in Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    190 thyroid carcinomas in children aged up to 15 (154 cases) and adolescents aged 15 to 18 (36 cases) operated at the Institute's Clinic from 1986 to the 30th of June 1995, have been studied using light and electron microscopy. It has been found in 93.2% papillary, in 3.2% - medullary, in 1% - anaplastic carcinomas. A typical papillary carcinoma was revealed in 11.5%, follicular variant - in 39.0%, solid variant - in 28.1%, diffuse and sclerosing variant - in 3.8%. In cases of solid variant low-differentiated cells prevailed in the tumor, what manifested itself the most obviously by electron microscopic analysis. The thyroid carcinomas studied in children and adolescents of Ukraine are characterized by high invasive properties, that is confirmed by a high percentage (66.5%) of regional metastases

  11. Mercury accumulation in adolescents scalp hair and fish consumption: a case study comparing populations having natural or anthropogenic sources

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira H.C.; Soares A.M.V.M.; Morgado F.; Abreu S.N.

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of fish is usually considered the main route of contamination of mercury in humans. In a climate change scenario implying ocean acidification, mercury methylation is expected to increase leading to bioaccumulation increments in the food chain, affecting mainly coastal populations. In this study, mercury accumulation and fish consumption was evaluated considering mercury concentrations in human scalp hair in relation to fish consumption habits in adolescents (16 to 21 years ...

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Well-Being and Coping among Mothers of Toddlers and Mothers of Adolescents with ASD

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Leann E.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Greenberg, Jan S.; Carter, Alice S.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of autism symptoms and coping strategies on the well-being of mothers of children with ASD. The sample consisted of 153 mothers of toddlers and 201 mothers of adolescents drawn from two ongoing, longitudinal studies of families of individuals with ASD. For mothers of toddlers, lower levels of emotion-focused coping and higher levels of problem-focused coping were generally associated with better maternal well-being, regardless of the level of child sympto...

  13. A comparative study on the health and well-being of adolescent immigrants in Spain and Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel Hernando; Cristina Nunes; Carmen Cruz Torres; Ida Lemos; Sandra Valadas

    2013-01-01

    The terms on which the integration of new generations of immigrants into Portuguese and Spanish societies happens will have a decisive influence in the future of both countries. Therefore, promoting their health, well-being, and psychosocial adaptation is a matter of strategic interest. This paper analyses psychosocial factors associated with well-being and psychological adjustment on a sample of 108 adolescents (55 males and 53 females), children of immigrants from Huelva (Spain) and Algarve...

  14. A comparative study on the health and well-being of adolescent immigrants in Spain and Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Hernando

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The terms on which the integration of new generations of immigrants into Portuguese and Spanish societies happens will have a decisive influence in the future of both countries. Therefore, promoting their health, well-being, and psychosocial adaptation is a matter of strategic interest. This paper analyses psychosocial factors associated with well-being and psychological adjustment on a sample of 108 adolescents (55 males and 53 females, children of immigrants from Huelva (Spain and Algarve (Portugal, aged between 10 and 17 years. Adolescents were assessed for demographic characteristics and perceived well-being. We used the "KIDSCREEN-5", a self-report questionnaire that yields detailed profile information for children aged 8 to 18 years for the following ten dimensions: Physical well-being, Psychological well-being, Moods and emotions, Self-perception, Autonomy, Parental relationships and home life, Financial resources, Social support and peers, School environment, and Social acceptance (Bullying. Overall, significant differences were found between the Spanish and Portuguese samples on physical well-being, psychological well-being, mood, financial resources and social acceptance (bullying. Boys perceived themselves as having a better physical well-being than girls. Mothers' educational level was associated with psychological well-being and mood. Also, results suggested that residence location and other socio-demographical variables were not associated with the adolescents' well-being and psychological adjustment.

  15. The developmental effects of media-ideal internalization and self-objectification processes on adolescents' negative body-feelings, dietary restraint, and binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Fida, Roberta; Clerici, Massimo; Zanetti, Maria Assunta; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    Despite accumulated experimental evidence of the negative effects of exposure to media-idealized images, the degree to which body image, and eating related disturbances are caused by media portrayals of gendered beauty ideals remains controversial. On the basis of the most up-to-date meta-analysis of experimental studies indicating that media-idealized images have the most harmful and substantial impact on vulnerable individuals regardless of gender (i.e., "internalizers" and "self-objectifiers"), the current longitudinal study examined the direct and mediated links posited in objectification theory among media-ideal internalization, self-objectification, shame and anxiety surrounding the body and appearance, dietary restraint, and binge eating. Data collected from 685 adolescents aged between 14 and 15 at baseline (47 % males), who were interviewed and completed standardized measures annually over a 3-year period, were analyzed using a structural equation modeling approach. Results indicated that media-ideal internalization predicted later thinking and scrutinizing of one's body from an external observer's standpoint (or self-objectification), which then predicted later negative emotional experiences related to one's body and appearance. In turn, these negative emotional experiences predicted subsequent dietary restraint and binge eating, and each of these core features of eating disorders influenced each other. Differences in the strength of these associations across gender were not observed, and all indirect effects were significant. The study provides valuable information about how the cultural values embodied by gendered beauty ideals negatively influence adolescents' feelings, thoughts and behaviors regarding their own body, and on the complex processes involved in disordered eating. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:25416025

  16. Transferable Competences and the Students' View of Their Significance and Satisfaction with Them: International Comparative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smekalova, Lucie; Noom, Jan-Willem; Slavik, Milan

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the results of comparative research between the Czech Republic and the Netherlands. The subject of the research was the degree of student satisfaction with the acquired transferable competences and the subjective students' view of the degree to which transferable competences are significant for the employability of an individual…

  17. Trajetórias do desenvolvimento rural: pesquisa comparativa internacional. Rural development trajectories: international comparative research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der J.D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper contains a critical reflection on a comparative analysis of rural development processes in Brazil, the European Union and China. It argues that those contextual elements and/or process characteristics that are mostly ignored by a case-study approach (for being more or less invisible and/o

  18. Implementation of International Standards for Environmental Management in Visegrad Countries: a Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria URBANIEC

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper  aims  at  identifying  the  importance  and  relevant  practices related  to  international  standards  for  environmental  management  system  (EMS  in the  countries  of  the  Visegrad  Group  (including  Slovakia,  the  Czech  Republic,  Poland and Hungary. A  review  of  mainstream  literature  on  EMS  will  be conducted followed by document-based research as well  as statistics database used as  the  methodological  approach.  Data  will  be  gathered  through  the  evaluation  of Eurostat database and ISO Surveys. The  international  comparison  facilitates  the  evaluation  of current implementation  of  EMS  as  well  as  contributes  to  the  identification  of  the  main possibilities  and  limitations  for  its  development.  The  implementation  of  EMS according  to  the  ISO  14000  and  EMAS  can  help  companies  to  find  solutions  that support processes of environmental changes with the purpose to improve corporate innovativeness and competitiveness. This work is limited to the evaluation of  statistical data. Further, the detailed empirical research based on case study approach and indepth semi-structured interviews is needed to explain the difficulties experienced and benefits accrued during implementation of EMS. This  article  contributes  to  existing  literature  on corporate sustainable development by applying environmental management systems to the practices of entrepreneurs that have a goal of environmental sustainability.

  19. Benefits Of High Internal Work Motivation Comparing Retail Sector To Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rickey Casey

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Hackman and Oldhman Model has been tested in several areas with additional testing needed in the service sector.  This study tested the model within a manufacturing company and evaluated several of the dimensions of the model.  This paper will evaluate two of these dimensions; high internal work motivation and task significance.  The plan that was surveyed has a population of 1,000 with 200 sampled.  The company examined is a larger manufacturer of electric motors and the sample was taken from one plant with all three shifts samples.  The plant has a population of 1,000 with 200 sampled.  A comparison study was done in a major retail company.  From the survey sample of 534 employees of the retail company, 330 responses were returned, indicating a 62 percent response rate.  The average age of those responding to the survey was 37.9 years.  Males accounted for 22.7 percent of the respondents’ while 72.7 percent were female.

  20. Key challenges in simulated patient programs: An international comparative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNaughton Nancy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature on simulated or standardized patient (SP methodology is expanding. However, at the level of the program, there are several gaps in the literature. We seek to fill this gap through documenting experiences from four programs in Australia, Canada, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. We focused on challenges in SP methodology, faculty, organisational structure and quality assurance. Methods We used a multiple case study method with cross-case synthesis. Over eighteen months during a series of informal and formal interactions (focused meetings and conference presentations we documented key characteristics of programs and drew on secondary document sources. Results Although programs shared challenges in SP methodology they also experienced differences. Key challenges common to programs included systematic quality assurance and the opportunity for research. There were differences in the terminology used to describe SPs, in their recruitment and training. Other differences reflected local conditions and demands in organisational structure, funding relationships with the host institution and national trends, especially in assessments. Conclusion This international case study reveals similarities and differences in SP methodology. Programs were highly contextualised and have emerged in response to local, institutional, profession/discipline and national conditions. Broader trends in healthcare education have also influenced development. Each of the programs experienced challenges in the same themes but the nature of the challenges often varied widely.

  1. A Comparative Study of Databases with Different Methods of Internal Data Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Gyorödi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a comparative study between a non-relational MongoDB database and a relational Microsoft SQL Server database in the case of an unstructured representation of data, in XML or JSON format. We mainly focus our presentation on exploring all the possibilities that each type of database offers us, in the case that the data, which has to be stored, cannot or is not wanted to be normalized. This is a scenario most often found in production when, for the application that is being developed we are extracting unstructured data from social networks or all kinds of different channels that the user might have. The comparative study is based on the creation of a benchmark application developed in C# using Visual Studio 2013, which accesses databases created beforehand with proper optimizations that will be described.

  2. Comparative study of somatostatin-human serum albumin fusion proteins and natural somatostatin on receptor binding, internalization and activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Peng

    Full Text Available Albumin fusion technology, the combination of small molecular proteins or peptides with human serum albumin (HSA, is an effective method for improving the medicinal values of natural small molecular proteins or peptides. However, comparative studies between HSA-fusion proteins or peptides and the parent small molecules in biological and molecular mechanisms are less reported. In this study, we examined the binding property of two novel somatostatin-HSA fusion proteins, (SST142-HSA and (SST282-HSA, to human SSTRs in stably expressing SSTR1-5 HEK 293 cells; observed the regulation of receptor internalization and internalized receptor recycling; and detected the receptors activation of HSA fusion proteins in stably expressing SSTR2- and SSTR3-EGFP cells. We showed that both somatostatin-HSA fusion proteins had high affinity to all five SSTRs, stimulated the ERK1/2 phosphorylation and persistently inhibited the accumulation of forskolin-stimulated cAMP in SSTR2- and SSTR3-expressing cells; but were less potent than the synthetic somatostatin-14 (SST-14. Our experiments also showed that somatostatin-HSA fusion proteins did not induce the receptors internalization; rather, they accelerated the recycling of the internalized receptors induced by SST-14 to the plasma membrane. Our results indicated that somatostatin-HSA fusion proteins, different from SST-14, exhibit some particular properties in binding, regulating, and activating somatostatin receptors.

  3. Adolescent Psychology around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book paints a portrait of adolescent psychology in 4 major regions: Africa/the Middle East, Asia, the Americas, and Europe. Featuring 24 revised and updated chapters from the "International Encyclopedia of Adolescence" (2007), readers are introduced to the way the majority of the world's adolescents actually live. Most contributors are…

  4. Safety and Security: A proposal for Internationally Comparable Indicators of Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Rachael Diprose

    2007-01-01

    Violence impedes human freedom to live safely and securely, and can sustain poverty traps in many communities. A key challenge for academics, policy makers and practitioners working broadly in programs aimed at poverty alleviation, including violence prevention, is the lack of reliable and comparable data on the incidence and nature of violence. This paper proposes a household survey module for a multi-dimensional poverty questionnaire which can be used to complement the available data on the...

  5. International collaborative project to compare and track the nutritional composition of fast foods

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are the leading cause of premature death and disability in the world with over-nutrition a primary cause of diet-related ill health. Excess quantities of energy, saturated fat, sugar and salt derived from fast foods contribute importantly to this disease burden. Our objective is to collate and compare nutrient composition data for fast foods as a means of supporting improvements in product formulation. Methods/design Surveys of fast foods will be done in each parti...

  6. Elite female soccer players perform more high-intensity running when playing in international games compared with domestic league games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Helena A; Randers, Morten B; Heiner-Møller, Anja; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare movement pattern, fatigue development, and heart rate (HR) for top-class elite female players when playing international (INT) vs. domestic league games (DOM). Video-based time-motion analyses and HR recordings were performed on 17 players during INT and DOM. The distances covered in high-intensity running (HIR) and sprinting were longer (p game types, the amount of HIR was reduced by 24-27% (p game. The midfielders covered longer (p game and in the most intense 5-minute period of the games, whereas no differences were observed between the game types for defenders. No difference in the HR response was found between INT and DOM. In conclusion, more HIR and sprinting occur in international compared with domestic games, which may affect the fatigue development for players in physically demanding roles. Thus, our results are important to coaches to prepare players to meet the challenges of international soccer games and show that the ability to perform intense intermittent exercise should be trained regularly in elite female players.

  7. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  8. International Youth Justice Systems: Promoting Youth Development and Alternative Approaches: A Position Paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Youth incarceration is an international public health concern among developed and developing countries. Worldwide, youth are held in incarceration, detention, and other secure settings that are inappropriate for their age and developmental stages, jeopardizing their prosocial development, and reintegration into society. Youth incarceration lacks evidence and cost-effectiveness. The well-being of youth is a key indicator of the welfare of families, communities, and society at large; therefore, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) supports a paradigm shift in the role of the justice system as it relates to treatment of youth. SAHM recommends justice systems focus greater attention and resources on identifying and reducing the antecedents of high-risk and criminal behaviors, recognizing the rights and freedom of young persons, and prioritizing the well-being of youth over punitive measures that may harm and disrupt healthy adolescent development. SAHM supports the following positions: (1) incarceration is a last option for selected offenders who have committed the most serious violent crimes and are unable to remain safely in the community; (2) youth justice policies, programs, and practices affecting youth be evidence based and trauma informed; (3) youth justice policies, programs, and practices must incorporate research and ongoing program evaluation; (4) youth justice policies shall protect the privacy and dignity of children younger than 18 years; and (5) health care professionals and media will promote positive portrayals of youth in healthy relationships within their communities and reduce representations and images of youth that are negative, violent, deviant, and threatening. PMID:27664466

  9. Irish neonatal mortality statistics for 2004 and over the past 17 years: how do we compare internationally?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleming, P

    2012-02-01

    In the past 17 years neonatal mortality survey has provided important data on the trends in deaths of all live born infants born in Southern Ireland who are greater than 500 g birth weight and who die within the first 28 days of life. The aims of this study were to report neonatal mortality data for Southern Ireland for 2004, to examine trends in neonatal mortality over the past 17 years and compare Irish Neonatal Mortality rates to other countries around the world. The neonatal mortality rate for 2004 was 2.9\\/1000 with a corrected NMR of 1.9\\/1000. The response rate to the survey was 100%. Prematurity is now the leading cause of neonatal mortality representing a change from previous years. Deaths related to asphyxia have remained largely unchanged. When compared to international figures Ireland compares favourably to other countries around the world.

  10. COMPARATIVE INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES ON MARKET-ORIENTED MODELS OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaciu Diana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of corporate governance requires not only the knowledge of economic, financial, managerial and sociological mechanisms and norms, but it must also incorporate an ethical dimension, while remaining aware of the demands of various stakeholders. The interest towards good governance practice is very present in the company laws of many countries. National differences may lead to specific attributes derived from the meaning that is given to the role of competition and market dispersion of capital. Based on a research consisting of a critical and comparative perspective, the present contribution is dominated by qualitative and mixed methods. In conclusion, it can be said that a market-oriented corporate governance model, though not part of the European Union’s convergence process, may very well respond to the increasing importance of investors’ rights and to the gradual evolution of corporate responsibilities, beyond the national context, with the aim of ensuring market liberalization.

  11. The impact of cognitive strategy instruction on deaf learners: an international comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D S; Craft, A; Sheng, Z N

    2001-10-01

    Teacher cohorts in England and China received special training in techniques for teaching higher-level critical and creative cognitive strategies to deaf learners. Both cohorts implemented the strategies in the classroom at least twice weekly for 6 months. Measures included Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (1959), a systematic observation checklist for cognitive behaviors (Martin & Craft, 1998), and critical and creative problem situations to which students had to respond. Results were compared with those from a study of similar learners in the United States (Martin & Jonas, 1985), and little difference was found. Students in all three countries improved in reasoning, devising real-world problem solutions involving critical thinking (but not creative thinking), using cognitive vocabulary in the classroom, and expressing others' viewpoints. Postintervention focus groups showed teachers in China used a more invariant sequence in teaching the cognitive strategies, but teachers in all three countries experienced similar expansion in cognitive terminology and self-perceptions as teachers of problem solving.

  12. The impact of cognitive strategy instruction on deaf learners: an international comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D S; Craft, A; Sheng, Z N

    2001-10-01

    Teacher cohorts in England and China received special training in techniques for teaching higher-level critical and creative cognitive strategies to deaf learners. Both cohorts implemented the strategies in the classroom at least twice weekly for 6 months. Measures included Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (1959), a systematic observation checklist for cognitive behaviors (Martin & Craft, 1998), and critical and creative problem situations to which students had to respond. Results were compared with those from a study of similar learners in the United States (Martin & Jonas, 1985), and little difference was found. Students in all three countries improved in reasoning, devising real-world problem solutions involving critical thinking (but not creative thinking), using cognitive vocabulary in the classroom, and expressing others' viewpoints. Postintervention focus groups showed teachers in China used a more invariant sequence in teaching the cognitive strategies, but teachers in all three countries experienced similar expansion in cognitive terminology and self-perceptions as teachers of problem solving. PMID:11816861

  13. Group of Twenty Four Countries and Three Tiers: An International Comparative Study on China’s Urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Hao; Li; Min

    2015-01-01

    It is of great signif icance to conduct an international comparative study on China’s and other countries’ urbanization by taking the concept of "scale" as a crucial study point. This paper puts forward that countries with an area over two million km2 or a GDP over 650 billion dollars are comparable with China. Accordingly, there are 24 such countries in the world leading the global socio-economic development. For consisting of almost all types of countries, they can be considered as basic references for international comparative studies on China’s urbanization. Based on the relationship between urbanization and economic levels, the 24 countries can be divided into three tiers. The fi rst tier countries are mainly developed countries at high urbanization and economic levels; the second tier countries are later starters yet urbanized at a rapid speed, thus have fallen into the "middle-income trap" because of an imbalanced urbanization and economic development; the third tier countries including China and India are still in the starting phase of urbanization, and the key to their future development is a steady economic growth and a balanced urbanization and economic development.

  14. Stormwater Management Criteria for On-Site Pollution Control: A Comparative Assessment of International Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Jérémie; Berthier, Emmanuel; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2015-07-01

    Over the last decade, a growing interest has been shown toward innovative stormwater management practices, breaking away from conventional "end of pipe" approaches (based on conveying water offsite to centralized detention facilities). Innovative strategies, referred to as sustainable urban drainage systems, low impact development (LID) or green infrastructures, advocating for management of runoff as close to its origin as possible, have therefore gained a lot of popularity among practitioners and public authorities. However, while the need for pollution control is generally well accepted, there is no wide agreement about management criteria to be given to developers. This article hence aims to compare these criteria through literature analysis of different state or local stormwater management manuals or guidelines, investigating both their suitability for pollution control and their influence on best management practices selection and design. Four categories of criteria were identified: flow-rate limitations, "water quality volumes" (to be treated), volume reduction (through infiltration or evapotranspiration), and non-hydrologic criteria (such as loads reduction targets or maximum effluent concentrations). This study suggests that hydrologic criteria based on volume reduction (rather than treatment) might generally be preferable for on-site control of diffuse stormwater pollution. Nonetheless, determination of an appropriate management approach for a specific site is generally not straightforward and presents a variety of challenges for site designers seeking to satisfy local requirements in addressing stormwater quantity and quality issues. The adoption of efficient LID solution may therefore strongly depend on the guidance given to practitioners to account for these management criteria.

  15. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PERSONALITY OF INTERNATIONAL VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS OF BRAZIL AND INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Kadam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective was to study the personality of the volleyball players of India. All the players of Indian team and the players of Brazil team, who came for FIVB Men Volleyball World Championship held at Pune in August 2009, were selected for the study. They were administered the Cattell’s 16 PF questionnaire. The results wereanalyzed with the help of ‘t’ test which showed that there are significant differences found between Indian volleyball players and Brazilian Volleyball players on seven factors but not on nine factors of 16 PF Questionnaire. Indian players scored high on factor ‘F’, factor ‘I’ and factor ‘M’ whereas Brazilian players have scored high on factor ‘B’, factor ‘G’, factor ‘H’ and factor ‘L’. Indian players scored low on Factor B which means that they tend to be slow to learn and grasp and they were dull as compared with Brazilian team, and gives concrete and literal interpretation. This dullness simply represents poor functioning.

  16. Comparative measurement and quantitative risk assessment of alcohol consumption through wastewater-based epidemiology: An international study in 20 cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Barceló, Damià; Barron, Leon P.;

    2016-01-01

    ), and reports the application of these data for the risk assessment of alcohol on a population scale using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Raw 24-h composite wastewater samples were collected over a one-week period from 20 cities following a common protocol. For each sample a specific and stable alcohol...... consumption biomarker, ethyl sulfate (EtS) was determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The EtS concentrations were used for estimation of per capita alcohol consumption in each city, which was further compared with international reports and applied for risk assessment by MOE...

  17. Japanese Consumer Perceptions of Genetically Modified Food: Findings From an International Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Reports of food-related incidents, such as cows infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (2001) and the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011), engendered significant fear among Japanese consumers and led to multiple farmer suicides, even when no actual health damage occurred. The growing availability of genetically modified (GM) food is occurring against this backdrop of concern about food safety. Consumers need information to assess risk and make informed purchasing decisions. However, we lack a clear picture of Japanese consumer perceptions of GM food. Objective This study aims to understand Japanese consumer perceptions of GM food for risk communication. Consumer perceptions of GM food were compared among 4 nations. Methods A Web-based survey was conducted in Japan, the United States, the United Kingdom, and France. Participants were asked about demographics, fear of health hazards, resistance to GM and breeding-improved products, perception of GM technology and products, and willingness to pay. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted, as were t tests on dichotomous variables, and 1-way analysis of variance and post hoc tests. Results Of 1812 individuals who agreed to participate, 1705 (94%) responded: 457 from Japan and 416 each from France, the United States, and the United Kingdom. The male/female and age group ratios were all about even. Some resistance to GM food was seen in all countries in this study. France showed the strongest resistance (Pcommunication cues to start discussions about GM food among Japanese consumers. Although education-only risk communication generally is not effective, such an approach may work in Japan to help consumers better understand GM technology and, eventually, GM food. The gap between accepting GM technology and rejecting its application to food should be explored further. PMID:27573588

  18. Analysis of English language textbooks in the light of English as an International Language (EIL: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naji Meidani, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The global spread of the English language has not only resulted in more non-native speakers than native speakers (Crystal, 1997, but it has even put into question the ownership of the language (Widdowson, 1994; Brumfit, 1995. Therefore, English is recognized as an international language that does not belong to any particular country and is used for global, political, cultural and financial exchange. The following study aimed to find out to what extent English language textbooks demonstrate the international status of the language by comparing four different textbooks published in different years. To this purpose, the following criteria were taken into account: references to Inner Circle countries, references to Outer and Expanding Circle countries, non-native accents, dialogues in non-English speaking countries, place of home culture and famous people. The analysis revealed differences among the selected books with a gradual tendency towards more recognition of the international status of English. Finally, the results were discussed and some suggestions were made in the context of English language learning and teaching.

  19. Adolescent development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... rights and privileges. Establish and maintain satisfying relationships. Adolescents will learn to share intimacy without feeling worried ...

  20. Comparative analysis of the effects of internal lasing oscillation and external light injection on semiconductor optical amplifier performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jongwoon; Kawakami, Yoichi; Li, Xun; Huang, Wei-Ping

    2006-11-01

    One of the key differences of a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) with internal lasing oscillation (ILO) from a SOA with external light injection (ELI) lies in a carrier-sharing mechanism. Since the internal lasing mode shares the same pool of carriers with the signals, the carriers (or photons) withdrawn from the circulating laser mode speed up the gain recovery. On the other hand, the external light injected into the SOA shortens the carrier recovery time through optical pumping without any carrier sharing involved. To find out a better scheme, we have made a comparative investigation on the effects of the ILO and ELI on the SOA performance. It turns out by way of simulation that the ELI scheme provides faster gain recovery, shorter carrier lifetime, and higher saturation power when the external injection power is higher than the internal lasing power. The performance enhancement is not so pronounced with the carrier-sharing mechanism, as the internal lasing mode itself gives rise to severe longitudinal spatial hole burning (LSHB). Nevertheless, the ILO scheme is preferable for linear-amplification applications. We also examine the use of the ELI for low-crosstalk optical amplifiers. It is found that the ELI scheme does not bring in a very strong resonance peak in the crosstalk, which appears in a SOA with ILO due to relaxation oscillations of the lasing mode. In comparison to the ILO in SOAs, the ELI into SOAs is likely to leave more optical gain for multi-channel amplification without any sacrifice on the crosstalk.

  1. Internalized Sexualization and Its Relation to Sexualized Appearance, Body Surveillance, and Body Shame among Early Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Sarah J.; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2016-01-01

    Sexually objectifying messages about girls and women are common in U.S. popular culture. As a consequence of exposure to such messages, girls may develop "internalized sexualization," or internalization of the belief that sexual attractiveness to males is an important aspect of their identity. We hypothesized that internalized…

  2. Mental health service use for adolescents' internalizing problems: A comparison between four ethnic groups in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulp, E.E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the current thesis was to increase our understanding of the ethnic differences in mental health service use for adolescents’ internalizing problems. In the first part of the thesis, we examined whether questionnaires assessing adolescents’ internalizing problems could be validly use

  3. An air quality modeling study comparing two possible sites for the new international airport for Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazcilevich, Aron D; García, Agustín R; Ruiz-Suárez, L Gerardo; Cruz-Nuñez, Xóchitl; Delgado, Javier C; Tellez, Carlos; Chias, Luis B

    2003-03-01

    Using an air quality model, two future urban scenarios induced by the construction of the new international airport for Mexico City are compared at a regional level. The air quality model couples the meteorology model MM5 and state-of-the-art photochemistry. The air quality comparison is made using metrics for the criterion gases selected for the study. From the two urban scenarios compared, the option for Tizayuca is moderately better than the option for Texcoco, because relative reductions in O3 and other photochemical pollutants are achieved over highly populated areas. Regardless of the site, the air quality for the central region of Mexico in the future will deteriorate. In the region of central Mexico, SO2 and NO2 will become important pollutants.

  4. Adolescência, sexualidade e mídia: uma breve revisão da literatura nacional e internacional Adolescencia, sexualidad y medios de comunicación: una breve revisión de la literatura nacional e internacional Adolescence, sexuality and media: a brief revision of national and international literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel de Barros Pinto Miguel

    2007-08-01

    abordan los temas adolescencia y sexualidad, en especial en el ámbito nacional.This study had as objective identify to the existing production concerning the subjects adolescence, sexuality and media. To carry it out, surveys in international and national databases had been done, using related describing terms to the subject. In the joined references the subjects more investigated by its authors had been identified, being between them: informative rule of the media, the sexual content propagated by the media, its influence in the sexuality of the adolescent and relation between media and the preservation of the dominant paradigm. The media vehicles more explored in the studies are the television and the magazines. It was possible also to identify authors of relevance, as much in international as the national scope, as well as books and periodics that are reference in the area. It was evidenced the lack of production about of this thematic one, mainly when compared with the number of works approaching the subjects adolescence and sexuality, in special in national scope.

  5. Anti-gay sentiment among adolescents in Belgium and Canada: a comparative investigation into the role of gender and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooghe, Marc; Claes, Ellen; Harell, Allison; Quintelier, Ellen; Dejaeghere, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that opposition toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trangender (LGBT) rights remains prevalent among Western populations. In this article, we investigate the determinants of anti-gay attitudes among adolescents in two liberal democracies, Belgium (n = 6,330) and Canada (n = 3,334). The analysis indicates that hostile feelings toward LGBT rights are particularly widespread among boys, while the effects of socioeconomic status and parental education remain limited. Various religious denominations proved to have a strong and significant negative impact on tolerance, with especially high scores for Islam. Religious practice, too, contributes to a negative attitude toward LGBT rights. The consequences of these findings with regard to tolerance for gay rights among Islamic youth in Western democracies are discussed. PMID:20391000

  6. Anti-gay sentiment among adolescents in Belgium and Canada: a comparative investigation into the role of gender and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooghe, Marc; Claes, Ellen; Harell, Allison; Quintelier, Ellen; Dejaeghere, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that opposition toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trangender (LGBT) rights remains prevalent among Western populations. In this article, we investigate the determinants of anti-gay attitudes among adolescents in two liberal democracies, Belgium (n = 6,330) and Canada (n = 3,334). The analysis indicates that hostile feelings toward LGBT rights are particularly widespread among boys, while the effects of socioeconomic status and parental education remain limited. Various religious denominations proved to have a strong and significant negative impact on tolerance, with especially high scores for Islam. Religious practice, too, contributes to a negative attitude toward LGBT rights. The consequences of these findings with regard to tolerance for gay rights among Islamic youth in Western democracies are discussed.

  7. Impact of Behavioral Inhibition and Parenting Style on Internalizing and Externalizing Problems from Early Childhood through Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly E.; Henderson, Heather A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Pine, Daniel S.; Steinberg, Laurence; Fox, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is characterized by a pattern of extreme social reticence, risk for internalizing behavior problems, and possible protection against externalizing behavior problems. Parenting style may also contribute to these associations between BI and behavior problems (BP). A sample of 113 children was assessed for BI in the laboratory at 14 and 24 months of age, self-report of maternal parenting style at 7 years of age, and maternal report of child internalizing and externaliz...

  8. Interactions Between Internalizing Symptoms and Urgency in the Prediction of Alcohol Use and Expectancies Among Low-Income, Minority Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorstein, Naomi R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether urgency, a disposition to rash action under conditions of strong emotion, moderates associations between internalizing symptoms and alcohol use and related expectancies. Data from the Camden Youth Development Study, a longitudinal, community-based study of early adolescents (N = 144, mean age at intake = 11.9 years; 65% Hispanic, 30% African-American; 50% male), were used. Self-report questionnaire measures of depressive symptoms, social and generalized anxiety symptoms, urgency, alcohol use, and alcohol expectancies were used. Mixed models were used to examine the effects of internalizing symptoms, urgency, and their interaction on alcohol use and expectancy trajectories over time. Depressive symptoms interacted with urgency such that youth with high levels of both tended to have elevated levels of global positive alcohol expectancies. Social anxiety symptoms interacted with urgency to be associated with increasing levels of social behavior alcohol expectancies such that youth with high levels of both tended to experience particular increases in these expectancies over time. Generalized anxiety was not found to be associated with alcohol-related constructs. Therefore, high levels of urgency combine with depressive and social anxiety symptoms to be associated with particularly increased risk for alcohol expectancies that are associated with later alcohol use and problems, indicating particular risk for youth with these combinations of personality traits and psychopathology symptoms. PMID:27512337

  9. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and measurement error of the self-report version of the social skills rating system in a sample of Australian adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Vaz

    Full Text Available The social skills rating system (SSRS is used to assess social skills and competence in children and adolescents. While its characteristics based on United States samples (US are published, corresponding Australian figures are unavailable. Using a 4-week retest design, we examined the internal consistency, retest reliability and measurement error (ME of the SSRS secondary student form (SSF in a sample of Year 7 students (N = 187, from five randomly selected public schools in Perth, western Australia. Internal consistency (IC of the total scale and most subscale scores (except empathy on the frequency rating scale was adequate to permit independent use. On the importance rating scale, most IC estimates for girls fell below the benchmark. Test-retest estimates of the total scale and subscales were insufficient to permit reliable use. ME of the total scale score (frequency rating for boys was equivalent to the US estimate, while that for girls was lower than the US error. ME of the total scale score (importance rating was larger than the error using the frequency rating scale. The study finding supports the idea of using multiple informants (e.g. teacher and parent reports, not just student as recommended in the manual. Future research needs to substantiate the clinical meaningfulness of the MEs calculated in this study by corroborating them against the respective Minimum Clinically Important Difference (MCID.

  10. Normal sizes of internal jugular veins in children/adolescents aged birth to 18 years at rest and during the Valsalva maneuver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: We aimed to establish normal ultrasonographic (US) values of internal jugular vein (IJV) sizes in children/adolescents aged birth to 18 years and to determine the correlation of US measurements with age, height, weight and body surface area (BSA) of children in different age groups. Methods: Two hundred and thirty-six healthy children (0–18 years) were divided into four groups according to their age (0–2, 3–6, 7–12, and 13–18 years). US measurements (transverse, anteroposterior diameter, and cross-sectional area at rest and during the Valsalva maneuver) of bilateral IJVs were taken at the level of cricoid cartilage. Results: Our study gives information about the reference values in children between birth to 18 years of age. There were significant differences between measurements taken at rest and during the Valsalva maneuver in all age groups. Moderate to strong correlations (clinically significant) between age, height and BSA of the subjects and IJV measurements were detected only in the 0–2 years age group. The strength of the correlations decreased with increasing age. Pearson's correlation revealed that height had the strongest and weight had the weakest correlation with US measurements. ‘Height’ was an independent variable on the right, and ‘age’ on the left side, except for rest CSA, when a regression analysis was performed for clinically significant correlations. Conclusions: Determination of normal reference values for US measurements of the IJV and knowledge of correlation with age, height, weight and BSA might be valuable during interventional procedures and for the diagnosis of phlebectasia in children/adolescents

  11. Comparative morphology of the axial complex and interdependence of internal organ systems in sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegler Alexander

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The axial complex of echinoderms (Echinodermata is composed of various primary and secondary body cavities that interact with each other. In sea urchins (Echinoidea, structural differences of the axial complex in "regular" and irregular species have been observed, but the reasons underlying these differences are not fully understood. In addition, a better knowledge of axial complex diversity could not only be useful for phylogenetic inferences, but improve also an understanding of the function of this enigmatic structure. Results We therefore analyzed numerous species of almost all sea urchin orders by magnetic resonance imaging, dissection, histology, and transmission electron microscopy and compared the results with findings from published studies spanning almost two centuries. These combined analyses demonstrate that the axial complex is present in all sea urchin orders and has remained structurally conserved for a long time, at least in the "regular" species. Within the Irregularia, a considerable morphological variation of the axial complex can be observed with gradual changes in topography, size, and internal architecture. These modifications are related to the growing size of the gastric caecum as well as to the rearrangement of the morphology of the digestive tract as a whole. Conclusion The structurally most divergent axial complex can be observed in the highly derived Atelostomata in which the reorganization of the digestive tract is most pronounced. Our findings demonstrate a structural interdependence of various internal organs, including digestive tract, mesenteries, and the axial complex.

  12. The gravitational signature of internal flows in giant planets: Comparing the thermal wind approach with barotropic potential-surface methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, Y.; Davighi, J. E.; Galanti, E.; Hubbard, W. B.

    2016-09-01

    The upcoming Juno and Cassini gravity measurements of Jupiter and Saturn, respectively, will allow probing the internal dynamics of these planets through accurate analysis of their gravity spectra. To date, two general approaches have been suggested for relating the flow velocities and gravity fields. In the first, barotropic potential surface models, which naturally take into account the oblateness of the planet, are used to calculate the gravity field. However, barotropicity restricts the flows to be constant along cylinders parallel to the rotation axis. The second approach, calculated in the reference frame of the rotating planet, assumes that due to the large scale and rapid rotation of these planets, the winds are to leading order in geostrophic balance. Therefore, thermal wind balance relates the wind shear to the density gradients. While this approach can take into account any internal flow structure, it is limited to only calculating the dynamical gravity contributions, and has traditionally assumed spherical symmetry. This study comes to relate the two approaches both from a theoretical perspective, showing that they are analytically identical in the barotropic limit, and numerically, through systematically comparing the different model solutions for the gravity harmonics. For the barotropic potential surface models we employ two independent solution methods - the potential-theory and Maclaurin spheroid methods. We find that despite the sphericity assumption, in the barotropic limit the thermal wind solutions match well the barotropic oblate potential-surface solutions.

  13. From the 1930 International Johannesburg conference on silicosis, to "tables" of occupational diseases, France, 2000 onward: A comparative reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalin, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Through the concept of "thought collectives" in particular, Ludwik Fleck was a pioneer in demonstrating how much scientific knowledge is inherently made up of social and historical material. In this article, I propose to follow a Fleckian path by comparing the proceedings of the 1930 International Labour Office Conference on silicosis in Johannesburg on the one hand, and on the other the content of the debates that took place in France in the 2000s to revise the "tables" of occupational diseases which define the compensation rules for salaried workers in the French general (as well as the farm) health insurance scheme. The text offers an analysis of the striking similarities between these two distant sources, pointing out particularly the repetitiveness of ignorance and knowledge, and the nature of what can be admitted as a body of "evidence" in medico-legal issues such as the definition and compensation of occupational diseases. PMID:26509754

  14. Measuring international electricity integration: a comparative study of the power systems under the Nordic Council, MERCOSUR, and NAFTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineau, P.-O. E-mail: ppineau@uvic.ca; Hira, Anil E-mail: ahira@sfu.ca; Froschauer, Karl E-mail: froschau@sfu.ca

    2004-09-01

    Many regions of the world feel the pressure to interconnect electric power systems internationally. Regional integrations of the electricity sector have become part of free trade and common market initiatives, though the steps individual national jurisdictions take towards developing integrated systems vary. In this article, we review three regions concerned with common market initiatives and at different stages of integration processes that involve infrastructural, regulatory, and commercial decisions. First, we examine the North European countries in the Nordic Council, then countries in the Southern Cone of South America in MERCOSUR, and finally Mexico, the United States and Canada, linked under NAFTA. This comparative study highlights the potential, but also the many hurdles, that electricity sector integrations face. The study suggests a framework for measuring the level of electricity sector integration that could be applied to other regions.

  15. Comparative study on disappearance trends of captan and trifloxystrobin residues on fruit and apple tree leaves using internal normalisation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadło, Stanisław; Duda, Magdalena; Piechowicz, Bartosz; Jaźwa, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Supervised field trials were carried out in a commercial orchard in 2011. The purpose of the study was to assess the usefulness of the comparative method to examine the mechanism of disappearance of pesticide residues. Captan and trifloxystrobin residues were determined with the use of gas chromatograph equipped with a micro-electron capture detector. Disappearance trends of captan and trifloxystrobin residues in fruit and leaves were estimated using the method of internal normalisation, and based on that, the courses of concentration changes of these substances on fruit and leaves and the amount of these substances in one apple were established. The initial deposits of trifloxystrobin on leaves and fruits dropped by 50% within 8 and 4 days after treatment, respectively, in both varieties, whereas captan residues dropped by 50% within 29 days in leaves and 7 days in apples of the Olive Yellow varieties.

  16. Iran and Syria, a changing foreign policy. A comparative analysis of their internal links and influence regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Guerrero Turbay

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there have been changes in the foreign policy of Syria and Iran, showing how their goals are far from immutable. Typically they have been associated and in some circles they talk of an alliance. However, this paper aims to show that although there is a convergence in a number of issues, their foreign policy priorities put them away. For this, the text is divided into two parts. First, there is a comparison of the internal links that condition the foreign policy in each state. Secondly, regional (and global? projection of the two nations is contrasted. Throughout the document, the notion of James Rosenau´s comparative study of foreign policy will be taken as a reference.

  17. Child and adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems 12 months postburn: the potential role of preburn functioning, parental posttraumatic stress, and informant bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egberts, Marthe R; van de Schoot, Rens; Boekelaar, Anita; Hendrickx, Hannelore; Geenen, Rinie; Van Loey, Nancy E E

    2016-07-01

    Adjustment after pediatric burn injury may be a challenge for children as well as their parents. This prospective study examined associations of internalizing and externalizing problems in children and adolescents 12 months postburn with preburn functioning, and parental acute and chronic posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) from different perspectives. Child, mother, and father reports of 90 children (9-18 years), collected within the first month and 12 months postburn, were analyzed. Results indicated that overall, child and parental appraisals of pre- and postburn behavioral problems were not significantly different from reference data. Rates of (sub)clinical postburn behavioral problems ranged from 6 to 17 %, depending on the informant. Pre- and postburn behavioral problems were significantly related, but only from the parents' perspective. Path models showed an association between parental PTSS 12 months postburn and parental reports of child internalizing problems, as well as a significant indirect relationship from parental acute stress symptoms via PTSS 12 months postburn. Notably, no associations between parental PTSS and child reports of postburn behavioral problems were found. In conclusion, parental observations of child externalizing problems appear to be influenced by their perspectives on the child's preburn functioning, while parental observations of internalizing problems are also related to long-term parental PTSS. However, these factors seem of no great value in predicting behavioral problems from the child's perspective, suggesting substantial informant deviations. To optimize adjustment, clinical burn practice is recommended to adopt a family perspective including parent perception of preburn functioning and parental PTSS in assessment and intervention. PMID:26608402

  18. Comparative internal friction and modulus evolutions in Ni-Ti and Ni-Ti-Cu shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubaa, K.; Masse, M.; Bouquet, G.

    1992-08-01

    Internal friction and modulus measurements are performed for the purpose of a comparative study between the structural evolutions occurring, under the effect of the temperature, in two kinds of shape memory alloys: Ni-Ti and Ni-Ti-Cu. Modulus evolutions giving information about the changes in the relative percentages of martensitic and B2 high temperature phases, are useful for the determination of “start” and “finish” transformation temperatures. Internal friction measurements, specially sensitive to structural changes occurring on atomic scale, allow the detection of atomic reorganizations preceding or following the transformation: the R-phase occurrence, on cooling or on heating, the reorientation of martensitic variants on heating. The comparison between the internal friction background levels of each alloy reveals the effect of structural instabilities, specific of Ni-Ti-Cu alloys, and which can be associated with the Cu content. Des mesures de frottement intérieur et de module ont été utilisées en vue de comparer les évolutions structurales intervenant, en fonction de la température, dans deux familles d'alliages à mémoire de forme: Ni-Ti et Ni-Ti-Cu. Les variations de module, sensibles aux proportions relatives des phases martensitique et B2 de haute température, s'avèrent très adaptées à la détermination précise des températures de début et de fin de transformation. Le frottement intérieur, quant à lui, donne des renseignements sur des réorganisations se produisant, à l'échelle atomique, avant ou après la transformation martensitique: apparition de la phase-R, réorientation de variantes de martensite, par exemple,. La comparaison des niveaux du fond de frottement intérieur, relatifs à chaque alliage, montre des différences qui peuvent être associées à des instabilités structurales spécifiques de la présence de cuivre dans les allianges Ni-Ti-Cu.

  19. Comparative analysis of effectiveness of treatment with anti-TB drugs of the 1st and 2nd lines for children and adolescents with multidrug resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tleukhan Abildaev

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows results of study on comparative treatment effectiveness in children and adolescents with from multi drug resistant tuberculosis MDR TB (2000-2008 treated with anti-TB drugs of the 2nd line (80 patients and 1st line (80 patients in the Kazakhstan. It was stated in patients with MDR TB that outcomes of treatment were successful in 91.2%, but relapse development of TB disease occurred in 12.7% of cases, and 5 (6.2% patients died (P ≤0.05. Thus, patients with MDR TB need to be treated with anti-TB drugs of the 2nd line accordingly to their DST.

  20. Comparing Outcomes of Two Types of Bariatric Surgery in an Adolescent Obese Population: Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass versus Sleeve Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana D Maffazioli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is prevalent among adolescents and is associated with serious health consequences. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB and Sleeve Gastrectomy (SG are bariatric procedures that cause significant weight loss in adults and are increasingly being performed in adolescents with morbid obesity. Data comparing outcomes of RYGB versus SG in this age-group are scarce. This study aims to compare short-term (1-6 months and longer-term (7-18 months body mass index (BMI and biochemical outcomes following RYGB and SG in adolescents/young adults.Methods: A retrospective study using data extracted from medical records of patients 16-21 years who underwent RYGB or SG between 2012-2014 at a tertiary care academic medical center. Results: Forty-six patients were included in this study: 24 underwent RYGB and 22 underwent SG. Groups did not differ for baseline age, sex, race or BMI. BMI reductions were significant at 1-6 months and 7-18 months within groups (p<0.0001, but did not differ by surgery type (p= 0.65 and 0.09, for 1-6 months and 7-18 months, respectively. Over 7-18 months, within-group improvement in low density lipoprotein (LDL (-24±6 in RYGB, p=0.003, vs. -7±9mg/dL in SG, p=0.50 and non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL cholesterol (-23±8 in RYGB, p=0.02, vs. -12±7 in SG, p=0.18 appeared to be of greater magnitude following RYGB. However, differences between groups did not reach statistical significance. When divided by non-alcoholic steatohepatitis stages (NASH, patients with Stage II-III NASH had greater reductions in ALT levels vs. those with Stage 0-I NASH (-45±18 vs -9±3, p=0.01 after 7-18 months. RYGB and SG groups did not differ for the magnitude of post-surgical changes in liver enzymes. Conclusion: RYGB and SG did not differ for the magnitude of BMI reduction across groups, though changes trended higher following RYGB. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  1. International Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Psychopathology II: Integration and Applications of Dimensional Findings from 44 Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Begovac, Ivan; Chahed, Myriam; Drugli, May Britt; Emerich, Deisy Ribas; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Haider, Mariam; Hansson, Kjell; Hewitt, Nohelia; Jaimes, Stefanny; Larsson, Bo; Maggiolini, Alfio; Markovic, Jasminka; Mitrovic, Dragan; Moreira, Paulo; Oliveira, Joao Tiago; Olsson, Martin; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Petot, Djaouida; Pisa, Cecilia; Pomalima, Rolando; da Rocha; Marina Monzani; Rudan, Vlasta; Sekulic, Slobodan; Shahini, Mimoza; de Mattos Silvares, Edwiges Ferreira; Szirovicza, Lajos; Valverde, Jose; Vera, Luis Anderssen; Villa, Maria Clara; Viola, Laura; Woo, Bernadine S. C.; Zhang, Eugene Yuqing

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To build on Achenbach, Rescorla, and Ivanova (2012) by (a) reporting new international findings for parent, teacher, and self-ratings on the Child Behavior Checklist, Youth Self-Report, and Teacher's Report Form; (b) testing the fit of syndrome models to new data from 17 societies, including previously underrepresented regions; (c)…

  2. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study) : an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ederle, Joerg; Dobson, Joanna; Featherstone, Roland L.; Bonati, Leo H.; van der Worp, H. Bart; de Borst, Gert J.; Lo, T. Hauw; Gaines, Peter; Dorman, Paul J.; Macdonald, Sumaira; Lyrer, Philippe A.; Hendriks, Johanna M.; McCollum, Charles; Nederkoorn, Paul J.; Brown, Martin M.; Algra, A.; Bamford, J.; Beard, J.; Bland, M.; Bradbury, A. W.; Brown, M. M.; Clifton, A.; Gaines, P.; Hacke, W.; Halliday, A.; Malik, I.; Mas, J. L.; McGuire, A. J.; Sidhu, P.; Venables, G.; Bradbury, A.; Brown, M. M.; Clifton, A.; Gaines, P.; Collins, R.; Molynewc, A.; Naylor, R.; Warlow, C.; Ferro, J. M.; Thomas, D.; Bonati, L. H.; Coward, L.; Dobson, J.; Ederle, J.; Featherstone, R. F.; Tindall, H.; McCabe, D. J. H.; Wallis, A.; Brooks, M.; Chambers, B.; Chan, A.; Chu, P.; Clark, D.; Dewey, H.; Donnan, G.; Fell, G.; Hoare, M.; Molan, M.; Roberts, A.; Roberts, N.; Beiles, B.; Bladin, C.; Clifford, C.; Fell, G.; Grigg, M.; New, G.; Bell, R.; Bower, S.; Chong, W.; Holt, M.; Saunder, A.; Than, P. G.; Gett, S.; Leggett, D.; McGahan, T.; Quinn, J.; Ray, M.; Wong, A.; Woodruff, P.; Foreman, R.; Schultz, D.; Scroop, R.; Stanley, B.; Allard, B.; Atkinson, N.; Cambell, W.; Davies, S.; Field, P.; Milne, P.; Mitchell, P.; Tress, B.; Yan, B.; Beasley, A.; Dunbabin, D.; Stary, D.; Walker, S.; Cras, P.; d'Archambeau, O.; Hendriks, J. M. H.; Van Schil, P.; Bosiers, M.; Deloose, K.; van Buggenhout, E.; De Letter, J.; Devos, V.; Ghekiere, J.; Vanhooren, G.; Astarci, P.; Hammer, F.; Lacroix, V.; Peeters, A.; Verhelst, R.; DeJaegher, L.; Peeters, A.; Verbist, J.; Blair, J-F; Caron, J. L.; Daneault, N.; Giroux, M-F; Guilbert, F.; Lanthier, S.; Lebrun, L-H; Oliva, V.; Raymond, J.; Roy, D.; Soulez, G.; Weill, A.; Hill, M.; Hu, W.; Hudion, M.; Morrish, W.; Sutherland, G.; Wong, J.; Alback, A.; Harno, H.; Ijas, P.; Kaste, M.; Lepantalo, M.; Mustanoja, S.; Paananen, T.; Porras, M.; Putaala, J.; Railo, M.; Sairanen, T.; Soinne, L.; Vehmas, A.; Vikatmaa, P.; Goertler, M.; Halloul, Z.; Skalej, M.; Brennan, P.; Kelly, C.; Leahy, A.; Moroney, J.; Thornton, J.; Koelemay, M. J. W.; Nederkoorn, P. J.; Reekers, J. A. A.; Roos, Y. B. W. E. M.; Hendriks, J. M.; Koudstaal, P. J.; Pattynama, P. M. T.; van der Lugt, A.; van Dijk, L. C.; van Sambeek, M. R. H. M.; van Urk, H.; Verhagen, H. J. M.; Bruininckx, C. M. A.; de Bruijn, S. F.; Keunen, R.; Knippenberg, B.; Mosch, A.; Treurniet, F.; van Dijk, L.; van Overhagen, H.; Wever, J.; de Beer, F. C.; van den Berg, J. S. P.; van Hasselt, B. A. A. M.; Zeilstra, D. J.; Boiten, J.; van Otterloo, J. C. A. de Mol; de Vries, A. C.; Nieholt, G. J. Lycklama A.; van der Kallen, B. F. W.; Blankensteijn, J. D.; De Leeuw, F. E.; Kool, L. J. Schultze; van der Vliet, J. A.; de Borst, G. J.; de Kort, G. A. P.; Kapelle, L. J.; Lo, T. H.; Mali, W. P. Th M.; Moll, F.; van der Worp, H. Bart; Verhagen, H.; Barber, P. A.; Bourchier, R.; Hill, A.; Holden, A.; Stewart, J.; Bakke, S. J.; Krohg-Sorensen, K.; Skjelland, M.; Tennoe, B.; Bialek, P.; Biejat, Z.; Czepiel, W.; Czlonkowska, A.; Dowzenko, A.; Jedrzejewska, J.; Kobayashi, A.; Lelek, M.; Polanski, J.; Kirbis, J.; Milosevic, Z.; Zvan, B.; Blasco, J.; Chamorro, A.; Macho, J.; Obach, V.; Riambau, V.; San Roman, L.; Branera, J.; Canovas, D.; Estela, Jordi; Gimenez Gaibar, A.; Perendreu, J.; Bjorses, K.; Gottsater, A.; Ivancev, K.; Maetzsch, T.; Sonesson, B.; Berg, B.; Delle, M.; Formgren, J.; Gillgren, P.; Kall, T-B; Konrad, P.; Nyman, N.; Takolander, R.; Andersson, T.; Malmstedt, J.; Soderman, M.; Wahlgren, C.; Wahlgren, N.; Binaghi, S.; Hirt, L.; Michel, P.; Ruchat, P.; Bonati, L. H.; Engelter, S. T.; Fluri, F.; Guerke, L.; Jacob, A. L.; Kirsch, E.; Lyrer, P. A.; Radue, E-W; Stierli, P.; Wasner, M.; Wetzel, S.; Bonvin, C.; Kalangos, A.; Lovblad, K.; Murith, N.; Ruefenacht, D.; Sztajzel, R.; Higgins, N.; Kirkpatrick, P. J.; Martin, P.; Adam, D.; Bell, J.; Bradbury, A. W.; Crowe, P.; Gannon, M.; Henderson, M. J.; Sandler, D.; Shinton, R. A.; Scriven, J. M.; Wilmink, T.; D'Souza, S.; Egun, A.; Guta, R.; Punekar, S.; Seriki, D. M.; Thomson, G.; Brennan, A.; Enevoldson, T. P.; Gilling-Smith, G.; Gould, D. A.; Harris, P. L.; McWilliams, R. G.; Nasser, H-C; White, R.; Prakash, K. G.; Serracino-Inglott, F.; Subramanian, G.; Symth, J. V.; Walker, M. G.; Clarke, M.; Davis, M.; Dixit, S. A.; Dolman, P.; Dyker, A.; Ford, G.; Golkar, A.; Jackson, R.; Jayakrishnan, V.; Lambert, D.; Lees, T.; Louw, S.; Macdonald, S.; Mendelow, A. D.; Rodgers, H.; Rose, J.; Stansby, G.; Wyatt, M.; Baker, T.; Baldwin, N.; Jones, L.; Mitchell, D.; Munro, E.; Thornton, M.; Baker, D.; Davis, N.; Hamilton, G.; McCabe, D.; Platts, A.; Tibballs, J.; Beard, J.; Cleveland, T.; Dodd, D.; Gaines, P.; Lonsdale, R.; Nair, R.; Nassef, A.; Nawaz, S.; Venables, G.; Belli, A.; Clifton, A.; Cloud, G.; Halliday, A.; Markus, H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. Methods The International Carotid

  3. Gestação na adolescência precoce e tardia: há diferença nos riscos obstétricos? Precocious and late pregnancy in adolescents: is there a difference comparing the obstetric risks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Caltabiano Magalhães

    2006-08-01

    ça nos escores de Apgar no primeiro minuto.PURPOSE: to describe the obstetric outcomes in pregnant adolescents at a tertiary hospital and to compare the maternal and labor outcomes between precocious and late adolescents. METHODS: in a transversal analytical study, 2058 cases were evaluated, considering 322 (15.65% from the precocious group and 1736 (84.35% from the late group that delivered at the "Maternidade Escola Assis Chateaubriand/UFC" from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2000. The clinical complications in the prenatal period, kind of delivery, indications for cesarean section, birth gestational age at birth, birth weight, comparison of birth weight and gestational age, Apgar score at the first and fifth minute, presence of malformations, and neonatal death were analyzed. The exact Fisher and the chi2 tests were used to compare both groups. The prevalence ratio was calculated. RESULTS: from of total of deliveries, 25.95% belonged to adolescents. The average age was 17.19 years. Prenatal visits were made by 88% of the patients, but 60% had an insufficient number of visits. The most frequent clinical situations were preeclampsia (14.72%, anemia (12.97% and urinary tract infections (6.37%, with no statistical difference between the groups. Thirty-one and three percent of the births were by cesarean section, preeclampsia being the main indication in the two age groups (25 and 23%, respectively. The frequency of an Apgar score less than 7 at the first minute was 19,9% in the precocious adolescent group and 14,2% in the late adolescent group (x²=6,96, p=0.008. There was no statistical difference regarding prematurity rate (20.2 vs 16.1%, low-birth weight infants (12.4 vs 10.4%, low Apgar score at the fifth minute (5.3 vs 3.3%, congenital malformations (3.1 vs 2.7%, and neonatal death (5.3 vs 3.3%. CONCLUSIONS: the precocious and late pregnant adolescents presented similar pregnancy evolution and obstetric outcomes, except for the differences of the first minute Apgar

  4. [Violence prevention in childhood and adolescence--a brief overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawils, Silke; Metzner, Franka

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents can be associated with physical and psychological health effects continuing into adulthood. Early programs for violence prevention in childhood and adolescence are intended to prevent or reduce aggressive behaviour in order to decrease the risk for short- and long-term developmental impairments. In a literature review, research findings on prevalence, typical courses of development, and predictors of violent behavior in childhood are first summarized and compared with findings on the frequency, developmental course, and consequences of youth violence. International and German programs for violence prevention in children and adolescents are presented in the context of various settings (family, school, community), target groups (primary vs. secondary prevention) as well as target variables (universal vs. specific). Empirical findings on efficacy testing of violence prevention programs are described and discussed. The presented findings stress the relevance and potential of services for violence prevention for children and adolescents, but also demonstrate the challenges and gaps. PMID:26459567

  5. International research on the civic engagement of the youth and adolescents. Young citizens in the digital age

    OpenAIRE

    María Carmen Robles Vílchez

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of some of the research in the international context aimed at unveiling and valuing the experience of young people in experiences and beliefs regarding citizenship (Burke, 2007). Such research is generally intended to obtain information on students’ knowledge, attitudes and civic behavior in their own schools. We will highlight throughout the present paper that previous studies and the current state of scientific knowledge in civic education focuses on purely fo...

  6. Relationship between migraine and sleep disorders in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Waty

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Headaches and sleep disorders may influence academic performances, personality, memory, and interpersonal relationships. Migraine is the most common headache type seen in adolescents. Although headaches and sleep disorders are believed to be related, there has been little study in this area. Objectives To assess the relationship between migraine and sleep disorders in adolescents and compare different types of sleep disorders found in adolescents with migraine vs. healthy adolescents. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in December 2009 on students of three junior high schools in the Secanggang District, Langkat Rregency, North Sumatera. We included adolescents aged 12 to 17 years who suffered from migraines, as defined by the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition criteria (ICHD-II, and healthy adolescents who did not experience migraines as the control group. Parents filled questionnaires on their child’s sleep patterns for one week. Results A total of 100 adolescents were enrolled in the study, consisted of 50 adolescents in the migraine group and the others 50 in the control group. There was a significant difference in the incidence of sleep disorders between the two groups (76% and 30%, in the case and control groups, respectively; P=0.0001. Moreover, significant differences were also found in the prevalence of different sleeping disorder types between the case and control groups, i.e. insomnia (62% and 30%, respectively; P=0.003, sleep apnea (56% and 16%, respectively; P=0.0001, restlessness (56% and 18%, respectively; P=0.0001, parasomnia (76% and 10%, respectively; P=0.0001, narcolepsy (42% and 16%, respectively; P=0.008, and excessive daytime sleepiness (50% and 26%, respectively; P= 0.023. Conclusions Migraine in adolescents is significantly associated with sleep disorders. Parasomnia is the most common type of sleeping disorder observed in adolescents with migraines in our study

  7. Anger Communication in Bicultural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novin, Sheida; Rieffe, Carolien

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about bicultural adolescents' emotional competence. The aim of the present study was to examine anger communication by comparing thirty-eight 16-year-old Moroccan-Dutch adolescents with 40 Dutch and 40 Moroccan peers using hypothetical anger-eliciting vignettes. Findings show that although Moroccan and Dutch adolescents were…

  8. The Survey of criterion of gravity threshold for prosecution of crimes in international criminal court: comparative view on other international courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Saber

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Survey of criterion of gravity threshold for prosecution of crimes in international criminal court One of the issues that have gained a good place in considerations of the office of the prosecution and Icc, is the gravity threshold set out in paragraph 1(d of article 17 of statute. This concept has some challenges: challenges such as lack of definition, lack of criterion for satisfaction of this concept. Given to the fact that gravity threshold is one part of admissibility mechanism, these ambiguities can disturb the legitimacy and function of international criminal court as the first permanent international criminal court. Hence, the purpose in present paper is to clarify this significant concept. Moreover, the gravity threshold criterions and the role of this concept in situation and cases also have been analyzed. Finally, it is concluded that due to political considerations, the clarification of gravity threshold is seriously needed.

  9. Chest x ray films from construction workers: International Labour Office (ILO 1980) classification compared with routine readings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, M; Engholm, G; Fröström, K; Kheddache, S; Larsson, S; Swantesson, L

    1992-12-01

    The extent of agreement between International Labour Office (ILO) and clinical readings of chest x ray films from construction workers was studied. From a survey of 5898 workers 258 subjects with a profusion of small opacities of > or = 1/1 and a stratified sample of subjects with profusion ILO profusion category > or = 1/1 were clinically recorded as non-normal for the parenchyma. The proportion of films recorded as pneumoconiotic (or possibly so) was especially low for irregular opacities (22%), but increased with the profusion category (both rounded and irregular) as well as with the size of rounded opacities (p 3/11, q 12/25, r 3/4). Only with the profusion category > or = 2/1 were most of the films recorded as pneumoconiotic. The specificity and sensitivity were highest in the geographical areas where a few clinical readers had assessed many films each. The proportion of false negative clinical reports was low for circumscribed pleural thickening of the chest wall (9%) and diaphragmatic pleural thickening (6%). For calcified pleural changes and for the combination of diffuse pleural thickening and obliteration of the costophrenic angle, false negative reports were absent. The present study shows an unsatisfactory sensitivity for clinical compared with ILO readings as a means for screening the parenchyma of workers with a risk of pneumoconiosis.

  10. An international comparative overview on the rehabilitation of offenders and effective measures for the prevention of recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someda, Kei

    2009-04-01

    The prevention of recidivism has long been a central issue in criminal justice policy. This is justified because an offender who repeatedly commits crime inflicts far greater damage on society than an offender who commits a crime just once in his/her lifetime. For instance, research by the Ministry of Justice of Japan (2007) reveals that only approximately 30% of repeat offenders were responsible for around 60% of the crime committed in Japan from 1948 to 2006. It has been proven that the realization of the rehabilitation of offenders contributes to the reduction of recidivism. The successful rehabilitation of offenders depends in large part upon the effectiveness of the community-based treatment given to offenders based upon an appropriate assessment of multidimensional risk factors and a multidisciplinary approach. In exploring effective community-based treatment of offenders using a multidisciplinary approach, the author touches upon several effective programs from an international comparative view, including: intensive supervision probation/parole (ISP), Drug Court, cognitive behavioral treatment programs and some recent developments related to this field in Japan. PMID:19269218

  11. International comparative analysis of E and P regulatory issues; Analise comparativa internacional de aspectos regulatorios em E e P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Erica Cristina da Fonseca; Almedia, Mariana Lessa Rego de; Baleroni, Rafael Baptista [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito

    2004-07-01

    The oil industry is one of the more global sectors of the economy, with its economic agents acting and competing at the same time in many countries. The limitation of available funds for investment and competition in global scale make the host countries adapt some elements of their concession instruments, as a way to attract greater investments. The comparison of legal framework of diverse host countries is an essential part in this process of decision and an indispensable tool to help the host countries in the dispute for the attraction of international investors. Therefore, to place Brazil in this process of global competition between States is necessary the knowledge and the comparison between the conditions offered for its legal system and offered for countries considered as models of attraction of investment. This work intends to offer a comparative study of relevant legal aspects for the oil industry, amongst them: characterization of the concession instrument; reach of the participation of the state-owned company; intervention of the State in the private management. The comparison will be made between countries with different characteristics, to obtain a consolidation of paradigms that helps the evolution of the Brazilian exploration and production legal framework. (author)

  12. Risky traffic behaviour among young adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is the period between childhood and adulthood. Compared with older adolescents (18-24 years old), young adolescents (10-17 years old) exhibit more risky behaviour. Because of their physical and mental development, young adolescents are attracted to risky challenges, they are more suscep

  13. Patellar dislocations in children, adolescents and adults: A comparative MRI study of medial patellofemoral ligament injury patterns and trochlear groove anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcarek, Peter, E-mail: peter.balcarek@med.uni-goettingen.de [Department of Trauma Surgery, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University Medicine, 37075 Goettingen (Germany); Walde, Tim Alexander; Frosch, Stephan; Schuettrumpf, Jan P.; Wachowski, Martin M.; Stuermer, Klaus M. [Department of Trauma Surgery, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University Medicine, 37075 Goettingen (Germany); Frosch, Karl-Heinz [Department of Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Asklepios Clinic St. Georg, Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: The first aim was to compare medial patellofemoral ligament injury patterns in children and adolescents after first-time lateral patellar dislocations with the injury patterns in adults. The second aim was to evaluate the trochlear groove anatomy at different developmental stages of the growing knee joint. Materials and methods: Knee magnetic resonance (MR) images were collected from 22 patients after first-time patellar dislocations. The patients were aged 14.2 years (a range of 11-15 years). The injury pattern of the medial patellofemoral ligament was analysed, and trochlear dysplasia was evaluated with regard to sulcus angle, trochlear depth and trochlear asymmetry. The control data consisted of MR images from 21 adult patients who were treated for first-time lateral patellar dislocation. Results: After patellar dislocation, injury to the medial patellofemoral ligament was found in 90.2% of the children and in 100% of the adult patients. Injury patterns of the medial patellofemoral ligament were similar between the study group and the control group with regard to injury at the patellar attachment site (Type I), to the midsubstance (Type II) and to injury at the femoral origin (Type III) (all p > 0.05). Combined lesions (Type IV) were significantly less frequently observed in adults when compared to the study group (p = 0.02). The magnitude of trochlear dysplasia was similar in children, adolescents and adults with regard to all three of the measured parameter-values (all p > 0.05). In addition, the articular cartilage had a significant effect on the distal femur geometry in both paediatrics and adults. Conclusion: First, the data from our study indicated that the paediatric medial patellofemoral ligament injury patterns, as seen on MR images, were similar to those in adults. Second, the trochlear groove anatomy and the magnitude of trochlear dysplasia, respectively, did not differ between adults and paediatrics with patellar instability. Thus

  14. Patellar dislocations in children, adolescents and adults: A comparative MRI study of medial patellofemoral ligament injury patterns and trochlear groove anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The first aim was to compare medial patellofemoral ligament injury patterns in children and adolescents after first-time lateral patellar dislocations with the injury patterns in adults. The second aim was to evaluate the trochlear groove anatomy at different developmental stages of the growing knee joint. Materials and methods: Knee magnetic resonance (MR) images were collected from 22 patients after first-time patellar dislocations. The patients were aged 14.2 years (a range of 11-15 years). The injury pattern of the medial patellofemoral ligament was analysed, and trochlear dysplasia was evaluated with regard to sulcus angle, trochlear depth and trochlear asymmetry. The control data consisted of MR images from 21 adult patients who were treated for first-time lateral patellar dislocation. Results: After patellar dislocation, injury to the medial patellofemoral ligament was found in 90.2% of the children and in 100% of the adult patients. Injury patterns of the medial patellofemoral ligament were similar between the study group and the control group with regard to injury at the patellar attachment site (Type I), to the midsubstance (Type II) and to injury at the femoral origin (Type III) (all p > 0.05). Combined lesions (Type IV) were significantly less frequently observed in adults when compared to the study group (p = 0.02). The magnitude of trochlear dysplasia was similar in children, adolescents and adults with regard to all three of the measured parameter-values (all p > 0.05). In addition, the articular cartilage had a significant effect on the distal femur geometry in both paediatrics and adults. Conclusion: First, the data from our study indicated that the paediatric medial patellofemoral ligament injury patterns, as seen on MR images, were similar to those in adults. Second, the trochlear groove anatomy and the magnitude of trochlear dysplasia, respectively, did not differ between adults and paediatrics with patellar instability. Thus

  15. Comparative evolution of S7 Intron 1 and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer in Coilia nasus (Clupeiformes: Engraulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Guo, Hong-Yi; Tang, Wen-Qiao; Yang, Jin-Quan

    2012-01-01

    Coilia nasus is widely distributed in the Yangtze River, the coastal waters of China, Korea and the Ariake Sound of Japan. Several ecotypes exist and this provides a useful model for the study of comparative diversity between molecular markers. Here we analyze and compare the nucleotide sequences between single-copy ribosomal protein S7 gene intron 1 (rpS7) and multiple-copy ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) in this species to compare the phylogenetic signal of the two nuclear genes. Nucleotide substitutions among the two gene sequences and partial sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene were also analyzed. A total of 115 clones for rpS7 and 122 clones for ITS1 were obtained from 37 specimens. The nucleotide sequence length is 741 to 743 bp for rpS7 and 334 to 348 bp for ITS1. Intra- and inter-specimen variation in rpS7 results from nucleotide substitution, while such variation in ITS1 is mainly due to different numbers of short base repeats. The content of G + C is lower in rpS7 (43.5%) than in ITS1 (68.2%). Our results indicate that the proportion of the sequence variable sites is higher in rpS7 (61) than in ITS1 (23); the informative parsimony of rpS7 is evidently higher than that of ITS1 (26 vs. 2); the overall ratio between transitions and transversions in ITS1 is slightly lower than in rpS7, but remarkably lower than in COI. These results suggest that rpS7 is more suitable than ITS1 as a marker for genetic divergence of this group. Furthermore, gene flow is observed between the different geographic populations of C. nasus from the phylogeny of this species based on rpS7, showing that rpS7 has more evolutionary characteristics for understanding the processes of genomic evolution at the intraspecific level.

  16. Comparing Tailored and Untailored Text Messages for Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Controlled Trial among Adolescent and Young Adult Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov-Ettrup, L. S.; Ringgaard, L. W.; Dalum, P.; Flensborg-Madsen, T.; Thygesen, L. C.; Tolstrup, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were consecutively randomized to versions of the…

  17. 国际碳税方案的比较分析%Comparative Analysis of International Carbon Tax Options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珲

    2012-01-01

    碳税作为一种控制二氧化碳排放的经济手段受到许多学者的青睐,国外一些学者主张通过在国际层面实行碳税来实现全球二氧化碳减排的目标,并提出了不同的设计构想.但至今仍没有研究者对国际上的国际碳税提议进行系统的归纳.对已有国际碳税提议进行归纳和分析即成为本文的目的.本文将已有典型的国际碳税提议归纳成四种方案,即统一的国际税方案、有差异的国际税方案、统一的国内税方案和国内税+边境调节税方案,分别阐述了每种方案的内容和特征,并运用比较分析的方法从成本效益、公平性、参与广泛性及可操作性四个方面对所归纳的四种方案进行对比分析.通过分析得出,如果仅基于成本效益、公平性、参与广泛性及可操作性四个指标,前三种方案差别不大,但都明显优于第四种方案,因此第四种方案是最劣的.但如果考虑到方案实行的现实条件和推动力,最劣的第四种方案是短期内最可能实现的,并且,最优的国际碳税方案可能需由最劣的方案逐次演化而成,而难以直接实现.%As one of the economic policies to control carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, carbon tax is favored by many scholars. Some foreign scholars advocate that carbon tax should be implemented worldwide to reach the goal of global carbon emission abatement and put forth a few different proposals. However, so far, there is no study focusing on the summary and induction of these proposals. In this article the existing proposals are summarized and analyzed. The Typical proposals are sorted into four international carbon tax options, which are Uniform International Taxes, Non-uniform International Taxes, Harmonized Domestic Taxes and Domestic Taxes and Border-Tax Adjustment, and their main contents and features are described respectively, followed by comparisons of these options in the perspectives of cost-effectiveness, equity

  18. Comparing Japanese International College Students' and U.S. College Students' Mental-Health-Related Stigmatizing Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Akihiko; Hayes, Steven C.; Twohig, Michael P.; Lillis, Jason; Fletcher, Lindsay B.; Gloster, Andrew T.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined differences between Japanese international college students and U. S. college students on stigma toward people with psychological disorders, stigma tolerance in help seeking, and self-concealment. Japanese international students had greater stigma toward individuals with psychological disorders than did their U.S. counterparts.…

  19. International research on the civic engagement of the youth and adolescents. Young citizens in the digital age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carmen Robles Vílchez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a review of some of the research in the international context aimed at unveiling and valuing the experience of young people in experiences and beliefs regarding citizenship (Burke, 2007. Such research is generally intended to obtain information on students’ knowledge, attitudes and civic behavior in their own schools. We will highlight throughout the present paper that previous studies and the current state of scientific knowledge in civic education focuses on purely formal and structural aspects and lack a deep understanding and interpretation of the experiences of young citizens. We conclude, after our review, that it is necessary to include more comprehensive factors in the research and enquiry into the experiences and civic training of the youth.

  20. Personality psychopathology, drug use and psychological symptoms in adolescents with substance use disorders and community controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Magallón-Neri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Substance use is a risk behavior that tends to increase during adolescence, a time when part of the personality is still in development. Traditionally, personality psychopathology has been measured in terms of categories, although dimensional models have demonstrated better consistency. This study aimed to analyze differences in personality profiles between adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD n = 74 and matched community controls (MCC n = 74 using the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5 dimensional model. Additionally, we compared age at first drug use, level of drug use and internalizing and externalizing symptoms between the groups. In this study, the PSY-5 model has proved to be useful for differentiating specific personality disturbances in adolescents with SUD and community adolescents. The Disconstraint scale was particularly useful for discriminating adolescents with substance use problems and the Delinquent Attitudes facet offered the best differentiation.

  1. Treating paternal drug abuse using Learning Sobriety Together: effects on adolescents versus children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Fals-Stewart, William

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this study was whether couples-based treatment for substance abuse had comparable secondary benefits on the internalizing and externalizing behaviors of adolescent versus child siblings living in their homes. Couples took part in a couples-based treatment for substance abuse that combines Behavioral Couples Therapy and individual counseling (i.e., Learning Sobriety Together). During a 17-month assessment period, the relationship between parents' functioning (i.e., fathers' drug use as determined by percent days abstinent and parents' dyadic adjustment) as rated by mothers, fathers, and children's teachers and internalizing behavior (as rated by mothers' only) was stronger for children than their adolescent siblings, particularly in terms of children's externalizing behaviors. Interventions that reduce paternal drug use and improve couple functioning may reduce internalizing and externalizing symptoms for children in their homes; however, adolescents may need more intensive interventions to address internalizing and externalizing symptoms.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Interval, Skipped, and Key-vertebral Pedicle Screw Strategies for Correction in Patients With Lenke Type 1 Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Xu, Xi-Ming; Lu, Yanghu; Wei, Xian-Zhao; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pedicle screw constructs have become the mainstay for surgical correction in patients with spinal deformities. To reduce or avoid the risk of pedicle screw-based complications and to decrease the costs associated with pedicle screw instrumentation, some authors have introduced interval, skipped, and key-vertebral pedicle screw strategies for correction. However, there have been no comparisons of outcomes among these 3 pedicle screw-placement strategies. The aim of this study was to compare the correlative clinical outcomes of posterior correction and fusion with pedicle screw fixation using these 3 surgical strategies. Fifty-six consecutive patients with Lenke type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were included in this study. Twenty patients were treated with the interval pedicle screw strategy (IPSS), 20 with the skipped pedicle screw strategy (SPSS), and 16 with the key-vertebral pedicle screw strategy (KVPSS). Coronal and sagittal radiographs were analyzed before surgery, at 1 week after surgery, and at the last follow-up after surgery. There were no significant differences among the 3 groups regarding preoperative radiographic parameters. No significant difference was found between the IPSS and SPSS groups in correction of the main thoracic curve (70.8% vs 70.0%; P = 0.524). However, there were statistically significant differences between the IPSS and KVPSS groups (70.8% vs 64.9%) and between the SPSS and KVPSS groups (70.0% vs 64.9%) in correction of the main thoracic curve (P < 0.001 for both). Additionally, there were no significant differences among the 3 strategies for sagittal parameters at the immediate postoperative and last postoperative follow-up periods, though there were significant differences in the Cobb angle between the preoperative and immediate postoperative periods among the 3 groups, but not between the immediate postoperative and last follow-up periods. The amount of hospital charges in the SPSS group was significantly

  3. MONITORING IN CREDIT INSTITUTIONS – COMPARATIVE APPROACH ON INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEMS – THE CASE OF ROMANIA VS. INTERNATIONAL MODELS OF CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MURESAN MARIANA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the stipulations of the two well-known internal control system models – COSO and CoCo - the purpose of this paper is to focus on the Romanian framework for credit institutions – trying to to identify on which international model is our national one most appropriate to. The research methodology is based on an empirical analysis between Romanian regulation and the models already mentioned. To reach to a conclusion we tried to identify several key issues closely related to information and communication, and to determine the degree of similarities and dissimilarities between the three selected frameworks, by using statistical indicators. The paper has some limitations, too, because it only approaches formal harmonization. So, those issues analyzed through the regulations’ perspectives need to be closely quantified in matters of their actual implementation, which offer us outlooks of future research.

  4. Comparing Perceived and Objectively Measured Access to Recreational Facilities as Predictors of Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Molly M.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Cohen, Deborah A.; Cox, Christine E.

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies in recent years have identified both self-report and objectively measured accessibility of recreational facilities as important predictors of physical activity in youth. Yet, few studies have: (1) examined the relationship between the number and proximity of objectively measured neighborhood physical activity facilities and respondents’ perceptions and (2) compared objective and self-report measures as predictors of physical activity. This study uses data on 1,367 6th-grad...

  5. The Survey of criterion of gravity threshold for prosecution of crimes in international criminal court: comparative view on other international courts

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Saber; Azade sadeghi

    2015-01-01

    The Survey of criterion of gravity threshold for prosecution of crimes in international criminal court One of the issues that have gained a good place in considerations of the office of the prosecution and Icc, is the gravity threshold set out in paragraph 1(d) of article 17 of statute. This concept has some challenges: challenges such as lack of definition, lack of criterion for satisfaction of this concept. Given to the fact that gravity threshold is one part of admissibility mechanism, ...

  6. An international comparability study on quantification of mRNA gene expression ratios: CCQM-P103.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison S. Devonshire

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of RNA can be used to study and monitor a range of infectious and non-communicable diseases, with profiling of multiple gene expression mRNA transcripts being increasingly applied to cancer stratification and prognosis. An international comparison study (Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance (CCQM-P103.1 was performed in order to evaluate the comparability of measurements of RNA copy number ratio for multiple gene targets between two samples. Six exogenous synthetic targets comprising of External RNA Control Consortium (ERCC standards were measured alongside transcripts for three endogenous gene targets present in the background of human cell line RNA. The study was carried out under the auspices of the Nucleic Acids (formerly Bioanalysis Working Group of the CCQM. It was coordinated by LGC (United Kingdom with the support of National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA and results were submitted from thirteen National Metrology Institutes and Designated Institutes. The majority of laboratories performed RNA measurements using RT-qPCR, with datasets also being submitted by two laboratories based on reverse transcription digital polymerase chain reaction and one laboratory using a next-generation sequencing method. In RT-qPCR analysis, the RNA copy number ratios between the two samples were quantified using either a standard curve or a relative quantification approach. In general, good agreement was observed between the reported results of ERCC RNA copy number ratio measurements. Measurements of the RNA copy number ratios for endogenous genes between the two samples were also consistent between the majority of laboratories. Some differences in the reported values and confidence intervals (‘measurement uncertainties’ were noted which may be attributable to choice of measurement method or quantification approach. This highlights the need for standardised practices for the calculation of fold change ratios and

  7. Comparative measurement and quantitative risk assessment of alcohol consumption through wastewater-based epidemiology: An international study in 20 cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Barceló, Damià; Barron, Leon P; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Castiglioni, Sara; de Voogt, Pim; Emke, Erik; Hernández, Félix; Lai, Foon Yin; Lopes, Alvaro; de Alda, Miren López; Mastroianni, Nicola; Munro, Kelly; O'Brien, Jake; Ort, Christoph; Plósz, Benedek G; Reid, Malcolm J; Yargeau, Viviane; Thomas, Kevin V

    2016-09-15

    Quantitative measurement of drug consumption biomarkers in wastewater can provide objective information on community drug use patterns and trends. This study presents the measurement of alcohol consumption in 20 cities across 11 countries through the use of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), and reports the application of these data for the risk assessment of alcohol on a population scale using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Raw 24-h composite wastewater samples were collected over a one-week period from 20 cities following a common protocol. For each sample a specific and stable alcohol consumption biomarker, ethyl sulfate (EtS) was determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The EtS concentrations were used for estimation of per capita alcohol consumption in each city, which was further compared with international reports and applied for risk assessment by MOE. The average per capita consumption in 20 cities ranged between 6.4 and 44.3L/day/1000 inhabitants. An increase in alcohol consumption during the weekend occurred in all cities, however the level of this increase was found to differ. In contrast to conventional data (sales statistics and interviews), WBE revealed geographical differences in the level and pattern of actual alcohol consumption at an inter-city level. All the sampled cities were in the "high risk" category (MOE<10) and the average MOE for the whole population studied was 2.5. These results allowed direct comparisons of alcohol consumption levels, patterns and risks among the cities. This study shows that WBE can provide timely and complementary information on alcohol use and alcohol associated risks in terms of exposure at the community level. PMID:27188267

  8. Examining stress and coping as a mediator for internalizing symptomatology: A comparison between sexual minority and majority first-year college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Tracey J; Kirsch, Alexandra C; Shapiro, Jenna B; Conley, Colleen S

    2016-06-01

    Sexual and gender minority (SGM) adolescents experience unique stressors and elevated internalizing symptoms. This study examines differences in coping styles between SGM and heterosexual adolescents and the potential mediating roles of stress and coping styles. Analyses indicated that SGM (N = 75) adolescents reported higher levels of internalizing symptoms (depression, anxiety, and distress), higher use of maladaptive coping styles (denial and blame), lesser use of adaptive coping styles (reframing and religion), and greater experiences of stress, compared to their heterosexual counterparts (N = 1702). Bootstrapping analyses revealed the relationship between sexual identity and internalizing symptoms measured approximately 3 months later was not mediated by stress and coping, adjusting for gender, age, and baseline symptomatology. Findings suggest that earlier adolescent differences in internalizing symptoms presage increasing symptomatology across the transition to college, and other mediators during the college transition explain the continued increases in internalizing symptoms. PMID:27055249

  9. ‘PRO ENFORCEMENT BIAS’ UNDER ARTICLE V OF THE NEW YORK CONVENTION IN INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION: COMPARATIVE OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Fifi Junita

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the main features of exceptions to enforcement under Article V of the NYC, including its exhaustive and discretionary natures. It then specifically provides an overview of narrow judicial control over the grounds for refusing enforcement under the Article V of the NYC. It points out the fundamental principles of the provision in determining the enforceability of international arbitral awards. Then this article will occasionally refer to international arbitral cases in so...

  10. Comparing Cognitive, Relational and Stress Mechanisms Underlying Gender Differences in Recovery from Bereavement-related Internalizing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    LITTLE, MICHELLE; Sandler, Irwin N.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Ayers, Tim S.

    2009-01-01

    Four putative mediators underlying gender differences in youths’ recovery from bereavement-related internalizing problems were examined in a sample (N = 109; age range of 8 to 16 years at the initial assessment) of parentally-bereaved youth: intrusive thoughts about grief, post-death stressors, negative appraisals of post-death stressors and fear of abandonment. A three-wave parallel process longitudinal growth model design was employed. Changes in internalizing problems and mediators were me...

  11. The need for successful communication in intercultural and international business settings: Analytic and comparative studies, new trends and methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer Silveira, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Communicating is a need in today’s business world; if professionals are not able to express their ideas appropriately, it will be difficult for them to reach positive agreements while operating internationally. This special issue of Ibérica is devoted to the analysis of successful experiences aimed at communicating accurately in intercultural and international business settings. Needless to say, the traditional difference between domestic and foreign markets has basically di...

  12. A Comparative Approach to the Impact of IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards) on the Performance of Banks in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adeuja, Yetunde Omowunmi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: From January 2012 all public listed firms in Nigeria were mandated to publish their financial report in accordance to IFRS (International financial reporting standard). As a result of this, there have been controversies as to the consequence of this convergence from the Nigerian Generally Acceptable Accounting Principles (NGAAP) to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on firm’s financial performance and position. This study aims to investigate the impact of IFRS on the...

  13. The clinical effectiveness of a brief consultation and advisory approach compared to treatment as usual in child and adolescent mental health services.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGarry, Joan

    2008-07-01

    A brief consultation and advice (BCA) approach to dealing with routine referrals was introduced into a child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS) over an 18-month period. This is a time-limited, client-centred and solution-focused approach to dealing with common non-complex referrals. The model proposes that all families are seen for an initial \\'consultation\\' appointment followed by a maximum of two further appointments. A randomized controlled study compared the clinical effectiveness of BCA treatment with treatment as usual (TAU) over a 6-month period. The parents of children referred to CAMHS were eligible to participate if their child was deemed \\'non-complex\\'. Ethical approval was granted by the relevant ethics committee. Families who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated to either the BCA or TAU group. Sixty children enrolled in the study. Both groups showed improvements on a number of variables at 3 months post treatment, but only those receiving BCA showed continued improvement at 6 months. Participants in both groups showed high levels of satisfaction with the treatment received. Participants in the TAU group expressed dissatisfaction with long waiting times and had a higher drop out rate than the BCA treatment group. During the time frame studied, the introduction of the BCA approach did not lead to a decrease in overall mean waiting time. These results and the usefulness of a BCA model are discussed.

  14. Adolescent Gambling: Research and Clinical Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Wilber, Mary K.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2006-01-01

    Gambling is a popular and prevalent behavior among adolescents. As compared with adults, adolescents have been found to have high rates of problem and pathological gambling. However, relatively few adolescents seek help for gambling problems. In this article, we review adolescent gambling, including problem and pathological levels. We consider the neurobiology of adolescent gambling, health correlates of different levels of gambling participation, and manners in which current prevention and t...

  15. Differentiating Adolescent Self-Injury from Adolescent Depression: Possible Implications for Borderline Personality Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Sheila E.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Hsiao, Ray C.; Vasilev, Christina A.; Yaptangco, Mona; Linehan, Marsha M.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Self-inflicted injury (SII) in adolescence marks heightened risk for suicide attempts, completed suicide, and adult psychopathology. Although several studies have revealed elevated rates of depression among adolescents who self injure, no one has compared adolescent self injury with adolescent depression on biological, self-, and informant-report…

  16. Outdoor dynamic subject-specific evaluation of internal stresses in the residual limb: hydraulic energy-stored prosthetic foot compared to conventional energy-stored prosthetic feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Sigal; Kristal, Anat; Gefen, Amit; Siev-Ner, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    The prosthetic foot plays an important role in propelling, breaking, balancing and supporting body loads while the amputee ambulates on different grounds. It is therefore important to quantify the effect of the prosthetic foot mechanism on biomechanical parameters, in order to prevent pressure ulcers and deep tissue injury. Our aim was to monitor the internal stresses in the residuum of transtibial amputation (TTA) prosthetic-users ambulating on different terrains, which the amputees encounter during their daily activities, i.e. paved floor, grass, ascending and descending stairs and slope. We specifically aimed to compare between the internal stresses in the TTA residuum of amputees ambulating with a novel hydraulic prosthetic foot compared to conventional energy storage and return (ESR) prosthetic feet. Monitoring of internal stresses was accomplished using a portable subject-specific real-time internal stress monitor. We found significant decrease (phydraulic foot, compared to walking with ESR feet. The loading rate calculated while ambulating with the hydraulic foot was at least three times lower than the loading rate calculated while ambulating with the ESR foot. Although the average decrease in internal stresses was ≈ 2-fold larger when replacing single-toe ESR feet with the hydraulic foot than when replacing split-toed ESR feet with the hydraulic foot, the differences were statistically insignificant. Our findings suggest that using a hydraulic prosthetic foot may protect the distal tibial end of the TTA residuum from high stresses, therefore preventing pressure-related injury and pain.

  17. "As soon as you trust yourself, you will know how to live" (Goethe). Protective and mediator factors for internalizing disorders in early and mid-adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Delvecchio, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is often considered as a period of changes and challenges, during which youth are at particular risk for developing psychological disorders (Lee & Bukowski, 2012; Verona, Javdani, & Sprague, 2011). Anxiety and depression are two very common disorders in adolescence (Angold & Costello, 2008; Vierhaus, Lohaus, & Shah, 2010). Several authors have focused on the study of the possible risk factors that might interfere or enlarge the chance to develop such maladaptive behaviors. Some em...

  18. Creation of Rules in National and International Business Law: A Non-National Analytical-Synthetic Comparative Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, Rene Franz

      This article centres on the impact the CISG Convention has had on the national and international development of law. It focuses on the rules in Art. 35 CISG, as the contents of the provision has gained wide recognition in a number of jurisdictions. However, this recognition has resulted...... in changes and alternative expressions of the legal contents of the provision. If the provision is used as a model for preparing national as well as international rules but is changed more or less extensively, the question is whether these rules have to be interpreted and applied in the same way...

  19. Coping strategies among adolescents with chronic headache and mental health problems: a cross-sectional population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Hartberg, Silje; Clench-Aas, Jocelyne; Raanaas, Ruth Kjærsti; Lundqvist, Christofer

    2015-01-01

    To examine prevalence of mental health problems among adolescents with chronic headache and compare internal and external coping strategies in young people with chronic headaches with and without mental health problems. This study is based on a cross-sectional survey undertaken in Akershus County in Norway. A total of 19,985 adolescents were included in the study, covering lower secondary and upper secondary students, aged 13–19 years. Chronic headache was measured with a single item question...

  20. Revisioning Information and Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D) at the Comparative & International Education Society (CIES): A Five-Year Account (2009-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haijun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an account of how Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has evolved as a key topic and research area at the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) conference. The past five years' CIES conference papers with an ICT component are reviewed for common development trends, opportunities,…