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Sample records for adolescents international comparative

  1. An Internationally Comparative Study of Immigration and Adolescent Emotional and Behavioral Problems : Effects of Generation and Gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Walsh, Sophie D; Huijts, Tim; Maes, Marlies; Madsen, Katrine Rich; Cavallo, Franco; Molcho, Michal

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although the potential consequences of immigration for adolescent problem behaviors have been addressed in many former studies, internationally comparative research is scarce. This study investigated the impact of immigration on four indicators of adolescents' emotional and behavioral

  2. Socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents: international comparative study in 37 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Currie, Candace; Boyce, Will

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To use comparable data from many countries to examine 1) socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents, 2) whether the countries' absolute wealth and economic inequality was associated with symptom load among adolescents, and 3) whether the countries......' absolute wealth and economic inequality explained part of the individual level socio-economic variation in health complaints. METHODS: The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) international study from 2005/06 provided data on 204,534 11-, 13- and 15-year old students from nationally random...... Affluence Scale FAS) and two macro level measures on the country's economic situation: wealth measured by Gross National Product (GNP) and distribution of income measured by the Gini coefficient. RESULTS: There was a significant socio-economic variation in health complaints in 31 of the 37 countries...

  3. An Internationally Comparative Study of Immigration and Adolescent Emotional and Behavioral Problems:Effects of Generation and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Walsh, Sophie D; Huijts, Tim

    2015-01-01

    psychosomatic symptoms than native adolescents. Effect sizes varied considerable for the different outcomes, and similar effects were found for first- and second-generation immigrant adolescents. Differences in these indicators of emotional and behavioral problems between immigrant and native adolescents did......PURPOSE: Although the potential consequences of immigration for adolescent problem behaviors have been addressed in many former studies, internationally comparative research is scarce. This study investigated the impact of immigration on four indicators of adolescents' emotional and behavioral...... not vary significantly with the receiving country. With two exceptions, effects of immigrant status were similar for boys and girls. Although no differences in psychosomatic symptoms were found between first-generation immigrant and native girls, first-generation immigrant boys reported less psychosomatic...

  4. Associations of Perceived Sibling and Parent-Child Relationship Quality with Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: Comparing Indian and Dutch Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Kirsten L.; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Hoksbergen, René; ter Laak, Jan; Watve, Sujala; Paranjpe, Analpa

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the present study were (a) to examine whether Dutch and Indian early adolescents differ concerning sibling and parent-child relationship quality and externalizing and internalizing problems, and (b) to compare the associations between sibling and parent-child relationship quality and externalizing and internalizing problems for Indian…

  5. Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Immigrant Boys and Girls: Comparing Native Dutch and Moroccan Immigrant Adolescents across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paalman, Carmen; van Domburgh, Lieke; Stevens, Gonneke; Vermeiren, Robert; van de Ven, Peter; Branje, Susan; Frijns, Tom; Meeus, Wim; Koot, Hans; van Lier, Pol; Jansen, Lucres; Doreleijers, Theo

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study explores differences between native Dutch and immigrant Moroccan adolescents in the relationship between internalizing and externalizing problems across time. By using generalized estimating equations (GEE), the strength and stability of associations between internalizing and externalizing problems in 159 Moroccan and 159…

  6. Associations of Perceived Sibling and Parent-Child Relationship Quality With Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: Comparing Indian and Dutch Early Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, K. L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241099218; Verhoeven, Marjolein|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304349747; Hoksbergen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068229127; Ter Laak, J.; Watve, S.; Paranjpe, A.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the present study were (a) to examine whether Dutch and Indian early adolescents differ concerning sibling and parent-child relationship quality and externalizing and internalizing problems, and (b) to compare the associations between sibling and parent-child relationship quality and

  7. Cross-Cultural Findings on Community Violence Exposure and Internalizing Psychopathology: Comparing Adolescents in the United States, Russia, and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwab-Stone, M.; Koposov, R.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.; Ruchkin, V.

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate cross-cultural differences in the relation between community violence and psychopathology. A self-report survey was conducted in a representative sample of 3,309 14-17 year old adolescents from urban communities in the US (N = 1,343), Belgium (N = 946) and Russia (N =

  8. Comparative International Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorge, Arndt; Noorderhaven, Niels; Koen, Carla

    2015-01-01

    The use of comparisons to explain, analyze and understand social and economic phenomena is recognized as a valuable social science tool. This textbook deals with the differences in management and organization between nations and their effects on multinational enterprises. In comparing management

  9. Parent and Friend Emotion Socialization in Adolescence: Associations with Emotion Regulation and Internalizing Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Slough, Rachel Miller

    2017-01-01

    Both parents and close friends are central figures in adolescents' emotional and psychological adjustment. However, little is known about how close friends socialize adolescents' emotions or how friends' socialization messages compare to those from parents in adolescence. The present study will explore how parents and friends discuss negative emotions with adolescents in relation to adolescents' emotion regulation and internalizing symptoms. Participants were 30 parent-adolescent-friend tri...

  10. Deliberate Self-Harm within an International Community Sample of Young People: Comparative Findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-Harm in Europe (CASE) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madge, Nicola; Hewitt, Anthea; Hawton, Keith; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Corcoran, Paul; Fekete, Sandor; van Heeringen, Kees; De Leo, Diego; Ystgaard, Mette

    2008-01-01

    Background: Deliberate self-harm among young people is an important focus of policy and practice internationally. Nonetheless, there is little reliable comparative international information on its extent or characteristics. We have conducted a seven-country comparative community study of deliberate self-harm among young people. Method: Over 30,000…

  11. Comparing Factor Structures of Adolescent Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam; Sprague, Jenessa

    2011-01-01

    Research on the structure of adolescent psychopathology can provide information on broad factors that underlie different forms of maladjustment in youths. Multiple studies from the literature on adult populations suggest that 2 factors, Internalizing and Externalizing, meaningfully comprise the factor structure of adult psychopathology (e.g.,…

  12. Amygdala habituation to emotional faces in adolescents with internalizing disorders, adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related PTSD and healthy adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca G. van den Bulk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related post-traumatic stress disorder (CSA-related PTSD show a large overlap in symptomatology. In addition, brain research indicated hyper-responsiveness and sustained activation instead of habituation of amygdala activation to emotional faces in both groups. Little is known, however, about whether the same patterns of amygdala habituation are present in these two groups. The current study examined habituation patterns of amygdala activity to emotional faces (fearful, happy and neutral in adolescents with a DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorder (N = 25, adolescents with CSA-related PTSD (N = 19 and healthy controls (N = 26. Behaviourally, the adolescents from the internalizing and CSA-related PTSD group reported more anxiety to fearful and neutral faces than adolescents from the control group and adolescents from the CSA-related PTSD group reacted slower compared to the internalizing group. At the whole brain level, there was a significant interaction between time and group within the left amygdala. Follow-up ROI analysis showed elevated initial activity in the amygdala and rapid habituation in the CSA-related PTSD group compared to the internalizing group. These findings suggest that habituation patterns of amygdala activation provide additional information on problems with emotional face processing. Furthermore, the results suggest there are differences in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms related to emotional face processing for adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD. Possibly CSA-related PTSD is characterized by a stronger primary emotional response driven by the amygdala.

  13. Amygdala habituation to emotional faces in adolescents with internalizing disorders, adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related PTSD and healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bulk, Bianca G; Somerville, Leah H; van Hoof, Marie-José; van Lang, Natasja D J; van der Wee, Nic J A; Crone, Eveline A; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2016-10-01

    Adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related post-traumatic stress disorder (CSA-related PTSD) show a large overlap in symptomatology. In addition, brain research indicated hyper-responsiveness and sustained activation instead of habituation of amygdala activation to emotional faces in both groups. Little is known, however, about whether the same patterns of amygdala habituation are present in these two groups. The current study examined habituation patterns of amygdala activity to emotional faces (fearful, happy and neutral) in adolescents with a DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorder (N=25), adolescents with CSA-related PTSD (N=19) and healthy controls (N=26). Behaviourally, the adolescents from the internalizing and CSA-related PTSD group reported more anxiety to fearful and neutral faces than adolescents from the control group and adolescents from the CSA-related PTSD group reacted slower compared to the internalizing group. At the whole brain level, there was a significant interaction between time and group within the left amygdala. Follow-up ROI analysis showed elevated initial activity in the amygdala and rapid habituation in the CSA-related PTSD group compared to the internalizing group. These findings suggest that habituation patterns of amygdala activation provide additional information on problems with emotional face processing. Furthermore, the results suggest there are differences in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms related to emotional face processing for adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD. Possibly CSA-related PTSD is characterized by a stronger primary emotional response driven by the amygdala. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Reciprocal relationships between parent and adolescent internalizing symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Elizabeth K; Gullone, Eleonora

    2010-04-01

    Previous investigations of the association between parent and adolescent internalizing problems have been largely restricted to the unidirectional effect of parent symptoms on their children. This study therefore aimed to investigate potential reciprocal relationships between parent and adolescent internalizing symptoms. One-hundred and seventy-seven adolescents ages 14 to 18 years and their parents (172 mothers, 124 fathers) completed measures of depressive and anxiety symptoms at two time points, 6 months apart. Results supported reciprocity between maternal and adolescent internalizing symptoms but not between paternal and adolescent internalizing symptoms. In addition, the relationship between maternal symptoms and later adolescent symptoms was found to be partially mediated by maternal parenting self-esteem. The study highlights the potential impact of adolescent internalizing problems on maternal well-being, a phenomenon previously neglected in the literature. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Comparative Political Economy and International Migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afonso, A.; Devitt, C.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the literature connecting comparative political economy and international migration in advanced industrialized countries with a focus on the relationship between labour migration, labour markets and welfare institutions. Immigration flows and policies are

  16. Barriers to health education in adolescents: health care providers' perspectives compared to high school adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedian, Kobra; Shahhosseini, Zohreh

    2015-11-01

    Although adolescence is marked by profound and dynamic changes, it is virtually neglected by health care providers, by society, and even by most parents, teachers, and health professionals. The aim of this study was to investigate barriers to health education in adolescents from health care providers' views compared to teens. The study population consisted of 72 health care providers and 402 high school female students in Northern Iran in 2012. They completed a self-administered questionnaire about their views on barriers to adolescents' health education. It is revealed that the major barrier to adolescents' health education from a health care providers' perspective is "Lack of private room for adolescents' health education", while "Lack of adolescents' interest to content of educational programs" is a significantly greater barrier to health education among adolescents. The results suggest that for adolescent health education, specific strategies should be used in adolescent health promotion programs.

  17. Adolescents' Emotion Regulation Strategies, Self-Concept, and Internalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Manying; Stright, Anne Dopkins

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among adolescents' emotion regulation strategies (suppression and cognitive reappraisal), self-concept, and internalizing problems using structural equation modeling. The sample consisted of 438 early adolescents (13 to 15 years old) in Taiwan, including 215 boys and 223 girls. For both boys and girls,…

  18. [Parenting practices and internalizing and externalizing problems in Spanish adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Linares, Ma Cruz; Cerezo Rusillo, Ma Teresa; de la Torre Cruz, Manuel Jesús; de la Villa Carpio Fernández, Ma; Casanova Arias, Pedro Félix

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the relationship between parenting practices and internalizing and externalizing problems presented by a group of adolescents according to their gender. Four hundred and sixty-nine secondary school students (aged between 12 and 18) participated in this study. The adolescents presented differences in perception of the educational practices of both parents as a function of their gender. Negative parenting practices were positively related to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems, whereas positive practices were negatively related to externalizing problems. Moreover, differences between boys and girls were found in predictor variables of problems, and the predictive power of the variables was higher for externalizing problems.

  19. Longitudinal relations between adolescent and parental behaviors, parental knowledge, and internalizing behaviors among urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthe, Rachel C; Sullivan, Terri; Kliewer, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    High prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among adolescents underscore the importance of identifying parental and adolescent behaviors that may lessen the risk for these outcomes. Previous research has shown that parental acceptance, parental knowledge, and child disclosure are negatively associated with internalizing behaviors. It is also important to explore the impact of internalizing behaviors on these parental and child constructs. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between parental acceptance, parental knowledge, child disclosure, and internalizing symptoms across a one-year time period. Participants were 358 adolescents (54 % female) and their primary caregivers, who were primarily African American (92 %). Parents and adolescents provided data through face-to-face interviews. Results showed that parental knowledge and parental acceptance predicted child disclosure, and child disclosure predicted parental knowledge one year later. Higher levels of parental acceptance predicted lower levels of adolescent-reported depressive symptoms, while higher levels of parental report of adolescents' internalizing symptoms predicted lower levels of parental knowledge. No differences in the strength of these relationships were found across grade or gender. These findings highlight the role of the adolescent's perceived acceptance by parents in promoting children's disclosure, and the benefits of parental acceptance in decreasing depressive symptoms over time. Overall, these results show the impact that both adolescent and parental behaviors and internalizing behaviors have on each other across time.

  20. Triadic Interactions in Families of Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa and Families of Adolescents with Internalizing Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balottin, Laura; Mannarini, Stefania; Mensi, Martina M; Chiappedi, Matteo; Gatta, Michela

    2016-01-01

    The latest studies and practice guidelines for the treatment of adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa agree in pointing out the key role played by parents in determining the young patients' therapeutic possibilities and outcomes. Still family functioning has usually been studied using only self-reported instruments. The aim of the present study is therefore to investigate the triadic interactions within the families of adolescents with anorexia nervosa using a semi-standardized observational tool based on a recorded play session, the Lausanne Trilogue Play (LTP). Parents and adolescent daughters, consecutively referred to adolescent neuropsychiatric services, participated in the study and underwent the observational procedure (LTP). The 20 families of adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa (restricting type) were compared with 20 families of patients with internalizing disorders (anxiety and depression). The results showed different interactive patterns in the families of adolescents with anorexia nervosa: they had greater difficulties in respecting roles during the play, maintaining the joint attention and in sharing positive affect, especially in the three-together phase (third phase). The majority of these families (12) exhibited collusive alliances. The parental subsystem appeared frequently unable to maintain a structuring role, i.e., providing help, support and guidance to the daughters, while the girls in turn often found it hard to show independent ideas and develop personal projects. Parents experienced difficulty in carving out a couple-specific relational space, from which the ill daughter was at least temporarily excluded also when they were asked to continue to interact with each other, letting the daughter be simply present in a third-part position (fourth phase). The study of the triadic interactions in the families of adolescents with anorexia nervosa may help to shift the attention from the exclusive mother-daughter relation to the involvement

  1. Pituitary Volume Prospectively Predicts Internalizing Symptoms in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipursky, Amy R.; Whittle, Sarah; Yucel, Murat; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Wood, Stephen J.; Lubman, Dan I.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Early adolescence is a critical time for the development of both internalizing and externalizing disorders. We aimed to investigate whether pituitary volume, an index of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, represents a vulnerability factor for the emergence of internalizing and externalizing symptoms during adolescence…

  2. The Interactive Effects of Stressful Family Life Events and Cortisol Reactivity on Adolescent Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeger, Christine M.; Cook, Emily C.; Connell, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the associations between stressful family life events and adolescent externalizing and internalizing behaviors, and the interactive effects of family life events and cortisol reactivity on problem behaviors. In a sample of 100 mothers and their adolescents (M age = 15.09; SD age = 0.98; 68% girls), adolescent cortisol reactivity was measured in response to a mother-adolescent conflict interaction task designed to elicit a stress response. Mothers reported on measures of family life events and adolescent problem behaviors. Results indicated that a heightened adolescent cortisol response moderated the relations between stressful family life events and both externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Results support context-dependent theoretical models, suggesting that for adolescents with higher cortisol reactivity (compared to those with lower cortisol reactivity), higher levels of stressful family life events were associated with greater problem behaviors, whereas lower levels of stressful family life events were related to fewer problem behaviors. PMID:26961703

  3. Characteristics of adolescent excessive drinkers compared with consumers and abstainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomcikova, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Introduction and Aims. This study aimed at comparing adolescent abstainers, consumers and excessive drinkers in terms of family characteristics (structure of family, socioeconomic factors), perceived social support, personality characteristics (extraversion, self-esteem, aggression) and well-being.

  4. Comparing parents' and overweight adolescents' reports on parent mealtime actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Carolina Bertagnoli; Petty, Maria Luiza Blanques; de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Escrivão, Maria Arlete Meil Schimith

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to compare answers given by parents and their adolescent children to the Portuguese version of the Parent Mealtime Action Scale (PMAS) and to assess associations among the reported behaviors. To compare these answers, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 72 patients of the Obesity Clinic of the Division of Nutrology of the Pediatrics Department at the Federal University of São Paulo (Unifesp), Brazil. These patients were aged from 10 years to 19 years and 11 months, and their parents or legal guardians also participated. First, parents were interviewed and instructed to answer how often they perform each behavior measured by the PMAS (never, sometimes or always). Next, the same questions were answered by the adolescents. The general linear model (GLM) showed the effects of the interviewees and of the interaction between interviewees and sex. We also observed a triple interaction effect (sex x interviewees x categorized age). The internal reliability of the PMAS was higher for parental answers than for those given by the children. This finding is probably observed because the scale has been developed and validated to evaluate the pattern of parental responses concerning their eating practices during their children's meals. In addition, although parents believe they are engaging in certain behaviors, the effectiveness of these strategies may not be recognized by their children. Very low intraclass correlation coefficients were observed between parents' and children's answers to the original domains of the PMAS (ICC: 0.130-0.578), suggesting that the factorial structure of the PMAS may only be used to assess parental behavior, as it is not sufficiently accurate to assess the children's understanding of parent mealtime actions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of Risk Factors and Cultural Assets on Latino Adolescents' Trajectories of Self-Esteem and Internalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul Richard; Rose, Roderick A.; Bacallao, Martica

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined longitudinal, person-centered trajectories of acculturation, internalizing symptoms, and self-esteem in 349 Latino adolescents. We compared acculturation measures (time in the US, culture-of-origin involvement, US cultural involvement, for both parents and adolescents); acculturation stressors (perceived discrimination,…

  6. The relationship between attachment styles and internalizing or externalizing symptoms in clinical and nonclinical adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lacasa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies regarding the relationship between attachment and psychopathology during adolescence have been performed separately for clinical and nonclinical adolescents and have used different assessment measures, which together might produce a methodological bias that increases the association between attachment and psychopathology. With the aim of avoiding this bias, the present study used identical measures to explore the relationship between attachment styles and internalizing or externalizing symptoms in clinical and nonclinical samples of adolescents. The sample consisted of 258 adolescents, 129 clinical and 129 nonclinical, aged between 14 and 18 years. The adolescents in each sample were matched for age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Attachment was assessed using the CaMir Q-sort, and psychopathological symptoms were assessed by means of the Youth Self Report (YSR. The relationships between attachment and psychopathology were similar for clinical and nonclinical adolescents. A preoccupied attachment style predicted internalizing and externalizing symptoms, somatic complaints, anxious-fearful behavior, verbal aggression, attention-seeking behavior, and thinking problems. Compared to previous studies, this research has made it possible to identify broader, stronger, and more specific associations between preoccupied attachment style and psychopathological symptoms in adolescents.

  7. Comparative International Communication Projects: Overcoming the Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Esser

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 10-20 years, comparative research in the feld of communication has almost become fashionable. Many factors are responsible for this, for example: an increased awareness of globalisation as a communication-driven process; an awareness of increased transnational conglomerization of media organizations; and the increasing use of the Internet which facilitates easier access to information around the world. But the big question is how to organize collaborative international communication research efectively? Which models of cooperation are available to us, and what are their advantages and disadvantages? In this article, I analyze fve ways of doing collaborative researches and their respective challenges.

  8. Adolescent internalizing symptoms and negative life events: the sensitizing effects of earlier life stress and cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttle, Paula L; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Klein, Marjorie H; Essex, Marilyn J

    2014-11-01

    Although adolescence is marked by increased negative life events and internalizing problems, few studies investigate this association as an ongoing longitudinal process. Moreover, while there are considerable individual differences in the degree to which these phenomena are linked, little is known about the origins of these differences. The present study examines early life stress (ELS) exposure and early-adolescent longitudinal afternoon cortisol level as predictors of the covariation between internalizing symptoms and negative life events across high school. ELS was assessed by maternal report during infancy, and the measure of cortisol was derived from assessments at ages 11, 13, and 15 years. Life events and internalizing symptoms were assessed at ages 15, 17, and 18 years. A two-level hierarchical linear model revealed that ELS and cortisol were independent predictors of the covariation of internalizing symptoms and negative life events. Compared to those with lower levels of ELS, ELS-exposed adolescents displayed tighter covariation between internalizing symptoms and negative life events. Adolescents with lower longitudinal afternoon cortisol displayed tighter covariation between negative life events and internalizing symptoms, while those with higher cortisol demonstrated weaker covariation, partially due to increased levels of internalizing symptoms when faced with fewer negative life events.

  9. The Dual Role of Media Internalization in Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Ann; Beyens, Ine; Eggermont, Steven; Vandenbosch, Laura

    2017-08-01

    Sexualizing media content is prevalent in various media types. Sexualizing media messages and portrayals emphasize unattainable body and appearance ideals as the primary components of sexual desirability. The internalization of these ideals is positively related to self-objectification and sexual body consciousness. In turn, self-objectification and sexual body consciousness affect adolescents' sexual behavior, albeit in opposing directions. While objectifying self-perceptions are linked to higher levels of sexual behavior, body consciousness during physical intimacy is linked to lower levels of sexual behavior. Based on this knowledge, the present three-wave panel study of 824 Belgian, predominant heterosexual adolescents (M age  = 15.33; SD = 1.45) proposes a dual-pathway model that investigates two different pathways through which the internalization of media ideals may impact adolescents' sexual behavior. An inhibitory pathway links media internalization to lower levels of sexual behavior through sexual body consciousness, and a supportive pathway links media internalization to higher levels of sexual behavior through self-objectification. Structural equation analyses supported the proposed dual-pathway, showing that the impact of media internalization on adolescents' sexual behavior proceeds through an inhibitory pathway and a supportive pathway. Regarding the supportive pathway, media internalization (W1) positively predicted sexual behavior (W3), through valuing appearance over competence (W2). Regarding the inhibitory pathway, media internalization (W1) positively predicted body surveillance, which, in turn, positively predicted sexual body consciousness (all W2). Sexual body consciousness (W2) is negatively related to sexual behavior (W3). From a sexual developmental perspective, these findings emphasize the importance of guiding adolescents in interpreting and processing sexualizing media messages.

  10. Familism, parent-adolescent conflict, self-esteem, internalizing behaviors and suicide attempts among adolescent Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlberg, Jill A; Peña, Juan B; Zayas, Luis H

    2010-08-01

    Adolescent Latinas continue to report higher levels of suicide attempts than their African-American and White peers. The phenomenon is still not understood and is theorized to be the result of the confluence of many cultural, familial, and individual level factors. In Latino cultures, belief in the importance of the family, the value known as familism, appears to protect youth's emotional and behavioral health, but parent-adolescent conflict has been found to be a risk factor for suicide attempts. The role of familism in relation to parent-adolescent conflict, self-esteem, internalizing behaviors, and suicide attempts has not been studied extensively. To address this question, we interviewed 226 adolescent Latinas, 50% of whom had histories of suicide attempts. Using path analysis, familism as a cultural asset was associated with lower levels of parent-adolescent conflict, but higher levels of internalizing behaviors, while self-esteem and internalizing behaviors mediated the relationship between parent-adolescent conflict and suicide attempts. Our findings point to the importance of family involvement in culturally competent suicide prevention and intervention programs. Reducing parent-daughter conflict and fostering closer family ties has the added effect of improving self-esteem and shrinking the likelihood of suicide attempts.

  11. EPR compared to international requirements (Mainly EUR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecker, B.

    1996-01-01

    A number of European Utilities have entered an agreement to write common requirements dedicated to future light water nuclear power plants to be built in Europe. The activities are known under the sign EUR (European Utilities Requirements). EPR, the future European Pressurized water Reactor, is the first installation of this type which will be operational from the year 2000 onwards, must fulfill the European requirements. EPR will serve as a test whether these requirements are realistic and well balanced. At the basic design stage of EPR, this paper concentrates on four main topics: the requirements which are new compared with existing reactors and which put a major challenge to the designer; the requirements today still open and the way they can be met by the EPR or not; the points for which already today the EPR special requirements exceed the EUR; the examples where the design of the EPR has given feedback which has led to a change of the EUR. EPR and EUR are different approaches to the reactor of the future. EUR is a set of requirements which leaves a flexibility to the designer while EPR is a real project which defines the technical solutions. EPR will fulfill the EUR and will at the same time serve as a test whether these requirements are realistic. EPR will also fulfill international requirements with minor changes. (J.S.). 7 figs

  12. Mother and adolescent expressed emotion and adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptom development : A six-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hale, William W.; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Nelemans, Stefanie A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    In expressed emotion (EE) theory, it is held that high EE household environments enhance adolescent psychopathological distress. However, no longitudinal study has been conducted to examine if either the mother's EE or the adolescent's perception of EE predicts adolescent internalizing and

  13. Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Magnus J.

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…

  14. Internalizing and externalizing personality and subjective effects in a sample of adolescent cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Sara; Matalí, Josep Lluís; Martín-Fernández, María; Pardo, Marta; Lleras, Maria; Castellano-Tejedor, Carmina; Haro, Josep Maria

    2016-10-06

    Cannabis is the illicit substance most widely used by adolescents. Certain personality traits such as impulsivity and sensation seeking, and the subjective effects experienced after substance use (e.g. euphoria or relaxation) have been identified as some of the main etiological factors of consumption. This study aims to categorize a sample of adolescent cannabis users based on their most dominant personality traits (internalizing and externalizing profile). Then, to make a comparison of both profiles considering a set of variables related to consumption, clinical severity and subjective effects experienced. From a cross-sectional design, 173 adolescents (104 men and 69 women) aged 13 to 18 asking for treatment for cannabis use disorder in an Addictive Behavior Unit (UCAD) from the hospital were recruited. For the assessment, an ad hoc protocol was employed to register consumption, the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) and the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) 49-item short form were also administered. Factor analysis suggested a two-profile solution: Introverted, Inhibited, Doleful, Dramatizing (-), Egotistic (-), Self-demeaning and Borderline tendency scales composed the internalizing profile, and Submissive (-), Unruly, Forceful, Conforming (-) and Oppositional scales composed the externalizing profile. The comparative analysis showed that the internalizing profile has higher levels of clinical severity and more subjective effects reported than the externalizing profile. These results suggest the need to design specific intervention strategies for each profile.

  15. Effects of internal displacement and resettlement on the mental health of Turkish children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Neşe; Simşek, Zeynep; Oner, Ozgür; Munir, Kerim

    2005-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of internal displacement and resettlement within Turkey on the emotional and behavioral profile of children, age 5-18 after controlling for possible confounding and demographic variables. We conducted a national population survey using a self-weighted, equal probability sample. We compared the CBCL, TRF and YSR responses regarding children with (n = 1644) and without (n = 1855) experience of internal displacement. We examined the effects of gender, age, paternal employment, resettlement, urban residence and physical illness. The children and adolescents with internal displacement had significantly higher internalizing, externalizing and total problem scores on the CBCL and YSR, and higher internalizing scores on the TRF. The effect of displacement was related to higher internalizing problems when factors like physical illness, child age, child gender and urban residence were accounted. The overall effect was small explaining only 0.1-1.5% of the total variance by parent reports, and not evident by teacher reports. To our knowledge the present study is the first to examine Turkish children and adolescents with and without experience of internal displacement. The results are consistent with previous immigration studies: child age, gender, presence of physical illness and urban residence were more important predictors of internalization and externalization problem scores irrespective of informant source.

  16. PANCREATIC DIABETES TYPE 2 IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS: INTERNATIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Vasyukova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Violent growth of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM morbidity in children and adolescents is spread all around the world. Peculiarities of DM type 2 in this age group are: absence of determined diagnostic criteria, difficulty of differential diagnosis with DM type 1, early development of complications. International Society of Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes propose Guideline of DM type 2 management, which consider main questions of diagnostics, treatment and prophylaxis of this disease. The agent of choice for treatment of DM type 2 in children upwards 10 years is metformin.Key words: children, diabetes mellitus type 2, diagnostics, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(2:49-53

  17. Adolescent reproductive behavior: an international comparison of developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, J D

    1990-01-01

    A comparative study of adolescent reproductive behavior in the 1980s examined difference in pregnancy, birth, and abortion levels among teenagers in developed countries especially in the US, Canada, the UK, France, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Only 6 of 37 countries with total fertility rates 3.5 and per capita income US$2000/year, and at least 1 million people had adolescent birth rates higher than the US (Bulgaria, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Romania, Hungary, and Chile). The US had the highest abortion rate (42/1000) followed by Hungary (27/1000). Thus the US had the highest adolescent pregnancy rate (96/1000) as well as Hungary (96/1000). The 6 country analysis showed that reducing the level of sexual activity among teenagers is not necessarily needed to achieve lower pregnancy rates. For example, Sweden had the highest levels of sexual activity but its pregnancy rate were 33% as high as those of the US. The rates of sexual activity among teenagers in the Netherlands equaled those of the US, but its pregnancy rates were 14% as high as those of the US. All countries had earlier, more extensive, and better contraceptive use among sexually active teenagers than the US which accounted for their lower pregnancy rates. The more realistic acceptance of sexual activity among teenagers and provision of contraceptives in all the countries except the US differed from the societal ambivalence in the US. Thus ambivalence about sexuality and the appropriateness of contraceptive use results in lower contraceptive use and greater adolescent pregnancy rates. US adolescents constantly receive conflicting messages that sex is romantic, thrilling, and arousing but it is also immoral to have premarital sex. Thus adults need to be more candid about sexuality so they can clearly convey to adolescents their expectations for responsible behavior and to provide the information and services needed to make effective use of contraceptives when sexually active.

  18. Metropolitan planning from an international comparative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel; Grønning, Marius

    2016-01-01

    policies, and thus also to the instrumental orientation within planning. A challenge stemming from this comparison is to understand how similar policies are implemented at a strategic and metropolitan level. Within the institutional framework of Copenhagen, the problem with the Finger Plan directive might...... (Faludi & van der Valk, 1994), thus integrating the archetypal land-use character of municipal plans and the strategic and growth-oriented pursuit of regional plans. A number of questions may be deduced: How explicit is the metropolitan scale? How local and how regional is the knowledge basis? Within......Over the last few years new practices of spatial strategy making at different planning scales have emerged. At the metropolitan level, such spatial strategies are reminiscent of national and supranational competitive strategies (e.g. EU policies) as well as ratifications of international...

  19. Comparing internal and external drivers in the southern Benguela ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing internal and external drivers in the southern Benguela and the southern and ... during the model fitting: internal forcing by means of the trophic flow controls ... and two kinds of external forcing, namely fishing and the environment.

  20. Papers from the International Conference on Comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on different specific themes and four poster sessions gener- ally coordinated with each day's themes. The following nine papers are a representative sample of both plenary and review papers presented. Comparative animal physiology and biochemistry are areas of study largely concerned with the ways in which diverse.

  1. Interpersonal Mediators Linking Acculturation Stressors to Subsequent Internalizing Symptoms and Self-Esteem in Latino Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul Richard; Bacallao, Martica; Buchanan, Rachel Lee

    2009-01-01

    The specific aim of this study was to examine pathways leading to internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in Latino adolescents. Adolescent feelings of interpersonal humiliation, family conflict and commitment, and friendships with peers were investigated as potential mediators linking acculturation stress to subsequent adolescent self-esteem and…

  2. International energy conservation: comparative law and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    Ernest C. Baynard III, in the Foreword to the conference, told of the purpose of the conference - to compare and discuss the policies and laws that highly industrialized nations have used and considered to meet the challenge of energy conservation. The following countries participated in the conference: U.K.; Australia; Federal Republic of Germany; Japan; France; Canada; Sweden; Italy; the Netherlands; and the U.S. The IEA and the Commission of the European Communities also participated. The conference format consisted of ministerial addresses to the conference, interspersed with panel discussions focusing on energy conservation in transportation, industry, agriculture, and utilities; residential, commercial, and industrial buildings; and emergency situations. There was also a panel discussion on the role of government in energy conservation and energy information collection. The panels were composed of participating countries' representatives. (MCW)

  3. International comparative analyses of healthcare risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Niuyun; Wang, Li; Zhou, Jun; Yuan, Qiang; Zhang, Zongjiu; Li, Youping; Liang, Minghui; Cheng, Lan; Gao, Guangming; Cui, Xiaohui

    2011-02-01

    Interpretation of the growing body of global literature on health care risk is compromised by a lack of common understanding and language. This series of articles aims to comprehensively compare laws and regulations, institutional management, and administration of incidence reporting systems on medical risk management in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, and Taiwan, so as to provide evidence and recommendations for health care risk management policy in China. We searched the official websites of the healthcare risk management agencies of the four countries and one district for laws, regulatory documents, research reports, reviews and evaluation forms concerned with healthcare risk management and assessment. Descriptive comparative analysis was performed on relevant documents. A total of 146 documents were included in this study, including 2 laws (1.4%), 17 policy documents (11.6%), 41 guidance documents (28.1%), 37 reviews (25.3%), and 49 documents giving general information (33.6%). The United States government implemented one law and one rule of patient safety management, while the United Kingdom and Australia each issued professional guidances on patient safety improvement. The four countries implemented patient safety management policy on four different levels: national, state/province, hospital, and non-governmental organization. The four countries and one district adopted four levels of patient safety management, and the administration modes can be divided into an "NGO-led mode" represented by the United States and Canada and a "government-led mode" represented by the United Kingdom, Australia, and Taiwan. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  4. Comparative analysis of franchising in international markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Maja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing role of franchising at the global level requires its further improvement. This business model has great business potential, especially in the Serbian market, given the current underdevelopment and inaccessibility of information. At the core of our research, we outlined the characteristics of this business model, its impact on business development and at the same time we tried to draw the attention of domestic business entities to the benefits of franchising as a modern way of doing business. We start our research with a focus on the comparative analysis of Serbia, as a very poorly developed market. We then discuss the concept of franchising in Europe, with a special focus on Poland as a country that is ready to export franchising systems, and we continue by providing comparisons with the world's largest markets, namely, the USA and Canada. In this paper, we tried to elaborate on the economic viability of this project, as well as the increasing expansion and importance franchising has been experiencing in the last few years. Emphasis is placed on the use of franchise in many areas of business where there is the possibility of implementing both business models.

  5. Role of temperament in early adolescent pure and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems using a bifactor model: Moderation by parenting and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Frances L; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Spinrad, Tracy L

    2016-11-01

    We contribute to the literature on the relations of temperament to externalizing and internalizing problems by considering parental emotional expressivity and child gender as moderators of such relations and examining prediction of pure and co-occurring problem behaviors during early to middle adolescence using bifactor models (which provide unique and continuous factors for pure and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems). Parents and teachers reported on children's (4.5- to 8-year-olds; N = 214) and early adolescents' (6 years later; N = 168) effortful control, impulsivity, anger, sadness, and problem behaviors. Parental emotional expressivity was measured observationally and with parents' self-reports. Early-adolescents' pure externalizing and co-occurring problems shared childhood and/or early-adolescent risk factors of low effortful control, high impulsivity, and high anger. Lower childhood and early-adolescent impulsivity and higher early-adolescent sadness predicted early-adolescents' pure internalizing. Childhood positive parental emotional expressivity more consistently related to early-adolescents' lower pure externalizing compared to co-occurring problems and pure internalizing. Lower effortful control predicted changes in externalizing (pure and co-occurring) over 6 years, but only when parental positive expressivity was low. Higher impulsivity predicted co-occurring problems only for boys. Findings highlight the probable complex developmental pathways to adolescent pure and co-occurring externalizing and internalizing problems.

  6. Mothers' and fathers' autonomy-relevant parenting: longitudinal links with adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Laird, Robert D; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this study was to advance the understanding of separate and joint effects of mothers' and fathers' autonomy-relevant parenting during early and middle adolescence. In a sample of 518 families, adolescents (49 % female; 83 % European American, 16 % African American, 1 % other ethnic groups) reported on their mothers' and fathers' psychological control and knowledge about adolescents' whereabouts, friends, and activities at ages 13 and 16. Mothers and adolescents reported on adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behaviors at ages 12, 14, 15, and 17. Adolescents perceived their mothers as using more psychological control and having more knowledge than their fathers, but there was moderate concordance between adolescents' perceptions of their mothers and fathers. More parental psychological control predicted increases in boys' and girls' internalizing problems and girls' externalizing problems. More parental knowledge predicted decreases in boys' externalizing and internalizing problems. The perceived levels of behavior of mothers and fathers did not interact with one another in predicting adolescent adjustment. The results generalize across early and late adolescence and across mothers' and adolescents' reports of behavior problems. Autonomy-relevant mothering and fathering predict changes in behavior problems during early and late adolescence, but only autonomy-relevant fathering accounts for unique variance in adolescent behavior problems.

  7. Economics and Comparative and International Education: Past, Present, Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolhuter, Charl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to map this place of economics in the field of study of Comparative and International Education. Interrelationship between economy and education is concerned, two broad lines of enquiry lie within the scope of Comparative and International Education: economy as shaping force of education systems and the effect of education…

  8. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  9. “I feel free”: Experiences of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duberg, Anna; Möller, Margareta; Sunvisson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent girls today suffer from internalizing problems such as somatic symptoms and mental health problems at higher rates compared to those of previous decades, and effective interventions are warranted. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of participating in an 8-month dance intervention. This qualitative study was embedded in a randomized controlled trial of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. A total of 112 girls aged 13–18 were included in the study. The dance intervention group comprised 59 girls, 24 of whom were strategically chosen to be interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. The experiences of the dance intervention resulted in five generic categories: (1) An Oasis from Stress, which represents the fundamental basis of the intervention; (2) Supportive Togetherness, the setting; (3) Enjoyment and Empowerment, the immediate effect; (4) Finding Acceptance and Trust in Own Ability, the outcome; and (5) Dance as Emotional Expression, the use of the intervention. One main category emerged, Finding Embodied Self-Trust That Opens New Doors, which emphasizes the increased trust in the self and the ability to approach life with a sense of freedom and openness. The central understanding of the adolescent girls’ experiences was that the dance intervention enriched and gave access to personal resources. With the non-judgmental atmosphere and supportive togetherness as a safe platform, the enjoyment and empowerment in dancing gave rise to acceptance, trust in ability, and emotional expression. Taken together, this increased self-trust and they discovered a new ability to “claim space.” Findings from this study may provide practical information on designing future interventions for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. PMID:27416014

  10. "I feel free": Experiences of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duberg, Anna; Möller, Margareta; Sunvisson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent girls today suffer from internalizing problems such as somatic symptoms and mental health problems at higher rates compared to those of previous decades, and effective interventions are warranted. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of participating in an 8-month dance intervention. This qualitative study was embedded in a randomized controlled trial of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. A total of 112 girls aged 13-18 were included in the study. The dance intervention group comprised 59 girls, 24 of whom were strategically chosen to be interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. The experiences of the dance intervention resulted in five generic categories: (1) An Oasis from Stress, which represents the fundamental basis of the intervention; (2) Supportive Togetherness, the setting; (3) Enjoyment and Empowerment, the immediate effect; (4) Finding Acceptance and Trust in Own Ability, the outcome; and (5) Dance as Emotional Expression, the use of the intervention. One main category emerged, Finding Embodied Self-Trust That Opens New Doors, which emphasizes the increased trust in the self and the ability to approach life with a sense of freedom and openness. The central understanding of the adolescent girls' experiences was that the dance intervention enriched and gave access to personal resources. With the non-judgmental atmosphere and supportive togetherness as a safe platform, the enjoyment and empowerment in dancing gave rise to acceptance, trust in ability, and emotional expression. Taken together, this increased self-trust and they discovered a new ability to "claim space." Findings from this study may provide practical information on designing future interventions for adolescent girls with internalizing problems.

  11. Comparing international and South African work-based assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing international and South African work-based assessment of medical interns' practice. ... in the finding that most studies in SA have dealt with the assessment of core procedural skills related to acute clinical care, while the assessment of non-clinical competencies and non-procedural skills was poorly addressed.

  12. Comparing Ourselves to Others: International Knowledge and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Jo Ann Cutler; Zandan, Peter A.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a lesson for junior high social studies which uses a comparison of research findings to teach students about international political socialization. Students answer questionnaires about their own attitudes and knowledge of international political socialization and then compare and contrast their responses to responses of American,…

  13. Estimating International Poverty Lines from Comparable National Thresholds

    OpenAIRE

    Jolliffe, Dean; Prydz, Espen Beer

    2016-01-01

    World Bank's international poverty line of $1.90/day, at 2011 purchasing power parity, is based on a collection of national poverty lines, which were originally used to set the international poverty line of $1.25/day at 2005 purchasing power parity. This paper proposes an approach for estimating a more recent, complete, and comparable collection of national poverty thresholds from reported...

  14. Self-esteem: a comparative study of adolescents from mainstream and minority religious groups in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ahmad, Riaz; Ayub, Nadia

    2013-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the level of self-esteem among religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) by making a comparison with their dominant counterparts (Muslims) in Pakistan. It was hypothesized that adolescents of religious minorities would have lower level of self-esteem than their dominant counterparts. In the present study 320 adolescents participated, in which 160 adolescents belonged to minority religious groups (i.e. 76 Christians and 84 Hindus) and 160 adolescents belonged to dominant religious group i.e. Muslims. To assess self-esteem of the participants, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg in Society and the adolescent self image, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1965) was used. One Way Analysis of Variance reveals that religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) inclined to have lower self-esteem as compared to their dominant counterpart (Muslim adolescents).

  15. Comparing Multi-Informant Assessment Measures of Parental Monitoring and Their Links with Adolescent Delinquent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augenstein, Tara M.; Thomas, Sarah A.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Daruwala, Samantha; Reyes, Shelby M.; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S.; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective Parents’ poor monitoring of adolescents’ whereabouts and activities is commonly linked to adolescents’ increased engagement in delinquent behaviors. Yet, different domains of parental monitoring (parental monitoring behaviors vs. parental knowledge) and reports from multiple informants (parent vs. adolescent) may vary in their links to delinquent behavior. Design Seventy-four parental caregivers and 74 adolescents completed survey measures of parental monitoring and knowledge, and adolescents completed self-report surveys of delinquent behavior. Results We observed low-to-moderate magnitudes of correspondence between parent- and adolescent-reports of parental monitoring behaviors and parental knowledge. Adolescent self-reported delinquent behavior related to parent and adolescent reports of parental monitoring behaviors and parental knowledge, with adolescents who self-reported engagement in delinquent behaviors evidencing lower levels of parental knowledge and higher levels of poor monitoring compared to adolescents who did not self-report engagement in delinquent behaviors. Adolescent self-reported engagement in delinquent behaviors evidenced stronger links to parental monitoring when based on adolescent reports of monitoring (relative to parent reports), whereas stronger links held between adolescent self-reported delinquent behavior and parental knowledge when based on parent reports of knowledge (relative to adolescent reports). Conclusions Links between monitoring and adolescents’ delinquent behavior vary by the kind of monitoring measure completed as well as the informant completing the measure. These findings inform measurement selection in research and clinical assessments of parental monitoring and adolescent delinquent behavior. PMID:27482171

  16. Enhanced prefrontal-amygdala connectivity following childhood adversity as a protective mechanism against internalizing in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herringa, Ryan J; Burghy, Cory A; Stodola, Diane E; Fox, Michelle E; Davidson, Richard J; Essex, Marilyn J

    2016-07-01

    Much research has focused on the deleterious neurobiological effects of childhood adversity that may underlie internalizing disorders. While most youth show emotional adaptation following adversity, the corresponding neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this longitudinal community study, we examined the associations among childhood family adversity, adolescent internalizing symptoms, and their interaction on regional brain activation and amygdala/hippocampus functional connectivity during emotion processing in 132 adolescents. Consistent with prior work, childhood adversity predicted heightened amygdala reactivity to negative, but not positive, images in adolescence. However, amygdala reactivity was not related to internalizing symptoms. Furthermore, childhood adversity predicted increased fronto-amygdala connectivity to negative, but not positive, images, yet only in lower internalizing adolescents. Childhood adversity also predicted increased fronto-hippocampal connectivity to negative images, but was not moderated by internalizing. These findings were unrelated to adolescence adversity or externalizing symptoms, suggesting specificity to childhood adversity and adolescent internalizing. Together, these findings suggest that adaptation to childhood adversity is associated with augmentation of fronto-subcortical circuits specifically for negative emotional stimuli. Conversely, insufficient enhancement of fronto-amygdala connectivity, with increasing amygdala reactivity, may represent a neural signature of vulnerability for internalizing by late adolescence. These findings implicate early childhood as a critical period in determining the brain's adaptation to adversity, and suggest that even normative adverse experiences can have significant impact on neurodevelopment and functioning. These results offer potential neural mechanisms of adaptation and vulnerability which could be used in the prediction of risk for psychopathology following childhood

  17. Music-based interventions to reduce internalizing symptoms in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geipel, Josephine; Koenig, Julian; Hillecke, Thomas K; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Existing systematic reviews provide evidence that music therapy is an effective intervention in the treatment of children and adolescents with psychopathology. The objective of the present review was to systematically review and quantify the effects of music-based interventions in reducing internalizing symptoms (i.e., depression and anxiety) in children and adolescents using a meta-analytical approach. Databases and journals were systematically screened for studies eligible for inclusion in meta-analysis on the effects of music-based interventions in reducing internalizing symptoms. A random-effect meta-analysis using standardized mean differences (SMD) was conducted. Five studies were included. Analysis of data from (randomized) controlled trials, yielded a significant main effect (Hedge's g = -0.73; 95%CI [-1.42;-0.04], Z = 2.08, p = 0.04, k = 5), indicating a greater reduction of internalizing symptoms in youth receiving music-based interventions (n = 100) compared to different control group interventions (n = 95). The existing evidence is limited to studies of low power and methodological quality. Included studies were highly heterogeneous with respect to the nature of the intervention, the measurements applied, the samples studied, and the study design. Findings indicate that music-based interventions may be efficient in reducing the severity of internalizing symptoms in children and adolescents. While these results are encouraging with respect to the application of music-based intervention, rigorous research is necessary to replicate existing findings and provide a broader base of evidence. More research adopting well controlled study designs of high methodological quality is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Internationally Comparable Measures of Occupational Status for the 1988 International Standard Classification of Occupations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzeboom, H.B.G.; Treiman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides operational procedures for coding internationally comparable measures of occupational status from the recently published International Standard Classification of Occupation 1988 (ISCO88) of the International Labor Office (ILO, 1990). We first discuss the nature of the ISCO88

  19. Relational Factors of Vulnerability and Protection for Adolescent Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study of Portuguese Pregnant and Nonpregnant Adolescents of Low Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Maria C.; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonca, Denisa

    2005-01-01

    This study explores multiple relational contexts that promote vulnerability and protection against early pregnancy in a potential risk group of Portuguese adolescents. A comparative analysis was made between two groups of female adolescents of low socioeconomic status: pregnant adolescents (n = 57) and adolescents without a history of pregnancy (n…

  20. Sex Differences in Internalizing Problems during Adolescence in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Tasha M.; Winter-Messiers, Mary Ann; Gibson, Brandon; Schmidt, Alexandra M.; Herr, Cynthia M.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that the double hit conferred by sex and diagnosis increases the risk for internalizing disorders in adolescent females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In a sample of 32 adolescents with ASD and 32 controls, we examined the effects of sex, diagnostic factors, and developmental stages on depression and anxiety. A 3-way…

  1. The Role of Parenting and Mother-Adolescent Attachment in the Intergenerational Similarity of Internalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenning, Katrijn; Soenens, Bart; Braet, Caroline; Bal, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Parental depression has been identified as a risk factor for children's and adolescents' internalizing problems. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of maternal parenting behaviors (i.e., responsiveness and autonomy-support) and adolescents' representations of attachment to their mother (i.e., anxiety and avoidance) in the…

  2. The Relations among Maternal Depression, Maternal Criticism, and Adolescents' Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Alice A.; Garber, Judy

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relations between maternal criticism and externalizing and internalizing symptoms in adolescents who varied in their risk for psychopathology. Both maternal-effects and child-effects models were examined. The sample consisted of 194 adolescents (mean age = 11.8 years) and their mothers: 146 mothers had a history of…

  3. Longitudinal Associations between Adolescent Perceived Degree and Style of Parental Prohibition and Internalization and Defiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Van Petegem, Stijn; Duriez, Bart

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between perceived degree and style of parental prohibition and adolescents' internalization of and oppositional defiance against parental rules in the friendship and moral domain. Relations were investigated in 2 longitudinal adolescent samples (total N = 532). Results indicated that perceived style but not…

  4. Developmental Pathways Linking Externalizing Symptoms, Internalizing Symptoms, and Academic Competence to Adolescent Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Michelle M.; Siebenbruner, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This study extends previous research investigating the developmental pathways predicting adolescent alcohol and marijuana use by examining the cascading effects of externalizing and internalizing symptoms and academic competence in the prediction of use and level of use of these substances in adolescence. Participants (N = 191) were drawn from a…

  5. Low Vagal Tone Magnifies the Association Between Psychosocial Stress Exposure and Internalizing Psychopathology in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Rith-Najarian, Leslie; Dirks, Melanie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Vagal tone is a measure of cardiovascular function that facilitates adaptive responses to environmental challenge. Low vagal tone is associated with poor emotional and attentional regulation in children and has been conceptualized as a marker of sensitivity to stress. We investigated whether the associations of a wide range of psychosocial stressors with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology were magnified in adolescents with low vagal tone. Resting heart period data were collected from a diverse community sample of adolescents (ages 13–17; N =168). Adolescents completed measures assessing internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and exposure to stressors occurring in family, peer, and community contexts. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was calculated from the interbeat interval time series. We estimated interactions between RSA and stress exposure in predicting internalizing and externalizing symptoms and evaluated whether interactions differed by gender. Exposure to psychosocial stressors was associated strongly with psychopathology. RSA was unrelated to internalizing or externalizing problems. Significant interactions were observed between RSA and child abuse, community violence, peer victimization, and traumatic events in predicting internalizing but not externalizing symptoms. Stressors were positively associated with internalizing symptoms in adolescents with low RSA but not in those with high RSA. Similar patterns were observed for anxiety and depression. These interactions were more consistently observed for male than female individuals. Low vagal tone is associated with internalizing psychopathology in adolescents exposed to high levels of stressors. Measurement of vagal tone in clinical settings might provide useful information about sensitivity to stress in child and adolescent clients. PMID:24156380

  6. Childhood internalizing symptoms are negatively associated with early adolescent alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Alexis C.; Latendresse, Shawn J.; Heron, Jon; Cho, Seung Bin; Hickman, Matt; Lewis, Glyn; Dick, Danielle M.; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between childhood internalizing problems and early adolescent alcohol use has been infrequently explored and remains unclear. Methods We employed growth mixture modeling of internalizing symptoms for a large, population-based sample of UK children (the ALSPAC cohort) to identify trajectories of childhood internalizing symptoms from age 4 through age 11.5. We then examined the relationship between membership in each trajectory and alcohol use in early adolescence (reported at age 13.8). Results Overall, children experiencing elevated levels of internalizing symptoms were less likely to use alcohol in early adolescence. This finding held true across all internalizing trajectories; i.e., those exhibiting increasing levels of internalizing symptoms over time, and those whose symptoms desisted over time, were both less likely to use alcohol than their peers who did not exhibit internalizing problems. Conclusions We conclude that childhood internalizing symptoms, unlike adolescent symptoms, are negatively associated with early adolescent alcohol experimentation. Additional studies are warranted to follow up on our preliminary evidence that symptoms of phobia and separation anxiety drive this effect. PMID:24848214

  7. Establishing International Blood Pressure References Among Non-Overweight Children and Adolescents Aged 6–17 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Bo; Zong, Xin’nan; Kelishadi, Roya; Hong, Young Mi; Khadilkar, Anuradha; Steffen, Lyn M.; Nawarycz, Tadeusz; Krzywińska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Bovet, Pascal; Chiolero, Arnaud; Pan, Haiyan; Litwin, Mieczysław; Poh, Bee Koon; Sung, Rita Y.T.; So, Hung-Kwan; Schwandt, Peter; Haas, Gerda-Maria; Neuhauser, Hannelore K.; Marinov, Lachezar; Galcheva, Sonya V; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Kim, Hae Soon; Khadilkar, Vaman; Krzyżaniak, Alicja; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Heshmat, Ramin; Chiplonkar, Shashi; Stawińska-Witoszyńska, Barbara; Ati, Jalila El; Qorbani, Mostafa; Kajale, Neha; Traissac, Pierre; Ostrowska-Nawarycz, Lidia; Ardalan, Gelayol; Parthasarathy, Lavanya; Zhao, Min; Zhang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Background Several distributions of country-specific blood pressure (BP) percentiles by sex, age and height for children and adolescents have been established worldwide. However, there are no globally unified BP references for defining elevated BP in children and adolescents, which limit international comparisons of prevalence of pediatric elevated BP. We aimed to establish international BP references for children and adolescents using seven nationally representative data (China, India, Iran, Korea, Poland, Tunisia and USA). Methods and Results Data on BP for 52,636 non-overweight children and adolescents aged 6–19 years were obtained from seven large nationally representative cross-sectional surveys in China, India, Iran, Korea, Poland, Tunisia, and USA. BP values were obtained with certified mercury sphygmomanometers in all seven countries, using standard procedures for BP measurement. Smoothed BP percentiles (50th, 90th, 95th and 99th) by age and height were estimated using the Generalized Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) model. BP values were similar between males and females until the age of 13 years and were higher in males than females thereafter. Compared to BP level of the 90th and 95th percentiles of the U.S. Fourth Report at median height, systolic BP of the corresponding percentiles of these international references was lower while diastolic BP was similar. Conclusions These international BP references will be a useful tool for international comparison of the prevalence of elevated BP in children and adolescents and may help identify hypertensive youths in diverse populations. PMID:26671979

  8. Sleep quality among internally displaced Georgian adolescents and population-based controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhelashvili, Irine; Eliozishvili, Marine; Lortkipanidze, Nani; Oniani, Nikoloz; Cervena, Katerina; Darchia, Nato

    2016-09-01

    Sleep problems in children and adolescents are a significant public health concern and may be linked to a variety of psychoemotional difficulties. This study aimed to evaluate sleep quality and associated factors in conflict-affected Georgian adolescents after 9 months of forced displacement. Thirty-three internally displaced adolescents (mean age 11.4 years) and 33 adolescents (mean age 10.8 years) from the general population completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Parents completed the Children's Sleep-Wake Scale and provided information on their socioeconomic status (SES) and the adolescents' sleep behavior, academic performance, and peer social relationships. The groups differed significantly in sleep quality, peer relationships, SES, and CDI scores. In the internally displaced group, the only significant predictor of sleep quality was SES, which increased the predictive capacity of the model (demographic and psychosocial variables) by 20% in the hierarchical analyses. The most significant predictor in the non-internally displaced group was CDI. This research indicates that displacement may affect sleep quality and psychosocial functioning. The importance of family SES as a contributing factor to displaced adolescents' poor sleep quality is highlighted. An integrated approach designed to improve the psychosocial environment of internally displaced adolescents is needed for their protection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Economics and Comparative and International Education: Past, Present, Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charl Wolhuter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to map this place of economics in the field of study of Comparative and International Education. Interrelationship between economy and education is concerned, two broad lines of enquiry lie within the scope of Comparative and International Education: economy as shaping force of education systems and the effect of education on the economy. In the interwar “factors and forces” stage of Comparative Education, the economy as a shaping force of national education systems came to the fore. In the social science phase of the 1960s the focus shifted to a study of the effect of education on the economy. This was reversed again in the 1970s, when socio-economic reproduction theories assigned a deterministic place to socio-economic stratification of society. In recent years neo-liberal economics dictated the research agenda of Comparative Education. In conclusion recommendations for a future research agenda in the field are made.

  10. International comparative studies of education and large scale change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howie, Sarah; Plomp, T.; Bascia, Nina; Cumming, Alister; Datnow, Amanda; Leithwood, Kenneth; Livingstone, David

    2005-01-01

    The development of international comparative studies of educational achievements dates back to the early 1960s and was made possible by developments in sample survey methodology, group testing techniques, test development, and data analysis (Husén & Tuijnman, 1994, p. 6). The studies involve

  11. "Families" in International Context: Comparing Institutional Effects across Western Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Lynn Prince; Baxter, Janeen

    2010-01-01

    We review comparative evidence of institutional effects on families in Western societies. We focus on 2 key aspects of family life: gendered divisions of labor and people's transitions into, within, and out of relationships. Many individual-level models assume the effects are robust across countries. The international evidence over the past decade…

  12. Bystander Obligations at the Domestic and International Level Compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, Otto|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328454559

    2014-01-01

    This article examines whether States have a legal obligation to assist victims of serious breaches of fundamental obligations owed to the international community as a whole. This so-called ‘bystander State responsibility’ is compared with a similar legal obligation to assist victims at the domestic

  13. Comparative Study of Internal Efficiency in Private and Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The education sector has been undergoing regular reviews so that to improve efficiency and cost effectiveness in resource utilization. This study was designed to make a comparative study of internal efficiency in both private and public primary schools of Manga Division, Nyamira District, Kenya. Specifically, the study not ...

  14. Peer influences on internalizing and externalizing problems among adolescents: a longitudinal social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuin, Janna; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents who like each other may become more similar to each other with regard to internalizing and externalizing problems, though it is not yet clear which social mechanisms explain these similarities. In this longitudinal study, we analyzed four mechanisms that may explain similarity in adolescent peer networks with regard to externalizing and internalizing problems: selection, socialization, avoidance and withdrawal. At three moments during one school-year, we asked 542 adolescents (8th grade, M-age = 13.3 years, 51 % female) to report who they liked in their classroom, and their own internalizing and externalizing problems. Adolescents tend to prefer peers who have similar externalizing problem scores, but no significant selection effect was found for internalizing problems. Adolescents who share the same group of friends socialize each other and then become more similar with respect to externalizing problems, but not with respect to internalizing problems. We found no significant effects for avoidance or withdrawal. Adolescents may choose to belong to a peer group that is similar to them in terms of externalizing problem behaviors, and through peer group socialization (e.g., enticing, modelling, mimicking, and peer pressure) become more similar to that group over time.

  15. The impact of internalizing symptoms on autistic traits in adolescents with restrictive anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calderoni S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sara Calderoni,1,* Pamela Fantozzi,1,* Giulia Balboni,2 Veronica Pagni,1 Emilio Franzoni,3 Fabio Apicella,1 Antonio Narzisi,1 Sandra Maestro,1 Filippo Muratori1,4 1IRCCS Stella Maris Foundation, 2Department of Surgery, Medical, Molecular and Critical Area Pathology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 3Child Neuropsychiatric Unit, Women, Children and Adolescents Health Department, University Hospital S Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna, Italy; 4Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Although previous studies indicated a positive association between restrictive anorexia-nervosa (AN-R and autistic traits, the potential interference of psychiatric internalizing comorbidity on this association is not yet fully investigated.Materials and methods: The aim of this study was to explore autistic traits and internalizing psychopathology in adolescents (age range: 11.7–17.2 years with AN-R. Twenty-five patients referred to two tertiary-care hospitals were compared to a large control group (N=170 with no differences in age and sex. AN-R patients and controls filled out instruments assessing autistic traits (autism spectrum quotient [AQ], psychopathology (youth self-report [YSR] 11–18, and eating patterns (eating attitude test [EAT]. In order to disentangle the possible mediating role of internalizing symptoms on autistic traits, two separate control groups (called True and False healthy control, both composed of 25 eating-problem-free participants were derived from the whole control group on the basis of the presence or absence of internalizing problems in the YSR.Results: AN-R patients scored significantly higher on AQ compared to the whole control group and to controls without internalizing problems (True HC, but these differences disappeared when only controls with internalizing problems (False HC were considered.Conclusion: Autistic traits in AN

  16. Explaining the judicial independence of international courts: a comparative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek

    What factors allow some international courts (ICs) to rule against the express preferences of powerful member states, whereas others routinely defer to governments? While judicial independence is not the only factor explaining the strength of a given international institution, it is a necessary...... condition. The paper first develops three sets of competing explanatory variables that potentially can explain variations in the judicial independence of ICs. The causal effects of these explanatory variables upon variance in judicial independence are investigated in a comparative analysis of the ACJ, ECJ...

  17. Comparing sleep disorders in urban and suburban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur'aini Nur'aini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Sleep disturbances commonly occur in adolescents. Socioeconomic levels, lifestyle, and urban or suburban environments influence the sleep patterns of adolescents. The modernization process in urban environments is marked by the development of information technology media, and the lack of parental monitoring potentially influencing adolescent sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbances may affect children's physical growth, as well as their emotional, cognitive, and social development. Objective To assess for sleep disorders in urban and suburban adolescents, and to determine the factors that influence the prevalence of sleep disturbances. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 12 to 15-year-old junior high school students in urban (n=350 and suburban (n=350 environments in the city of Medan, North Sumatera. The study was undertaken from May to June 2010 using the Sleep Disorders Scale for Children (SDSC, a set of questionnaires. The SDSC was filled out by parents based on what they remembered about their children's sleep patterns in the prior 6 months. Results In the urban group, there were 133 (38.0% subjects with sleep disturbances, 182 (52.0% were borderline, and 35 (10.0% were normal. In the suburban group, there were 132 (37.7% subjects with sleep disturbances, 180 (51.4% were borderline, and 38 (10.9% were normal. The most influential factors for sleep disturbances in urban and suburban youth were environmental noise (P=0.001 and consuming beverages that contain caffeine (P=0.001. There were three types of sleep disorders that significantly found more in urban adolescents: disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, disorders of excessive somnolence, and sleep hyperhidrosis. Conclusion The prevalence of sleep disturbances do not differ between urban and suburban adolescents. Howevet; there are significant differences in the types of sleep disorders experienced. The most influential factors on sleep disturbance in both

  18. Access to and use of Internet by adolescents who have a physical disability: a comparative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lathouwers, K.A.M.; Moor, J.M.H. de; Didden, R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine access to and use of Internet by 97 physically disabled adolescents. Four main objectives were to: (1) explore frequency and nature of Internet use and the role of care givers, (2) compare these results with non-disabled adolescents, (3) explore associations

  19. Access to and use of Internet by adolescents who have a physical disability: A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lathouwers, K.A.M.; Moor, J.M.H. de; Didden, H.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine access to and use of Internet by 97 physically disabled adolescents. Four main objectives were to: (1) explore frequency and nature of Internet use and the role of care givers, (2) compare these results with non-disabled adolescents, (3) explore associations

  20. An International Consortium Update: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Lourdes; Oberfield, Sharon E; Witchel, Selma; Auchus, Richard J; Chang, R Jeffrey; Codner, Ethel; Dabadghao, Preeti; Darendeliler, Feyza; Elbarbary, Nancy Samir; Gambineri, Alessandra; Garcia Rudaz, Cecilia; Hoeger, Kathleen M; López-Bermejo, Abel; Ong, Ken; Peña, Alexia S; Reinehr, Thomas; Santoro, Nicola; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Tao, Rachel; Yildiz, Bulent O; Alkhayyat, Haya; Deeb, Asma; Joel, Dipesalema; Horikawa, Reiko; de Zegher, Francis; Lee, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    This paper represents an international collaboration of paediatric endocrine and other societies (listed in the Appendix) under the International Consortium of Paediatric Endocrinology (ICPE) aiming to improve worldwide care of adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)1. The manuscript examines pathophysiology and guidelines for the diagnosis and management of PCOS during adolescence. The complex pathophysiology of PCOS involves the interaction of genetic and epigenetic changes, primary ovarian abnormalities, neuroendocrine alterations, and endocrine and metabolic modifiers such as anti-Müllerian hormone, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, adiposity, and adiponectin levels. Appropriate diagnosis of adolescent PCOS should include adequate and careful evaluation of symptoms, such as hirsutism, severe acne, and menstrual irregularities 2 years beyond menarche, and elevated androgen levels. Polycystic ovarian morphology on ultrasound without hyperandrogenism or menstrual irregularities should not be used to diagnose adolescent PCOS. Hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and obesity may be present in adolescents with PCOS, but are not considered to be diagnostic criteria. Treatment of adolescent PCOS should include lifestyle intervention, local therapies, and medications. Insulin sensitizers like metformin and oral contraceptive pills provide short-term benefits on PCOS symptoms. There are limited data on anti-androgens and combined therapies showing additive/synergistic actions for adolescents. Reproductive aspects and transition should be taken into account when managing adolescents. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Family Structure and Adolescent Substance Use: An International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, John P

    2017-11-10

    Numerous studies indicate that family structure is a key correlate of adolescent substance use. Yet there are some important limitations to this research. Studies have been conducted mainly in the United States, with relatively few studies that have compared family structure and youth substance use across nations. There is also a lack of recognition of the complexity of family types prevalent in contemporary global society. Moreover, there remains a need to consider personal, interpersonal, and macro-level characteristics that may help account for the association between family structure and youth substance use. This study uses data from 37 countries to examine several models that purport to explain the association between family structure and substance use. The data are from the 2005-2006 WHO-sponsored Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) (n = 193,202). Multilevel models, including linear, probit, and structural equation models (SEMs), were used to test several hypotheses. The results suggest that time spent with friends largely accounted for the association between specific types of family structures and frequency of alcohol use and getting drunk, but that cannabis use was negatively associated with living with both biological parents irrespective of other factors.

  2. Surgical treatment of adolescent internal condylar resorption (AICR) with articular disc repositioning and orthognathic surgery in the growing patient?a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Bodine, Trevor P.; Wolford, Larry M.; Araujo, Eustaquio; Oliver, Donald R.; Buschang, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to better understand how surgical repositioning and stabilization of anteriorly displaced articular discs using the Mitek mini-anchor technique affects condylar growth in growing patients with adolescent internal condylar resorption (AICR). Methods Twenty-two adolescent patients diagnosed with AICR and anterior temporomandibular disc displacement were compared to untreated control subjects without AICR matched for age, sex, and Angle classificatio...

  3. Mediators for internalizing problems in adolescents of parents with chronic medical condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, D.S.; Oort, F.J.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.; Meijer, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Parents’ chronic medical condition (CMC) is related to internalizing problem behavior in adolescents. Following the transactional stress and coping (TSC) model of Hocking and Lochman, our study examines whether the effect of illness and demographic parameters on the child’s internalizing problems is

  4. Reorienting adolescent sexual and reproductive health research : Reflections from an international conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, Kristien; De Meyer, Sara; Ivanova, Olena; Anderson, Ragnar; Decat, Peter; Herbiet, Céline; Kabiru, Caroline W.; Ketting, Evert; Lees, James; Moreau, Caroline; Tolman, Deborah L.; Vega, Bernardo; Verhetsel, Elizabeth; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Vanwesenbeeck, W.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    On December 4th 2014, the International Centre for Reproductive Health (ICRH) at Ghent University organized an international conference on adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) and well-being. This viewpoint highlights two key messages of the conference - 1) ASRH promotion is broadening

  5. International stock market integration: Central and South Eastern Europe compared

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, Roman; Petrovski, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2013), s. 81-91 ISSN 0939-3625 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stock markets * South Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.611, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/horvath-international stock market integration central and south eastern europe compared.pdf

  6. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among North Indian adolescents using Adult Treatment Panel III and pediatric International Diabetic Federation definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyaz Ahmad Bhat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Childhood obesity is an important risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome (MS in children and adolescent. Because of high prevalence of insulin resistance and MS in Indian adult population, studies are needed to identify the prevalence of these metabolic abnormalities in the adolescent population. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of MS using pediatric International Diabetic Federation (IDF definition and compare it with estimates of Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III definition among adolescents in Northern India. Materials and Methods: At a total of 899 adolescents attending school (aged 10-18 years participated in this population-based prospective study. All the clinical and biochemical assessment were done after proper consent. The MS was determined by the National Cholesterol Education Program ATP III definition modified for age and pediatric IDF definition. Results: The prevalence of MS was 3.5% according to ATP III criteria and 1.5% based on IDF criteria. No significant gender difference was observed in the distribution of MS. Hypertriglyceridemia was the most common and abdominal obesity the least common constituent of MS. Conclusion: This study provides the first estimates of MS using pediatric IDF definition in the adolescent population from Northern India.

  7. Reproductive outcomes in adolescents who had a previous birth or an induced abortion compared to adolescents' first pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzlaff Paul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, attention has been focused on subsequent pregnancies among teenage mothers. Previous studies that compared the reproductive outcomes of teenage nulliparae and multiparae often did not consider the adolescents' reproductive histories. Thus, the authors compared the risks for adverse reproductive outcomes of adolescent nulliparae to teenagers who either have had an induced abortion or a previous birth. Methods In this retrospective cohort study we used perinatal data prospectively collected by obstetricians and midwives from 1990–1999 (participation rate 87–98% of all hospitals in Lower Saxony, Germany. From the 9742 eligible births among adolescents, women with multiple births, >1 previous pregnancies, or a previous spontaneous miscarriage were deleted and 8857 women Results In bivariate logistic regression analyses, compared to nulliparous teenagers, adolescents with a previous birth had higher risks for perinatal [OR = 2.08, CI = 1.11,3.89] and neonatal [OR = 4.31, CI = 1.77,10.52] mortality and adolescents with a previous abortion had higher risks for stillbirths [OR = 3.31, CI = 1.01,10.88] and preterm births [OR = 2.21, CI = 1.07,4.58]. After adjusting for maternal nationality, partner status, smoking, prenatal care and pre-pregnancy BMI, adolescents with a previous birth were at higher risk for perinatal [OR = 2.35, CI = 1.14,4.86] and neonatal mortality [OR = 4.70, CI = 1.60,13.81] and adolescents with a previous abortion had a higher risk for very low birthweight infants [OR = 2.74, CI = 1.06,7.09] than nulliparous teenagers. Conclusion The results suggest that teenagers who give birth twice as adolescents have worse outcomes in their second pregnancy compared to those teenagers who are giving birth for the first time. The prevention of the second pregnancy during adolescence is an important public health objective and should be addressed by health care providers who attend the first birth or the abortion

  8. Eating behavior: do adolescents with diabetes eat differently compared to healthy adolescent?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaufort, C d; Damsgaard, M T; Ahluwalia, N

    2010-01-01

    aspects of health of adolescents world wide since 1983. As the diet is one of the corner stones of the treatment of diabetes, the Hvidoere study group has investigated whether eating habits in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) differ from their healthy peers, in using the same questions as developed......Objective: Comparison between eating habits of 11 and 15 years healthy adolescents and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in 18 countries worldwide. The Health Behaviour in School-age children (HBSC) study, a WHO collaborative cross-national study, (www.HBSC.org) has started to evaluate different...... by the HBSC study. Methodology: Questionnaires were obtained in 18 countries by both HBSC and HSG. Details on data collection for both groups have been reported previously (1, 2). Results are given in age standardized prevalences (percentages) by study and by sex as well as age adjusted odds ratios between...

  9. External-environmental and internal-health early life predictors of adolescent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Sarah; Li, Zhi; Nettle, Daniel; Belsky, Jay

    2017-12-01

    A wealth of evidence documents associations between various aspects of the rearing environment and later development. Two evolutionary-inspired models advance explanations for why and how such early experiences shape later functioning: (a) the external-prediction model, which highlights the role of the early environment (e.g., parenting) in regulating children's development, and (b) the internal-prediction model, which emphasizes internal state (i.e., health) as the critical regulator. Thus, by using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the current project draws from both models by investigating whether the effect of the early environment on later adolescent functioning is subject to an indirect effect by internal-health variables. Results showed a significant indirect effect of internal health on the relation between the early environment and adolescent behavior. Specifically, early environmental adversity during the first 5 years of life predicted lower quality health during childhood, which then led to problematic adolescent functioning and earlier age of menarche for girls. In addition, for girls, early adversity predicted lower quality health that forecasted earlier age of menarche leading to increased adolescent risk taking. The discussion highlights the importance of integrating both internal and external models to further understand the developmental processes that effect adolescent behavior.

  10. Relations of Parenting to Adolescent Externalizing and Internalizing Distress Moderated by Perception of Neighborhood Danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, Jonathan S; Quimby, Dakari; Richards, Maryse H; Zakaryan, Arie; Miller, Steve; Dickson, Daniel; Chilson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Parental monitoring and warmth have traditionally been studied in the context of White, middle-class families. This article explores optimal levels of these parenting behaviors in preventing adolescent psychopathology in impoverished, urban high-crime areas while accounting for child perceptions of neighborhood danger. In this study, data were collected longitudinally at 2 time points 1 year apart from a sample of 254 African American young adolescents (T1: M age = 12.6 years, 41% male) and their parents. Parental monitoring and warmth, child perception of neighborhood danger, and child internalizing and externalizing behaviors were measured using questionnaires. Child internalizing behaviors were also measured using a time sampling technique capturing in vivo accounts of daily distress. Findings indicated associations between parental monitoring and children's externalizing behaviors along with linear and quadratic associations between parental monitoring and internalizing behaviors. Monitoring and warmth were differentially related to symptoms depending on neighborhood danger level. When children perceived less danger, more monitoring related to less externalizing. When children perceived more danger, more warmth related to less internalizing. In addition, adolescents' perceptions of neighborhood danger emerged as equally strong as monitoring and warmth in predicting symptoms. This study underscores the influence of carefully considering parenting approaches and which techniques optimally prevent adolescents' externalizing, as well as prevent internalizing difficulties. It also highlights how context affects mental health, specifically how perceptions of danger negatively influence adolescents' psychopathology, emphasizing the importance of initiatives to reduce violence in communities.

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Maternal and Child Internalizing Symptoms Predicting Early Adolescent Emotional Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Katherine M; Nelson, Timothy D; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2017-05-01

    To examine maternal and child internalizing symptoms as predictors of early adolescent emotional eating in a longitudinal framework spanning three critical developmental periods (preschool, elementary school, and early adolescence). Participants were 170 children recruited at preschool age for a longitudinal study. When children were 5.25 years, their mothers completed ratings of their own internalizing symptoms. During the spring of 4th grade, children completed measures of internalizing symptoms. In early adolescence, youth completed a measure of emotional eating. Maternal and child internalizing symptoms predicted adolescent emotional eating. The results indicated that child psychopathology moderated the association between maternal psychopathology (except for maternal anxiety) and early adolescent emotional eating. There was no evidence of mediation. Pediatric psychologists are encouraged to provide early screening of, and interventions for, maternal and child internalizing symptoms to prevent children's emotional eating. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Polish and Czech International New Ventures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Danik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to compare the characteristics of Polish and Czech companies which follow the Born Global internationalization model. More concretely, the analysis aims to discover the differences or similarities in terms of the internationalization paths of Polish and Czech SMEs in the characteristics of their managers in terms of the so-called “international vision” and in their innovativeness level. The introductory part of article provides a description of this internationalization model and the International New Ventures traits (INV and summarizes the recent studies on this topic conducted in Poland and Czech Republic. In the empirical part, the International New Ventures from the two countries are compared. The Polish sample includes 105 companies which were surveyed with use of computer assisted telephone interviews in autumn 2014. For the Czech Republic, the sample consists of 54 small and medium-sized companies, which were surveyed using the computer assisted web interviews from November 2013 till January 2014. The surveyed companies in both countries fulfilled the definition of Born Globals. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation analysis and non-parametric tests are applied to accomplish the goals of the paper.

  13. Prevalence of thinness in children and adolescents in the Seychelles: comparison of two international growth references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovet, Pascal; Kizirian, Nathalie; Madeleine, George; Blössner, Monika; Chiolero, Arnaud

    2011-06-09

    Thinness in children and adolescents is largely under studied, a contrast with abundant literature on under-nutrition in infants and on overweight in children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of thinness using two recently developed growth references, among children and adolescents living in the Seychelles, an economically rapidly developing country in the African region. Weight and height were measured every year in all children of 4 grades (age range: 5 to 16 years) of all schools in the Seychelles as part of a routine school-based surveillance program. In this study we used data collected in 16,672 boys and 16,668 girls examined from 1998 to 2004. Thinness was estimated according to two growth references: i) an international survey (IS), defining three grades of thinness corresponding to a BMI of 18.5, 17.0 and 16.0 kg/m2 at age 18 and ii) the WHO reference, defined here as three categories of thinness (-1, -2 and -3 SD of BMI for age) with the second and third named "thinness" and "severe thinness", respectively. The prevalence of thinness was 21.4%, 6.4% and 2.0% based on the three IS cut-offs and 27.7%, 6.7% and 1.2% based on the WHO cut-offs. The prevalence of thinness categories tended to decrease according to age for both sexes for the IS reference and among girls for the WHO reference. The prevalence of the first category of thinness was larger with the WHO cut-offs than with the IS cut-offs while the prevalence of thinness of "grade 2" and thinness of "grade 3" (IS cut-offs) was similar to the prevalence of "thinness" and "severe thinness" (WHO cut-offs), respectively.

  14. Prevalence of thinness in children and adolescents in the Seychelles: comparison of two international growth references

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine George

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thinness in children and adolescents is largely under studied, a contrast with abundant literature on under-nutrition in infants and on overweight in children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of thinness using two recently developed growth references, among children and adolescents living in the Seychelles, an economically rapidly developing country in the African region. Methods Weight and height were measured every year in all children of 4 grades (age range: 5 to 16 years of all schools in the Seychelles as part of a routine school-based surveillance program. In this study we used data collected in 16,672 boys and 16,668 girls examined from 1998 to 2004. Thinness was estimated according to two growth references: i an international survey (IS, defining three grades of thinness corresponding to a BMI of 18.5, 17.0 and 16.0 kg/m2 at age 18 and ii the WHO reference, defined here as three categories of thinness (-1, -2 and -3 SD of BMI for age with the second and third named "thinness" and "severe thinness", respectively. Results The prevalence of thinness was 21.4%, 6.4% and 2.0% based on the three IS cut-offs and 27.7%, 6.7% and 1.2% based on the WHO cut-offs. The prevalence of thinness categories tended to decrease according to age for both sexes for the IS reference and among girls for the WHO reference. Conclusion The prevalence of the first category of thinness was larger with the WHO cut-offs than with the IS cut-offs while the prevalence of thinness of "grade 2" and thinness of "grade 3" (IS cut-offs was similar to the prevalence of "thinness" and "severe thinness" (WHO cut-offs, respectively.

  15. Comparison of parental socio-demographic factors in children and adolescents presenting with internalizing and externalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Nazanin; Roberts, Nasreen; DeGrace, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to: (a) examine parental socio-demographic factors in children and adolescents referred to an outpatient service for internalizing and externalizing disorders, and (b) compare the demographic variables and diagnoses for the two diagnostic groups. Parents of all children who were referred to the child and adolescent outpatient service were asked to participate. Following their informed consent, they completed a socio-demographic questionnaire for themselves and a Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) for their child. The CBCL scores and the diagnoses assigned by the psychiatrists were then recorded for each child. Diagnoses were classified as internalizing or externalizing based on the primary DSM-IV diagnosis assigned by the psychiatrists. Data for the two groups were compared for study variables using Pearson correlation, t-tests, one-way ANOVA and logistic regression. Children who had externalizing disorders tended to live with unemployed single parents who had lower education levels and lived in rented or assisted housing. Children with internalizing problems tended to live in owned homes with employed parents. There was no significant association between age or gender for either group. Previous literature has reported an association between low SES and more mental health problems; however, the relationship between different indicators of SES and diagnosis is not clear. Despite small numbers, our study revealed significant differences between the parental socio-demographic factors for externalizing compared with internalizing disorders.

  16. International survey of self-reported medicine use among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ebba H; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine gender, age, and country variations in adolescents' self-reported medicine use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional school surveys of representative samples of 11- to 15-year-old girls and boys were used. The 1997/1998 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study was referenced. A sta...

  17. Institutional Contexts and International Performances in Schooling : comparing patterns and trends over time in international surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Roelande H.; Gray, John M.; Hofman, Roelande

    15 European countries were classified into four types in an international comparative study. The country profiles are based on indicators of the key concepts' funding, governance and choice. This research attempts to answer the question of how the quality of schooling of these types of education

  18. Body mass index in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents: A national reference and comparison with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Herbish, Abdullah S; ElMouzan, Mohammed I; AlSalloum, Abdullah A; AlQureshi, Mansour M; AlOmar, Ahmed A; Fster, Peter J; Kecojevic, Tatjana

    2009-01-01

    Because there are no reference standards for body mass index (BMI) in Saudi children, we established BMI reference percentiles for normal Saudi Arabian children and adolescents and compared them with international standards. Data from a stratified multistage probability sample were collected from the 13 health regions in Saudi Arabia, as part of a nationwide health profile survey of Saudi Arabian children and adolescents conducted to establish normal physical growth references. Selected households were visited by a trained team. Weight and length/height were measured and recorded following the WHO recommended procedures using the same equipment, which were subjected to both calibration and intra/interobserver variations. Survey of 11 874 eligible households yielded 35 275 full-term and healthy children and adolescents who were subjected to anthropometric measurements. Four BMI curves were produced, from birth to 36 months and 2 to 19 years for girls and boys. The 3rd, 5th, 10th ,25th , 5oth , 75th ,85th , 90th , 95th , and 97th percentiles were produced and compared with the WHO and CDC BMI charts. In the higher percentiles, the Saudi children differed from Western counterparts, indicating that Saudi children have equal or higher BMIs. The BMI curves reflect statistically representative BMI values for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. (author)

  19. Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in adolescents compared with that in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keon-Cheol; Cho, In-Rae

    2017-07-01

    Chronic prostatitis (CP)/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) has been studied mainly in adults; reports in adolescents are rare. We compared the clinical characteristics of adolescent CP/CPPS patients with those of young adults. We retrospectively analyzed 20 adolescents with CP/CPPS aged prostatitis symptoms index (NIH-CPSI) questionnaire, urinalysis, expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) or semen analysis, transrectal prostate ultrasonography, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were performed. Based on the EPS or semen analysis, patients were divided into category III-A or III-B. The mean age was 16.5±2.0 and 32.8±5.0 years in the adolescent and control groups, respectively. A sexual activity history was seen in 2 patients; 9 and 11 patients were in category III-A and III-B, respectively. The PSA was 0.65±0.39 and 1.22±0.48 ng/mL in the adolescent and control groups, respectively. The prostate size was 12.4±4.4 and 21.0±4.9 g in the adolescent and control groups, respectively. The NIH-CPSI scores in the adolescent group were 9.2±5.2, 5.5±3.5, 7.5±3.2, and 22.2±8.1 for pain, voiding, quality of life (QoL) domains, and total scores, respectively. The adolescent group showed a tendency to exhibit high voiding symptom scores. CPPS has an equally severe impact on QoL in adults and adolescents. Apart from high voiding symptom scores in adolescents, no difference was found in terms of urologic clinical parameters.

  20. Adolescents who are less religious than their parents are at risk for externalizing and internalizing symptoms: the mediating role of parent-adolescent relationship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Longo, Gregory S; McCullough, Michael E

    2012-08-01

    Parents generally take pains to insure that their children adopt their own religious beliefs and practices, so what happens psychologically to adolescents who find themselves less religious than their parents? We examined the relationships among parents' and adolescents' religiousness, adolescents' ratings of parent-adolescent relationship quality, and adolescents' psychological adjustment using data from 322 adolescents and their parents. Adolescent boys who had lower organizational and personal religiousness than their parents, and girls who had lower personal religiousness than their parents, had more internalizing and externalizing psychological symptoms than did adolescents whose religiousness better matched their parents'. The apparent effects of subparental religiousness on adolescents' psychological symptoms were mediated by their intermediate effects on adolescents' ratings of the quality of their relationships with their parents. These findings identify religious discrepancies between parents and their children as an important influence on the quality of parent-adolescent relationships, with important implications for adolescents' psychological well-being. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Internalizing disorders and quality of life in adolescence: evidence for independent associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni A. Salum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether internalizing disorders are associated with quality of life (QoL in adolescents, even after accounting for shared risk factors. Methods: The sample comprised 102 adolescents from a community cross-sectional study with an oversampling of anxious subjects. Risk factors previously associated with QoL were assessed and divided into five blocks organized hierarchically from proximal to distal sets of risk factors. Results: Multiple regression analysis yielded a hierarchical model accounting for 72% of QoL variance. All blocks were consistently associated with QoL (p < 0.05, accounting for the following percentages of variance: 12% for demographics; 5.2% for family environment; 37.8% for stressful events; 10% for nutritional and health habits; and 64.2% for dimensional psychopathological symptoms or 22.8% for psychiatric diagnoses (dichotomous. Although most of the QoL variance attributed to internalizing symptoms was explained by the four proximal blocks in the hierarchical model (43.2%, about 21% of the variance was independently associated with internalizing symptoms/diagnoses. Conclusions: QoL is associated with several aspects of adolescent life that were largely predicted by our hierarchical model. Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that internalizing disorders and internalizing symptoms in adolescents have a high impact on QoL and deserve proper clinical attention.

  2. Gender differences in child/adolescent personality traits: Slovenes and Russians compared

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Zupančič; Helena R. Slobodskaya; Gennady G. Knyazev

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared gender differences in parental perceptions of child personality trait expression across different age groups in Slovenia and Russia. The patterns of gender differences in adolescents were further explored using parent and self-rating methods of assessment. Employing the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003) reports on large samples of children/ adolescents (2 to 15 years) in both countries were obtained. Gender differences were small...

  3. Gender differences in child/adolescent personality traits: Slovene and Russians compared:

    OpenAIRE

    Knyazev, Gennady G.; Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Zupančič, Maja

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared gender differences in parental perceptions of child personality trait expression across different age groups in Slovenia and Russia. The patterns of gender differences in adolescents were further explored using parent and self-rating methods of assessment. Employing the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003) reports on large samples of children/ adolescents (2 to 15 years) in both countries were obtained. Gender differences were small and...

  4. Childhood-compared to adolescent-onset bipolar disorder has more statistically significant clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Jessica N; Miller, Shefali; Hooshmand, Farnaz; Wang, Po W; Chang, Kiki D; Hill, Shelley J; Rasgon, Natalie L; Ketter, Terence A

    2015-07-01

    The strengths and limitations of considering childhood-and adolescent-onset bipolar disorder (BD) separately versus together remain to be established. We assessed this issue. BD patients referred to the Stanford Bipolar Disorder Clinic during 2000-2011 were assessed with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD Affective Disorders Evaluation. Patients with childhood- and adolescent-onset were compared to those with adult-onset for 7 unfavorable bipolar illness characteristics with replicated associations with early-onset patients. Among 502 BD outpatients, those with childhood- (adolescent- (13-18 years, N=218) onset had significantly higher rates for 4/7 unfavorable illness characteristics, including lifetime comorbid anxiety disorder, at least ten lifetime mood episodes, lifetime alcohol use disorder, and prior suicide attempt, than those with adult-onset (>18 years, N=174). Childhood- but not adolescent-onset BD patients also had significantly higher rates of first-degree relative with mood disorder, lifetime substance use disorder, and rapid cycling in the prior year. Patients with pooled childhood/adolescent - compared to adult-onset had significantly higher rates for 5/7 of these unfavorable illness characteristics, while patients with childhood- compared to adolescent-onset had significantly higher rates for 4/7 of these unfavorable illness characteristics. Caucasian, insured, suburban, low substance abuse, American specialty clinic-referred sample limits generalizability. Onset age is based on retrospective recall. Childhood- compared to adolescent-onset BD was more robustly related to unfavorable bipolar illness characteristics, so pooling these groups attenuated such relationships. Further study is warranted to determine the extent to which adolescent-onset BD represents an intermediate phenotype between childhood- and adult-onset BD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparing Domain-Specific Physical Activity Efficacy Level between Turkish Adolescent Girls and Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çatikkas, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    The adolescence period is a very critical developmental period for personality, socializing and promotion of physical activity. In this regard, the aim of this study was to compare domain-specific physical activity efficacy level between adolescent boys and girls. A total of 219 girls (body weight: 57.50 ± 10.44 kg, height: 160.30 ± 7.40 cm, age…

  6. Fast-food consumption and body mass index in children and adolescents: an international cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Irene; Stewart, Alistair W; Hancox, Robert J; Beasley, Richard; Murphy, Rinki; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2014-12-08

    To investigate whether reported fast-food consumption over the previous year is associated with higher childhood or adolescent body mass index (BMI). Secondary analysis from a multicentre, multicountry cross-sectional study (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) Phase Three). Parents/guardians of children aged 6-7 completed questionnaires which included questions about their children's asthma and allergies, fast-food consumption, height and weight. Adolescents aged 13-14 completed the same questionnaire. The questionnaire asked "In the past 12 months, how often on average did you (your child) eat fast-food/burgers?" The responses were infrequent (never/only occasionally), frequent (once/twice a week) or very frequent (three or more times per week). A general linear mixed model was used to determine the association between BMI and fast-food consumption, adjusting for Gross National Income per capita by country, measurement type (whether heights/weights were reported or measured), age and sex. 72,900 children (17 countries) and 199,135 adolescents (36 countries) provided data. Frequent and very frequent fast-food consumption was reported in 23% and 4% of children, and 39% and 13% of adolescents, respectively. Children in the frequent and very frequent groups had a BMI that was 0.15 and 0.22 kg/m(2) higher than those in the infrequent group (pfast-food consumption is high in childhood and increases in adolescence. Compared with infrequent fast-food consumption, frequent and very frequent consumption is associated with a higher BMI in children. Owing to residual confounding, reverse causation and likely misreporting, the reverse association observed in adolescents should be interpreted with caution. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Lessons learned from international comparative crosscultural studies on dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Hugh C

    2006-06-01

    International and crosscultural comparative studies of Alzheimer disease (AD) offer significant advantages in elucidating risk factors for the disease by providing a wider diversity of environmental exposures as well as greater genetic diversity than do studies confined to a single ethnic group in a developed country. They also present with major methodological problems. The problems and their possible solutions are discussed in this article by describing three projects involving the Cree and English-speaking residents of Manitoba, blacks from Indianapolis, Indiana, and Yoruba from Ibadan and residents of Chinese villages. In this review, the development and harmonization of a culture fair screening instrument for dementia, the CSID, is described. The advantage of a scientific paradigm that can incorporate genetic and environmental factors as well as their interactions to explore the etiology of AD is presented. The importance of developing strategies for recruitment and retention in international community-based studies is emphasized as is the necessity of establishing academic partnerships between the countries. The unique opportunity provided by geopolitical and sociocultural influences to study environmental exposures is exemplified by the ongoing study of the influence of selenium levels on cognition in Chinese villagers. Results from the Indianapolis, Indiana-Ibadan dementia project are presented suggesting that the incidence of AD is lower in Yoruba than in blacks and that this lower rate may be the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

  8. Psychological Treatments for Mental Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Review of the Evidence of Leading International Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez-Lara, Mario; Corpas, Jorge; Moreno, Eliana; Venceslá, José F; Sánchez-Raya, Araceli; Moriana, Juan A

    2018-04-02

    In recent decades, the evidence on psychological treatments for children and adolescents has increased considerably. Several organizations have proposed different criteria to evaluate the evidence of psychological treatment in this age group. The aim of this study was to analyze evidence-based treatments drawn from RCTs, reviews, meta-analyses, guides and lists provided by four leading international organizations. The institutions reviewed were the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology (Division 53) of the American Psychological Association, Cochrane Collaboration and the Australian Psychological Society in relation to mental disorders in children and adolescents. A total of 137 treatments were analyzed for 17 mental disorders and compared to determine the level of agreement among the organizations. The results indicate that, in most cases, there is little agreement among organizations and that there are several discrepancies within certain disorders. These results require reflection on the meaning attributed to evidence-based treatments with regard to psychological treatments in children and adolescents. The possible reasons for these differences could be explained by a combination of different issues: the procedures or committees may be biased, different studies were reviewed, different criteria are used by the organizations or the reviews of existing evidence were conducted in different time periods.

  9. Adolescent-Peer Relationships, Separation and Detachment from Parents, and Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors: Linkages and Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin; Yuen, Cynthia X.; Putnick, Diane L.; Hendricks, Charlene; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2018-01-01

    Most research exploring the interplay between context and adolescent separation and detachment has focused on the family; in contrast, this investigation directs its attention outside of the family to peers. Utilizing a latent variable approach for modeling interactions and incorporating reports of behavioral adjustment from 14-year-old adolescents (N = 190) and their mothers, we examine how separation and detachment relate to adolescent peer relationships, and whether peer relationships moderate how separation and detachment relate to adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Positive peer relationships were both associated with lower detachment and sharply attenuated relations between detachment and higher adolescent internalizing and externalizing. Separation from parents was unrelated to peer relationships, and regardless of whether peer relationships were positive, separation was not related to adolescent internalizing and externalizing. We integrate these findings with those from family-focused investigations and discuss their substantive and clinical implications. PMID:29527086

  10. Longitudinal Study of Social-environmental Predictors of Behavior: Children of Adolescent and Older Mothers Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Letourneau

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared to older, more educated mothers, adolescent mothers are more prone to less than optimal parenting interactions with their children. Moreover, adolescents’ children are more likely to experience developmental challenges. In this study, effects of social-environmental factors in the first two years of life on children’s anxiety and hyperactivity from age 2 to 8 were examined by analyzing Canadian longitudinal data. Initial levels of anxiety and hyperactivity were higher for children of adolescent mothers, and anxiety increased with age for all children. Female children displayed lower initial levels of hyperactivity than males, and females of adolescent mothers showed a steeper decrease in hyperactivity while males of adolescent mothers showed a steeper increase in hyperactivity than their counterparts parented by older mothers. Parenting, social support and other demographic factors were controlled for and the effects of these predictor variables on trajectories of anxiety and hyperactivity are discussed.

  11. Maternal Warmth and Early Adolescents' Internalizing Symptoms and Externalizing Behavior: Mediation via Emotional Insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Albert; Benson, Mark J.; Pérez-Escoda, Núria

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relation between maternal warmth and the internalizing and externalizing problems of early adolescents, and the potential mediation of this relation by emotional insecurity. The hypotheses for the study derive from Cummings and Davies' theory of emotional security. The current study extends the theory to security processes…

  12. Peer Relationships and Internalizing Problems in Adolescents: Mediating Role of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosacki, Sandra; Dane, Andrew; Marini, Zopito

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether self-esteem mediated the association between peer relationships and internalizing problems (i.e., depression and social anxiety). A total of 7290 (3756 girls) adolescents (ages 13-18 years) completed self-report measures of peer relationships, including direct and indirect victimization, social isolation, friendship…

  13. Self-concept clarity across adolescence : Longitudinal associations with open communication with parents and internalizing symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Marloes P. A.; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Hawk, Skyler T.; Hale, William W., III; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Higher self-concept clarity is related to several adjustment indices and may be promoted by open communication with parents, while problems with self-concept clarity development could enhance internalizing problems (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms) in adolescence. This longitudinal study

  14. Self-Concept Clarity Across Adolescence : Longitudinal Associations With Open Communication With Parents and Internalizing Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Marloes; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Hawk, Skyler T.; Hale, William W.; Meeus, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Higher self-concept clarity is related to several adjustment indices and may be promoted by open communication with parents, while problems with self-concept clarity development could enhance internalizing problems (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms) in adolescence. This longitudinal study

  15. Internalization of the Sociocultural Ideal: Weight-Related Attitudes and Dieting Behaviors among Young Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Nancy E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed adolescent girls regarding body dissatisfaction, dieting, and internalization of sociocultural values, media-influenced knowledge, acceptance of varied body shapes, and media exposure. Girls understood media influence on self-image and behavior and accepted varied body shapes. Significant numbers reported dissatisfaction with weight and…

  16. [Clinical treatment of children and adolescents with gender dysphoria from international experts' point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutzen, Katharina M; Nieder, Timo Ole; Schreier, Herbert; Möller, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    The clinical treatment of children and adolescents with gender dysphoria is still a controversial issue. The aim of this study was to get an overview of the knowledge and experience of international experts and to highlight shared views as well as differences in theoretical convictions and treatment approaches. Half-structured, guide-line based interviews were carried out with international experts in the field. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis (Mayring, 2010).

  17. Does Competence Mediate the Associations between Puberty and Internalizing or Externalizing Problems in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; Hillman, Jennifer, B.; Dorn, Lorah D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine separate mediational models linking a) menarcheal status or b) pubertal timing to internalizing and externalizing problems through competence. Method Cross-sectional analyses of 262 adolescent girls (11–17 years; M=14.93, SD=2.17) enrolled in a longitudinal study examining the association of psychological functioning and smoking with reproductive and bone health. Measures of menarcheal status (pre/post), pubertal timing (early, on-time, or late), internalizing and externalizing behavior, and perceived competence (parent and adolescent report) were obtained. Structural Equation Modeling was used for analyses. Results Perceived competence was found to fully mediate the association between menarcheal status and parent report of internalizing and externalizing problems. For adolescent report, there was a full mediation effect for internalizing problems but a partial mediation effect for externalizing problems. Being menarcheal was related to lower competence which was related to higher internalizing and externalizing problems. Models including pubertal timing were not significant. Conclusions Perceived competence is important in understanding the associations between menarcheal status and internalizing and externalizing problems. Interventions targeting competence, particularly in post-menarcheal girls, may reduce or prevent problem behaviors. PMID:21939864

  18. Establishing International Blood Pressure References Among Nonoverweight Children and Adolescents Aged 6 to 17 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Bo; Zong, Xin'nan; Kelishadi, Roya; Hong, Young Mi; Khadilkar, Anuradha; Steffen, Lyn M; Nawarycz, Tadeusz; Krzywińska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Bovet, Pascal; Chiolero, Arnaud; Pan, Haiyan; Litwin, Mieczysław; Poh, Bee Koon; Sung, Rita Y T; So, Hung-Kwan; Schwandt, Peter; Haas, Gerda-Maria; Neuhauser, Hannelore K; Marinov, Lachezar; Galcheva, Sonya V; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Kim, Hae Soon; Khadilkar, Vaman; Krzyżaniak, Alicja; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Heshmat, Ramin; Chiplonkar, Shashi; Stawińska-Witoszyńska, Barbara; El Ati, Jalila; Qorbani, Mostafa; Kajale, Neha; Traissac, Pierre; Ostrowska-Nawarycz, Lidia; Ardalan, Gelayol; Parthasarathy, Lavanya; Zhao, Min; Zhang, Tao

    2016-01-26

    Several distributions of country-specific blood pressure (BP) percentiles by sex, age, and height for children and adolescents have been established worldwide. However, there are no globally unified BP references for defining elevated BP in children and adolescents, which limits international comparisons of the prevalence of pediatric elevated BP. We aimed to establish international BP references for children and adolescents by using 7 nationally representative data sets (China, India, Iran, Korea, Poland, Tunisia, and the United States). Data on BP for 52 636 nonoverweight children and adolescents aged 6 to 19 years were obtained from 7 large nationally representative cross-sectional surveys in China, India, Iran, Korea, Poland, Tunisia, and the United States. BP values were obtained with certified mercury sphygmomanometers in all 7 countries by using standard procedures for BP measurement. Smoothed BP percentiles (50th, 90th, 95th, and 99th) by age and height were estimated by using the Generalized Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape model. BP values were similar between males and females until the age of 13 years and were higher in males than females thereafter. In comparison with the BP levels of the 90th and 95th percentiles of the US Fourth Report at median height, systolic BP of the corresponding percentiles of these international references was lower, whereas diastolic BP was similar. These international BP references will be a useful tool for international comparison of the prevalence of elevated BP in children and adolescents and may help to identify hypertensive youths in diverse populations. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Familism, Parent-Adolescent Conflict, Self-Esteem, Internalizing Behaviors and Suicide Attempts among Adolescent Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Pena, Juan B.; Zayas, Luis H.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent Latinas continue to report higher levels of suicide attempts than their African-American and White peers. The phenomenon is still not understood and is theorized to be the result of the confluence of many cultural, familial, and individual level factors. In Latino cultures, belief in the importance of the family, the value known as…

  20. Associations between Discussions of Racial and Ethnic Differences in Internationally Adoptive Families and Delinquent Behavior among Korean Adopted Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kayla N; Lee, Richard M; Rueter, Martha A; Kim, Oh Myo

    2015-04-01

    Internationally adopted adolescents may have more delinquent behavior than non-adopted adolescents. One explanation is these adolescents experience discrimination and loss of culture, and adoptive parents are not adequately addressing these experiences. However, studies have not examined the effects of family discussions of racial and ethnic differences within adoptive families on adopted adolescents' delinquent behavior. To test this relationship, this study utilized data from 111 U.S. internationally adoptive families with 185 South Korean adopted adolescents (55% female, M age = 17.75). During an observational assessment, families discussed the importance of their racial and ethnic differences, and adolescents completed a delinquent behavior questionnaire. Analysis of covariance showed differences in adolescent delinquent behavior across three ways adoptive families discussed racial and ethnic differences; adolescents whose families acknowledged differences had the fewest mean delinquent behaviors. There were no significant differences in delinquent behavior between adolescents whose families acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. However, adopted adolescents whose families held discrepant views of differences had significantly more problem behavior than adolescents whose families either acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. Clinicians, adoption professionals, and other parenting specialists should focus on building cohesive family identities about racial and ethnic differences, as discrepant views of differences are associated with the most adoptee delinquent behavior.

  1. Adolescents Who are Less Religious than Their Parents are at Risk for Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms: The Mediating Role of Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Longo, Gregory S.; McCullough, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Parents generally take pains to insure that their children adopt their own religious beliefs and practices, so what happens psychologically to adolescents who find themselves less religious than their parents? We examined the relationships among parents’ and adolescents’ religiousness, adolescents’ ratings of parent-adolescent relationship quality, and adolescents’ psychological adjustment using data from 322 adolescents and their parents. Adolescent boys who had lower organizational and personal religiousness than their parents, and girls who had lower personal religiousness than their parents, had more internalizing and externalizing psychological symptoms than did adolescents whose religiousness better matched their parents’. The apparent effects of sub-parental religiousness on adolescents’ psychological symptoms were mediated by their intermediate effects on adolescents’ ratings of the quality of their relationships with their parents. These findings identify religious discrepancies between parents and their children as an important influence on the quality of parent-adolescent relationships, with important implications for adolescents’ psychological well-being. PMID:22888785

  2. Prediction of incidence and stability of alcohol use disorders by latent internalizing psychopathology risk profiles in adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Silke; Bühringer, Gerhard; Höfler, Michael; Lieb, Roselind; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2017-10-01

    Comorbid internalizing mental disorders in alcohol use disorders (AUD) can be understood as putative independent risk factors for AUD or as expressions of underlying shared psychopathology vulnerabilities. However, it remains unclear whether: 1) specific latent internalizing psychopathology risk-profiles predict AUD-incidence and 2) specific latent internalizing comorbidity-profiles in AUD predict AUD-stability. To investigate baseline latent internalizing psychopathology risk profiles as predictors of subsequent AUD-incidence and -stability in adolescents and young adults. Data from the prospective-longitudinal EDSP study (baseline age 14-24 years) were used. The study-design included up to three follow-up assessments in up to ten years. DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed with the DIA-X/M-CIDI. To investigate risk-profiles and their associations with AUD-outcomes, latent class analysis with auxiliary outcome variables was applied. AUD-incidence: a 4-class model (N=1683) was identified (classes: normative-male [45.9%], normative-female [44.2%], internalizing [5.3%], nicotine dependence [4.5%]). Compared to the normative-female class, all other classes were associated with a higher risk of subsequent incident alcohol dependence (p<0.05). AUD-stability: a 3-class model (N=1940) was identified with only one class (11.6%) with high probabilities for baseline AUD. This class was further characterized by elevated substance use disorder (SUD) probabilities and predicted any subsequent AUD (OR 8.5, 95% CI 5.4-13.3). An internalizing vulnerability may constitute a pathway to AUD incidence in adolescence and young adulthood. In contrast, no indication for a role of internalizing comorbidity profiles in AUD-stability was found, which may indicate a limited importance of such profiles - in contrast to SUD-related profiles - in AUD stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Longitudinal associations between adolescent perceived degree and style of parental prohibition and internalization and defiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Van Petegem, Stijn; Duriez, Bart

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between perceived degree and style of parental prohibition and adolescents' internalization of and oppositional defiance against parental rules in the friendship and moral domain. Relations were investigated in 2 longitudinal adolescent samples (total N = 532). Results indicated that perceived style but not degree of prohibition related to overtime changes in internalization and oppositional defiance. Specifically, in line with self-determination theory, autonomy-supportive and controlling styles of prohibiting were found to relate differentially to quality of internalization and oppositional defiance. Cross-lagged analyses indicated that several of these associations were reciprocal. The discussion focuses on the critical role of perceived parental style for communicating prohibitions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. VALIDATION OF THE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT INTERNATIONAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY QUESTIONNAIRES IN IRANIAN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Faghihimani

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract    BACKGROUND: With reference to the importance of physical activity during childhood and adolescence in their health promotion and prevention of chronic diseases during adulthood, it is necessary to have a reliable and valid method for evaluating physical activity level in this age group. Physical activity questionnaire child (PAQ-C and adolescents (PAQ-A have been designed for this purpose. This study aimed to validate these questionnaires in a representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents.    METHODS: After translating the PAQ-C and PAQ-A to Persian, the face and content validities of these questionnaires were assessed by a committee of experts of different specialties including specialists in pediatrics, community medicine, social specialist and sport medicine. After minor modification of some items of the questionnaires according to the available types of physical activity and the socio-cultural conditions, the final questionnaires were prepared. Thereafter, 82 children and adolescents with 8 to 18 years of age completed the questionnaires.    RESULTS: To assess the questionnaire reliability Iranian students and the validity accreditation was modified and got from the committee. A Cronbach’s alpha of 0.894 was produced at the end of the analysis showing it has been reliable for this population.    CONCLUSION: According to the results found in this survey, PAQ questionnaire can be used as a reliable and valid method for next studies; so health planning based on Iranian students’ physical activity will be possible in future.      Keywords: Physical Activity Questionnaire, Reliability, Validity.

  5. Exposure to Family Violence and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems Among Spanish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre, Ainhoa; Calvete, Esther

    2018-04-01

    Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment may have devastating consequences on children's development. The aim of this research was to examine the predictive associations between exposure to violence at home (witnessing violence against the mother and/or direct victimization by the parents) and adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. A total of 613 Spanish adolescents (13-18 years) took part in this study. Results indicate that psychological victimization by the parents predicted an increase in anxious/depressive symptoms, aggressive and rule-breaking behavior, and substance abuse at Time 2. In addition, rule-breaking behavior predicted an increase in adolescents' substance abuse at Time 2. Concerning gender, psychological victimization predicted an increase in anxiety/depression, aggressive behavior, rule-breaking behavior, and substance abuse in boys; whereas in girls, psychological victimization only predicted an increase in anxiety/depression.

  6. Alternative Forms of International Cooperation: Comparing Their Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinbergen, Jan

    1978-01-01

    The author, an economist, discusses nine forms of international cooperation according to their strengths, and invites representatives of other disciplines to comment on international cooperation. Discusses relevant concepts and the estimation of optimal procedures for cooperation. Available from: Unipub, Box 433, Murray Hill Station, New York, New…

  7. Homeless Adolescents' Perceptions of Positive Development: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Brooke Dolenc; Vuchinich, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background: While some recent research has addressed homeless youth from a strengths-based approach, comparative studies of homeless and non-homeless youth from a strengths perspective are few; research that includes youth's views on positive youth development are also limited. Objective: Addressing these gaps and using an inductive approach,…

  8. Exploring Adolescents' Thinking about Globalization in an International Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John P.

    2010-01-01

    This research examined US high school students' thinking about economic and cultural globalization during their participation in an international education program. The findings mapped the students' categories for the two aspects of globalization and showed that the students' positions were shaped by relatively stable narratives characterizing the…

  9. Neighborhood Contexts, Fathers, and Mexican American Young Adolescents' Internalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The family stress model posits that contextual stressors, such as neighborhood danger, negatively influence youth adjustment, including internalizing symptoms, via disruptions in parenting and family processes. The current study examined a culturally and contextually modified family stress model in a diverse sample of Mexican-origin fathers and…

  10. The dual role of media internalization in adolescent sexual behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rousseau, A.; Beyens, I.; Eggermont, S.; Vandenbosch, L.

    Sexualizing media content is prevalent in various media types. Sexualizing media messages and portrayals emphasize unattainable body and appearance ideals as the primary components of sexual desirability. The internalization of these ideals is positively related to self-objectification and sexual

  11. [Aggressive behaviour and substance abuse among schizophrenic adolescents compared to antisocial adolescents--a follow-up study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevecke, Kathrin; Dreher, Jan; Walger, Petra; Junglas, Jürgen; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze aggressive behaviour towards others by schizophrenic as opposed to antisocial adolescents, and the influence of substance abuse before, during and after their hospitalization. We analyzed 21 schizophrenic adolescents and compared their aggressive behaviour and their substance abuse to that of 21 antisocial juveniles before and during their hospitalization and again at the time of a follow-up interview. The two samples were matched for age, sex and intelligence. In a first step, data were gathered from the hospital records, in a second step, for follow-up data we conducted standardized telephone interview with the patient and his or her parent or caregiver. Within the analysis we focused on aggressive behaviour towards other people and objects, as well as on criminal acts and regular substance abuse. We found less aggressive behaviour among psychotic patients during and post-hospitalization than among their antisocial counterparts. As inpatients, the acutely psychotic juveniles were at higher risk for aggressive acts, but adequate treatment subdued their offensive behaviour. In the long term, there were fewer criminal arrests among psychotic patients. Only in connection with their substance abuse, their aggressive misconduct towards others increased. Our results suggest that drug treatment during adolescence might help to lessen the risk of aggressive behaviour towards others.

  12. How low is low? Low self-esteem as an indicator of internalizing psychopathology in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomaa, Rasmus; Väänänen, Juha-Matti; Fröjd, Sari; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri

    2013-08-01

    Schools are among the most important setting for preventive interventions among adolescents. There are evidence-based intervention programs for adolescents at risk for and with early signs of mental health problems but one demanding task is to detect the ones who are in need of an intervention. The aim of the present study was to analyze associations between self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety in order to determine clinically relevant cut-points for male and female adolescents' self-esteem as measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). The participants of the present prospective study, started in 2002-2003, were 2070 adolescents aged 15 years (1,167 girls and 903 boys) at two study sites in Finland who participated at both baseline and 2-year follow-up. Self-esteem was related to depressive symptoms and social anxiety, and the RSES was able to discriminate between cases of depression and social phobia. The present study suggests a cutoff of 25 points to classify low self-esteem in both girls and boys. Low self-esteem may function as an indicator of various forms of internalizing psychopathology. The RSES is worth further examination as a potential screening tool for adolescents in risk of psychopathology.

  13. Smoking education for low-educated adolescents: Comparing print and audiovisual messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, A.; van den Putte, B.; Zebregs, S.; Lammers, J.; Neijens, P.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to provide insight into which modality is most effective for educating low-educated adolescents about smoking. It compares the persuasive effects of print and audiovisual smoking education materials. We conducted a field experiment with 2 conditions (print vs. video) and 3

  14. Educating Adolescents in the Context of Section 504 Policy: a Comparative Study of Two Middle Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Martha Asterilla

    2002-01-01

    EDUCATING ADOLESCENTS IN THE CONTEXT OF SECTION 504 POLICY: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO MIDDLE SCHOOLS By Martha Asterilla Taylor Jean B. Crockett, Ph.D. Chairperson Educational Leadership and Policy Studies (ABSTRACT) Section 504 "prohibits discrimination against persons with disabilities by school districts receiving federal financial assistance" (First & Curcio, 1993, p.33). In public schools, eligible students receive an Individualized Accommodation Plan (IA...

  15. Low empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (pre)adolescents compared to normal hearing controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netten, A.P.; Rieffe, C.; Theunissen, S.C.P.M.; Soede, W.; Dirks, E.; Briaire, J.J.; Frijns, J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the level of empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (pre)adolescents compared to normal hearing controls and to define the influence of language and various hearing loss characteristics on the development of empathy. Methods The study group (mean age

  16. Assessing Intellectual Functioning in Young Adolescents: How Do the WISC-IV and SB5 Compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kimberley; Gilmore, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and the Stanford-Binet--Fifth Edition (SB5) are two of the most commonly used intelligence tests for children and adolescents. No comparative studies of the WISC-IV and SB5 have yet been published. In the current study the WISC-IV and SB5 were administered in counterbalanced…

  17. Child Immunization Status among a Sample of Adolescent Mothers: Comparing the Validity of Measurement Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Clarissa; Cota-Robles, Sonia; Knight, Margaret; Francis, Judith; Phillips, Elizabeth; Mazerbo, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This study of adolescent mothers sought to identify whether a single general question asked by phone or a detailed, vaccine-specific question asked in a self-report questionnaire best captured infant immunization status at 6 months postpartum, by comparing them with immunization record books. Responses to a global question about whether infants…

  18. Increased levels of circulating arginase I in overweight compared to normal weight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Christian; Figulla, Hans R; Lichtenauer, Michael; Franz, Marcus; Pernow, John

    2014-02-01

    Overweight and the metabolic syndrome have become major problems, especially in children and adolescents. Obesity at a young age increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus later in life. An early event in the development of cardiovascular disease is endothelial dysfunction which is found in obese young individuals. Increased activity of the enzyme arginase has been described as a central mechanism for endothelial dysfunction, especially in patients with diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to determine plasma levels of arginase in overweight adolescents. Sixty-six male German adolescents (age: 15.2 ± 1.1 years old) were included. Thirty-one of them were overweight (>90th age-specific weight percentile). Plasma arginase I and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) were determined. In addition, clinical data were recorded and anthropometrical measurements of obesity were performed. Overweight adolescents had a higher systolic blood pressure, lower high-density lipoprotein and increased levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP). Circulating arginase I was elevated in overweight adolescents (95.8 ± 68.2 ng/ml) compared to normal weight adolescents (39.3 ± 26.9 ng/ml, p obesity. There was no difference between the two groups regarding TNFα. We demonstrate that arginase I levels are increased in obese adolescents. Knowing the important role for arginase in endothelial dysfunction, elevated levels of arginase I may represent a link between obesity, endothelial dysfunction and related comorbidities. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents, A Comparative Study Between Government and Private Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Lipilekha; Pattanaik, Sumitra; Sahu, Trilochan; Rao, E Venkata

    2015-09-01

    To compare prevalence of overweight/obesity among adolescent school children of government and private schools. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 1800 children aged 10-16 years. Body mass index (BMI), Waist circumference (WC), Hip circumference (HC), and Neck circumference (NC) were measured using standard guidelines. The prevalence of overweight obesity was 27.8% (private schools 45.2%, government schools 10.5%). BMI, WC, NC, and Waist-hip ratio were significantly higher among private school students. A differential strategic plan may be needed to prevent and control obesity among adolescent school children.

  20. Acculturation, Internalizing Mental Health Symptoms, and Self-Esteem: Cultural Experiences of Latino Adolescents in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R.; Bacallao, Martica L.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examined acculturation risk factors and cultural assets, internalizing behavioral problems, and self-esteem in 323 Latino adolescents living in North Carolina. Multiple regression analyses revealed two risk factors--perceived discrimination and parent-adolescent conflict--as highly significant predictors of adolescent…

  1. Self-Disclosure to the Best Friend: Friendship Quality and Internalized Sexual Stigma in Italian Lesbian and Gay Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, Roberto; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Di Pomponio, Ileana; Nigito, Concetta Simona

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first contribution to the understanding of gender differences in best friendship patterns of adolescents sexual minorities. We explored friendship patterns, self-disclosure, and internalized sexual stigma in an Italian sample of lesbian (N = 202) and gay (N = 201) adolescents (aged 14-22 years). We found gender differences in…

  2. Mothers' Parenting Dimensions and Adolescent Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors in a Low-Income, Urban Mexican American Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manongdo, Jennifer A.; Garcia, Jorge I. Ramirez

    2007-01-01

    The relation between adolescent-reported parenting behaviors and mother-reported youth externalizing and internalizing behaviors was examined among 91 Mexican American mother-adolescent (ages 13-17) dyads recruited from an immigrant enclave in a large midwestern metropolitan area. Two major dimensions of mothers' parenting emerged: supportive…

  3. Comparing service use and costs among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders, special needs and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Barbara; Mosweu, Iris; Jones, Catherine Rg; Charman, Tony; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Happé, Francesca; Byford, Sarah

    2015-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a complex condition that requires specialised care. Knowledge of the costs of autism spectrum disorder, especially in comparison with other conditions, may be useful to galvanise policymakers and leverage investment in education and intervention to mitigate aspects of autism spectrum disorder that negatively impact individuals with the disorder and their families. This article describes the services and associated costs for four groups of individuals: adolescents with autistic disorder, adolescents with other autism spectrum disorders, adolescents with other special educational needs and typically developing adolescents using data from a large, well-characterised cohort assessed as part of the UK Special Needs and Autism Project at the age of 12 years. Average total costs per participant over 6 months were highest in the autistic disorder group (£11,029), followed by the special educational needs group (£9268), the broader autism spectrum disorder group (£8968) and the typically developing group (£2954). Specialised day or residential schooling accounted for the vast majority of costs. In regression analysis, lower age and lower adaptive functioning were associated with higher costs in the groups with an autism spectrum disorder. Sex, ethnicity, number of International Classification of Diseases (10th revision) symptoms, autism spectrum disorder symptom scores and levels of mental health difficulties were not associated with cost. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Management of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa: Comparing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    Geneva based Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), there are ..... adequate machinery in place to address IDPs issues and the organizations ... could be deduced that the mandates and organizational structures of the National.

  5. Sources of International Courts' Legitimacy: A comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godzimirska, Zuzanna; Creamer, Cosette

    Despite ample scholarship on the legitimacy of international legal institutions, existing studies on international courts (ICs) tend to adopt normative or deductive approaches to specify their legitimacy and assess its effects. Very few adopt empirical or inductive approaches and examine the reas......Despite ample scholarship on the legitimacy of international legal institutions, existing studies on international courts (ICs) tend to adopt normative or deductive approaches to specify their legitimacy and assess its effects. Very few adopt empirical or inductive approaches and examine...... the reasons why an IC is considered more or less legitimate in the eyes of a court’s constituents. This paper addresses this scholarly gap by identifying the sources of ICs’ legitimacy within the expressed views of one category of constituents: a court’s member states. Although we emphasize the importance...

  6. Psychometric Evaluation of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents (MINI-KID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Laura; Georgiades, Kathy; Wang, Li; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; MacMillan, Harriet L; Ferro, Mark A; Lipman, Ellen L; Szatmari, Peter; Bennett, Kathryn; Kata, Anna; Janus, Magdalena; Boyle, Michael H

    2017-12-04

    The goals of the study were to examine test-retest reliability, informant agreement and convergent and discriminant validity of nine DSM-IV-TR psychiatric disorders classified by parent and youth versions of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents (MINI-KID). Using samples drawn from the general population and child mental health outpatient clinics, 283 youth aged 9 to 18 years and their parents separately completed the MINI-KID with trained lay interviewers on two occasions 7 to 14 days apart. Test-retest reliability estimates based on kappa (κ) went from 0.33 to 0.79 across disorders, samples and informants. Parent-youth agreement on disorders was low (average κ = 0.20). Confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence supporting convergent and discriminant validity. The MINI-KID disorder classifications yielded estimates of test-retest reliability and validity comparable to other standardized diagnostic interviews in both general population and clinic samples. These findings, in addition to the brevity and low administration cost, make the MINI-KID a good candidate for use in epidemiological research and clinical practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Sources of International Courts' Legitimacy: A comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godzimirska, Zuzanna; Creamer, Cosette

    Despite ample scholarship on the legitimacy of international legal institutions, existing studies on international courts (ICs) tend to adopt normative or deductive approaches to specify their legitimacy and assess its effects. Very few adopt empirical or inductive approaches and examine the reas......Despite ample scholarship on the legitimacy of international legal institutions, existing studies on international courts (ICs) tend to adopt normative or deductive approaches to specify their legitimacy and assess its effects. Very few adopt empirical or inductive approaches and examine...... of supply-side factors— the features, roles and practices of a court—in assessing its legitimacy, we argue that demand-side factors—namely the characteristics of the evaluating state—also largely determine the sources of an IC’s legitimacy. To support and illustrate this argument, we examine statements...... of members on the operation of three ICs with different institutional designs and roles: the International Court of Justice, the International Criminal Court, and the Appellate Body of the World Trade Organization. We employ supervised learning methods of text classification to identify statements...

  8. Comparing children and adolescents engaged in cyberbullying to matched peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyman, Kimberly; Saylor, Conway; Taylor, Lloyd Adam; Comeaux, Cadie

    2010-04-01

    Although characteristics of traditional bullying participants have been identified and studied for years, research on cyberbullying is limited. The purpose of this study is to expand the literature on cyberbullying with a particular focus on the relationships among cyberbullying characteristics, typical social activities, and more traditional forms of bullying. The typical activities and experiences with traditional bullying and cyberbullying of 52 children ages 11 to 17 were compared to those of 52 matched controls. Children exposed to cyberbullying, whether as a cyberbully, cybervictim, or both (bully/victim), spent more time on computer-based social activities. Nearly two thirds of cyberbully/victims were also traditional bully/victims. While preliminary, results suggest that efforts to prevent cyberbullying may need to focus on patterns of Internet use, amount and type of social activities, and exposure to traditional bullying as risk factors for engaging in cyberbullying.

  9. The interactive effect of paternal problem drinking and maternal problem drinking on adolescent internalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the effects of both paternal problem drinking and maternal problem drinking on adolescent internalizing problems (depression and anxiety symptomatology). Surveys were administered to 566 10th and 11th grade students from the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. in the spring of 2007 and again in the spring of 2008. Although significant main effects were not observed, significant interactions were found between paternal problem drinking and maternal problem drinking for internalizing problems, especially for boys. In general, these interactions indicated that when paternal problem drinking was high, depression symptomatology and anxiety symptomatology were lower if maternal problem drinking was low. Findings from this study highlight the need to consider both paternal and maternal problem drinking when examining the effects that parental problem drinking may have on adolescent adjustment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adolescents' relationship with God and internalizing adjustment over time: the moderating role of maternal religious coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Taylor, Laura K; Merrilees, Christine E; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E Mark

    2014-12-01

    A growing literature supports the importance of understanding the link between religiosity and youths' adjustment and development, but in the absence of rigorous, longitudinal designs, questions remain about the direction of effect and the role of family factors. This paper investigates the bidirectional association between adolescents' relationship with God and their internalizing adjustment. Results from 2-wave, SEM cross-lag analyses of data from 667 mother/adolescent dyads in Belfast, Northern Ireland (50% male, M age = 15.75 years old) supports a risk model suggesting that greater internalizing problems predict a weaker relationship with God 1 year later. Significant moderation analyses suggest that a stronger relationship with God predicted fewer depression and anxiety symptoms for youth whose mothers used more religious coping.

  11. Do adolescent Ecstasy users have different attitudes towards drugs when compared to Marijuana users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Silvia S.; Storr, Carla L.; Alexandre, Pierre K.; Chilcoat, Howard D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Perceived risk and attitudes about the consequences of drug use, perceptions of others expectations and self-efficacy influence the intent to try drugs and continue drug use once use has started. We examine associations between adolescents’ attitudes and beliefs towards ecstasy use; because most ecstasy users have a history of marijuana use, we estimate the association for three groups of adolescents: non-marijuana/ecstasy users, marijuana users (used marijuana at least once but never used ecstasy) and ecstasy users (used ecstasy at least once). Methods Data from 5,049 adolescents aged 12–18 years old who had complete weighted data information in Round 2 of the Restricted Use Files (RUF) of the National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY). Data were analyzed using jackknife weighted multinomial logistic regression models. Results Adolescent marijuana and ecstasy users were more likely to approve of marijuana and ecstasy use as compared to non-drug using youth. Adolescent marijuana and ecstasy users were more likely to have close friends who approved of ecstasy as compared to non-drug using youth. The magnitudes of these two associations were stronger for ecstasy use than for marijuana use in the final adjusted model. Our final adjusted model shows that approval of marijuana and ecstasy use was more strongly associated with marijuana and ecstasy use in adolescence than perceived risk in using both drugs. Conclusion Information about the risks and consequences of ecstasy use need to be presented to adolescents in order to attempt to reduce adolescents’ approval of ecstasy use as well as ecstasy experimentation. PMID:18068314

  12. Impulsivity in adolescents with major depressive disorder: A comparative tunisian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemakhem, Khaoula; Boudabous, Jaweher; Cherif, Leila; Ayadi, Hela; Walha, Adel; Moalla, Yousr; Hadjkacem, Imen; Ghribi, Farhat

    2017-08-01

    The association between impulsivity and depressive disorders in adolescence has been little studied at the literature and in our country, yet impulsivity is a major risk factor for suicide. Thus we aimed on this study to evaluate impulsivity in 25 adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder MDD compared to a control sample and to analyze the correlations between impulsivity and clinical features of MDD. Employing a matched case-control design, participants included 25 adolescents with MDD and 75 controls. We have administered the Barratt Impulsivity Scale BIS-11 for the two groups to evaluate impulsivity. Semi structured interviews according DSM 5 criteria were conducted for adolescents with MDD. The Child Depressive Inventory CDI was used to measure depressive symptoms in the control sample. Adolescents with MDD were more impulsive compared to controls according to the BIS-11 in its three domains: motor (24.96±6.26 against 20.6±4.84; p=0.000), attentional (20.88±5.03 against 16.64±3.2; p=0.000) and non planning (28.2±7.26 against 24.44±4.32; p=0.02). Impulsivity was not correlated with clinical features of MDD (suicide attempts, psychiatric comorbidities, antidepressant medication …). Adolescents with MDD seem to be more impulsive than control subjects regardless their clinical features. Whether it is a specific characteristic or a symptom among others of MDD, impulsivity predicts health-related behaviors and associated damage that need to be detected and prevented in time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparability and feasibility of wrist- and hip-worn accelerometers in free-living adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Joseph J; Rowlands, Alex V; Cliff, Dylan P; Morgan, Philip J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Lubans, David R

    2017-12-01

    To determine the comparability and feasibility of wrist- and hip-worn accelerometers among free-living adolescents. 89 adolescents (age=13-14years old) from eight secondary schools in New South Wales (NSW), Australia wore wrist-worn GENEActiv and hip-worn ActiGraph (GT3X+) accelerometers simultaneously for seven days and completed an accelerometry behavior questionnaire. Bivariate correlations between the wrist- and hip-worn out-put were used to determine concurrent validity. Paired samples t-test were used to compare minutes per day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Group means and paired sample t-tests were used to analyze participants' perceptions of the wrist- and hip-worn monitoring protocols to assist with determining the feasibility. Wrist-worn accelerometry compared favorably with the hip-worn in average activity (r=0.88, phip-worn accelerometer (n=152, 24.4%). Participants reported they liked to wear the device on the wrist (phip (phip-worn accelerometer out-put among adolescents in free-living conditions. Adolescent compliance was significantly higher with wrist placement, with participants reporting that it was more comfortable and less embarrassing to wear on the wrist. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Parenting Internalization and Correlations Between Parenting, Sentiments, and Self-satisfaction Variables in Adolescence and Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Breslavs, Gershons; Г.М. Бреслав

    2008-01-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood is currently attracting increased attention in developmental psychology. According to Vygotsky, Bronfenbrenner, Erikson and Bruner’s developmental theories, increasing autonomy and self-concept development imply that relationships between young adults and parents change according to the internalization of this relationship and the development of new traits. Thus, different changes can be expected in the links between parental attitudes or style and...

  15. Physical family violence and externalizing and internalizing behaviors among children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Lynette M; Boel-Studt, Shamra

    2017-01-01

    Family violence has been associated with various negative outcomes among children and adolescents. Yet, less is known about how unique forms of physical family violence contribute to externalizing and internalizing behaviors based on a child's developmental stage. Using data from the Illinois Families Study and administrative Child Protective Services data, we explored the relation between 3 types of physical family violence victimization and externalizing and internalizing behaviors among a sample of 2,402 children and adolescents. After including parent and family level covariates in Poisson regressions, we found that a unique form of family violence victimization was associated with increased externalizing behaviors among children at each age group: exposure to physical intimate partner violence (IPV) among children ages 3-5, exposure to the physical abuse of a sibling among children ages 6-12, and child physical abuse among adolescents ages 13-18. No form of physical family violence was significantly associated with internalizing behaviors for children in any age group. Including exposure to the child maltreatment of a sibling is crucial when attempting to contextualize children's responses to family violence and providing comprehensive services in an effort to enhance the well-being of all children in a family. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Motivations for adolescent participation in leisure-time physical activity: international differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Ronald J; Chen, Rusan; Kololo, Hania; Petronyte, Gintare; Haug, Ellen; Roberts, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Although there are substantial international differences in adolescent physical activity (PA), cross-country motivational differences have received limited attention, perhaps due to the lack of measures applicable internationally. Identical self-report measures assessing PA and motivations for PA were used to survey students ages 11, 13, and 15 from 7 countries participating in the 2005-2006 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study representing 3 regions: Eastern Europe, Western Europe and North America. Multigroup comparisons with Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling examined the stability of factors across regions and regional differences in relations between PA and motives for PA. Three PA motivation factors were identified as suitable for assessing international populations. There were significant regional, gender, and age differences in relations between PA and each of the 3 PA motives. Social and achievement motives were positively related to PA. However, the association of PA with health motivations varied significantly by region and gender. The patterns suggest the importance of social motives for PA and the possibility that health may not be a reliable motivator for adolescent PA. Programs to increase PA in adolescence need to determine which motives are effective for the particular population being targeted.

  17. Self-concept clarity across adolescence: longitudinal associations with open communication with parents and internalizing symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Marloes P A; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Hawk, Skyler T; Hale, William W; Meeus, Wim

    2014-11-01

    Higher self-concept clarity is related to several adjustment indices and may be promoted by open communication with parents, while problems with self-concept clarity development could enhance internalizing problems (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms) in adolescence. This longitudinal study examined linkages between self-concept clarity, adolescents' open communication with parents, and adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms. Dutch youths (N = 323; 51.1 % girls; mean age Time 1 = 13.3 years) reported on these constructs over four consecutive annual measurements. Concurrent positive links between open communication and self-concept clarity were found at Time 1. Over time, higher levels of open communication with parents predicted higher self-concept clarity only in middle adolescence (mean age between 14 and 15 years). We also found concurrent associations between self-concept clarity and both depressive and anxiety symptoms. Longitudinally, lower self-concept clarity predicted relatively higher levels of depressive symptoms across all waves, and also higher anxiety levels from Time 1 to Time 2. Conversely, higher levels of anxiety also predicted lower levels of self-concept clarity during the first three waves. Self-concept clarity did not mediate the longitudinal associations between open communication and internalizing symptoms. This study is one of the first to investigate self-concept clarity across adolescence. It highlights the possible importance of both anxiety symptoms and communication with parents in understanding the development of a clear self-concept, and demonstrates an association between lower self-concept clarity and higher levels of later depressive and anxiety symptoms.

  18. Comparing Local and International Chinese Students’ English Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreat Aloysious Anthony

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available According to Horwitz (1987 learners’ belief about language learning are influenced by previous language learning experiences as well as cultural background. This study examined the English Language Learning Strategies between local and international Chinese students who share the same cultural background but have been exposed to different learning experiences. Given the significant number of local and international Chinese students enrolled in educational institutions, there is a need to understand the differences and similarities in the learning strategies of these two groups. The sample for the study comprised of 60 local and 50 international Chinese students currently enrolled at a local private college. The Oxford Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL was administered as a measure of learning strategy preferences. The study reveals that language learning experiences as well as socioeconomic status impact the learning strategy adopted by both local and international Chinese students. The findings of this study point to the need to address the needs of these students in order to enhance their English language learning experience in Malaysia.

  19. Development of internalizing problems from adolescence to emerging adulthood: Accounting for heterotypic continuity with vertical scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Isaac T; Lindhiem, Oliver; LeBeau, Brandon; Bates, John E; Pettit, Gregory S; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2018-03-01

    Manifestations of internalizing problems, such as specific symptoms of anxiety and depression, can change across development, even if individuals show strong continuity in rank-order levels of internalizing problems. This illustrates the concept of heterotypic continuity, and raises the question of whether common measures might be construct-valid for one age but not another. This study examines mean-level changes in internalizing problems across a long span of development at the same time as accounting for heterotypic continuity by using age-appropriate, changing measures. Internalizing problems from age 14-24 were studied longitudinally in a community sample (N = 585), using Achenbach's Youth Self-Report (YSR) and Young Adult Self-Report (YASR). Heterotypic continuity was evaluated with an item response theory (IRT) approach to vertical scaling, linking different measures over time to be on the same scale, as well as with a Thurstone scaling approach. With vertical scaling, internalizing problems peaked in mid-to-late adolescence and showed a group-level decrease from adolescence to early adulthood, a change that would not have been seen with the approach of using only age-common items. Individuals' trajectories were sometimes different than would have been seen with the common-items approach. Findings support the importance of considering heterotypic continuity when examining development and vertical scaling to account for heterotypic continuity with changing measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Children and adolescents' internal models of food-sharing behavior include complex evaluations of contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Benenson, Joyce F; Kramer, Donald L

    2003-01-01

    This study examined internal representations of food sharing in 589 children and adolescents (8-19 years of age). Questionnaires, depicting a variety of contexts in which one person was asked to share a resource with another, were used to examine participants' expectations of food-sharing behavior. Factors that were varied included the value of the resource, the relation between the two depicted actors, the quality of this relation, and gender. Results indicate that internal models of food-sharing behavior showed systematic patterns of variation, demonstrating that individuals have complex contextually based internal models at all ages, including the youngest. Examination of developmental changes in use of individual patterns is consistent with the idea that internal models reflect age-specific patterns of interactions while undergoing a process of progressive consolidation.

  1. Amygdala-frontal connectivity predicts internalizing symptom recovery among inpatient adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla; Patriquin, Michelle; Salas, Ramiro; Newlin, Elizabeth; Curtis, Kaylah; Baldwin, Philip; Fowler, Christopher; Frueh, B Christopher

    2018-01-01

    The possibility of using biological measures to predict the trajectory of symptoms among adolescent psychiatric inpatients has important implications. This study aimed to examine emotion regulation ability (measured via self-report) and a hypothesized proxy in resting-state functional connectivity [RSFC] between the amygdala and frontal brain regions as baseline predictors of internalizing symptom recovery during inpatient care. 196 adolescents (61% female; Mage = 15.20; SD = 1.48) completed the Achenbach Brief Problem Monitor (BPM) each week during their inpatient care. RSFC (n = 45) and self-report data of emotion regulation (n = 196) were collected at baseline. The average internalizing symptom score at admission was high (α 0 = 66.52), exceeding the BPM's clinical cut off score of 65. On average, internalizing symptom scores declined significantly, by 0.40 points per week (p = 0.004). While self-reported emotion regulation was associated with admission levels of internalizing problems, it did not predict change in symptoms. RSFC between left amygdala and left superior frontal gyrus was significantly associated with the intercept-higher connectivity was associated with higher internalizing at admission-and the slope- higher connectivity was associated with a more positive slope (i.e., less decline in symptoms). RSFC between the right amygdala and the left superior frontal gyrus was significantly, positively correlated with the slope parameter. Results indicate the potential of biologically-based measures that can be developed further for personalized care in adolescent psychiatry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Adolescents, adults and rewards: comparing motivational neurocircuitry recruitment using fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Bjork

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adolescent risk-taking, including behaviors resulting in injury or death, has been attributed in part to maturational differences in mesolimbic incentive-motivational neurocircuitry, including ostensible oversensitivity of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc to rewards. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test whether adolescents showed increased NAcc activation by cues for rewards, or by delivery of rewards, we scanned 24 adolescents (age 12-17 and 24 adults age (22-42 with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they performed a monetary incentive delay (MID task. The MID task was configured to temporally disentangle potential reward or potential loss anticipation-related brain signal from reward or loss notification-related signal. Subjects saw cues signaling opportunities to win or avoid losing $0, $.50, or $5 for responding quickly to a subsequent target. Subjects then viewed feedback of their trial success after a variable interval from cue presentation of between 6 to 17 s. Adolescents showed reduced NAcc recruitment by reward-predictive cues compared to adult controls in a linear contrast with non-incentive cues, and in a volume-of-interest analysis of signal change in the NAcc. In contrast, adolescents showed little difference in striatal and frontocortical responsiveness to reward deliveries compared to adults. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In light of divergent developmental difference findings between neuroimaging incentive paradigms (as well as at different stages within the same task, these data suggest that maturational differences in incentive-motivational neurocircuitry: 1 may be sensitive to nuances of incentive tasks or stimuli, such as behavioral or learning contingencies, and 2 may be specific to the component of the instrumental behavior (such as anticipation versus notification.

  3. Health behaviour in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes compared to a representative reference population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kummer

    Full Text Available We provide a population-based overview of health behaviours of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in comparison to the general population, and analyse their relevance for glycaemic control and self-rated health status.Data from questionnaires of 11- to 17-year-old children and adolescents with diabetes (n = 629 were compared to a representative sample (n = 6,813.Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes had a significantly increased odds of infrequent physical activity (adjusted OR 1.56, short overall duration of physical activity per week (OR 1.55, difference -1.3 hours/week, and high daily computer use (OR 2.51. They had a lower odds of active and passive smoking (OR 0.31 and OR 0.29, and high daily television time (OR 0.68. The odds of an at least good and excellent self-rated health status was increased with intense physical activity, and decreased with active smoking and prolonged daily use of computer and television. Active smoking and prolonged daily use of computer were associated with higher HbA1c.Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes showed a different profile of health behaviour. Their overall health may improve if their education stresses specifically frequent physical activity with longer overall duration and less frequent television or computer use.

  4. Menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls of West Bengal, India: A school based comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrija Datta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are often less informed, less experienced, and less comfortable accessing reproductive health information and services than adults. In many developing countries, a culture of silence surrounds the topic of menstruation and related issues; as a result many young girls lack appropriate and sufficient information regarding menstrual hygiene. This may result in incorrect and unhealthy behaviour during their menstrual period. Objectives: To assess and compare knowledge, belief, ideas, source of knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene between school-going adolescents in an urban and a rural school of West Bengal, India. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among adolescent female students of Howrah district of West Bengal, India in the year 2011. Data was collected by pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured self administered questionnaire. Results: The mean age at menarche was 12.1 years among urban and 12.2 years among the rural participants. More than 80% participants had some restrictions imposed during menstruation. Significantly higher number of urban girls had pre-menarchal knowledge on menstruation and used sanitary napkins. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. For improvement of menstrual hygiene, sanitary napkins should be made universally available and affordable.

  5. Menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls of West Bengal, India: A school based comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrija Datta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are often less informed, less experienced, and less comfortable accessing reproductive health information and services than adults. In many developing countries, a culture of silence surrounds the topic of menstruation and related issues; as a result many young girls lack appropriate and sufficient information regarding menstrual hygiene. This may result in incorrect and unhealthy behaviour during their menstrual period. Objectives: To assess and compare knowledge, belief, ideas, source of knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene between school-going adolescents in an urban and a rural school of West Bengal, India. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among adolescent female students of Howrah district of West Bengal, India in the year 2011. Data was collected by pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured self administered questionnaire. Results: The mean age at menarche was 12.1 years among urban and 12.2 years among the rural participants. More than 80% participants had some restrictions imposed during menstruation. Significantly higher number of urban girls had pre-menarchal knowledge on menstruation and used sanitary napkins. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. For improvement of menstrual hygiene, sanitary napkins should be made universally available and affordable.

  6. Comparative Kinematic Analysis of the Snatch Lifts in Elite Male Adolescent Weightlifters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbil Harbili

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare the linear kinematics of the barbell and the angular kinematics of the lower limb during the snatch lifts of two different barbell weights in elite male adolescent weightlifters. In the national team level, nine elite male adolescent weightlifters participated in the study. The snatch lifts were recorded by two video cameras under competitive conditions in preparation period before the European Junior Championship (Sony MiniDv PAL- 50 field/s and the two heaviest successful lifts were selected for kinematic analysis. The little toe, ankle, knee, hip, and shoulder on the body and one point on the barbell were digitized using Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS, San Diego, CA, USA. Significant decreases were found in the maximum barbell height, the relative power output during the second pull, and the maximum vertical velocity of the barbell during the second pull of the heaviest lift (p < 0.05. Maximum extension velocity of the hip joint significantly increased during the first pull of the heaviest lift (p < 0.05. As the mass of the barbell increased, the maximum vertical velocity and the maximum height of the barbell and relative power output during the second pull decreased in the heaviest lift performed by adolescent weightlifters. Coaches should pay attention to assistant exercises to increase explosive strength during the second pull with maximum strength in male adolescent weightlifters.

  7. The international growth standard for preadolescent and adolescent children: statistical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, T J

    2006-12-01

    This article discusses statistical considerations for the design of a new study intended to provide an International Growth Standard for Preadolescent and Adolescent Children, including issues such as cross-sectional, longitudinal, and mixed designs; sample-size derivation for the number of populations and number of children per population; modeling of growth centiles of height, weight, and other measurements; and modeling of the adolescent growth spurt. The conclusions are that a mixed longitudinal design will provide information on both growth distance and velocity; samples of children from 5 to 10 sites should be suitable for an international standard (based on political rather than statistical arguments); the samples should be broadly uniform across age but oversampled during puberty, and should include data into adulthood. The LMS method is recommended for constructing measurement centiles, and parametric or semiparametric approaches are available to estimate the timing of the adolescent growth spurt in individuals. If the new standard is to be grafted onto the 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) reference, caution is needed at the join point of 5 years, where children from the new standard are likely to be appreciably more obese than those from the WHO reference, due to the rising trends in obesity and the time gap in data collection between the two surveys.

  8. Family Functioning and Relationship Quality for Adolescents in Family-based Treatment with Severe Anorexia Nervosa Compared with Non-clinical Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Andrew; Miskovic-Wheatley, Jane; Madden, Sloane; Rhodes, Paul; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Touyz, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored family functioning and relationship quality for adolescents with severe anorexia nervosa (AN). An important outcome given healthy family functioning supports effective adolescent development. Fifty-four female adolescents and their parents, treated with family-based treatment after inpatient admission, and 49 non-clinical age-matched adolescents and their parents were compared at assessment and 6 months after session 20. At baseline, AN group mothers and fathers reported poorer family function. AN adolescents were notably similar to controls, reporting poorer function in only one domain. There were no changes for adolescents, an improvement for mothers in the AN group, but an increase in perceived impairment for fathers in both groups, with AN fathers more affected. The similarity in adolescent reports and the increase for fathers over time may indicate that normal adolescent family processes occur even in the midst of serious illness. There is a need to provide intervention to ameliorate the impact of treatment on parents. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  9. Segregation and Socialization: Academic Segregation and Citizenship Attitudes of Adolescents in Comparative Perspective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimokritos Kavadias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There is a tendency to assess educational systems in terms of their efficiency in gaining high scores on cognitive skills. Schools perform, however, also a socializing function. The whole policy debate tends to ignore the impact of educational systems on attitudes or democratic values. This contribution focuses on the impact of the organization of education in European societies on the civic attitudes of adolescents. Design/methodology/approach: We explore the impact of academic segregation – the practice of segregating children on the basis of their scholastic achievement – on attitudes of adolescents living in different educational systems. We use the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (2009 relying on multilevel models. Findings: Pupils differ in their outlook on fellow citizens, according to the ways in which educational systems select and differentiate throughout school careers. More specifically, there is a negative impact of academic segregation on the attitudes towards immigrants and ethnic minorities. Research limitations/implications: The experience of adolescents based on their educational achievement seems to affect how they perceive other people. We have not answered the question why this is the case. We hope to have provided a minimal indication of the impact of inequality on social outcomes.

  10. Inequality and adolescent cannabis use: A qualitative comparative analysis of the link at national level

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This article explores the link between income inequality and adolescent cannabis use at the national level, in the context of other relevant social conditions, in developed countries. Methods and data: Fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis is applied to two data sets that contain information on the national prevalence of past year cannabis use among 15 and 16 year olds, taken from the ESPAD and HBSC surveys, with supplementary data from the MtF and ASSAD surveys for the USA and Aust...

  11. Comparative analysis of international environmental liability arising from maritime accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Luciana Vianna; Victorio, Glaucia Lima [Trench, Rossi e Watanabe Advogados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The oil industry is dynamic and global, being performed worldwide and by investors from several countries. In this sense, it is essential for investors to be informed of the legal frameworks in target countries and the differences between the legislation in those countries and their own legal systems. In this article, we will analyze the main differences on the environmental liability in Brazil, which is, currently, one of the most attractive markets in the oil and gas industry, the United States of America (US), the largest consumer of oil and the third producer around the world; and the European Union (EU) which concentrates the second largest global consumer, besides being the main player in the international and diplomatic relationships. Thus, the present paper, without the intent to exhaust the subject matter, aims at presenting comparisons between the legal environment of the three main players in the international oil and gas scenario, specifying not only the legal aspects of each of them, but also outlining the economic impacts generated over business investors from the oil industry, determining that although the differences in the basis of legal framework, all players have presented the liability and the duty to compensate. (author)

  12. Social, intimate and sexual relationships of adolescents with cerebral palsy compared with able-bodied age-mates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerink, D.J.H.G.; Roebroeck, M.E.; Donkervoort, M.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Stam, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To describe the social, intimate and sexual relationships of Dutch adolescents with cerebral palsy compared with their able-bodied age mates. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A total of 103 adolescents with cerebral palsy without severe learning problems aged 16-20 years. Methods:

  13. Comparing among the Experiences of Self-Cutting, Hitting, and Scratching in Chinese Adolescents Attending Secondary Schools: An Interview Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jianing; Ma, Congfen; Lin, Min-Pei; Leung, Freedom

    2015-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' experiences associated with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and compared among the experiences of self-cutting, hitting, and scratching. Participants included 42 Chinese adolescents attending secondary schools. They had at least three NSSI episodes in the preceding year. Information about their experiences of NSSI…

  14. International conference on comparative assessments of solar power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, A.

    1994-02-01

    Many regions in the world which lack fossil fuel resources but possess ample sunshine seek to identify near-term solar technologies capable of gradually replacing their fuel imports in cost-effective fashion. The conference addresses the following topics: technical and economical studies specifying their underlying basic assumption, methods and rules for evaluation in order to enable meaningful comparison between different technologies and systems. Detailed delineation of numerical and graphical representations, critical analysis and comparison between simulations, and test validity. Generalized performance indicators for systems and subsystems, problems of measuring and evaluating physical parameters, of terminology and conceptual tools for comparative evaluations. Advances in research development, engineering and field performance, including implications pertaining to comparative assessments and definitions of criteria and standards helpful to comparative evaluation. Assessments of the full (and hidden) cost of fossil energies as compared to solar, including environmental costs. Cost/benefit studies for remote versus centralized systems. (ed.)

  15. Behavioral and emotional problems on the Teacher's Report Form: a cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis of gender dysphoric children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, Thomas D; Zucker, Kenneth J; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Vanderlaan, Doug P; Wood, Hayley; Fuentes, Amanda; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2014-05-01

    For gender dysphoric children and adolescents, the school environment may be challenging due to peer social ostracism and rejection. To date, information on the psychological functioning and the quality of peer relations in gender dysphoric children and adolescents has been studied via parental report, peer sociometric methods, and social interactions in laboratory play groups. The present study was the first cross-national investigation that assessed behavior and emotional problems and the quality of peer relations, both measured by the Teacher's Report Form (TRF), in a sample of 728 gender dysphoric patients (554 children, 174 adolescents), who were referred to specialized gender identity clinics in the Netherlands and Canada. The gender dysphoric adolescents had significantly more teacher-reported emotional and behavioral problems than the gender dysphoric children. In both countries, gender dysphoric natal boys had poorer peer relations and more internalizing than externalizing problems compared to the gender dysphoric natal girls. Furthermore, there were significant between-clinic differences: both the children and the adolescents from Canada had more emotional and behavioral problems and a poorer quality of peer relations than the children and adolescents from the Netherlands. In conclusion, gender dysphoric children and adolescents showed the same pattern of emotional and behavioral problems in both countries. The extent of behavior and emotional problems was, however, higher in Canada than in the Netherlands, which appeared, in part, an effect of a poorer quality of peer relations. Per Bronfenbrenner's (American Psychologist, 32, 513-531, 1977) ecological model of human development and well-being, we consider various interpretations of the cross-national, cross-clinic differences on TRF behavior problems at the level of the family, the peer group, and the culture at large.

  16. [The elaboration of aggressiveness in adolescence: Comparative structural study based on the Rorschach test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiltz, L; Diwo, R; de Tychey, C

    2015-09-01

    In adolescence, a component of a successful identity quest consists in elaborating the aggressiveness, be it endured or acted out, in an imaginary and symbolic manner. We will present a comparative study between anxious and violent adolescents, based on the Rorschach test. As the handling of aggressiveness by means of various defense mechanisms and coping strategies contributes to the construction of a sense of reality and of coherent representations of oneself and the others, the Rorschach test is a pertinent tool to study the vicissitudes of the identity quest of medium adolescence. On the other hand, many studies demonstrate that it is also a precious tool allowing diagnosis of the risks of evolution towards character pathology and personality disorders belonging to cluster B of the DSM, or towards emotional disorders and suicidal tendencies. Thus, it can help initiating appropriate therapeutic measures in a spirit of tertiary prevention. We present a comparative study between a sample of 20 adolescents suffering from anxiety and inhibition of aggressiveness (subgroup anxiety) and a second sample of 20 adolescents suffering from exteriorized aggressiveness and violent behavior (subgroup violence). The inclusion into the subgroups was based on clinical interviews and a thorough psychological assessment, using the criteria of categorical psychopathology. The comparative study between the two subgroups is based on an original rating scale constructed in the phenomenological and structural tradition, reflecting the global judgment of the experienced clinical psychologist. It permits using the Rorschach test as a research tool by making the step from qualitative analysis towards quantification and the use of inferential and multidimensional statistics. It also allows computing correlations between the Rorschach test and psychometric scales or other projective tests, using specific rating scales of the same type. After showing the descriptive demographic data, we

  17. International Commercial Remote Sensing Practices and Policies: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Timothy

    In recent years, there has been much discussion about U.S. commercial remoteUnder the Act, the Secretary of Commerce sensing policies and how effectively theylicenses the operations of private U.S. address U.S. national security, foreignremote sensing satellite systems, in policy, commercial, and public interests.consultation with the Secretaries of Defense, This paper will provide an overview of U.S.State, and Interior. PDD-23 provided further commercial remote sensing laws,details concerning the operation of advanced regulations, and policies, and describe recentsystems, as well as criteria for the export of NOAA initiatives. It will also addressturnkey systems and/or components. In July related foreign practices, and the overall2000, pursuant to the authority delegated to legal context for trade and investment in thisit by the Secretary of Commerce, NOAA critical industry.iss ued new regulations for the industry. Licensing and Regulationsatellite systems. NOAA's program is The 1992 Land Remote Sensing Policy Act ("the Act"), and the 1994 policy on Foreign Access to Remote Sensing Space Capabilities (known as Presidential Decision Directive-23, or PDD-23) put into place an ambitious legal and policy framework for the U.S. Government's licensing of privately-owned, high-resolution satellite systems. Previously, capabilities afforded national security and observes the international obligations of the United States; maintain positive control of spacecraft operations; maintain a tasking record in conjunction with other record-keeping requirements; provide U.S. Government access to and use of data when required for national security or foreign policy purposes; provide for U.S. Government review of all significant foreign agreements; obtain U.S. Government approval for any encryption devices used; make available unenhanced data to a "sensed state" as soon as such data are available and on reasonable cost terms and conditions; make available unenhanced data as requested

  18. Reciprocal Relationships between Teacher Ratings of Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors in Adolescents with Different Levels of Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Alexandre J S; Arens, A Katrin; Maïano, Christophe; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Tracey, Danielle; Parker, Philip D; Craven, Rhonda G

    2017-04-01

    Are internalizing and externalizing behavior problems interrelated via mutually reinforcing relationships (with each behavior leading to increases over time in levels of the other behavior) or mutually suppressing relationships (with each behavior leading to decreases over time in levels of the other behavior)? Past research on the directionality of these relationships has led to ambiguous results, particularly in adolescence. Furthermore, the extent to which prior results will generalize to adolescents with low levels of cognitive abilities remains unknown. This second limit is particularly important, given that these adolescents are known to present higher levels of externalizing and internalizing behaviors than their peers with average-to-high levels of cognitive abilities, and that the mechanisms involved in the reciprocal relationships between these two types of behaviors may differ across both populations. This study examines the directionality of the longitudinal relationships between externalizing and internalizing behavior problems as rated by teachers across three measurement waves (corresponding to Grades 8-10) in matched samples of 138 adolescents (34.78 % girls) with low levels of cognitive abilities and 556 adolescents (44.88 % girls) with average-to-high levels of cognitive abilities. The results showed that the measurement structure was fully equivalent across time periods and groups of adolescents, revealing high levels of developmental stability in both types of problems, and moderately high levels of cross-sectional associations. Levels of both internalizing and externalizing behaviors were higher among adolescents with low levels of cognitive abilities relative to those with average-to-high levels of cognitive abilities. Finally, the predictive analyses revealed negative reciprocal longitudinal relationships (i.e., mutually suppressing relationships) between externalizing and internalizing problems, a result that was replicated within

  19. Management of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa: Comparing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Underpinned by the human needs theory, this study comparatively interrogates ... The study adopts the quantitative research design, employs survey method for data collection, and simple ... Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  20. International Comparative Studies in Mathematics Education: Are We Obsessed with the International Rankings of Measured Educational Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Lung; Li, Hui-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades, researchers, policy makers, educators and the general public, who have an interest in mathematics education in different countries, pay a great deal of attention to the results from international comparative studies. Of great interest to the international studies is the results of Eastern students consistently achieving…

  1. Acceptance of cosmetic surgery, body appreciation, body ideal internalization, and fashion blog reading among late adolescents in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunde, Carolina

    2013-09-01

    This study examined adolescents' attitudes of cosmetic surgery, as well as the relationships between these attitudes, body appreciation, body ideal internalization, and fashion blog reading. The sample comprised 110 (60 boys, 50 girls) late adolescents (mean age 16.9 years) from a Swedish high school. The results indicated that younger adolescents seem somewhat more accepting of cosmetic surgery. This was especially the case for boys' acceptance of social motives for obtaining cosmetic surgery (boys' M=2.3±1.55 vs. girls' M=1.7±0.89). Girls', and to a limited extent boys', internalization of the thin ideal was related to more favorable cosmetic surgery attitudes. Athletic ideal internalization and body appreciation were unrelated to these attitudes. Finally, girls who frequently read fashion blogs reported higher thin ideal internalization, and also demonstrated a slight tendency of more cosmetic surgery consideration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Recruiting Adolescent Research Participants: In-Person Compared to Social Media Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Waite, Alan; Pumper, Megan; Colburn, Trina; Holm, Matt; Mendoza, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Recruiting adolescent participants for research is challenging. The purpose of this study was to compare traditional in-person recruitment methods to social media recruitment. We recruited adolescents aged 14-18 years for a pilot physical activity intervention study, including a wearable physical activity tracking device and a Facebook group. Participants were recruited (a) in person from a local high school and an adolescent medicine clinic and (b) through social media, including Facebook targeted ads, sponsored tweets on Twitter, and a blog post. Data collected included total exposure (i.e., reach), engagement (i.e., interaction), and effectiveness. Effectiveness included screening and enrollment for each recruitment method, as well as time and resources spent on each recruitment method. In-person recruitment reached a total of 297 potential participants of which 37 enrolled in the study. Social media recruitment reached a total of 34,272 potential participants of which 8 enrolled in the study. Social media recruitment methods utilized an average of 1.6 hours of staff time and cost an average of $40.99 per participant enrolled, while in-person recruitment methods utilized an average of 0.75 hours of staff time and cost an average of $19.09 per participant enrolled. Social media recruitment reached more potential participants, but the cost per participant enrolled was higher compared to traditional methods. Studies need to consider benefits and downsides of traditional and social media recruitment methods based on study goals and population.

  3. A comparative analysis of North American adolescent and adult mass murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid; Hempel, Anthony G; Gray, B Thomas; Mohandie, Kris; Shiva, Andrew; Richards, Thomas C

    2004-01-01

    Thirty adult mass murderers and 34 adolescent mass murderers in North America are compared on both offender and offense variables to delineate similarities and differences. Findings indicate a plethora of psychiatric disturbances and odd/reclusive and acting-out personality traits. Predisposing factors include a fascination with weapons and war among many of the adolescents and the development of a "warrior mentality" in most of the adults. Precipitating factors indicate a major rejection or loss in the hours or days preceding the mass murder. Results are interpreted through the lens of threat assessment for targeted violence (Borum, Fein, Vossekuil, & Bergland 1999), recognizing that a fact-based, dynamic behavioral approach is most useful for mitigating risk of such an extremely low-base-rate violent crime. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Comparing intergroup contact effects on blatant and subtle prejudice in adolescents: a multivariate multilevel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero Olaizola, Juan; Rodríguez Díaz, Francisco Javier; Musitu Ochoa, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    The literature has rarely paid attention to the differential influence of intergroup contact on subtle and blatant prejudice. In this study, we hypothesized that the influence of intergroup contact on subtle prejudice will be smaller than its influence on blatant prejudice. This hypothesis was tested with data from a cross-sectional design on 1,655 school-aged native Spanish adolescents. Prejudice was measured with a shortened version of the Meertens and Pettigrew scale of blatant and subtle prejudice adapted to Spanish adolescent population. Results from multivariate multilevel analyses for correlated outcome variables supported the hypothesis. Students tended to score higher on the subtle prejudice scale; contact with the outgroup was statistically related both to levels of blatant and subtle prejudice; and, the negative relationship of contact with the outgroup and prejudice is greater for blatant prejudice as compared to subtle prejudice. Overall, results provide statistical evidence supporting the greater resistance to change of subtle forms of prejudice.

  5. Social Security System in India: An International Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Rupak Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Surajit

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines selected components of social security system in India and compares them with their OECD counterparts. Historically, the Indian policy makers have viewed the pension system as a welfare measure and therefore, it lacks in financial professionalism, diversification, and in the belief that pension funds can also be treated as an asset. The Indian system is biased towards the organized formal sector as workers in this sector are benefitted with the provisions under various lab...

  6. Smoothing internal migration age profiles for comparative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Bernard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age patterns are a key dimension to compare migration between countries and over time. Comparative metrics can be reliably computed only if data capture the underlying age distribution of migration. Model schedules, the prevailing smoothing method, fit a composite exponential function, but are sensitive to function selection and initial parameter setting. Although non-parametric alternatives exist, their performance is yet to be established. Objective: We compare cubic splines and kernel regressions against model schedules by assessingwhich method provides an accurate representation of the age profile and best performs on metrics for comparing aggregate age patterns. Methods: We use full population microdata for Chile to perform 1,000 Monte-Carlo simulations for nine sample sizes and two spatial scales. We use residual and graphic analysis to assess model performance on the age and intensity at which migration peaks and the evolution of migration age patterns. Results: Model schedules generate a better fit when (1 the expected distribution of the age profile is known a priori, (2 the pre-determined shape of the model schedule adequately describes the true age distribution, and (3 the component curves and initial parameter values can be correctly set. When any of these conditions is not met, kernel regressions and cubic splines offer more reliable alternatives. Conclusions: Smoothing models should be selected according to research aims, age profile characteristics, and sample size. Kernel regressions and cubic splines enable a precise representation of aggregate migration age profiles for most sample sizes, without requiring parameter setting or imposing a pre-determined distribution, and therefore facilitate objective comparison.

  7. Teen clinics: missing the mark? Comparing pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections rates among enrolled and non-enrolled adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Souradet Y; Metge, Colleen; Taylor, Carole; Chartier, Mariette; Charette, Catherine; Lix, Lisa; Santos, Rob; Sarkar, Joykrishna; Nickel, Nathan C; Burland, Elaine; Chateau, Dan; Katz, Alan; Brownell, Marni; Martens, Patricia J

    2016-06-21

    In Manitoba, Canada, school-based clinics providing sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents have been implemented to address high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and pregnancies. The objectives of this population-based study were to compare pregnancy and STI rates between adolescents enrolled in schools with school-based clinics, those in schools without clinics, and those not enrolled in school. Data were from the PATHS Data Resource held in the Population Health Research Data Repository housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. Adolescents aged 14 to 19 between 2003 and 2009 were included in the study. Annualized rates of pregnancies and positive STI tests were estimated and Poisson regression models were used to test for differences in rates amongst the three groups. As a proportion, pregnancies among non-enrolled female adolescents accounted for 55 % of all pregnancies in this age group during the study period. Pregnancy rates were 2-3 times as high among non-enrolled female adolescents. Compared to adolescents enrolled in schools without school-based clinics, age-adjusted STI rates were 3.5 times (p pregnancies and STIs were observed among non-enrolled adolescents. Although provision of reproductive and health services to in-school adolescents should remain a priority, program planning and design should consider optimal strategies to engage out of school youth.

  8. The importance of health behaviours in childhood for the development of internalizing disorders during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiu Yun; Kirk, Sara F L; Ohinmaa, Arto; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-12-12

    Poor mental health constitutes a considerable global public health burden with approximately half of all cases of poor mental health having their onset before the age of 14 years. The identification of modifiable risk factors early in life is therefore essential to prevention, however, there are presently very few longitudinal studies on health behaviours for mental health to inform public health decision makers and to justify preventive action. We examined the importance of diet quality, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours in childhood for internalizing disorder throughout adolescence. We linked data from a population-based lifestyle survey among 10 and 11 year old grade five students in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia with physician diagnoses of internalizing disorders from administrative health records. We applied negative binomial regressions to examine the associations of health behaviours with the number of health care provider contacts with a diagnosis of internalizing disorder. Of the 4875 students, 23.9% had one or more diagnoses for internalizing disorder between the age of 10 or 11 years and 18 years. The number of health care provider contacts with a diagnosis of internalizing disorder was statistically significant higher among students with less variety in their diets, and among students who reported less PA and more time using computers and video games. The number of health care provider contacts was also higher for girls, and for students with low self-esteem and from low-income households. These findings suggest that diets and active lifestyles in childhood affect mental health during adolescence, and imply that succxessful health promotion programs targeting children's diets and activity will contribute to the prevention of mental health disorders in addition to the prevention of chronic diseases later in life.

  9. Comparative research of international exchange of plant products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorović Milutin T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The well known events which had taken place in our country over the period 1989-2001 provoked adverse effects on foreign trade exchange of the total economy, agriculture and commodities of plant origin. These effects and changes were analyzed using corresponding indices for the sub periods 1989-1992 and 1998-2001. The foreign trade exchange balance was substantially negative in both sub periods over the analyzed period showing an aggravating trend. Export covering import declined from 78.09% to only 47.71%. The positive balance of exchange of agricultural, especially commodities of plant origin in the first four years was turned into a negative balance of exchange in the second four years. Export covering import at the agricultural level declined from 164.79% to 78.58% and at the level of commodities of plant origin from 201,76% to 87.35%. There was a significant disturbance of commodity and regional structure exchange. The share of agriculture in the total export of the country was raised from 13.82% to 18.16%. The share of plant originating commodities in the total export of agriculture was raised from 71,96% to 86,34%. Basic agricultural products predominated in the export. In addition, in the domestic export the share of developed countries decreased which contributed to poor export results and increased the import dependence of the country. Considering the above said, the need arises to increase substantially agricultural production, i.e. commodities of plant origin. The structure and output of these productions should meet the needs of both domestic and foreign markets. International standards need to be applied in order to take hold of new foreign markets, exporting high technology processed products, using intensive and efficient promotive activities. Subsequently, greater investments and a planned production are needed, liberalization and especially the system of import control in foreign trade exchange of agricultural products, i

  10. Relationship proximity to victims of witnessed community violence: associations with adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Sharon F; Boyd, Rhonda C; Cammack, Nicole L; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2012-01-01

    Witnessing community violence has been linked with several adverse outcomes for adolescents, including emotional and behavioral problems. Among youth who have witnessed community violence, proximity to the victim of community violence is one factor that may determine, in part, the nature of adolescents' responses to community violence exposure. The present study examines whether relationship proximity to the victim of community violence is associated with internalizing and externalizing behaviors among a sample of urban and predominantly African American adolescents (N = 501) who have witnessed community violence. In 10th grade, participants reported whether they had witnessed 10 community violence events during the past year, and, if so, whether the victim of the violence was a family member, close friend, acquaintance, or stranger. Witnessed community violence against a family member or close friend was associated with depressive symptoms, and witnessed community violence against known individuals was associated with anxiety symptoms. Witnessing community violence against familiar persons and strangers was linked with aggressive behavior. Gender differences in these associations and implications for assessment and intervention with community violence-exposed youth are discussed. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  11. PERSONALITY PREDISPOSITIONS IN CHINESE ADOLESCENTS: THE RELATION BETWEEN SELF-CRITICISM, DEPENDENCY, AND PROSPECTIVE INTERNALIZING SYMPTOMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joseph R.; Young, Jami F.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiong Zhao; Abela, John R.Z.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the prospective relation between two personality predispositions, self-criticism and dependency, and internalizing symptoms. Specifically, it was examined whether self-criticism and dependency predicted symptoms of depression and social anxiety, and if a moderation (e.g. diathesis-stress) or mediation model best explained the relation between the personality predispositions and emotional distress in Chinese adolescents. Participants included 1,150 adolescents (597 females and 553 males) from mainland China. Participants completed self-report measures of self-criticism, dependency, and neuroticism at baseline, and self-report measures of negative events, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety symptoms once a month for six months. Findings showed that self-criticism predicted depressive symptoms, while dependency predicted social anxiety symptoms. In addition, support was found for a mediation model, as opposed to a moderation model, with achievement stressors mediating the relation between self-criticism and depressive symptoms. Overall, these findings highlight new developmental pathways for the development of depression and social anxiety symptoms in mainland Chinese adolescents. Implications for cross-cultural developmental psychopathology research are discussed. PMID:25798026

  12. An international effort to compare gas hydrate reservoir simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilder, J.W. [Akron Univ., Akron, OH (United States). Dept. of Theoretical and Applied Math; Moridis, G.J. [California Univ., Berkely, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div., Lawrence Berkely National Lab.; Wilson, S.J. [Ryder Scott Co., Denver, CO (United States); Kurihara, M. [Japan Oil Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); White, M.D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Hydrology Group, Richland, WA (United States); Masuda, Y. [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Geosystem Engineering; Anderson, B.J. [National Energy Technology Lab., Morgantown, WV (United States)]|[West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Collett, T.S. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Hunter, R.B. [ASRC Energy Services, Anchorage, AK (United States); Narita, H. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, MEthane hydrate Research Lab., Sapporo (Japan); Pooladi-Darvish, M. [Fekete Associates Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Rose, K.; Boswell, R. [National Energy Technology Lab., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2008-07-01

    In this study, 5 different gas hydrate production scenarios were modeled by the CMG STARS, HydateResSim, MH-21 HYDRES, STOMP-HYD and the TOUGH+HYDRATE reservoir simulators for comparative purposes. The 5 problems ranged in complexity from 1 to 3 dimensional with radial symmetry, and in horizontal dimensions of 20 meters to 1 kilometer. The scenarios included (1) a base case with non-isothermal multi-fluid transition to equilibrium, (2) a base case with gas hydrate (closed-domain hydrate dissociation), (3) dissociation in a 1-D open domain, (4) gas hydrate dissociation in a one-dimensional radial domain, similarity solutions, (5) gas hydrate dissociation in a two-dimensional radial domain. The purpose of the study was to compare the world's leading gas hydrate reservoir simulators in an effort to improve the simulation capability of experimental and naturally occurring gas hydrate accumulations. The problem description and simulation results were presented for each scenario. The results of the first scenario indicated very close agreement among the simulators, suggesting that all address the basics of mass and heat transfer, as well as overall process of gas hydrate dissociation. The third scenario produced the initial divergence among the simulators. Other differences were noted in both scenario 4 and 5, resulting in significant corrections to algorithms within several of the simulators. The authors noted that it is unlikely that these improvements would have been identified without this comparative study due to a lack of real world data for validation purposes. It was concluded that the solution for gas hydrate production involves a combination of highly coupled fluid, heat and mass transport equations combined with the potential for formation or disappearance of multiple solid phases in the system. The physical and chemical properties of the rocks containing the gas hydrate depend on the amount of gas hydrate present in the system. Each modeling and

  13. Comparative international studies of osteoporosis using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, S.

    1998-01-01

    Over 200 volunteers were recruited through Newspaper advertisements and other means to measure the BMD of the Lumbar Spine, Femoral Neck and Whole Body of normal healthy Canadians from the Toronto Area. All these people were carefully interviewed by trained scientists or medical personnel with respect to their medical history, life style and habits. Persons with histories that will affect bone mineral status were excluded from the study. The resulting study population consisted of 137 persons. The data was used to examine, using statistical methods, the parameters which determine bone mineral status of normal persons. The DEXA and In-vivo Neutron Activation Analysis (IVNAA) data on the same persons were compared. Further, the data was used to determine the age at which peak BMD is attained in this normal population. The Measurements were made using a DEXA instrument made by Hologic Inc., Model 1000 W. (author)

  14. Internal Structure Quality Control of Solid Pharmaceuticals. A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Silvia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was a comparative investigation by spectral and thermal analysis in order to asses a number of characteristics of different varieties ofrawmaterials of ursodeoxycholic acid and ibuprofen. The different dissolution behavior of two ursodeoxycholic acid pharmaceutical product by crystallinity pattern was investigated. Methods: Raw materials of ursodeoxycholic acid and ibuprofen were used. IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray Diffraction Analysis were applied. Results: The results show no crystallinitydifferences for different batches of the tested drugs. No solid solid transition was proved during sample preparation for transmission IR analysis. Conclusions: A combination of two more affordabletests by IR spectrometry and differential scanning calorimetry lead to the same results as X-Ray diffraction analysis for crystallinity similarity assessment of the studied substances. The dissolution differences of test drugs were not related to the polymorphism of the raw materials.

  15. Working memory and attention deficits in adolescent offspring of schizophrenia or bipolar patients: comparing vulnerability markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A; Goradia, Dhruman; Hosanagar, Avinash; Mermon, Diana; Montrose, Debra M; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Rajarathinem, R; Haddad, Luay; Amirsadri, Ali; Zajac-Benitez, Caroline; Rajan, Usha; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2011-07-01

    Working memory deficits abound in schizophrenia and attention deficits have been documented in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Adolescent offspring of patients may inherit vulnerabilities in brain circuits that subserve these cognitive domains. Here we assess impairments in offspring of schizophrenia (SCZ-Offspring) or bipolar (BP-Offspring) patients compared to controls (HC) with no family history of mood or psychotic disorders to the second degree. Three groups (n=100 subjects; range: 10-20 yrs) of HC, SCZ-Offspring and BP-Offspring gave informed consent. Working memory was assessed using a delayed spatial memory paradigm with two levels of delay (2s & 12s); sustained attention processing was assessed using the Continuous Performance Task-Identical Pairs version. SCZ-Offspring (but not BP-Offspring) showed impairments in working memory (relative to HC) at the longer memory delay indicating a unique deficit. Both groups showed reduced sensitivity during attention but only BP-Offspring significantly differed from controls. These results suggest unique (working memory/dorsal frontal cortex) and potentially overlapping (attention/fronto-striatal cortex) vulnerability pathways in adolescent offspring of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Working memory and attention assessments in these offspring may assist in the clinical characterization of the adolescents vulnerable to SCZ or BP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gender differences in child/adolescent personality traits: Slovenes and Russians compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared gender differences in parental perceptions of child personality trait expression across different age groups in Slovenia and Russia. The patterns of gender differences in adolescents were further explored using parent and self-rating methods of assessment. Employing the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003 reports on large samples of children/ adolescents (2 to 15 years in both countries were obtained. Gender differences were small and similar across countries, and their patterns were closer to each other for the same data source across countries than they were for the two sources of information within the country. The parents in both countries concurred in rating daughters as somewhat more achievement orientated, compliant, considerate, and organized, whereas sons were assessed as slightly more active, antagonistic, and distractible. At the higher-order trait level, girls were perceived to be more conscientious and agreeable relative to the boys, especially from middle childhood onwards. Regarding self-reports, adolescent girls also scored significantly higher on Considerate and Positive Emotions scales than boys, while the former reported on higher agreeableness relative to the latter in Slovenia only. Gender differences were evident even in parental assessments of the youngest group but they did not systematically increase over children's age.

  17. Self-concept and ego development in deaf adolescents: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gent, Tiejo; Goedhart, Arnold W; Knoors, Harry E T; Westenberg, P Michiel; Treffers, Philip D A

    2012-01-01

    Self-concept and ego development, two intertwined aspects of self-indicating well-being and social-cognitive maturation, respectively, were examined in a representative sample of deaf adolescents of normal intelligence (N = 68), using translated and adapted versions of Harter's (1988, Manual for the self-perception profile for adolescents. Denver, CO: University of Denver) multidimensional measure of self-concept and Loevinger's (1998, Technical foundations for measuring ego development. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum) measure of ego development. Compared to hearing norm groups, deaf adolescents showed lower levels of self-perceived social acceptance, close friendships and ego development and higher physical appearance. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for sociodemographic variables showed positive associations of global self-worth with support for signing during childhood and quality of parent-child communication and of ego development with attending a regular school. Cluster analysis identified three social competence profiles: uniformly low competence, uniformly high competence, and low social acceptance with high physical appearance. Cluster membership was associated with school type, ego development, and (past) neurological disorder. The results are discussed in reference to interventions aimed at the well-being of deaf youth.

  18. International Migration and Gender in Latin America: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S; Fischer, Mary J; Capoferro, Chiara

    2006-12-01

    We review census data to assess the standing of five Latin American nations on a gender continuum ranging from patriarchal to matrifocal. We show that Mexico and Costa Rica lie close to one another with a highly patriarchal system of gender relations whereas Nicaragua and the Dominican Republic are similar in having a matrifocal system. Puerto Rico occupies a middle position, blending characteristics of both systems. These differences yield different patterns of female relative to male migration. Female householders in the two patriarchal settings displayed low rates of out-migration compared with males, whereas in the two matrifocal countries the ratio of female to male migration was much higher, in some case exceeding their male counterparts. Multivariate analyses showed that in patriarchal societies, a formal or informal union with a male dramatically lowers the odds of female out-migration, whereas in matrifocal societies marriage and cohabitation have no real effect. The most important determinants of female migration from patriarchal settings are the migrant status of the husband or partner, having relatives in the United States, and the possession of legal documents. In matrifocal settings, however, female migration is less related to the possession of documents, partner's migrant status, or having relatives in the United States and more strongly related to the woman's own migratory experience. Whereas the process of cumulative causation appears to be driven largely by men in patriarchal societies, it is women who dominate the process in matrifocal settings.

  19. Adolescent and Young Adult Injuries in Developing Economies: A Comparative Analysis from Oman and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Taber, Niloufer; Mehmood, Amber; Hung, Yuen Wai; Botchey, Isaac; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Hyder, Adnan A

    Adolescence is a distinct period of rapid and dramatic biological, cognitive, psychological, and social development. The burden of injuries among young people (aged 10-24) is both substantial and maldistributed across regions and levels of economic development. Our objective was to compare sociodemographic correlates of injury cause, intentionality, and mortality between Kenya and Oman, 2 countries with different levels of economic development and position in the demographic and epidemiologic transitions. Data on 566 patients in Oman and 5859 in Kenya between 10 and 24 years old were extracted from 2 separate multicenter trauma registries. Multivariable log binomial and Poisson regressions were used to evaluate social and demographic factors associated with injury cause, intentionality, and mortality. Literature on adolescent development was used to parameterize variables, and Akaike information criteria were used in the final model selections. The trauma registry data indicated a substantial burden of adolescent and young adult injury in both Oman and Kenya, particularly among males. The data indicated significant differences between countries (P < .001) in age category, gender distributions, level of education, occupation, cause of injury, and place where injury occurred. Consistent with other literature, road traffic injuries emerged as the most common type of injury as well as the most severe and fatal, with interpersonal violence also resulting in severe injury across contexts. Both road traffic injuries and interpersonal violence were more common among older adolescents and young adults. Education and being in school were protective against injury, after controlling for gender, age category, occupation, and country. A rising burden of injuries among young people has been documented in every region of the world, irrespective on income status or level of development. Cost-effective injury control measures targeting this age group exist, including involvement

  20. Comparative international studies of osteoporosis using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, S.; Sturtridge, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    In-Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis (IVNAA) and Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) are routinely used in our laboratory for clinical and research investigation of Bone Mineral Content (BMC) and Bone Mineral Density (BMD in g/sq.cm). These two techniques differ in many respects. IVNAA is an established technique where 49 Ca radioisotope induced by the 48 Ca(n,gamma) 49 Ca reaction is measured to determine BMC. In DEXA, two X-rays of different energies are used and based on the known attenuation characteristics of bone and soft tissue and the measured attenuated signals, the BMC is calculated. Very little radiation dose (<0.1 mSv) is given in DEXA compared to IVNAA (3 to 5 mSv). Site specific information can be obtained in the former. Although DEXA is easier to use both the techniques are in use in the investigation of Osteopenia. The BMD, a clinical useful parameter, is a function of age and not height. The body calcium content determined by IVNAA is a function of height and not age. These differences are not yet clearly understood. Work is underway to determine the influence of several factors e.g. age, weight on BMD. We are also conducting experiments to determine the peak BMC and BMD of Canadians. The role of various life styles e.g. exercise, diet, ethnicity are being investigated as a determinant of BMD and BMC. Also the effects and safety of many drugs in the treatment of osteopenia and osteoporosis are also being studied. (author)

  1. Sexual selection and sex differences in the prevalence of childhood externalizing and adolescent internalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Despite the well-established sex difference in prevalence of many childhood and adolescent psychopathological conditions, no integrative metatheory of sex differences in psychopathology exists. This review attempts to provide a metatheoretical framework to guide empirical examination of sex differences in prevalence of childhood-onset "externalizing" and adolescent-onset "internalizing" disorders, based on sexual selection evolutionary theory. Sexual selection theory suggests important between-sex differences in markers, mechanisms, etiology, and developmental timing of risk and resilience relevant to psychopathology. Namely, sexual selection theory hypothesizes that disinhibition and sensation-seeking may be important proximate risk markers for childhood-onset externalizing disorders in males. The theory suggests that these male-biased markers may be a product of their higher exposure to prenatal testosterone, which makes them more susceptible to prenatal stressors with downstream effects on dopaminergic neurotransmission, especially for those with genetic alleles associated with lower dopaminergic function. In contrast, sexual selection theory hypothesizes that negative emotionality, empathy, and cognitive rumination may be important proximate risk markers for adolescent-onset internalizing disorders in females. The theory suggests that these markers are propagated by rapidly rising levels of estradiol at puberty that interact with cortisol and oxytocin. These hormones exert downstream effects on the serotonergic system in such a way as to increase females' sensitivity to interpersonal stressors particularly at puberty and especially for those with lower functional serotonergic activity. Such a metatheory can help integrate prior ideas about sex differences and can also generate new predictions of sex differences in markers, etiology, mechanisms, and developmental timing of common forms of psychopathology. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  2. The development of personality extremity from childhood to adolescence: relations to internalizing and externalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Akker, Alithe L; Prinzie, Peter; Deković, Maja; De Haan, Amaranta D; Asscher, Jessica J; Widiger, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the development of personality extremity (deviation of an average midpoint of all 5 personality dimensions together) across childhood and adolescence, as well as relations between personality extremity and adjustment problems. For 598 children (mean age at Time 1 = 7.5 years), mothers and fathers reported the Big Five personality dimensions 4 times across 8 years. Children's vector length in a 5-dimensional configuration of the Big Five dimensions represented personality extremity. Mothers, fathers, and teachers reported children's internalizing and externalizing problems at the 1st and final measurement. In a cohort-sequential design, we modeled personality extremity in children and adolescents from ages 6 to 17 years. Growth mixture modeling revealed a similar solution for both mother and father reports: a large group with relatively short vectors that were stable over time (mother reports: 80.3%; father reports: 84.7%) and 2 smaller groups with relatively long vectors (i.e., extreme personality configuration). One group started out relatively extreme and decreased over time (mother reports: 13.2%; father reports: 10.4%), whereas the other group started out only slightly higher than the short vector group but increased across time (mother reports: 6.5%; father reports: 4.9%). Children who belonged to the increasingly extreme class experienced more internalizing and externalizing problems in late adolescence, controlling for previous levels of adjustment problems and the Big Five personality dimensions. Personality extremity may be important to consider when identifying children at risk for adjustment problems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. International summit on the nutrition of adolescent girls and young women: consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Nancy; Bagby, Susan; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Dewey, Kathryn; Fall, Caroline; Gregory, Fred; Hay, William; Rhuman, Lisa; Caldwell, Christine Wallace; Thornburg, Kent L

    2017-07-01

    An international summit focusing on the difficult challenge of providing adequate nutrition for adolescent girls and young women in low- and middle-income countries was held in Portland, Oregon in 2015. Sixty-seven delegates from 17 countries agreed on a series of recommendations that would make progress toward improving the nutritional status of girls and young women in countries where their access to nutrition is compromised. Delegate recommendations include: (1) elevate the urgency of nutrition for girls and young women to a high international priority, (2) raise the social status of girls and young women in all regions of the world, (3) identify major knowledge gaps in the biology of adolescence that could be filled by robust research efforts, (4) and improve access to nutrient-rich foods for girls and young women. Attention to these recommendations would improve the health of young women in all nations of the world. © 2017 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Gender Differences in Internalizing Symptoms and Suicide Risk Among Men and Women Seeking Treatment for Cannabis Use Disorder from Late Adolescence to Middle Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Katherine T; Li, Ningfei; McClure, Erin A; Sonne, Susan C; Gray, Kevin M

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis continues to rise in popularity as the perception of its harmfulness decreases and evidence of its deleterious developmental effect increases. While internalizing distress and suicide risk have been linked with cannabis use problems [DSM-5 cannabis use disorder (CUD); DSM-IV cannabis abuse and dependence] it remains unclear how this association varies over the course of development in treatment-seeking men and women. The current study utilized the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) to conduct a cross-sectional comparison of internalizing distress and suicide risk among men (n=437) and women (n=163) spanning ages 18-50 who met DSM-5 criteria for CUD. Interactions between gender and developmental stage (i.e., late adolescence, early adulthood, and middle adulthood) were observed for suicide risk and anxiety but not depression problems. Specifically, women seeking CUD treatment in late adolescence and middle adulthood exhibited significantly higher rates of anxiety and suicide risk compared to men seeking treatment during the same developmental stages. Internalizing distress and suicide risk did not differ between treatment-seeking men and women in the early adult stage. Overall, results suggest that the structure of risk for CUD may differ in men and women across the lifespan and that women presenting for CUD treatment during late adolescence and middle adulthood may uniquely benefit from intervention designed to address these elevations in anxiety and suicide risk. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Comparative and International Education in Teacher Training Programs: The Case of North Park University in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balodimas-Bartolomei, Angelyn

    2016-01-01

    For decades, scholars have claimed the importance of implementing comparative and international education courses in teacher education programs. Although there are countless benefits of doing so, information or evidence about offering comparative and international education in the teacher education curricula, is negligible. To date, it is…

  6. The Untapped Promise of Secondary Data Sets in International and Comparative Education Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudagr, Amita; Luschei, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this commentary is to call attention to the feasibility and importance of large-scale, systematic, quantitative analysis in international and comparative education research. We contend that although many existing databases are under- or unutilized in quantitative international-comparative research, these resources present the…

  7. The shield of professional status: Comparing internationally educated nurses' and international medical graduates' experiences of discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiterman, Elena; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn

    2015-11-01

    This article examines the intersecting roles of gender, ethnicity, and professional status in shaping the experiences of internationally educated health professionals in Canada. The article is based on 140 semi-structured qualitative interviews with internationally trained nurses and physicians who came to Canada within past 10 years with the intention to practice their profession. Describing the challenging process of professional integration in Canada, our participants highlighted incidents of discrimination they experienced along the way. Although some of the participants from both professional groups experienced racial discrimination, the context of those experiences differed. Physicians rarely reported instances of discrimination in communication with patients or nurses. Instead, they were concerned with instances of discrimination within their own professional group. Nurses, on the other hand, reported discrimination at the hands of patients and their families as well as racialization by physicians, management, and other nurses. We conclude our article with a reflection on the role that gender and professional status play in shaping the experiences of ethnic discrimination of internationally educated health professionals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Opportunities to Learn about Europe at School. A Comparative Analysis among European Adolescents in 21 European Member States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Soetkin; Hooghe, Marc; Meeusen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the relationship between different learning methods and the formation of European identity among adolescents. The analysis is based on the European module of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (2009), with 70,502 respondents in 21 European member states. The results show that offering…

  9. Improving adolescent sexual and reproductive health in Latin America: reflections from an International Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova Pozo, Kathya; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Decat, Peter; Nelson, Erica; De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Vega, Bernardo; Segura, Zoyla; Auquilla, Nancy; Hagens, Arnold; Van Braeckel, Dirk; Michielsen, Kristien

    2015-01-24

    In February 2014, an international congress on Promoting Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health (ASRH) took place in Cuenca, Ecuador. Its objective was to share evidence on effective ASRH intervention projects and programs in Latin America, and to link this evidence to ASRH policy and program development. Over 800 people participated in the three-day event and sixty-six presentations were presented.This paper summarizes the key points of the Congress and of the Community Embedded Reproductive Health Care for Adolescents (CERCA) project. It aims at guiding future ASRH research and policy in Latin America. 1. Context matters. Individual behaviors are strongly influenced by the social context in which they occur, through determinants at the individual, relational, family, community and societal levels. Gender norms/attitudes and ease of communication are two key determinants. 2. Innovative action. There is limited and patchy evidence of effective approaches to reach adolescents with the health interventions they need at scale. Yet, there exist several promising and innovative examples of providing comprehensive sexuality education through conventional approaches and using new media, improving access to health services, and reaching adolescents as well as families and community members using community-based interventions were presented at the Congress. 3. Better measurement. Evaluation designs and indicators chosen to measure the effect and impact of interventions are not always sensitive to subtle and incremental changes. This can create a gap between measured effectiveness and the impact perceived by the targeted populations. Thus, one conclusion is that we need more evidence to better determine the factors impeding progress in ASRH in Latin American, to innovate and respond flexibly to changing social dynamics and cultural practices, and to better measure the impact of existing intervention strategies. Yet, this Congress offered a starting point from which to

  10. Community Characteristics and Trajectories of Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors: The Cumulative Advantage/Disadvantage and Subjective Appraisals of Social Support as Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Studies examining neighborhood effects on adolescent outcomes have indicated that adolescents growing up in low-income neighborhoods are at higher risk of developing internalizing and externalizing behaviors. However, knowledge of the long-term effects of neighborhood disadvantages on internalizing and externalizing behaviors and the involved mechanisms across adolescence is limited. Using family life course theory and the cumulative advantage/disadvantage perspective, this study examined how...

  11. Etiology of Stability and Growth of Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems Across Childhood and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatoum, Alexander S; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Corley, Robin P; Hewitt, John K; Friedman, Naomi P

    2018-04-20

    Internalizing and externalizing behaviors are heritable, and show genetic stability during childhood and adolescence. Less work has explored how genes influence individual differences in developmental trajectories. We estimated ACE biometrical latent growth curve models for the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and parent Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) internalizing and externalizing scales from ages 7 to 16 years in 408 twin pairs from the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study. We found that Intercept factors were highly heritable for both internalizing and externalizing behaviors (a2 = .61-.92), with small and nonsignificant environmental influences for teacher-rated data but significant nonshared environmental influences for parent-rated data. There was some evidence of heritability of decline in internalizing behavior (Slopes for teacher and parent ratings), but the Slope genetic variance was almost entirely shared with that for the Intercept when different than zero. These results suggest that genetic effects on these developmental trajectories operate primarily on initial levels and stability, with no significant unique genetic influences for change. Finally, cross-rater analyses of the growth factor scores revealed moderate to large genetic and environmental associations between growth factors derived from parents' and teachers' ratings, particularly the Intercepts.

  12. Internalizing behavior in adolescent girls affects parental emotional overinvolvement: a cross-lagged twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberg, Therese; Lichtenstein, Paul; Forsman, Mats; Larsson, Henrik

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the direction and the etiology of the association between different parenting styles (parental emotional overinvolvement [EOI] and parental criticism) and internalizing behavior from adolescence to early adulthood. A longitudinal genetically informative cross-lagged design was applied to a population-based sample of Swedish twins contacted at age 16-17 (n = 2369) and at age 19-20 (n = 1705). Sex-limitation modelling revealed different effects for boys and girls. For girls, genetic influences on internalizing problems at age 16-17 independently explained 2.7% of the heritability in parental EOI at age 19-20. These results suggest that emotionally overinvolved and self-sacrificing parental behavior stems in part from daughters (but not sons) genetic predisposition for internalizing behavior. These findings highlight the importance of genetically influenced child-driven effects underlying the parenting-internalizing association, and clarify that the role of such effects may differ depending on sex, type of parenting and developmental period.

  13. Using Self- and Parent-Reports to Test the Association between Peer Victimization and Internalizing Symptoms in Verbally Fluent Adolescents with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ryan E.; Fredstrom, Bridget K.; Duncan, Amie W.; Holleb, Lauren J.; Bishop, Somer L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study tested the associations between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms in 54 verbally fluent adolescent males with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Adolescent- and parent-reports of multiple types of peer victimization and internalizing symptoms were used. First, the validity and reliability of the…

  14. International note: Prediction of mathematics work ethic and performance from behavioral, normative, and control beliefs among Qatari adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Abdelfattah, Faisal; Mahasneh, Randa Ali; Khine, Myint Swe; Welch, Anita G; Melkonian, Michael; Al Nuaimi, Samira Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Over half-a-million adolescents take part in each cycle of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Yet often, researchers and policy makers across the globe tend to focus their attention primarily on the academic trajectories of adolescents hailing from highly successful education systems. Hence, a vast majority of the adolescent population who regionally and globally constitute the 'long tail of underachievement' often remain unnoticed and underrepresented in the growing literature on adolescents' academic trajectories. The present study, therefore, explored the relations of dispositions toward mathematics, subjective norms in mathematics, and perceived control of success in mathematics to mathematics work ethic as well as mathematics performance; and the mediational role of mathematics work ethic in the association between dispositional, normative, and control beliefs and mathematics performance among adolescents in one of the lowest performing education systems, Qatar. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses revealed that Qatari adolescents' dispositional, normative, and control beliefs about mathematics were significantly associated with their mathematics work ethic and mathematics performance, and mathematics work ethic significantly mediated the relationship between dispositional, normative, and control beliefs about mathematics and mathematics performance. However, multi-group SEM analyses indicated that these relationships were not invariant across the gender and the SES groups. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. International note: Are Emirati parents' attitudes toward mathematics linked to their adolescent children's attitudes toward mathematics and mathematics achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Khine, Myint Swe; Melkonian, Michael; Welch, Anita G; Al Nuaimi, Samira Ahmed; Rashad, Fatimah F

    2015-10-01

    Drawing on data from the 2012 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and employing multilevel modeling as an analytic strategy, this study examined the relations of adolescent children's perceptions of their parents' attitudes towards mathematics to their own attitudes towards mathematics and mathematics achievement among a sample of 5116 adolescents from 384 schools in the United Arab Emirates. The results of this cross-sectional study revealed that adolescents who perceived that their parents liked mathematics and considered mathematics was important for their children not only to study but also for their career tended to report higher levels of intrinsic and instrumental motivation to learn mathematics, mathematics self-concept and self-efficacy, and mathematics work ethic. Moreover, adolescents who perceived that their parents liked mathematics and considered mathematics was important for their children's career tended to report positive intentions and behaviors toward mathematics. However, adolescents who perceived that their parents considered mathematics was important for their children's career tended to report higher levels of mathematics anxiety. Finally, adolescents who perceived that their parents considered mathematics was important for their children to study performed significantly better on the mathematics assessment than did their peers whose parents disregarded the importance of learning mathematics. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comprehension of idioms in adolescents with language-based learning disabilities compared to their typically developing peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Constance Dean; Lantz, Jennifer M; Pietrzyk, Rose M; Blood, Gordon W; Hammer, Carol Scheffner

    2004-01-01

    Adolescents with language-based learning disabilities (LBLD) often interpret idioms literally. When idioms are provided in an enriched context, comprehension is compromised further because of the LBLD student's inability to assign multiple meanings to words, assemble and integrate information, and go beyond a local referent to derive a global, coherent meaning. This study tested the effects of context and familiarity on comprehension of 24 idioms in 22 adolescents with LBLD. The students completed the Idiom Comprehension Test (ICT) [Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools 30 (1999) 141; LSHSS 34 (2003) 69] in one of two conditions: in a story or during a verification task. Within each condition were three familiarity levels: high, moderate, and low. The LBLD adolescents' data were then compared to previously collected data from 21 age-, gender-, and reading ability-matched typically developing (TD) peers. The relations between reading and language literacy and idiom comprehension were also examined in the LBLD adolescents. Results showed that: (a) the LBLD adolescents generally performed poorly relative to their TD counterparts; however, the groups performed comparably on the high and moderate familiarity idioms in the verification condition; (b) the LBLD adolescents performed significantly better in the verification condition than in the story condition; and (c) reading ability was associated with comprehension of the low familiarity idioms in the story condition only. Findings are discussed relative to implications for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and educators working with adolescents with LBLD. As a result of this activity, the participant will be able to (1) describe the importance of metalinguistic maturity for comprehension of idioms and other figures of speech; (2) understand the roles of context and familiarity when assessing idiom comprehension in adolescents with LBLD; and (3) critically evaluate assessments of idiom comprehension and

  17. The Fundamental Concept of Crime in International Criminal Law: A Comparative Law Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchuk, Iryna

    This book examines the rapid development of the fundamental concept of a crime in international criminal law from a comparative law perspective in light of the catalyzing impact of the criminal law theory developed in major world legal systems on the crystallization of the substantive part...... of international criminal law. This study offers a critical overview of international and domestic jurisprudence in regards to the construal of the concept of a crime (actus reus, mens rea, defences, modes of liability) and exposes roots of confusion in international criminal law through a comprehensive...... comparative analysis of substantive criminal laws in selected legal jurisdictions....

  18. In Defence of International Comparative Studies. on the Analytical and Explanatory Power of the Nation State in International Comparative Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmützky, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Higher education is undergoing a process of globalization and new realities of a globalized higher education world are emerging. Globalization also has a profound impact on higher education research. Global and transnational topics are theoretically and empirically elaborated and seem on the rise, whereas the international comparative outlook…

  19. Dietary intake of adolescents compared with the Brazilian Food Guide and their differences according to anthropometric data and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cristina Enes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the dietary intake of adolescents compared with the Brazilian Food Guide and to explore their differences according to anthropometric data and physical activity. Methods: A total of 476 adolescents from public schools of Piracicaba, SP, Brazil participated in this study. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate food group intake of adolescents. Height, weight and waist circumference of all participants were measured. Physical activity pattern was determined by questioning about participation in regular sport activities. Results: The prevalence of overweight was 36.1% and 60% were not physically active. 7.8, 7.1, 6.3, and 0.2% of adolescents consumed vegetables, fruits, milk and derivatives, and cereals, respectively, according to recommendations. About 55 and 79% of adolescents consumed excessively oils/fats and sugar/sweets, respectively. Physically active adolescents consumed more cereals, fruits, vegetables, milk and derivatives, and meats and eggs. Conclusion: Most adolescents did not follow the food group recommendations and those who were physically active have healthier food habits.

  20. Problem partners and parenting: exploring linkages with maternal insecure attachment style and adolescent offspring internalizing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, Antonia; Moran, Patricia; Jacobs, Catherine; Bunn, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    An intergenerational study examined mothers' insecure attachment style using the Attachment Style Interview (ASI; Bifulco et al., 2002a) in relation to her history of partner relationships, her parenting competence, and depression or anxiety disorder in her offspring. The sample comprised 146 high-risk, mother-adolescent offspring pairs in London, who were recruited on the basis of the mothers' psychosocial vulnerability for depression. Retrospective, biographical, and clinical interviews were undertaken independently with mother and offspring. A path model was developed, which showed that mothers' insecure attachment style had no direct link to either recalled child neglect/abuse or currently assessed disorder in their adolescent and young adult offspring. The connections appeared to be indirect, through the quality of relationships in the family system: mothers' insecure attachment and their partners' problem behavior accounted for variance in mothers' incompetent parenting as rated by interviewers. These variables predicted her neglect/abuse of the child, which was the only variable directly associated with internalizing disorder in her offspring. Mother's lifetime depression did not add to the model. It is argued that an ecological approach (emphasizing social adversity and different role domains) and a lifespan approach (emphasizing a history of adverse relationships a different life stages) is important in understanding the mechanisms by which parental insecure attachment style influences transmission of risk to the next generation.

  1. Socioeconomic inequality in exposure to bullying during adolescence: a comparative, cross-sectional, multilevel study in 35 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Merlo, Juan; Harel-Fisch, Yossi

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined the socioeconomic distribution of adolescent exposure to bullying internationally and documented the contribution of the macroeconomic environment. METHODS: We used an international survey of 162,305 students aged 11, 13, and 15 years from nationally representative samples...... of 5998 schools in 35 countries in Europe and North America for the 2001-2002 school year. The survey used standardized measures of exposure to bullying and socioeconomic affluence. RESULTS: Adolescents from families of low affluence reported higher prevalence of being victims of bullying (odds ratio [OR......] = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10, 1.16). International differences in prevalence of exposure to bullying were not associated with the economic level of the country (as measured by gross national income) or the school, but wide disparities in affluence at a school and large economic...

  2. Calendário vacinal na infância e adolescência: avaliando diferentes propostas Vaccination schedule for childhood and adolescence: comparing recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Becker Feijó

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Apresentar os critérios utilizados para elaboração de um calendário de vacinação na infância e adolescência, comparando recomendações de instituições de referência em nível nacional e internacional FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão da literatura científica a partir de publicações da Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria (SBP, Ministério da Saúde, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP, American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP e Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC no período de 2000 a 2005. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Aspectos epidemiológicos locais, socioeconômicos e infra-estrutura disponível podem definir prioridades nas recomendações de imunobiológicos. As referências consultadas, tanto nacionais como internacionais, apresentam calendários vacinais para infância e adolescência com diferenças nas vacinas contra tuberculose, poliomielite, rotavírus, pertússis, pneumococo, meningococo, varicela e hepatite A, havendo grande semelhança em relação às demais. No Brasil, existem à disposição da população, conforme critérios específicos, os Centros de Referência de Imunobiológicos Especiais (CRIE, os quais oferecem imunobiológicos não disponíveis na rede pública. CONCLUSÕES:Embora a utilização de um calendário universal não seja possível em função de diferenças epidemiológicas e operacionais, existem semelhanças que podem ser incorporadas às diferentes populações, desde que sejam contemplados critérios técnicos e científicos.OBJECTIVES: To present the criteria used to define a vaccination schedule for childhood and adolescence, comparing the recommendations of national and international excellence institutions. SOURCES OF DATA: Review of publications by the Brazilian Society of Pediatrics, the Brazilian Ministry of Health, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC

  3. Childhood Maltreatment Exposure and Disruptions in Emotion Regulation: A Transdiagnostic Pathway to Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenness, Jessica L.; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. We examined the role of disruptions in emotion regulation processes as a developmental mechanism linking child maltreatment to the onset of multiple forms of psychopathology in adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether child maltreatment was associated with emotional reactivity and maladaptive cognitive and behavioral responses to distress, including rumination and impulsive behaviors, in two separate samples. We additionally investigated whether each of these components of emotion regulation were associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and mediated the association between child maltreatment and psychopathology. Study 1 included a sample of 167 adolescents recruited based on exposure to physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Study 2 included a sample of 439 adolescents in a community-based cohort study followed prospectively for 5 years. In both samples, child maltreatment was associated with higher levels of internalizing psychopathology, elevated emotional reactivity, and greater habitual engagement in rumination and impulsive responses to distress. In Study 2, emotional reactivity and maladaptive responses to distress mediated the association between child maltreatment and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. These findings provide converging evidence for the role of emotion regulation deficits as a transdiagnostic developmental pathway linking child maltreatment with multiple forms of psychopathology. PMID:27695145

  4. Relations between Parenting and Externalizing and Internalizing Problem Behaviour in Early Adolescence: Child Behaviour as Moderator and Predictor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, E.; Dekovic, M.; Meijer, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this longitudinal study we investigated relations between parenting and externalizing and internalizing problem behaviour during early adolescence. First, we examined parenting effects on problem behaviour, including child behaviour as a moderator. Second, we examined child behaviour as predictor of parenting, also including moderator effects.…

  5. Childhood Maltreatment Exposure and Disruptions in Emotion Regulation: A Transdiagnostic Pathway to Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleniak, Charlotte; Jenness, Jessica L; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-06-01

    Child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. We examined the role of disruptions in emotion regulation processes as a developmental mechanism linking child maltreatment to the onset of multiple forms of psychopathology in adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether child maltreatment was associated with emotional reactivity and maladaptive cognitive and behavioral responses to distress, including rumination and impulsive behaviors, in two separate samples. We additionally investigated whether each of these components of emotion regulation were associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and mediated the association between child maltreatment and psychopathology. Study 1 included a sample of 167 adolescents recruited based on exposure to physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Study 2 included a sample of 439 adolescents in a community-based cohort study followed prospectively for 5 years. In both samples, child maltreatment was associated with higher levels of internalizing psychopathology, elevated emotional reactivity, and greater habitual engagement in rumination and impulsive responses to distress. In Study 2, emotional reactivity and maladaptive responses to distress mediated the association between child maltreatment and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. These findings provide converging evidence for the role of emotion regulation deficits as a transdiagnostic developmental pathway linking child maltreatment with multiple forms of psychopathology.

  6. The Relationship between Motor Skills, Perceived Social Support, and Internalizing Problems in a Community Adolescent Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Vincent O; Rigoli, Daniela; Heritage, Brody; Roberts, Lynne D; Piek, Jan P

    2016-01-01

    Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive) symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills had an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12-16 years). Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other), depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables. Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required.

  7. Physical activity and gender: comparative study between adolescents from Monterrey, Mexico and Zaragoza, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Ceballos Gurrola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare medium energy expenditure and levels of physical activity between adolescents from Monterrey, Mexico and Zaragoza, Spain taking into consideration variables such as gender, type of school, and time of the week.  Methods: adolescent students of 12 to 17 years of age from public and private schools in Monterrey (N= 396 and Zaragoza (N= 394.  The Four-by-One-Day Physical Activity Questionnaire was used and a .89 reliability with a test-retest because the test was adapted to this study.  Results: In Zaragoza as well as in Monterrey there is a significant number of students with low levels of physical activity.  Almost half of the students have been classified as inactive and very inactive.  The energy expenditure was very similar for both cities: Monterrey 37.52 ± 2.12 kcal/kg/day and Zaragoza 37.66 ± 2.95 kcal/kg/day.  Conclusions: Regarding gender, men show greater levels of physical activity than women.  This data coincides with the majority of the studies.  Students perform a higher level of physical activity during school days than during weekends.

  8. International development and psychometric properties of the Child and Adolescent Trauma Screen (CATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachser, Cedric; Berliner, Lucy; Holt, Tonje; Jensen, Tine K; Jungbluth, Nathaniel; Risch, Elizabeth; Rosner, Rita; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2017-03-01

    Systematic screening is a powerful means by which children and adolescents with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) can be detected. Reliable and valid measures based on current diagnostic criteria are needed. To investigate the internal consistency and construct validity of the Child and Adolescent Trauma Screen (CATS) in three samples of trauma-exposed children in the US (self-reports: n=249; caregiver reports: n=267; pre-school n=190), in Germany (self-reports: n=117; caregiver reports: n=95) and in Norway (self-reports: n=109; caregiver reports: n=62). Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach's α. Convergent-discriminant validity was investigated using bivariate correlation coefficients with measures of depression, anxiety and externalizing symptoms. CFA was used to investigate the DSM-5 factor structure. In all three language samples the 20 item symptom score of the self-report and the caregiver report proved good to excellent reliability with α ranging between .88 and .94. The convergent-discriminant validity pattern showed medium to strong correlations with measures of depression (r =.62-.82) and anxiety (r =.40-.77) and low to medium correlations with externalizing symptoms (r =-.15-.43) within informants in all language versions. Using CFA the underlying DSM-5 factor structure with four symptom clusters (re-experiencing, avoidance, negative alterations in mood and cognitions, hyperarousal) was supported (n =475 for self-report; n =424 for caregiver reports). The external validation of the CATS with a DSM-5 based semi-structured clinical interview and corresponding determination of cut-points is pending. The CATS has satisfactory psychometric properties. Clinicians may consider the CATS as a screening tool and for symptom monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The strength of primary care in Europe : an international comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kringos, D.S.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Bourgueil, Y.; Cartier, T.; Dedeu, T.; Hasvold, T.; Groenewegen, P.P.; et al, [No Value

    2013-01-01

    Background A suitable definition of primary care to capture the variety of prevailing international organisation and service-delivery models is lacking. Aim Evaluation of strength of primary care in Europe. Design and setting International comparative cross-sectional study performed in 2009–2010,

  10. The strength of primary care in Europe: an international comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kringos, Dionne; Boerma, Wienke; Bourgueil, Yann; Cartier, Thomas; Dedeu, Toni; Hasvold, Toralf; Hutchinson, Allen; Lember, Margus; Oleszczyk, Marek; Rotar Pavlic, Danica; Svab, Igor; Tedeschi, Paolo; Wilm, Stefan; Wilson, Andrew; Windak, Adam; van der Zee, Jouke; Groenewegen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A suitable definition of primary care to capture the variety of prevailing international organisation and service-delivery models is lacking. Evaluation of strength of primary care in Europe. International comparative cross-sectional study performed in 2009-2010, involving 27 EU member states, plus

  11. Comparing International and American Students: Involvement in College Life and Overall Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Cole, Darnell

    2017-01-01

    Using longitudinal survey data, this study compares 191 international and 409 American students' involvement in college life, the extent to which the involvement is influenced by race/ethnicity, gender, and language background, and the extent to which the involvement influences overall satisfaction. Major findings include: International and…

  12. The Emergence of a Regional Hub: Comparing International Student Choices and Experiences in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jenny J.; Byun, Kiyong

    2014-01-01

    As the demand for international education increases, middle-income non-English speaking countries, such as South Korea, play an increasing role in hosting the world's students. This mixed-methods study compares the different motivations and experiences of international students within and outside the East Asian region. Based on findings, this…

  13. International comparative studies in mathematics education: are we obsessed with the international rankings of measured educational outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Lung; Li, Hui-Chuan

    2017-11-01

    Over the past few decades, researchers, policy makers, educators and the general public, who have an interest in mathematics education in different countries, pay a great deal of attention to the results from international comparative studies. Of great interest to the international studies is the results of Eastern students consistently achieving higher marks among the participating countries. In recent years, we have seen a climate of intense global economic competition and a growing belief in the key role of education, which have persuaded governments to become increasingly obsessed with the international rankings of measured educational outcomes. Accordingly, educational policy is increasingly driven by national attempts to "copy" the perceived advantage associated with the educational strategies and techniques of other countries. In this note, we present a discussion of the benefits and criticisms of one of these international comparative studies: Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) studies. In so doing, we attempt to call attention to a continuously growing culture of "teaching to the test" in mathematics education.

  14. Surgical treatment of adolescent internal condylar resorption (AICR) with articular disc repositioning and orthognathic surgery in the growing patient--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodine, Trevor P; Wolford, Larry M; Araujo, Eustaquio; Oliver, Donald R; Buschang, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand how surgical repositioning and stabilization of anteriorly displaced articular discs using the Mitek mini-anchor technique affects condylar growth in growing patients with adolescent internal condylar resorption (AICR). Twenty-two adolescent patients diagnosed with AICR and anterior temporomandibular disc displacement were compared to untreated control subjects without AICR matched for age, sex, and Angle classification. Pre-surgical (T1 and T2) and post-surgical (T3 and T4) mandibular tracings were superimposed on natural stable structures to evaluate the horizontal, vertical, and total changes in the position of condylion. The treated group showed an overall decrease in condylar height pre-surgically and statistically significant changes in condylar growth direction between the pre- and post-surgical observation periods. Pre-surgically, the treated group showed significantly more posterior condylar growth than the control group; they also showed inferior condylar growth, while the controls showed superior growth. Controls and patients in the treated group showed no significant differences in condylar growth post-surgically. Adolescent patients diagnosed with AICR and anterior disc displacement treated with mandibular ramus and maxillary osteotomies, along with Mitek anchors to reposition internally deranged discs, showed post-surgical normalization of condylar growth.

  15. Surgical treatment of adolescent internal condylar resorption (AICR with articular disc repositioning and orthognathic surgery in the growing patient—a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor P. Bodine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to better understand how surgical repositioning and stabilization of anteriorly displaced articular discs using the Mitek mini-anchor technique affects condylar growth in growing patients with adolescent internal condylar resorption (AICR. Methods Twenty-two adolescent patients diagnosed with AICR and anterior temporomandibular disc displacement were compared to untreated control subjects without AICR matched for age, sex, and Angle classification. Pre-surgical (T1 and T2 and post-surgical (T3 and T4 mandibular tracings were superimposed on natural stable structures to evaluate the horizontal, vertical, and total changes in the position of condylion. Results The treated group showed an overall decrease in condylar height pre-surgically and statistically significant changes in condylar growth direction between the pre- and post-surgical observation periods. Pre-surgically, the treated group showed significantly more posterior condylar growth than the control group; they also showed inferior condylar growth, while the controls showed superior growth. Controls and patients in the treated group showed no significant differences in condylar growth post-surgically. Conclusions Adolescent patients diagnosed with AICR and anterior disc displacement treated with mandibular ramus and maxillary osteotomies, along with Mitek anchors to reposition internally deranged discs, showed post-surgical normalization of condylar growth.

  16. Diagnostic validity Polish language version of the questionnaire MINI-KID (Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview for Children and Adolescent).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowska, Sylwia; Sylwia, Adamowska; Adamowski, Tomasz; Tomasz, Adamowski; Frydecka, Dorota; Dorota, Frydecka; Kiejna, Andrzej; Andrzej, Kiejna

    2014-10-01

    Since over forty years structuralized interviews for clinical and epidemiological research in child and adolescent psychiatry are being developed that should increase validity and reliability of diagnoses according to classification systems (DSM and ICD). The aim of the study is to assess the validity of the Polish version of MINI-KID (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents) in comparison to clinical diagnosis made by a specialist in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry. There were 140 patients included in the study (93 boys, 66.4%, mean age 11.8±3.0 and 47 girls 33.5%, mean age 14.0±2.9). All the patients were diagnosed by the specialist in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry according to ICD-10 criteria and by the independent interviewer with the Polish version of MINI-KID (version 2.0, 2001). There was higher agreement between clinical diagnoses and diagnoses based on MINI-KID interview with respect to eating disorders and externalizing disorders (κ 0.43-0.56) and lower in internalizing disorders (κ 0.13-0.45). In the clinical interview, there was smaller number of diagnostic categories (maximum 3 diagnoses per one patient) in comparison to MINI-KID (maximum 10 diagnoses per one patient), and the smaller percentage of patients with one diagnosis (65,7%) in comparison to MINI-KID interview (72%). Our study has shown satisfactory validity parameters of MINI-KID questionnaire, promoting its use for clinical and epidemiological settings. The Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview for Children and Adolescent (MINI-KID) is the first structuralized diagnostic interview for assessing mental status in children and adolescents, which has been translated into Polish language. Our validation study demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties of the questionnaire, enabling its use in clinical practice and in research projects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Longitudinal Study of Social-environmental Predictors of Behavior: Children of Adolescent and Older Mothers Compared

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    Letourneau, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishCompared to older, more educated mothers, adolescent mothers are more prone to less than optimal parenting interactions with their children. Moreover, adolescents' children are more likely to experience developmental challenges. In this study, effects of social-environmental factors in the first two years of life on children's anxiety and hyperactivity from age 2 to 8 were examined by analyzing Canadian longitudinal data. Initial levels of anxiety and hyperactivity were higher for children of adolescent mothers, and anxiety increased with age for all children. Female children displayed lower initial levels of hyperactivity than males, and females of adolescent mothers showed a steeper decrease in hyperactivity while males of adolescent mothers showed a steeper increase in hyperactivity than their counterparts parented by older mothers. Parenting,social support and other demographic factors were controlled for and the effects of these predictor variables on trajectories of anxiety and hyperactivity are discussed.FrenchEn comparaison aux mères plus âgées et ayant reçu une meilleure éducation, lesmères adolescentes ont tendance à avoir des interactions parentales moinsqu’idéales. De plus, les enfants d’adolescentes souffrent plus souvent detroubles de développement. Dans cette étude, les facteurs socioenvironnementauxpendant les deux premières années de vie ainsi que leurseffets sur l’anxiété et l’hyperactivité entre 2 et 8 ans ont été étudiés en analysantdes données longitudinales canadiennes. Il a été trouvé que les niveaux initiauxd’anxiété et d’hyperactivité sont plus élevés chez les enfants de mèresadolescentes et cette anxiété accroît avec l’âge pour tous les enfants. Le niveaud’hyperactivité chez les filles était moins élevé initialement que chez les garçonset il diminuait rapidement chez les filles de mères adolescentes alors qu’ilaugmentait rapidement avec l’âge chez les

  18. Body-image and obesity in adolescence: a comparative study of social-demographic, psychological, and behavioral aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Pedro Miguel Lopes

    2008-11-01

    In current society, body and beauty's cult emerge as one of the main factors of adolescence. That leads adolescents to be dissatisfied with their own appearance, to psychological maladjustment, and nutritional disorders. This quantitative, exploratory, and cross-sectional research evaluates how adolescents perceive their weight and the prevalence of obesity in a sample of adolescents from the district of Viseu (Portugal). It also attempted to compare the relation of body-image and obesity with sociodemographic (school, sex, age, socioeconomic status, family functioning), psychological (self-concept, depression, school success) and behavioral aspects (physical inactivity). After data analyses, it was verified that the prevalence of obesity was 8.8% but 12.7% considered themselves obese. These adolescents had higher physical inactivity, poorer family functioning, a lower self-concept, and a higher depression index. The really obese adolescents were older and had poorer academic results. Obesity was higher in boys, but girls perceived themselves more as being obese. In conclusion, it is essential to evaluate weight perception in addition to body mass index (BMI), because the main problem could be related not only to being obese, but also to the perception of having a higher than ideal weight.

  19. Visual memory and learning in extremely low-birth-weight/extremely preterm adolescents compared with controls: a geographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Carly S; Wilson-Ching, Michelle; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Vicki A; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    Contemporary data on visual memory and learning in survivors born extremely preterm (EP; Visual learning and memory data were available for 221 (74.2%) EP/ELBW subjects and 159 (60.7%) controls. EP/ELBW adolescents exhibited significantly poorer performance across visual memory and learning variables compared with controls. Visual learning and delayed visual memory were particularly problematic and remained so after controlling for visual-motor integration and visual perception and excluding adolescents with neurosensory disability, and/or IQ visual memory and learning outcomes compared with controls, which cannot be entirely explained by poor visual perceptual or visual constructional skills or intellectual impairment.

  20. The Future of Comparative and International Education in a Globalised World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David N.

    2003-03-01

    This article examines the history and future prospects of comparative and international education with particular reference to the impact of globalisation and Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs). Connections and interactions between comparative educationists and the technologies of printing and electronic communications are examined in a historical context. The global nature of communications in comparative and international education is demonstrated both spatially and historically, using information from all regions of the world. The changing nature of technologies is noted to have broadened the audience for comparative insights. The development of textbooks, journals, conferences, international agencies, the Internet, web-based communications, and professional comparative education societies is related to the themes of communications and globalisation.

  1. Comparative Education and Research Capacity Building: Reflections on International Transfer and the Significance of Context

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    Michael Crossley

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in comparative and international education, along with a fundamental reconceptualisation of this distinctive multidisciplinary field of study. The nature and significance of these developments are explored with particular reference to their implications for broader research capacity building initiatives worldwide. In doing so, a critique of the international transfer of globally dominant research modalities and strategies is presented--along with arguments for increased attention to context sensitivity in both international development cooperation and educational research in general. Illustrative examples that support these arguments are drawn from the author's own research, from an analysis of emergent educational policy debates in the UK, and from related studies being carried out in Malaysia. In concluding, the strategic role of comparative research traditions and perspectives in a rapidly globalizing world is highlighted, while supporting the promotion of new initiative and research centres for comparative and international education.

  2. Multimodal compared to pharmacologic treatments for chronic tension-type headache in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Peter; Przekop, Allison; Haviland, Mark G

    2016-10-01

    Chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) in children and adolescents is a serious medical condition, with considerable morbidity and few effective, evidence-based treatments. We performed a chart review of 83 adolescents (age range = 13-18 years; 67 girls and 16 boys) diagnosed with CTTH. Two treatment protocols were compared: multimodal (osteopathic manipulative treatments, mindfulness, and qi gong) and pharmacologic (amitriptyline or gabapentin). Four outcomes (headache frequency, pain intensity, general health, and health interference) were assessed at three time points (baseline, 3 months, and 6 months). A fifth outcome, number of bilateral tender points, was recorded at baseline and 6 months. All five were evaluated statistically with a linear mixed model. Although both multimodal and pharmacologic treatments were effective for CTTH (time effects for all measures were significant at p treatment (the five group by time interaction effects were significant at or below the p Headache frequency in the pharmacologic group, for example, reduced from a monthly average (95% Confidence Interval shown in parentheses) of 23.9 (21.8, 26.0) to 16.4 (14.3, 18.6) and in the multimodal group from 22.3 (20.1, 24.5) to 4.9 (2.6, 7.2) (a substantial group difference). Pain intensity (worst in the last 24 hours, 0-10 scale) was reduced in the pharmacologic group from 6.2 (5.6, 6.9) to 3.4 (2.7, 4.1) and from 6.1 (5.4, 6.8) to 2.0 (1.2, 2.7) in the multimodal group (a less substantial difference). Across the other three assessments, group differences were larger for general health and number of tender points and less so for pain restriction. Multimodal treatment for adolescent CTTH appears to be effective. Randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these promising results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Low empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (pre)adolescents compared to normal hearing controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netten, Anouk P; Rieffe, Carolien; Theunissen, Stephanie C P M; Soede, Wim; Dirks, Evelien; Briaire, Jeroen J; Frijns, Johan H M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the level of empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (pre)adolescents compared to normal hearing controls and to define the influence of language and various hearing loss characteristics on the development of empathy. The study group (mean age 11.9 years) consisted of 122 deaf and hard of hearing children (52 children with cochlear implants and 70 children with conventional hearing aids) and 162 normal hearing children. The two groups were compared using self-reports, a parent-report and observation tasks to rate the children's level of empathy, their attendance to others' emotions, emotion recognition, and supportive behavior. Deaf and hard of hearing children reported lower levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than normal hearing children, regardless of their type of hearing device. The level of emotion recognition was equal in both groups. During observations, deaf and hard of hearing children showed more attention to the emotion evoking events but less supportive behavior compared to their normal hearing peers. Deaf and hard of hearing children attending mainstream education or using oral language show higher levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than deaf and hard of hearing children who use sign (supported) language or attend special education. However, they are still outperformed by normal hearing children. Deaf and hard of hearing children, especially those in special education, show lower levels of empathy than normal hearing children, which can have consequences for initiating and maintaining relationships.

  4. International note: what factors are associated with reading, mathematics, and science literacy of Indian adolescents? A multilevel examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2014-06-01

    A sample of 15-year-olds in India took part in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) for the first time in 2010. The PISA reading, mathematics, and science literacy scores of Indian adolescents were considerably lower than their counterparts in most PISA participating countries. In order to explore potential reasons for this, the present study, therefore, drawing on data from the fourth cycle of PISA and employing multilevel modeling, examined the relations of student- and school-level factors to reading, mathematics, and science literacy among 4826 15-year-old students from 213 schools in India. Gender, metacognitive learning strategies, students' positive attitudes toward school, and students' positive perceptions of classroom climate were found to be significantly associated with Indian adolescents' performance on the PISA assessment. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative analysis of anterior and posterior contrast injection approaches for shoulder MR arthrograms in adolescents

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    Gupton, Theodore B.; Cahill, Anne M. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Delgado, Jorge [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Jaramillo, Diego [Stanford University Medical Center, Diagnostic Radiology, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Chauvin, Nancy A. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Musculoskeletal Imaging, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    There is no consensus in the literature concerning the optimal approach for performing a fluoroscopically guided shoulder arthrogram injection in a pediatric population. To compare adequacy of capsular injection and radiation doses between fluoroscopically guided anterior and posterior glenohumeral joint contrast injections in adolescents. We evaluated imaging in 67 adolescents (39 boys, 28 girls; mean age 16.0 years; range 11.7-19.1 years) who underwent an anterior approach glenohumeral contrast injection with subsequent MR imaging, and 67 age- and gender-matched subjects (39 boys, 28 girls; mean age 16.0 years; range 11.1-19.2 years) who underwent a posterior approach injection during the period June 2010 to September 2015. Two pediatric radiologists independently evaluated all MR shoulder arthrograms to assess adequacy of capsular distention and degree of contrast extravasation. We recorded total fluoroscopic time, dose-area product (DAP) and cumulative air kerma (CAK). There were no significant differences in age, gender, height, weight or body mass index between the populations (P-values > 0.6). The amount of contrast extravasation between the groups was not significantly different (P = 0.27). Three anterior injections (4.5%) and one posterior (1.5%) were suboptimal (P = 0.62). Fluoroscopy time was not different: 1.1 min anterior and 1.3 min posterior (P = 0.14). There was a significant difference in CAK (0.7 mGy anterior and 1.1 mGy posterior; P = 0.007) and DAP (5.3 μGym{sup 2} anterior and 9.4 μGym{sup 2} posterior; P = 0.008). Inter-rater agreement was excellent (Cohen kappa >0.81). Both techniques were technically successful. There was no difference in the fluoroscopy time for either approach. The radiation dose was higher with the posterior approach but this is of questionable clinical significance. (orig.)

  6. The Philanthropic Mission of Comparative and International Education Bequeathed by Jullien: Continuing Capstone of the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolhuter, C. C.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this lead article of this special issue of "Compare" is to assess the value of Jullien's vision for the field of comparative and international education today. The life, writings and ideas of Jullien are sketched, followed by a survey of the path of development of the field since the time of Jullien. In view of the exigencies…

  7. Comparative Associations Between Achieved Bicultural Identity, Achieved Ego Identity, and Achieved Religious Identity and Adaptation Among Australian Adolescent Muslims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rayya, Hisham M; Abu-Rayya, Maram H; White, Fiona A; Walker, Richard

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the comparative roles of biculturalism, ego identity, and religious identity in the adaptation of Australian adolescent Muslims. A total of 504 high school Muslim students studying at high schools in metropolitan Sydney and Melbourne, Australia, took part in this study which required them to complete a self-report questionnaire. Analyses indicated that adolescent Muslims' achieved religious identity seems to play a more important role in shaping their psychological and socio-cultural adaptation compared to adolescents' achieved bicultural identity. Adolescents' achieved ego identity tended also to play a greater role in their psychological and socio-cultural adaptation than achieved bicultural identity. The relationships between the three identities and negative indicators of psychological adaptation were consistently indifferent. Based on these findings, we propose that the three identity-based forces-bicultural identity development, religious identity attainment, and ego identity formation-be amalgamated into one framework in order for researchers to more accurately examine the adaptation of Australian adolescent Muslims.

  8. The Relationship between Motor Skills, Perceived Social Support, and Internalizing Problems in a Community Adolescent Sample

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    Vincent Oreste Mancini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills has an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. Methods: This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12-16 years. Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other, depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables.Results: Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required.

  9. Rates of peer victimization in young adolescents with ADHD and associations with internalizing symptoms and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Mehari, Krista R; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W

    2017-02-01

    The purposes of the present study were to: (1) describe rates of peer victimization in young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, (2) evaluate the association between types of peer victimization (i.e., physical, relational, and reputational) and internalizing problems (i.e., anxiety, depression, and self-esteem), and (3) examine whether associations between victimization and internalizing problems differ for males or females. Participants were 131 middle-school students (ages 11-15 years, 73 % male, 76 % White) diagnosed with ADHD who completed ratings of victimization, anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. Over half of the participants (57 %) reported experiencing at least one victimization behavior at a rate of once per week or more, with higher rates of relational victimization (51 %) than reputational victimization (17 %) or physical victimization (14 %). Males reported experiencing more physical victimization than females, but males and females did not differ in rates of relational or reputational victimization. Whereas relational and physical victimization were both uniquely associated with greater anxiety for both males and females, relational victimization was associated with greater depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem for males but not females. These findings indicate that young adolescents with ADHD frequently experience peer victimization and that the association between victimization and internalizing problems among young adolescents with ADHD differs as a result of victimization type, internalizing domain, and sex.

  10. Genetic and environmental influences on thin-ideal internalization across puberty and preadolescent, adolescent, and young adult development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suisman, Jessica L; Thompson, J Kevin; Keel, Pamela K; Burt, S Alexandra; Neale, Michael; Boker, Steven; Sisk, Cheryl; Klump, Kelly L

    2014-11-01

    Mean-levels of thin-ideal internalization increase during adolescence and pubertal development, but it is unknown whether these phenotypic changes correspond to developmental changes in etiological (i.e., genetic and environmental) risk. Given the limited knowledge on risk for thin-ideal internalization, research is needed to guide the identification of specific types of risk factors during critical developmental periods. The present twin study examined genetic and environmental influences on thin-ideal internalization across adolescent and pubertal development. Participants were 1,064 female twins (ages 8-25 years) from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Thin-ideal internalization and pubertal development were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Twin moderation models were used to examine if age and/or pubertal development moderate genetic and environmental influences on thin-ideal internalization. Phenotypic analyses indicated significant increases in thin-ideal internalization across age and pubertal development. Twin models suggested no significant differences in etiologic effects across development. Nonshared environmental influences were most important in the etiology of thin-ideal internalization, with genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental accounting for approximately 8%, 15%, and 72%, respectively, of the total variance. Despite mean-level increases in thin-ideal internalization across development, the relative influence of genetic versus environmental risk did not differ significantly across age or pubertal groups. The majority of variance in thin-ideal internalization was accounted for by environmental factors, suggesting that mean-level increases in thin-ideal internalization may reflect increases in the magnitude/strength of environmental risk across this period. Replication is needed, particularly with longitudinal designs that assess thin-ideal internalization across key developmental phases. © 2014 Wiley

  11. Comparing apples with oranges: revisiting the gender wage gap in an international perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Plasman; Salimata Sissoko Ndeye

    2005-01-01

    Using a rich and comparable micro-data set, we analyse international differences in gender pay gaps in the private sector for a sample of five European economies: Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Italy and Spain. Using different methods, we examine how wage structure, differences in the distribution of measured characteristics, occupational and industrial segregation contribute to explain the pattern of international differences. Furthermore, we take into account indirect discrimination influencing...

  12. Inside-out: comparing internally generated and externally generated basic emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Christian E; Radovic, Darinka; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2012-06-01

    A considerable number of mood induction (MI) procedures have been developed to elicit emotion in normal and clinical populations. Although external procedures (e.g., film clips, pictures) are widely used, a number of experiments elicit emotion by using self-generated procedures (e.g., recalling an emotional personal episode). However, no study has directly compared the effectiveness of two types of internal versus external MI across multiple discrete emotions. In the present experiment, 40 undergraduate students watched film clips (external procedure) and recalled personal events (internal procedure) inducing 4 basic emotions (fear, anger, joy, sadness) and later completed a self-report questionnaire. Remarkably, both internal and external procedures elicited target emotions selectively, compared with nontarget emotions. When contrasting the intensity of target emotions, both techniques showed no significant differences, with the exception of Joy, which was more intensely elicited by the internal procedure. Importantly, when considering the overall level of intensity, it was always greater in the internal procedure, for each stimulus. A more detailed investigation of the data suggest that recalling personal events (a type of internal procedure) generates more negative and mixed blends of emotions, which might account for the overall higher intensity of the internal mood induction.

  13. Metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents from Mérida city, Venezuela: Comparison of results using local and international reference values (CREDEFAR study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos Reyes, Marjorie; Mederico, Maracelly; Paoli de Valeri, Mariela; Briceño, Yajaira; Zerpa, Yajaira; Gómez-Pérez, Roald; Camacho, Nolis; Martínez, José Luis; Valeri, Lenín; Arata-Bellabarba, Gabriela

    2014-11-01

    To obtain local reference values for blood lipids and blood pressure (BP), and to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in children and adolescents from Mérida, Venezuela, and to compare results using local and international cut-off values. The study enrolled 916 participants of both sexes aged 9-18 years of age from educational institutions. Demographic, anthropometric, and BP data were collected. Fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were measured. Percentile distribution of lipid and BP values was done by age group and sex. Prevalence of MS was estimated based on the NCEP-ATPIII classification (as modified by Cook et al.) and the classification of the International Diabetes Federation, using percentiles of Mérida and the USA as cut-off points. Agreement between both classifications was estimated using the kappa test (κ). Prevalence of MS was 2.2% by Cook-Merida percentiles, as compared to 1.8% by Cook-USA percentiles, a moderate agreement (κ=0.54). Agreement between Cook et al. and IDF using Merida percentiles was weak (κ=0.28). There was a higher frequency of abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension, and a lower frequency of low HDL-C using Mérida percentiles. The risk (odds ratio) of having MS is greater if abdominal obesity exists (OR: 98.63, CI: 22.45-433.35, p=0.0001). MS was significantly more common in obese subjects (18.3%, p=0.0001). Prevalence of MS in this sample of children and adolescents was 2.2%. Lipid and BP values were lower in Venezuelan as compared to US, European, and Asian children and adolescents, and similar to those in Latin-American references. Own reference values are required for accurate diagnosis of MS, as well as a worldwide consensus on its diagnostic criteria. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Adolescents Finding Purpose: Comparing Purpose and Life Satisfaction in the Context of Singaporean and Israeli Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Mary Anne; Blau, Ina; Fulmer, Gavin W.; Bi, Xiaofang; Pereira, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Purpose is an intention over the long-term to have an effect on the world that is both meaningful to oneself and to others. What are schools doing to help students use the knowledge and skills they learn in school in their own lives and aspirations? This is the first study that compares adolescent purposes and life satisfaction in Singaporean and…

  15. Polyamines: total daily intake in adolescents compared to the intake estimated from the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations Objectified (SNO

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    Mohamed Atiya Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary polyamines have been shown to give a significant contribution to the body pool of polyamines. Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in different foods and the contribution of daily food choice to polyamine intake is of interest, due to the association of these bioactive amines to health and disease. Objective: To estimate polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake in adolescents compared to a diet fulfilling the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations. Design: A cross-sectional study of dietary intake in adolescents and an ‘ideal diet’ (Swedish nutrition recommendations objectified [SNO] list of foods was used to compute polyamine intake using a database of polyamine contents of foods. For polyamine intake estimation, 7-day weighed food records collected from 93 adolescents were entered into dietetic software (Dietist XP including data on polyamine contents of foods. The content of polyamines in foods recommended according to SNO was entered in the same way. Results: The adolescents’ mean daily polyamine intake was 316±170 µmol/day, while the calculated contribution according to SNO was considerably higher with an average polyamine intake of 541 µmol/day. In both adolescent's intake and SNO, fruits contributed to almost half of the total polyamine intake. The reason why the intake among the adolescents was lower than the one calculated from SNO was mainly due to the low vegetable consumption in the adolescents group. Conclusions: The average daily total polyamine intake was similar to that previously reported in Europe. With an ‘ideal’ diet according to Swedish nutrition recommendations, the intake of this bioactive non-nutrient would be higher than that reported by our adolescents and also higher than that previously reported from Europe.

  16. Emotional Variability in Mother-Adolescent Conflict Interactions and Internalizing Problems of Mothers and Adolescents: Dyadic and Individual Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Giessen, D.; Hollenstein, T.; Hale, W.W.; Koot, H.M.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Branje, S.J.T.

    2015-01-01

    Emotional variability reflects the ability to flexibly switch among a broad range of positive and negative emotions from moment-to-moment during interactions. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions is considered to be important for healthy socio-emotional functioning of

  17. The Prospective Association Between Internalizing Symptoms and Adolescent Alcohol Involvement and the Moderating Role of Age and Externalizing Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colder, Craig R; Shyhalla, Kathleen; Frndak, Seth; Read, Jennifer P; Lengua, Liliana J; Hawk, Larry W; Wieczorek, William F

    2017-12-01

    As predicted by self-medication theories that drinking is motivated by a desire to ameliorate emotional distress, some studies find internalizing symptoms (e.g., anxiety, depression) increase risk of adolescent drinking; however, such a risk effect has not been supported consistently. Our prior work examined externalizing symptoms as a potential moderator of the association between internalizing symptoms and adolescent alcohol use to explain some of the inconsistencies in the literature. We found that internalizing symptoms were protective against early adolescent alcohol use particularly for youth elevated on externalizing symptoms (a 2-way interaction). Our sample has now been followed for several additional assessments that extend into young adulthood, and the current study tests whether the protective effect of internalizing symptoms may change as youth age into young adulthood, and whether this age-moderating effect varied across different clusters of internalizing symptoms (social anxiety, generalized anxiety, and depression). Internalizing symptoms were hypothesized to shift from a protective factor to a risk factor with age, particularly for youth elevated on externalizing symptoms. A community sample of 387 adolescents was followed for 9 annual assessments (mean age = 12.1 years at the first assessment and 55% female). Multilevel cross-lagged 2-part zero-inflated Poisson models were used to test hypotheses. The most robust moderating effects were for levels of alcohol use, such that the protective effect of all internalizing symptom clusters was most evident in the context of moderate to high levels of externalizing problems. A risk effect of internalizing symptoms was evident at low levels of externalizing symptoms. With age, the risk and protective effects of internalizing symptoms were evident at less extreme levels of externalizing behavior. With respect to alcohol-related problems, findings did not support age moderation for generalized anxiety or

  18. Reliability, factor analysis and internal consistency calculation of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI in French and in English among Lebanese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chahoud

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The results of our analyses reveal that both English and French versions of the ISI scale have good internal consistency and are reproducible and reliable. Therefore, it can be used to assess the prevalence of insomnia in Lebanese adolescents.

  19. Factorial Validity and Internal Consistency of Malaysian Adapted Depression Anxiety Stress Scale - 21 in an Adolescent Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Hairul Anuar Hashim; Freddy Golok; Rosmatunisah Ali

    2011-01-01

    Background: Psychometrically sound measurement instrument is a fundamental requirement across broad range of research areas. In negative affect research, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) has been identified as a psychometrically sound instrument to measure depression, anxiety and stress, especially the 21-item version. However, its psychometric properties in adolescents have been less consistent. Objectives: Thus, the present study sought to examine the factorial validity and internal c...

  20. Parental Depression and Economic Disadvantage: The Role of Parenting in Associations with Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Reising, Michelle M.; Watson, Kelly H.; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and parenting behaviors in 180 children and adolescents of depressed parents (ages 9–15 years-old). Analyses revealed that while parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and disrupted parenting behaviors were related to children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms, disrupted parenting (e.g., intrusive, neglectful parenting) accounted for the association of parental depressive symptoms an...

  1. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of antidepressants, psychological interventions, and their combination for depressive disorder in children and adolescents: protocol for a network meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyu; Cipriani, Andrea; Zhang, Yuqing; Cuijpers, Pim; Hetrick, Sarah E; Weisz, John R; Pu, Juncai; Giovane, Cinzia Del; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Barth, Jürgen; Coghill, David; Leucht, Stefan; Yang, Lining; Ravindran, Arun V; Xie, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Depressive disorder is common in children and adolescents, with important consequences and serious impairments in terms of personal and social functioning. While both pharmacological and psychological interventions have been shown to be effective, there is still uncertainty about the balance between these and what treatment strategy should be preferred in clinical practice. Therefore, we aim to compare and rank in a network meta-analysis (NMA) the commonly used psychological, pharmacological and combined interventions for depressive disorder in children and adolescents. Methods and analysis We will update the literature search of two previous NMAs for the identification of trials of antidepressant and psychotherapy alone for depressive disorder in children and adolescents. For identification of trials of combination interventions, seven databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), Web of Science, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LiLACS) will be searched from date of inception. We will also search ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and check relevant reports on the US Food and Drug Administration website for unpublished data. Building on our previous findings in the field, we will include any commonly prescribed oral antidepressants and any manualised or structured psychotherapies, as well as their combinations. Randomised controlled trials assessing any active intervention against active comparator or pill placebo/psychological controls in acute treatment for depressive disorder in children and adolescents will be included. The primary outcomes will be efficacy (mean change in depressive symptoms), and acceptability of treatment (dropout rate due to any cause). The secondary outcomes will be remission rate, tolerability of treatment (dropouts for adverse events), as well as suicide-related outcomes (suicidal behaviour or ideation). We will perform Bayesian NMAs for all relative outcome

  2. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of antidepressants, psychological interventions, and their combination for depressive disorder in children and adolescents: protocol for a network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyu; Cipriani, Andrea; Zhang, Yuqing; Cuijpers, Pim; Hetrick, Sarah E; Weisz, John R; Pu, Juncai; Giovane, Cinzia Del; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Barth, Jürgen; Coghill, David; Leucht, Stefan; Yang, Lining; Ravindran, Arun V; Xie, Peng

    2017-08-11

    Depressive disorder is common in children and adolescents, with important consequences and serious impairments in terms of personal and social functioning. While both pharmacological and psychological interventions have been shown to be effective, there is still uncertainty about the balance between these and what treatment strategy should be preferred in clinical practice. Therefore, we aim to compare and rank in a network meta-analysis (NMA) the commonly used psychological, pharmacological and combined interventions for depressive disorder in children and adolescents. We will update the literature search of two previous NMAs for the identification of trials of antidepressant and psychotherapy alone for depressive disorder in children and adolescents. For identification of trials of combination interventions, seven databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), Web of Science, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LiLACS) will be searched from date of inception. We will also search ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and check relevant reports on the US Food and Drug Administration website for unpublished data. Building on our previous findings in the field, we will include any commonly prescribed oral antidepressants and any manualised or structured psychotherapies, as well as their combinations. Randomised controlled trials assessing any active intervention against active comparator or pill placebo/psychological controls in acute treatment for depressive disorder in children and adolescents will be included. The primary outcomes will be efficacy (mean change in depressive symptoms), and acceptability of treatment (dropout rate due to any cause). The secondary outcomes will be remission rate, tolerability of treatment (dropouts for adverse events), as well as suicide-related outcomes (suicidal behaviour or ideation). We will perform Bayesian NMAs for all relative outcome measures. Subgroup analyses and

  3. Parenting, identity development, internalizing symptoms, and alcohol use: a cross-sectional study in a group of Italian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellerone M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Monica Pellerone, Giacomo Tolini, Caterina Polopoli Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, “Kore” University of Enna, Enna, Italy Background: Literature has demonstrated the adaptive function of identity development and parenting toward manifestation of problem behaviors in adolescence. These dimensions act on both internalizing and externalizing symptoms.Methods: The objective is to investigate the relationship between identity status, parenting, and adolescent problems, which may manifest through internalized (phobias, obsessions, depression, eating disorders, entropy and externalized modes (alcohol use and school discomfort. The research involved 198 Italian students (104 males and 94 females in the 4th year (mean =16.94 years, standard deviation =0.35 and 5th year (mean =17.94 years, standard deviation =0.43 of senior secondary schools, who live in Caltanissetta, a town located in Sicily, Italy. The research lasted for 1 school year. The general group consisted of 225 students with a mortality rate of 12%. They completed an anamnestic questionnaire to provide 1 basic information, 2 alcohol consumption attitude in the past 30 days, and 3 their beliefs about alcohol; the “Ego Identity Process Questionnaire” to investigate identity development; the “Parental Bonding Instrument” to measure the perception of parenting during childhood; and the “Constraints of Mind” to value the presence of internalizing symptoms.Results: Data show that identity status influences alcohol consumption. Low-profile identity and excessive maternal control affect the relational dependence and the tendency to perfectionism in adolescents. Among the predictors of alcohol use, there are socioeconomic status, parental control, and the presence of internalizing symptoms.Conclusion: Family is the favored context of learning beliefs, patterns, and values that affect the broader regulatory social environment, and for this reason, it is considered the privileged

  4. Impact of parenting styles on adolescents' self-esteem and internalization of values in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Isabel; García, José Fernando

    2007-11-01

    The relationship of parenting styles with adolescents' outcomes was analyzed within a sample of Spanish adolescents. A sample of 1456 teenagers from 13 to 16 years of age, of whom 54.3% were females, reported on their parents' child-rearing practices. The teenagers' parents were classified into one of four groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful). The adolescents were then contrasted on two different outcomes: (1) priority given to Schwartz's self-transcendence (universalism and benevolence) and conservation (security, conformity, and tradition) values and (2) level of self-esteem (appraised in five domains: academic, social, emotional, family and physical). The results show that Spanish adolescents from indulgent households have the same or better outcomes than adolescents from authoritative homes. Parenting is related with two self-esteem dimensions--academic and family--and with all the self-transcendence and conservation values. Adolescents of indulgent parents show highest scores in self-esteem whereas adolescents from authoritarian parents obtain the worst results. In contrast, there were no differences between the priority given by adolescents of authoritative and indulgent parents to any of the self-transcendence and conservation values, whereas adolescents of authoritarian and neglectful parents, in general, assign the lowest priority to all of these values.

  5. Adolescents with Intellectual Disability Have Reduced Postural Balance and Muscle Performance in Trunk and Lower Limbs Compared to Peers without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Sven; Olsson, Josefine; Wallin, Louise; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Borje

    2013-01-01

    For adolescent people with ID, falls are more common compared to peers without ID. However, postural balance among this group is not thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to compare balance and muscle performance among adolescents aged between 16 and 20 years with a mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID) to age-matched…

  6. Low Empathy in Deaf and Hard of Hearing (Pre)Adolescents Compared to Normal Hearing Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netten, Anouk P.; Rieffe, Carolien; Theunissen, Stephanie C. P. M.; Soede, Wim; Dirks, Evelien; Briaire, Jeroen J.; Frijns, Johan H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the level of empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (pre)adolescents compared to normal hearing controls and to define the influence of language and various hearing loss characteristics on the development of empathy. Methods The study group (mean age 11.9 years) consisted of 122 deaf and hard of hearing children (52 children with cochlear implants and 70 children with conventional hearing aids) and 162 normal hearing children. The two groups were compared using self-reports, a parent-report and observation tasks to rate the children’s level of empathy, their attendance to others’ emotions, emotion recognition, and supportive behavior. Results Deaf and hard of hearing children reported lower levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than normal hearing children, regardless of their type of hearing device. The level of emotion recognition was equal in both groups. During observations, deaf and hard of hearing children showed more attention to the emotion evoking events but less supportive behavior compared to their normal hearing peers. Deaf and hard of hearing children attending mainstream education or using oral language show higher levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than deaf and hard of hearing children who use sign (supported) language or attend special education. However, they are still outperformed by normal hearing children. Conclusions Deaf and hard of hearing children, especially those in special education, show lower levels of empathy than normal hearing children, which can have consequences for initiating and maintaining relationships. PMID:25906365

  7. Metabolic impact of a ketogenic diet compared to a hypocaloric diet in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partsalaki, Ioanna; Karvela, Alexia; Spiliotis, Bessie E

    2012-01-01

    The effects of carbohydrate-restricted (ketogenic) diets on metabolic parameters in children have been incompletely assessed. To compare the efficacy and metabolic impact of ketogenic and hypocaloric diets in obese children and adolescents. Fifty-eight obese subjects were placed on one of the two diets for 6 months. Anthropometric measurements, body composition, oral glucose/insulin tolerance test, lipidemic profile, high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, whole-body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI), and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were determined before and after each diet. Both groups significantly reduced their weight, fat mass, waist circumference, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR (p = 0.009 for ketogenic and p = 0.014 for hypocaloric), but the differences were greater in the ketogenic group. Both groups increased WBISI significantly, but only the ketogenic group increased HMW adiponectin significantly (p = 0.025). The ketogenic diet revealed more pronounced improvements in weight loss and metabolic parameters than the hypocaloric diet and may be a feasible and safe alternative for children's weight loss.

  8. Parental Depression and Economic Disadvantage: The Role of Parenting in Associations with Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reising, Michelle M; Watson, Kelly H; Hardcastle, Emily J; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the effects of parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and parenting behaviors in 180 children and adolescents of depressed parents (ages 9-15 years-old). Analyses revealed that while parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and disrupted parenting behaviors were related to children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms, disrupted parenting (e.g., intrusive, neglectful parenting) accounted for the association of parental depressive symptoms and economic disadvantage with children's symptoms. This study provides evidence that disrupted parenting may be a common or shared process through which both parental depression and economic disadvantage are associated with children's internalizing and externalizing problems.

  9. Comparing internal and alliance-based new product development processes: case studies in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Gripsrud, Geir

    2011-01-01

    This is the authors’ final, accepted and refereed manuscript to the article Companies may simultaneously pursue different new product development (NPD) strategies. This article reports a comparative two case design study of in-house NPD projects as well as alliance based NPD projects in a food company. Two contradicting proposition’s of the efficiency of NPD in an alliance compared to NPD performed internally are stated, and the findings indicate that the alliance based NPD solution create...

  10. Comparing internal and alliance-based new product development processes: case studies in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Gripsrud, Geir

    2011-01-01

    Companies may simultaneously pursue different new product development (NPD) strategies. This article reports a comparative two case design study of in-house NPD projects as well as alliance based NPD projects in a food company. Two contradicting proposition’s of the efficiency of NPD in an alliance compared to NPD performed internally are stated, and the findings indicate that the alliance based NPD solution creates a better context for NPD than the in-house solution. Less forwarding of unsol...

  11. Harmonization by simulation: a contribution to comparable international migration statistics in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nowok, B.

    2010-01-01

    In today's globalized world, there is increasing demand for reliable and comparable statistics on international migration. This book contributes to a more profound understanding of the effect of definitional variations on the figures that are reported.The framework developed here for the

  12. Comparing Chinese International and American-born Graduate Students' Beliefs about Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fangxia

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the educational beliefs about teaching and learning of Chinese international and American-born graduate students in the disciplines of pure and applied sciences and mathematics at Auburn University by comparing their similarities and differences. The study reported (a) participants' demographic characteristics, (b) the dominant…

  13. Improving the Comparability and Local Usefulness of International Assessments: A Look Back and a Way Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Leslie; Rutkowski, David

    2018-01-01

    Over time international large-scale assessments have grown in terms of number of studies, cycles, and participating countries, many of which are a heterogeneous mix of economies, languages, cultures, and geography. This heterogeneity has meaningful consequences for comparably measuring both achievement and non-achievement constructs, such as…

  14. Comparative and International Education and the Teaching Profession: The Case of Marc-Antoine Jullien

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karras, Konstantinos G.; Synodi, Evanthia

    2012-01-01

    In this paper an attempt is made to prove how Jullien's ideas and concerns about education - especially about teachers and teachers education--written in his "Esquisse" still apply. Interpretations concerning Jullien's writings remain open and encourage a fertile dialogue in Comparative and International Education and Teachers Education…

  15. Comparative and International Education: Policy Transfer, Context Sensitivity and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Michael; Watson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the intellectual and professional contribution of comparative and international studies to the field of education. It explores the nature of the challenges that are currently being faced, and assesses its potential for the advancement of future teaching, research and professional development. Attention is paid to the place of…

  16. Commentary on Andrew Coulson's "Comparing Public, Private, and Market Schools: The International Evidence"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Gary; Coulson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors comment on Andrew Coulson's "Comparing Public, Private, and Market Schools: The International Evidence." The authors believe that Coulson's paper is a very interesting review of the literature on the ability of market-produced education to outperform government-produced education. Coulson's response on this commentary…

  17. Promoting University and Industry Links at the Regional Level: Comparing China's Reform and International Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po, Yang; Cai, Yuzhuo; Lyytinen, Anu; Hölttä, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    This paper intends to learn from international experiences in order to facilitating China's ongoing regional university transformation with an ultimate goal to enhance the role of university in regional economic development and innovation. In so doing, this paper compares major models of universities of applied sciences (UAS) around the world from…

  18. Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness among Schizophrenic Patients and Their Families (Comparative Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Sahar; Zaki, Rania A.

    2015-01-01

    This study was a comparative study aiming to assess the extent of internalized stigma of mental illness among patients with schizophrenia & identify stigma as perceived by family members caring schizophrenic patients. The study was conducted in two settings 1st clinic was outpatient clinic for psychiatric patient affiliated to Abbasia…

  19. Nordic Internationalists' Contribution to the Field of Comparative and International Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Teodora

    2016-01-01

    This paper stems from a PhD dissertation research focusing on the Nordic representatives' contribution to the field of comparative and international education (CIE) since the middle of the 20th century to the present days. Following the idea of the clear-cut distinction between the two component parts of the field in the region in question, the…

  20. Researching Civil Remedies for International Corruption: The Choice of the Functional Comparative Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.O. Makinwa (Abiola)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper motivates the choice of the functional comparative method to research the issue of civil remedies for international corruption. It shows how the social, economic and political factors that have shaped the normative context of the research question point to the functional

  1. Adolescents' Internalizing Symptoms as Predictors of the Content of Their Facebook Communication and Responses Received from Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich, Samuel E; Underwood, Marion K

    2016-09-01

    This research examined how adolescents' internalizing symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, and loneliness, relate to the content of their Facebook communication and the responses they receive from peers on Facebook. Participants ( n = 125, 56 female, age 18) reported on their internalizing symptoms in the summer following 12 th grade, and downloaded an application to their Facebook account that stored the content of all of their Facebook communication to secure, online archive. Two months of participants' status updates and comments and peers' comments were coded for content. Relations between internalizing symptoms and Facebook communication differed for girls and boys. For girls, internalizing symptoms predicted several types of Facebook content: negative affect, somatic complaints and eliciting support. In contrast, internalizing symptoms were not related to boys' Facebook posts. Relations between internalizing symptoms and peers' responses on Facebook also differed by gender. For girls, internalizing symptoms positively predicted receiving more peer comments expressing negative affect, and peer responses offering support. For boys, internalizing symptoms did not predict any of the measured peer responses. These findings suggest that girls prone to internalizing symptoms use Facebook in ways that appear similar to co-rumination, by expressing problems to friends and receive possibly reinforcing feedback in return.

  2. A Randomized Depression Prevention Trial Comparing Interpersonal Psychotherapy--Adolescent Skills Training to Group Counseling in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jami F; Benas, Jessica S; Schueler, Christie M; Gallop, Robert; Gillham, Jane E; Mufson, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Given the rise in depression disorders in adolescence, it is important to develop and study depression prevention programs for this age group. The current study examined the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a group prevention program for adolescent depression, in comparison to group programs that are typically delivered in school settings. In this indicated prevention trial, 186 adolescents with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST delivered by research staff or group counseling (GC) delivered by school counselors. Hierarchical linear modeling examined differences in rates of change in depressive symptoms and overall functioning from baseline to the 6-month follow-up assessment. Cox regression compared rates of depression diagnoses. Adolescents in IPT-AST showed significantly greater improvements in self-reported depressive symptoms and evaluator-rated overall functioning than GC adolescents from baseline to the 6-month follow-up. However, there were no significant differences between the two conditions in onset of depression diagnoses. Although both intervention conditions demonstrated significant improvements in depressive symptoms and overall functioning, results indicate that IPT-AST has modest benefits over groups run by school counselors which were matched on frequency and duration of sessions. In particular, IPT-AST outperformed GC in reduction of depressive symptoms and improvements in overall functioning. These findings point to the clinical utility of this depression prevention program, at least in the short-term. Additional follow-up is needed to determine the long-term effects of IPT-AST, relative to GC, particularly in preventing depression onset.

  3. A Randomized Depression Prevention Trial Comparing Interpersonal Psychotherapy—Adolescent Skills Training to Group Counseling in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benas, Jessica S.; Schueler, Christie M.; Gallop, Robert; Gillham, Jane E.; Mufson, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Given the rise in depression disorders in adolescence, it is important to develop and study depression prevention programs for this age group. The current study examined the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a group prevention program for adolescent depression, in comparison to group programs that are typically delivered in school settings. In this indicated prevention trial, 186 adolescents with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST delivered by research staff or group counseling (GC) delivered by school counselors. Hierarchical linear modeling examined differences in rates of change in depressive symptoms and overall functioning from baseline to the 6-month follow-up assessment. Cox regression compared rates of depression diagnoses. Adolescents in IPT-AST showed significantly greater improvements in self-reported depressive symptoms and evaluator-rated overall functioning than GC adolescents from baseline to the 6-month follow-up. However, there were no significant differences between the two conditions in onset of depression diagnoses. Although both intervention conditions demonstrated significant improvements in depressive symptoms and overall functioning, results indicate that IPT-AST has modest benefits over groups run by school counselors which were matched on frequency and duration of sessions. In particular, IPT-AST outperformed GC in reduction of depressive symptoms and improvements in overall functioning. These findings point to the clinical utility of this depression prevention program, at least in the short-term. Additional follow-up is needed to determine the long-term effects of IPT-AST, relative to GC, particularly in preventing depression onset. PMID:26638219

  4. Adolescent Development of Global Competencies through a Short-Term International Study-Travel Experience to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Rachel Zucker

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of adolescents to develop global competencies was examined by collecting and analyzing data from 62 student-travelers before, during, and after a short-term study-travel experience to China. The Global Perspectives Inventory was used to compare the student-travelers' perspectives before and after travel with a comparison group of 60…

  5. Impact of behavioral inhibition and parenting style on internalizing and externalizing problems from early childhood through adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Degnan, Kathryn A; Perez-Edgar, Koraly E; Henderson, Heather A; Rubin, Kenneth H; Pine, Daniel S; Steinberg, Laurence; Fox, Nathan A

    2009-11-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is characterized by a pattern of extreme social reticence, risk for internalizing behavior problems, and possible protection against externalizing behavior problems. Parenting style may also contribute to these associations between BI and behavior problems (BP). A sample of 113 children was assessed for BI in the laboratory at 14 and 24 months of age, self-report of maternal parenting style at 7 years of age, and maternal report of child internalizing and externalizing BP at 4, 7, and 15 years. Internalizing problems at age 4 were greatest among behaviorally inhibited children who also were exposed to permissive parenting. Furthermore, greater authoritative parenting was associated with less of an increase in internalizing behavior problems over time and greater authoritarian parenting was associated with a steeper decline in externalizing problems. Results highlight the importance of considering child and environmental factors in longitudinal patterns of BP across childhood and adolescence.

  6. Impact of Behavioral Inhibition and Parenting Style on Internalizing and Externalizing Problems from Early Childhood through Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Perez-Edgar, Koraly E.; Henderson, Heather A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Pine, Daniel S.; Steinberg, Laurence; Fox, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is characterized by a pattern of extreme social reticence, risk for internalizing behavior problems, and possible protection against externalizing behavior problems. Parenting style may also contribute to these associations between BI and behavior problems (BP). A sample of 113 children was assessed for BI in the laboratory at 14 and 24 months of age, self-report of maternal parenting style at 7 years of age, and maternal report of child internalizing and externalizing BP at 4, 7, and 15 years. Internalizing problems at age 4 were greatest among behaviorally inhibited children who also were exposed to permissive parenting. Furthermore, greater authoritative parenting was associated with less of an increase in internalizing behavior problems over time and greater authoritarian parenting was associated with a steeper decline in externalizing problems. Results highlight the importance of considering child and environmental factors in longitudinal patterns of BP across childhood and adolescence. PMID:19521761

  7. Underweight, overweight and obesity among zaboli adolescents: A comparison between international and Iranians′ national criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Salehi-Abargouei

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions : Almost all definitions revealed coexistence of underweight, overweight, and obesity among Zaboli adolescents. Huge differences exist between different criteria. To understand the best appropriate criteria for Iranian adolescents, future studies should focus on the predictability of obesity-related co-morbidities by these criteria.

  8. How Low Is Low? Low Self-Esteem as an Indicator of Internalizing Psychopathology in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomaa, Rasmus; Vaananen, Juha-Matti; Frojd, Sari; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri

    2013-01-01

    Schools are among the most important setting for preventive interventions among adolescents. There are evidence-based intervention programs for adolescents at risk for and with early signs of mental health problems but one demanding task is to detect the ones who are in need of an intervention. The aim of the present study was to analyze…

  9. Adolescent Peer Relations and Socioemotional Development in Latin America: Translating International Theory into Local Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christian; Lisboa, Carolina; Cuadros, Olga; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Peer relations constitute a main developmental context for adolescents. Peers offer an instance for identity definition and set the norms of acceptable and valued characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes, representing a societal model that allows and restrains avenues for adolescents' socioemotional development. The present article departs from…

  10. Parenting and Friendship Quality as Predictors of Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Alden E.; Fite, Paula J.; Colder, Craig R.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates both parents and peers influence child and adolescent adjustment outcomes. Moreover, friendship quality has been found to buffer the influence of parenting on adolescent adjustment, particularly externalizing symptoms. Little to no research, however, has longitudinally examined whether friendship quality moderates the relation…

  11. Family conflict, mood, and adolescents' daily school problems: moderating roles of internalizing and externalizing symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Adela C; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    Using daily diary data, this study examined cross-day associations between family conflict and school problems and tested mediating effects of daily negative mood and moderating effects of psychological symptoms. For 2 weeks, parents and adolescents (N = 106; Mage = 15.4) reported daily conflict; adolescents reported daily negative mood and school problems. Results indicated bidirectional, multiday spillover between parent-adolescent conflict and school problems with daily negative mood statistically accounting for spillover both within and across days. Externalizing symptoms strengthened links between father-adolescent conflict and school problems, whereas depressive and anxious symptoms strengthened links between parent-adolescent conflict and daily negative mood. By demonstrating cross-domain transmission of daily problems, these findings highlight the salience of everyday events as possible intervention targets. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. Deaths from international terrorism compared with road crash deaths in OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, N; Thomson, G

    2005-12-01

    To estimate the relative number of deaths in member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) from international terrorism and road crashes. Data on deaths from international terrorism (US State Department database) were collated (1994-2003) and compared to the road injury deaths (year 2000 and 2001 data) from the OECD International Road Transport Accident Database. In the 29 OECD countries for which comparable data were available, the annual average death rate from road injury was approximately 390 times that from international terrorism. The ratio of annual road to international terrorism deaths (averaged over 10 years) was lowest for the United States at 142 times. In 2001, road crash deaths in the US were equal to those from a September 11 attack every 26 days. There is a large difference in the magnitude of these two causes of deaths from injury. Policy makers need to be aware of this when allocating resources to preventing these two avoidable causes of mortality.

  13. Irritability, Externalizing, and Internalizing Psychopathology in Adolescence: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations and Moderation by Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Schouboe, Sophie N F; Kircanski, Katharina; Leibenluft, Ellen; Stringaris, Argyris; Gotlib, Ian H

    2018-04-18

    Irritability is a common feature of many psychiatric disorders, including both externalizing and internalizing disorders. There is little research, however, examining associations between irritability and these symptom domains, particularly during the important developmental period of adolescence, characterized by sex differences in the prevalence of disorders. We examined the cross-sectional associations between irritability, measured with the Affective Reactivity Index, and symptoms of externalizing and internalizing domains of psychopathology, measured with the Youth Self Report, in a volunteer community sample (N = 183) of 9- to 13-year-old (M = 11.39, SD = 1.07) boys and girls (37% White/Caucasian, 8% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 8% African American, 2% Native American, 2% Pacific Islander, 28% Other, and 3% not reported). A subset of the sample (n = 112) provided data at a 2-year follow-up, used to extend these associations. There were no sex differences in levels of irritability; however, the associations between irritability and symptom domains were moderated by sex. Specifically, in girls, irritability was associated equally with externalizing and internalizing symptoms. In contrast, in boys, irritability was associated more strongly with externalizing symptoms than with internalizing symptoms. Thus, across both sexes, irritability was moderately associated with externalizing symptoms, but the association between irritability and internalizing symptoms was stronger in girls than in boys. At follow-up, sex moderated the association between baseline irritability and later externalizing and internalizing symptoms. These findings indicate that irritability is associated with both externalizing and internalizing symptoms in early adolescence and that irritability is associated with internalizing symptoms more strongly in girls than in boys.

  14. The Roles of Family and Teacher Support in Moderating and Mediating Externalized and Internalized Outcomes of Exposure to Community Violence Among Arab and Jewish Adolescents in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Leshem, Becky; Guterman, Neil B

    2018-02-01

    The study examined family and teacher support as factors that can protect adolescents from internalized and externalized problems after exposure to community violence (ECV). Self-administered questionnaires were filled out by a sample of 1,832 Arab and Jewish Israeli high school students. The Arab adolescents reported significantly higher levels of community violence victimization, internalized problems, externalized problems, family support, and teacher support than the Jewish adolescents. The girls reported higher levels of internalized problems, and the boys reported higher levels of externalized problems. ECV predicted high levels of internalized and externalized problems, family support predicted low levels of internalized and externalized problems, and teacher support had no predictive role. Path analysis confirmed the significance of the relationships between ECV effects, support variables, and gender. The limitations of the study and implications of the findings for future research and for the development of family care and family intervention programs are discussed.

  15. Venous thromboembolism management in Northeast Melbourne: how does it compare to international guidelines and data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hui Y; Chua, Chong C; Tacey, Mark; Sleeman, Matthew; Donnan, Geoffrey; Nandurkar, Harshal; Ho, Prahlad

    2017-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality with significant heterogeneity in its management, both within our local practice and in international guidelines. To provide a holistic evaluation of 'real-world' Australian experience in the warfarin era, including how we compare to international guidelines. Retrospective evaluation of VTE from July 2011 to December 2012 at two major hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. These results were compared to recommendations in the international guidelines. A total of 752 episodes involving 742 patients was identified. Contrary to international guidelines, an unwarranted heritable thrombophilia screen was performed in 22.0% of patients, amounting to a cost of AU$29 000. The duration of anticoagulation was longer compared to international recommendations, although the overall recurrence (3.2/100 person-years) and clinically significant bleeding rates (2.4/100 person-years) were comparable to 'real-world' data. Unprovoked VTE (hazard ratio 2.06; P = 0.01) was a risk factor for recurrence, and there was no difference in recurrence between major VTE (proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and/or pulmonary embolism) and isolated distal DVT (3.02 vs 3.94/100 person-years; P = 0.25). Fourteen patients were subsequently diagnosed with malignancy, and patients with recurrent VTE had increased risk of prospective cancer diagnosis (relative risk 6.68; P management strategies, including excessive thrombophilia screening and longer duration of anticoagulation. This audit highlights the need for national VTE guidelines, as well as prospective auditing of VTE management, in the direct oral anticoagulant era for future comparison. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  16. Reliability, factor analysis and internal consistency calculation of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) in French and in English among Lebanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahoud, M; Chahine, R; Salameh, P; Sauleau, E A

    2017-06-01

    Our goal is to validate and to verify the reliability of the French and English versions of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) in Lebanese adolescents. A cross-sectional study was implemented. 104 Lebanese students aged between 14 and 19 years participated in the study. The English version of the questionnaire was distributed to English-speaking students and the French version was administered to French-speaking students. A scale (1 to 7 with 1 = very well understood and 7 = not at all) was used to identify the level of the students' understanding of each instruction, question and answer of the ISI. The scale's structural validity was assessed. The factor structure of ISI was evaluated by principal component analysis. The internal consistency of this scale was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha. To assess test-retest reliability the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used. The principal component analysis confirmed the presence of a two-component factor structure in the English version and a three-component factor structure in the French version with eigenvalues > 1. The English version of the ISI had an excellent internal consistency (α = 0.90), while the French version had a good internal consistency (α = 0.70). The ICC presented an excellent agreement in the French version (ICC = 0.914, CI = 0.856-0.949) and a good agreement in the English one (ICC = 0.762, CI = 0.481-890). The Bland-Altman plots of the two versions of the ISI showed that the responses over two weeks' were comparable and very few outliers were detected. The results of our analyses reveal that both English and French versions of the ISI scale have good internal consistency and are reproducible and reliable. Therefore, it can be used to assess the prevalence of insomnia in Lebanese adolescents.

  17. Quality of life among adolescents with sickle cell disease: Mediation of pain by internalizing symptoms and parenting stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lauren C

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to clarify associations between pain, psychological adjustment, and family functioning with health-related quality of life (HRQOL in a sample of adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD utilizing teen- and parent-report. Methods Forty-two adolescents (between the ages of 12 and 18 with SCD and their primary caregivers completed paper-and-pencil measures of pain, teen's psychological adjustment, and HRQOL. In addition, primary caregivers completed a measure of disease-related parenting stress. Medical file review established disease severity. Results Pearson correlations identified significant inverse associations of pain frequency with physical and psychosocial domains of HRQOL as rated by the teen and primary caregiver. Generally, internalizing symptoms (i.e. anxiety and depression and disease-related parenting stress were also significantly correlated with lower HRQOL. Examination of possible mediator models via a series of regression analyses confirmed that disease-related parenting stress served as a mediator between pain frequency and physical and psychosocial HRQOL. Less consistent were findings for mediation models involving internalizing symptoms. For these, parent-rated teen depression and teen anxiety served as mediators of the association of pain frequency and HRQOL. Conclusion Results are consistent with extant literature that suggests the association of pain and HRQOL and identify concomitant pain variables of internalizing symptoms and family variables as mediators. Efforts to improve HRQOL should aim to address internalizing symptoms associated with pain as well as parenting stress in the context of SCD management.

  18. Comparing the effect of short-term detraining on athletic performance of elite competitive children and adolescent swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Sedaghati

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Optimum functioning of the competitive swimmers depends on the adaptations in power and strength of superficial, upper and lower limbs and interaction with core stabilizing muscles of the body. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of short periods of detraining on exercise performance of elite competitive children and adolescents swimmers. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 48 female participants with a history of more than 2 years (Damash Team of professional exercise at Alborz province were selected based on available sampling and were assigned into 2 equal groups of children and adolescents based on their age. During the two periods, dependent variables, endurance of the trunk flexors, lateralis and flexors of the trunk, strength of the trunk muscles, dynamic balance and the performance of the swimmers (50 and 100 m were evaluated. Results: Comparison of the results for swimming speed (50 m showed a significant difference between the adolescent and children groups (P=0.001. In addition, total endurance of trunk muscles, power of trunk muscles and the dynamic balance in adolescents showed a significant difference (P=0.01, but the dynamic balance and swimming speed (50 and 100 m were significant only in the children group (P=0.001. Conclusion: A 25-day detraining period results in a considerable alteration in the trunk muscle function, balance, and exercise performance of the competitive swimmers, especially among the children.

  19. Differences among children, adolescents and adults with severe leptospirosis: A comparative analysis

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    E F Daher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of global importance caused by Leptospira interrogans. The aim of this study was to compare the data between children, adolescents and adults with leptospirosis. This is a retrospective study including a total of 373 consecutive patients with leptospirosis, admitted to tertiary hospitals in Northeast of Brazil, from May 1985 to August 2010. The patients were divided into two groups (age ≤21 years and >21 years. The adults were 304 (81.5% of the population, with a mean ge of 41 ± 13 (range 22-84 years. The pediatric group was 16 ± 3 (range 9-21 years. Signs and symptoms where similar between the groups, excepting arrhythmia, which was more frequent in adults and vomiting, more common in children (16% vs. 0%, P = 0.04 and 65% vs. 79%, P = 0.02, respectively. Adult group presented with higher serum urea (137 vs. 97 mg/dl, P = 0.002 and creatinine (4.3 vs. 3.0 mg/dl, P = 0.007. Acute kidney injury (AKI was observed in 80%, mainly in adults (83% vs. 70% P < 0.005. Adults required renal replacement therapy more frequently than children (38% vs. 11%, P < 0.0001. Mortality was higher in adults (14.8% vs. 2.8%, P = 0.005 and in adults with AKI (93% vs. 7%, P < 0.05. There are important differences between the adults and children with leptospirosis. AKI was more frequent in adults and it was associated with increased mortality.

  20. Policy lessons from comparing mortality from two global forces: international terrorism and tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nick

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare the mortality burdens from two global impacts on mortality: international terrorism and the major cause of preventable death in developed countries – tobacco use. We also sought to examine the similarities and differences between these two causes of mortality so as to better inform the policy responses directed at prevention. Methods Data on deaths from international terrorism were obtained from a US State Department database for 1994–2003. Estimates for tobacco-attributable deaths were based on Peto et al 2003. The countries were 37 developed and East European countries. Results and discussion The collective annualized mortality burden from tobacco was approximately 5700 times that of international terrorism. The ratio of annual tobacco to international terrorism deaths was lowest for the United States at 1700 times, followed by Russia at 12,900 times. The tobacco death burden in all these countries was equivalent to the impact of an 11 September type terrorist attack every 14 hours. Different perceptions of risk may contribute to the relative lack of a policy response to tobacco mortality, despite its relatively greater scale. The lack is also despite tobacco control having a stronger evidence base for the prevention measures used. Conclusion This comparison highlights the way risk perception may determine different policy responses to global forces causing mortality. Nevertheless, the large mortality differential between international terrorism and tobacco use has policy implications for informing the rational use of resources to prevent premature death.

  1. Support for international trade law: The US and the EU compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Elsig, Manfred

    2015-10-01

    In this article we compare US and EU support for bilateral and multilateral international trade law. We assess the support for international law of both trading blocs by focusing on the following four dimensions: leadership, consent, compliance and internalization. Although we find strong support for international trade law from both the US and the EU in general, we also witness some variation, most notably in relation to the design of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) and compliance with World Trade Organization (WTO) law. Turning to explaining these (moderate) differences, we argue that outcomes in US trade policy can best be explained by a domestic political factor, namely the direct influence of interest groups. Although the involvement of societal interests also goes a long way in explaining EU behavior, it does not tell the entire story. We posit that, in EU trade policy, institutions are a particular conditioning factor that needs to be stressed. Moreover, we suggest that foreign policy considerations in managing trade relations have characterized EU's support for international trade law.

  2. Traumatic Dental Injuries Prevalence and their Impact on Self-esteem among Adolescents in India: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Nikita; Singh, Simarpreet; Mathur, Anmol; Makkar, Diljot Kaur; Aggarwal, Vikram Pal; Sharma, Anshika; Kaur, Puneet

    2017-08-01

    Adolescents are mostly injured during sport activities, traffic accidents and some forms of violence which may lead to traumatic injuries. Traumatic injuries not only pose a health risk worldwide but are also regarded among serious social problems. Poor oral health has been related to poor social relationships that affect the ability to learn and grow which may lead to reduced self-esteem. This study was conducted to compare self-esteem of adolescents with and without anterior Traumatic Dental Injury (TDI). A population based comparative study was conducted among 10 to 17 years old adolescents from November 2014 to January 2016. The study sample comprised of 424 controls and 212 cases with 2:1 control-to-case ratio that were selected by four examiners along with a gold standard examiner. TDI was recorded using Ellis classification and self-esteem was recorded using Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). For comparing self-esteem of cases and controls according to RSES questions, t-test is used. Odds ratio (OR) was utilized to assess and compare the self-esteem according to high and low esteem in cases and controls. Ellis Class I, Ellis Class II and Ellis Class III fractures were observed in 53.3%, 33.49% and 13.20% of cases, respectively. The maxillary arch was the most affected (72.48%) and on the hierarchy of causes, this study found that on most occasions dental injuries were caused by sports (40.09%). The total mean score of RSES in cases (23.16) and in controls (24.43) was also statistically significant (pself-esteem of adolescents in a positive direction and help them in becoming socially competent adults.

  3. Internationalising Nordic higher education: comparing the imagined with actual worlds of international scholar-practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeri Hellstén

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This comparative case study addresses a timely issue engaging researchers involved in the internationalisation of Nordic Higher Education, in the context of Sweden and Finland. The study examines a hypothetical imaginary in the transition between university international policy statements and their understandings from the position of a globalised episteme. The investigation forms a tag-project as part of a funded large international research project examining ethical internationalism in times of global crises, involving a partnership between more than twenty higher education institutions in excess of ten countries across five continents. The data was collected using a mixed-methods design, whilst being controlled across the matched data collection period in 2013-2014. Data consisted of policy texts, surveys and interviews. The current research inquiry reports on a within and across comparative analyses of certain policy texts and follow-up interviews with university management. The results yield logical support for a global higher education imaginary driving internationalisation in ways which reveal paradoxical associations between the imagined and the real worlds of international scholar-practitioners.

  4. Fat-free mass prediction equations for bioelectric impedance analysis compared to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in obese adolescents: a validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofsteenge, G.H.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Weijs, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In clinical practice, patient friendly methods to assess body composition in obese adolescents are needed. Therefore, the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) related fat-free mass (FFM) prediction equations (FFM-BIA) were evaluated in obese adolescents (age 11-18 years) compared to

  5. Accuracy of Prediction Equations to Assess Percentage of Body Fat in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome Compared to Air Displacement Plethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Aguero, A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, G.; Ara, I.; Moreno, L. A.; Casajus, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of the published percentage body fat (%BF) prediction equations (Durnin et al., Johnston et al., Brook and Slaughter et al.) from skinfold thickness compared to air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in children and adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Twenty-eight children and adolescents with DS (10-20 years old; 12…

  6. Hodgkin lymphoma in children, adolescents and young adults - a comparative study of clinical presentation and treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Annika; Glimelius, Ingrid; Rostgaard, Klaus; Smedby, Karin E; Eloranta, Sandra; Molin, Daniel; Kuusk, Thomas; Brown, Peter de Nully; Kamper, Peter; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Ljungman, Gustaf; Hjalgrim, Lisa Lyngsie

    2018-02-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treatment protocols for children, adolescents and young adults traditionally differ, but the biological and clinical justification for this remains uncertain. We compared age-dependent clinical presentation and treatment and outcome for 1072 classical HL patients 0-24 years diagnosed in Denmark (1990-2010) and Sweden (1992-2009) in pediatric (n = 315, Denmark clinical characteristics was assessed with Pearson's chi 2 -test and Mantel-Haenszel trend test. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analyses. Hazard ratios (HR) were used to compare the different treatment groups and calculated using Cox regression. Children (0-9 years) less often presented with advanced disease than adolescents (10-17 years) and young adults (18-24 years) (stage IIB-IV: children 32% vs. adolescents 50%, and adults 55%; p clinical presentation suggesting a rationale of harmonized treatment for these groups. Both adult and pediatric protocols provided high OS with no significant difference between the departments. The less frequent use of radiotherapy in Danish pediatric patients corresponded to a lower EFS, but comparable OS in all groups confirmed effective rescue strategies for the relapsing patients.

  7. Functional brain response to food images in successful adolescent weight losers compared with normal-weight and overweight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Chad D; Kirwan, C Brock

    2015-03-01

    Research conducted with adults suggests that successful weight losers demonstrate greater activation in brain regions associated with executive control in response to viewing high-energy foods. No previous studies have examined these associations in adolescents. Functional neuroimaging was used to assess brain response to food images among groups of overweight (OW), normal-weight (NW), and successful weight-losing (SWL) adolescents. Eleven SWL, 12 NW, and 11 OW participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while viewing images of high- and low-energy foods. When viewing high-energy food images, SWLs demonstrated greater activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) compared with OW and NW controls. Compared with NW and SWL groups, OW individuals demonstrated greater activation in the ventral striatum and anterior cingulate in response to food images. Adolescent SWLs demonstrated greater neural activation in the DLPFC compared with OW/NW controls when viewing high-energy food stimuli, which may indicate enhanced executive control. OW individuals' brain responses to food stimuli may indicate greater reward incentive processes than either SWL or NW groups. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  8. [Emotional climate and internal communication in a clinical management unit compared with two traditional hospital services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, E; Rubio, A; March, J C; Danet, A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the emotional climate, quality of communication and performance indicators in a clinical management unit and two traditional hospital services. Quantitative study. questionnaire of 94 questions. 83 health professionals (63 responders) from the clinical management unit of breast pathology and the hospital services of medical oncology and radiation oncology. descriptive statistics, comparison of means, correlation and linear regression models. The clinical management unit reaches higher values compared with the hospital services about: performance indicators, emotional climate, internal communication and evaluation of the leadership. An important gap between existing and desired sources, channels, media and subjects of communication appear, in both clinical management unit and traditional services. The clinical management organization promotes better internal communication and interpersonal relations, leading to improved performance indicators. Copyright © 2011 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. The Concept of State Capacity: Comparative International Ratings against State Legitimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Gennadievich Ivanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the given article, the author analyzes the concept of state capacity, widely popular among political scientists and international relations specialists. The author proves that the evaluations of the level of state capacity of the developing and postcommunist countries based on popular comparative ratings are generally biased because of methodological defects and discrepancy of the whole theory as well as politicization and indoctrination of the given ratings. The negative evaluations of the quality of the government and state capacity of a country could be used to discredit and delegitimize the political regime as well as substantiation of mass protests and color revolutions and a tool of information war. The author concludes that numerous comparative international ratings are often used as a tool of political influence.

  10. International note: parenting, academic achievement and problem behaviour among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibin; Walker, Richard; Armstrong, Derrick

    2014-06-01

    In light of differing findings regarding the relations between parenting and adolescent academic/behavioural outcomes and the dearth of such research in a Chinese context, we conducted research to examine the relationship between parental supervision/attachment and academic achievement/problem behaviour among mainland Chinese adolescents. In the study, 636 Grade 11 students completed a questionnaire comprising parenting and problem behaviour variables complemented by academic achievement (GPA) data drawn from school records. The study found that the relations between parenting (parental supervision and attachment) and Chinese adolescents' academic and behavioural outcomes are very weak. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adolescent Peer Relations and Socioemotional Development in Latin America: Translating International Theory into Local Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christian; Lisboa, Carolina; Cuadros, Olga; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo

    2016-06-01

    Peer relations constitute a main developmental context for adolescents. Peers offer an instance for identity definition and set the norms of acceptable and valued characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes, representing a societal model that allows and restrains avenues for adolescents' socioemotional development. The present article departs from these considerations to review research on adolescents' peer relations in Latin America from a socioemotional perspective. First, approaches to adolescence are discussed, with a main focus on attachment and identity theories, based on a bioecological framework. Then, a review of research in Latin America on friendships, school climate, and intergroup relations is presented. The discussion addresses the tension between theories and evidence generated in developed societies and highlights the particularities of Latin American youth, stressing the need for collecting local data. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Internal consistency of a five-item form of the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity among adolescent students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Oviedo, Heidi Celina; Cogollo, Zuleima

    2009-04-01

    The short form of the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity (L. J. Francis, 1992) is a 7-item Likert-type scale that shows high homogeneity among adolescents. The psychometric performance of a shorter version of this scale has not been explored. The authors aimed to determine the internal consistency of a 5-item form of the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity among 405 students from a school in Cartagena, Colombia. The authors computed the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the 5 items with a greater corrected item-total punctuation correlation. The version without Items 2 and 7 showed internal consistency of .87. The 5-item version of the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity exhibited higher internal consistency than did the 7-item version. Future researchers should corroborate this finding.

  13. Trust Building as a Strategy to Avoid Unintended Consequences of Education. The Case Study of International Summer Camps Designed to Promote Peace and Intercultural Dialogue among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farini, Federico

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to offer both a theoretical contribution and examples of practices of trust building in peace education; the article presents an empirical analysis of videotaped interactions in the context of peace education activities in international groups of adolescents. The analysis regards two international summer camps promoted by the…

  14. Family power structure and identity styles in delinquent and nondelinquent Adolescents: A Comparative study in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Khodabakhshi Koolaee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA Background: The present study was conducted to investigate the Family Power Structure (FPS and identity style in delinquent and non-delinquent juveniles in Tehran.Methods: To accomplish the goal of the study, 80 adolescent delinquents of the Correction and Rehabilitation Centers, aged between 15 and 18, were selected following cluster sampling procedure as well as 80 students of secondary school, aged between 15 and 18, in Tehran in 2014. To obtain data, FPS (Saidian, 2004 and Identity Style Inventory (ISI-6G: White et al, 1998 instruments were used. Data was analyzed between these two groups using independent t test, and Chi square test.Results: The findings indicated that there is a significant difference between delinquent and non-delinquent juveniles in FPS and its subscales (P<0.001 and identity style (P<0.001. Moreover, the informational identity style was related to lower levels of delinquency. In addition, a diffuse-evident identity style was found to be related to the delinquency.Conclusion: These findings emphasize that an inappropriate decision-making process pattern in a family has a significant effect on deviant behavior and identity style in adolescents. So, family counselors must pay attention to FPS in the therapeutic interventions (prevention and treatment for adolescent delinquency.Keywords: Parenting; Family; Juvenile Delinquency; Adolescent

  15. Breaking Barriers to Educational Opportunities: A Comparative Analysis of Adolescent Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Rachael Mae

    2010-01-01

    While access to education may be increasing, equity still eludes the U.S. education system, specifically for low socioeconomic status students. Using both educational and deviance theoretical frames, this study examines the effectiveness of adolescent intervention programs with respect to educational attainment and deviant behaviors. The Education…

  16. Higher Midazolam Clearance in Obese Adolescents Compared with Morbidly Obese Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongen, van A.; Brill, M.J.E.; Vaughns, J.D.; Välitalo, P.A.J.; Dongen, van E.P.A.; Ramshorst, van B.; Barrett, J.S.; Anker, van den J.N.; Knibbe, C.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The clearance of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A substrates is reported to be reduced with lower age, inflammation and obesity. As it is unknown what the overall influence is of these factors in the case of obese adolescents vs. morbidly obese adults, we studied covariates influencing the clearance of the

  17. Comparing adult and adolescent transsexuals: an MMPI-2 and MMPI-A study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.L.C.; Kreukels, B.P.C.; Steensma, T.D.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2011-01-01

    Sex, sexual orientation and age have been shown to be important in relation to psychological functioning in transsexuals. However, only few studies to date took these factors into account and not earlier have adolescent transsexuals participated. In this study the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality

  18. Self-concept and Ego Development in Deaf Adolescents: A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gent, T. van; Goedhart, A.W.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Westenberg, P.M.; Treffers, P.D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Self-concept and ego development, two intertwined aspects of self-indicating well-being and social-cognitive maturation, respectively, were examined in a representative sample of deaf adolescents of normal intelligence (N = 68), using translated and adapted versions of Harter's (1988, Manual for the

  19. Self-Regulation of Beer Advertising: A Comparative Analysis of Perceived Violations by Adolescents and Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrame, Alan; Silva, Rebeca; Xuan, Ziming; Sparks, Robert; Noel, Jonathan; Pinsky, Ilana

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the impact of the 2010 revisions to Brazil's self-regulatory alcohol marketing code using expert and adolescent raters. Five popular TV beer ads were selected. Ads were rated based on the 2010 Brazilian self-regulatory marketing code. The expert group (N = 31) represented health-related professions; the adolescent group (N = 110) were public high school students. At least 1 ad violated 11 of 17 guidelines included in the study. Ratings by experts and adolescents were similar. Both found violations in all sections of the self-regulatory code, but significant group differences were seen in applying the section that prohibits the promotion of excessive alcohol consumption, with experts identifying more violations than adolescents. Beer ads in the sample systematically violated the self-regulatory standards for alcohol advertising in Brazil according to both experts and youth. Public policies for more effective restrictions and prohibitions in alcohol ads should be considered. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  20. Revealed Comparative Advantage and the Alternatives as Measures of International Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of Balassa's 'revealed comparative advantage' (RCA). It shows that when using RCA, it should be adjusted such that it becomes symmetric around its neutral value. The proposed adjusted index is called 'revealed symmetric comparative advantage' (RSCA). The theoretica...... Balance, Chi Square, and Bowen's Net Trade Index. The result of the analysis is that RSCA-on balance-is the best measure of comparative advantage....... discussion focuses on the properties of RSCA and empirical evidence, based on the Jarque-Bera test for normality of the regression error terms, using both the RCA and RSCA indices. We compare RSCA to other measures of international trade specialization including the Michaely index, the Contribution to Trade...

  1. HIV, violence, blame and shame: pathways of risk to internalized HIV stigma among South African adolescents living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelic, Marija; Boyes, Mark; Cluver, Lucie; Meinck, Franziska

    2017-08-21

    Internalized HIV stigma is a key risk factor for negative outcomes amongst adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV), including non-adherence to anti-retroviral treatment, loss-to-follow-up and morbidity. This study tested a theoretical model of multi-level risk pathways to internalized HIV stigma among South African ALHIV. From 2013 to 2015, a survey using t otal population sampling of ALHIV who had ever initiated anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in 53 public health facilities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa was conducted. Community-tracing ensured inclusion of ALHIV who were defaulting from ART or lost to follow-up. 90.1% of eligible ALHIV were interviewed ( n  = 1060, 55% female, mean age = 13.8, 21% living in rural locations). HIV stigma mechanisms (internalized, enacted, and anticipated), HIV-related disability, violence victimization (physical, emotional, sexual abuse, bullying victimization) were assessed using well-validated self-report measures. Structural equation modelling was used to test a theoretically informed model of risk pathways from HIV-related disability to internalized HIV stigma. The model controlled for age, gender and urban/rural address. Prevalence of internalized HIV stigma was 26.5%. As hypothesized, significant associations between internalized stigma and anticipated stigma, as well as depression were obtained. Unexpectedly, HIV-related disability, victimization, and enacted stigma were not directly associated with internalized stigma. Instead significant pathways were identified via anticipated HIV stigma and depression. The model fitted the data well (RMSEA = .023; CFI = .94; TLI = .95; WRMR = 1.070). These findings highlight the complicated nature of internalized HIV stigma. Whilst it is seemingly a psychological process, indirect pathways suggest multi-level mechanisms leading to internalized HIV stigma. Findings suggest that protection from violence within homes, communities and schools may interrupt risk pathways from HIV

  2. Comparative Study Between Internal Ohmic Resistance and Capacity for Battery State of Health Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nisvo Ramadan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to avoid battery failure, a battery management system (BMS is necessary. Battery state of charge (SOC and state of health (SOH are part of information provided by a BMS. This research analyzes methods to estimate SOH based lithium polymer battery on change of its internal resistance and its capacity. Recursive least square (RLS algorithm was used to estimate internal ohmic resistance while coloumb counting was used to predict the change in the battery capacity. For the estimation algorithm, the battery terminal voltage and current are set as the input variables. Some tests including static capacity test, pulse test, pulse variation test and before charge-discharge test have been conducted to obtain the required data. After comparing the two methods, the obtained results show that SOH estimation based on coloumb counting provides better accuracy than SOH estimation based on internal ohmic resistance. However, the SOH estimation based on internal ohmic resistance is faster and more reliable for real application

  3. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Gerber, Markus; Kalak, Nadeem; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J; Calabrese, Pasquale; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5-3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA) at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT) as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD), and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females), 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females), and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females) took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy adolescents and healthy young adults, and equivalent levels of moderate-intensity PA and SD as young adults. MS patients reported lower levels of vigorous PA compared to both healthy adolescents and young adults. The pattern of the results of the present study suggests that the onset of MS is not associated with poor MT, poor sleep, or reduced moderate-intensity PA. Lower levels of vigorous PA were observed in MS patients. Low levels of vigorous PA may lead to decreased cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with MS and, in the long run, to reduced cardiovascular health and degraded psychological functioning.

  4. Comparative analysis of fiscal terms for Alberta oil sands and international heavy and conventional oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Meurs, P.

    2007-01-01

    There are considerable differences between international heavy oil and Alberta oil sands projects, notably the high viscosity of the bitumen in the oil sands reservoirs. The oil sands bitumen do not flow to wells without heating the bitumen, thereby adding to the already high cost of Alberta oil sand operations. This report provided an economic comparison of Alberta oil sands and international heavy oil projects. It also included a brief scoping review to compare with conventional oil regimes. Full exploration costs including the costs of dry holes were allocated to conventional oil operations in order to obtain a proper comparison. This investigation included the costs of dry holes. The report was a follow up to an earlier study released on April 12, 2007 on the preliminary fiscal evaluation of Alberta oil sand terms. The report provided an economic framework and described project selection. It then provided a discussion of production, costs and price data. Four adjusted projects were presented and compared with Alberta. The Venezuelan royalty formula was also discussed. Last, the report provided a detailed fiscal analysis. Comparisons were offered with Cold Lake and Athabasca Mine. A review of some other fiscal systems applicable to conventional oil were also outlined. It was concluded that Alberta oil sands developments are very competitive. It would be possible to modestly increase government revenues, without affecting the international competitive position of Alberta with respect to conventional oil. There is also some possibility to increase the base royalty on the Alberta oil sands without losing competitiveness. tabs., figs

  5. Health system frameworks and performance indicators in eight countries: A comparative international analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Braithwaite

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Performance indicators are a popular mechanism for measuring the quality of healthcare to facilitate both quality improvement and systems management. Few studies make comparative assessments of different countries’ performance indicator frameworks. This study identifies and compares frameworks and performance indicators used in selected Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development health systems to measure and report on the performance of healthcare organisations and local health systems. Countries involved are Australia, Canada, Denmark, England, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Scotland and the United States. Methods: Identification of comparable international indicators and analyses of their characteristics and of their broader national frameworks and contexts were undertaken. Two dimensions of indicators – that they are nationally consistent (used across the country rather than just regionally and locally relevant (measured and reported publicly at a local level, for example, a health service – were deemed important. Results: The most commonly used domains in performance frameworks were safety, effectiveness and access. The search found 401 indicators that fulfilled the ‘nationally consistent and locally relevant’ criteria. Of these, 45 indicators are reported in more than one country. Cardiovascular, surgery and mental health were the most frequently reported disease groups. Conclusion: These comparative data inform researchers and policymakers internationally when designing health performance frameworks and indicator sets.

  6. Long-Term Comparative Advantages of the Eurasian Economic Union Member States in International Trade

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    Falkowski Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available On 1st January 2015 the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU - a new integration block comprising initially Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia, and later that year also Armenia and Kyrgyzstan - appeared on the world map. This paper endeavors to identify the EAEU countries’ long-term international comparative advantages within four basic groups of goods according to the OECD classification of manufacturing industries based on technology intensity. The analysis, using B. Balassa’s RCA methodology and covering the years 2000-2014, indicates that these countries lack competitiveness, with none of them possessing any RCAs in the high-technology category whereas in the medium-hightechnology category - only Belarus. In contrast, all the EAEU countries fared the best in the medium-low-technology category, which is mostly attributable to the resources-based character of their economies. Surprisingly, dramatically low international competitiveness was recorded by Kazakhstan and Russia.

  7. Poor peer relations predict parent- and self-reported behavioral and emotional problems of adolescents with gender dysphoria: a cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Annelou L C; Steensma, Thomas D; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; VanderLaan, Doug P; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2016-06-01

    This study is the third in a series to examine behavioral and emotional problems in children and adolescents with gender dysphoria in a comparative analysis between two clinics in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. In the present study, we report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR) data on adolescents assessed in the Toronto clinic (n = 177) and the Amsterdam clinic (n = 139). On the CBCL and the YSR, we found that the percentage of adolescents with clinical range behavioral and emotional problems was higher when compared to the non-referred standardization samples but similar to the referred adolescents. On both the CBCL and the YSR, the Toronto adolescents had a significantly higher Total Problem score than the Amsterdam adolescents. Like our earlier studies of CBCL data of children and Teacher's Report Form data of children and adolescents, a measure of poor peer relations was the strongest predictor of CBCL and YSR behavioral and emotional problems in gender dysphoric adolescents.

  8. Development of the individual agencies within international organizations: comparative-personological view

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    Т. О. Калмиков

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem setting: Personalized activity of individuals holding offices of individual organs in the structure of international organizations is an essential part of the activities of these organizations. Meanwhile, today legal science researches this problem mainly in the context of the development of separate branches of international law. Recent research and publications analysis: From Max Weber, the development of individual organs was studied as a question how one transforms institutions that are led by high-profile individuals into institutions that have a life and energy of their own". Current international legal research in this regard provided by  H. H. Koh, F. Benua-Romer, H. Klebes, R. Kicker and the others. There are no relevant Ukrainian legal studies on this issue today. Paper objective: The purpose of the article is to review the issue on the example of a relatively new international bodies - the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe. The features of organs, crucial for the study are: the features of appointment (election of candidate, term of his office and special activities scheduled for each of these positions. Paper main body: Comparing the Institute of the High Commissioner and the Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe in personological view, we note that the personal characteristics and expert practices of the first, second and third Council of Europe Commissioner largely matches with the same first three (in same order United Nations High Commissioners for Human Rights. This fact suggests that the election of candidates for these positions is a part of strategic transformation of the body. There is a reason to believe that the strategy of the international organizations, not only related to their desire to be effectively involved in actions within their mandate, but also with the desire to increase their influence in comparison with the

  9. The psychological world of adolescence: a comparative evaluation between rural and urban girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhoundiyal, Manju; Venkatesh, Renuka

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to get an insight into the psychological world of adolescence and to study the influence of locality and school-going activity on it. The study group comprised of 240 girls in the age group 12-18 years equally representing urban and rural areas. Using two psychological tests, namely Strengths and Difficulty Questionnaire and Health-Related Quality of Life Inventory, the results revealed that two-third of them were in the problematic and borderline category as per SDQ and one-third as per PedsQL. Further, there was a definite linear relationship between the total problem score of both scales. This was irrespective of the locale and school-going activity. The results indicate the need for building psychological infrastructure into the social system to help adolescents girls grow to their potential.

  10. [Development and family environment in compulsive neurotic children and adolescents: a retrospective and comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, H; Klosinski, G

    1989-09-01

    In a retrospective study the patient histories of 113 children and adolescents who received outpatient (89 cases) or inpatient (24 cases) treatment from 1973 to 1984 in the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Tübingen with the diagnosis "compulsive neurosis" were examined in terms of the criteria personality development, family structure, frequency of certain forms and contents of compulsory behavior, significance and symbolism of the compulsive behavior within the family dynamics. In addition, a comparison was made with the other patients (n = 8,774) receiving child and adolescent psychiatric treatment during this period. The ratio of boys to girls was 7.3. The average age was 13.8 years in the boys and 12.6 years in the girls. The youngest patient was four years old. Compulsive washing was the predominant compulsive behavior in all age groups. Compulsive fears were most frequently manifested in fears about the mother, followed by poisoning and hypochondriac fears. Compulsive impulses were only found from prepuberty. In the girls they were always directed to killing the mother. The analysis of personality development revealed that there were indications of special features in the anal phase in only three cases. On the other hand, special events of pathoplastic significance were found in half of the patients. In about 33%, anancastic characteristics were present in the parents (eight parents were manifestly subject to compulsive neurosis). Conflict avoidance and ambitious demands on the children concerned were typical in the families. In contrast to the reference population, the compulsively neurotic children and adolescents were of average intelligence, frequently attended higher schools and belonged to a higher social class.

  11. Addressing ethical dilemmas in the clinical care of adolescents: an international view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Pierre-André; Berg-Kelly, Kristina; Macfarlane, Aidan; Renteria, Saira-Christine; Wyss, Danielle; Benaroyo, Lazare

    2009-12-01

    This chapter reviews some basic concepts underlying ethical issues in adolescence and provides a step-by-step procedure to address ethical dilemmas involving minor adolescents, based on a deliberative approach. "Deliberation" with the patient, along with involving the opinion of relevant stakeholders if possible, allows for a careful, multidisciplinary examination of all options, the medical and psychosocial consequences, and the moral values stressed by each option. Although the final decision regarding which ethical option should be chosen usually belongs to the health care providers and his or her patient, the deliberative approach provides the ingredients for sound, unbiased decision-making.

  12. Frameworks for comparing emissions associated with production, consumption, and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Lenzen, Manfred; Peters, Glen P; Moran, Daniel D; Geschke, Arne

    2012-01-03

    While the problem of climate change is being perceived as increasingly urgent, decision-makers struggle to agree on the distribution of responsibility across countries. In particular, representatives from countries hosting emissions-intensive exporting industries have argued that the importers of emissions-intensive goods should bear the responsibility, and ensuing penalties. Indeed, international trade and carbon leakage appear to play an increasingly important role in the carbon emissions debate. However, definitions of quantities describing the embodiment of carbon emissions in internationally traded products, and their measurement, have to be sufficiently robust before being able to underpin global policy. In this paper we critically examine a number of emissions accounting concepts, examine whether the ensuing carbon balances are compatible with monetary trade balances, discuss their different interpretations, and highlight implications for policy. In particular, we compare the emissions embodied in bilateral trade (EEBT) method which considers total trade flows with domestic emission intensities, with the multi-regional input-output (MRIO) method which considers trade only into final consumption with global emission intensities. If consumption-based emissions of different countries were to be compared, we would suggest an MRIO approach because of the global emissions coverage inherent in this method. If trade-adjusted emission inventories were to be compared, we would suggest an EEBT approach due to the consistency with a monetary trade balance.

  13. Trauma in adolescents causes long-term marked deficits in quality of life: adolescent children do not recover preinjury quality of life or function up to two years postinjury compared to national norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Troy Lisa; Hoyt, David B; Coimbra, Raul; Potenza, Bruce; Sise, Michael J; Sack, Dan I; Anderson, John P

    2007-03-01

    Injury is a leading cause of death and preventable morbidity in adolescents. Little is known about long-term quality of life (QoL) outcomes in injured adolescents. The objectives of the present report are to describe long-term QoL outcomes and compare posttrauma QoL to national norms for QoL in uninjured adolescents from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). In all, 401 trauma patients aged 12 to 19 years were enrolled in the study. Enrollment criteria excluded spinal cord injury. QoL after trauma was measured using the Quality of Well-being (QWB) scale, a sensitive and well-validated functional index (range: 0 = death to 1.000 = optimum functioning). Patient outcomes were assessed at discharge, and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after discharge. NHIS data were based on 3 survey years and represent a population-based U.S. national random sample of uninjured adolescents. Major trauma in adolescents was associated with significant and marked deficits in QoL throughout the 24-month follow-up period, compared with NHIS norms for this age group. Compared with NHIS norms for QoL in uninjured adolescents aged 12 to 19 years (N = 81,216,835; QWB mean = 0.876), injured adolescents after major trauma had striking and significant QoL deficits beginning at 3-month follow-up (QWB mean = 0.694, p or=15 years) and female sex. Other significant risk factors for poor QoL outcomes were perceived threat to life, pedestrian struck mechanism, and Injury Severity Scores >16. Major trauma in adolescents is associated with significant and marked deficits in long-term QoL outcomes, compared with U.S. norms for healthy adolescents. Early identification and treatment of risk factors for poor long-term QoL outcomes must become an integral component of trauma care in mature trauma care systems.

  14. Human Papillomavirus (HPV Vaccination and Adolescent Girls' Knowledge and Sexuality in Western Uganda: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kampikaho Turiho

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination on adolescent girls' knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine, perception of sexual risk and intentions for sexual debut. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in Ibanda and Mbarara districts. Data was collected using a standardized self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences computer software. Univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were conducted with significance level set at p < .05. Results showed that HPV vaccination was associated with being knowledgeable (Crude OR: 5.26, CI: 2.32-11.93; p = 0.000. Vaccination against HPV did not predict perception of sexual risk. Knowledge was low (only 87/385 or 22.6% of vaccinated girls were knowledgeable, but predicted perception of a high sexual risk (Adjusted OR: 3.12, CI: 1.37-3.63; p = 0.008. HPV vaccination, knowledge and perceived sexual risk did not predict sexual behaviour intentions. High parental communication was associated with adolescent attitudes that support postponement of sexual debut in both bivariate and multiple regression analyses. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that HPV vaccination is not likely to encourage adolescent sexual activity. Influence of knowledge on sexual behaviour intentions was not definitively explained. Prospective cohort studies were proposed to address the emerging questions.

  15. Comparing the neural bases of self-referential processing in typically developing and 22q11.2 adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maude; Debbané, Martin; Lagioia, Annalaura; Salomon, Roy; d'Argembeau, Arnaud; Eliez, Stephan

    2012-04-01

    The investigation of self-reflective processing during adolescence is relevant, as this period is characterized by deep reorganization of the self-concept. It may be the case that an atypical development of brain regions underlying self-reflective processing increases the risk for psychological disorders and impaired social functioning. In this study, we investigated the neural bases of self- and other-related processing in typically developing adolescents and youths with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a rare neurogenetic condition associated with difficulties in social interactions and increased risk for schizophrenia. The fMRI paradigm consisted in judging if a series of adjectives applied to the participant himself/herself (self), to his/her best friend or to a fictional character (Harry Potter). In control adolescents, we observed that self- and other-related processing elicited strong activation in cortical midline structures (CMS) when contrasted with a semantic baseline condition. 22q11DS exhibited hypoactivation in the CMS and the striatum during the processing of self-related information when compared to the control group. Finally, the hypoactivation in the anterior cingulate cortex was associated with the severity of prodromal positive symptoms of schizophrenia. The findings are discussed in a developmental framework and in light of their implication for the development of schizophrenia in this at-risk population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Similar Mediterranean diet adherence but greater central adiposity is observed among Greek diaspora adolescents living in Istanbul, compared to Athens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikopoulou, Maria G; Maraki, Maria I; Giannopoulou, Despoina; Poulimeneas, Dimitrios; Sidossis, Labros S; Tsigga, Maria

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to compare Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence and anthropometry between Greek diaspora adolescents living in Istanbul and Greek adolescents, inhabitants of Athens. A total of 206 adolescents (103 from each site), aged 10.0-19.0 years old, all of Greek origin, were recruited from schools in Athens and minority schools in Istanbul, for the present case-control study. Participants at each site were age and sex-matched. Anthropometric measurements were performed, and diet adherence was assessed with the KIDMED score. Breakfast skipping, decreased dairy and increased commercially baked good/pastries consumption for breakfast, fast-food intake and consumption of several sweets each day was more prevalent in Istanbul, but, on the other hand, students from Athens reported eating fewer fruit, vegetables and nuts. The adoption of unhealthy eating habits in each site was counterbalanced by a more 'healthy' dietary element, resulting in an overall similar MD adherence between both sites. Additionally, although weight status was indifferent between the two cities, higher rates of abdominal obesity were recorded in Istanbul, when the weight-to-height ratio was used for diagnosis. Differences in several domains of the KIDMED score were recorded among cities, possibly as results of food availability and prices. However, MD adherence and weight status appeared similar, indicating that the dietary transition and acculturation experienced by the remnants is actually very slow and minimal during the 93 years since population exchange.

  17. Globalisation plus Comparative and International Education: Towards a Theory of the Confluence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emefa Amoako

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to contribute to ways by which confluence, referring to a meeting point for the different agents to cooperate and communicate on education policy processes, can be understood. Pertinent national education policies in countries receiving aid, in particular, are formed and implemented in a complex nexus. Cultural and context sensitivity can be stimulated through a thorough understanding of this confluence, which subsequently can enable the different policy agents, which function at this meeting point, collaborate to alleviate some of the educational challenges. Comparative and international education, in this respect, has a significant role to play.

  18. SELF-ESTEEM OF DEAF AND HARD OF HEARING COMPARED WITH HEARING ADOLESCENTS IN SLOVENIA – THE CONTEXT OF SOCIAL AND COMMUNICATION FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjana KOGOVSEK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study focuses on the self-esteem of deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH and hearing adolescents (HA in Slovenia. The aim of this study is a comparison of self-esteem between D/HH and HA regarding the hearing status, age, gender, and the comparison among D/HH adolescents regarding communication and education settings. It is hypothesized that deaf and hard of hearing adolescents have lower self-esteem than their hearing peers. Methods: The final sample included 130 adolescents who were split into two groups with the method of equal pairs: 65 D/HH adolescents and 65 HA, which were established on the basis of gender, age, nationality, and educational programme of schooling. The phenomenon of self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, which was translated and adapted into the Slovenian Sign Language (SSL. Results: The results show significant differrences in self-esteem between D/HH and HA adolescents. D/HH adolescents have, on average, lower self-esteem than HA. There are differences in self-esteem regarding gender and also regarding ages of 16 and of 20. D/HH adolescents who use speech or sign language in their communication have higher self-esteem than those who use mostly sign language. D/HH adolescents in mainstream schools have higher self-esteem than those included into a segregated form of schooling. Discussion: There are differences among adolescents in how they view themselves. Self-esteem can be a significant predictor of life satisfaction. Conclusion: D/HH adolescents experience lower self-esteem when compared with HA peers.

  19. Relevant areas of functioning in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: The patients' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chunping; Yu, Jiadan; Zhang, Jiaqi; Jiang, Jiaojiao; Lai, Huabin; Liu, Wei; Liu, Yang; Li, Hao; Wang, Pu

    2016-10-12

    To investigate relevant aspects of functioning and disability, and environmental factors in people with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis according to patients' self-reports based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth (ICF-CY). Multicentre, empirical, cross-sectional study. Four departments of orthopaedics in 4 hospitals, and 5 departments of rehabilitation medicine in 5 hospitals. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 975 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis from 5 hospitals according to the patients' self-reporting. In addition, patients were divided into 3 groups according to clinical outcome. Participant information included demographic and disease-related characteristics. Three adolescent idiopathic scoliosis groups were then compared with respect to the problems identified. Interviews were transcribed verbatim. Categories identified by qualitative analysis were subsequently mapped to the ICF-CY using established linking rules. In order to enrich these findings, we also translated the Scoliosis Research Society 22 Patient Questionnaire (SRS-22 PQ) into the language of the ICF-CY, based on ICF linking rules. A total of 1278 themes that linked to 54 ICF-CY cate-gories from 18 chapters were identified. Twenty-two (41%) categories were identified as Body Functions, 7 (13%) as Body Structures, 15 (27%) as Activities and Participation, and 10 (19%) as Environmental Factors. Of the 54 categories, 45 (83%) were second-level, 5 (9%) were third-level, and 4 (7%) were fourth-level. Differences between the SRS-22 PQ results and our findings were observed for several ICF-CY categories. Patients with AIS reported activity limitations and participation restrictions combined with impaired body structures and functions. Environmental factors may act as a barrier to, or facilitator of, patient functioning in daily life. The ICF-CY provides a valuable framework for representing the complexity and

  20. Neuroticism and Conscientiousness as Moderators of the Relation Between Social Withdrawal and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelly A; Barstead, Matthew G; Rubin, Kenneth H

    2017-04-01

    Social withdrawal, or refraining from social interaction in the presence of peers, places adolescents at risk of developing emotional problems like anxiety and depression. The personality traits of neuroticism and conscientiousness also relate to emotional difficulties. For example, high conscientiousness predicts lower incidence of anxiety disorders and depression, while high neuroticism relates to greater likelihood of these problems. Based on these associations, socially withdrawn adolescents high in conscientiousness or low in neuroticism were expected to have lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants included 103 adolescents (59 % female) who reported on their personality traits in 8th grade and their anxiety and depressive symptoms in 9th grade. Peer ratings of social withdrawal were collected within schools in 8th grade. A structural equation model revealed that 8th grade withdrawal positively predicted 9th grade anxiety and depressive symptoms controlling for 8th grade anxiety and depressive symptoms, but neuroticism did not. Conscientiousness moderated the relation of withdrawal with depressive symptoms but not anxiety, such that high levels of conscientiousness attenuated the association between withdrawal and depressive symptoms. This buffering effect may stem from the conceptual relation between conscientiousness and self-regulation. Conscientiousness did not, however, moderate the association between withdrawal and anxiety, which may be partly due to the role anxiety plays in driving withdrawal. Thus, a conscientious, well-regulated personality partially protects withdrawn adolescents from the increased risk of emotional difficulties.

  1. The development of personality extremity from childhood to adolescence: relations to internalizing and externalizing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, A.L.; Prinzie, P.; Deković, M.; de Haan, A.D.; Asscher, J.J.; Widiger, T.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of personality extremity (deviation of an average midpoint of all 5 personality dimensions together) across childhood and adolescence, as well as relations between personality extremity and adjustment problems. For 598 children (mean age at Time 1 = 7.5

  2. Factors associated with traumatic symptoms and internalizing problems among adolescents who experienced a traumatic event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deković, M.; Koning, I.M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Buist, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify factors that are related to the traumatic symptoms and problem behavior among adolescents who experienced the New Years fire in 2001 in Volendam, The Netherlands. Three groups of factors were considered: pre-trauma (personality and coping), traumarelated

  3. Internal Barriers to the Realization of Potential: Correlates and Interrelationships among Gifted and Talented Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinger, Constance L.; Fleming, Elyse S.

    1984-01-01

    Gifted female adolescents (N=284) completed comprehensive career assessment batteries. Examination of diagnostic criteria and associated personality dimensions revealed commonalities and differences among the six diagnostic groups. Findings suggest the need for encouraging the students with low assertiveness or low achievement motivation to…

  4. Parenting and Early Adolescent Internalizing: The Importance of Teasing Apart Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lesley E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This community-based study examined differences in parenting quality and parent symptoms for youth in four categories: anxious (elevated anxiety symptoms), depressed (elevated depressive symptoms), comorbid (elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms), and nonelevated (elevations of neither type). Respondents were 976 young adolescents (mean age =…

  5. Parenting and adolescent externalizing and internalizing problems: The role of self-control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkenauer, C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Baumeister, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Cross-sectional data from 1359 boys and girls aged 10-14 years investigated whether parenting behaviours are directly or indirectly (through building self-control) associated with emotional (depression, stress, low self-esteem) and behavioural (delinquency, aggression) problems among adolescents.

  6. International note: Maternal warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control: Relations to adjustment of Ghanaian early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaam, Braima; Mounts, Nina S

    2016-06-01

    This investigation addressed the relation between maternal warmth, behavioral control, psychological control, and psychological adjustment in a sample of 119 Ghanaian adolescents (42% boys) living in an urban area (mean age = 14.19). Adolescents in the sample reported clinically elevated levels of depression and anxiety. Significant associations were found between warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control and adolescents' anxiety, physical aggression, relational aggression, positive friendship quality, and conflict with friends. Warmth moderated the effect of behavioral control on anxiety, physical aggression, and relational aggression such that higher levels of warmth in combination with higher levels of behavioral control were related to more positive adjustment. Higher levels of warmth in conjunction with higher psychological control were related to higher levels of anxiety. Boys who reported lower levels of warmth in combination with higher behavioral control reported higher levels of physical aggression. For boys reporting higher levels of warmth, higher behavioral control was associated with lower physical aggression. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The strength of primary care in Europe: an international comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringos, Dionne; Boerma, Wienke; Bourgueil, Yann; Cartier, Thomas; Dedeu, Toni; Hasvold, Toralf; Hutchinson, Allen; Lember, Margus; Oleszczyk, Marek; Rotar Pavlic, Danica; Svab, Igor; Tedeschi, Paolo; Wilm, Stefan; Wilson, Andrew; Windak, Adam; Van der Zee, Jouke; Groenewegen, Peter

    2013-11-01

    A suitable definition of primary care to capture the variety of prevailing international organisation and service-delivery models is lacking. Evaluation of strength of primary care in Europe. International comparative cross-sectional study performed in 2009-2010, involving 27 EU member states, plus Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, and Turkey. Outcome measures covered three dimensions of primary care structure: primary care governance, economic conditions of primary care, and primary care workforce development; and four dimensions of primary care service-delivery process: accessibility, comprehensiveness, continuity, and coordination of primary care. The primary care dimensions were operationalised by a total of 77 indicators for which data were collected in 31 countries. Data sources included national and international literature, governmental publications, statistical databases, and experts' consultations. Countries with relatively strong primary care are Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, and the UK. Countries either have many primary care policies and regulations in place, combined with good financial coverage and resources, and adequate primary care workforce conditions, or have consistently only few of these primary care structures in place. There is no correlation between the access, continuity, coordination, and comprehensiveness of primary care of countries. Variation is shown in the strength of primary care across Europe, indicating a discrepancy in the responsibility given to primary care in national and international policy initiatives and the needed investments in primary care to solve, for example, future shortages of workforce. Countries are consistent in their primary care focus on all important structure dimensions. Countries need to improve their primary care information infrastructure to facilitate primary care performance management.

  8. The ‘Landscape’ of Nuclear Safeguards: A Comparative Analysis of the International and Regional Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colussi, I.A.

    2015-01-01

    The notion of “nuclear non-proliferation” is twofold. It refers to: (a) reduction of the number of existing arsenals (vertical non-proliferation), and (b) containment of the number of States that possess nuclear weapons, or control of non-state actors (horizontal non-proliferation). At the international law level, as vertical non-proliferation, there are bilateral or multilateral agreements that ban weapons of mass destruction in certain areas (e.g.: Nuclear–Weapon– Free Zones treaties). With respect to horizontal non-proliferation, beyond the Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones approach, the main legal text for addressing the issue is the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). For the implementation of the principles contained in the NPT, a “nuclear safeguards” system has been created, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been assigned the role of the nuclear “watchdog” for the NPT. However, along with this international system of safeguards, there are regional safeguards bodies: (a) the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) model is the cornerstone of non-proliferation in the EU, while (b) the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) controls nuclear activities in Brazil and Argentina. Moreover, the existing nuclear weapons free-zone treaties contain safeguards provisions that are additional or complementary to IAEA safeguards. For instance, (a) the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL) works for the implementation of Tlatelolco Treaty, (b) the African Commission on Nuclear Energy relates to Pelindaba Treaty, and (c) a Consultative Committee of the Parties is appointed in the context of Raratonga Treaty. The paper aims at critically analysing the different safeguards systems adopted at the international and regional level, through the adoption of a comparative approach. (author)

  9. Comparative study of the prevalence of sepsis in patients admitted to dermatology and internal medicine wards*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Luiz Maurício Costa; Diniz, Michelle dos Santos; Diniz, Lorena dos Santos; Machado-Pinto, Jackson; Silva, Francisco Chagas Lima

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sepsis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. The prevalence of this condition has increased significantly in different parts of the world. Patients admitted to dermatology wards often have severe loss of skin barrier and use systemic corticosteroids, which favor the development of sepsis. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the prevalence of sepsis among patients admitted to a dermatology ward compared to that among patients admitted to an internal medicine ward. METHODS It is a cross-sectional, observational, comparative study that was conducted at Hospital Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte. Data were collected from all patients admitted to four hospital beds at the dermatology and internal medicine wards between July 2008 and July 2009. Medical records were analyzed for the occurrence of sepsis, dermatologic diagnoses, comorbidities, types of pathogens and most commonly used antibiotics. RESULTS We analyzed 185 medical records. The prevalence of sepsis was 7.6% among patients admitted to the dermatology ward and 2.2% (p = 0.10) among those admitted to the internal medicine ward. Patients with comorbidities, diabetes mellitus and cancer did not show a higher incidence of sepsis. The main agent found was Staphylococcus aureus, and the most commonly used antibiotics were ciprofloxacin and oxacillin. There was a significant association between sepsis and the use of systemic corticosteroids (p <0.001). CONCLUSION It becomes clear that epidemiological studies on sepsis should be performed more extensively and accurately in Brazil so that efforts to prevent and treat this serious disease can be made more effectively. PMID:24173179

  10. Comparative analysis of quality control tests on computed tomography in accordance with national and international laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Fernando S.; Vasconcelos, Rebeca S.; Goncalves, Marcel S.; Oliveira, Marcus V.L. de

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to perform a comparative analysis between the Brazilian legislation and internationals protocols, with respect to the quality control tests for computerized tomography. We used 07 references, published from 1998-2012: the Protocolo Brasileiro - Portaria 453/98 SVS/MS and the Guia de Radiodiagnostico Medico da ANVISA; Quality Assurance Programme for Computed Tomography: Diagnostic and Therapy Applications of the IAEA; European Protocol - European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Computed Tomography of the EUR No. 16262 EN; Radiation Protection No. 162 - Criteria for Acceptability of Medical Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy of the European Commission; the Protocols of Control de Calidad en Radiodiagnostico IAEA / ARCAL XLIX; and the Protocolo Espanol de Control de Calidad en Radiodignostico. The comparative analysis of these legislations was based on aspects of tolerance / limit, frequency and objectives of the recommended tests. Were found 18 tests in the Brazilian legislation. The tests were grouped according to their nature (dosimetric tests / exposure and geometric tests and image quality tests). Among the evaluated protocols was identified divergence between tests contained in the documents and the criteria of assessment set out in this work. It is clear, moreover, that for certain documents are not observed tolerances, well-defined methodologies and even frequency of testing. We conclude that the current legislation in Brazil differs in certain respects from international protocols analyzed, although this has a great numbers of quality control tests. However, it is necessary that the Brazilian legislation takes into account technological advances presented to time

  11. [The significance of the relationship between external/internal locus of control and adolescent substance use in behavioral medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikó, Bettina; Kovács, Eszter; Kriston, Pálma

    2011-02-27

    Prevention and treatment of the addictions are key public health priorities in modern society. In medical practice, in relation to the biochemical processes, mapping the addiction-prone personality traits, like external/internal locus of control are getting more and more attention. Individuals with high level on internal locus of control, for example, tend to take care of their health behavior; the lack of it, on the other hand, may worsen the effectiveness of stress release which may increase the likelihood of turning to substance use. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between adolescent substance use (both lifetime prevalence and the actual substance user status) and external/internal locus of control). The data collection of the questionnaire survey was going on among 656 high school students in Szeged (age range between 14-21 years, mean = 16.5 years, S.D. = 1.5 years of age, 49.1% of the sample was female). Associations between indicators of substance use (as dependent variables) and scale points of external/internal locus of control (as independent variables) were assessed using odds ratios calculated by logistic regression analyses, whereas gender was used as a controlling variable. Among boys, scale points of external, among girls, those of internal locus of control showed higher values. External locus of control increased, whereas internal locus of control decreased the risk of substance use, however, the relative role of external/internal locus of control was different according to the type of substance use and the prevalence values. In terms of smoking, lifetime prevalence, whereas in terms of marijuana use, the actual user status was influenced. In addition, while the latter one was also affected by gender, it did not play a role at all in the previous one. All these findings suggest that behavioral control may play a particularly important role in prevention of adolescent substance use. For developing this, methods

  12. Elevated serum levels of free triiodothyronine in adolescent boys with gynaecomastia compared with controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglæde, Lise

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pubertal gynaecomastia is a frequent phenomenon occurring in 20-40% of otherwise healthy adolescent boys. Little is known about the aetiology of pubertal gynaecomastia. Markedly elevated thyroid hormone levels in adults with hyperthyroidism are associated with gynaecomastia. DESIGN......: A cross-sectional examination of 444 healthy boys with and without pubertal gynaecomastia. METHODS: We evaluated TSH, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), free T4 and free T3 in a cohort of healthy boys with and without pubertal gynaecomastia. RESULTS: Boys with gynaecomastia had significantly higher...... of pubertal gynaecomastia....

  13. The psychological world of adolescence: A comparative evaluation between rural and urban girls

    OpenAIRE

    Dhoundiyal Manju; Venkatesh Renuka

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to get an insight into the psychological world of adolescence and to study the influence of locality and school-going activity on it. The study group comprised of 240 girls in the age group 12–18 years equally representing urban and rural areas. Using two psychological tests, namely Strengths and Difficulty Questionnaire and Health-Related Quality of Life Inventory, the results revealed that two-third of them were in the problematic and borderline categor...

  14. Greater Prevalence of Proposed ICD-11 Alcohol and Cannabis Dependence Compared to ICD-10, DSM-IV, and DSM-5 in Treated Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tammy; Cornelius, Jack; Clark, Duncan; Martin, Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Proposed International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition (ICD-11), criteria for substance use disorder (SUD) radically simplify the algorithm used to diagnose substance dependence. Major differences in case identification across DSM and ICD impact determinations of treatment need and conceptualizations of substance dependence. This study compared the draft algorithm for ICD-11 SUD against DSM-IV, DSM-5, and ICD-10, for alcohol and cannabis. Adolescents (n = 339, ages 14 to 18) admitted to intensive outpatient addictions treatment completed, as part of a research study, a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM SUDs adapted for use with adolescents and which has been used to assess DSM and ICD SUD diagnoses. Analyses examined prevalence across classification systems, diagnostic concordance, and sources of diagnostic disagreement. Prevalence of any past-year proposed ICD-11 alcohol or cannabis use disorder was significantly lower compared to DSM-IV and DSM-5 (ps DSM-5, and ICD-10 (ps DSM-5 SUD diagnoses showed only moderate concordance. For both alcohol and cannabis, youth typically met criteria for an ICD-11 dependence diagnosis by reporting tolerance and much time spent using or recovering from the substance, rather than symptoms indicating impaired control over use. The proposed ICD-11 dependence algorithm appears to "overdiagnose" dependence on alcohol and cannabis relative to DSM-IV and ICD-10 dependence, and DSM-5 moderate/severe use disorder, generating potential "false-positive" cases of dependence. Among youth who met criteria for proposed ICD-11 dependence, few reported impaired control over substance use, highlighting ongoing issues in the conceptualization and diagnosis of SUD. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Comparing the dimensional structure and diagnostic algorithms between DSM-5 and ICD-11 PTSD in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachser, Cedric; Berliner, Lucy; Holt, Tonje; Jensen, Tine; Jungbluth, Nathaniel; Risch, Elizabeth; Rosner, Rita; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2018-02-01

    In contrast to the DSM-5, which expanded the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom profile to 20 symptoms, a workgroup of the upcoming ICD-11 suggested a reduced symptom profile with six symptoms for PTSD. Therefore, the objective of the study was to investigate the dimensional structure of DSM-5 and ICD-11 PTSD in a clinical sample of trauma-exposed children and adolescents and to compare the diagnostic rates of PTSD between diagnostic systems. The study sample consisted of 475 self-reports and 424 caregiver-reports on the child and adolescent trauma screen (CATS), which were collected at pediatric mental health clinics in the US, Norway and Germany. The factor structure of the PTSD construct as defined in the DSM-5 and in alternative models of both DSM-5 and ICD-11 was investigated using confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). To evaluate differences in PTSD prevalence, McNemar's tests for correlated proportions were used. CFA results demonstrated excellent model fit for the proposed ICD-11 model of PTSD. For the DSM-5 models we found the best fit for the hybrid model. Diagnostic rates were significantly lower according to ICD-11 (self-report: 23.4%; caregiver-report: 16.5%) compared with the DSM-5 (self-report: 37.8%; caregiver-report: 31.8%). Agreement was low between diagnostic systems. Study findings provide support for an alternative latent dimensionality of DSM-5 PTSD in children and adolescents. The conceptualization of ICD-11 PTSD shows an excellent fit. Inconsistent PTSD constructs and significantly diverging diagnostic rates between DSM-5 and the ICD-11 will result in major challenges for researchers and clinicians in the field of psychotraumatology.

  16. National states and international science: A comparative history of international science congresses in Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia, and cold war United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, Ronald E; Hoffmann, Dieter; Krementsov, Nikolai

    2005-01-01

    Prior studies of modern scientific internationalism have been written primarily from the point of view of scientists, with little regard to the influence of the state. This study examines the state's role in international scientific relations. States sometimes encouraged scientific internationalism; in the mid-twentieth century, they often sought to restrict it. The present study examines state involvement in international scientific congresses, the primary intersection between the national and international dimensions of scientists' activities. Here we examine three comparative instances in which such restrictions affected scientific internationalism: an attempt to bring an international aerodynamics congress to Nazi Germany in the late 1930s, unsuccessful efforts by Soviet geneticists to host the Seventh International Genetics Congress in Moscow in 1937, and efforts by U.S. scientists to host international meetings in 1950s cold war America. These case studies challenge the classical ideology of scientific internationalism, wherein participation by a nation in a scientist's fame spares the scientist conflict between advancing his science and advancing the interests of his nation. In the cases we consider, scientists found it difficult to simultaneously support scientific universalism and elitist practices. Interest in these congresses reached the top levels of the state, and access to patronage beyond state control helped determine their outcomes.

  17. Embodied carbon dioxide flow in international trade: A comparative analysis based on China and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ruyin; Li, Jinqiu; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Linling; Li, Qianwen

    2018-03-01

    Carbon dioxide embodied flow in international trade has become an important factor in defining global carbon emission responsibility and climate policy. We conducted an empirical analysis for China and Japan for the years 2000-2014, using a multi-region input-output model and considering the rest of the world as a comparison group. We compared the two countries' direct and complete carbon dioxide emissions intensity and bilateral economic activities such as imports and exports, production and consumption to analyze the difference between China and Japan. The results showed that the intensities of carbon emissions in all sectors of China were higher than that in Japan and that China's annual production-based emissions were greater than consumption-based emissions, the opposite of these relationships in Japan. China was a typical net carbon export country, and carbon embodied in its imports and exports continued to increase throughout the study period. In contrast, Japan's volume and growth rate of embodied carbon emissions were far less than China's and Japan was a typical net carbon import country. Finally, the conclusions of this study support recommendations for the formulation of international carbon emission responsibility allocation, domestic abatement policy as well as China's trade policy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. International collaboration and comparative research on ocean top predators under CLIOTOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobday, Alistair J.; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Evans, Karen; Scales, Kylie L.; Senina, Inna; Weng, Kevin C.

    2017-06-01

    Oceanic top predators have ecological, social and economic value of global significance. These wide-ranging marine species, which include sharks, tunas and billfishes, marine mammals, turtles and seabirds, are the focus of international research attention under the Climate Impacts on Oceanic Top Predators (CLIOTOP) science programme, one of the Integrated Marine Biosphere Research (IMBeR) projects. Over more than a decade, research conducted under CLIOTOP has involved scientists from more than 30 countries, with international collaboration increasing markedly over time, and comparative analyses resulting in new knowledge and understanding of oceanic top predators. This special issue presents 27 papers arising from the 3rd CLIOTOP symposium, held in San Sebastián, Spain in September 2015, spanning topics such as conservation biology, trophic ecology, fisheries science, climate change, and adaptive management. The maturation and synthesis of CLIOTOP's collaborative research is now resulting in real-world management applications and improving understanding of potential ecological and socio-economic impacts of climate change in oceanic systems. The ultimate CLIOTOP goal of preparing both climate-sensitive predator populations and the human societies dependent on them for the impending impacts of climate change is now within reach.

  19. Social inclusion of the people with mental health issues: Compare international results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jussara Carvalho Dos; Barros, Sônia; Huxley, Peter John

    2018-06-01

    Social inclusion of people with mental health issues is an aim of the World Health Organisation. Many countries have adopted that objective, including Brazil and the United Kingdom and both have focused treatment in the community. The aim of this article is to compare international results using the same inclusion instrument. The samples in this study were 225 people with mental health issues in community services in São Paulo, Brazil. Their results are compared to findings from 168 people with similar mental health issues in Hong Kong, China, and from the United Kingdom - a nationally representative sample of 212 people without mental health issues. The instrument used to measure a social inclusion called Social and Communities Opportunities Profile (SCOPE) has been validated for use in the United Kingdom, China and Brazil. The results are that people with mental health issues have worse social inclusion when compared to general population. Between the people with mental health issues, the sample of São Paulo has the lowest social inclusion index but, in relation to access to the Brazilian revised mental health services, that sample has a similarly high inclusion rating to the general population of the United Kingdom. Findings are important to understand mental health in the community context, as well as their adversities and potentialities.

  20. Families' perception of children / adolescents with language impairment through the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF-CY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroschi, Daniele Theodoro; Zanolli, Maria de Lurdes; Chun, Regina Yu Shon

    2017-05-22

    To investigate the perception of family members regarding linguistic conditions and social participation of children and adolescents with speech and language impairments using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY). Quali-quantitative approach research, in which a survey of medical records of 24 children/adolescents undergoing speech-language therapy and interviews with their family members was conducted. A descriptive analysis of the participants' profiles was performed, followed by a categorization of responses using the ICF-CY. All family members mentioned various aspects of speech/language categorized by the ICF-CY. Initially, they approached it as an organic issue, categorized under the component of Body Functions and Structures. Most reported different repercussions of the speech-language impairments on the domains, such as dealing with stress and speaking, qualified from mild to severe. Participants reported Environmental Factors categorized as facilitators in the immediate family's attitudes and as barriers in the social attitudes. These findings, according to the use of the ICF-CY, demonstrate that the children/adolescents' speech-language impairments, from the families' perception, are primarily understood in the body dimension. However, guided by a broader approach to health, the findings in the Activities and Participation and Environmental Factors demonstrate a broader understanding of the participants of the speech-language impairments. The results corroborate the importance of using the ICF-CY as a health care analysis tool, by incorporating functionality and participation aspects and providing subsidies for the construction of unique therapeutic projects in a broader approach to the health of the group studied.

  1. The international comparative wood treatment study WOAM Freemantle 1987 - Trondheim 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botfeldt, Knud Bo; Petersen, Maj Britt

    2016-01-01

    The project The international Comparative Wood Treatment Study was developed and launched under ICOM-WOAM by D. Grattan, Canadian Conservation Institute and F. Schweingruber, The Swiss Federal Forestry Institute. The project started in 1983 and at the Woam Conference in Freemantle in 1987 the many....... This paper evaluates and documents changes in the condition of the wood samples from the WOAM project in 1987, with focus on the PEG/water treated samples. In Trondheim, visual assessment and evaluation of the samples was performed, without removing the wood samples from the climate controlled storage...... PEG in the samples. With the exception of the samples treated with low molecular weight PEG (i.e. PEG 400), there are very few and very small changes in the samples 25 years (1987-2012) after treatment. Low molecular weight PEG has a good bulking effect on well-preserved wood, but has a negative...

  2. Predictors of Memory Deficits in Adolescents and Young Adults with Congenital Heart Disease Compared to Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A. Pike

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease [CHD] show a range of memory deficits, which can dramatically impact their clinical outcomes and quality of life. However, few studies have identified predictors of these memory changes. The purpose of this investigation was to identify predictors of memory deficits in adolescents and young adults with CHD after surgical palliation compared to healthy controls. Method: 156 adolescents and young adults [80 CHD and 76 controls; age 14-21 years] were recruited and administered an instrument to assess memory [Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning 2nd Edition – general memory index (GMI score] and completed questionnaires that measure anxiety, depression, sleepiness, health status, and self-efficacy. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were used to assess group differences, and logistic regression to identify predictors of memory deficits. Results: CHD subjects consisted of 58% males, median age 17 years, 41% Hispanic, and medians of 2 previous heart surgeries and 14 years since last surgery. Memory deficits [GMI < 85] were identified in 50% CHD compared to 4% healthy controls [median GMI 85 vs. 108, p <0.001]. Of GMI subscale medians, CHD subjects had significantly worse memory performance vs. healthy controls [verbal 88 vs. 105, p <0.001; attention 88 vs. 109, p<0.001; working memory 86 vs. 108, p <0.001]. No significant differences appeared between groups for visual memory. Multiple clinical and psychosocial factors were identified which were statistically different on bivariate analyses between the subjects with and without memory deficits. By multivariate analysis, male gender, number of surgeries, anxiety, and self-efficacy emerged as independent predictors of memory deficits. Conclusion: Adolescents and young adults with CHD, more than a decade since their last surgery, show significant verbal, attention and working memory deficits over controls. To enhance

  3. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Bahmani D

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,1 Markus Gerber,2 Nadeem Kalak,1 Sakari Lemola,3 Peter J Clough,4 Pasquale Calabrese,5 Vahid Shaygannejad,6 Uwe Pühse,2 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,1 Serge Brand1,2 1Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 2Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Coventry, 4Department of Psychology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK; 5Division of Molecular and Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Department of Neurology and Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5–3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD, and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. Methods: A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females, 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females, and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Results: Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy

  4. The Changing Landscape of International Schooling: Implications for Theory and Practice. Routledge Research in International and Comparative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    The number of English-medium international schools that deliver their curriculum wholly or partly in the English language reportedly reached 6,000 in January 2012. It is anticipated this number will rise to over 11,000 schools by 2022, employing over 500,000 English-speaking teachers. The number of children being taught in these schools reportedly…

  5. Evidence for the Psychometric Validity, Internal Consistency and Measurement Invariance of Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale Scores in Scottish and Irish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael T; Andretta, James R

    2017-09-01

    Mental well-being is an important indicator of current, but also the future health of adolescents. The 14-item Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) has been well validated in adults world-wide, but less work has been undertaken to examine the psychometric validity and internal consistency of WEMWBS scores in adolescents. In particular, little research has examined scores on the short 7-item version of the WEMWBS. The present study used two large samples of school children in Scotland and Northern Ireland and found that for both forms of the WEMWBS, scores were psychometrically valid, internally consistent, factor saturated, and measurement invariant by country. Using the WEMWBS full form, males reported significantly higher scores than females, and Northern Irish adolescents reported significantly higher scores than their Scottish counterparts. Last, the lowest overall levels of well-being were observed among Scottish females. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Effectiveness of antismoking media messages and education among adolescents in Malaysia and Thailand: findings from the international tobacco control southeast Asia project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawahir, Shukry; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hammond, David

    2013-02-01

    Finding ways to discourage adolescents from taking up smoking is important because those who begin smoking at an earlier age are more likely to become addicted and have greater difficulty in quitting. This article examined whether anti smoking messages and education could help to reduce smoking susceptibility among adolescents in two Southeast Asian countries and to explore the possible moderating effect of country and gender. Data came from Wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Project (ITC-SEA) survey conducted in Malaysia (n = 1,008) and Thailand (n = 1,000) where adolescents were asked about receiving antismoking advice from nurses or doctors, being taught at schools about the danger of smoking, noticing antismoking messages, knowledge of health effects of smoking, beliefs about the health risks of smoking, smoking susceptibility, and demographic information. Data were analyzed using chi-square tests and logistic regression models. Overall, significantly more Thai adolescents reported receiving advice from their nurses or doctors about the danger of smoking (p < .001), but no country difference was observed for reported antismoking education in schools and exposure to antismoking messages. Multivariate analyses revealed that only provision of antismoking education at schools was significantly associated with reduced susceptibility to smoking among female Malaysian adolescents (OR = 0.26). Higher knowledge of smoking harm and higher perceived health risk of smoking were associated with reduced smoking susceptibility among Thai female (OR = 0.52) and Malaysian male adolescents (OR = 0.63), respectively. Educating adolescents about the dangers of smoking in schools appears to be the most effective means of reducing adolescents' smoking susceptibility in both countries, although different prevention strategies may be necessary to ensure effectiveness for male and female adolescents.

  7. Methods of international health technology assessment agencies for economic evaluations--a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Tim; Jacobs, Esther; Morfeld, Jana-Carina; Pieper, Dawid

    2013-09-30

    The number of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) agencies increases. One component of HTAs are economic aspects. To incorporate economic aspects commonly economic evaluations are performed. A convergence of recommendations for methods of health economic evaluations between international HTA agencies would facilitate the adaption of results to different settings and avoid unnecessary expense. A first step in this direction is a detailed analysis of existing similarities and differences in recommendations to identify potential for harmonization. The objective is to provide an overview and comparison of the methodological recommendations of international HTA agencies for economic evaluations. The webpages of 127 international HTA agencies were searched for guidelines containing recommendations on methods for the preparation of economic evaluations. Additionally, the HTA agencies were requested information on methods for economic evaluations. Recommendations of the included guidelines were extracted in standardized tables according to 13 methodological aspects. All process steps were performed independently by two reviewers. Finally 25 publications of 14 HTA agencies were included in the analysis. Methods for economic evaluations vary widely. The greatest accordance could be found for the type of analysis and comparator. Cost-utility-analyses or cost-effectiveness-analyses are recommended. The comparator should continuously be usual care. Again the greatest differences were shown in the recommendations on the measurement/sources of effects, discounting and in the analysis of sensitivity. The main difference regarding effects is the focus either on efficacy or effectiveness. Recommended discounting rates range from 1.5%-5% for effects and 3%-5% for costs whereby it is mostly recommended to use the same rate for costs and effects. With respect to the analysis of sensitivity the main difference is that oftentimes the probabilistic or deterministic approach is recommended

  8. An SEM Assessment of the Internal Structure and Predictive Validity of the Abbreviated Early Adolescent HOME Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Samuel B; Pennar, Amy L; Bradley, Robert H

    2018-05-01

    The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory is designed to assess the quality and quantity of support, stimulation, and structure provided to children in the home environment. HOME has been widely used for research and applied purposes. We focused on an abbreviated version of the Early Adolescent HOME (EA-HOME-A) that was administered to 15-year-old adolescents and their parents ( N = 958) as part of the NICHD (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Our study had two objectives. First, we hypothesized and tested a bifactor model that specified a general factor in support of the use of the HOME total score and group factors for subsets of items in support of the content domain scores. Second, we applied structural equation modeling to relate the EA-HOME-A factors to outcome factors assessing maladaptive behaviors, autonomy, self-control, and cognitive-academic performance. The results supported the construct validity of the EA-HOME-A with respect to its internal structure as well as its correlates.

  9. Validity of Hip-worn Inertial Measurement Unit Compared to Jump Mat for Jump Height Measurement in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantalainen, T; Hesketh, K D; Rodda, C; Duckham, R L

    2018-06-16

    Jump tests assess lower body power production capacity, and can be used to evaluate athletic ability and development during growth. Wearable inertial measurement units (IMU) seem to offer a feasible alternative to laboratory-based equipment for jump height assessments. Concurrent validity of these devices for jump height assessments has only been established in adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the concurrent validity of IMU-based jump height estimate compared to contact mat-based jump height estimate in adolescents. Ninety-five adolescents (10-13 years-of-age; girls N=41, height = 154 (SD 9) cm, weight = 44 (11) kg; boys N=54, height=156 (10) cm, weight = 46 (13) kg) completed three counter-movement jumps for maximal jump height on a contact mat. Inertial recordings (accelerations, rotations) were concurrently recorded with a hip-worn IMU (sampling at 256 Hz). Jump height was evaluated based on flight time. The mean IMU-derived jump height was 27.1 (SD 3.8) cm, and the corresponding mean jump-mat-derived value was 21.5 (3.4) cm. While a significant 26% mean difference was observed between the methods (5.5 [95% limits of agreement 2.2 to 8.9] cm, p = 0.006), the correspondence between methods was excellent (ICC = 0.89). The difference between methods was weakly positively associated with jump height (r = 0.28, P = 0.007). Take-off velocity derived jump height was also explored but produced only fair congruence. In conclusion, IMU-derived jump height exhibited excellent congruence to contact mat-based jump height and therefore presents a feasible alternative for jump height assessments in adolescents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of psychotherapies for depression in children and adolescents: A systematic review and network meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyu; Hetrick, Sarah E; Cuijpers, Pim; Qin, Bin; Barth, Jürgen; Whittington, Craig J; Cohen, David; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Liu, Yiyun; Michael, Kurt D; Zhang, Yuqing; Weisz, John R; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Previous meta-analyses of psychotherapies for child and adolescent depression were limited because of the small number of trials with direct comparisons between two treatments. A network meta-analysis, a novel approach that integrates direct and indirect evidence from randomized controlled studies, was undertaken to investigate the comparative efficacy and acceptability of psychotherapies for depression in children and adolescents. Systematic searches resulted in 52 studies (total N=3805) of nine psychotherapies and four control conditions. We assessed the efficacy at post-treatment and at follow-up, as well as the acceptability (all-cause discontinuation) of psychotherapies and control conditions. At post-treatment, only interpersonal therapy (IPT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) were significantly more effective than most control conditions (standardized mean differences, SMDs ranged from −0.47 to −0.96). Also, IPT and CBT were more beneficial than play therapy. Only psychodynamic therapy and play therapy were not significantly superior to waitlist. At follow-up, IPT and CBT were significantly more effective than most control conditions (SMDs ranged from −0.26 to −1.05), although only IPT retained this superiority at both short-term and long-term follow-up. In addition, IPT and CBT were more beneficial than problem-solving therapy. Waitlist was significantly inferior to other control conditions. With regard to acceptability, IPT and problem-solving therapy had significantly fewer all-cause discontinuations than cognitive therapy and CBT (ORs ranged from 0.06 to 0.33). These data suggest that IPT and CBT should be considered as the best available psychotherapies for depression in children and adolescents. However, several alternative psychotherapies are understudied in this age group. Waitlist may inflate the effect of psychotherapies, so that psychological placebo or treatment-as-usual may be preferable as a control condition in psychotherapy

  11. Selective internal radiation therapy compared with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edeline, Julien [Centre Eugene Marquis, Medical Oncology Department, Rennes (France); Inserm UMR991, Rennes (France); Crouzet, Laurence; Pracht, Marc; Boucher, Eveline [Centre Eugene Marquis, Medical Oncology Department, Rennes (France); Campillo-Gimenez, Boris [Centre Eugene Marquis, Clinical Research Department, Rennes (France); Rolland, Yan; Rohou, Tanguy [Centre Eugene Marquis, Imaging Department, Rennes (France); Guillygomarc' h, Anne [CHU Pontchaillou, Hepatology Department, Rennes (France); Boudjema, Karim [CHU Pontchaillou, Hepatobiliary Surgery, Rennes (France); Lenoir, Laurence [Centre Eugene Marquis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rennes (France); Adhoute, Xavier [Hopital Saint-Joseph, Hepato-Gastroenterology Department, Marseille (France); Clement, Bruno [Inserm UMR991, Rennes (France); Blanc, Jean-Frederic [Hopital Saint-Andre, Hepato-Gastroenterology Department, Bordeaux (France); Garin, Etienne [Inserm UMR991, Rennes (France); Centre Eugene Marquis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rennes (France)

    2016-04-15

    Tumoural portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a major prognostic factor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The efficacy of sorafenib, the only treatment approved at an advanced stage, is limited. Based on previous data, selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT), or {sup 90}Y radioembolization, seems an interesting option. We aimed to compare both treatments in this population. We retrospectively compared patients treated in two centres for HCC with tumoural PVT. We compared overall survival (OS) between patients treated with SIRT and patients treated with sorafenib. Analyses were performed before and after 1:1 matching with a propensity score for controlling indication bias, using a Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 151 patients were analysed, 34 patients treated with SIRT and 117 patients treated with sorafenib only. In the whole population, SIRT was associated with a higher median OS as compared with sorafenib: 18.8 vs 6.5 months (log-rank p < 0.001). There was an imbalance of baseline characteristics between patients treated by SIRT and sorafenib, which justified patient matching with use of a propensity score: 24 patients treated with SIRT could be matched with 24 patients treated with sorafenib. OS was estimated with a median of 26.2 vs 8.7 months in patients treated with SIRT vs sorafenib, respectively (log-rank p = 0.054). Before and after patient matching, the adjusted hazard ratio related to treatment by SIRT was estimated at 0.62 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.97] (p = 0.037) and 0.40 (95 % CI 0.19-0.82) (p = 0.013), respectively. SIRT seems more effective than sorafenib in patients presenting with HCC and tumoural PVT. This hypothesis is being tested in prospective randomized trials. (orig.)

  12. Selective internal radiation therapy compared with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edeline, Julien; Crouzet, Laurence; Pracht, Marc; Boucher, Eveline; Campillo-Gimenez, Boris; Rolland, Yan; Rohou, Tanguy; Guillygomarc'h, Anne; Boudjema, Karim; Lenoir, Laurence; Adhoute, Xavier; Clement, Bruno; Blanc, Jean-Frederic; Garin, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Tumoural portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a major prognostic factor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The efficacy of sorafenib, the only treatment approved at an advanced stage, is limited. Based on previous data, selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT), or 90 Y radioembolization, seems an interesting option. We aimed to compare both treatments in this population. We retrospectively compared patients treated in two centres for HCC with tumoural PVT. We compared overall survival (OS) between patients treated with SIRT and patients treated with sorafenib. Analyses were performed before and after 1:1 matching with a propensity score for controlling indication bias, using a Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 151 patients were analysed, 34 patients treated with SIRT and 117 patients treated with sorafenib only. In the whole population, SIRT was associated with a higher median OS as compared with sorafenib: 18.8 vs 6.5 months (log-rank p < 0.001). There was an imbalance of baseline characteristics between patients treated by SIRT and sorafenib, which justified patient matching with use of a propensity score: 24 patients treated with SIRT could be matched with 24 patients treated with sorafenib. OS was estimated with a median of 26.2 vs 8.7 months in patients treated with SIRT vs sorafenib, respectively (log-rank p = 0.054). Before and after patient matching, the adjusted hazard ratio related to treatment by SIRT was estimated at 0.62 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.97] (p = 0.037) and 0.40 (95 % CI 0.19-0.82) (p = 0.013), respectively. SIRT seems more effective than sorafenib in patients presenting with HCC and tumoural PVT. This hypothesis is being tested in prospective randomized trials. (orig.)

  13. Examining the Motivational Impact of Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Goal Framing and Autonomy-Supportive Versus Internally Controlling Communication Style on Early Adolescents' Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Simons, Joke; Lens, Willy; Soenens, Bart; Matos, Lennia

    2005-01-01

    The present experimental research examined whether framing early adolescents' (11- to 12-year-olds) learning activity in terms of the attainment of an extrinsic (i.e., physical attractiveness) versus intrinsic (i.e., health) goal and communicating these different goal contents in an internally controlling versus autonomy-supportive way affect…

  14. Comparative study of the prevalence of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse history in delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Izutsu, Takashi; Imamura, Fumi; Chiba, Yasuhiko; Takeshima, Tadashi

    2009-04-01

    The present study examined the prevalence of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse history in delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents aged 15-17 years. Results showed that delinquent adolescents, particularly girls, more frequently reported histories of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse than non-delinquent adolescents.

  15. International dissemination of evidence-based practice, open access and the IACAPAP textbook of child and adolescent mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Joseph M; Omigbodun, Olayinka Olusola

    2015-01-01

    Dramatic changes have occurred in both publishing and teaching in the last 20 years stemming from the digital and Internet revolutions. Such changes are likely to grow exponentially in the near future aided by the trend to open access publishing. This revolution has challenged traditional publishing and teaching methods that-largely but not exclusively due to cost-are particularly relevant to professionals in low and middle income countries. The digital medium and the Internet offer boundless opportunities for teaching and training to people in disadvantaged regions. This article describes the development of the IACAPAP eTextbook of child and adolescent mental health, its use, accessibility, and potential impact on the international dissemination of evidence-based practice.

  16. Internal/external locus of control, self-esteem, and parental verbal interaction of at-risk black male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enger, J M; Howerton, D L; Cobbs, C R

    1994-06-01

    We investigated the relationship between three factors--internal/external locus of control, self-esteem, and parental verbal interaction--for at-risk Black male adolescents in the United States. Forty-two male students in Grades 6, 7, and 8 who had been identified by their teachers as being at risk completed the Locus of Control Scale for Children (Nowicki & Strickland, 1973), the Self-Esteem Inventory (Coopersmith, 1967), and the Verbal Interaction Questionnaire (Blake, 1991). A moderate positive relationship found between self-esteem and parental verbal interaction was consistent with a previous finding for White high school students. A moderate negative relationship found between locus of control and self-esteem differed from a previous finding of no significant relationship for Black elementary children. A weak, yet significant, negative relationship was found between locus of control and parental verbal interaction.

  17. Executive Function and Internalizing Symptoms in Adolescents and Young Adults With Congenital Heart Disease: The Role of Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jamie L; Gerardo, Gina M; Monti, Jennifer D; Schofield, Kyle A; Vannatta, Kathryn

    2018-01-10

    Executive functioning deficits have been documented among congenital heart disease (CHD) survivors and may contribute to emotional distress. Little research has investigated the role of coping in this association. This study examined the role of coping in accounting for the association between self-reported executive function problems and internalizing symptoms among adolescents and emerging adults (AEAs), as well as young adults (YAs) with CHD. Participants included 74 AEA ( M age  = 19.32  ±  3.47 years, range 15-25 years) and 98 YA CHD survivors ( M age  = 32.00  ±  3.69 years, range 26-39 years), recruited from pediatric and adult outpatient cardiology clinics. Participants completed self-report measures of executive function problems, coping (primary control, secondary control, and disengagement coping), and internalizing symptoms. Lesion severity classification and functional impairment due to symptoms of heart failure were determined from medical chart review. Significant problems in executive function were reported by 5% of AEA and 13% of YA. Coping was not associated with executive function problems or internalizing symptoms for AEA. However, among YA, less use of adaptive coping strategies and more maladaptive coping responses was associated with both more executive function problems and internalizing symptoms. An indirect effect of executive function problems on internalizing symptoms via secondary control coping emerged for YA. Executive function problems may disrupt the ability to use important adaptive coping skills, such as cognitive reappraisal, positive thinking, and acceptance, thereby resulting in greater emotional distress among YA CHD survivors. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. What Did We Learn about Our Teachers and Principals? Results of the TALIS-2013 International Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinskaya, M. A.; Lenskaya, E. A.; Ponomareva, A. A.; Brun, I. V.; Kosaretsky, S. G.; Savelyeva, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    The Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) is a large-scale and authoritative international study of teachers. It is conducted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to collect and compare information about teachers and principals in different countries in such key areas as the training and professional…

  19. Characteristics and international comparability of the Finnish matrix sentence test in cochlear implant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Aarno; Buschermöhle, Michael; Sivonen, Ville; Willberg, Tytti; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Lenarz, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger

    2015-01-01

    The first Finnish sentence-based speech test in noise--the Finnish matrix sentence test--was recently developed. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of the new test with respect to test-retest reliability, speech recognition curve, and international comparability in Finnish cochlear implant (CI) recipients. The speech reception thresholds (SRT) were measured by means of an adaptive test procedure and compared with the results of the traditional Finnish word test. Additional measurements for concurrent slope and SRT estimation were conducted to determine the speech recognition curve and to check the test-retest reliability. The measurements were performed on 78 Finnish CI recipients. In a subset of 25 patients, additional measurements for test-retest reliability and slope determination were performed. The mean SRT was -3.5 ± 1.7 dB SNR, with only a weak correlation with the Finnish word test. Test-retest reliability was within ± 1 dB and the mean slope of the speech recognition curve was 14.6 ± 3.6 %/dB. The rehabilitation results were similar to the results published for the German matrix test. The Finnish matrix test was found to be suitable and efficient in CI recipients with similar characteristics as the German matrix test.

  20. International double (non-)taxation : comparative guidelines from European legal principles

    OpenAIRE

    Vijver, Van de, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The principle of fairness advocates against international double taxation and international double non-taxation. Countries and international organizations (OECD, G20 and EU) have taken several initiatives against such taxation. However, these initiatives are not always effective. Also, certain legal authors question the legitimacy of the OECD and its action plan on BEPS. The essential goal of this research is to find guidelines to address international double (non-) taxation. We fir...

  1. Comorbid Internalizing and Disruptive Behavior Disorder in Adolescents: Offending, Trauma, and Clinical Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; McReynolds, L.S.; Wasserman, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined differences between comorbid internalizing and disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), and those with either internalizing disorder or DBD. We focused on differences with regard to trauma exposure and offending characteristics in 8,431 juvenile justice youths. Self-reported,

  2. Development of Internalizing Problems from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood: Accounting for Heterotypic Continuity with Vertical Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Isaac T.; Lindhiem, Oliver; LeBeau, Brandon; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2018-01-01

    Manifestations of internalizing problems, such as specific symptoms of anxiety and depression, can change across development, even if individuals show strong continuity in rank-order levels of internalizing problems. This illustrates the concept of heterotypic continuity, and raises the question of whether common measures might be construct-valid…

  3. The Prosecution of Human Traffickers? : A Comparative Analysis of Enslavement Judgments Among International Courts and Tribunals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siller, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Despite its international construction and codification, the criminal offense of ‘trafficking in persons’ is absent from the statutes of international judicial institutions. Does this result in the inability to hold those who engage in the traffic of human beings accountable under international

  4. Mild Dermatoglyphic Deviations in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Average Intellectual Abilities as Compared to Typically Developing Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther I. de Bruin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatoglyphics, ridge constellations on the hands and feet, are permanently formed by the second trimester of pregnancy. Consequently, they are considered “fossilized” evidence of a specific prenatal period. A high frequency of dermatoglyphic anomalies, or a high rate of dermatoglyphic asymmetry (discordance, is an indication of developmental instability (prenatal disturbances prior to 24-week gestation. Most dermatoglyphic studies in psychiatry focus on adult schizophrenia. Studies on dermatoglyphic deviances and autism are sparse, include severely disturbed and intellectually retarded patients with autism, and are carried out mainly in non-Western European populations. In this study, finger print patterns, atd-angles, and palmar flexion crease patterns (PFCs are compared between Western European adolescent teenage males, of average intellect, with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD; n=46 and typically developing adolescent teenage males (TD; n=49. Boys with ASD had a higher rate of discordance in their finger print patterns than TD boys. Thus, the hypothesized prenatal disturbances that play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia and severe autism might not be specific to these severe psychiatric disorders but might also be involved in the etiology of varying degrees of ASD.

  5. Comparing global alcohol and tobacco control efforts: network formation and evolution in international health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gneiting, Uwe; Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Smoking and drinking constitute two risk factors contributing to the rising burden of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Both issues have gained increased international attention, but tobacco control has made more sustained progress in terms of international and domestic policy commitments, resources dedicated to reducing harm, and reduction of tobacco use in many high-income countries. The research presented here offers insights into why risk factors with comparable levels of harm experience different trajectories of global attention. The analysis focuses particular attention on the role of dedicated global health networks composed of individuals and organizations producing research and engaging in advocacy on a given health problem. Variation in issue characteristics and the policy environment shape the opportunities and challenges of global health networks focused on reducing the burden of disease. What sets the tobacco case apart was the ability of tobacco control advocates to create and maintain a consensus on policy solutions, expand their reach in low- and middle-income countries and combine evidence-based research with advocacy reaching beyond the public health-centered focus of the core network. In contrast, a similar network in the alcohol case struggled with expanding its reach and has yet to overcome divisions based on competing problem definitions and solutions to alcohol harm. The tobacco control network evolved from a group of dedicated individuals to a global coalition of membership-based organizations, whereas the alcohol control network remains at the stage of a collection of dedicated and like-minded individuals. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2016; all rights reserved.

  6. The Sports Challenge international programme for identified 'at risk' children and adolescents: a Singapore study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, G J; Watkins, G G; Rouse, I

    1999-01-01

    The current world wide phenomena of youth suicide which became a major issue for countries in the early nineties, is still growing exponentially. The Sports Challenge program was initiated in 1992 in Western Australia to identify 'at risk' children and adolescents who display: a low sense of basic trust, a sense of shame and doubt, a sense of inferiority and a sense of identity confusion with common characteristics of low self esteem. The subsequent program is based on a strong statistical paradigm encompassing current and historical information with reliable and objective evaluation measures. To this end, since 1992, Sports Challenge has been recognised as a 'World Best Practice' in redressing the issue of 'at risk' children and adolescents. The program now operates in over 150 schools and communities throughout Australia and 24 schools and Detention Centres in Singapore. This paper will allow a window into the development of the program and the successful transfer of the project into Singapore. The Singapore study which began in 1996 has revealed the success of the Sports Challenge program cross culturally with improvement in self esteem and self concept of 'at risk' groups in the range of 18% to 44%.

  7. Comparing Energy Expenditure in Adolescents With and Without Autism While Playing Nintendo(®) Wii(™) Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getchell, Nancy; Miccinello, Dannielle; Blom, Michelle; Morris, Lyssa; Szaroleta, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Obesity rates are on the rise in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which underscores the importance of finding new ways in which to engage this population in physical activity. We wanted to explore the energetic expenditure of adolescents with and without ASD while playing Nintendo(®) Wii(™) (Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) games compared with more traditional exercise modalities. Specifically, we wanted to compare energy expenditure (EE) among the different activities and to see which activities lead to the greatest amount of time classified as "moderate to vigorous." Two groups of adolescents (15 with ASD [mean age, 17.50±2.4 years], 15 without ASD [mean age, 17.23±4.1 years]) participated in 20-minute bouts of walking, running, and playing Nintendo Wii "Sport(™)," Wii "Fit(™)," and "Dance Dance Revolution" (DDR) (Konami Digital Entertainment, Inc., El Segundo, CA). During each session, EE was calculated using an Actical (Mini Mitter Co., Bend, OR) accelerometer. Groups were compared using multiple t tests. Both groups expended similar amounts of kilcalories in all activities, except for Wii Fit, in which the ASD group expended significantly more kilocalories. For the ASD group, EE was greatest in running, followed by walking, DDR, Wii Fit, and Wii Sport. Walking, running, and DDR all had at least 75 percent of the total time spent in moderate to vigorous intensity levels. We suggest videogame systems, such as the Nintendo Wii, may be viable alternative for individuals with ASD to increase their daily physical activity and help alleviate the growing rates of obesity.

  8. Polycystic ovary syndrome: clinical presentation in normal-weight compared with overweight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Shilpa S; Levitsky, Lynne L; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    To characterize polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adolescents and determine whether a distinct clinical presentation differentiates normal-weight (NW) from overweight (OW) PCOS. Retrospective chart review of patients seen in a tertiary care center from 1998-2008 who met the National Institutes of Health and/or Rotterdam criteria for PCOS (N = 211; NW = 43, OW = 168). We collected data on clinical features, biochemical markers, and ultrasound findings. Patient age ranged from 11.3 to 20.3 years (mean, 15.7 ± 1.7 years), and body mass index (BMI) from 17.4 to 64.2 kg/m2 (mean, 31.7 ± 7.7 kg/m2). Seventy-one percent of patients were Caucasian, 85% had irregular menses, 69% reported hirsutism, 18% had moderate to severe acne, 91% had a high free androgen index (FAI), and 8% had abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. The BMI-standard deviation (SD) score was 0.1 ± 0.5 in NW and 3.4 ± 1.8 in OW girls. NW girls were older at diagnosis (16.4 ± 1.4 years vs. 15.5 ± 1.7 years; P = .0006) than OW girls, less likely to have a family history of obesity (22% vs. 65%; PPCOS is likely part of a continuous spectrum of clinical PCOS rather than a distinct entity.

  9. International comparison of comparative effectiveness research in five jurisdictions: insights for the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Adrian R; Mitton, Craig; Johnston, Karissa M; Harrigan, Brian; Briggs, Andrew H

    2010-01-01

    ' interests, in that the turn-around time for assessments must be minimized, transparency must be maximized, the process must be considered fair using universally agreed standards and the process must be modifiable based on stakeholders' requirements; (ii) the assessment of medical technologies other than drugs may present different challenges and is managed separately in other HTA organizations; (iii) because of the link between HTA and reimbursement decisions, completion of the HTA process following regulatory approval can delay market access to new technologies, thus closer integration between regulatory approval and HTA processes is being explored internationally; (iv) there is a direct or indirect link to reimbursement in the jurisdictions explored - without this link the role of CER in the US will remain advisory; (v) each jurisdiction reviewed benefits from a single payer that is informed by the process - given the diverse multipayer environment in the US, CER in the US may usefully focus on generating comparative effectiveness evidence; (vi) a common metric for assessing intended and unintended effects of treatment allows comparison across different technologies; and (vii) one stated focus of CER is on therapeutic benefit among 'high-priority populations', including specific demographic groups (the elderly and children, racial and ethnic minorities) and individuals with disabilities, multiple chronic conditions and specific genomic factors. This will be difficult to achieve because epidemiological evidence of differences in therapeutic benefit among subgroups is detected through effect modification, or more specifically, statistical evidence of effect measure modification, typically on relative measures of effect. Few randomized trials have enough power to detect effect modification and these have been uncommon in the scientific literature. As consideration is given to the development of a publicly funded CER body in the US, much can be learned from the international

  10. Enhanced jump performance when providing augmented feedback compared to an external or internal focus of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Martin; Lauber, Benedikt; Gottschalk, Marius; Taube, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Factors such as an external focus of attention (EF) and augmented feedback (AF) have been shown to improve performance. However, the efficacy of providing AF to enhance motor performance has never been compared with the effects of an EF or an internal focus of attention (IF). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify which of the three conditions (AF, EF or IF) leads to the highest performance in a countermovement jump (CMJ). Nineteen volunteers performed 12 series of 8 maximum CMJs. Changes in jump height between conditions and within the series were analysed. Jump heights differed between conditions (P jump heights at the end of the series in AF (+1.60%) and lower jump heights at the end of the series in EF (-1.79%) and IF (-1.68%) were observed. Muscle activity did not differ between conditions. The differences between conditions and within the series provide evidence that AF leads to higher performance and better progression within one series than EF and IF. Consequently, AF seems to outperform EF and IF when maximising jump height.

  11. Comparative analysis of acetic and citric acid on internal milieu of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Capcarova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE The aim of the present study was to analyse the effect of two organic acids (acetic and citric acid inclusion on serum parameters and the level of antioxidant status of broiler chickens. Some organic acidifiers reduce the growth of many intestinal bacteria, reduce intestinal colonisation and reduce infectious processes, decrease inflammatory processes at the intestinal mucosa, increase villus height and function of secretion, digestion and absorption of nutrients. Broiler chickens hybrid Ross 308 (n=180 were divided into 3 groups: one control (C and two experimental groups (E1, E2. Experimental animals received acetic and citric acid per os in water in single dose 0.25% for 42 days. After 42 days of feeding blood samples were collected (n=10 in each group. Significant decrease of serum triglycerides in citric acid group when compared with the control group was recorded. Acetic acid administration resulted in increased sodium level. Significant increase of albumin content in both experimental groups and increase of bilirubin content in citric group was recorded. Acids administration had no significant effect on other serum and antioxidant parameters. Acetic and citric acid had no harmful influenced on internal milieu of broiler chickens. The research on the field of organic acid will be worthy of further investigation.

  12. A comparative study of ground tire rubber devulcanization using twin screw extruder and internal mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujianto, O.; Putri, D. B.; Jayatin; AWinarto, D.

    2017-07-01

    Devulcanization of ground tire rubber (GTR) was done using twin screw extruder (TSE) and internal mixer (IM). Processing parameters were varied to analyze its effect on gel content. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was performed as qualitative technique to confirm structural change. The devulcanized rubbers with the least gel content percentage produced in both TSE and IM were then used as filler in natural rubber (NR)/coconut coir (CC) composite preparation. Effects of gel content percentage on NR/CC composite tensile strength and elongation at break were analyzed. The results show that the gel content decreased by 41% for sample processed in TSE and 50% in IM compared to control sample. Overall, the devulcanization is influenced by high energy generated by thermal or thermo-mechanical process. FTIR spectra show chemically structural changes of GTR as C=C, CH2, CH3 with higher intensity for IM sample than its counterpart indicated devulcanization. The replacement of GTR to DGTR on NR/CC/GTR composites provided less network structures and resulted better tensile strength and elongation at break.

  13. Ethical and Regulatory Challenges with Autologous Adult Stem Cells: A Comparative Review of International Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaght, Tamra; Kerridge, Ian H; Sipp, Douglas; Porter, Gerard; Capps, Benjamin J

    2017-06-01

    Cell and tissue-based products, such as autologous adult stem cells, are being prescribed by physicians across the world for diseases and illnesses that they have neither been approved for or been demonstrated as safe and effective in formal clinical trials. These doctors often form part of informal transnational networks that exploit differences and similarities in the regulatory systems across geographical contexts. In this paper, we examine the regulatory infrastructure of five geographically diverse but socio-economically comparable countries with the aim of identifying similarities and differences in how these products are regulated and governed within clinical contexts. We find that while there are many subtle technical differences in how these regulations are implemented, they are sufficiently similar that it is difficult to explain why these practices appear more prevalent in some countries and not in others. We conclude with suggestions for how international governance frameworks might be improved to discourage the exploitation of vulnerable patient populations while enabling innovation in the clinical application of cellular therapies.

  14. Simultaneous nitrification-denitrification achieved by an innovative internal-loop airlift MBR: comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y Z; He, Y L; Ohandja, D G; Ji, J; Li, J F; Zhou, T

    2008-09-01

    This study assessed the performance of different single-stage continuous aerated submerged membrane bioreactors (MBR) for nitrogen removal. Almost complete nitrification was achieved in each MBR irrespective of operating mode and biomass system. Denitrification was found to be the rate-limiting step for total nitrogen (T-N) removal. The MBR with internal-loop airlift reactor (ALR) configuration performed better as regards T-N removal compared with continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR). It was demonstrated that simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) is the mechanism leading to nitrogen removal and the contribution of microenvironment on SND is more remarkable for the MBRs with hybrid biomass. Macroenvironment analyses showed that gradient distribution of dissolved oxygen (DO) level in airlift MBRs imposed a significant effect on SND. Higher mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) concentration led to the improvement in T-N removal by enhancing anoxic microenvironment. Apparent nitrite accumulation coupled with higher nitrogen reduction was accomplished at MLSS concentration exceeded 12.6 g/L.

  15. Irritable and Defiant Sub-Dimensions of ODD: Their Stability and Prediction of Internalizing Symptoms and Conduct Problems from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homel, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research has identified sub-dimensions of oppositional defiant disorder – irritability and defiance -that differentially predict internalizing and externalizing symptoms in preschoolers, children, and adolescents. Using a theoretical approach and confirmatory factor analyses to distinguish between irritability and defiance, we investigate the associations among these dimensions and internalizing (anxiety and depression) and externalizing problems (conduct problems) within and across time in a community-based sample of 662 youth (342 females) spanning ages 12 to 18 years old at baseline. On average, irritability was stable across assessment points and defiance declined. Within time, associations of irritability with internalizing were consistently stronger than associations of irritability with conduct problems. Defiance was similarly associated within time with both internalizing and conduct problems in mid-adolescence, but was more highly related to internalizing than to conduct problems by early adulthood (ages 18 to 25). Over time, increasing irritability was related to changes in both internalizing and conduct problems; whereas increases in defiance predicted increases in conduct problems more strongly than internalizing symptoms. Increases in both internalizing and conduct problems were also associated with subsequent increases in both irritability and defiance. Sex differences in these associations were not significant. PMID:25028284

  16. External skeletal robusticity of children and adolescents - European references from birth to adulthood and international comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, Rebekka; Godina, Elena; Koziel, Slawomir; Musalek, Martin; Sedlak, Petr; Wittwer-Backofen, Ursula; Hesse, Volker; Dasgupta, Parasmani; Henneberg, Maciej; Scheffler, Christiane

    2018-02-20

    Background: In our modern world, the way of life in nutritional and activity behaviour has changed. As a consequence, parallel trends of an epidemic of overweight and a decline in external skeletal robusticity are observed in children and adolescents. Aim: We aim to develop reference centiles for external skeletal robusticity of European girls and boys aged 0 to 18 years using the Frame Index as an indicator and identify population specific age-related patterns. Methods: We analysed cross-sectional & longitudinal data on body height and elbow breadth of boys and girls from Europe (0-18 years, n = 41.679), India (7-18 years, n = 3.297) and South Africa (3-18 years, n = 4.346). As an indicator of external skeletal robusticity Frame Index after Frisancho (1990) was used. We developed centiles for boys and girls using the LMS-method and its extension. Results: Boys have greater external skeletal robusticity than girls. Whereas in girls Frame Index decreases continuously during growth, an increase of Frame Index from 12 to 16 years in European boys can be observed. Indian and South African boys are almost similar in Frame Index to European boys. In girls, the pattern is slightly different. Whereas South African girls are similar to European girls, Indian girls show a lesser external skeletal robusticity. Conclusion: Accurate references for external skeletal robusticity are needed to evaluate if skeletal development is adequate per age. They should be used to monitor effects of changes in way of life and physical activity levels in children and adolescents to avoid negative health outcomes like osteoporosis and arthrosis.

  17. Anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, and stressful life events in non-cardiac adolescent chest pain: a comparative study about the hidden part of the iceberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliacik, Kayi; Kanik, Ali; Bolat, Nurullah; Mertek, Hilal; Guven, Baris; Karadas, Ulas; Dogrusoz, Buket; Bakiler, Ali Rahmi

    2017-08-01

    Chest pain in adolescents is rarely associated with cardiac disease. Adolescents with medically unexplained chest pain usually have high levels of anxiety and depression. Psychological stress may trigger non-cardiac chest pain. This study evaluated risk factors that particularly characterise adolescence, such as major stressful events, in a clinical population. The present study was conducted on 100 adolescents with non-cardiac chest pain and 76 control subjects. Stressful life events were assessed by interviewing patients using a 36-item checklist, along with the Children's Depression Inventory and Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for children, in both groups. Certain stressful life events, suicidal thoughts, depression, and anxiety were more commonly observed in adolescents with non-cardiac chest pain compared with the control group. Moreover, binary logistic regression analysis showed that trouble with bullies, school-related problems, and depression may trigger non-cardiac chest pain in adolescents. Non-cardiac chest pain on the surface may point to the underlying psychosocial health problems such as depression, suicidal ideas, or important life events such as academic difficulties or trouble with bullies. The need for a psychosocial evaluation that includes assessment of negative life events and a better management have been discussed in light of the results.

  18. The role of early maturation, perceived popularity, and rumors in the emergence of internalizing symptoms among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Bridget M; Juvonen, Jaana

    2011-11-01

    Despite the widely reported link between early pubertal timing and internalizing symptoms among girls, less is known about the peer reputation of earlier maturing girls. The current study assesses whether early maturation is associated with perceived popularity and/or rumors, and whether these reputational factors help account for earlier maturing girls' vulnerability to emotional distress. Drawing on three waves of data collected from an ethnically diverse sample of middle school girls (n = 912), hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that more advanced development at the start of middle school predicted peer- and teacher-reported popularity as well as increased risk of being targeted for rumors. Mediation analyses suggested that popularity among boys can put earlier developing girls at risk for rumors. Finally, rumors acted as a partial mechanism through which early maturation was associated with subsequent internalizing symptoms. Knowledge of the peer mechanisms putting earlier developing girls at risk for psychosocial maladjustment can inform intervention and prevention efforts aimed at improving adolescent well-being.

  19. First evidence of a prospective relation between avoidance of internal states and borderline personality disorder features in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Carla; Kalpakci, Allison; Mellick, William; Venta, Amanda; Temple, Jeff R

    2015-03-01

    At least two leading developmental models of borderline personality disorder (BPD) emphasize the role of accurate reflection and understanding of internal states as significant to the development of BPD features (Fonagy, Int J Psycho-Anal 72:639-656, 1991; Linehan, Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder, 1993). The current study used the construct of experiential avoidance (EA) to operationalize avoidance of internal states and sought to examine (1) the concurrent relations between EA and borderline features in a large and diverse community sample; and (2) the prospective relation between EA and borderline features over a 1-year follow-up, controlling for baseline levels of borderline features. N = 881 adolescents recruited from public schools in a large metropolitan area participated in baseline assessments and N = 730 completed follow-up assessments. Two main findings were reported. First, EA was associated with borderline features, depressive, and anxiety symptoms at the bivariate level, but when all variables were considered together, depression and anxiety no longer remained significantly associated with borderline features, suggesting that the relations among these symptom clusters may be accounted for by EA as a cross-cutting underlying psychological process. Second, EA predicted levels of borderline symptoms at 1-year follow-up, controlling for baseline levels of borderline symptoms, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Results are interpreted against the background of developmental theories of borderline personality disorder.

  20. [Causes of death in children and adolescents aged 1-19 in poland in the light of international statistics since 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Joanna; Malinowska-Cieślik, Marta; Oblacińska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Analyses of children and young people mortality continue to be an important component of health monitoring of this population. Such analyses provide the basis to assess the overall trends, the structure of the causes of death over longer periods, and the differences between Poland and other countries. The purpose of the current study is to present the current status and the direction of changes since 2000 with regard to the level and underlying causes of mortality in children and adolescents aged 1-19 years in Poland on the background of statistics for leading European countries. Interactive databases available online: the National Demographic Database provided by the Central Statistical Office and the International WHO-MDB Database were used. Poland, constantly belonging to Eur-B category, was compared with the combined group of 27 leading countries, classified as a very low total mortality group (Eur-A) according to WHO. Linear trends of overall and cause-specific mortality in 2000-2013 were estimated. The causes of death have been presented according to the main classes of the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10). External and other causes were adopted as the two principal categories. In 2015, 1471 deaths of persons aged 1-19 were recorded in Poland (19.9 per 100 000, 25.4 and 14.2 for boys and girls, respectively). Changes in children and adolescents mortality by age have a non-linear nature (U-shaped), and the lowest level is recorded at the age of 5-9 years. According to 2014 data, 50.2% of deaths of children and adolescents aged 1-19 years occurred due to external causes, including non-intentional and intentional ones. This percentage increased from 18.4% in the 1-4 age group to 68.6% at the age of 15-19 years. Apart from external causes, the dominating causes of death are malignant neoplasms, congenital defects, or nervous system and respiratory system diseases. The ranking of those

  1. Comparison report of RPV pressurised thermal shock - international comparative assessment study (PTS ICAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A summary of the recently completed International Comparative Assessment Study of Pressurized- Thermal-Shock in Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPV PTS ICAS) is presented here to record the results in actual and comparative fashions. The ICAS Project brought together an international group of experts from research, utility and regulatory organizations to perform a comparative evaluation of analysis methodologies employed in the assessment of RPV integrity under PTS loading conditions. The Project was sponsored jointly by Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS), Koeln, Germany, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), USA, with assistance from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA)/Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI)/Principal Working Group (PWG) No. 3 (Integrity of Components and Structures). The ICAS Project grew out of a strong interest expressed by participants in the previous FALSIRE II Project to proceed with further evaluations of analysis methods used in RPV integrity assessment. A Launch Meeting for the ICAS Project was held at GRS-Koeln, during June 1996, where an emphasis was placed on identifying the different approaches to RPV integrity assessment being employed within the international nuclear technology community. Also a Problem Statement was drafted that defined a Western type four-loop RPV with cladding on the inner surface. Also, a detailed task matrix was defined that included a set of transient thermal-mechanical loading conditions postulated to result from loss-of-coolant accidents. The primary focus of the analyses was on the behaviour of relatively shallow cracks under these conditions. The assessment activities based on the Problem Statement were divided under three tasks: deterministic fracture mechanics (DFM), probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) and thermal-hydraulic mixing (THM). An Intermediate Workshop was held at OECD/NEA-Paris during June 1997, to

  2. Multilevel risk factors and developmental assets for internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in disadvantaged adolescents: modeling longitudinal trajectories from the Rural Adaptation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Rose, Roderick; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Bacallao, Martica

    2014-11-01

    The current study filled significant gaps in our knowledge of developmental psychopathology by examining the influence of multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in an exceptionally culturally diverse sample of rural adolescents. Integrating ecological and social capital theories, we explored if positive microsystem transactions are associated with self-esteem while negative microsystem transactions increase the chances of internalizing problems. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle school students from 28 public schools in two rural, disadvantaged counties in North Carolina. Three-level hierarchical linear modeling models were estimated to predict internalizing symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety) and self-esteem. Relative to other students, risk for internalizing problems and low self-esteem was elevated for aggressive adolescents, students who were hassled or bullied at school, and those who were rejected by peers or in conflict with their parents. Internalizing problems were also more common among adolescents from socioeconomically disadvantaged families and neighborhoods, among those in schools with more suspensions, in students who reported being pressured by peers, and in youth who required more teacher support. It is likely that these experiences left adolescents disengaged from developing social capital from ecological microsystems (e.g., family, school, peers). On the positive side, support from parents and friends and optimism about the future were key assets associated with lower internalizing symptoms and higher self-esteem. Self-esteem was also positively related to religious orientation, school satisfaction, and future optimism. These variables show active engagement with ecological microsystems. The implications and limitations were discussed.

  3. International comparative evaluation of knee replacement with fixed or mobile-bearing posterior-stabilized prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Stephen; Sedrakyan, Art; Baste, Valborg; Gioe, Terence J; Namba, Robert; Martínez Cruz, Olga; Stea, Susanna; Paxton, Elizabeth; Banerjee, Samprit; Isaacs, Abby J; Robertsson, Otto

    2014-12-17

    Posterior-stabilized total knee prostheses were introduced to address instability secondary to loss of posterior cruciate ligament function, and they have either fixed or mobile bearings. Mobile bearings were developed to improve the function and longevity of total knee prostheses. In this study, the International Consortium of Orthopaedic Registries used a distributed health data network to study a large cohort of posterior-stabilized prostheses to determine if the outcome of a posterior-stabilized total knee prosthesis differs depending on whether it has a fixed or mobile-bearing design. Aggregated registry data were collected with a distributed health data network that was developed by the International Consortium of Orthopaedic Registries to reduce barriers to participation (e.g., security, proprietary, legal, and privacy issues) that have the potential to occur with the alternate centralized data warehouse approach. A distributed health data network is a decentralized model that allows secure storage and analysis of data from different registries. Each registry provided data on mobile and fixed-bearing posterior-stabilized prostheses implanted between 2001 and 2010. Only prostheses associated with primary total knee arthroplasties performed for the treatment of osteoarthritis were included. Prostheses with all types of fixation were included except for those with the rarely used reverse hybrid (cementless tibial and cemented femoral components) fixation. The use of patellar resurfacing was reported. The outcome of interest was time to first revision (for any reason). Multivariate meta-analysis was performed with linear mixed models with survival probability as the unit of analysis. This study includes 137,616 posterior-stabilized knee prostheses; 62% were in female patients, and 17.6% had a mobile bearing. The results of the fixed-effects model indicate that in the first year the mobile-bearing posterior-stabilized prostheses had a significantly higher hazard

  4. Prognostic significance of functional somatic symptoms in adolescence: a 15-year community-based follow-up study of adolescents with depression compared with healthy peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohman Hannes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of population-based long-term longitudinal research on mental health status and functional physical/somatic symptoms. Little is known about the long-term mental health outcomes associated with somatic symptoms or the temporal relationship between depression and such symptoms. This 15-year study followed up adolescents with depression and matched controls, screened from a population-based sample, who reported different numbers of somatic symptoms. Methods The total population of 16–17-year-olds in Uppsala, Sweden, was screened for depression in 1991–1993. Adolescents who screened positive and an equal number of healthy controls took part in a semi-structured diagnostic interview. In addition, 21 different self-rated somatic symptoms were assessed. Sixty-four percent of those adolescents participated in a follow-up structured interview 15 years later. Results Somatic symptoms in adolescence predicted depression and other adult mental disorders regardless of the presence of adolescent depression. In adolescents with depression, the number of functional somatic symptoms predicted, in a dose response relationship, suicidal behavior, bipolar episodes, and psychotic episodes as well as chronic and recurrent depression. Contrary to expectations, the somatic symptoms of abdominal pain and perspiration without exertion better predicted depression than all DSM-IV depressive symptoms. Abdominal pain persisted as an independent strong predictor of depression and anxiety, even after controlling for other important confounders. Conclusions Somatic symptoms in adolescence can predict severe adult mental health disorders. The number of somatic symptoms concurrent with adolescent depression is, in a stepwise manner, linked to suicidal attempts, bipolar disorders, psychotic disorders, and recurrent and chronic depression. These findings can be useful in developing treatment guidelines for patients with somatic symptoms.

  5. Chinese American adolescents: perceived parenting styles and adolescents' psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuwen, W; Chen, A C C

    2013-06-01

    Asian Americans are one of the fastest-growing minority groups in the USA, and Chinese constitute the largest group. Evidence suggests that Asian American adolescents experience higher levels of depressive symptoms than their same-gender white counterparts. Quantitative findings suggest associations between parenting factors and Chinese American adolescents' mental health. A qualitative understanding regarding Chinese American adolescents' perceived parenting styles and its relationship with adolescents' psychosocial health is warranted. To gain an in-depth understanding of Chinese American adolescents' perceived parenting styles and how parenting styles might influence adolescents' psychosocial health. In this qualitative study, we recruited 15 Chinese American adolescents aged 12-17 years in a southwest metropolitan area. We conducted two focus group interviews. Participants also filled out a brief questionnaire that included their socio-demographic information, immigration history and level of acculturation. Participants reported perceiving that parents had high expectations about academic performance and moral values. They also perceived stricter family rules regarding choices of friends compared with their non-Asian peers. Parents tended to be more protective of girls than of boys. Both Chinese American boys and girls reported poor or ineffective communication with their parents, which contributed to increased conflict between parents and adolescents and emotional distress of the adolescents. The findings provide evidence for nurses to develop linguistically and culturally tailored resources (e.g. parent support groups, programs aimed to improving parent-child communication) or connect these families with existing resources to enhance parenting skills and consequently reduce emotional distress of their adolescent children. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.

  6. POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME: CLINICAL PRESENTATION IN NORMAL-WEIGHT COMPARED WITH OVERWEIGHT ADOLESCENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Shilpa S.; Levitsky, Lynne L.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adolescents and determine whether a distinct clinical presentation differentiates normal-weight (NW) from overweight (OW) PCOS. Methods Retrospective chart review of patients seen in a tertiary care center from 1998-2008 who met the National Institutes of Health and/or Rotterdam criteria for PCOS (N = 211; NW = 43, OW = 168). We collected data on clinical features, biochemical markers, and ultrasound findings. Results Patient age ranged from 11.3 to 20.3 years (mean, 15.7 ± 1.7 years), and body mass index (BMI) from 17.4 to 64.2 kg/m2 (mean, 31.7 ± 7.7 kg/m2). Seventy-one percent of patients were Caucasian, 85% had irregular menses, 69% reported hirsutism, 18% had moderate to severe acne, 91% had a high free androgen index (FAI), and 8% had abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. The BMI-standard deviation (SD) score was 0.1 ± 0.5 in NW and 3.4 ± 1.8 in OW girls. NW girls were older at diagnosis (16.4 ± 1.4 years vs. 15.5 ± 1.7 years; P = .0006) than OW girls, less likely to have a family history of obesity (22% vs. 65%; P<.0001), and less likely to have acanthosis nigricans (11% vs. 68%; P<.0001). NW girls were more likely to have polycystic ovaries on ultrasound (88% vs. 52%; P = .01) and a lower FAI (7.3 ± 4.5 vs. 17.4 ± 12.9; P<.0001). The BMI-SD score was negatively associated with sex hormone binding globulin (rs = −0.52; P<.0001) and positively associated with FAI (rs = 0.42; P<.0001). Conclusion NW girls are more likely to be older at diagnosis and have polycystic ovaries. Other differences in presentation between groups were attributable to differences in weight. NW PCOS is likely part of a continuous spectrum of clinical PCOS rather than a distinct entity. PMID:23816935

  7. Comparing the Experiences and Needs of Postsecondary International Students from China and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deters, Ping

    2015-01-01

    International students from China and South Korea are an increasingly important part of the international student body in many English-medium postsecondary institutions. The purpose of this qualitative study was to gain a deeper understanding of the experiences and needs of these two groups of students at a Canadian postsecondary institution. Data…

  8. A Comparative Study of Student Engagement, Satisfaction, and Academic Success among International and American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Nadia; Starobin, Soko S.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between student engagement, student satisfaction, and the academic success of international and American students using 2008 National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) data. It was found that international students scored slightly higher than American students on enriching educational experiences and…

  9. Comparing internal and external run-time coupling of CFD and building energy simulation software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djunaedy, E.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a comparison between internal and external run-time coupling of CFD and building energy simulation software. Internal coupling can be seen as the "traditional" way of developing software, i.e. the capabilities of existing software are expanded by merging codes. With external

  10. Debt and Equity in Domestic and International Tax Law : A Comparative Policy Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Martin; Schön, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The demarcation between debt and equity is a long-standing core constituent of company and taxation law the world over. However, its sustainability for national and international taxation regimes is increasingly the subject of doubt. Domestic and international proposals for reform are directed

  11. F247. INTERNALIZED STIGMA HAS A STRONGER RELATIONSHIP WITH INTRINSIC MOTIVATION COMPARED TO AMOTIVATION IN EARLY PHASE AND PROLONGED SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Ruth; Luther, Lauren; Lysaker, Paul; Vohs, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Motivation deficits predict decreased functioning in schizophrenia. Recent work suggests deficits reflect challenges in separate domains: intrinsic motivation (one’s internal drive to engage in a behavior out of enjoyment or interest) and amotivation (one’s broader decrease in motivated behavior linked to avolition and anhedonia). Internalized stigma is another determinant of functioning for people with schizophrenia that may impact motivation. However, little is known about these relationships, including which aspects of motivation it may impact nor when these links emerge. Identifying the link between these constructs may help to identify whether internalized stigma may be a novel treatment target to facilitate improvements in motivation. Methods Forty adults with early phase schizophrenia and 66 adults with prolonged schizophrenia completed measures of internalized stigma, intrinsic motivation, and amotivation. Pearson’s correlations were examined followed by Fischer’s r-to-z transformations to compare differences in the magnitude of associations between internalized stigma and intrinsic motivation and internalized stigma and amotivation among the first episode and prolonged samples. Next, we conducted stepwise regressions to examine whether internalized stigma was associated with intrinsic motivation above and beyond associations with amotivation in each sample. Results In the early phase sample, the association between internalized stigma was greater with intrinsic motivation (r=-0.48, p=.00) compared to amotivation (r=0.27, p=0.10). Associations with internalized stigma in the prolonged sample were also greater with intrinsic motivation (r=-0.30, p=0.02) versus amotivation (r=0.19, p=0.12). The magnitude of the associations between internalized stigma and intrinsic motivation (z=1.03, p=0.15) and between internalized stigma and amotivation (z=0.41, p = 0.34) did not significantly differ when comparing phase of illness. Regression

  12. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice show elevated alcohol intake, but reduced taste aversion, as compared to adult mice: a potential behavioral mechanism for binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Sarah E; Spanos, Marina; Hodge, Clyde W

    2011-10-01

    Binge alcohol drinking during adolescence is a serious health problem that may increase future risk of an alcohol use disorder. Although there are several different procedures by which to preclinically model binge-like alcohol intake, limited-access procedures offer the advantage of achieving high voluntary alcohol intake and pharmacologically relevant blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). Therefore, in the current study, developmental differences in binge-like alcohol drinking using a limited-access cycling procedure were examined. In addition, as alcohol drinking has been negatively correlated with sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, we examined developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Binge-like alcohol consumption was investigated in adolescent (4 weeks) and adult (10 weeks) male C57BL/6J mice for 2 to 4 h/d for 16 days. Developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced CTA were examined in adolescent and adult mice, with saline or alcohol (3 or 4 g/kg) repeatedly paired with the intake of a novel tastant (NaCl). Adolescent mice showed a significant increase in alcohol intake as compared to adults, with adolescents achieving higher BACs and increasing alcohol consumption over successive cycles of the binge procedure. Conversely, adolescent mice exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, as compared to adult mice, with adolescent mice failing to develop a CTA to 3 g/kg alcohol. Finally, extinction of an alcohol CTA was observed following conditioning with a higher dose of alcohol in adolescent, versus adult, mice. These results indicate that adolescent mice consume more alcohol, per kilogram body weight, than adults in a binge-like model of alcohol drinking and demonstrate a blunted sensitivity to the conditioned aversive effects of alcohol. Overall, this supports a behavioral framework by which heightened binge alcohol intake during

  13. Self-esteem and psychiatric features of Turkish adolescents with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures: a comparative study with epilepsy and healthy control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Say, Gokçe N; Tasdemir, Haydar A; Akbas, Seher; Yüce, Murat; Karabekiroglu, Koray

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) and epilepsy are known to have psychosocial problems. The aim of the present study was to compare the psychosocial difficulties, history of stressful life events/abuse, psychiatric diagnosis, and self-esteem of adolescents with PNES to the ones with epilepsy and healthy controls at a tertiary care center in Turkey. Thirty-four adolescents with PNES diagnosed by video-EEG were compared with 23 adolescents that have epilepsy and 35 healthy volunteers. Comorbid psychiatric diagnoses of participants were examined by semi-structured interviews using Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (KSADS-PL). Self-esteem of adolescents was evaluated by Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES). No differences in sociodemographic features were observed between the groups. The PNES group showed significantly higher rates of parental conflicts, difficulties in relationship with siblings/peers, school under-achievement, and history of stressful events/abuse. The rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders were 64.7% in PNES and 47.8% in epilepsy group. The most common disorders in both groups were attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depressive disorder. The rate of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was significantly increased in the PNES group. Additionally, adolescents with PNES displayed significantly lower levels of self-esteem than the other groups. It could be concluded that both disorders involved a high risk for developing psychiatric disorders; additionally, adolescents with PNES have higher rates of stressors and lower levels of self-esteem. Findings from this investigation point to the importance of psychiatric interventions in pediatric PNES and also epilepsy.

  14. Feasibility of extracting data from electronic medical records for research: an international comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Mastellos, Nikolaos; Majeed, Azeem; O'Donoghue, John; Car, Josip

    2016-07-13

    Electronic medical records (EMR) offer a major potential for secondary use of data for research which can improve the safety, quality and efficiency of healthcare. They also enable the measurement of disease burden at the population level. However, the extent to which this is feasible in different countries is not well known. This study aimed to: 1) assess information governance procedures for extracting data from EMR in 16 countries; and 2) explore the extent of EMR adoption and the quality and consistency of EMR data in 7 countries, using management of diabetes type 2 patients as an exemplar. We included 16 countries from Australia, Asia, the Middle East, and Europe to the Americas. We undertook a multi-method approach including both an online literature review and structured interviews with 59 stakeholders, including 25 physicians, 23 academics, 7 EMR providers, and 4 information commissioners. Data were analysed and synthesised thematically considering the most relevant issues. We found that procedures for information governance, levels of adoption and data quality varied across the countries studied. The required time and ease of obtaining approval also varies widely. While some countries seem ready for secondary uses of data from EMR, in other countries several barriers were found, including limited experience with using EMR data for research, lack of standard policies and procedures, bureaucracy, confidentiality, data security concerns, technical issues and costs. This is the first international comparative study to shed light on the feasibility of extracting EMR data across a number of countries. The study will inform future discussions and development of policies that aim to accelerate the adoption of EMR systems in high and middle income countries and seize the rich potential for secondary use of data arising from the use of EMR solutions.

  15. Dosimetric Advantages of Midventilation Compared With Internal Target Volume for Radiation Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lens, Eelco, E-mail: e.lens@amc.uva.nl; Horst, Astrid van der; Versteijne, Eva; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Bel, Arjan

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: The midventilation (midV) approach can be used to take respiratory-induced pancreatic tumor motion into account during radiation therapy. In this study, the dosimetric consequences for organs at risk and tumor coverage of using a midV approach compared with using an internal target volume (ITV) were investigated. Methods and Materials: For each of the 18 patients, 2 treatment plans (25 × 2.0 Gy) were created, 1 using an ITV and 1 using a midV approach. The midV dose distribution was blurred using the respiratory-induced motion from 4-dimensional computed tomography. The resulting planning target volume (PTV) coverage for this blurred dose distribution was analyzed; PTV coverage was required to be at least V{sub 95%} >98%. In addition, the change in PTV size and the changes in V{sub 10Gy}, V{sub 20Gy}, V{sub 30Gy}, V{sub 40Gy}, D{sub mean} and D{sub 2cc} for the stomach and for the duodenum were analyzed; differences were tested for significance using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Using a midV approach resulted in sufficient target coverage. A highly significant PTV size reduction of 13.9% (P<.001) was observed. Also, all dose parameters for the stomach and duodenum, except the D{sub 2cc} of the duodenum, improved significantly (P≤.002). Conclusions: By using the midV approach to account for respiratory-induced tumor motion, a significant PTV reduction and significant dose reductions to the stomach and to the duodenum can be achieved when irradiating pancreatic tumors.

  16. Dosimetric Advantages of Midventilation Compared With Internal Target Volume for Radiation Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lens, Eelco; Horst, Astrid van der; Versteijne, Eva; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Bel, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The midventilation (midV) approach can be used to take respiratory-induced pancreatic tumor motion into account during radiation therapy. In this study, the dosimetric consequences for organs at risk and tumor coverage of using a midV approach compared with using an internal target volume (ITV) were investigated. Methods and Materials: For each of the 18 patients, 2 treatment plans (25 × 2.0 Gy) were created, 1 using an ITV and 1 using a midV approach. The midV dose distribution was blurred using the respiratory-induced motion from 4-dimensional computed tomography. The resulting planning target volume (PTV) coverage for this blurred dose distribution was analyzed; PTV coverage was required to be at least V 95% >98%. In addition, the change in PTV size and the changes in V 10Gy , V 20Gy , V 30Gy , V 40Gy , D mean and D 2cc for the stomach and for the duodenum were analyzed; differences were tested for significance using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Using a midV approach resulted in sufficient target coverage. A highly significant PTV size reduction of 13.9% (P<.001) was observed. Also, all dose parameters for the stomach and duodenum, except the D 2cc of the duodenum, improved significantly (P≤.002). Conclusions: By using the midV approach to account for respiratory-induced tumor motion, a significant PTV reduction and significant dose reductions to the stomach and to the duodenum can be achieved when irradiating pancreatic tumors

  17. Association of Acculturative Stress, Islamic Practices, and Internalizing Symptoms among Arab American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Anisa N.; Pham, Andy V.; Chun, Heejung; Castro-Olivo, Sara M.; Yosai, Erin R.

    2016-01-01

    Although the numbers of Arab American immigrant youth in schools is increasing, there is little understanding of their mental health and the sociocultural factors that might influence it. This study examined the relationship between 2 sociocultural factors (i.e., acculturative stress and religious practices) and internalizing symptoms in first-…

  18. International Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Psychopathology I: Diagnoses, Dimensions, and Conceptual Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Thomas M.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Ivanova, Masha Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To review international findings on the prevalence of diagnosed disorders, generalizability of dimensional scales, and distributions of dimensional scores for school-age children and to address the conceptual and clinical issues raised by the findings. Method: A review of findings for interviews (Development and Well-Being Assessment,…

  19. Mediators of the Associations between Externalizing Behaviors and Internalizing Symptoms in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Minglee; Fleming, Charles B.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the predictive associations between externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms and examines the mediating roles of social competence, parent-child conflicts, and academic achievement. Using youth-, parent-, and teacher-reported longitudinal data on a sample of 523 boys and 460 girls from late childhood to early…

  20. Comparing sports vision among three groups of soft tennis adolescent athletes: Normal vision, refractive errors with and without correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Tsun Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of correcting static vision on sports vision is still not clear. Aim: To examine whether sports vision (depth perception [DP], dynamic visual acuity [DVA], eye movement [EM], peripheral vision [PV], and momentary vision [MV], were different among soft tennis adolescent athletes with normal vision (Group A, with refractive error and corrected with (Group B and without eyeglasses (Group C. Setting and Design: A cross-section study was conducted. Soft tennis athletes aged 10–13 who played softball tennis for 2–5 years, and who were without any ocular diseases and without visual training for the past 3 months were recruited. Materials and Methods: DPs were measured in an absolute deviation (mm between a moving rod and fixing rod (approaching at 25 mm/s, receding at 25 mm/s, approaching at 50 mm/s, receding at 50 mm/s using electric DP tester. A smaller deviation represented better DP. DVA, EM, PV, and MV were measured on a scale from 1 (worse to 10 (best using ATHLEVISION software. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare the data among the three study groups. Results: A total of 73 athletes (37 in Group A, 8 in Group B, 28 in Group C were enrolled in this study. All four items of DP showed significant difference among the three study groups (P = 0.0051, 0.0004, 0.0095, 0.0021. PV displayed significant difference among the three study groups (P = 0.0044. There was no significant difference in DVA, EM, and MV among the three study groups. Conclusions: Significant better DP and PV were seen among soft tennis adolescent athletes with normal vision than those with refractive error regardless whether they had eyeglasses corrected. On the other hand, DVA, EM, and MV were similar among the three study groups.

  1. Comparing Self-Report Measures of Internalized Weight Stigma: The Weight Self-Stigma Questionnaire versus the Weight Bias Internalization Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Hübner

    Full Text Available Internalized weight stigma has gained growing interest due to its association with multiple health impairments in individuals with obesity. Especially high internalized weight stigma is reported by individuals undergoing bariatric surgery. For assessing this concept, two different self-report questionnaires are available, but have never been compared: the Weight Self-Stigma Questionnaire (WSSQ and the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS. The purpose of the present study was to provide and to compare reliability, convergent validity with and predictive values for psychosocial health outcomes for the WSSQ and WBIS.The WSSQ and the WBIS were used to assess internalized weight stigma in N = 78 prebariatric surgery patients. Further, body mass index (BMI was assessed and body image, quality of life, self-esteem, depression, and anxiety were measured by well-established self-report questionnaires. Reliability, correlation, and regression analyses were conducted.Internal consistency of the WSSQ was acceptable, while good internal consistency was found for the WBIS. Both measures were significantly correlated with each other and body image. While only the WSSQ was correlated with overweight preoccupation, only the WBIS was correlated with appearance evaluation. Both measures were not associated with BMI. However, correlation coefficients did not differ between the WSSQ and the WBIS for all associations with validity measures. Further, both measures significantly predicted quality of life, self-esteem, depression, and anxiety, while the WBIS explained significantly more variance than the WSSQ total score for self-esteem.Findings indicate the WSSQ and the WBIS to be reliable and valid assessments of internalized weight stigma in prebariatric surgery patients, although the WBIS showed marginally more favorable results than the WSSQ. For both measures, longitudinal studies on stability and predictive validity are warranted, for example, for weight

  2. The effects of the interplay of genetics and early environmental risk on the course of internalizing symptoms from late childhood through adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musci, Rashelle J; Masyn, Katherine E; Benke, Kelly; Maher, Brion; Uhl, George; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2016-02-01

    Internalizing symptoms during adolescence and beyond is a major public health concern, particularly because severe symptoms can lead to the diagnosis of a number of serious psychiatric conditions. This study utilizes a unique sample with a complex statistical method in order to explore Gene × Environment interactions found in internalizing symptoms during adolescence. Data for this study were drawn from a longitudinal prevention intervention study (n = 798) of Baltimore city school children. Internalizing symptom data were collected using self-report and blood or saliva samples genotyped using Affymetrix 6.0 microarrays. A major depression polygenic score was created for each individual using information from the major depressive disorder Psychiatric Genetics Consortium and used as a predictor in a latent trait-state-occasion model. The major depressive disorder polygenic score was a significant predictor of the stable latent trait variable, which captures time-independent phenotypic variability. In addition, an early childhood stressor of death or divorce was a significant predictor of occasion-specific variables. A Gene × Environment interaction was not a significant predictor of the latent trait or occasion variables. These findings support the importance of genetics on the stable latent trait portion of internalizing symptoms across adolescence.

  3. Girls feeling good at school: School gender environment, internalization and awareness of socio-cultural attitudes associations with self-esteem in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Victoria L; Haase, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    As society continues to advocate an unrealistically thin body shape, awareness and internalization of appearance and its consequent impact upon self-esteem has become increasingly of concern, particularly in adolescent girls. School gender environment may influence these factors, but remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to assess differences between two different school environments in appearance attitudes, social influences and associations with self-esteem. Two hundred and twelve girls (M = 13.8 years) attending either a single-sex or co-educational school completed measures on socio-cultural attitudes towards appearance, social support and self-esteem. Though marginal differences between school environments were found, significantly higher internalization was reported among girls at the co-educational school. School environment moderated relations between internalization and self-esteem such that girls in co-educational environments had poorer self-esteem stemming from greater internalization. Thus, in a single-sex school environment, protective factors may attenuate negative associations between socio-cultural attitudes towards appearance and self-esteem in adolescent girls. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Adoptive parenting and attachment: association of the internal working models between adoptive mothers and their late-adopted children during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Cecilia S; Di Folco, Simona; Guerriero, Viviana; Santona, Alessandra; Terrone, Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Recent literature has shown that the good outcome of adoption would mostly depend on the quality of adoptive parenting, which is strongly associated with the security of parental internal working models (IWMs) of attachment. Specifically, attachment states-of-mind of adoptive mothers classified as free and autonomous and without lack of resolution of loss or trauma could represent a good protective factor for adopted children, previously maltreated and neglected. While most research on adoptive families focused on pre-school and school-aged children, the aim of this study was to assess the concordance of IWMs of attachment in adoptive dyads during adolescence. Our pilot-study involved 76 participants: 30 adoptive mothers (mean age = 51.5 ± 4.3), and their 46 late-adopted adolescents (mean age = 13.9 ± 1.6), who were all aged 4-9 years old at time of adoption (mean age = 6.3 ± 1.5). Attachment representations of adopted adolescents were assessed by the Friend and Family Interview (FFI), while adoptive mothers' state-of-mind with respect to attachment was classified by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Adolescents' verbal intelligence was controlled for. Late-adopted adolescents were classified as follows: 67% secure, 26% dismissing, and 7% preoccupied in the FFI, while their adoptive mothers' AAI classifications were 70% free-autonomous, 7% dismissing, and 23% unresolved. We found a significant concordance of 70% (32 dyads) between the secure-insecure FFI and AAI classifications. Specifically adoptive mothers with high coherence of transcript and low unresolved loss tend to have late-adopted children with high secure attachment, even if the adolescents' verbal intelligence made a significant contribution to this prediction. Our results provides an empirical contribution to the literature concerning the concordance of attachment in adoptive dyads, highlighting the beneficial impact of highly coherent states-of-mind of adoptive mothers on the attachment

  5. From birth to adolescence: Vienna 2005 European Childhood Obesity Group International Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrobelli, A; Flodmark, C E; Lissau, I; Moreno, L A; Widhalm, K

    2005-09-01

    In the last 15 y there has been a tremendous increase in the number of studies on pediatric obesity looking at epidemiology, health-related risks, etiology, methodology and treatment. During the early 1990s, the European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG) was born as a group of scientists' expert in the field of pediatric obesity. ECOG this year celebrates the approach to early maturity with an excited and omni-comprehensive program developing through eight different tracks. Comments on different 'key' papers in each of the eight tracks. The eight tracks were (1) Nutrition requirements and food habits, (2) physical activity, (3) prevention and political actions/strategies, (4) diabetes, (5) metabolism, (6) psychology, (7) pathology, and (8) treatment with emphasis on drugs. Looking at the overall picture of the ECOG workshop we could conclude that despite the fact that childhood obesity is a crisis facing worldwide youth, it is necessary that action to control it must be taken now. All the six relevant levels (ie, family, schools, health professionals, government, industry and media) could be involved in prevention of child and adolescent obesity.

  6. Do employers value international study and internships? A comparative analysis of 31 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mol, C.

    2017-01-01

    International student mobility is often promoted as enhancing graduates’ employability in globalised labour markets. Nevertheless, empirical evidence on this assumed causal link remains limited. Particularly the perspectives of employers remains understudied. Therefore, in this paper I analyse (1)

  7. A Comparative Study of the International Perspectives of Six-Graders in Taipei and Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Chun Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of globalization, it has become increasingly important for all citizens to possess an international perspective. The trend of internationalizing educational systems has also emerged in various countries. Thus, to explore the degree to which students can possess international perspectives is an important topic worthy of studying. The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire to investigate the current status of the international perspectives of and the differences between sixth graders in Taipei and Shanghai. A total of 1,300 sixth -graders were randomly stratified from the two cities, with 1,111 valid questionnaires returned for further analysis. A significant difference was found in sixth graders’ international perspectives between the two cities. Differences of their demographic characteristics were also identified. More similarities than differences in their backgrounds and experiences were identified. Both similarities and differences were also found in their parents’ level of education and occupation.

  8. Some gender issues in educational computer use: results of an international comparative survey

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen Reinen, I.A.M.; Plomp, T.

    1993-01-01

    In the framework of the Computers in Education international study of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), data have been collected concerning the use of computers in 21 countries. This article examines some results regarding the involvement of women in the implementation and use of computers in the educational practice of elementary, lower secondary and upper secondary education in participating countries. The results show that in many countries ...

  9. Varieties of glocalisation: the international economic strategies of Amsterdam, Manchester, and Zurich compared

    OpenAIRE

    Nico van der Heiden; Pieter Terhorst

    2007-01-01

    Our aim in this paper is to explain the international strategies of cities by focusing on market conditions. Drawing on a critique of the glocalisation thesis we show that the design of these strategies can plausibly be explained by the specific characteristics of urban capitalism found in the different cities. Whereas the international strategy of Manchester must be seen as a response to problems of postindustrial restrictions, the importance of the logistic sector in Dutch capitalism strong...

  10. What Deters Crime? Comparing the Effectiveness of Legal, Social, and Internal Sanctions Across Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Heather; Garcia-Rada, Ximena; Hornuf, Lars; Tafurt, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The question of what deters crime is of both theoretical and practical interest. The present paper focuses on what factors deter minor, non-violent crimes, i.e. dishonest actions that violate the law. Much research has been devoted to testing the effectiveness of legal sanctions on crime, while newer models also include social sanctions (judgment of friends or family) and internal sanctions (feelings of guilt). Existing research suggests that both internal sanctions and, to a lesser extent...

  11. Emotion Recognition in Animated Compared to Human Stimuli in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark; Johnson, Hilary; Grawmeyer, Beate; Chapman, Emma; Benton, Laura

    2015-01-01

    There is equivocal evidence as to whether there is a deficit in recognising emotional expressions in Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study compared emotion recognition in ASD in three types of emotion expression media (still image, dynamic image, auditory) across human stimuli (e.g. photo of a human face) and animated stimuli (e.g. cartoon…

  12. What Deters Crime? Comparing the Effectiveness of Legal, Social, and Internal Sanctions Across Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Heather; Garcia-Rada, Ximena; Hornuf, Lars; Tafurt, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The question of what deters crime is of both theoretical and practical interest. The present paper focuses on what factors deter minor, non-violent crimes, i.e., dishonest actions that violate the law. Much research has been devoted to testing the effectiveness of legal sanctions on crime, while newer models also include social sanctions (judgment of friends or family) and internal sanctions (feelings of guilt). Existing research suggests that both internal sanctions and, to a lesser extent, legal sanctions deter crime, but it is unclear whether this pattern is unique to Western countries or robust across cultures. We administered a survey study to participants in China, Colombia, Germany, Portugal, and USA, five countries from distinct cultural regions of the world. Participants were asked to report the likelihood of engaging in seven dishonest and illegal actions, and were asked to indicate the probability and severity of consequences for legal, friend, family, and internal sanctions. Results indicated that across countries, internal sanctions had the strongest deterrent effects on crime. The deterrent effects of legal sanctions were weaker and varied across countries. Furthermore, the deterrent effects of legal sanctions were strongest when internal sanctions were lax. Unexpectedly, social sanctions were positively related to likelihood of engaging in crime. Taken together, these results suggest that the relative strengths of legal and internal sanctions are robust across cultures and dishonest actions.

  13. What Deters Crime? Comparing the Effectiveness of Legal, Social, and Internal Sanctions Across Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather eMann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The question of what deters crime is of both theoretical and practical interest. The present paper focuses on what factors deter minor, non-violent crimes, i.e. dishonest actions that violate the law. Much research has been devoted to testing the effectiveness of legal sanctions on crime, while newer models also include social sanctions (judgment of friends or family and internal sanctions (feelings of guilt. Existing research suggests that both internal sanctions and, to a lesser extent, legal sanctions deter crime, but it is unclear whether this pattern is unique to Western countries or robust across cultures. We administered a survey study to participants in China, Colombia, Germany, Portugal, and USA, five countries from distinct cultural regions of the world. Participants were asked to report the likelihood of engaging in seven dishonest and illegal actions, and were asked to indicate the probability and severity of consequences for legal, friend, family, and internal sanctions. Results indicated that across countries, internal sanctions had the strongest deterrent effects on crime. The deterrent effects of legal sanctions were weaker and varied across countries. Furthermore, the deterrent effects of legal sanctions were strongest when internal sanctions were lax. Unexpectedly, social sanctions were positively related to likelihood of engaging in crime. Taken together, these results suggest that the relative strengths of legal and internal sanctions are robust across cultures and dishonest actions.

  14. Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André W.E.A. De Zutter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available False allegations constitute a problem since they may cause harm. To study the difference between true and false allegations we used a quasi-experimental approach. In the control condition likely true allegations were retrieved from criminal files. The victims, all female, were between the ages of 17 and 53 (M=28.0, SD=10.6. In the experimental condition women were invited to file a false allegation. Participants, all female, in the experimental conditions were between the ages of 18 and 52 (M=28.0, SD=10.6. We constructed a list of 187 variables based on our theory of fabricated rape. All items in the list were coded dichotomously. All variables that were coded as ‘present’ within cases were summed to obtain a total score; an independent t-test was used. The results of the control condition (N=30 were compared with the experimental condition (N=35 by use of chi-square tests. A Holm-Bonferoni method with Šidák correction was used to correct for the increased family-wise error rate. The independent t-test showed a significant difference between the mean number of present-coding of likely true allegations, (M=59.13, SD=11.00 and of false allegations (M=35.74, SD=9.33, t(63=9.28, p<.0001, d=2.34. Thus, significantly more variables were coded ‘present’ in likely true allegations. Fabricated stories of rape lack pseudo-intimate behavior and a wide variety of sexual acts. Also, in almost all fabricated stories of rape the attack was completed in less than 15minutes while in likely true allegations the attack sometimes took over 60minutes before it was completed. In conclusion, true and false allegations diverge from each other in essentials of the story told by the complainant. The differences could be used to predict the true nature of a rape allegation.

  15. Convergence in Reports of Adolescents' Psychopathology: A Focus on Disorganized Attachment and Reflective Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Jessica L; Palmer, Alexandra; Vanwoerden, Salome; Sharp, Carla

    2017-12-13

    Although convergence in parent-youth reports of adolescent psychopathology is critical for treatment planning, research documents a pervasive lack of agreement in ratings of adolescents' symptoms. Attachment insecurity (particularly disorganized attachment) and impoverished reflective functioning (RF) are 2 theoretically implicated predictors of low convergence that have not been examined in the literature. In a cross-sectional investigation of adolescents receiving inpatient psychiatric treatment, we examined whether disorganized attachment and low (adolescent and parent) RF were associated with patterns of convergence in adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Compared with organized adolescents, disorganized adolescents had lower parent-youth convergence in reports of their internalizing symptoms and higher convergence in reports of their externalizing symptoms; low adolescent self-focused RF was associated with low convergence in parent-adolescent reports of internalizing symptoms, whereas low adolescent global RF was associated with high convergence in parent-adolescent reports of externalizing symptoms. Among adolescents receiving inpatient psychiatric treatment, disorganized attachment and lower RF were associated with weaker internalizing symptom convergence and greater externalizing symptom convergence, which if replicated, could inform assessment strategies and treatment planning in this setting.

  16. Overview and comparative study of GPR international standards and guidelines - COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian; Benedetto, Andrea; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar." The Authors thank COST (www.cost.eu) for funding the Action TU1208 (www.GPRadar.eu). Part of this work was carried out during the Short-Term Scientific Mission STSM-TU1208-24656 "Comparative study of GPR international standards and guidelines" (Dr Lara Pajewski, Italy, visiting Prof Marian Marciniak, Poland).

  17. An Exploration into Self Concept: A Comparative Analysis between the Adolescents Who Are Sighted and Blind in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Santoshi; Datta, Poulomee

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the self concept of adolescents who are sighted and blind with respect to gender in India. The sample was made up of 160 participants aged 15 to 18 years: of whom 100 were sighted and 60 were blind. The results of the t-tests illustrated that sighted male adolescents scored higher in the overall…

  18. Familial Predictors of Sibling and Romantic-Partner Conflict Resolution: Comparing Late Adolescents from Intact and Divorced Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese-Weber, M.; Kahn, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined whether predictors of romantic-partner conflict may vary as a function of family structure. Using a cross-sectional design, we tested a mediation model of conflict resolution behaviours among late adolescents from intact (n=185) and divorced (n=87) families. Adolescents rated conflict resolution behaviours in five dyadic…

  19. Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement: A Comparative Study of Adolescent Students in England and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Gerard, Jean M.

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing mixed methodology, this paper investigates the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement for young adolescents within two Western cultural contexts: the United States and England. Quantitative and qualitative data from 86 North American and 86 British adolescents were utilized to examine the links between self-esteem and…

  20. Gestational age specific neonatal survival in the State of Qatar (2003-2008) - a comparative study with international benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Sajjad; Salameh, Khalil; Al-Rifai, Hilal; Masoud, Ahmed; Lutfi, Samawal; Salama, Husam; Abdoh, Ghassan; Omar, Fahmi; Bener, Abdulbari

    2011-09-01

    To analyze and compare the current gestational age specific neonatal survival rates between Qatar and international benchmarks. An analytical comparative study. Women's Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar, from 2003-2008. Six year's (2003-2008) gestational age specific neonatal mortality data was stratified for each completed week of gestation at birth from 24 weeks till term. The data from World Health Statistics by WHO (2010), Vermont Oxford Network (VON, 2007) and National Statistics United Kingdom (2006) were used as international benchmarks for comparative analysis. A total of 82,002 babies were born during the study period. Qatar's neonatal mortality rate (NMR) dropped from 6/1000 in 2003 to 4.3/1000 in 2008 (p Qatar were comparable with international benchmarks. The survival of Qatar (p=0.01 and p 32 weeks babies was better in UK (p=0.01) as compared to Qatar. The relative risk (RR) of death decreased with increasing gestational age (p Qatar. The current total and gestational age specific neonatal survival rates in the State of Qatar are comparable with international benchmarks. In Qatar, persistently high rates of low birth weight and lethal chromosomal and congenital anomalies significantly contribute towards neonatal mortality.

  1. Gender differences and the influence of classroom discussion on adolescents' relationship to the threat of nuclear war after international crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the differences in attitudes of females and males to the stress of living under the threat of nuclear war with respect to sex and nuclear education. The differences in attitudes of 231 adolescents, from five California schools, aged 15-18, were analyzed. They were asked three questions regarding nuclear war within 2 weeks of the shooting down of Korean Airliner 007 in 1983. A quantitative content analysis was used to assess gender and educational influences on the responses to the three questions which were: Do I think there will be a war? Do I care? Why? and What do I think about fallout shelters? Theoretical constructs of Chodorow and Gilligan were used to relate recent developments in the psychology of women to issues of war and peace. There were significant gender differences with respect to adolescents' opinions on nuclear war. Compared to males, the expression of loss of family or friends, fear, humanitarian concerns, and blaming was significantly higher in females, while knowledge of fallout shelters was significantly lower. For both males and females, verbal anger was expressed equally. One hundred twelve students who had no education on nuclear war were compared with 119 students who had informal classroom discussion on nuclear war. With informal nuclear education, females had decreased expression of local loss and males increased expression of self loss. Both males and females with informal nuclear education had decreased their expression of blame. For females, the knowledge of fallout shelters was increased. Both males and females cited the shooting down of KAL/007, only 12.6% suggesting that psyche numbing can occur for knowledge as well as affect. Both males and females offered few solutions to nuclear war, a possible manifestation of an attitude of hopelessness in our youth

  2. Diagnostic Classification of Eating Disorders in Children and Adolescents: How Does DSM-IV-TR Compare to Empirically-Derived Categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Kamryn T.; Le Grange, Daniel; Crosby, Ross D.; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Doyle, Angela Celio; Smyth, Angela; Herzog, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to empirically derive eating disorder phenotypes in a clinical sample of children and adolescents using latent profile analysis (LPA), and to compare these latent profile (LP) groups to the DSM-IV-TR eating disorder categories. Method: Eating disorder symptom data collected from 401 youth (aged 7 through 19…

  3. The Effects of Discourses in Regional Contexts on the Development of Curriculum-Based Literacy Standards for Adolescents in Schooling: A Comparative Study of South Australia and Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Lisl

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses how discourses in regional contexts affect the development of curriculum-based literacy standards for adolescents in schooling. A comparative case-study research design enabled the influences of discourses at the regional level to be analysed. The case studies include the development of curricula to define a minimum literacy…

  4. Does the Model Matter? Comparing Video Self-Modeling and Video Adult Modeling for Task Acquisition and Maintenance by Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihak, David F.; Schrader, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of learning and maintaining vocational chain tasks using video self-modeling and video adult modeling instruction. Four adolescents with autism spectrum disorders were taught vocational and prevocational skills. Although both video modeling conditions were effective for…

  5. A 1-year follow-up evaluation of a sexual-health education program for Spanish adolescents compared with a well-established program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Alexandra; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia

    2016-02-01

    Competencies for adolescents with a healthy sexuality (COMPAS) is the only school-based sexual health promotion program in Spain that has been found to be as effective as an evidence-based intervention (¡Cuídate!) in the short term. This study's aim was to compare data from a 12-month follow-up evaluation on the effects of COMPAS on adolescents' sexual risks (knowledge, attitudes, perceived norms, sexual risk perception and intentions) and sexual behaviours (age of the first sex, consistent condom use and multiple partners) with an evidence-based intervention (¡Cuídate!) and a control group. Eighteen schools from five provinces of Spain were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: COMPAS, ¡Cuídate! and a control group. The adolescents (N = 1563; 34% attrition) were evaluated 1 week before and after the program, and 1 year post-program implementation. We found that the COMPAS program was as effective as ¡Cuídate!, the evidence-based program, in increasing the adolescents' knowledge about sexually transmitted infections and in fostering favourable attitudes about condom use and people living with HIV/AIDS. COMPAS was more effective than ¡Cuídate! in increasing the adolescents' perceptions of their peer's consistent condom use and the age delay of their first vaginal intercourse. However, it was less effective in maintaining the adolescents' intentions to use condoms and in delaying the age of their first oral sex experience. COMPAS was as effective as ¡Cuídate! in reducing sexual risk among adolescents. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  6. Weight concerns and food habits of adolescent girls in two contrasting ecological regions: A comparative study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Nivedita; Mishra, Shailendra Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Susmita

    2016-01-01

    To compare the incidence of weight concerns and food habits between two ethnically different groups of adolescent girls residing in two distinct ecological settings: the plains of Kolkata and the mountains of Sikkim. Two separate cross-sectional studies were conducted within a period of five years in urban hilly areas of Sikkim and the city of Kolkata, India. A total of 506 girls aged 14-19 years were selected from the study areas of Sikkim (n=224) and Kolkata (n=282). Girls were interviewed for weight concerns and food habits along with socio-demographic characteristics. Weight concerns were assessed with four variables such as, perceptions about own body weight, felt dissatisfied with own body weight, urge for dieting and use of weight reduction diet. Food habits included consumption of major foods during the past one week. Bivariate analyses showed that Kolkata girls perceived themselves as overweight, remained dissatisfied with body weight, expressed perceived need for dieting and followed weight reduction diet more compared to the girls of Sikkim. Food habits indicated that all Sikkimese girls preferred to consume cereals regularly, while Kolkata girls consumed vegetables, pulses, fish, fruits, bread and butter and fried foods more than Sikkimese girls. Multivariate analyses showed that place of residence was significantly (pfood habits of girls. Diversity in culture, ethnicity and socio-economic standard perhaps develop the disparity in food habits and weight concerns between girls of urban hilly areas of Sikkim and the city of Kolkata. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and diet quality in childhood on the incidence of internalizing and externalizing disorders during adolescence: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, XiuYun; Bastian, Kerry; Ohinmaa, Arto; Veugelers, Paul

    2018-02-01

    Studies among youth suggest that physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors, and poor diet quality are associated with poor mental health. Few population-based studies have investigated these relationships longitudinally. We examined the association between physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and diet quality in childhood and the incidence of internalizing and externalizing disorders throughout adolescence. We linked health behavior survey data from 2003 among 10- to 11-year-old children across Nova Scotia, Canada, with administrative health care data from 2003 to 2011. Students' diet quality was assessed using the Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were self-reported, and internalizing and externalizing disorders were diagnosed by a physician. We applied Cox regression to examine the associations of the health behaviors with the incidence of internalizing and externalizing disorders between 2003 and 2011. Of the 4861 participating students, 23.7% and 9.4% had a diagnosis of internalizing and externalizing disorders, respectively. The incidences of internalizing and externalizing disorders were higher among students who were less physically active and spent more time using computers and video games. These findings suggest that promoting an active lifestyle in childhood may contribute to the prevention of both internalizing and externalizing disorders during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Elite female soccer players perform more high-intensity running when playing in international games compared with domestic league games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Helena Å.; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Heiner-Møller, Anja

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare movement pattern, fatigue development, and heart rate (HR) for top-class elite female players when playing international (INT) vs. domestic league games (DOM). Video-based time-motion analyses and HR recordings were performed on 17 players during INT and DOM...... no differences were observed between the game types for defenders. No difference in the HR response was found between INT and DOM. In conclusion, more HIR and sprinting occur in international compared with domestic games, which may affect the fatigue development for players in physically demanding roles. Thus...

  9. Comparative evaluation of civil liability conventions on radioactive and oil pollution and liability under international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoche, A.

    1988-01-01

    In the event of transfrontier radioactive pollution or oil pollution, compensation for damage may be sought under two different liability systems: there is the framework of international law of liability of international persons, and there is the liability regime established by international conventions. The latter system has adopted a very friendly attitude towards the claims of a private victim claiming compensation from the private polluter. The book first sets out the basic principles and practice of the two liability systems, also considering the latest developments and current discussions advocating the acknowledgement of the principle of strict and absolute liability in international law. The relationship of the two systems is the major issue of the book, and the Chernobyl reactor accident has made it a particularly topical issue at that. The problems arising in the wake of this accident have shown the need for clarification in this field. The author suggests as a practical approach a strict separation of the two bases of claims, so that parallel or successive procedure on the level of international law or civil law is possible. Finally the problem of avoiding duplication in the payment of compensation is discussed. (orig./HP) [de

  10. How Do the Approaches to Accountability Compare for Charities Working in International Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, David

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to accountability vary between charities working to reduce under-five mortality in underdeveloped countries, and healthcare workers and facilities in Canada. Comparison reveals key differences, similarities and trade-offs. For example, while health professionals are governed by legislation and healthcare facilities have a de facto obligation to be accredited, charities and other international organizations are not subject to mandatory international laws or guidelines or to de facto international standards. Charities have policy goals similar to those found in the Canadian substudies, including access, quality, cost control, cost-effectiveness and customer satisfaction. However, the relative absence of external policy tools means that these goals may not be realized. Accountability can be beneficial, but too much or the wrong kind of accountability can divert resources and diminish returns. PMID:25305397

  11. Comparing the role of standard references on the prevalence of Iranian children and adolescents' overweight and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ghanbari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases and has a role on high blood pressure, diabetes type II, etc., This review assesses the prevalence of Iranian children obesity and overweight for different age categories and compares the three standard definitions of obesity. Materials and Methods: To retrieve desirable studies concerning childhood anthropometric data from different area of Iran, the MEDLINE, Scopus, and different local databases such as Scientific Information database were used. The studies reported the prevalence of obesity or overweight of children < 6, 6–12, and 12–20 years old, despite differences between definitions of childhood obesity, were included in the study. We combined the reported prevalence of the overweight and obesity with regard to age and gender, and also by the different standard references which are the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, the World Health Organization (WHO definition, and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF references. The analysis was carried out using STATA software. Results: Our review covered 75 articles reported the prevalence of overweight or obesity among children and adolescents for different age groups in Iran. Our meta-regression analysis showed that the prevalence of obesity and overweight did not vary significantly in gender and age categories, but different definitions provide different prevalence of overweight and obesity. Conclusion: The effective factors on obesity and overweight included administration policy and organizational, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and social factors. CDC and WHO references intended in monitoring children's growth and the IOTF cutoffs would rather provide a common set of definitions that researchers and policymakers could use for descriptive and comparative purposes.

  12. Sovereign wealth funds – public investment vehicles, foreign policy element. Comparative evolution in the international context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Drăniceanu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sovereign funds are an important actor occurring on international financial markets in the last decade, being, in fact, state controlled international investments. Generally, they are financed from foreign currency reserves of the emergent countries they are constituted in, being managed apart of the official reserves and used for external expansion; they are likely to be detrimental to certain strategic interests. As public financial vehicles, they own, endorse or manage public funds of some emergent countries, freely invested by them in a great number of assets, being seen as a foreign policy element.

  13. Reduced activation in lateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate during attention and cognitive control functions in medication-naïve adolescents with depression compared to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halari, Rozmin; Simic, Mima; Pariante, Carmine M; Papadopoulos, Andrew; Cleare, Anthony; Brammer, Michael; Fombonne, Eric; Rubia, Katya

    2009-03-01

    There is increasing recognition of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence. In adult MDD, abnormalities of fronto-striatal and fronto-cingulate circuitries mediating cognitive control functions have been implicated in the pathogenesis and been related to problems with controlling negative thoughts. No neuroimaging studies of cognitive control functions, however, exist in paediatric depression. This study investigated whether medication-naïve adolescents with MDD show abnormal brain activation of fronto-striatal and fronto-cingulate networks when performing tasks of attentional and cognitive control. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare brain activation between 21 medication-naïve adolescents with a first-episode of MDD aged 14-17 years and 21 healthy adolescents, matched for handedness, age, sex, demographics and IQ. Activation paradigms were tasks of selective attention (Simon task), attentional switching (Switch task), and motor response inhibition and error detection (Stop task). In all three tasks, adolescents with depression compared to healthy controls demonstrated reduced activation in task-relevant right dorsolateral (DLPFC), inferior prefrontal cortex (IFC) and anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG). Additional areas of relatively reduced activation were in the parietal lobes during the Stop and Switch tasks, putamen, insula and temporal lobes during the Switch task and precuneus during the Simon task. This study shows first evidence that medication-naïve adolescents with MDD are characterised by abnormal function in ACG and right lateral prefrontal cortex during tasks of attention and performance monitoring, suggesting an early pathogenesis of these functional abnormalities attributed to MDD.

  14. Nutrient intakes among children and adolescents eating usual pizza products in school lunch compared with pizza meeting HealthierUS School Challenge criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, In Young; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla

    2014-05-01

    Pizza is a popular food that can contribute to high intakes of saturated fat and sodium among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to compare daily nutrient intakes when a pizza product meeting the US Department of Agriculture's criteria for competitive food entrées under the HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) was substituted for usual pizza products consumed during foodservice-prepared school lunch. The study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2008) dietary recall data from a cross-sectional sample of US children and adolescents (age 5 to 18 years, n=337) who ate pizza during school lunch on 1 day of dietary recall. Daily nutrient intakes based on the consumption of usual pizza products for school lunch (pre-modeled) were compared with intakes modeled by substituting nutrient values from an HUSSC whole-grain pizza product (post-modeled). Paired t tests were used to make the comparison. Post-modeled intakes were lower in daily energy, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium compared with pre-modeled intakes among children and adolescents (Ppizza product for usual pizza products may significantly improve dietary quality of children and adolescents eating pizza for school lunch, indicating that it could be an effective approach to improve the nutritional quality of school lunch programs. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Using Comparative International Studies for Modeling Educational Effectiveness: A Secondary Analysis of PISA-2009 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azigwe, John Bosco

    2016-01-01

    International surveys of student achievement are becoming increasingly popular with governments around the world, as they try to measure the performance of their country's education system. The main reason for this trend is the shared opinion that countries will need to be able to compete in the "knowledge economy" to assure the economic…

  16. Comparative and International Learning from Vanuatu Research Moratoria: A Plurilevel, Plurilocal Researcher's Auto-Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I offer a reflexive auto-ethnography to revisit questions about knowledge and research practices in international contexts, influenced differently by aspects of globalization. Specifically, I position my experience of the Vanuatu research moratorium on "foreign" researchers of 2013/2014 as a lynchpin to analyse and…

  17. Comparative Effects Of Training In External And Internal Concentration On Two Counseling Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Paul

    1973-01-01

    A training procedure that appears to facilitate both empathic understanding and selective response to client statements is one built around the training of Zen Buddhist monks. Subjects trained in Zen techniques of external and internal concentration were found to increase their ability in these two counseling behaviors. (Author/LA)

  18. Community Colleges in South Africa? Assessment of Potential from Comparative International Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolhuter, C. C.

    2011-01-01

    While South African higher education has, in many respects, achieved remarkable achievements since 1994, a series of serious problems continue to beset the system, and a low internal (high attrition rate) and external (alignment with the employment market) efficiency. There also exist the problems of large scale youth unemployment and the policy…

  19. International Community-Based Service Learning: Two Comparative Case Studies of Benefits and Tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhurst, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The drives to internationalise the UK curriculum and psychology students' desires to work in communities are brought together in this paper. International community-based learning (ICBL) links with many psychology students' motivations to make contributions to others; with the potential to enhance students' learning and cultural sensitivities. The…

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Curriculum in International Marketing and Business between Peruvian and Guatemalan University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestonjee, Daanish D.; Spillan, John E.; Song, Hongwei; Virzi, Nicholas D.

    2010-01-01

    Business education is important for economic development. A skilled workforce allows for greater advancements in productivity, the creation of new business opportunities, increased employment, and enhances the quality of life of the citizenry. With the changing international business environment it is important for academics and practitioners…

  1. Reforming Investor–State Dispute Settlement: A (Comparative and International) Constitutional Law Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schill, S.W.

    As a result of the steep increase in investment arbitrations, and the problems this has brought to the fore, many reform efforts in international investment law focus on changes to investor–state dispute settlement (ISDS). Reform proposals, however, diverge widely (ranging from exiting the system

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Internal Communication and Public Relations Audits. State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, David M.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    A review of current literature regarding the state of the art in the conduct of internal communication and public relations audits by public relations practitioners reveals that these two related measurement activities are of considerable importance to the practice of public relations. Public relations audits are concerned with exploratory…

  3. Spirituality as a protective health asset for young people: an international comparative analysis from three countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Fiona; Michaelson, Valerie; King, Nathan; Inchley, Jo; Pickett, William

    2018-04-01

    Spirituality has been proposed as a potential health asset a 'developmental engine' that works by fostering the search for connectedness, meaning and purpose. The aim is to examine to what extent spiritual health might be protective of young people's overall health and well-being. In 2014, young people aged 11, 13, and 15 years in England, Scotland and Canada were surveyed as part of the HBSC study (n = 26,701). The perceived importance of spiritual health and domains (connections with self, others, nature, and the transcendent) was measured in these countries. Multi-level log-binomial models were used to explore relationships between spiritual health and three self-reported positive health outcomes: general health status, subjective life satisfaction and health complaints. Higher levels of perceptions of the importance of spiritual health, both overall and within the four domains, were associated with higher likelihoods of reporting each of the positive health outcomes. Spiritual health appears to operate as a protective health asset during adolescence and is significantly shaped by external relationships and connections.

  4. Comparing the Awareness of a New Donation System and Willingness to Pay of Japanese and International Climbers at Mount Fuji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2013, Mount Fuji was nominated as a UNESCO World Heritage site. Subsequently, a new system was piloted encouraging climbers to make a donation of 1000 JPY to help improve environmental conservation. This research is part of a larger study from 2008 to 2014 monitoring the characteristics and behaviour of Fuji climbers. Specifically, this paper investigates Japanese and international climbers to compare their level of awareness and willingness to pay the new donation. Results revealed broad differences between Japanese and international climbers, with 71% of the latter unaware about the new fee prior to climbing, compared to only 16% of Japanese. 77% of Japanese supported the new fee compared to only 50% of international climbers. These findings seem to suggest that prior awareness is vital for compliance, as cross-analysis showed that among international climbers, 72% of those who knew in advance were willing to pay, compared to 43% of those without prior awareness. The new trial climbing fee will be extended for the entire 2014 season on a 24 hour basis, so these findings have implications for improved management based on a better understanding of market segments and more effective messaging to raise awareness, particularly among foreign climbers.

  5. A Comparative Study of International Student Engagement and Success Based on Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Institutional Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gareth Carlington

    2013-01-01

    The study examined international students' engagement and success using NSSE 2007 data. The sample consisted of 1996 first years and 2,158 seniors. These students were compared by race/ethnicity, gender, and institutional type. The study found that students' engagement differed by race/ethnicity as well as type of institution. The null hypotheses…

  6. A Response to: Global Security, Religion and Education Development--A Crisis for the Field of Comparative and International Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozanne, Bill

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the author's response to "Global security, religion and education development: a crisis for the field of comparative and international education?" Prof. Lynn Davies's introduction to the Forum is interesting and provocative, and the author advances his response in the spirit of dialogue by looking at Davies's arguments, the…

  7. Institutional limits to the internalization of work systems : A comparative study of three Japanese multinational companies in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saka, A

    2002-01-01

    This study adopts a multilevel comparative approach to investigating the degree to which Japanese work systems are implemented and internalized in the UK business system. The focus is on the limits to accepting the continuous improvement schemes of Japanese multinational corporations. The article

  8. The Impact of Comparative Education Research on Institutional Theory. International Perspectives on Education and Society. Volume 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David, Ed.; Wiseman, Alex, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This volume of International Perspectives on Education and Society explores how educational research from a comparative perspective has been instrumental in broadening and testing hypotheses from institutional theory. Institutional theory has also played an increasingly influential role in developing an understanding of education in society. This…

  9. Simultaneous and Comparable Numerical Indicators of International, National and Local Collaboration Practices in English-Medium Astrophysics Research Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, David I.; Alcaraz, M. Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We report an investigation on collaboration practices in research papers published in the most prestigious English-medium astrophysics journals. Method: We propose an evaluation method based on three numerical indicators to study and compare, in absolute terms, three different types of collaboration (international, national and…

  10. A comparative analysis of quadratics in mathematics textbooks from Turkey, Singapore, and the international baccalaureate diploma programme

    OpenAIRE

    Sağlam, Reyhan

    2012-01-01

    Ankara : The Program of Curriculum and Instruction, Bilkent University, 2012. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2012. Includes bibliographical references leaves 110-118. The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the chapters on quadratics in three mathematics textbooks selected from Turkey, Singapore, and the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) in terms of content, organization, and presentation style through content analysis. The analys...

  11. Through the Looking Glass: Realizing the Benefits of an International and Comparative Perspective on Teaching Public Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, Donald E.; Washington, Charles W.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses reasons why public administrators in the United States; tend to have a parochial U.S.-centered view of the public affairs discipline and the associated negative effects such views have on U.S. public affairs. Proposes an agenda for strengthening the development of an international and comparative perspective in teaching public affairs…

  12. A internação de adolescentes pela lente dos tribunais Adolescent internment by the court's point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Minahim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde sua entrada em vigor, o Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente sofre sistemáticas críticas no debate público não havendo, entretanto, no campo da doutrina especializada e da jurisprudência efetivos esforços para uma compreensão do alcance da lei e de seus princípios sobretudo quando o tema é a imposição de medidas de internação a adolescentes autores de infração penal. Este texto procura demonstrar a feição homogênea e estável da jurisprudência brasileira nos Tribunais Estaduais nessa matéria à luz dos principais argumentos utilizados como fundamentação das decisões em sede recursal. Alguns resultados da pesquisa "Responsabilidade e garantias ao adolescente autor de ato infracional: uma proposta de revisão do ECA em seus 18 anos de vigência" apoiada pela Secretaria de Assuntos Legislativos do Ministério da Justiça, ilustram as dificuldades de mplementação dos preceitos legais, possibilitando refletir se é a textura aberta da lei o que vem favorecendo a persistência de argumentos extrajurídicos e ideológicos em sua interpretação.Since its approval, The Child and Adolescent Act has been attacked for several critics in the public debate. However neither the specialized dogmatic nor jurisprudence have presented effective efforts to the comprehension of the law or its principles, especially related to internment measures applied to young offenders. the text shows the homogeneous appearance of the brazilian jurisprudence into the State Courts, according to the most used arguments by the decisions. some results from the "Responsibility and Guarantees to young offender: a revision proposal for the child and adolescent act in 18 years of existence" research illustrate these difficulties to implement the legislation, avoiding the consideration regarding the open texture of the law as a possible cause for the persistence of extralegal and ideological arguments on its interpretation.

  13. Between Nationalism and Internationalism: The German Chemical Society In Comparative Perspective, 1867-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey Allan

    2017-09-04

    One-hundred fifty years ago, on the eve of German unification, about one-hundred people gathered in Berlin to found the German Chemical Society (DChG) under the charismatic leadership of August Wilhelm von Hofmann, who attracted a large international membership by promoting modern organic chemistry. By 1892, when Emil Fischer succeeded Hofmann, the DChG was the world's largest chemical society. Under Fischer the Society promoted international collaboration with foreign societies, and in 1900 it opened an impressive headquarters, the Hofmann House, where it centralized its greatly expanded literary activity including abstracts and reference publications. Yet a half-century later, after war and racial-national extremism, the house lay in ruins and the Society had ceased to exist. In remembering the Society, one may well ask why its auspicious beginning should have led to this ignominious end. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Comparative analysis of internal friction and natural frequency measured by free decay and forced vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y. Z.; Ding, X. D.; Xiong, X. M.; Zhang, J. X.

    2007-01-01

    Relations between various values of the internal friction (tgδ, Q -1 , Q -1* , and Λ/π) measured by free decay and forced vibration are analyzed systemically based on a fundamental mechanical model in this paper. Additionally, relations between various natural frequencies, such as vibration frequency of free decay ω FD , displacement-resonant frequency of forced vibration ω d , and velocity-resonant frequency of forced vibration ω 0 are calculated. Moreover, measurement of natural frequencies of a copper specimen of 99.9% purity has been made to demonstrate the relation between the measured natural frequencies of the system by forced vibration and free decay. These results are of importance for not only more accurate measurement of the elastic modulus of materials but also the data conversion between different internal friction measurements

  15. BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT, FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE: A policy and economic comparative analysis for Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Husid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to achieve an overall view of Foreign Direct Investment and International Trade in Canada, analyzing both the current situation and the actions and policies being implemented by several provinces to promote this subject. This study will be valuable to companies and governments to understand what has been done and to support strategic planning to invest and trade with Canada, especially for the Brazilian market.

  16. Comparative analyses for selected clean coal technologies in the international marketplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1990-07-01

    Clean coal technologies (CCTs) are being demonstrated in research and development programs under public and private sponsorship. Many of these technologies could be marketed internationally. To explore the scope of these international opportunities and to match particular technologies with markets appearing to have high potential, a study was undertaken that focused on seven representative countries: Italy, Japan, Morocco, Turkey, Pakistan, the Peoples' Republic of China, and Poland. The results suggest that there are international markets for CCTs and that these technologies can be cost competitive with more conventional alternatives. The identified markets include construction of new plants and refurbishment of existing ones, especially when decision makers want to decrease dependence on imported oil. This report describes potential international market niches for U.S. CCTs and discusses the status and implications of ongoing CCT demonstration activities. Twelve technologies were selected as representative of technologies under development for use in new or refurbished industrial or electric utility applications. Included are the following: Two generic precombustion technologies: two-stage froth-flotation coal beneficiation and coal-water mixtures (CWMs); Four combustion technologies: slagging combustors, integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors (AFBCs), and pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (PFBCs); and Six postcombustion technologies: limestone-injection multistage burner (LIMB) systems, gas-reburning sorbent-injection (GRSI) systems, dual-alkali flue-gas desulfurization (FGD), spray-dryer FGD, the NOXSO process, and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. Major chapters of this report have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  17. Family Conflict, Mood, and Adolescents' Daily School Problems: Moderating Roles of Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Adela C.; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    Using daily diary data, this study examined cross-day associations between family conflict and school problems and tested mediating effects of daily negative mood and moderating effects of psychological symptoms. For 2 weeks, parents and adolescents (N = 106; M[subscript age] = 15.4) reported daily conflict; adolescents reported daily negative…

  18. The quality of life after a femoral neck fracture in elderly patients: a comparative study between internal fixation and arthroplasties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Sansanovicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The femoral neck fracture is a frequent pathology in the elderly population, with about of 100,000 cases per year in Brazil. The surgical treatment by internal fixation or arthroplastic hip replacement is advocated today. The non-surgical treatment is reserved for cases of exception. Objective: To compare the quality of patient postoperative life treated for femoral neck fracture by two different techniques: hip arthroplasty and internal fixation. Methods: Through the SF-36 questionnaire, we study the quality of life of 60 patients with more than 65 years, treated between 2004 and 2012 in our service. Half of the patients was submitted to internal fixation and the other half to the arthroplastic replacement. Results: Higher averages in the large majority of the parameters of the questionnaire were obtained by the group which was carried out by internal fixation, but without statistical significance in most of these differences. Some international reports indicate that patients who have suffered a fracture of the femoral neck and were treated with internal fixation may recover the quality of life they had before the fracture. Paradoxically, there is a growing trend among orthopedic surgeons to perform a hip replacement surgery in these cases. Conclusion: Further studies are needed to define which is the best surgical treatment option.

  19. COMPAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuefner, K.

    1976-01-01

    COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de

  20. Emotional self-control and dysregulation: A dual-process analysis of pathways to externalizing/internalizing symptomatology and positive well-being in younger adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Thomas A; Simons, Jeffrey S; Sussman, Steve; Knight, Rebecca

    2016-06-01

    There is little knowledge about how emotional regulation contributes to vulnerability versus resilience to substance use disorder. With younger adolescents, we studied the pathways through which emotion regulation attributes are related to predisposing factors for disorder. A sample of 3561 adolescents (M age 12.5 years) was surveyed. Measures for emotional self-control (regulation of sadness and anger), emotional dysregulation (angerability, affective lability, and rumination about sadness or anger), and behavioral self-control (planfulness and problem solving) were obtained. A structural model was analyzed with regulation attributes related to six intermediate variables that are established risk or protective factors for adolescent substance use (e.g., academic involvement, stressful life events). Criterion variables were externalizing and internalizing symptomatology and positive well-being. Indirect pathways were found from emotional regulation to symptomatology through academic competence, stressful events, and deviance-prone attitudes and cognitions. Direct effects were also found: from emotional dysregulation to externalizing and internalizing symptomatology; emotional self-control to well-being; and behavioral self-control (inverse) to externalizing symptomatology. Emotional self-control and emotional dysregulation had independent effects and different types of pathways. Adolescents scoring high on emotional dysregulation are at risk for substance dependence because of more externalizing and internalizing symptomatology. Independently, youth with better behavioral and emotional self-control are at lower risk. This occurs partly through relations of regulation constructs to environmental variables that affect levels of symptomatology (e.g., stressful events, poor academic performance). Effects of emotion regulation were found at an early age, before the typical onset of substance disorder. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  1. Antiretroviral therapy enrollment characteristics and outcomes among HIV-infected adolescents and young adults compared with older adults--seven African countries, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Andrew F; Agolory, Simon G; Shiraishi, Ray W; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Mulenga, Modest; Hachizovu, Sebastian; Asadu, Emeka; Tuho, Moise Zanga; Ettiegne-Traore, Virginie; Mbofana, Francisco; Okello, Velephi; Azih, Charles; Denison, Julie A; Tsui, Sharon; Koole, Olivier; Kamiru, Harrison; Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Harriet; Alfredo, Charity; Jobarteh, Kebba; Odafe, Solomon; Onotu, Dennis; Ekra, Kunomboa A; Kouakou, Joseph S; Ehrenkranz, Peter; Bicego, George; Torpey, Kwasi; Mukadi, Ya Diul; van Praag, Eric; Menten, Joris; Mastro, Timothy; Dukes Hamilton, Carol; Swaminathan, Mahesh; Dokubo, E Kainne; Baughman, Andrew L; Spira, Thomas; Colebunders, Robert; Bangsberg, David; Marlink, Richard; Zee, Aaron; Kaplan, Jonathan; Ellerbrock, Tedd V

    2014-11-28

    Although scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) since 2005 has contributed to declines of about 30% in the global annual number of human immunodeficiency (HIV)-related deaths and declines in global HIV incidence, estimated annual HIV-related deaths among adolescents have increased by about 50% and estimated adolescent HIV incidence has been relatively stable. In 2012, an estimated 2,500 (40%) of all 6,300 daily new HIV infections occurred among persons aged 15-24 years. Difficulty enrolling adolescents and young adults in ART and high rates of loss to follow-up (LTFU) after ART initiation might be contributing to mortality and HIV incidence in this age group, but data are limited. To evaluate age-related ART retention challenges, data from retrospective cohort studies conducted in seven African countries among 16,421 patients, aged ≥15 years at enrollment, who initiated ART during 2004-2012 were analyzed. ART enrollment and outcome data were compared among three groups defined by age at enrollment: adolescents and young adults (aged 15-24 years), middle-aged adults (aged 25-49 years), and older adults (aged ≥50 years). Enrollees aged 15-24 years were predominantly female (81%-92%), commonly pregnant (3%-32% of females), unmarried (54%-73%), and, in four countries with employment data, unemployed (53%-86%). In comparison, older adults were more likely to be male (padults, adolescents and young adults had higher LTFU rates in all seven countries, reaching statistical significance in three countries in crude and multivariable analyses. Evidence-based interventions to reduce LTFU for adolescent and young adult ART enrollees could help reduce mortality and HIV incidence in this age group.

  2. Parent-Adolescent Relationship Qualities, Internal Working Models, and Styles as Predictors of Adolescents’ Observed Interactions with Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomaker, Lauren B.; Furman, Wyndol

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how current parent-adolescent relationship qualities and adolescents’ representations of relationships with parents were related to friendship interactions in 200 adolescent-close friend dyads. Adolescents and friends were observed discussing problems during a series of structured tasks. Negative interactions with mothers were significantly related to adolescents’ greater conflict with friends, poorer focus on tasks, and poorer communication skills. Security of working models (as assessed by interview) was significantly associated with qualities of friendship interactions, whereas security of attachment styles (as assessed by questionnaire) was not. More dismissing (vs. secure) working models were associated with poorer focus on problem discussions and weaker communication skills with friends, even after accounting for gender differences and current parent-adolescent relationship qualities. We discuss possible mechanisms for the observed links between dimensions of parent-adolescent relationships and friendships. We also consider methodological and conceptual differences between working model and style measures of attachment representations. PMID:20174459

  3. Efficacy of a multimodal treatment for disruptive behavior disorders in children and adolescents: focus on internalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele; Milone, Annarita; Paciello, Marinella; Lenzi, Francesca; Muratori, Pietro; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Lochman, John E; Muratori, Filippo

    2014-11-30

    Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) are among the most common reasons for youth referrals to mental health clinics. Aim of this study is to compare short and medium term efficacy of a multimodal treatment program (MTP), compared to community care (treatment-as-usual, TAU). The sample included 135 youths with DBDs (113 males, age range 9-15 years, mean age 12±2.5 years) were assigned either to a MTP (n=64), or addressed to community care for a TAU (n=71). Outcome measures were the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and the Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). All subjects were assessed at the baseline (T0), after 1-year treatment (T1) and after a 2-year follow-up (T2). Compared with patients receiving TAU, youths in the MTP showed, both at T1 and T2, significantly lower scores on CBCL Externalizing Scale, Internalizing Scale, Anxious/Depressed, Social Problems, and Aggressive Behavior, and higher scores at the C-GAS. Improvement in Internalizing Scales was particularly evident, with a shift from the clinical to the non-clinical range. Rate of use of mental health services and scholastic failure were reduced in the MTP. It is suggested that the improvement of the Internalizing symptoms is a crucial component of the therapeutic process in this MTP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of pre-high blood pressure and high blood pressure among non-overweight children and adolescents using international blood pressure references in developed regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Changwei; Xu, Shuang; Wang, Hua; Wang, Wenming; Shen, Hui

    2017-09-01

    There is a lack of data on the prevalence of pre-high blood pressure (PreHBP) and high blood pressure (HBP), based on recent international blood pressure references, in non-overweight children and adolescents. To describe the prevalence of PreHBP and HBP in non-overweight children and adolescents in developed regions of China. In total, 588 097 non-overweight children and adolescents aged 6-17 years from the National Surveys on Chinese Students' Constitution and Health in 2015 were included. The prevalence of PreHBP was 13.41% and subjects in urban areas had a higher prevalence of PreHBP (14.14%) than those in rural areas (12.92%). Subjects in regions with a high (13.56%) or moderate (13.61%) socioeconomic status showed a higher prevalence of PreHBP than those in regions with a relatively low socioeconomic status (12.76%). A similar pattern was found for the prevalence of HBP, and the prevalence of HBP was 18.25% for all participants, 20.55% for subjects in urban areas, 16.71% in rural areas, 18.76% in high socioeconomic areas, 18.62% in moderate socioeconomic areas and 16.70% in relatively low socioeconomic areas. A large proportion of non-overweight children and adolescents had elevated blood pressure and there were urban-rural and socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of elevated blood pressure.

  5. International Comparability of 131I, 201TI and 99mTc Activity Measurements performed in Cuban Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oropesa, P; Serra, R; Hernandez, A.T.; Varela, C

    2006-01-01

    This paper refers about the International Comparability of 131 I, 201 TI and 99m Tc Activity Measurements performed in Cuban Nuclear Medicine. Traceability of activity measurements in nuclear medicine based in two aspects: Comparability of clinic results and the safe and effective use of drugs. A bilateral international comparison for activity measurements CIEMAT CENTIS DMR was done. 2000-2004 National Program for 99m Tc 201 TI, 131 I vial and syringe measurements in radionuclide calibrators including a simulated test for activity administration. It is employed the Cause Effect Diagram for the activity measurement result of a source in the calibrator and the statistical methods for comparing several characteristics of the obtained data. The result of the comparisons demonstrates that the measurement quality has increased from one year to another

  6. Adolescent murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, A; Bradford, J M; Bourget, D; Jones, B; Carmichael, M

    1991-10-01

    Clinical, developmental and environmental factors were retrospectively studied in 14 adolescent murderers who had been referred to a forensic psychiatric clinic over an 11 year period. Results of these analyses were compared with findings from previous reports. The majority of subjects came from split families. There was a greater than expected degree of psychiatric illness in the adolescents. Previous psychiatric contact, antisocial behaviour and substance abuse were common among these adolescents. A tentative profile of adolescents who are likely to commit murder can therefore be drawn up, which may suggest direction for preventive action and rehabilitation.

  7. An international randomized trial comparing four thrombolytic strategies for acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Simoons (Maarten); E.J. Topol (Eric); R.M. Califf (Robert); F.J.J. van de Werf (Frans); P.W. Armstrong (Paul); P.E. Aylward (Philip Edmund); G.I. Barbash; E.R. Bates (Eric); A. Betriu; J.H. Chesebro (James); J.J. Col (Jacques); D.P. de Bono (David); J.M. Gore (Joel); A.D. Guerci (Alan); J.R. Hampton (John)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The relative efficacy of streptokinase and tissue plasminogen activator and the roles of intravenous as compared with subcutaneous heparin as adjunctive therapy in acute myocardial infarction are unresolved questions. The current trial was designed to compare new, aggressive

  8. Wall thickness measurements of tubes by Internal Rotary Inspection System (IRIS)- a comparative study with metallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, C.V.; Joseph, A.; Ramesh, A.S.; Jayakumar, T.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Baldev Raj

    1996-01-01

    Internal Rotary Inspection System (IRIS) is a relatively new ultrasonic system of heat exchanger/ steam condenser tubes and pipelines for measurement of wall thinning and pitting due to corrosion. The wall thickness measurements made during a scan around the circumference of the tube are displayed as a stationary rectilinear display of circumferential cross section (Bscan) of the tube. The paper describes the results obtained on tubes of various materials used in process industries having corrosion on inner and outer surfaces of the tube. (author)

  9. The effects of social connections on self-rated physical and mental health among internal migrant and local adolescents in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Zheng-hong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background China is in the midst of history's largest flow of rural-urban migration in the world; a flow that includes growing numbers of children and adolescents. Their health status is an important public health issue. This study compares self-rated physical and mental health of migrant and local adolescents in China, and examines to what extent layered social connections account for health outcomes. Methods In 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional study among middle school students in Pudong New Area, Shanghai. Information about health status, social connections, and demographic factors were collected using a questionnaire survey. After controlling for sociodemographic factors, we used the t-test, Chi-square analysis, and a series of regression models to compare differences in health outcomes and explore the effects of social connections. Results Migrant adolescents reported significantly higher rates of good physical health. However, they also had significantly fewer social connections, lower self-esteem, and higher levels of depression than their native peers. Family cohesion was associated with depressive symptoms and low self-esteem among all adolescents; peer association and social cohesion played major roles in migrants' well-being. Gender, age, and socioeconomic (SES factors also affected adolescents' self-rated physical and mental health. Conclusions Self-rated data suggest that migrant adolescents enjoy a physical health advantage and a mental health disadvantage. Layered social connections, such as peer association and social cohesion, may be particularly important for migrants. A public health effort is required to improve the health status of migrant youth.

  10. Achievement of metabolic control goals set by the American Diabetes Association and the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enes, Patricia; Martín-Frías, María; Álvarez, Ma Ángeles; Yelmo, Rosa; Alonso, Milagros; Barrio, Raquel

    2015-02-01

    The "T1D Exchange Clinic Registry" of 13.316 pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in U.S. recently revealed that most children have HbA1c values above target levels established by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD). The aim of this study is to assess the proportion of youngsters with T1D who meet the internationally accepted targets for good metabolic control of diabetes at a single, referral Pediatric Diabetes Center in Spain. Cross-sectional study of 236 children and adolescents with T1D controlled at our Pediatric Diabetes Unit. We analyzed the compliance to metabolic goals set by ADA and ISPAD and the differences between patients treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and multiple daily injections. SPSS™ version 21.0. Mean age: 12.6 ± 4.6 years old, mean age at diagnosis: 6.1 ± 4.3 years old and mean diabetes duration: 6.4 ± 4.3 years; 47% female. HbA1c average: 6.7 ± 0.7% (49.7 ± 7.6 mmol/mol). The age-specific ADA and ISPAD HbA1c targets were achieved by 93% and 91% of patients, respectively. Among pump users, 97%/97% met ADA/ISPAD HbA1c targets compared to 87%/88% of MDI users (p = 0.04/p = 0.03), without significant differences in the analysis by groups of age. Among participants, 95%, 62%, 95%, 98% and 89% met HDLc, LDLc, triglycerides, BP and BMI targets. Most patients in our children and adolescent cohort of T1D patients correctly achieve metabolic goals established by ADA and ISPAD with low incidence of hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Joint trajectories for social and physical aggression as predictors of adolescent maladjustment: Internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and borderline and narcissistic personality features

    Science.gov (United States)

    UNDERWOOD, MARION K.; BERON, KURT J.; ROSEN, LISA H.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined the relation between developmental trajectories jointly estimated for social and physical aggression and adjustment problems at age 14. Teachers provided ratings of children's social and physical aggression in Grades 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 for a sample of 255 children (131 girls, 21% African American, 52% European American, 21% Mexican American). Participants, parents, and teachers completed measures of the adolescent's adjustment to assess internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and borderline and narcissistic personality features. Results showed that membership in a high and rising trajectory group predicted rule-breaking behaviors and borderline personality features. Membership in a high desister group predicted internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and borderline and narcissistic personality features. The findings suggest that although low levels of social and physical aggression may not bode poorly for adjustment, individuals engaging in high levels of social and physical aggression in middle childhood may be at greatest risk for adolescent psychopathology, whether they increase or desist in their aggression through early adolescence. PMID:21532919

  12. International student mobility and highly skilled migration: a comparative study of Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Qianru; Wotherspoon, Terry

    2013-12-01

    Against the backdrop of demographic change and economic reconfiguration, recruiting international students, especially those at tertiary level, has drawn growing attention from advanced economies as part of a broad strategy to manage highly skilled migration. This comparative study focuses on three English speaking countries receiving international students: Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. International student policies, in particular entry and immigration regulations, and the trends in student mobility since the late 1990s are examined drawing on secondary data. By exploring the issue from the political economy perspectives, this study identifies distinct national strategies for managing student mobility, determines key factors shaping the environment of student migration in each nation, and addresses the deficiency of human capital theory in the analysis of global competition for high skills.

  13. Comparative study of Malaysian and Philippine regulatory infrastructures on radiation and nuclear safety with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayabo, Lynette B.

    2013-06-01

    This study presents the results of the critical reviews, analysis, and comparison of the regulatory infrastructures for radiation and nuclear safety of Malaysis and the Philippines usi ng the IAEA safety requirements, GSR Part 1, G overnment, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety'' as the main basis and in part, the GSR Part 3, R adiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards . The scope of the comparison includes the elements of the relevant legislations, the regulatory system and processes including the core functions of the regulatory body (authorization, review and assessment, inspection and enforcement, development of regulations and guides); and the staffing and training of regulatory body. The respective availabe data of the Malaysian and Philippine regulatory infrastructures and current practices were gathered and analyzed. Recommendations to fill the gaps and strengthen the existing regulatory infrastructure of each country was given using as bases relevant IAEA safety guides. Based on the analysis made, the main findings are: the legislations of both countries do not contain al the elements of teh national policy and strategy for safety as well as those of teh framework for safety in GR Part I. Among the provision that need to be included in the legislations are: emergency planning and response; decommissioning of facilities safe management of radioactive wastes and spent fuel; competence for safety; and technical sevices. Provisions on coordination of different authorities with safety responsibilities within the regulatory framework for safety as well as liaison with advisory bodies and support organizations need to be enhanced. The Philippines needs to establish an independent regulatory body, ie. separate from organizations charged with promotion of nuclear technologies and responsible for facilitiesand activities. Graded approach on the system of notification and authorization by registration and

  14. Efficiency of international cooperation schemata in African countries: A comparative analysis using a data envelopment analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Martin-Perez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Efficiency measurement by means of data envelopment analysis (DEA in the non-profit sector has focused on the so-called Stage I of non-profit organisations, namely, fundraising efforts (which are the most influential determinants of raising funds in order to increase the amount of contributions. However, for the so-called Stage II of non-profit organisations, namely, spending the achieved resources to program services delivery, DEA studies are very scarce. In attempting to address this research gap and to the best of our knowledge, this investigation is the first study that applies DEA to the assessment of international cooperation schemata. Consequently, we offer a significant contribution to the literature by overcoming the limitations of other techniques used to assess the efficiency and providing new insight into the efficiency of targeted different international cooperation schemata (ICS in international cooperation development projects. Aim: The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the efficiency of the ICS of developmental projects funded by the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation for Development. Setting: Our setting is composed of different international cooperation projects funded with different schemata by the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation for Development between 2002 and 2006 in two African countries that are top priority targets of Spanish international aid: Morocco, and Mozambique. Methods: Using a sample of 48 international cooperation projects carried out in two African countries considered priorities in the Spanish Cooperation Master Plan, we analyse project efficiency using DEA. Results: The findings suggest that some schemata are more efficient than others when applied to international cooperation projects (ICS. Specifically, we find that permanent open-call subsidies are more efficient than non-governmental development organisation subsidies. Conclusion: Measures for evaluating

  15. ANITA Air Monitoring on the International Space Station: Results Compared to Other Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honne, A.; Schumann-Olsen, H.; Kaspersen, K.; Limero, T.; Macatangay, A.; Mosebach, H.; Kampf, D.; Mudgett, P. D.; James, J. T.; Tan, G.; hide

    2009-01-01

    ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is a flight experiment precursor for a permanent continuous air quality monitoring system on the ISS (International Space Station). For the safety of the crew, ANITA can detect and quantify quasi-online and simultaneously 33 gas compounds in the air with ppm or sub-ppm detection limits. The autonomous measurement system is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy). The system represents a versatile air quality monitor, allowing for the first time the detection and monitoring of trace gas dynamics in a spacecraft atmosphere. ANITA operated on the ISS from September 2007 to August 2008. This paper summarizes the results of ANITA s air analyses with emphasis on comparisons to other measurements. The main basis of comparison is NASA s set of grab samples taken onboard the ISS and analysed on ground applying various GC-based (Gas Chromatography) systems.

  16. Quality of life in children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease: a comparative study between different disease stages and treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul, Müslüm; Cengel Kültür, Ebru; Senses Dinç, Gülser; Bilginer, Yelda; Uluç, Sait; Baykan, Hayriye

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the quality of life of children and adolescents in various stages of their chronic kidney disease (CKD) who were managed with different treatment modalities to that of children and adolescents without any chronic disease. The study included 18 renal transplant and 21 dialysis patients (8 on hemodialysis, 13 on peritoneal dialysis) and 16 patients who did not yet require renal replacement therapy. The control group consisted of 37 children without any chronic disease. Psychosocial Health Summary scores, Physical Health Summary scores, and Total Scale scores of Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory scores were estimated for the groups. CKD patients had lower scores in all scales of Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory than the control group. There were no differences in self-reported scores on the Pediatric Quality of Life scale scores between treatment groups; however, parents of the transplant patients had reported higher (more favorable) Physical Health Summary scores than those of the dialysis patients. Reports of parents and their children differed only in Physical Health Summary scores in the dialysis group; self-reports of the children were more favorable. These findings show that children and adolescents with CKD experience impaired quality of life on the physical and psychosocial functioning domains in comparison with healthy controls. The study findings implicate the need for further studies to investigate the quality of life in CKD patients at different stages as well as the perceptional differences between pediatric and adolescent CKD patients and caregiver proxy-reports about their quality of life.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination regime: comparing twice versus thrice vaccinations dose regime among adolescent girls in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljunid, Syed; Maimaiti, Namaitijiang; Nur, Amrizal M; Noor, Mohd Rushdan Md; Wan Puteh, Sharifa Ezat

    2016-01-23

    The HPV vaccine was introduced to Malaysian national immunization programme in 2010. The current implementation age of HPV vaccination in Malaysian is at the age of 13 years school girls, given according to a 3 doses protocol which may complicate implementation and compliance. Aim of the study is to determine the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination regime comparing twice versus thrice HPV vaccinations dose regime among adolescent girls in Malaysia. A Markov cohort model reflecting the natural history of HPV infection accounting for oncogenic and low-risk HPV was adapted for 13 year old Malaysian girls cohort (n = 274,050). Transition probabilities, utilities values, epidemiological and cost data were sourced from published literature and local data. Vaccine effectiveness was based on overall efficacy reported from 3-doses clinical trials, with the assumption that the 2-doses is non-inferior to the 3-doses allowing overall efficacy to be inferred from the 3-doses immunogenicity data. Price parity and life-long protection were assumed. The payer perspective was adopted, with appropriate discounting for costs (3 %) and outcomes (3 %). One way sensitivity analysis was conducted. The sensitivity analysis on cost of vaccine, vaccine coverage and discount rate with a 2-doses protocol was performed. The 3-doses and 2-doses regimes showed same number of Cervical Cancers averted (361 cases); QALYs saved at 7,732,266. However, the lifetime protection under the 2-doses regime, showed a significant cost-savings of RM 36, 722,700 compared to the 3-doses scheme. The MOH Malaysia could vaccinate 137,025 more girls in this country using saving 2-doses regime vaccination programme. The model predicted that 2-doses HPV vaccination schemes can avoid additional 180 Cervical Cancers and 63 deaths compare to 3-doses. A 2-doses HPV vaccination scheme may enable Malaysian women to be protected at a lower cost than that achievable under a 3-doses scheme, while avoiding the same number of

  18. Academic identity formation and motivation among ethnic minority adolescents: the role of the "self" between internal and external perceptions of identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jamaal S; Banerjee, Meeta; Lauermann, Fani

    2014-01-01

    Identity is often studied as a motivational construct within research on adolescent development and education. However, differential dimensions of identity, as a set of internal values versus external perceptions of social belonging, may relate to motivation in distinct ways. Utilizing a sample of 600 African American and Latino adolescents (43% female; mean age = 13.9), the present study examines whether self-regulated learning (SRL) mediates two distinct dimensions of academic identity (i.e., value and belonging) and mastery orientation. This study also examines whether self-efficacy moderates the mediating role of SRL between identity and mastery. Results show evidence for moderated mediation between SRL and academic self-efficacy. Self-regulated learning played its strongest mediating role between belonging and mastery and for low-efficacy students specifically. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. Strengthening the Impact and Value of International Marketing Curriculum outcomes: A Comparative Study of Turkish and European Business Students Perception of coursework and careers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Gegez, Ercan; Venable, Beverly

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the perceptions of business school students regarding international marketing courses and careers. A comparative study of Turkish and Northern European students' perceptions towards international marketing courses and international marketing careers...... was conducted. Results of the study indicated significant differences between Turkish and Northern European students regarding their perceptions of international marketing both in terms of course work and careers. Turkish students in this study perceived international courses as being exiting, trendy...

  20. Numerical simulations of the internal flow pattern of a vortex pump compared to the Hamel-Oseen vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, Angela; Preuss, Enrico; Thamsen, Paul Uwe; Lykholt-Ustrup, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    We did a numerical study of the internal flow field of a vortex pump. Five operating points were considered and validated through a measured characteristic curve. The internal flow pattern of a vortex pump was analyzed and compared to the Hamel-Oseen vortex model. The calculated flow field was assessed with respect to the circumferential velocity, the vorticity and the axial velocity. Whereas the trajectories of the circumferential velocity were largely in line with the Hamel-Oseen vortex model, the opposite was true for vorticity. Only the vorticity at strong part load was in line with the predictions of the Hamel-Oseen vortex model. We therefore compared the circumferential velocity and vorticity for strong part load operation to the analytical predictions of the Hamel-Oseen vortex model. The simulated values were below the analytical values. The study therefore suggests that a vortex similar to the Hamel-Oseen vortex is only present at the strong part load operation