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Sample records for adolescents afinos study

  1. Patterns of sedentary behavior and compliance with public health recommendations in Spanish adolescents: the AFINOS study.

    OpenAIRE

    David Martínez Gómez; Veiga, Oscar L; Belén Zapatera; Verónica Cabanas-Sánchez; Sonia Gomez-Martinez; David Martinez-Hernández; Ascensión Marcos

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the present study were: (i) describe patterns of sedentary behavior in Spanish adolescents; and (ii) determine the proportion of adolescents that do not meet the public health recommendations for sedentary behavior. This study comprised 1,724 Spanish adolescents (882 girls), aged 13 to 16 years. Patterns of sedentary behavior (TV viewing, use of computer games, console games and surfing the Internet) were assessed using the HELENA sedentary behavior questionnaire. The total propor...

  2. Adherence to dietary recommendations among Spanish and immigrant adolescents living in Spain: the AFINOS study

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    Laura Esteban-Gonzalo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study compares the adherence of immigrant and Spanish adolescents residing in the Madrid region (Spain to national dietary recommendations. The factors compared were the consumption of items from the eight basic food groups (vegetables, fruits, bread/cereals, meat, eggs, fish, legumes and milk/dairy products, including the excessive or deficient consumption of eggs, meat and fish. In addition, the evaluation of excessive sweet foods or soft drinks in the diet was also considered. Subsequently, the influence of length of residence on dietary habits was examined. Materials and methods: Self-reported data were collected in a cross-sectional survey conducted over the period November 2007 to February 2008. The study participants were a representative sample of adolescents aged 13 to 17 years (n = 2,081, 1,055 girls living in the Madrid region. Participants were recruited from secondary schools (grades 7th to 10th randomly selected according to the geographic distribution of adolescents in the region. Results: Immigrant adolescents showed a greater likelihood of not fulfilling recommendations for the consumption of meat, fish, eggs, legumes, bread/cereals, and milk/dairy products. Their diets were also more likely to lack sufficient fish and they also consumed more eggs and more sweet foods and soft drinks than their native counterparts. Spanish adolescents were more likely not to meet recommendations for the intake of vegetables. Length of residence weakly affected dietary habits, with both negative and positive effects observed. Conclusion: The likelihood of not fulfilling dietary recommendations was higher among the immigrant adolescents with the exception of the intake of fruits and vegetables.

  3. Preliminary evidence of physical activity levels measured by accelerometer in Spanish adolescents: The AFINOS Study Evidencia preliminar de los niveles de actividad física medidos mediante un acelerómetro en adolescentes españoles: Estudio AFINOS

    OpenAIRE

    D. Martínez-Gómez; G. J. Welk; M. E. Calle; A. Marcos; O. L. Veiga

    2009-01-01

    Background: It is necessary to know the levels of physical activity (PA) for a better understanding of the development of chronic diseases in youth. The aim of this study was to assess levels of total PA and time spent in different PAintensities in Spanish adolescents by accelerometer. Methods: A sub-sample of 214 healthy Spanish adolescents (107 females), aged 13-16 years, enrolled in the AFINOS Study was selected for this study. Participants wore the ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer for 7 conse...

  4. Adherence to dietary recommendations among Spanish and immigrant adolescents living in Spain: The AFINOS study

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban-Gonzalo, Laura; Veiga, Óscar Luis; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Regidor, Enrique; Martínez Parés, David; Marcos, Ascensión; Calle, María Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study compares the adherence of immigrant and Spanish adolescents residing in the Madrid region (Spain) to national dietary recommendations. The factors compared were the consumption of items from the eight basic food groups (vegetables, fruits, bread/cereals, meat, eggs, fish, legumes and milk/dairy products), including the excessive or deficient consumption of eggs, meat and fish. In addition, the evaluation of excessive sweet foods or soft drinks in...

  5. Gender-specific influence of health behaviors on academic performance in Spanish adolescents; the AFINOS study

    OpenAIRE

    D. Martínez-Gómez; O. L. Veiga; S. Gómez-Martínez; Zapatera, B.; Martínez-Hernández, D.; M.ª E. Calle; Marcos, A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: New paradigms based on the multifactorial etiology of chronic diseases and behavioral outcomes suggest that a combination of health behaviors may have more impact on the outcome of interest than any single factor. Objective: To examine the independent and combined influence of four health behaviors on school performance in Spanish adolescents. Methods: A total of 1825 Spanish adolescents reported their grades in Language and Literature (LL) and Math. Body mass index, family stru...

  6. Length of residence and risk of eating disorders in immigrant adolescents living in Madrid; the AFINOS study

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban-Gonzalo, Laura; Veiga, Óscar Luis; Gõmez-Martínez, Sonia; Veses, Ana María; Regidor, Enrique; Martínez, David Parés; Marcos, Ascensión; Calle, María Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to compare the risk of having an eating disorder (ED) among immigrant and native adolescents living in Madrid and to determine the possible influence of length of residence (LOR) on the risk of the immigrants. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from november 2007 to february 2008 in a representative sample of adolescents aged 13 to 17 years (n = 2,077, 1,052 girls) living in the Madrid region. Data were collected usin...

  7. Length of residence and risk of eating disorders in immigrant adolescents living in Madrid: the AFINOS study

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    Laura Esteban-Gonzalo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was designed to compare the risk of having an eating disorder (ED among immigrant and native adolescents living in Madrid and to determine the possible influence of length of residence (LOR on the risk of the immigrants. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from november 2007 to february 2008 in a representative sample of adolescents aged 13 to 17 years (n = 2,077, 1,052 girls living in the Madrid region. Data were collected using the Spanish version of the SCOFF Eating Disorders Questionnaire. Further factors considered were country of birth, LOR and several biological, sociodemographic, lifestyle and health-related variables. Results: According to the three logistic regression models constructed, female immigrant adolescents on the whole showed a greater ED risk (OR = 1.95; 95%CI 1.292.95; p = 0.001 than native adolescents. Moreover, the likelihood of ED was higher among female immigrants living in Spain for <6 years than for Spanish native females (OR = 2.44; 95%CI 1.42-4.18; p = 0.001, while no significant differences were found when female natives were compared with female immigrants living in this country for ≥ 6 years. Similarly, no differences were observed in the ED risk recorded for male native and immigrant adolescents, both as a whole and by length of residence in Spain. Conclusions: The immigrant status and the length of Spanish residence are relevant factors in regard to the ED risk in adolescents living in Madrid.

  8. Patterns of sedentary behavior and compliance with public health recommendations in Spanish adolescents: the AFINOS study Patrones de sedentarismo y cumplimiento de las recomendaciones de salud pública en adolescentes españoles: estudio AFINOS

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    David Martínez Gómez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were: (i describe patterns of sedentary behavior in Spanish adolescents; and (ii determine the proportion of adolescents that do not meet the public health recommendations for sedentary behavior. This study comprised 1,724 Spanish adolescents (882 girls, aged 13 to 16 years. Patterns of sedentary behavior (TV viewing, use of computer games, console games and surfing the Internet were assessed using the HELENA sedentary behavior questionnaire. The total proportion of adolescents watching TV, using computer and console games, and surfing the internet for more than two hours daily was 24%, 9%, 7%, and 17%, respectively, on weekdays, and 50%, 22%, 16%, and 35%, respectively, on weekends. Over 63% of the adolescents from the study did not meet the recommendation for sedentary behavior (Los objetivos del estudio son: (i describir los patrones de comportamiento sedentario en adolescentes españoles y (ii establecer cuántos de ellos no cumplen las recomendaciones de salud pública sobre comportamiento sedentario. Participaron 1.724 adolescentes españoles (882 chicas entre 13 y 16 años. Los patrones de comportamiento sedentario (ver la televisión, juegos de ordenador, videojuegos y navegar en Internet fueron evaluados a través del cuestionario HELENA. La proporción total de adolescentes que ven la TV, usan juegos de ordenador o de consola y navegan en Internet durante > 2h los días de diario fue del 24%, 9%, 7% y 17%, respectivamente. Durante los fines de semana, la proporción fue del 50%, 22%, 16% y 35%. Más del 63% del total de la muestra no cumplen las recomendaciones de tiempo sedentario total < 2 horas durante los días de diario y el 87% no lo hace en días del fin de semana. Dado que las conductas sedentarias podrían ser relevantes en la salud de los adolescentes, las intervenciones de salud pública son necesarias en España.

  9. Preliminary evidence of physical activity levels measured by accelerometer in Spanish adolescents: The AFINOS Study Evidencia preliminar de los niveles de actividad física medidos mediante un acelerómetro en adolescentes españoles: Estudio AFINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martínez-Gómez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is necessary to know the levels of physical activity (PA for a better understanding of the development of chronic diseases in youth. The aim of this study was to assess levels of total PA and time spent in different PAintensities in Spanish adolescents by accelerometer. Methods: A sub-sample of 214 healthy Spanish adolescents (107 females, aged 13-16 years, enrolled in the AFINOS Study was selected for this study. Participants wore the ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer for 7 consecutive days. Total PA and time spent in sedentary, light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA was estimated using the accelerometer. Adiposity was measured in the sample using sum of 6 skinfoldthickness, waist circumference and BMI. Results: Adolescent boys were engaged in higher levels of total PA, moderate PA, vigorous PA and MVPA than adolescent girls, whereas girls were engaged in higher levels of light PA. Differences between age groups showed that the 15-16 years group did more total PA (P = 0.008 than the 13-14 years group. Adolescents with highest levels of body fat were less active and spent less time in vigorous PA and MVPA than adolescents with less body fat. Among the current sample, 71.1% of the adolescents (82.2% adolescent boys and 60.7% adolescent girls reached the recommendation of ≥ 60 min in MVPA. Conclusions: Although these findings suggest that Spanish adolescents have similar PA levels than other European adolescents, further cross-sectional and longitudinal studies must assess PA levels in free-living conditions in Spanish children and adolescents using objective methods such as accelerometers, heart rate monitors and pedometers.Antecedentes: Para comprender mejor el desarrollo de las enfermedades crónicas en los jóvenes resulta necesario conocer los niveles de actividad física (AF que realizan. El propósito de este estudio es evaluar los niveles de AF total y el tiempo de AF a distintas

  10. Gender-specific influence of health behaviors on academic performance in Spanish adolescents: the AFINOS study Rol del género en la influencia de las conductas saludables sobre el rendimiento académico en adolescentes españoles: el estudio AFINOS

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    D. Martínez-Gómez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: New paradigms based on the multifactorial etiology of chronic diseases and behavioral outcomes suggest that a combination of health behaviors may have more impact on the outcome of interest than any single factor. Objective: To examine the independent and combined influence of four health behaviors on school performance in Spanish adolescents. Methods: A total of 1825 Spanish adolescents reported their grades in Language and Literature (LL and Math. Body mass index, family structure and school-related factors (attitude to school, need to repeat > 1-yr and absenteeism were self-reported. Adolescents were dichotomized as healthy or unhealthy based on meeting or not meeting lifestyle recommendations on physical activity, TV viewing, sleep and fruit intake. Each adolescent was also scored according to the number of healthy recommendations fulfilled. Results: In boys, there were no associations between health behaviors and academic performance. Good academic performance in girls was associated with physical activity (P Introducción: Los nuevos paradigmas basados en la etiología multifactorial de las enfermedades crónicas y los resultados en el comportamiento sugieren que la combinación de comportamientos saludables puede tener un impacto más positivo en algún resultado de interés que cualquier otro factor aislado. Objetivo: explorar la influencia independiente y combinada de cuatro comportamientos saludables sobre el rendimiento escolar de adolescentes españoles. Métodos: Un total de 1.825 adolescentes españoles proporcionaron sus notas en lengua y literatura (LL y matemáticas. El índice de masa corporal, la estructura de la familia y factores relacionados con la escuela (actitud hacia el colegio, necesidad de repetir más de un año y absentismo fueron autoinformados. Se dividió a los adolescentes en saludables y no saludables en función de si cumplían o no unas recomendaciones de estilo de vida relativas a la pr

  11. Studying Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Linda M.

    2006-01-01

    Young people in their teens constitute the largest age group in the world, in a special stage recognized across the globe as the link in the life cycle between childhood and adulthood. Longitudinal studies in both developed and developing countries and better measurements of adolescent behavior are producing new insights. The physical and psychosocial changes that occur during puberty make manifest generational and early-childhood risks to development, in the form of individual differences in...

  12. Fears in Czech Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

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    Michalcáková, Radka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kyjonková, Hana; Bouša, Ondrej; Jelínek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates developmental patterns of fear in adolescence. It is based on longitudinal data collected as a part of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) project. A total of 186 Czech adolescents (43% girls) were assessed repeatedly at the age of 11, 13, and 15 years. The free-response method was…

  13. ADOLESCENT GYNAECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

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    Prakriti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT/BACKGROUND Adolescence, meaning “To grow up,” is a transitional stage of physical, sexual and mental human development occurring between puberty and legal adulthood. The Government of India in National Youth Policy defines adolescents as individuals between 13 to 19 yrs. of age. AIMS To study the magnitude of different adolescent gynecological problems in patients attending OPD of GRMC, Gwalior, MP. SETTINGS AND DESIGN Prospective study in patients attending gynecological OPD of GRMC, Gwalior, MP. SAMPLE SIZE: 75 METHODS AND MATERIALS Seventy five adolescent girls in the age group of 13-19 yrs. attending gynecological OPD of GRMC, Gwalior, from November 2013 to October 2014 were included in the study. Detailed history, general examinations and investigations were done to evaluate their health. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Was done using Microsoft Excel. RESULTS Incidence of gynecological problem in our study was 3.33%. Different gynecological problems were menstrual disorders (60%, leucorrhoea (10.66%, infections (8%, ovarian cyst (5.33%, sexual assault (2.66%, teenage pregnancy (10.66% and infertility (2.66%. Majority of girls with menstrual disorders suffered from puberty menorrhagia (55.55%. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding was diagnosed in 96% of girls suffering from puberty menorrhagia. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease was exclusively seen in married adolescent girls. Vaginal atresia and imperforate hymen were causes of primary amenorrhoea. PCOD was commonest cause of secondary amenorrhoea amongst adolescents. CONCLUSION Menstrual abnormalities are the most common problems of adolescent girls. Setting up adolescent clinics is desirable.

  14. A Cross-Cultural Study of Adolescent Procrastination

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    Klassen, Robert M.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Chong, Wan Har; Krawchuk, Lindsey L.; Huan, Vivien S.; Wong, Isabella Y. F.; Yeo, Lay See

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we explore academic procrastination and associated motivation variables in 612 adolescents from Canada and Singapore. Few studies have explored adolescent procrastination and no previous studies have investigated adolescent procrastination using a cross-cultural framework. Singaporean adolescents reported higher levels of…

  15. An Exploratory Study of Adolescent Pimping Relationships

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    Anderson, Pamela M.; Coyle, Karin K.; Johnson, Anisha; Denner, Jill

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, public attention to the problem of commercially sexually exploited children (CSEC) has grown. This exploratory qualitative study examines adolescent pimping relationships, including how urban youth perceive these types of relationships. Study data stem from interviews with three young adult informants with first-hand knowledge of adolescent pimping, as well as three gender-specific focus group discussions with a convenience sample of 26 urban high school students who have ...

  16. [Study of food characteristics of Uruguayan adolescents].

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    Ortiz, Alfonsina; Pereyra, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the diet of Uruguayan adolescents and demographic aspects that influence it. The data come from the National Survey of Adolescents and Youth in 2008 which worked with 2,943 cases, representative sample of all adolescents in Uruguay. The characteristics of feeding studied were: consumption of fruits and vegetables, soft drinks, fast food, added salt to meals served at the table and meal times shared with a parent. These variables were also studied in aggregate to determine a pattern of eating behavior. It was found that 89% of adolescents did not meet the recommendation of 5 servings of fruits and vegetables a day, 50% consumed daily soft drinks, fast foods ingested 24% 2 or more times per week and 13% added salt at all preparations. We also found that 31% did not share mealtimes with parents daily. By adding the variables studied, we observed that 58% were inadequately fed, and is higher among older adolescents (p consumption of soft drinks, fast food and adding salt to served meals, which defined it as inadequate. This was mainly observed in older adolescents, better economic situation and residents within the country.. PMID:26817381

  17. STUDY FOR ADOLESCENT PROBLEM AND PSYCHOLOGY

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    Astha; MRS Monika; Gitika; Abhishek,

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is defined as the age group of 10-19 years. Adolescents suffer from psychosocial problems at one time or other during their development. Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization majority of young couple are employed and get less time to look after their children. Psychosocial problem and drug abuse are quite prevalent in this age group. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of psychosocial, emotional, behavioral problems, sexual orientation, drug abuse in...

  18. Childhood Psychopathology Predicts Adolescence-Onset Offending: A Longitudinal Study

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    Buck, Nicole; Verhulst, Frank; van Marle, Hjalmar; van der Ende, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Moffitt, Caspi, Harrington, and Milne (2002) found in a follow-up study that many of the supposedly adolescence-limited offenders had committed offenses past adolescence. This finding raises the question of whether adulthood starts later or whether there are two distinct delinquency types, adolescence limited and adolescence onset, each with its…

  19. Songs of Despair: A Case Study of Adolescent Suicide.

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    Sapp, Allen D.

    This report outlines the extent of the problem of adolescent suicide in the United States, noting that suicide is the third leading cause of death among adolescents in this country and that the rate of suicide by adolescents is expected to continue to increase in the future. It examines one adolescent suicide, using the case study method, to…

  20. STUDY OF PEER PRESSURE AND SOCIAL MATURITY AMONG LATE ADOLESCENTS

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    Sakshi; Rakesh Behman; Raj Kumar; Dharmender Kumar Nehra; Naresh Kuma

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adolescents are the energy of today and the bright hope of the future. Peer pressure plays a vital role in the lives and social adjustment of adolescents as it is a time of experimentation with new identities, attitudes and experiences. The purpose of the present study was to provide an examination of the peer pressure and social maturity in late adolescence. Material and methods: It is a cross sectional study, in which Two Hundred (200) adolescents were select...

  1. Breakfast habits among European adolescents : The healthy lifestyle in Europe by nutrition in adolescence (HELENA) study

    OpenAIRE

    Hallström, Lena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study the associations of individual and socioenvironmental factors with breakfast habits among adolescents on a European level. Methods: The HELENA-study (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) is a multi-centre cross-sectional, school-based study including 3528 adolescents (aged 12.5-17.49 years) from 10 European cities in Europe. Data was collected during the 2006-2007 academic year. Breakfast habits were assessed by a ...

  2. Adolescent fertility study in Thailand.

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    Muangman, D

    1980-01-01

    1598 unmarried rural and urban adolescents between 15 and 20 years of age who worked in factories or attended school were interviewed to ascertain their knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding a wide range of issues relating to reproduction. The "school" group were better educated, better off financially, had greater access to information from radio, television, and newspapers, and had higher professional goals than the factory group. Both groups were knowledgeable about family planning and government policy, although the factory group equated it with birth control only. Most believed marriages should be based on love, that ideal family size was 2-3 children, and age of marriage 20-24 years. The school group highly disapproved of premarital intercourse and valued virginity, while only 65% of the factory group agreed. Condoms were more used by the factory group, but a large number of both groups did not know or use contraception. Less than 25% felt that abortion should be permitted except in cases of rape, with 22% of the school group and 33% of the factory group approving of legalizing abortion. Over 50% approved of sex education in the schools. 24% of the school group and 39% of the other group reported having friends with venereal disease, and slightly over 10% of both groups reported having friends who were narcotics addicts. PMID:12278544

  3. STUDY FOR ADOLESCENT PROBLEM AND PSYCHOLOGY

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    Astha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is defined as the age group of 10-19 years. Adolescents suffer from psychosocial problems at one time or other during their development. Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization majority of young couple are employed and get less time to look after their children. Psychosocial problem and drug abuse are quite prevalent in this age group. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of psychosocial, emotional, behavioral problems, sexual orientation, drug abuse in adolescents (less than 18 years and compare with college students (18-22years of age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The permission was taken from the head of the schools and colleges. A questionnaire was made and was distributed and information was collected. Sample 610 collected from school and 700 from college. RESULT: 580 and 669 students from schools and colleges respectively answered data correctly. 18% of school and 15% of college students have witnessed domestic violence in their families. Anxiety and stress was more in school going children than college (might be due to exams i.e.75%: 50% and 46%:41% respectively. Depression rate was almost equal among school and college i.e. 30%. Behavior of our children is influenced by their co-students, on assessing peer pressure it was found that 26-29%(1/3rd from school and college age group submit to peer pressure. In drug abuse alcohol intake was 12% and 19% in school and college group while prevalence of smoking was 4% and 12% respectively. Total number of students who were active in sexual activity was found to be 7.5% in schools and 14.6% in colleges. CONCLUSION: Adolescents constitute 1/5th of our population and prevalence of psychosocial problems along with drug abuse is increasing. With effective counseling by parents and teachers, sex education, stress reduction and improving familial environment, we can ensure a better future and improved adolescent health.

  4. Parental socioeconomic position and development of overweight in adolescence: longitudinal study of Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Rasmussen, Mette;

    2010-01-01

    An inverse social gradient in overweight among adolescents has been shown in developed countries, but few studies have examined whether weight gain and the development of overweight differs among adolescents from different socioeconomic groups in a longitudinal study. The objective was to identif...... the possible association between parental socioeconomic position, weight change and the risk of developing overweight among adolescents between the ages 15 to 21....

  5. Borderline personality disorder: study in adolescence.

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    James, A; Berelowitz, M; Vereker, M

    1996-04-01

    The study of the presentation, symptomatology and family characteristics of an exclusively adolescent sample of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) was undertaken. Twenty-four cases of borderline personality disorder, 20 females, 4 males, identified using chart review and meeting the criteria of the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines (DIB) and DSM III-R, were matched with psychiatric controls. Adolescents with borderline personality disorder were found to have high rates of affective symptomatology with Axis I diagnosis of major depressive disorder MDD (DSM-III-R), and high rates of interpersonal psychopathology, i.e., manipulation, devaluation, and a pervasive sense of boredom. The latter seem to be characteristic as for adults with borderline personality disorder. The families were particularly angry and volatile. PMID:9117533

  6. A Study of Self-Esteem and Romanticism among Pregnant Adolescents, Adolescent Mothers, and a Control Group in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Hellen, Cheryl; And Others

    In the United States over one million adolescent girls will become pregnant each year. Adolescent pregnancy often leads to truncated educational attainment and subsequently results in a prolonged cycle of poverty and dependence. This study investigated feelings of self-esteem and romanticism among pregnant adolescents (N=276), adolescent mothers…

  7. A Study of Dysmenorrhea During Menstruation in Adolescent Girls

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    Agarwal Anil; Agarwal Anju

    2010-01-01

    Research question: What is the prevalence of dysmenorrhea severity and its associated symptoms among adolescent girls? Objectives: (1) To study the prevalence of dysmenorrhea in high school adolescent girls of Gwalior. (2) To study the evidence of severity of the problem with associated symptoms and general health status. Study design: An explorative survey technique with a correlational approach. Setting and Participants: Nine hundred and seventy adolescent girls of age 15 to 20 years, study...

  8. STUDY OF PEER PRESSURE AND SOCIAL MATURITY AMONG LATE ADOLESCENTS

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    Sakshi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are the energy of today and the bright hope of the future. Peer pressure plays a vital role in the lives and social adjustment of adolescents as it is a time of experimentation with new identities, attitudes and experiences. The purpose of the present study was to provide an examination of the peer pressure and social maturity in late adolescence. Material and methods: It is a cross sectional study, in which Two Hundred (200 adolescents were selected by purposive sampling. Assessment was done by using Peer Pressure Scale and Social Maturity Scale.

  9. Acupressure therapy for insomnia in adolescents: a polysomnographic study

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    Carotenuto M; Gallai B; Parisi L; Roccella M; Esposito M.

    2013-01-01

    Marco Carotenuto,1 Beatrice Gallai,2 Lucia Parisi,3 Michele Roccella,3 Maria Esposito11Sleep Clinic for Developmental Age, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Second University of Naples, Naples, 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, 3Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, ItalyBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of acupressure therapy in a sample of adolescents with ins...

  10. Dietary habits during adolescence - results of the Belgian Adolux Study

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    Paulus, Dominique; Saint-Remy, Annie; JeanJean, Michel

    2001-01-01

    STUDY: To analyse the usual dietary habits of Belgian adolescents from a high cardiovascular risk population. METHODS: A food frequency questionnaire (57 items) was administered to the whole sample. Complementary questions specified some types of food (eg fat content). A subgroup of 234 adolescents gave detailed information on portion size (picture book and food samples). SETTING: Twenty-four secondary schools in the Belgian province of Luxembourg. SUBJECTS: A total of 1,526 adolesce...

  11. Measurement and Design Issues in the Study of Adolescent Sexual Behavior and the Evaluation of Adolescent Sexual Health Behavior Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael; Palacios, Rebecca; Penhollow, Tina M.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the quality of research and commentary concerning adolescent sexuality and evaluation of both comprehensive sexuality education and abstinence education programs, this article aims to help readers (1) select appropriate measures to study adolescent sexual behavior, (2) develop appropriate study designs to evaluate adolescent sexual…

  12. Drug Taking Beliefs of Australian Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypiec, Grace; Owens, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    In this study adolescents offered their insights and perspectives of factors associated with adolescent illicit drug taking intentions. The factors explored were identified using a cross-disciplinary approach involving the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and criminological theories, and these formed the framework for data analysis. Interviews…

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescent Precursors to Running Away

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    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Bersani, Bianca E.

    2008-01-01

    Although previous research has examined correlates of running away among samples of currently homeless and runaway adolescents, little is known about what factors will predict the likelihood that a housed adolescent with no prior history of running away will leave home. As such, the current study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to…

  14. The characteristics of serious suicide attempters in Japanese adolescents- comparison study between adolescents and adults

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    Kawashima Yoshitaka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is the leading cause of death among Japanese adolescents, and they may commit suicide differently from adults. However, there are few studies in medical-based data concerning adolescent patients seriously attempting suicide. We aimed to explore the characteristics of serious suicide attempts in Japanese adolescents, comparing them with those in adults. Methods We investigated adolescents who seriously attempted suicide and were treated at the Critical Care Medical Center (CCMC of Nippon Medical School Hospital between 2000 and 2010, and we compared them with adult suicide attempters treated during 2009. We retrospectively studied medical records and collected clinical data and socio-demographic factors, including age, sex, psychiatric symptoms or diagnosis, methods of suicide attempt, motives for suicide attempt, previous deliberate self-harm, previous psychiatric history, parent loss experience, and previous psychiatric history in the family. Results Adolescent attempters were 15 males and 44 females, 13 to 18 years old (mean 16.39. Adult attempters were 37 males and 65 females, 19 to 79 years old (mean 39.45. In comparison to adult attempters, adolescent attempters were more frequently diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, had more school problems and parent loss experience, but they had less financial problems. Gender differences between adolescents and adults were examined, and male adolescent attempters were found to be more frequently diagnosed with schizophrenia and had less financial problems than their adult counterparts, while female adolescent attempters were more frequently diagnosed with BPD, had more school problems and parent loss, but they had less previous psychiatric history than their adult counterparts. Conclusions Our findings indicated that adolescent attempters were more frequently diagnosed with BPD and had more school problems and parent loss experience but had less financial

  15. Prospective community study of family stress and anxiety in (pre)adolescents: the TRAILS study

    OpenAIRE

    Van Oort, Floor; Verhulst, Frank; Ormel, Johan Hans; Huizink, Anja

    2009-01-01

    textabstractFor prevention of anxiety in children and adolescents, it is important to know whether family stress is a predictor of anxiety. We studied this in 1,875 adolescents from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) who were followed up for 2 years, from age 10-12 to 12-14 years. Adolescents reported anxiety and depression symptoms at both assessments, and parents reported family stress (family dysfunction and parenting stress) at the first assessment. Family dysfunct...

  16. Prospective community study of family stress and anxiety in (pre)adolescents: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, F.V.A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    For prevention of anxiety in children and adolescents, it is important to know whether family stress is a predictor of anxiety. We studied this in 1,875 adolescents from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) who were followed up for 2 years, from age 10-12 to 12-14 years. Adoles

  17. Prospective community study of family stress and anxiety in (pre)adolescents : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, Floor V. A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Huizink, Anja C.

    2010-01-01

    For prevention of anxiety in children and adolescents, it is important to know whether family stress is a predictor of anxiety. We studied this in 1,875 adolescents from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) who were followed up for 2 years, from age 10-12 to 12-14 years. Adoles

  18. STUDY OF ANEMIA IN ADOLESCENT SCHOOL GIRLS OF BHOPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kakkar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common form of malnutrition, early intervention during adolescence (girls can prevent high morbidity and mortality of these future mothers. Objectives: To study prevalence & factors contributing to anaemia among adolescent school girls. Material and Methods: Area or region addressed – Iron deficiency anemia in adolescent girls. Present study was conducted among 317 adolescent (10-19Yrs government schoolgirls of Bhopal city from June2005-July2006. Three study groups were selected from three different girls’ school by random sampling method. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS. Result & Conclusion: Overall prevalence was 58.4% among adolescent schoolgirls. Prevalence of anemia was dependent on the knowledge about prevention of anemia, literacy level, food habits, birth order & also frequency of Iron rich source viz. green leafy vegetable & non vegetarian diet. While there was no significant relation of anemia with duration of menstrual flow but there was significant (P<0.05 difference in number of anaemic cases with age at menarche i.e. with higher age at menarche; there was more chances of anemia. Level of anemia was higher (p<0.05 in early adolescent (10 -13 Years age group (81% as compared to middle (58.3% and late adolescent (17-19 years age group girls (48.7%.

  19. Dating Violence: Study with Adolescents from Heredia (Costa Rica)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Avelino Fernández-Fuertes; María Begoña Orgaz-Baz; Mariana De Lima-Silva; Manuel Arturo Fallas-Vargas; José Antonio García-Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Most of human aggressive behavior occurs in the context of a romantic relationship. Adolescents are not an exception: research show a significant prevalence of dating violence, revealing the need for further study, especially in Latin America, given the lack of research on this topic. This study aims at strengthening knowledge about aggressive behavior in adolescent dating relationships in Costa Rica, taking into account different aggressive behaviors, not only physical or sexual abuse; diffe...

  20. Adolescent Eating Disorders: Treatment and Response in a Naturalistic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Boisseau, Christina L.; Satir, Dana A.

    2010-01-01

    This naturalistic study investigated the treatment and outcome of adolescents with eating disorders (EDs) in the community. Clinicians from a practice-research network provided data on ED symptoms, global functioning, comorbidity, treatment, and outcome for 120 adolescents with EDs. ED “not otherwise specified” was the most common ED diagnosed. After an average of 8 months of treatment, about one third of patients had recovered, with patients with anorexia nervosa showing the most improvement...

  1. Recovery from adolescent onset anorexia nervosa : a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Anorexia Nervosa is a psychiatric illness with peak onset in ages 14-17. Most cases recover within a few years, but the illness can have a fatal outcome or long duration. Multifactor causes of anorexia nervosa include genetics, personality, family, and socio-cultural factors. This study measures mortality, recovery from anorexia nervosa, and psychosocial outcome of patients with adolescent onset anorexia nervosa that were treated in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in northern Sweden from 1980...

  2. Attachment and the Body in Suicidal Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, John; Briggs, Stephen; Behringer, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    There is a relative dearth of studies in the field of adolescent attachment despite the potential impact of such developmental changes on the organization of attachment systems. This omission is even more acute among clinical populations, although adolescence is notable for dramatic increases in specific psychopathologies, e.g. eating disorders, delinquency, and suicide and self-harm. This article attempts to address the shortfall using a mixed quantitative/qualitative research design. First,...

  3. Cortical thickness in adolescent marijuana and alcohol users: A three-year prospective study from adolescence to young adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Jacobus; Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Alejandro D. Meruelo; Norma Castro; Ty Brumback; Giedd, Jay N.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2015-01-01

    Studies suggest marijuana impacts gray and white matter neural tissue development, however few prospective studies have determined the relationship between cortical thickness and cannabis use spanning adolescence to young adulthood. This study aimed to understand how heavy marijuana use influences cortical thickness trajectories across adolescence. Subjects were adolescents with heavy marijuana use and concomitant alcohol use (MJ + ALC, n = 30) and controls (CON, n = 38) with limited substanc...

  4. A case study on the communication of older adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lauren; Spencer, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Alison

    2011-11-01

    This study compared the communication of two older male adolescents (aged 17 and 19 years) with each other (peer interaction) and with a teacher (non-peer interaction) in three different types of activity (casual conversation, providing/listening to a recount and collaborative problem-solving). Conversation analysis, selected analyses from the perspective of systemic functional linguistics and social psychology (communication accommodation theory) were applied in data analysis. Peer interaction showed fewer questions, fewer challenging moves and the absence of divergent accommodation strategies. In the non-peer interaction, the teacher's higher number of turns, questions and interruptions appeared to influence the opportunity for adolescent contribution to the interactions. Some aspects of language use by each adolescent - mean turn length, use of one-word utterances and sarcasm - were consistent across communication partner and activity. The methodology is suggested to provide a suitable procedure for use in similar research with older adolescents who have traumatic brain injury. PMID:22106894

  5. Active gaming in Dutch adolescents: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simons Monique

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate levels of physical activity are part of a healthy lifestyle and in this way linked to better health outcomes. For children and adolescents, the physical activity guideline recommends at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity every day. However, many adolescents are not physically active enough and they spend a lot of their time on sedentary activities (such as video games. A new generation of video games that require body movements to play them, so-called "active games", could serve to increase physical activity in adolescents. The activity level while playing these games is comparable to light-to-moderate intensity physical activity. The current study aims to increase our understanding of 1 the demographic characteristics of adolescents who play active games regularly (≥ 1 hour per week and non-regularly ( Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a Dutch internet panel, questioning adolescents in conjunction with one of their parents. A random sample of 320 households (with stratification on gender of the parent and the adolescent, the age of the adolescent and the region of the household was selected that owned a console or application for active video games and that had a child aged 12 through 16 years. 201 child–parent couples (63% response completed an internet survey with questions about demographics, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and gaming behaviour. The questionnaire also contained questions designed to assess whether and how active gaming replaces other activities. Besides descriptive analyses, independent t-test, Pearson’s chi-square and Mann–Whitney test (when data were not normally distributed were used for comparisons between regular and non-regular active gamers. Results Eleven percent of the adolescents with an active game in their household never used the game. There were no significant differences in gender, education level (of adolescent and

  6. Nutrition and Lifestyle in European Adolescents: The HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study123

    OpenAIRE

    Luis A. Moreno; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; González-Gross, Marcela; DeHenauw, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period, because major physical and psychologic changes occur during a very short period of time. Changes in dietary habits may induce different types of nutritional disorders and are likely to track into adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the key findings related to nutritional status in European adolescents participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. We performed a cross-sectional study in...

  7. Acupressure therapy for insomnia in adolescents: a polysomnographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carotenuto M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marco Carotenuto,1 Beatrice Gallai,2 Lucia Parisi,3 Michele Roccella,3 Maria Esposito11Sleep Clinic for Developmental Age, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Second University of Naples, Naples, 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, 3Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, ItalyBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of acupressure therapy in a sample of adolescents with insomnia using a standard polysomnographic evaluation.Methods: For this study, 25 adolescents affected by psychophysiological insomnia (mean age 15.04 ± 1.18 years, 12 boys were enrolled. A device known as the Sea-Band® was used by the patients in order to improve their symptoms related to difficulty in falling asleep. All subjects enrolled underwent two sets of consecutive overnight polysomnographic studies in the Sleep Laboratory of the Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, comprising two studies at baseline (before treatment and another two studies at the end of 6 months of treatment.Results: At the end of 6 months of treatment, there was a significant increase in all macrostructural parameters of sleep duration, and a reduction in sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, and stage 2 sleep. Moreover, the study group showed a significant increase in percent sleep efficiency (P < 0.001 and in slow wave sleep representation.Conclusion: Acupressure is a noninvasive, safe, and effective method for the management of insomnia in adolescents, with good compliance and no adverse effects.Keywords: insomnia, adolescence, acupressure, polysomnography

  8. Adolescent Intimacy: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbedour, Salman; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Compared perceptions of intimacy in friendships among Israeli Jewish (IJ) and Israeli Bedouin (IB) adolescents. Results from 288 IJ and 327 IB junior and senior high school students show that intimacy was perceived to reflect a balance between closeness and individuality in close friendships. Closeness and individuality appear to govern all close…

  9. Separation-Individuation of Late Adolescents : A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Sevda; Gelbal, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the change in separation-individuation between late adolescents in the first, second, third and fourth year of higher education. The study sample used for this longitudinal study consisted of 148 students attending class studies, computer education and science education departments of Kirikkale University.…

  10. Internet addiction among Iranian adolescents: a nationwide study.

    OpenAIRE

    Khodabakhsh Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Problematic use of the Internet by children and adolescents is a newly emerging disorder that has alerted health authorities throughout the world. In Iran, despite the very high speed rate of Internet spread, there is not enough data on the rate of Internet addiction among the adolescents. This study is the first nationwide study that addresses this issue. Overall 4500 students of high school or pre-college schools were recruited from 13/31 provinces of Iran by a cluster sampling method and 4...

  11. Adolescent's perspective on reproductive health: a study from Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To determine the existing knowledge, attitude and behavior about reproductive and sexual health in adolescents of Karachi and seek their opinion about reproductive health education. Study type, settings and duration: A cross sectional study was conducted on adolescents (17-19 years) of both gender studying in colleges of Karachi during 2010. Subject sand Methods: Using stratified sampling procedure, a cross sectional study was carried out. After informed consent and ensuring confidentiality an anonymous quantitative questionnaire was completed to ascertain the knowledge of adolescents on reproductive health. Results: A total of 912 adolescents (470 males and 442 females) of 12 public and private sector colleges of Karachi participated in the study. Acquaintance to reproductive health was present in 75% males and 71% females and most participants confirmed discussing reproductive health issues with friends. About 81% males and 91 % females affirmed for a need for enhanced reproductive health education and awareness while over 50% of the respondents were of the opinion that the right age for reproductive health education was 16 to 18 years. Confining sexual activity to one partner and avoiding exposure to blood and needles for the prevention of AIDS was known to 38% males and 44% females but the prevention of sexually transmitted infections using condoms, was known to only 1/3 rd of the respondents. Although 70% of the respondents of both genders knew that pregnancy can be avoided but only 20% knew about contraceptives. Conclusions: Most adolescents' knew about the reproductive cycle but were not well aware of how to avoid exposures to sexually transmitted infections and pregnancies. Policy message: Reproductive health education is insufficient in adolescents should be gender specific and socio culturally sensitive. (author)

  12. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  13. Interpersonal Psychotherapy with Pregnant Adolescents: Two Pilot Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa; Gur, Merav; Shanok, Arielle; Weissman, Myrna

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the feasibility, acceptability and helpfulness of group Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT-PA) for depression in pregnant adolescents. Method: Two open clinical trials were conducted of IPT-PA delivered in group format in a New York City public school for pregnant girls. Study 1 tests IPT-PA for management of…

  14. Twenty four year time trends in fats and cholesterol intake by adolescents. Warsaw Adolescents Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charzewska Jadwiga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine time trends (1982–2006 in total fat intake and changes in fatty acid structure intake in adolescents from Warsaw in view of increasing prevalence of obesity. Data come from four successive surveys randomly selected samples of adolescents (aged 11–15 years old, from Warsaw region. In total 9747 pupils have been examined, with response rate varying from 55% to 87% depending on year. Surveys were done always in the spring season of the year. Food intake was assessed by using 24 hours recall method of consumption by the pupils all products, including enriched, dishes and beverages as well as diet supplements, in the last 24 hours preceding the examination. The content of energy and nutrients was calculated by means of own computer softwares (DIET 2 and 4, taking into account successive revisions of the tables of food composition and nutritional values, as well as current Polish DRI. A significant decreasing trend was found in intake of total fat, of saturated fatty acids (SFA and cholesterol. The percentage of energy from total fat, also decreased both in boys (to 35,1% and girls (to 33,7%, what failed to reach the desired level below 30% of energy from fat which is recommended. Also significant decrease of SFA consumption was not satisfactory enough to approach the values <10% of energy recommended as was from 13% to 15%. Decreasing trends in fat intake was not in accordance with the trend in obesity prevalence in the adolescents as average BMI is going up. To stabilize the health-oriented changes especially in the diets of adolescents, further activity is desired from professionals working with prevention of adolescents obesity.

  15. Exercise for Adolescents with Depressive Disorders: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Dopp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Adolescence is associated with increased depressive symptoms and decreased aerobic exercise, yet the relationship between exercise and clinical depression among adolescents requires further examination. This study assessed the feasibility of a 12-week intervention designed to increase exercise for adolescents with depressive disorders: Will a teenager with depression exercise? Methods. Participants were 13 adolescents with depression reporting low levels of aerobic exercise. They completed a 12-week intervention (15 supervised exercise sessions and 21 independent sessions. Exercise was measured through the aerobic exercise Questionnaire, actigraphy, and heart-rate monitoring. Depression was measured with the Children’s Depression Rating Scale, Revised, and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Self-Report. Results. All participants who started the intervention completed the protocol, attending all supervised exercise sessions. Actigraphy verified 81% adherence to the protocol’s independent sessions. Analysis of secondary outcomes showed a significant increase in exercise levels and a significant decrease in depression severity. Initially, ten participants were overweight or obese, and three were healthy weight. After 12 weeks of exercise, the number of participants in the healthy-weight category doubled. Conclusions. Adolescents suffering from depression can complete a rigorous protocol requiring structured increases in aerobic exercise. Participants showed significant increases in exercise, and significant decreases in depressive symptoms.

  16. Prospective community study of family stress and anxiety in (pre)adolescents: the TRAILS study

    OpenAIRE

    Oort, Floor V. A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    International audience For prevention of anxiety in children and adolescents, it is important to know whether family stress is a predictor of anxiety. We studied this in 1,875 adolescents from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) who were followed up for 2 years, from age 10–12 to 12–14 years. Adolescents reported anxiety and depression symptoms at both assessments, and parents reported family stress (family dysfunction and parenting stress) at the first assessment. F...

  17. Brief Behavioral Sleep Intervention for Adolescents: An Effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavonen, E Juulia; Huurre, Taina; Tilli, Maija; Kiviruusu, Olli; Partonen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among adolescents, but there are no brief interventions to treat them. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief semistructured, individually delivered sleep intervention to ameliorate adolescents' sleeping difficulties and lengthen sleep duration. All students aged 16-18 years in a high school were screened for sleeping difficulties and 36 students with the highest sleep problem scores were invited to the intervention. Postintervention improvements were observed on self-reported and actiwatch-registered sleep duration, self-reported sleep quality and sleep latency, perceived stress and anxiety (all p values 0.05). A brief individual sleep intervention can be effective in lengthening sleep duration and improving subjective sleep quality and well-being among adolescents. PMID:26378797

  18. Research Knowledge among the Participants in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Silva, Susan; Curry, John; Reinecke, Mark; Pathak, Sanjeev; Waslick, Bruce; Hughes, Carroll W.; Prentice, Ernest D.; May, Diane E.; March, John S.

    2007-01-01

    A study examined the extent to which parents and adolescents participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) understood the study. The results concluded that most were well-informed, and also parents were overall better informed than adolescents.

  19. A STUDY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL AND CLINICAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH ADOLESCENT SUICIDE ATTEMPTS

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, C.T. Sudir; Chandrasekaran, R.

    2000-01-01

    There is a good deal of research showing that suicide attempts increase markedly during adolescence. This study aims at studying the demographic and clinical variables of adolescent suicide attempters and comparing certain potential risk factors between adolescent and adult suicide attempters. It was found that adolescents in our study sample differ significantly from adults in the levels of depression, hopelessness, lethality of attempt and stressful life events. These findings are important...

  20. Parental influences on adolescent physical activity: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Guadalupe X

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is increasing among adolescents in the U.S., especially among girls. Despite growing evidence that parents are an important influence on adolescent health, few longitudinal studies have explored the causal relationship between parental influence and physical activity. This study examines how the relationships between parental influences and adolescent physical activity differ by gender and tests whether these relationships are mediated by adolescents' self-esteem and depression. Methods Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample includes 13,246 youth, grades 7 to 12, interviewed in 1995 and again 1 year later. Logit models were used to evaluate parental influences on achieving five or more bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week [MVPA] and whether the relationship between parental influence and MVPA was mediated by adolescents' level of self-esteem and depression. Results Family cohesion, parent-child communication and parental engagement positively predicted MVPA for both genders one year later (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for females, 1.09 [1.05–1.12], 1.13 [1.07–1.19], 1.25 [1.17–1.33] and males, 1.08 [1.04–1.11], 1.14 [1.07–1.23], 1.23 [1.14–1.33], respectively; however, parental monitoring did not (odds ratio and confidence intervals for females and males, 1.02 [.97–1.07]. For both females and males, self-esteem mediated the relationship between parental influence and physical activity. Depressive symptoms were only a mediator among males. Females reported higher levels of parent-child communication and lower family cohesion compared with males. There were no gender differences in levels of parental monitoring and engagement. Females had significantly lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of depressive symptoms than males. Conclusion Strategies to promote physical activity among adolescents should focus on

  1. Prospective Assessment of Cannabis Withdrawal in Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milin, Robert; Manion, Ian; Dare, Glenda; Walker, Selena

    2008-01-01

    A study to identify and assess the withdrawal symptoms in adolescents afflicted with cannabis dependence is conducted. Results conclude that withdrawal symptoms of cannabis were present in adolescents seeking treatment for this substance abuse.

  2. Treatment Compliance of Adolescents after Attempted Suicide: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Craig D.; Cortell, Ranon; Wagner, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates compliance with mental health treatments among suicidal adolescents. Results show that child psychopathology and parental attitudes toward treatment plays an important part in increasing compliance with mental health treatment for adolescent suicide attempters.

  3. Heterogeneity in development of adolescent anxiety disorder symptoms in an 8-year longitudinal community study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, Stefanie A.; Hale, William W.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Frijns, Tom; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we prospectively examined developmental trajectories of five anxiety disorder symptom dimensions (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, school anxiety, separation anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder) from early to late adolescence in a community sample of 239 adolesc

  4. Impact of Educational Status of Parents on Nutritional Status of Adolescent Girls: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit K Singh, Gagan Garg, Sanjeev Davey, Santosh Kumar Raghav, Khursheed Muzammil, Jai Vir Singh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This study found strong association between the nutritional status of adolescent girls and education of parents. Illiteracy of their parent is the main factor of malnutrition among adolescents.

  5. Self-Concept of Pregnant Adolescents: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkes, Barbara Halpren; Crocitto, John A.

    1987-01-01

    Used case study approach to assess self-concepts of pregnant adolescents regarding life history, personality traits, and development. Results revealed common themes of historic background and personality traits: no intact families, lack of trust in family members, history of drug and alcohol abuse, permissive sexual attitudes and early sexual…

  6. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  7. Childhood and adolescence roots of resilience: Brno Longitudinal Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Iva; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin

    Edmonton: University of Alberta, 2012. s. 327-327. [International Society for the Study of Behavioural Development 2012: biennial meeting. 08.07.2012-12.07.2012, Edmonton] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : resilience * childhood * adolescence Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  8. Adolescent Ethnolinguistic Stability and Change: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Mary Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Most sociolinguistic studies rely on apparent time, cross-sectional methods to analyze language change. On the basis of apparent time data, sociolinguists have hypothesized that cultural processes of lifespan change create predictable cycles of linguistic behavior in which adolescents lead in the use of vernacular variants and advance sound change…

  9. A study of dysmenorrhea during menstruation in adolescent girls

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    Agarwal Anil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the prevalence of dysmenorrhea severity and its associated symptoms among adolescent girls? Objectives: (1 To study the prevalence of dysmenorrhea in high school adolescent girls of Gwalior. (2 To study the evidence of severity of the problem with associated symptoms and general health status. Study design: An explorative survey technique with a correlational approach. Setting and Participants: Nine hundred and seventy adolescent girls of age 15 to 20 years, studying in the higher secondary schools (Pre-University Colleges of Gwalior. Statistical analysis: Percentages, Chi-square test, and Test-Retest Method. Results: The prevalence of dysmenorrhea in adolescent girls was found to be 79.67%. Most of them, 37.96%, suffered regularly from dysmenorrhea severity. The three most common symptoms present on both days, that is,day before and first day of menstruation were lethargy and tiredness (first, depression (second and inability to concentrate in work (third, whereas the ranking of these symptoms on the day after the stoppage of menstruation showed depression as the first common symptoms. Negative correlation had found between dysmenorrhea and the General Health Status as measured by the Body surface area.

  10. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms : An adolescent population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonvanie, Irma J.; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A. M.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship. I

  11. Adolescents' experiences of being food-hypersensitive: a qualitative study

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    Wilde-Larsson Bodil

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experiencing or being at risk of adverse reactions to certain food items is a common health issue, especially among children and adolescents. Research has shown that living with the risk of food reactions and always having to take measures to avoid certain food in one's diet has a negative impact on quality of life. The aim of this study was to illuminate adolescents' experiences of being food hypersensitive. Methods Three focus group interviews and six individual interviews were carried out with all together 17 adolescents, 14–18 years of age, who had exclusion diets at school due to food hypersensitivity. The interviews were taped and transcribed verbatim and a qualitative content analysis was carried out. Results Five categories with subcategories, and one pervading theme, emerged. The categories were: Perceiving oneself as being particular, Feeling constrained, Experiencing others' ignorance, Keeping control, and Feeling it's okay. A pervading theme was conceptualised as Striving to normalise the experience of being food-hypersensitive. The adolescents regarded themselves as competent and courageous, but also described how they avoided the extra attention it implied to ask for special food considerations taken into account. Their self-conceptions were probably essential for their management of and attitude toward the hypersensitivity condition. They felt deprived, and those at risk of severe food reactions experienced insecurity and fear. Feelings of being disregarded were expressed, as well as facing unreliability and a lack of understanding from others. The continual work of constant vigilance and decision-making was described as time-consuming and frustrating. However, the adolescents also experienced considerate and supportive surroundings and were at pains to tone down the negative experiences and consequences of being food-hypersensitive. Conclusion Food avoidance by itself, and not only the somatic food reactions

  12. MENSTRUAL HYGIENE PRACTICES AMONG ADOLESCENT GIRLS: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekkalale Chikkalingaiah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Menstruation has often been dealt with secrecy in many cultures. Such perceptions coupled with poor and inadequate sanitary facilities have often kept girls from not attending schools especially during periods of menstruation. There is gross lack of information on menstrual management among adolescent girls; most of these girls seek information about menstruation from their peers who do not know better. Adolescence being a time of tremendous opportunity, and at the same time also a time of heightened vulnerabilities, it is imperative to empower adolescent girls with adequate information and skills on crucial issues like menstrual hygiene and its management. AIM: To know the knowledge and menstrual hygiene practices of adolescent girls. MATERIAL & METHODS: Across sectional study was conducted among 210 adolescent girls in a rural field practice area of Rajarajeswari Medical College & Hospital. Data on socio-economic variables and menstrual characteristics were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. RESULTS: 87.6% of the girls were aware about menstruation prior to the attainment of menarche. Mothers were the first informants in about 56.5% girls. Overall 51.5% adolescent girls were using sanitary napkins as menstrual absorbent, while 45.6% were using used cloths. Regarding practices, for cleaning of used cloths 88.9% girls used both soap and water. Regarding restrictions practiced, 97.6% girls practiced different restrictions during menstruation. CONCLUSION: There is a need to educate the girls about menstruation, its importance and hygiene maintenance; so as to enable them to lead a healthy reproductive life in future.

  13. Prospective community study of family stress and anxiety in (pre)adolescents: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.V. van Oort; F.C. Verhulst; J. Ormel; A.C. Huizink

    2010-01-01

    For prevention of anxiety in children and adolescents, it is important to know whether family stress is a predictor of anxiety. We studied this in 1,875 adolescents from the Tracking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) who were followed up for 2 years, from age 10-12 to 12-14 years. Adoles

  14. Peer Contagion of Depressogenic Attributional Styles among Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Elizabeth A.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal associations between adolescents' and their friend's depressive symptoms and depressogenic attributional style. Participants included 398 adolescents in grades six through eight at the outset of the study. Adolescents completed peer nominations to identify reciprocated and unreciprocated best friendships as well as…

  15. Clinical features of adolescents with deliberate self-harm: A case control study in Lisbon, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo F Guerreiro; Neves, Ema L; Navarro, Rita; Mendes, Raquel; Prioste, Ana; Ribeiro, Diana; Lila, Tiago; Neves, António; Salgado, Mónica; Santos, Nazaré; Sampaio, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm (DSH) among adolescents is a high-risk condition for suicide. The aim of the present study is to describe the characteristic clinical features of adolescents with DSH according to our local context (Lisbon, Portugal), using easily available information from clinical settings. A case control study was constructed from a sample of 100 adolescents (aged 12 to 21 years). The sample was divided into two groups: adolescents with and without DSH. Case files were examined and dat...

  16. Determinants of Internet Addiction among Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Artemis Tsitsika; Elena Critselis; Amalia Louizou; Mari Janikian; Aliki Freskou; Evgenia Marangou; Georgios Kormas; Kafetzis, Dimitrios A

    2011-01-01

    Internet Addiction (IA) is associated with adverse psychosocial development and mental disorders. The study aims were to evaluate the psychosocial profiles and psychiatric comorbidities associated with IA among adolescents. A case-control study was conducted among 129 adolescents in the outpatient setting of the Adolescent Health Unit of the Second University Department of Pediatrics in Athens, Greece. The case group consisted of 86 adolescents with IA as evaluated following psychiatric inter...

  17. A Longitudinal Adoption Study of Substance Use Behavior in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huibregtse, Brooke M; Corley, Robin P; Wadsworth, Sally J; Vandever, Joanna M; DeFries, John C; Stallings, Michael C

    2016-08-01

    Although cross-sectional twin studies have assessed the genetic and environmental etiologies of substance use during adolescence and early adulthood, comparisons of results across different samples, measures, and cohorts are problematic. While several longitudinal twin studies have investigated these issues, few corroborating adoption studies have been conducted. The current study is the first to estimate the magnitude of genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana) from ages 14 to 18 years, using a prospective longitudinal adoption design. Adoptive and control sibling correlations provided substantial evidence for early genetic effects on cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use/no use. Shared environmental effects were relatively modest, except for alcohol use, which showed increases in late adolescence (age 17 to 18 years). Sibling similarity for quantity/frequency of use also support additive genetic influences across adolescence, with some shared environmental influences for all three substances. To test the stability of these influences across time, a series of independent pathway models were run to explore common and age-specific influences. For all substances, there were minimal age-specific additive genetic and shared environmental influences on quantity/frequency of use. Further, there was a trend toward increasing genetic influences on cigarette and alcohol use across ages. Genetic influences on marijuana were important early, but did not contribute substantially at age 17 and 18 years. Overall, the findings indicate that genetic influences make important contributions to the frequency/quantity of substance use in adolescence, and suggest that new genetic influences may emerge in late adolescence for cigarette and alcohol use. PMID:27161024

  18. [Functional Neuroimaging Pilot Study of Borderline Personality Disorder in Adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Amélie; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Labelle, Réal; Luck, David

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is being increasingly recognized by clinicians working with adolescents, and the reliability and validity of the diagnosis have been established in the adolescent population. Adolescence is known to be a period of high risk for BPD development as most patients identify the onset of their symptoms to be in the adolescent period. As with other mental health disorders, personality disorder, are thought to result from the interaction between biological and environmental factors. Functional neuroimaging studies are reporting an increasing amount of data on abnormal neuronal functions in BPD adult patients. However, no functional neuroimaging studies have been conducted in adolescents with BPD.Objectives This pilot project aims to evaluate the feasibility of a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study coupled with clinical and psychological measures in adolescent girls with a diagnosis of BPD. It also aims to identify neuronal regions of interest (ROI) for the study of BPD in adolescent girls.Method Six female adolescents meeting DSM-IV criteria for BPD and 6 female adolescents without psychiatric disorder were recruited. Both groups were evaluated for BPD symptoms, depressive symptoms, impulsivity, affective lability, and other potential psychiatric comorbidities. We used fMRI to compare patterns of regional brain activation between these two groups as they viewed 20 positive, 20 negative and 20 neutral emotion-inducing pictures, which were presented in random order.Results Participants were recruited over a period of 22 months. The protocol was well tolerated by participants. Mean age of the BPD group and control group was 15.8 ± 0.9 years-old and 15.5 ± 1.2 years-old respectively. Psychiatric comorbidity and use of medication was common among participants in the BPD group. This group showed higher impulsivity and affective lability scores. For the fMRI task, BPD patients demonstrated greater differences in activation

  19. Dietary Intake among Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country: An Outcome from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Study (the MyHeARTs Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Hazreen Abdul Majid; Liyana Ramli; Sim Pei Ying; Tin Tin Su; Muhammad Yazid Jalaludin; Nabilla Al-Sadat Abdul Mohsein

    2016-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is essential for healthy growth during adolescence. This study aims to investigate the baseline nutritional intake of Malaysian adolescents by gender, body mass index, and places of residence, both urban and rural. A cohort study was conducted consisting of 794 adolescents (aged 13-years) attending 15 public secondary schools from the Central (Kuala Lumpur and Selangor) and Northern (Perak) Regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Qualified dietitians conducted a 7-day historical ass...

  20. Adolescent (Mis)Perceptions about Nicotine Addiction: Results from a Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditis, Maria; Lee, Joann; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite evidence that adolescents become addicted to nicotine even after limited use, adolescents believe they can experiment with or smoke cigarettes for a few years and easily quit. The goal of this study was to examine adolescents' understanding of the definition and process of nicotine addiction using a mixed-methods approach. Method:…

  1. Personality and Parenting Processes Associated with Problem Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents in Santiago, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Cristina B.; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Andrade, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Considerable research in the United States has established that adolescent antisocial, aggressive, and attention problem behaviors negatively influence adolescents' ability to become productive members of society. However, little is known about the development of these problems among adolescents in other countries. This study contributes to our…

  2. Relapse and Recurrence Prevention in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Anne D.; Rohde, Paul; Kennard, Betsy D.; Robins, Michele

    2005-01-01

    Relapse and recurrence in adolescent depression are important problems. Much less is known about relapse prevention compared to the acute treatment of depression in adolescents. Based on previous research, theoretical predictions, and clinical experience, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) protocol was designed to determine…

  3. Prospective Predictors of Body Dissatisfaction in Adolescent Girls and Boys: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Susan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated prospective risk factors for increases in body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls and boys in the Eating Among Teens Project. At the time of first assessment (Time 1), participants were a cohort of early adolescent girls (N = 440) and boys (N = 366) and a cohort of middle adolescent girls (N = 946) and boys (N = 764).…

  4. Impact of Comorbid Anxiety in an Effectiveness Study of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Davies, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of comorbid anxiety on treatment for adolescent depression in an effectiveness study of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A). Method: A randomized clinical trial was conducted from April 1, 1999, through July 31, 2002. Sixty-three depressed adolescents, ages 12 to 18, received either IPT-A…

  5. Current trends in study of xenophobia in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Malantseva O.D.

    2012-01-01

    Xenophobia is one of the most topical problems of the modern world which attains special significance in view of its extension among adolescents. The article regards the results of the latest studies of xenophobia in works of foreign scholars, as well as mechanisms of its emergence and the ways of preventing it. In the course of analysis of the latest findings of foreign investigators three main directions in study of xenophobia were singled out: investigations at the level of individual psyc...

  6. Body Weight Concerns among Urban Adolescent Girls: A Microlevel Study

    OpenAIRE

    Susmita Mukhopadhyay; Nandini Ganguly; Shailendra Kumar Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Growing consciousness about ideal body image leads to dietary modifications and consequent eating disorders among girls in developing countries like India. The present study aims to (i) assess the prevalence of body weight consciousness and related behaviours among a group of adolescent girls; (ii) assess the sociodemographic correlates of weight related behaviours; and (iii) compare weight related behaviours of the girls of two religious groups residing in Howrah. The study is the outcome of...

  7. Ostracism among Gifted Adolescents: A Preliminary Study in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Uzeyir Ogurlu

    2015-01-01

    Ostracism has an influence on psychological and social functioning. The aim of this study is to examine ostracism among gifted students, with regard to gender and grade levels. Also, the relationship between ostracism and intelligence level was investigated. The study was conducted in a gifted education center, with 94 gifted students who were attending middle school (grades 5-8). The Ostracism Experience Scale for Adolescents and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Revised Form were e...

  8. Adolescent girls' views on cosmetic surgery: a focus group study

    OpenAIRE

    Ashikali, E.-M.; Dittmar, H.; Ayers, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent girls’ views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15 to 18 (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1) Dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) Acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) Feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery, and (4) Cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosm...

  9. Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality) : A longitudinal, multi-domain study on sexual development of Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitz, Ellen; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan; Dalenberg, Wieke; Dubas, Judith; van Aken, Marcel; Overbeek, Geertjan; ter Bogt, Tom; van der Eijnden, Regina; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Timmerman, Greetje; Kunnen, Elske; van Geert, Paul; Dekovic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    This study gives an overview of Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality), a four-wave longitudinal study of 1297 Dutch adolescents. First, the sample, measures and four sub-projects are described. Second, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to exa

  10. Adolescent risk factors for purging in young women: findings from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen, Eric M; Rose, Jennifer; Kenney, Lindsay; Rosselli-Navarra, Francine; Weissman, Ruth Striegel

    2014-01-01

    Background There exists a dearth of prospective adolescent eating disorder studies with samples that are large enough to detect small or medium sized effects for risk factors, that are generalizable to the broader population, and that follow adolescents long enough to fully capture the period of development when the risk of eating disorder symptoms occurring is highest. As a result, the purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial risk factors for purging for weight control in a national...

  11. The Interplay between Peer Rejection and Acceptance in Preadolescence and Early Adolescence, Serotonin Transporter Gene, and Antisocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelius; Veenstra, Rene´

    2014-01-01

    Gene-environment studies on adolescents' peer contexts are important for understanding the interplay between biological and social antecedents of adolescent psychopathology. To this end, this study examined the roles of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and preadolescent and early adolescent peer rejection and acceptance, as well as the…

  12. HIV status disclosure to perinatally-infected adolescents in Zimbabwe: a qualitative study of adolescent and healthcare worker perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khameer K Kidia

    Full Text Available Due to the scale up of antiretroviral therapy, increasing numbers of HIV-infected children are living into adolescence. As these children grow and surpass the immediate threat of death, the issue of informing them of their HIV status arises. This study aimed to understand how perinatally-infected adolescents learn about their HIV-status as well as to examine their preferences for the disclosure process.In-depth interviews were conducted with 31 (14 male, 17 female perinatally-infected adolescents aged 16-20 at an HIV clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe, and focused on adolescents' experiences of disclosure. In addition, 15 (1 male, 14 female healthcare workers participated in two focus groups that were centred on healthcare workers' practices surrounding disclosure in the clinic. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants. A coding frame was developed and major themes were extracted using grounded theory methods.Healthcare workers encouraged caregivers to initiate disclosure in the home environment. However, many adolescents preferred disclosure to take place in the presence of healthcare workers at the clinic because it gave them access to accurate information as well as an environment that made test results seem more credible. Adolescents learned more specific information about living with an HIV-positive status and the meaning of that status from shared experiences among peers at the clinic.HIV-status disclosure to adolescents is distinct from disclosure to younger children and requires tailored, age-appropriate guidelines. Disclosure to this age group in a healthcare setting may help overcome some of the barriers associated with caregivers disclosing in the home environment and make the HIV status seem more credible to an adolescent. The study also highlights the value of peer support among adolescents, which could help reduce the burden of psychosocial care on caregivers and healthcare workers.

  13. The adolescent outcomes of adoption: a 16-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, D M; Lynskey, M; Horwood, L J

    1995-05-01

    The childhood history and adolescent adjustment of children placed in adoptive, biological two parent and single parent families were examined in a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand children studied to the age of 16 years. This study suggested that children who entered adoptive families were advantaged throughout childhood in a number of areas including childhood experiences, standards of health care, family material conditions, family stability and mother/child interaction. However, the environmental advantages experienced by children who entered adoptive families were not directly reflected in the pattern of adolescent adjustment of this group. In particular, children placed in adoptive families had rates of externalising behaviours (including conduct disorders, juvenile offending and substance use behaviours) that were significantly higher than children reared in biological two parent families but somewhat lower than those of children who entered single parent families at birth. PMID:7650085

  14. Like Circles on the Water: A Study of Adolescent Identity. Linkoping Studies in Education and Psychology, No. 62.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Lena

    This thesis explores the subject of identity development during late adolescence by analyzing research from three studies: "Self-concept and questions of life: Identity development during late adolescence" (Adamson and Lyxell, 1996); "Adolescent identity--a qualitative approach: Self-concept, existential questions and adult contacts" (Adamson and…

  15. Social Media in Adolescent Health Literacy Education: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, Carrie KW; Bridges, Susan M; Srinivasan, Divya Parthasarathy; Cheng, Brenda SS

    2015-01-01

    Background While health literacy has gained notice on a global stage, the initial focus on seeking associations with medical conditions may have overlooked its impact across generations. Adolescent health literacy, specifically in dentistry, is an underexplored area despite the significance of this formative stage on an individual’s approach to healthy lifestyles and behaviors. Objective The aim is to conduct a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of three major social media outlets - Twitter...

  16. Adolescents Family Models : A Cross-Cultural Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Boris

    2009-01-01

    This study explores and compares the family models of adolescents across ten cultures using a typological and multilevel approach. Thereby, it aims to empirically contribute to Kagitcibasi s (2007) theory of family change. This theory postulates the existence of three ideal-typical family models across cultures: a family model of independence prevailing in Western societies, a family model of (total) interdependence prevailing in non-industrialized agrarian cultures, and as a synthesis of the...

  17. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Lindfors Pirjo L; Kaltiala-Heino Riittakerttu; Rimpelä Arja H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, an...

  18. Adolescent boys and girls with behavioral disorders in residential homes: A camera-glasses study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wettstein

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Children and adolescents with behavioral disorders are often referred to residential homes. These homes cater and treat socially disadvantaged adolescents with a history of deviant behavior. This study investigated the environment of eight adolescents in these residential homes and four non-aggressive adolescents living with their families. The daily activities were recorded by using camera-glasses attached to the subject. These activities took place in school, leisure time, family and residential homes. Other additional methods were used to investigate the perception and experience of these adolescents. The results of this study indicate that the adolescents in residential homes have a smaller living space in contrast to the non-aggressive adolescents. They also have less close relationships and fewer interactions with their peers. Moreover they have more conflicts and show more often aggressive behavior and they are more often victims of aggression.

  19. Leadership and adolescent girls: a qualitative study of leadership development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A; Kennedy, Cara L

    2008-12-01

    This research investigated youth leadership experiences of adolescent girls who participated in a comprehensive feminist-based leadership program. This qualitative study utilized a grounded theory approach to understand changes that occurred in 10 female adolescent participants. The words of the participants revealed that initially they viewed leadership in traditional terms and were hesitant to identify themselves as leaders or to see themselves included within their concepts of leadership. Following the program their view of leadership expanded and diversified in a manner that allowed for inclusion of themselves within it. They spoke with greater strength and confidence and felt better positioned and inspired to act as leaders. Participants identified having examples of women leaders, adopting multiple concepts of leadership, and participating in an environment of mutual respect and trust as factors that contributed to their expanded conceptualization. PMID:18931906

  20. The Dynamic Interplay among Maternal Empathy, Quality of Mother-Adolescent Relationship, and Adolescent Antisocial Behaviors: New Insights from a Six-Wave Longitudinal Multi-Informant Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Crocetti

    Full Text Available Adolescents' behavior is often a matter of concern, given their increased likelihood of enacting antisocial behaviors, which cause disruptions in the social order and are potentially harmful for the adolescents themselves and for the people around them. In this six-wave longitudinal study we sought to examine the interplay among maternal empathy, multiple indicators of mother-adolescent relationship quality (i.e., balanced relatedness, conflict, and support, and adolescent antisocial behaviors rated both by adolescents and their mothers. Participants for the current study were 497 Dutch adolescents (56.9% males followed from age 13 to 18, and their mothers. A series of cross-lagged panel models revealed reciprocal associations between maternal empathy and mother-adolescent relationship quality and between mother-adolescent relationship quality and adolescent antisocial behaviors. Interestingly, we also found some indirect effects of adolescent antisocial behaviors on maternal empathy mediated by mother-adolescent relationship quality. Overall, this study further highlights a process of reciprocal influences within mother-adolescent dyads.

  1. HIV infection in male adolescents: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquette, Stella Regina; Rodrigues, Adriana de Oliveira; Bortolotti, Livia Rocha

    2015-07-01

    `The gradual reduction in the incidence of AIDS among men who have sex with men has not occurred in the youngest age group; on the contrary, it is growing. This paper examines the vulnerabilities of adolescent males at risk of HIV infection. This is a qualitative study conducted through interviews with HIV positive young men undergoing treatment, whose diagnosis was made during adolescence. The interviews were recorded and transcribed in full. They were analyzed by intensive reading, classified by issues, and interpreted from a hermeneutic-dialectic perspective in dialogue with the literature. We interviewed 16 young men whose diagnosis occurred between the ages of 11 and 19 and for all of them the method of HIV transmission was sexual; 12 of the men were homosexual and 4 were heterosexual. It was evident that vulnerable situations included disbelief in the possibility of contamination, subjection to sex, homophobia and commercial sexual exploitation. This study demonstrates the importance of the formulation of public policies on sexual and reproductive health, which include adolescents and young men. These policies should embody the perspective of masculinity in all its widest aspects, as well as actions in favor of sexual diversity. PMID:26132259

  2. Ultrasound study of ovarian pain in pre adolescent and adolescent girls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the role of ultrasound in the study of acute ovarian pain in pre adolescent and adolescent girls. B-mode ultrasound was employed to study 40 ovarian lesions in 37 girls between the age of 6 and 17 years complaining of acute pelvic pain of ovarian origin. Thirteen of the lesions were also assessed by color Doppler ultrasound. We found 25 cases of hemorrhagic cysts, 8 of simple cyst and 7 of ovarian torsion. Surgical and pathological correlation was established in 17 cases (7 cases hemorrhagic cyst, 3 of simple cysts and 7 of ovarian torsion). The remaining lesions are being followed by clinical and ultrasonographic monitoring. Simple and hemorrhagic cysts presenting the so called hematocrit effect are easily diagnosed by B-mode ultrasound. The ultrasonographic features of torsion and certain hemorrhagic cysts are similar on occasion, and surgery and histologic assessment are necessary for the definitive diagnosis. Doppler ultrasound provides no additional information to aid in the diagnosis of these lesions. (Author) 28 refs

  3. Physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescents: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Stephanie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The frequency of mental illness amongst adolescents and its potential long-term consequences make it an important topic to research in relation to risk and protective factors. Research on the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescents is limited. There is a particular lack of evidence from longitudinal studies. This study examines the relationship between depression and physical activity using the Research with East London Adolescents: Community Health Survey (RELACHS. Methods This was a prospective cohort study. Participants were recruited from three Local Education Authority boroughs in East London in 2001 from year 7 (aged 11-12 and year 9 (aged 13-14 and were followed-up in 2003. All pupils in the 28 schools that took part were eligible for the study. Of the total 3,322 pupils eligible for the survey the overall response rate was 84% (2,789 pupils. A total of 2,093 (75% pupils were also followed-up in 2003. The sample was multiethnic (73% of respondents were non-white and deprived. Just under half of the sample was male (49%. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between physical activity and depressive symptoms both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results After adjustments, there was evidence for a cross-sectional association between physical activity and depressive symptoms for both boys and girls at baseline, with a decrease in the odds of depressive symptoms of about 8% for each additional hour of exercise undertaken per week (boys: odds ratio (OR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.99; girls: OR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.00. There was no evidence for an association between a change in physical activity from baseline to follow-up and depressive symptoms at follow-up. Conclusions This study provides some evidence for an association between level of physical activity and

  4. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  5. Cumulative Vulnerability: A Case Study on intrafamilial violence, Drug Addiction and Adolescent Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Paula Orchiucci; Passarini, Gislaine Martins Ricardo; Ferreira, Loraine Seixas; Paixão, Rui Alexandre Paquete; Tardivo, Leila Salomão de La Plata Cury; Barrientos, Dora Mariela Salcedo

    2014-12-01

    A pregnant adolescent's vulnerability increases when she is a victim of intrafamilial violence and drug addiction, which cause physical and biopsychosocial damage to the mother and her baby. Objective Present and analyze the case of an adolescent who is addicted to drugs, pregnant and the victim of lifelong intrafamilial violence. Method A case study based on a semi-structured interview conducted in the Obstetrics Emergency Unit at the Teaching Hospital of the University of São Paulo. The data were interpreted and analyzed using Content Analysis. Results intrafamilial violence experienced at the beginning of the adolescent's early relationships seriously affected her emotional maturity, triggering the development of psychopathologies and leaving her more susceptible to the use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs. The adolescent is repeating her history with her daughter, reproducing the cycle of violence. Conclusion Adolescent pregnancy combined with intrafamilial violence and drug addiction and multiplies the adolescent's psychosocial vulnerability increased the adolescent's vulnerability. PMID:25830736

  6. Adolescents' presentation of food in social media: An explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Christopher; E Chaplin, John; Hillman, Thomas; Berg, Christina

    2016-04-01

    The study aimed to explore how adolescents communicate food images in a widely used social media image-sharing application. We examined how and in what context food was presented and the type of food items that were frequently portrayed by following a youth related hashtag on Instagram. The hashtag #14år ("14 years") was used to find adolescent users on Instagram: these users public photo streams were then searched for food items they had shared with others. Food items were identified and categorized based on type of food and how the food items were presented. Most of the adolescent users (85%) shared images containing food items. A majority of the images (67.7%) depicted foods high in calories but low in nutrients. Almost half of these images were arranged as a still life with food brand names clearly exposed. Many of these images were influenced by major food marketing campaigns. Fruits and vegetables occurred in 21.8% of all images. This food group was frequently portrayed zoomed in with focus solely on the food, with a hashtag or caption expressing palatability. These images were often presented in the style of a cook book. Food was thus presented in varied ways. Adolescents themselves produced images copying food advertisements. This has clear health promotion implications since it becomes more challenging to monitor and tackle young people's exposure to marketing of unhealthy foods in these popular online networks because images are part of a lifestyle that the young people want to promote. Shared images contain personal recommendations, which mean that they may have a more powerful effect than commercial advertising. PMID:26792765

  7. Inappropriate eating behavior: a longitudinal study with female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the inappropriate eating behaviors (IEB of female adolescents over a one-year period. Methods: 290 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old participated in the three research stages (T1: first four months, T2: second four months and T3: third four months. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was applied to assess the IEB. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI in the three study periods. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data, adjusted for the scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Brazil Economic Classification Criteria. Results: Girls at T1 showed a higher frequency of IEB compared to T2 (p=0.001 and T3 (p=0.001. The findings also indicated higher values for BMI in T3 in relation to T1 (p=0.04. The other comparisons did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: IEB scores of female adolescents declined over one year.

  8. Adolescent-parent interactions and attitudes around screen time and sugary drink consumption: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howlett Sarah A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how adolescents and their parents interact and talk about some of the key lifestyle behaviors that are associated with overweight and obesity, such as screen time (ST and sugary drink (SD consumption. This qualitative study aimed to explore adolescents' and parents' perceptions, attitudes, and interactions in regards to these topics. Methods Using an exploratory approach, semi-structured focus groups were conducted separately with adolescents and (unrelated parents. Participants were recruited from low and middle socio-economic areas in the Sydney metropolitan area and a regional area of New South Wales, Australia. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis for each of the four content areas (adolescent-ST, adolescent-SD consumption, parents' views on adolescents' ST and parents' views on adolescents' SD consumption. Results Nine focus groups, with a total of 63 participants, were conducted. Broad themes spanned all groups: patterns of behavior; attitudes and concerns; adolescent-parent interactions; strategies for behavior change; and awareness of ST guidelines. While parents and adolescents described similar patterns of behaviour in relation to adolescents' SD consumption and ST, there were marked differences in their attitudes to these two behaviours which were also evident in the adolescent-parent interactions in the home that they described. Parents felt able to limit adolescents' access to SDs, but felt unable to control their adolescents' screen time. Conclusion This study offers unique insights regarding topics rarely explored with parents or adolescents, yet which are part of everyday family life, are known to be linked to risk of weight gain, and are potentially amenable to change.

  9. Health awareness and behavior among adolescent students in a rural school: a cross sectional observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Varshil Mehta; Anusha Bhat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to many health issues. Studies in Indian literature have documented low health awareness and many health related issues in adolescents. The aim and objective of the study was to evaluate health awareness and behavior among adolescents studying in a rural school in Maharashtra, India. Methods: A cross-sectional, quantitative, observational questionnaire-based survey was conducted among high school students between 15 to 19 years of age stu...

  10. Spinal pain and nutrition in adolescents - an exploratory cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Oddy Wendy H; Straker Leon M; Perry Mark C; O'Sullivan Peter B; Smith Anne J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Spinal pain is an important health issue for adolescents resulting in functional limitations for many and increasing the risk of spinal pain in adulthood. Whilst human and animal studies suggest nutrition could influence spinal pain, this has not been investigated in adolescents. The objective of this exploratory cross sectional study was to evaluate associations between diet and adolescent spinal pain. Methods This study surveyed the spinal pain (neck and back) and nutrit...

  11. Laboratory-Based Studies of Eating among Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Haynos, Ann F; Kotler, Lisa A; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of pediatric overweight has increased dramatically over the past three decades, likely due to changes in food intake as well as physical activity. Therefore, information examining eating patterns among children and adolescents is needed to illuminate which aspects of eating behavior require modification to prevent and treat pediatric overweight. Because child self-report and parent-report of children's eating habits are often inconsistent and limited by recall and other biases, laboratory-based studies in which food intake is observed and monitored have increased in number. Such studies offer objective and controlled methods of measuring and describing eating behaviors. However, to our knowledge, no publication exists that consolidates, reviews, and provides critical commentary on the literature to date in pediatric samples. In this paper, we review the literature of studies utilizing laboratory methods to examine eating behavior in samples ranging from birth through adolescence. Our review includes all relevant articles retrieved from the PubMed, Medline and PsychInfo search engines. Specifically, we examine meal-feeding studies conducted during the various developmental stages (infancy, preschool, middle childhood, and adolescence), with a focus on methodology. Included in our review are feeding studies related to dietary regulation, exposure and preference, as well as paradigms examining disordered eating patterns and their relationship to body composition. We have structured this review so that both consistent and inconsistent findings are presented by age group, and innovative methods of assessment are discussed in more detail. Following each section, we summarize findings and draw potential conclusions from the available data. We then discuss clinical implications of the research data and suggest directions for the next generation of studies of feeding behavior in children. PMID:19030122

  12. Determinants of Internet Addiction among Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis Tsitsika

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet Addiction (IA is associated with adverse psychosocial development and mental disorders. The study aims were to evaluate the psychosocial profiles and psychiatric comorbidities associated with IA among adolescents. A case-control study was conducted among 129 adolescents in the outpatient setting of the Adolescent Health Unit of the Second University Department of Pediatrics in Athens, Greece. The case group consisted of 86 adolescents with IA as evaluated following psychiatric interview with two independent examiners. The control group consisted of 43 adolescents without IA, frequency matched for age and gender with case group participants. The study findings indicated that adolescents with IA were significantly more likely to have divorced parents (p = 0.012 and/or dysfunctional familial relationships (p < 0.0001. The proportion of adolescents with poor academic performance (p < 0.0001 and unexcused school absences (p = 0.004 was greater among those with IA. Moreover, approximately two-thirds of the adolescents with IA were engaged in high-risk behaviors (p < 0.0001. Finally, adolescents with IA were 3.89 times more likely to present with comorbid psychiatric conditions (CI 95%: 1.19–12.70, including depression (10.5 vs. 0%; p = 0.022. Adolescent IA is associated with deterred familial functions, poor academic performance, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and an augmented likelihood for depression.

  13. Assessment of self-awareness among rural adolescents: A cross-sectional study

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    Ram Bilas Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adolescence is a period of biological, cognitive and social transition of such magnitude and rapidity that it is no surprise to find that it is associated with the onset or exacerbation of a number of health-related problems. It is the level of self-awareness among adolescents, which enables them to see where their thoughts and emotions take them. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the extent of awareness regarding adolescent changes/problems among school going adolescents. Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study and was carried out in Block Beri, District, Jhajjar (Haryana. Materials and Methods: A sample of 320 adolescent students of 9 th -12 th classes (80 from each school were selected from four randomly chosen large Government senior secondary schools with strength of more than 250 students (two girls and two boys/co-ed senior secondary schools. Data were collected on predesigned, pre-tested and semi-structured schedules by conducting in-depth interviews of selected study adolescents by the investigator. Statistical Analysis Used: Percentages, proportions, Chi-square test, Chi-square test with Yate′s correction and t-test. Results: Out of 320, 212 (66.3% study adolescents were aware of at least one adolescent change(s whereas, when probed and further asked to enumerate the changes taking place in them, 272/320 (85% adolescents could narrate at least one such change. Out of those 272, 24 (8.82% (95% CI 6.0-12.79 adolescents either did not consider these changes as normal or they did not know whether the changes were normal or abnormal. Conclusions: Adolescents greatly lack correct information related to their bodies′ physiological, psychological and sexual changes. There is an urgent need for regular adolescent friendly information, education and communication activities covering different aspects of adolescent knowledge needs/problems.

  14. [Genome-wide association study for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Yoji; Kou, Ikuyo; Scoliosis, Japan; Matsumoto, Morio; Watanabe, Kota; Ikegawa, Shiro

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis(AIS)is a polygenic disease. Genome-wide association studies(GWASs)have been performed for a lot of polygenic diseases. For AIS, we conducted GWAS and identified the first AIS locus near LBX1. After the discovery, we have extended our study by increasing the numbers of subjects and SNPs. In total, our Japanese GWAS has identified four susceptibility genes. GWASs for AIS have also been performed in the USA and China, which identified one and three susceptibility genes, respectively. Here we review GWASs in Japan and abroad and functional analysis to clarify the pathomechanism of AIS. PMID:27013625

  15. Adolescent girls' views on cosmetic surgery: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga; Ayers, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent girls' views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15-18 years (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1) dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery and (4) cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosmetic surgery varies according to the reasons for having it and that the media play an important role by normalising surgery and under-representing the risks associated with it. PMID:24591119

  16. Interpersonal relationships, coping strategies and Problematic Internet Use in adolescence: an Italian study

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Milani

    2009-01-01

    In a few years the Internet has become one of the most relevant means of socialization and entertainment for Italian adolescents. Studies have established a correlation between poor interpersonal relationship, poor cognitive coping strategies and Problematic Internet Use. The aim of the research was to study the characteristics and correlates of Problematic Internet Use in an Italian sample of adolescents. 98 Italian adolescents aged 14-19 were administered checklists assessing Problematic In...

  17. Predictors of sexual risk behaviour among adolescents from welfare institutions in Malaysia: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Farid, Nik Daliana Nik; Rus, Sulaiman Che'; Dahlui, Maznah; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Background In welfare institutions, it is essential to address the health-related needs of adolescent populations who often engage in sexual activities. This study examines the association between individual and interpersonal factors concerning sexual risk behaviour (SRB) among adolescents in welfare institutions in Malaysia. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study of 1082 adolescents in 22 welfare institutions located across Peninsular Malaysia in 2009. Using supervised self-a...

  18. Association of lifestyle habits and academic achievement in Norwegian adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Stea, Tonje H; Torstveit, Monica K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: While healthy lifestyle habits are generally assumed to be important for high academic achievement, there has been little research on this topic among adolescents. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the associations between several lifestyle habits and academic achievement in adolescent girls and boys. Methods: The study included 2,432 Norwegian adolescents, 15–17 years old. A self-report questionnaire was used to assess dietary-, physical activity-, smokin...

  19. Adolescents Aspiration and Their Parental Relations: A Study among Rural School Going Adolescents in a Block of Darjeeling District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents’ future aspirations and expectations are important precursor of adult attainment. Objectives: To document rural adolescents’ understanding of their aspirations and the problems they face for achieving them. The relationship of adolescents with their family and how they feel about themselves have also been determined. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among school-going adolescents of Fashidewa block of Darjeeling district from July to October, 2007. A total of 420 students comprised the study population. Results - Among them, 41.4%, responded that they want to pursue a professional career in future. Poverty was found to be the commonest obstacle. The commonest problem-solving method was having discussions with friends. The study revealed that 56.4% of the adolescents communicated their problem and about 27.6% of them had conflict with their parents in last one year. Conclusion: Interventions at the community level like youth clubs for safe social interaction and literacy classes, training of peer educators to teach life-skills, forums for parents and teachers to discuss their own concerns and those of the adolescents may help to design programmes that will contribute to greater financial independence and employment opportunities for adolescents

  20. Cortical thickness in adolescent marijuana and alcohol users: A three-year prospective study from adolescence to young adulthood

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    Joanna Jacobus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest marijuana impacts gray and white matter neural tissue development, however few prospective studies have determined the relationship between cortical thickness and cannabis use spanning adolescence to young adulthood. This study aimed to understand how heavy marijuana use influences cortical thickness trajectories across adolescence. Subjects were adolescents with heavy marijuana use and concomitant alcohol use (MJ + ALC, n = 30 and controls (CON, n = 38 with limited substance use histories. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and comprehensive substance use assessment at three independent time points. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to look at main effects of group, time, and Group × Time interactions on cortical thickness. MJ + ALC showed thicker cortical estimates across the brain (23 regions, particularly in frontal and parietal lobes (ps < .05. More cumulative marijuana use was associated with increased thickness estimates by 3-year follow-up (ps < .05. Heavy marijuana use during adolescence and into young adulthood may be associated with altered neural tissue development and interference with neuromaturation that can have neurobehavioral consequences. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will help understand ongoing neural changes that are associated with development of problematic use into adulthood, as well as potential for neural recovery with cessation of use.

  1. Writing Homer, Reading Riordan: Intertextual Study in Contemporary Adolescent Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Amy

    2011-01-01

    When readers of contemporary adolescent literature are encouraged to participate in conversations about what is considered canonical literature, the literary value of adolescent reading expands past narrowly defined borders. Several recent adolescent novels provide access to the classics and may generate interest among middle school students in…

  2. [Eating disorders in early adolescence--study from the section on young adolescent nutrition in Jerusalem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, N; Halevy, A

    2000-04-01

    Young adolescents were assessed with regard to cognitive, socio-cultural and behavioral components of eating disturbances. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to 5th-8th grade pupils, 280 girls and 251 boys, to assess eating habits, body image, self-confidence, environmental-cultural influences, risk behaviors and socio-economic state. Girls scored consistently higher on all weight-control behaviors. Discontent with own body, and attitudes and behaviors associated with eating disorders, were reported by under-studied populations such as boys and younger girls. Both frequency and severity of weight-control behaviors were associated with "social age." Highly significant differences between scores of 6th and 7th graders indicate that they may be at a time of increased susceptibility. Measuring the influence of the mass media gave inconsistent results. PMID:10883175

  3. Anorexia in the Adolescence - case study

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    Almeida de Paiva, Maria O

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders lead to special biological and psychological states. The result of the total lack of food is treated in a distinct way by anorexia. Nutritionists have thus had difficulty in coming to an agreement on the best therapy to prevent such disorders. First it is essential to understand which treatment aims are and then to attempt to know how the several treatment models used nowadays can reach those aims. Someone who suffers from eating disorders, together with an inner deformation, suffers from too much sensitiveness. In order to solve these problems, one needs a change in the relationship with oneself, with the others and with the world. This study presents a teenager’s case study – Anorexia. Is, in fact, a problem that society faces and can’t ignore. Many youngsters have already died and others are following their steps. But there are also those ones that succeeded in overcoming the problem and now are reporting their stories.

  4. Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

  5. Study Habits and Academic Achievement of Kashmiri & Ladakhi Adolescent Girls: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, N. A.; Puja, Javeed Ahamd; Bhat, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to study the Study Habits and Academic Achievement of Adolescents girls in Jammu and Kashmir. 400 sample subjects were selected randomly from two ethnic groups' viz. Kashmiri and Ladakhi. The investigators used Palsane & Sharma's study habits inventory (PSSHI) to collect data from the field. Certain…

  6. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

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    Lindfors Pirjo L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey. The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%; and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%. Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying

  7. Adolescent-parent interactions and attitudes around screen time and sugary drink consumption: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Howlett Sarah A; King Lesley A; Shrewsbury Vanessa A; Hattersley Libby A; Hardy Louise L; Baur Louise A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Little is known about how adolescents and their parents interact and talk about some of the key lifestyle behaviors that are associated with overweight and obesity, such as screen time (ST) and sugary drink (SD) consumption. This qualitative study aimed to explore adolescents' and parents' perceptions, attitudes, and interactions in regards to these topics. Methods Using an exploratory approach, semi-structured focus groups were conducted separately with adolescents and (u...

  8. Fluid intake in Spanish children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Miguel Fenández-Alvira; Iris Iglesia; Cíntia Ferreira-Pego; Nancy Babio; Jordi Salas-Salvadó; Luis A. Moreno

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Some studies demonstrated that dehydration process is prevalent among young populations and subsequently, a cause of concern. However, the evaluation of the fluid consumption pattern of children and adolescent populations has not been widely assessed. Objective: To evaluate the total fluid intake from different types of beverages in Spanish children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 238 children and adolescents aged 3-17 years were randomly recruited from all Spanish regions....

  9. Nutritional Status of Adolescent Girls in Rural Area of Kolar District -A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sarithareddy; A.V. Deepa; H.R. Shivaramakrishna

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the nutritional status of adolescent girls in selected villages of the Kolar district. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of two months. 230 adolescent girls of age 10–19 years were selected randomly. Data was collected by interviewing the adolescent girls using predesigned and pre tested Proforma. Various statistical applications like percentiles, mean, standard deviation and proportions were used for analysis of the data. Resu...

  10. Sleep complaints in adolescent depression: one year naturalistic follow-up study

    OpenAIRE

    Urrila, Anna S; Karlsson, Linnea; Kiviruusu, Olli; Pankakoski, Maiju; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Strandholm, Thea; Marttunen, Mauri; ,

    2014-01-01

    Background Sleep complaints are highly prevalent in adolescents suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The aims of this study were to describe the longitudinal course of sleep complaints, and to assess the association between sleep complaints and clinical outcome in a sample of adolescents with MDD during naturalistic follow-up. Methods A sample of adolescent outpatients (n = 166; age 13–19 years, 17.5% boys) diagnosed with MDD was followed-up during one year in naturalistic settings...

  11. Role of parenting styles in adolescent substance use: results from a Swedish longitudinal cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, J.; Sundell, K; Öjehagen, A; Håkansson, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adolescent substance use is an area of concern because early substance use is associated with a higher risk of adverse outcomes. Parenting style, defined as the general style of parenting, as well as substance-specific parenting practices may influence children's substance use behaviour. The present study aims to probe the impact of parenting style on adolescent substance use. Method A cohort of 1268 adolescents (48% girls), aged 12–13 years at baseline, from 21 junior high schools ...

  12. Video Game Playing Effects on Obesity in an Adolescent with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Strahan, Brandy E.; Elder, Jennifer H.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has tripled in the past two decades, and adolescents with disabilities, specifically autism spectrum disorders (ASD), may be at greater risk for obesity due to the behavioral, physical, and psychosocial complications related to their disorder. This case study reports the effects of video game playing on an obese adolescent with ASD and illustrates the use of a multiple baseline single subject design. Over 12 weeks, the participant played inactive (6 weeks) and active video ...

  13. Adolescent-parent interactions and communication preferences regarding body weight and weight management: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Howlett Sarah A; Hattersley Libby A; King Lesley A; Shrewsbury Vanessa A; Hardy Louise L; Baur Louise A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aimed to canvass the nature of adolescent-parent interactions about weight, particularly overweight, and to explore ideas of how to foster supportive discussions regarding weight, both in the home and with family doctors. Methods A market research company was contracted to recruit and conduct a series of separate focus groups with adolescents and unrelated parents of adolescents from low-middle socio-economic areas in Sydney and a regional centre, Australia. Gro...

  14. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Salazar-Pousada; Dalton Arroyo; Luis Hidalgo; Pérez-López, Faustino R.; Peter Chedraui

    2010-01-01

    Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS), respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adult...

  15. Exploring the risk factors contributing to suicide attempt among adolescents: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Bazrafshan, Mohammad-Rafi; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Molazem, Zahra; Mani, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Background: Since suicide attempt among adolescents is a major challenge and the reasons why this age group attempt suicide are complex, the aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors that contribute to suicide attempt among adolescents. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative content analysis, 14 adolescents (12–19 years old) who were admitted in two hospitals in Shiraz, Iran, were interviewed. Participants who tried attempt suicide with medication were selected by purposive sa...

  16. Mental Health and Community Violence Among Adolescents in Indonesia (School-Based Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Utama, Budhi

    2014-01-01

    Research consistently reported that adolescents experienced high levels of exposure to community violence in the their life. There is a trend that adolescents in several cities in Indonesia exposed to violence in the community. The community violence among adolescents also affects their mental health problems. However, there are limited number of studies looking at the prevalence and association between exposure to community violence and mental health in developing countries such as Indonesia...

  17. Sleep Promotion Program for Improving Sleep Behaviors in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    John, Bindu; Bellipady, Sumanth Shetty; Bhat, Shrinivasa Undaru

    2016-01-01

    Aims. The purpose of this pilot trial was to determine the efficacy of sleep promotion program to adapt it for the use of adolescents studying in various schools of Mangalore, India, and evaluate the feasibility issues before conducting a randomized controlled trial in a larger sample of adolescents. Methods. A randomized controlled trial design with stratified random sampling method was used. Fifty-eight adolescents were selected (mean age: 14.02 ± 2.15 years; intervention group, n=34; contr...

  18. Nutrition and lifestyle in european adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luis A; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Ruiz, Jonatan R; González-Gross, Marcela; DeHenauw, Stefaan

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is a critical period, because major physical and psychologic changes occur during a very short period of time. Changes in dietary habits may induce different types of nutritional disorders and are likely to track into adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the key findings related to nutritional status in European adolescents participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. We performed a cross-sectional study in 3528 (1845 females) adolescents aged 12.5–17.5 y. Birth weight was negatively associated with abdominal fat mass in adolescents and serum leptin concentrations (in female adolescents), providing additional evidence for a programming effect of birth weight on energy homeostasis control. Breakfast consumption was associated with lower body fat content and healthier cardiovascular profile. Adolescents eat half of the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables and less than two-thirds of the recommended amount of milk and milk products but consume more meat and meat products, fats, and sweets than recommended. For beverage consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweetened milk, low-fat milk, and fruit juice provided the highest amount of energy. Although the intakes of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and salt were high, the intake of polyunsaturated FAs was low. Adolescents spent, on average, 9 h/d of their waking time (66–71% and 70–73% of the registered time in boys and girls, respectively) in sedentary activities. Factors associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior included the following: 1) age; 2) media availability in the bedroom; 3) sleeping time; 4) breakfast consumption; and 5) season. Sedentary time was also associated with cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral content. In European adolescents, deficient concentrations were identified for plasma folate (15%), vitamin D (15%), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (5%), β-carotene (25%), and vitamin E (5%). Scientists and public

  19. Current trends in study of xenophobia in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malantseva O.D.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Xenophobia is one of the most topical problems of the modern world which attains special significance in view of its extension among adolescents. The article regards the results of the latest studies of xenophobia in works of foreign scholars, as well as mechanisms of its emergence and the ways of preventing it. In the course of analysis of the latest findings of foreign investigators three main directions in study of xenophobia were singled out: investigations at the level of individual psychological processes; investigations at the level of group processes; investigations at the level of cultural, public processes. The directions of xenophobia studies mentioned above make it possible to determine the main forms of xenophobia prophylaxis among adolescents; development of socio-cultural competence, enlargement of capabilities and choice of various forms of inter-racial and inter-national cooperation; inclusion of conciliation techniques for resolution of individual and intergroup conflicts into educational process at school sites; discussion and analysis of different views on the events taking place in the contemporary world.

  20. Gravidez na adolescência: estudo comparativo Adolescent pregnancy: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Viviana Lopez Alegria

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se uma população de 349 mulheres que deram à luz no período de 01/05/86 a 31/07/86, num Serviço de Obstetrícia da Grande São Paulo. Os resultados revelam que o grupo de gestantes adolescentes (22,2% teve uma assistência pré-natal deficiente, já que a grande maioria (70,6% teve a primeira consulta no segundo trimestre, tendo em média duas consultas. Durante a gestação, este grupo apresentou menor incidência de patologias com tratamento ambulatorial (39,3% e hospitalar (7,9%, em comparação com as gestantes adultas (44,4% e 14,7%, respectivamente. Em relação ao tipo de parto, as adolescentes apresentaram maior proporção de partos operatórios, sendo 25,7% por fórceps e 22,9% cesárea, contra 14,7% e 19,7% nas gestantes adultas, respectivamente. Verificou-se nas gestantes adolescentes maior proporção de intercorrências intraparto (12,9% contra 8,2% nas gestantes adultas, predominando neste período a hemorragia e a toxemia. Quanto as intercorrências no puerpério, estas se verificaram em 15,7% das gestantes adolescentes e era 11,8% das adultas, sendo a anemia pós-parto, a toxemia e a infecção puerperal as patologias mais comuns.A population of 349 women who gave birth, in an Obstetric Clinic in Greater S. Paulo, Brazil, during the period from 01/05/86 to 31/07/86 were studied. The results show that the group of pregnant adolescents (22.2% received inadequate prenatal assistance, as the large majority of them (70.6% started consultations during the second trimester of their pregnancy, and had an average of two consultations. During pregnancy this group presented a lower incidence of pathological disorders leading to out-patient and hospital treatment (39.3% and 7.9%, respectively than did the adult pregnant women (44.4% and 14.7%, respectively. With regard to the type of delivery, the adolescents underwent a larger proportion of surgical deliveries, 25.7% of forceps births and 22.9% of cesarian sections, as

  1. Parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being: a longitudinal study in a Chinese context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T

    1999-02-01

    In this longitudinal study, the relationships between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being were examined in a sample of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents (N = 378). The results indicated that global parenting styles and specific parenting behaviors are concurrently related to hopelessness, life satisfaction, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 1 and Time 2. Longitudinal and prospective analyses (Time 1 predictors of Time 2 criterion variables) suggested that the relations between parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are bidirectional in nature. The results indicated that the strengths of association between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are stronger in female than in male adolescents. Relative to maternal parenting characteristics, paternal parenting was found to exert a stronger influence on adolescent psychological well-being. PMID:10063611

  2. An Internationally Comparative Study of Immigration and Adolescent Emotional and Behavioral Problems : Effects of Generation and Gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Walsh, Sophie D; Huijts, Tim; Maes, Marlies; Madsen, Katrine Rich; Cavallo, Franco; Molcho, Michal

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although the potential consequences of immigration for adolescent problem behaviors have been addressed in many former studies, internationally comparative research is scarce. This study investigated the impact of immigration on four indicators of adolescents' emotional and behavioral probl

  3. School-Based Stress Management Training for Adolescents: Longitudinal Results from an Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Petra; Meier, Manuela; Kummel, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based universal preventive stress management training program for early and middle adolescents in comparison with a no-treatment control group. The study examined the intervention effects of age (early versus middle adolescents) and gender on perceived stress, interpersonal coping, and…

  4. A One Year Study of Mode Deactivation Therapy: Adolescent Residential Patients with Conduct and Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Christopher J.; Siv, Alexander M.

    2011-01-01

    This case study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) implementation in a child and adolescent residential treatment unit and provide preliminary effectiveness data on MDT versus treatment as usual (TAU). This case study compared the efficacy of two treatment methodologies for adolescent males in residential treatment…

  5. Effectiveness Study of a CBT-Based Adolescent Coping with Depression Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvik, Margit; Idsoe, Thormod; Bru, Edvin

    2014-01-01

    Even though the efficacy of group-based cognitive behavioural interventions is well established both for adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorders as well as for adolescents with depressive symptoms, in order to prevent further development, there has been a call for effectiveness studies in real world settings. This study investigated…

  6. Pilot Study of Community-Based Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents with Social Phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Susan; Garland, E. Jane

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for adolescents with social phobia, simplified both in terms of time and labor intensity from a previously studied program (Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children and Adolescents) to be more appropriate for a community outpatient psychiatric…

  7. Bupropion SR in Adolescents with Comorbid ADHD and Nicotine Dependence: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Wang, Wei

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Bupropion SR has been shown to be effective for the treatment of nicotine dependence in adults. This open-label pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility and preliminary tolerability of bupropion SR in adolescents with nicotine dependence. Method: Sixteen adolescents aged 12 to 19 years were enrolled in the study. Eleven of…

  8. Neurobiology of Decision Making in Depressed Adolescents: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shad, Mujeeb U.; Bidesi, Anup P.; Chen, Li-Ann; Ernst, Monique; Rao, Uma

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Despite evidence that impaired reward- and risk-related behavior during adolescence can have potentially serious short- and long-term consequences, few studies have investigated the impact of depression on reward-related selection in adolescents. This study examined the relationship between reward-related behavior and prefrontal…

  9. Prediction of Postpartum Social Support and Symptoms of Depression in Pregnant Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logsdon, M. Cynthia; Cross, Rene; Williams, Beverly; Simpson, Theresa

    2004-01-01

    Many pregnant adolescents remain in school, creating unique challenges for professionals to meet their educational and health needs. In this descriptive pilot study of pregnant adolescents (n = 26), 68% demonstrated symptoms of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). In addition, there was an…

  10. [Heidelberger study on psychoanalytic therapy of children and adolescents: methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrig, H

    1999-11-01

    In the representative studies published so far on the outcome of analytic child psychotherapy (Dührssen 1964; Fonagy and Target 1996) no techniques of treatment were mentioned. The following paper describes in detail the technique of treatment on which the Heidelberg Study "On the Therapeutic Outcome in Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy" is based, as it developed from 1975 to 1993 at the Heidelberg Institute for Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy. Starting from Piaget's findings that the cognitive faculties of a child up to the age of 11 completely differ from those of an adult and taking into consideration the cerebral information processing and "the intellect pervadet sensory" (Schopenhauer) it is demonstrated that children take their intrapsychic and interpersonal conflicts into analytic play therapy or into role play on analogous levels. Protected by a safe distance from being aware of their conflicts they will on the analogous levels understand, work through, partially solve their conflicts and make use of it in reality without conscious recognition. The term "analogous level" is defined and the manifold possibilities of therapeutic intervention on this level are demonstrated. The efficacy of therapeutic treatment on analogous levels is discussed. PMID:10616294

  11. Breakfast habits among European adolescents and their association with sociodemographic factors: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study

    OpenAIRE

    Hallströma, Lena; Gómez Martínez, Sonia; Sjöström, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe breakfast habits at food group level in European adolescents and to investigate the associations between these habits and sociodemographic factors. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Secondary schools from nine European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study. Breakfast habits were assessed twice using a computer-based 24 h dietary recall. Adolescents who consumed breakfast on at least one recall day were clas...

  12. Inhibition control impairments in adolescent smokers: electrophysiological evidence from a Go/NoGo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Junsen; Yuan, Kai; Feng, Dan; Cheng, Jiadong; Li, Yangding; Cai, Chenxi; Bi, Yanzhi; Sha, Shi; Shen, Xiaomin; Zhang, Ben; Xue, Ting; Qin, Wei; Yu, Dahua; Lu, Xiaoqi; Tian, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Smoking during adolescence may promote nicotine dependence later on in life. Therefore, it is extremely important to study the neural mechanisms of adolescent smokers. As inhibition control is emphasized in several contemporary theoretical models of addiction, in the current study, we focused on the electrophysiological evidence of inhibition control deficits in adolescent smokers. By using relatively homogenous groups of adolescent smokers (n = 18) and matched nonsmokers (n = 18), we employed event-related potentials (ERP) to investigate the N200 and P300 amplitude and latency differences during a Go/NoGo task between the adolescent smokers and nonsmokers. Relative to nonsmokers, more NoGo response errors, reduced NoGo P300 amplitude, and longer P300 latency were observed in adolescent smokers. Correlation analysis revealed that the NoGo P300 amplitudes were significantly correlated with NoGo errors in both adolescent smokers and nonsmokers. Our findings provided direct electrophysiological evidence for inhibitory control impairments in adolescent smokers. It is hoped that our results may enhance understanding of the pathology of inhibitory control in adolescent smokers. PMID:26093534

  13. Ostracism among Gifted Adolescents: A Preliminary Study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzeyir Ogurlu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ostracism has an influence on psychological and social functioning. The aim of this study is to examine ostracism among gifted students, with regard to gender and grade levels. Also, the relationship between ostracism and intelligence level was investigated. The study was conducted in a gifted education center, with 94 gifted students who were attending middle school (grades 5-8. The Ostracism Experience Scale for Adolescents and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Revised Form were employed as data collection tools. According to the findings obtained from the study, it is concluded that ostracism did not differ in terms of gender among gifted students. Besides, being socially excluded may be higher in 8th grades than 6th and 7th grades. Also in the study, a positive correlation was found between intelligence level and ostracism. Discussion and suggestions were also provided based on the results.

  14. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF DEPRESSION IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Depressive disorders in adolescents are a major cause of concern. As these disorders are subject to high recurrences in adulthood. The risk factors have to be identified and prompt treatment should be initiated. 15% have depression and 56% have depressive symptoms. The causes ranged from financ ial, broken homes, or death in the family, chronic illness. Symptoms of depression were unhappiness, restlessness, agitation, anger, dis interest in a pleasurable job. In the schools failure, in academics, in 47% girls lead to depression, partiality, abuse , was also contributing factors. Several studies, in particular, a study from Delhi showed depression to be the 3rd leading cause of death. Our study showed 6% , 12% had problems at home, 73% had clear idea about future plans. The problem should be identified and a team of psychiatrics, psychologists, pediatrician should bring down the problem.

  15. Sexuality in Adolescents: have we Explored Enough! A Cross-sectional Study to Explore Adolescent Health in a City Slum in Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Yogesh

    2014-01-01

    Context: Adolescent health is a relatively new focus area of India’s National health program. However, little evidence is available for the existing problems especially in adolescent slum population. A study was planned to explore the problems of adolescent pertaining to sexuality, physical health, tobacco and alcohol use in slums of Urban Meerut, and create evidence base for informed planning and decision making by the local health authorities. Aims: To study the adolescent health in the slums of Meerut City, India. Settings and Design: Entire slums of Urban Meerut, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Study was done in the slums of Meerut city, in Northern India. WHO 30 cluster sampling technique was used. Thirty slums were selected from the list of all the slums of Meerut, 210 adolescents were selected with 7 adolescents from each slum. Statistical Analysis: Proportions and Chi-square test. Results: More than one third of the (36.7%) adolescents reported to have a current health problem, however only half of these sought medical help for treatment. Tweleve percent of adolescents reported history of alcohol or tobacoo use. Nine percent adolescents complained of stressful atmosphere at home. About 10% adolescents in the surveyed population gave history of sexual activity, but only one third of them had used condom during their last sexual intercourse. Conclusion: This study reflects the high morbidity and poor treatment seeking behaviour among adolescents in urban slums. A significant proportion of adolescents indulge in high risk sexual behavior, tobacco and alcohol use. There were significant gender differences with regards to treatment seeking behaviour, sexual behaviour, tobacco and alcohol use. The gender nuances must be taken into account while planning interventions for this section of population. PMID:25302222

  16. Identifying target groups for the prevention of depression in early adolescence : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monshouwer, K.; Smit, F.; Ruiter, M.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, F.; Vollebergh, W.; Oldehinkel, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Depression in adolescence is associated with long-term adverse consequences. The aim of the present study is to identify target groups at increased risk of developing depression in early adolescence, such that prevention is associated with the largest health benefit at population-level f

  17. Pilot Study: Fluvoxamine Treatment for Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothelf, Doron; Rubinstein, Maly; Shemesh, Eyal; Miller, Orit; Farbstein, Ilana; Klein, Anat; Weizman, Abraham; Apter, Alan; Yaniv, Isaac

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and benefit of fluvoxamine for the treatment of major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with cancer. Method: The study was conducted from 2001 to 2004 at a pediatric hematology-oncology center. Fifteen children and adolescents with cancer were treated with…

  18. Adolescent Students' Reading during Writing Behaviors and Relationships with Text Quality: An Eyetracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Scott F.; Quinlan, Thomas; Harbaugh, Allen G.

    2010-01-01

    This study employed eyetracking technology to investigate adolescent students' reading processes as they composed and to explore relationships between these reading processes and text quality. A sample of 32 adolescent students composed narrative and expository texts while eyetracking equipment recorded their eye movements. Eye movements upon a…

  19. The relationship between early sexual debut and psychosocial outcomes: a longitudinal study of Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Udell; T. Sandfort; E. Reitz; H. Bos; M. Dekovic

    2010-01-01

    In a longitudinal dataset of 470 Dutch adolescents, the current study examined the ways in which early sexual initiation was related to subsequent attachment, self-perception, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. For male adolescents, analyses revealed general attachment to mother and

  20. Educational Computer Use in Leisure Contexts: A Phenomenological Study of Adolescents' Experiences at Internet Cafes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilesiz, Sebnem

    2009-01-01

    Computer use is a widespread leisure activity for adolescents. Leisure contexts, such as Internet cafes, constitute specific social environments for computer use and may hold significant educational potential. This article reports a phenomenological study of adolescents' experiences of educational computer use at Internet cafes in Turkey. The…

  1. Adolescents' Exposure to Sexually Explicit Internet Material and Sexual Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, within a social comparison framework, the causal relationship between adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) and their sexual satisfaction. In addition, we tested which adolescents were most susceptible to a potential influence of SEIM on sexual satisfaction. Between May 2006 and…

  2. Adolescent Gambling Behaviour and Attitudes: A Prevalence Study and Correlates in an Australian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alun C.; Dowling, Nicki; Thomas, Shane A.; Bond, Lyndal; Patton, George

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that a range of risk factors are associated with adolescent problem gambling. Using a representative sample of 2,788 eighth grade students in Victoria, Australia, the primary aim of this study was to examine the degree to which these risk factors are associated with different levels of adolescent gambling…

  3. A Study of Self-Esteem in Adopted Non-adopted Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Robbie J.; Lynn, Betty Jane

    This study tested the hypothesis that adopted adolescents have lower self-esteem than do non-adopted adolescents. Male and female students (N=159) between the ages of 18 and 22 were conveniently sampled from college undergraduate populations. Forty-four of the participants reported adoptive status. Each participant completed the Coopersmith…

  4. Maturation of EEG Power Spectra in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragg, Lucy; Kovacevic, Natasa; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Poulsen, Catherine; Martinu, Kristina; Leonard, Gabriel; Paus, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the fine-grained development of the EEG power spectra in early adolescence, and the extent to which it is reflected in changes in peak frequency. It also sought to determine whether sex differences in the EEG power spectra reflect differential patterns of maturation. A group of 56 adolescents were tested at age 10 years and…

  5. Study of Delinquent, Diverted, and High-Risk Adolescent Girls: Implications for Mental Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffolo, Mary C.; Sarri, Rosemary; Goodkind, Sara

    2004-01-01

    This study examines risk and protective factors for delinquent, diverted, and high-risk adolescent girls to inform the development of effective mental health prevention and intervention programs. Delinquent, diverted, and high-risk adolescent girls (N = 159) involved or at risk of involvement with the juvenile justice system, who were receiving…

  6. A Prospective Study of Risk Factors for the Development of Depression and Disordered Eating in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that females display higher levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating than males from adolescence onward. This study examined whether different risk factors and their interaction with sex (moderator effect) prospectively predicted depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescents. A total of 415 female…

  7. The Initiation of Dating in Adolescence: The Effect of Parental Divorce. The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Katya; Mills, Melinda; Veenstra, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of parental divorce on the time it took adolescents to initiate their first romantic relationships. Individual differences in temperament and pubertal development and the age of the adolescent at the time of divorce were also taken into account. Hypotheses were tested using event history analysis with a sample of…

  8. School-Related Stress and Depression in Adolescents with and without Learning Disabilities: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurer, D. Paige; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined school-related stress and depression in adolescents with and without learning disabilities. A total of 87 students (38 learning-disabled and 49 nondisabled) from secondary schools in Calgary completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and on school-related stress. Results indicated that the adolescents with LD reported…

  9. Relationships between Substance Use and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relationships between depressive symptoms and use of alcohol, cigarettes, and illicit substances among adolescents, addressing methodological limitations and potential confounding in the extant literature. The sample comprised adolescents who were surveyed in Grades 6 (n = 916), 9 (n = 804), and 11 (n = 791).…

  10. Glutamatergic Effects of Divalproex in Adolescents with Mania: A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawn, Jeffrey R.; Patel, Nick C.; Chu, Wen-Jang; Lee, Jing-Huei; Adler, Caleb M.; Kim, Mi Jung; Bryan, Holly S.; Alfieri, David C.; Welge, Jeffrey A.; Blom, Thomas J.; Nandagopal, Jayasree J.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; DelBello, Melissa P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ([superscript 1]H MRS) to evaluate the in vivo effects of extended-release divalproex sodium on the glutamatergic system in adolescents with bipolar disorder, and to identify baseline neurochemical predictors of clinical remission. Method: Adolescents with bipolar disorder who were…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Narrative Development in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleave, Patricia; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Czutrin, Rachael; Smith, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome longitudinally. Narratives were collected from 32 children and adolescents with Down syndrome three times over a 1-year period. Both micro- and macrolevel analyses were conducted. Significant growth over the 1-year period was seen in semantic complexity…

  12. A Qualitative Study of Parental Modeling and Social Support for Physical Activity in Underserved Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marcie S.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Griffin, Sarah; Evans, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    This study obtained qualitative data to assess how parental role modeling and parental social support influence physical activity in underserved (minority, low-income) adolescents. Fifty-two adolescents (22 males, 30 females; ages 10-14 years, 85% African-American) participated in a focus group (6-10 per group, same gender). Focus groups were…

  13. Alcohol Use and Social Adjustment in Adolescence : A Longitudinal, Multilevel Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Sentse, Miranda; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2012-01-01

    The study examined to what extent alcohol use among Dutch adolescents (1,421 adolescents, aged 12-16) was related to sociability and whether the social context affects this association. Data were based on self-reports and peer reports during 2005 and 2006. The results indicated that in contrast to p

  14. Impact of Childhood Trauma on Treatment Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Nguyen, Lananh J.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Reid, Mark W.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The impact of childhood trauma was examined in 427 adolescents (54% girls, 74% Caucasian, mean = 14.6, SD = 1.5) with major depressive disorder participating in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: TADS compared the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), their combination (COMB),…

  15. A longitudinal case-control study on goals in adolescents with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulkers, Esther; Janse, Moniek; Brinksma, Aeltsje; Roodbol, Petrie F.; Kamps, Willem A.; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Fleer, Joke

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether: (1) the goals of adolescents with cancer at 3months post-diagnosis (T1) and healthy peers differed in terms of content, valuation, and abstraction level, (2) the content, valuation and abstraction level of the goals of the adolescents with cancer differed betw

  16. A longitudinal case–control study on goals in adolescents with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulkers, Esther; Janse, Moniek; Brinksma, Aeltsje; Roodbol, Petrie F.; Kamps, Willem A.; Tissing, Wim J.E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Fleer, Joke

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether: (1) the goals of adolescents with cancer at 3 months post-diagnosis (T1) and healthy peers differed in terms of content, valuation, and abstraction level, (2) the content, valuation and abstraction level of the goals of the adolescents with cancer differed bet

  17. The Development of Prosocial Behavior in Adolescents: A Mixed Methods Study from NOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Nate; Sibthorp, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Learning transfer and prosocial behavior (PSB) are critical components of many outdoor education programs for adolescents. This study examined the effects of a theoretically grounded treatment curriculum designed to foster the transfer of learning of general and contextual PSB (also called expedition behavior) among adolescents enrolled on 14-day…

  18. STUDY OF INFECTIOUS AND NON INFECTIOUS PROBLEMS IN ADOLESCENTS OF URBAN CITY

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    Manjunath

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In adolescents there is a unique set of health problems due to more social contact, less immunity, increase in requirement for nutrition, pubertal growth spurt, behavior problems, so the present study is undertaken to find out infectious and non-infectious problems in the adolescents. AIM & OBJECTIVES: To know the extent of infectious and non-infectious problems in adolescents and also to compare among different socioeconomic groups. METHODS: Adolescents belonging to different socioeconomic groups selected. Three schools and one slum in urban area chosen of adolescents aging between 11-19yrs, there weight, height, blood pressure, clinical examination of face, eye, ear, lips, teeth, gum, nails, tongue, glands, subcutaneous tissue, Musculoskeletal system, CVS, RS, GIT, CNS and previous health record checked. OBSERVATIONS: Study group comprised of 437 adolescents aging between 11-19yrs consisting of 299 girls and 138 boys, In the present study, good habit of personal hygiene was observed in 12.4% of slum adolescents, 46.8% in lower middle class group (OFH+VVH and 62.2% in upper middle class, 37.9% adolescents had falling hair. 34.5% adolescents had Dandruff. Pediculosis and hirsutism were present in 6.4% and 0.9% adolescents respectively, Acne was present in 33.9% of adolescents, 7.3% had white patches, Pyoderma and scabies 2% and 1% of adolescents respectively, 19.4% had Dental pain. It was also observed that Caries in 15.7%, Gum bleeding in 6.6%, Gingivitis in 4.1% and Malocclusion in 3.4% were present, 14.6% adolescents had Sinusitis, 8.6% had Tonsillitis and Rhinitis in 8% and Ear discharge in 0.9% was observed, 15% had Refractive error, 1.3% had Pterigium, 1.1% had Conjunctivitis, 0.7% had Stye and 0.6% had Squint, 6.8% adolescents had Asthma and 0.4% had Tuberculosis. Epilepsy, RHD, CHD, Hyperthyroidism and Goiter was observed in 0.2% adolescents. DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION: Socio economic status plays an important role in infectious

  19. A prospective study of screen time in adolescence and depression symptoms in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Singhammer, John; Froberg, Karsten;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between screen time in adolescence and depressive symptoms in young adulthood in a population-based cohort study of Danish adolescents. METHODS: Data were from a cohort of adolescents who were followed-up in young adulthood for a...... period of up to 12years (1997-2010, mean 8.8years, n=435). Information on television viewing, computer use, total screen time and other determinants of depression were obtained in adolescence. Depressive symptoms were obtained in young adulthood using the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and classified...... as mild, moderate or severe depression. Mixed regression models were used to examine the associations, with adjustment for major confounders. RESULTS: In multivariable adjusted analyses, each additional hour/day spent watching television or screen viewing in adolescence was associated with 1.36 (95...

  20. Dietary Intake among Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country: An Outcome from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Study (the MyHeARTs Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazreen Abdul Majid

    Full Text Available Optimal nutrition is essential for healthy growth during adolescence. This study aims to investigate the baseline nutritional intake of Malaysian adolescents by gender, body mass index, and places of residence, both urban and rural. A cohort study was conducted consisting of 794 adolescents (aged 13-years attending 15 public secondary schools from the Central (Kuala Lumpur and Selangor and Northern (Perak Regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Qualified dietitians conducted a 7-day historical assessment of habitual food intakes. Facilitated by flipcharts and household measurement tools, detailed information on portion sizes and meal contents were recorded. Nutritionist Pro™ Diet Analysis software was also used to analyze the dietary records.The mean age of the adolescents was 12.86 ± 0.33 y; the mean energy intake was 1659.0 ± 329.6 kcal/d. Males had significantly (P < .001 higher energy intake than females (1774.0 ± 369.8 vs 1595.2 ± 320.6 kcal/d; adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and cholesterol (P < .001 compared to adolescents in urban schools (1706.1 ± 377.7 kcal/d and 244.1 ± 100.2 mg/d, respectively. Obese adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and sugar (1987.6 ± 374.0 kcal/d and 48.9 ± 23.0 g/d (p-value <0.001.The dietary intake of normal weight versus obese adolescents differs by the location of their school. Thus, the implementation of a structured and tailored intervention is recommended to help minimize this nutritional inequality.

  1. Dietary Intake among Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country: An Outcome from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Study (the MyHeARTs Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Majid, Hazreen; Ramli, Liyana; Ying, Sim Pei; Su, Tin Tin; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Abdul Mohsein, Nabilla Al-Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is essential for healthy growth during adolescence. This study aims to investigate the baseline nutritional intake of Malaysian adolescents by gender, body mass index, and places of residence, both urban and rural. A cohort study was conducted consisting of 794 adolescents (aged 13-years) attending 15 public secondary schools from the Central (Kuala Lumpur and Selangor) and Northern (Perak) Regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Qualified dietitians conducted a 7-day historical assessment of habitual food intakes. Facilitated by flipcharts and household measurement tools, detailed information on portion sizes and meal contents were recorded. Nutritionist Pro™ Diet Analysis software was also used to analyze the dietary records.The mean age of the adolescents was 12.86 ± 0.33 y; the mean energy intake was 1659.0 ± 329.6 kcal/d. Males had significantly (P < .001) higher energy intake than females (1774.0 ± 369.8 vs 1595.2 ± 320.6 kcal/d); adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and cholesterol (P < .001) compared to adolescents in urban schools (1706.1 ± 377.7 kcal/d and 244.1 ± 100.2 mg/d, respectively). Obese adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and sugar (1987.6 ± 374.0 kcal/d and 48.9 ± 23.0 g/d) (p-value <0.001).The dietary intake of normal weight versus obese adolescents differs by the location of their school. Thus, the implementation of a structured and tailored intervention is recommended to help minimize this nutritional inequality. PMID:27187889

  2. Dietary Intake among Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country: An Outcome from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Study (the MyHeARTs Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Majid, Hazreen; Ying, Sim Pei; Su, Tin Tin; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid

    2016-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is essential for healthy growth during adolescence. This study aims to investigate the baseline nutritional intake of Malaysian adolescents by gender, body mass index, and places of residence, both urban and rural. A cohort study was conducted consisting of 794 adolescents (aged 13-years) attending 15 public secondary schools from the Central (Kuala Lumpur and Selangor) and Northern (Perak) Regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Qualified dietitians conducted a 7-day historical assessment of habitual food intakes. Facilitated by flipcharts and household measurement tools, detailed information on portion sizes and meal contents were recorded. Nutritionist Pro™ Diet Analysis software was also used to analyze the dietary records.The mean age of the adolescents was 12.86 ± 0.33 y; the mean energy intake was 1659.0 ± 329.6 kcal/d. Males had significantly (P Obese adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and sugar (1987.6 ± 374.0 kcal/d and 48.9 ± 23.0 g/d) (p-value obese adolescents differs by the location of their school. Thus, the implementation of a structured and tailored intervention is recommended to help minimize this nutritional inequality. PMID:27187889

  3. A Study of Psychosocial Risk Status and Knowledge of Reproductive Health in Adolescents in Raipur City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is the period of physical and psychological development from the onset of puberty to maturity. The World Health Organization defines an adolescent as a person between ages 10 and 19 years. A dramatic shift in thinking from concrete to abstract gives adolescents a whole new set of mental tools, to analyze situations logically in terms of cause and effect, appreciate hypothetical situations, evaluate alternatives, introspection, decision making and cognitive abilities. Adolescents experience intense physical, psychological changes as they make transition from childhood to adulthood. This period of transition is the most vulnerable time. Adolescents are at risk of developing behavioral problems like school failure and drop outs, substance abuse, delinquency and violence, sexually transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancies, domestic violence, stress and depression and risk-taking behaviour. It is the responsibility of the society to utilize this period constructively through education, counseling, mass media, awareness programmes and address the reproductive health needs of adolescents. The present study analyzes the psychosocial risk status and knowledge of reproductive health in adolescents in Raipur city. The study recommends implementation of provisions by government to provide continuous education and economic security for adolescents. Programmes like age-appropriate reproductive health curriculum should be introduced in schools and colleges with counseling facilities at school and primary health care levels.

  4. A Qualitative Study of Mexican American Adolescents and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornos, Laura B.; Mika, Virginia Seguin; Bayles, Bryan; Serrano, Alberto C.; Jimenez, Roberto L.; Villarreal, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Depressive disorders are present in a high percentage of Mexican American adolescents. Among the US Mexican American population, suicide is the fourth leading cause of death among 10- to 19-year-olds. Little research, however, has focused on Mexican American adolescents' knowledge and views about depression and seeking help for depression. Results…

  5. Psychosocial Discomfort and Exercise Frequency: An Epidemiological Study of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Tucker, Larry A.

    1994-01-01

    Examined extent to which adolescents (n=1,297) who reported different levels of physical exercise varied with respect to psychosocial discomfort. Results indicated that those who exercised infrequently suffered more from loneliness, shyness, and hopelessness than did adolescents who exercised more frequently. Controlled potential confounding…

  6. The Complex Impact of Closeness: Studying Arab Adolescents in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Michal; Essa, Rania

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between language and identity in the Israeli conflictual situation, exploring the perceptions of Israeli Arab adolescents in two different contexts: a mixed city and a homogeneous Arab town. Adolescents in the mixed city, although more exposed to Hebrew and to Jewish culture, develop a stronger sense of "Arab"…

  7. Self-determined motivation towards physical activity in adolescents treated for obesity: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theuwis Lotte

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the Self-Determination Theory (SDT framework, the first major study aim was to investigate the SDT tenets in an obese adolescent population by examining the factor structure of the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2 and by investigating associations between physical activity (PA and motivation in obese adolescents. The second aim was to study differences in motivation according to adolescents' educational level, since lower educated obese adolescent are a sub-risk group for lower PA levels among the obese adolescents. The third aim was to investigate whether attending a residential obesity treatment program could lead to an increase in autonomous motivation towards PA and to see if the treatment effect on motivation was different in low versus high educated youth. Methods For the first study aim, the sample comprised 177 obese adolescents at the start of a 10-month multidisciplinary residential obesity treatment program (BMI = 35.9 ± 6.0 kg/m2, 15.1 ± 1.5 years, 62% girls. A subsample of 65 adolescents (stratified by educational level were divided into low (n = 34 versus high educated (n = 31 as part of the second and third study aim. Motivation was assessed using the BREQ-2 and PA using the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results Exploratory factor analysis showed sufficient validations with the original factor for 17 out of 19 BREQ-2 items. Significant positive correlations were found between PA and the composite score of relative autonomy (r = 0.31, p Conclusions The BREQ-2 can be used in an obese adolescent population. Higher levels of autonomous motivation towards PA were related to higher PA levels. Adolescents had increases in both autonomous and controlled forms of motivation during treatment. Special attention for lower educated adolescents during treatment is needed, as they have a lower autonomous motivation at the start of treatment and an increase in introjected

  8. Neighborhood income inequality, social capital and emotional distress among adolescents: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsdottir, Arndis; Gardarsdottir, Ragna B; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2016-08-01

    Theory holds that income inequality may harm adolescent mental health by reducing social capital within neighborhood communities. However, research on this topic has been very limited. We use multilevel data on 102 public schools and 5958 adolescents in Iceland (15 and 16 years old) to examine whether income inequality within neighborhoods is associated with emotional distress in adolescents. Moreover, we test whether indicators of social capital, including social trust and embeddedness in neighborhood social networks, mediate this contextual effect. The findings show that neighborhood income inequality positively influences emotional distress of individual adolescents, net of their personal household situations and social relations. However, although the indicators of social capital negatively influence emotional distress, they do not mediate the contextual effect of neighborhood income inequality. The study illustrates the role of economic disparities in adolescent mental health, but calls for more research on the underlying social and social-psychological mechanisms. PMID:27337213

  9. The management of autonomy in adolescent diabetes: a case study of triadic medical interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, Mara

    2009-03-01

    The transfer of responsibility for diabetes management from parent to child has been seen as a central challenge for the clinical care of adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. Research is needed to better understand how clinicians, patients, and families handle the delicate balance between parental involvement and adolescent responsibility for diabetes management. The aim of this study is to investigate the interactional processes by which an adolescent's autonomy is facilitated and constrained in a clinical interaction between a nurse practitioner (NP), a 13-year-old diabetes patient, and the patient's mother. Integrating psychological perspectives on adolescent autonomy and responsibility with conversation analytic approaches to participation, I examine participation frameworks and shifting alignments to illuminate the negotiation of adolescent autonomy within a single clinical encounter. The analysis demonstrates that the patient's autonomy is emphasized while identifying problems, yet restricted when considering solutions. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:19228827

  10. Impact of antipsychotic medication on physical activity and physical fitness in adolescents: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Probst, Michel; Daenen, Anne; Damme, Tine Van; De Hert, Marc; Rosenbaum, Simon; Bruyninckx, David

    2016-08-30

    Antipsychotics are used increasingly in adolescents for a range of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether physical activity levels and physical fitness of adolescent inpatients treated with antipsychotic medication, differs from either (i) antipsychotic naïve adolescents with mental health problems and, (ii) healthy controls. All participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents, the Positive-and-Negative-Affect-Schedule and performed the Eurofit test battery. Adolescents with mental health problems (irrespective of antipsychotic medication) were significantly (Prunning speed and cardiovascular endurance compared to healthy controls (n=15, 8♂, 15.9±1.3 years). Adolescents treated with antipsychotic medication (n=15, 8♂, 15.5±1.3 years) were less physically active and had an impaired whole body balance compared with antipsychotic naïve adolescents (n=15, 8♂, 15.7±1.4 years). Given the overwhelming deleterious impact of physical inactivity and low physical fitness on physical and mental health outcomes, interventions specifically targeting physical activity and physical fitness among adolescents experiencing mental illness, both treated with, and not treated with antipsychotic medication are warranted as a priority. Antipsychotic medication should be considered as a risk factor for physical inactivity and poor physical fitness. PMID:27288738

  11. Adolescent-parent interactions and communication preferences regarding body weight and weight management: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howlett Sarah A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to canvass the nature of adolescent-parent interactions about weight, particularly overweight, and to explore ideas of how to foster supportive discussions regarding weight, both in the home and with family doctors. Methods A market research company was contracted to recruit and conduct a series of separate focus groups with adolescents and unrelated parents of adolescents from low-middle socio-economic areas in Sydney and a regional centre, Australia. Group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed, and then a qualitative content analysis of the data was performed. Results Nine focus groups were conducted; two were held with girls (n = 13, three with boys (n = 18, and four with parents (20 mothers, 12 fathers. Adolescent and parent descriptions of weight-related interactions could be classified into three distinct approaches: indirect/cautious (i.e. focus on eating or physical activity behaviors without discussing weight specifically; direct/open (i.e. body weight was discussed; and never/rarely discussing the subject. Indirect approaches were described most frequently by both adolescents and parents and were generally preferred over direct approaches. Parents and adolescents were circumspect but generally supportive of the potential role for family doctors to monitor and discuss adolescent weight status. Conclusions These findings have implications for developing acceptable messages for adolescent and family overweight prevention and treatment interventions.

  12. Family-oriented multilevel study on the psychological functioning of adolescent children having a mother with cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Huizinga, Gea; Visser, Annemieke; van der Graaf, W. T.; Hoekstra, H J; Stewart, R. E.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to identify the predictive power of adolescents', parents', and illness characteristics on the functioning of adolescents when a mother has cancer. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-one adolescents, 128 mothers with cancer, and 96 spouses completed standardized questionnaires 1-5 years after diagnosis. Stress response symptoms (SRS), internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed in adolescents. Parents' SRS, trait anxiety, marital satisfaction, and parent-ad...

  13. TO WHAT EXTENT CAN ADOLESCENT SUICIDE ATTEMPTS BE ATTRIBUTED TO VIOLENCE EXPOSURE? A POPULATION-BASED STUDY FROM WESTERN CANADA

    OpenAIRE

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Chen, Weihong

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents in Canada and globally. The purpose of our study was to calculate what proportion of adolescent suicide attempts could be prevented in the absence of verbal, physical and sexual violence. Using the province-wide 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (N=29,315) we calculated population-attributable fractions for each type of violence, as well as exposure to any violence, separately by gender, among adolescents age 12–19. W...

  14. Religiosity and mental health of pre-adolescents with psychiatric problems and their parents : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jagt-Jelsma, W.; de Vries-Schot, M. R.; de Jong, Rint; Hartman, C. A.; Verhulst, F. C.; Klip, H.; van Deurzen, P. A. M.; Buitelaar, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the association between the religiosity of parents and pre-adolescents, and pre-adolescents' psychiatric problems. Method: In a clinic-referred cohort of 543 pre-adolescents at least once referred to a mental health outpatient clinic mental health problems were as

  15. Religiosity and mental health of pre-adolescents with psychiatric problems and their parents: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt-Jelsma, W. van der; Vries-Schot, M.R. de; Jong, R. de; Hartman, C.A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Klip, H.; Deurzen, P.A. van; Buitelaar, J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study investigated the association between the religiosity of parents and pre-adolescents, and pre-adolescents' psychiatric problems. METHOD: In a clinic-referred cohort of 543 pre-adolescents at least once referred to a mental health outpatient clinic mental health problems were as

  16. The Impact of Host Family Relations and Length of Stay on Adolescent Identity Expression during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Averil Marie

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationships between host family success, social integration, length of stay and acquisition of adolescent language by students on extended international homestay programmes. Degree of adolescent language acquisition and integration is measured by use of two hallmarks of adolescent language: markers of approximation…

  17. Adolescents' Internalizing and Aggressive Behaviors and Perceptions of Parents' Psychological Control: A Panel Study Examining Direction of Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Arne K.; Galambos, Nancy L.; Jansson, S. Mikael

    2007-01-01

    This panel study investigated the directionality of relations between adolescents' perceptions of their parents' psychological control and adolescents' self-reported internalizing and aggressive (physical and relational) behaviors. Data were collected from a random, community sample of 530 adolescents ages 12-19 years old at time 1, and again 2…

  18. Model versus Military Pilot: A Mixed-Methods Study of Adolescents' Attitudes toward Women in Varied Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Elizabeth A.; Sherman, Aurora M.

    2016-01-01

    Using an experimental methodology, the present study investigated adolescents' attitudes toward media images of women in non-appearance-focused (CEO and military pilot) and appearance-focused occupations (model and actor). One hundred adolescent girls and 76 adolescent boys provided ratings of likability, competence, and similarity to self after…

  19. Recollections of learning-disabled adolescents of their schooling experiences : A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande Sunil

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little is known about the actual impact of the schooling experience on adolescents with specific learning disability (SpLD. Aims: To analyze the recollections of adolescents with SpLD who were undergoing education in regular mainstream schools. Settings And Design: Prospective interview-based study conducted in our clinic. Materials And Methods: Adolescents′ responses to a semi-structured interview were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and interpreted by content analysis. The number of participants was determined by ′saturation sampling,′ resulting in a total of 30 adolescents. Results: Twelve (40% adolescents had ′overall′ neutral recollections, 9 (30% had ′overall′ positive recollections and 9 (30% had ′overall′ negative recollections about having SpLD during their schooling. Fourteen (46.7% adolescents stated ′getting provisions′ as good features, whereas 7 (23.3% stated ′feeling different from classmates′ and 6 (20% stated ′being teased by classmates about their disability′ as bad features of having SpLD. Nineteen (63.3% adolescents remembered classroom teachers being supportive, while 7 (23.3% remembered being insulted by them. Of the 21 adolescents who had undergone remedial education, only 10 (47.6% acknowledged that it had benefited them. Twenty-one (70% adolescents stated that availing provisions helped in getting better marks in examinations. Ten (33.3% adolescents had negative recollections about their parents′ behavior in relation to their disability. Twenty (66.7% adolescents wanted changes in their school to help students with SpLD. Conclusion: Improving the knowledge of classroom teachers, classmates and family members about SpLD and about the rationale of provisions will help reduce the unpleasant experiences students with SpLD undergo during their schooling years.

  20. iPeer2Peer program: a pilot feasibility study in adolescents with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola Kohut, Sara; Stinson, Jennifer N; Ruskin, Danielle; Forgeron, Paula; Harris, Lauren; van Wyk, Margaret; Luca, Stephanie; Campbell, Fiona

    2016-05-01

    Adolescents with chronic pain are often socially isolated, having never met others with chronic pain, and often feel misunderstood by healthy peers. Adolescence is a sensitive period for developing one's sense of self and autonomy, which often occurs in the context of peer relationships. This developmental process is disrupted in adolescents when their chronic pain interferes with their social interactions. Peer mentoring is proposed as a developmentally timely intervention. The aim of this study is to develop and test the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of the iPeer2Peer program. The iPeer2Peer program is a tailored peer mentorship program that provides modeling and reinforcement by peers (trained young adults with chronic pain aged 18-25 years who have learned to successfully manage their pain). This program aimed to enhance self-management of chronic pain in adolescents through 10 Skype video calls over the course of 8 weeks. A pilot randomized controlled trial design using waitlist controls was used in an adolescent chronic pain sample. Twenty-eight adolescents aged 14.8 ± 1.6 years (93% female) completed the trial (intervention: n = 12; control n = 16). Three adolescents completed the intervention after completing their participation in the control arm. The iPeer2Peer program was feasible and acceptable, provided the adolescents were given more time to complete all 10 calls. When compared with controls, adolescents who completed the iPeer2Peer program had significant improvement in self-management skills and their coping efforts were more successful. The iPeer2Peer program is a promising peer mentoring intervention that complements standard care for adolescents with chronic pain. PMID:26808145

  1. Personality Subtypes in Adolescent and Adult Children of Alcoholics: A two part study

    OpenAIRE

    Hinrichs, Jonathan; DeFife, Jared; Westen, Drew

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted two studies to identify and validate potential personality subtypes in adolescent and adult children of alcoholics. As part of a broader NIMH-funded study, randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists provided personality data on adolescent (n = 229) or adult (n = 359) children of alcoholics using a Q-sort procedure (SWAP-II-A for adolescents and SWAP-II for adults), which were subjected to a cluster-analytic procedure, Q-factor analysis. Q-factor analysis yielded f...

  2. EFFECT OF CONVENTIONAL TENS VERSUS SPINAL MOBILIZATION IN PRIMARY DYSMENORRHEA IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Manisha Mistry; Vishnu Vardhan; Tushar Palekar; Rasika Panse

    2015-01-01

    Background: Primary dysmenorrhea is a common disabilitating factor in most of the adolescent girls. It is a major cause of inability to concentrate on their work or studies, class or school absenteeism, inability to perform in their academic activities. This study conducted to assess the effect of non-invasive treatments for pain relief during dysmenorrhea. Aim and Objectives: To study the effect of Conventional TENS and Spinal mobilization on pain in Primary Dysmenorrhea in adolescent gi...

  3. Adolescent school absenteeism and service use in a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Haugland, Siren; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Bøe, Tormod; Hysing, Mari

    2015-01-01

    Background School absenteeism is linked to a range of health concerns, health risk behaviors and school dropout. It is therefore important to evaluate the extent to which adolescents with absenteeism are in contact with health care and other services. The aim of the current study was to investigate service use of Norwegian adolescents with moderate and high absenteeism in comparison to students with lower rates of absence. Methods The study employs data from a population-based study from 2012...

  4. Peer sexual harassment in adolescent girls: A cross-national study (Spain-Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Ortega; Virginia Sánchez; Javier Ortega-Rivera; Annalaura Nocentini; Ersilia Menesini

    2010-01-01

    International studies have concluded that sexual harassment among adolescents is more frequent than expected. However, estimations of sexual harassment vary according to different studies. Some of these differences can be explained in terms of the different dimensions and explicative models used. This descriptive study tried to contribute to this area of investigation testing different models of sexual harassment in a sample of 318 female adolescents (mean age 17.05 years old) ...

  5. CYBER BULLYING, CYBER VICTIMIZATION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS: A STUDY IN ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAHİN, Mustafa; AYDIN, Betul; Serkan Volkan SARI

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between cyber bullying, cyber victimization and psychological symptoms was investigated in adolescents. The sample of the study consisted of 300 high school student adolescents who attend different types of high schools in Trabzon in 2009-2010 academic years. In the study, demographic data form, The Scale of Cyber bullying and Brief Symptom Inventory were used as data collection instruments. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficients, One-Way ANOVA and independent samp...

  6. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Janikian, Mari; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Tzavela, Eleni C; Olafsson, Kjartan; Wójcik, Szymon; Macarie, George Florian; Tzavara, Chara; Richardson, Clive

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N=13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8±0.7) of 14-17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addictive behavior (IAB) and related psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in the participating countries. In the study, we distinguish two problematic groups: adolescents with IAB, characterized by a loss of control over their Internet use, and adolescents "at risk for IAB," showing fewer or weaker symptoms of IAB. The two groups combined form a group of adolescents with dysfunctional Internet behavior (DIB). About 1% of adolescents exhibited IAB and an additional 12.7% were at risk for IAB; thus, in total, 13.9% displayed DIB. The prevalence of DIB was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.2% vs. 12.7%, psocial networking, gaming) at least 6 days/week was associated with greater probability of displaying DIB. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that DIB was more frequent among adolescents with a lower educational level of the parents, earlier age at first use of the Internet, and greater use of social networking sites and gaming sites. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing (i.e., behavioral) and internalizing (i.e., emotional) problems were associated with the presence of DIB. PMID:24853789

  7. Emotional, behavioural problems and cigarette smoking in adolescence: findings of a Greek cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotsika Vasiliki

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several studies have reported findings concerning the association between smoking and emotional/behavioural problems, little research has investigated this association after controlling for confounding factors which have been found to be significantly correlated with both cigarette smoking and emotional/behavioural problems and may have a strong effect on the relationship between adolescents' mental health and smoking. The present study attempted to assess the association between adolescents' smoking status and their emotional/behavioural problems after controlling for a number of possible confounders (i.e. age, gender, parental smoking status, exposure to family smoking, family socioeconomic status, adolescents' leisure time in a Greek nation-wide school-based sample. Methods Participants completed a questionnaire which retrieved information about age, gender, family socioeconomic status, smoking status, parental smoking, adolescents' leisure time and emotional/behavioural problems. Data were modelled using multiple logistic regression analysis with adolescents' smoking status as the dependent variable. Results A total of 1194 (i.e. 63% response rate of self-reported questionnaires (40.1% boys, 59.9% girls; 12-18 years old were returned. Data from 1030 participants with full data were analyzed. Cigarette smoking was strongly associated with higher levels of emotional/behavioural problems (p Conclusions This study supports the association between smoking and emotional/behavioural problems among adolescents. Addressing adolescents' needs regarding their emotional/behavioural health could be helpful in the development of effective anti-smoking strategies in school environment and elsewhere.

  8. Ecological Factors and Adolescent Marijuana Use: Results of a Prospective Study in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Delva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Despite the growing evidence that ecological factors contribute to substance use, the relationship of ecological factors and illicit drugs such as marijuana use is not well understood, particularly among adolescents in Latin America. Guided by social disorganization and social stress theories, we prospectively examined the association of disaggregated neighborhood characteristics with marijuana use among adolescents in Santiago, Chile, and tested if these relationships varied by sex. Methods: Data for this study are from 725 community-dwelling adolescents participating in the Santiago Longitudinal Study, a study of substance using behaviors among urban adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Adolescents completed a two-hour interviewer administered questionnaire with questions about drug use and factors related to drug using behaviors. Results: As the neighborhood levels of drug availability at baseline increased, but not crime or noxious environment, adolescents had higher odds of occasions of marijuana use at follow up, approximately 2 years later (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.16–1.66, even after controlling for the study’s covariates. No interactions by sex were significant. Discussion: The findings suggest that “poverty”, “crime”, and “drug problems” may not be synonyms and thus can be understood discretely. As Latin American countries re-examine their drug policies, especially those concerning decriminalizing marijuana use, the findings suggest that attempts to reduce adolescent marijuana use in disadvantaged neighborhoods may do best if efforts are concentrated on specific features of the “substance abuse environment”.

  9. Adolescents' perceptions of health from disadvantaged urban communities: findings from the WAVE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmari, Kristin; Blum, Robert; Sonenstein, Freya; Marshall, Beth; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Venables, Emily; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Lou, Chaohua; Gao, Ershang; Acharya, Rajib; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Sangowawa, Adesola

    2014-03-01

    The Well-being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) is a global study of young people living in disadvantaged urban communities from Baltimore, MD, Johannesburg, South Africa, Shanghai, China, New Delhi, India and Ibadan, Nigeria. WAVE was launched in the summer of 2011 to: 1) explore adolescents' perceived health and their top health challenges; and 2) describe the factors that adolescents perceive to be related to their health and health care utilization. Researchers in each site conducted in-depth interviews among adolescents; community mapping and focus groups among adolescents; a Photovoice methodology, in which adolescents were trained in photography and took photos of the meaning of 'health' in their communities; and key informant interviews among adults who work with young people. A total 529 participants from across the sites were included in the analysis. Findings from the study showed that gender played a large role with regards to what adolescents considered as their top health challenges. Among females, sexual and reproductive health problems were primary health challenges, whereas among males, tobacco, drug, and alcohol consumption was of highest concern, which often resulted into acts of violence. Personal safety was also a top concern among males and females from Baltimore and Johannesburg, and among females in New Delhi and Ibadan. Factors perceived to influence health the most were the physical environment, which was characterized by inadequate sanitation and over-crowded buildings, and the social environment, which varied in influence by gender and site. Regardless of the study site, adolescents did not consider physical health as a top priority and very few felt the need to seek health care services. This study highlights the need to focus on underlying structural and social factors for promoting health and well-being among adolescents in disadvantaged urban environments. PMID:24581070

  10. Active gaming in Dutch adolescents: a descriptive study

    OpenAIRE

    Simons Monique; Bernaards Claire; Slinger Jantine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Adequate levels of physical activity are part of a healthy lifestyle and in this way linked to better health outcomes. For children and adolescents, the physical activity guideline recommends at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity every day. However, many adolescents are not physically active enough and they spend a lot of their time on sedentary activities (such as video games). A new generation of video games that require body movements to play the...

  11. The GOALS Study: The association between physical activity, cognitive performance, and academic achievement in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Van Dijk, M. L., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, 26 April). The GOALS Study: The association between physical activity, cognitive performance, and academic achievement in adolescents. Presentation at the Learning & Cognition meeting, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  12. Chronic pain in adolescence and internalizing mental health disorders: a nationally representative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Groenewald, Cornelius B; Beals-Erickson, Sarah E; Gebert, J Thomas; Palermo, Tonya M

    2016-06-01

    Chronic pain in childhood and adolescence has been shown to heighten the risk for depressive and anxiety disorders in specific samples in adulthood; however, little is known about the association between a wider variety of chronic pains and internalizing mental health disorders. Using nationally representative data, the objectives of this study were to establish prevalence rates of internalizing mental health disorders (anxiety and depressive disorders) among cohorts with or without adolescent chronic pain, and to examine whether chronic pain in adolescence is associated with lifetime history of internalizing mental health disorders reported in adulthood. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) was used (N = 14,790). Individuals who had chronic pain in adolescence subsequently reported higher rates of lifetime anxiety disorders (21.1% vs 12.4%) and depressive disorders (24.5% vs 14.1%) in adulthood as compared with individuals without a history of adolescent chronic pain. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that chronic pain in adolescence was associated with an increased likelihood of lifetime history of anxiety disorders (odds ratio: 1.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.63, P = 0.005) and depressive disorders (odds ratio: 1.38; confidence interval: 1.16-1.64, P < 0.001) reported in adulthood. Future research is needed to examine neurobiological and psychological mechanisms underlying these comorbidities. PMID:26901806

  13. The Link between Mother and Adolescent Substance Use: Intergenerational Findings from the British Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Maggs, Jennifer L; Greene, Kaylin M; Morgan, Nicole R; Schulenberg, John E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify mother, family, and individual factors associated with adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use using mother and child self-reports. Adolescents aged 12-15 (N=276) and their mothers who were participants in the British Cohort Study (BCS; born 1970) were both surveyed when mothers were 34 years old. Predictors included mother's substance use as well as characteristics of the child (gender, age, conduct problems) and family (social class, two-parent family, parent-adolescent conflict). Outcome variables were adolescent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Child characteristics were predictive, with older children more likely to engage in all behaviors. After controlling for other predictors, mothers' current drinking frequency and problems (i.e., CAGE 1+) predicted adolescent ever and sometimes/regular drinking; mothers' marijuana use was a marginally significant predictor of adolescent marijuana use. Results suggest that mothers' substance use is an important component of adolescent use, even after accounting for characteristics of the child and the intergenerational family context. PMID:24489608

  14. Adolescents from low-income sectors: the challenge of studying in a time of digital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Joaquín

    2014-10-01

    This paper is about practices and perceptions regarding the study of adolescents from low-income sectors in the City of Buenos Aires. The methodology consisted of 26 in-depth interviews with low-income adolescents and participant observations in twenty cybercafés of the South Area of the City of Buenos Aires. Among the findings, these students highlight that ICTs allow them to handle information in a more agile and entertaining way, more consistent with their daily uses. However, doing research on school content is what students do the least, since adolescents use technology mainly for communicative, social and recreational ends. These adolescents recognise some disadvantages in using ICTs to study: the unreliable information, the difficulty to distinguish which topics related to school content are more appropriate and the disruptive and continuous use of social networks. In this sense, these adolescents tend to have more problems in benefitting from ICTs for academic purposes than other adolescents. While communication and recreational skills tend to be similar, the evaluation of different sources of information and the skill to make complex searches online are usually more strongly developed in adolescents of middle and high-income households. In conclusion, we think it is necessary to take these problems into consideration in the social sciences research of the area and besides when implementing digital literacy programs. PMID:25364088

  15. Sex, studies or strife? What to integrate in adolescent health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Gracy; Patel, Vikram; Ramakrishna, Jayashree

    2003-05-01

    If health services for adolescents are to be successfully integrated into the existing health care system, they will need to reach out to meet the needs that adolescents themselves perceive as salient. This paper describes a study aiming to elicit the needs of adolescents in higher secondary schools in Goa, India, in 1999-2000. The objective was to generate information which could guide the development of adolescent-friendly health services by integrating the health needs identified by adolescents themselves. The study began with free-listing, followed by focus group discussions and in-depth interviews to elicit areas of concern. Then, a survey of 811 students with a self-report questionnaire was carried out. The findings demonstrate that there is clearly an unmet need for information about sexual and reproductive health, but also a large, unmet need for psychosocial support for health issues ranging from violence in schools to poor relationships with parents, stress-related health complaints and educational difficulties, which are often perceived by adolescents to be of primary importance. Integrating these issues into programmes is likely to be an essential element in developing health services and programmes which can reach out to the majority of adolescents in school settings in India. PMID:12800709

  16. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jennifer L; Mothi, Suraj Sarvode; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2016-03-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common and severe disorder that typically onsets in adolescence, but often goes unrecognized. Despite BDD's severity and early onset, treatment outcome research on adolescent BDD is scarce. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the gold-standard psychosocial treatment for BDD in adults and has shown promise in adolescents. The current study examined the development and testing of a new CBT for adolescents with BDD. We tested feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcome in a sample of 13 adolescents (mean age 15.23years, range: 13-17) with primary BDD. Treatment was delivered in 12-22 weekly individual sessions. Standardized clinician ratings and self-report measures were used to assess BDD and related symptoms pre- and posttreatment and at 3- and 6-months follow-up. At posttreatment, BDD and related symptoms (e.g., insight, mood) were significantly improved. Scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for BDD indicated a 50% (intent-to-treat) and 68% (completer) improvement in BDD symptoms. Seventy-five percent of adolescents who started treatment and 100% of completers were considered treatment responders. Treatment gains were maintained at follow-up. High patient satisfaction ratings and patient feedback indicated that treatment was acceptable. This represents the largest study of a psychosocial treatment for adolescent BDD. PMID:26956653

  17. Study of psychosocial problems among adolescent students in Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Bhosale

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Psychosocial health problems are highly prevalent and one of the hidden public health problems amongst the children and adolescents. Early diagnosis by primary care physicians and prompt referral to the specialist is very important for controlling it. Objectives: To screen all school going children for the risk of psychosocial problems, identify risk factors and refer at risk children to the psychiatrist for counseling. Material and Methods: A Cross sectional study in urban and rural field practice area of a teaching hospital in Pune. A screening tool-the youth report of pediatric symptom checklist (Y-PSC was used .Statistical analysis by Chi square test and Multivariate logistic regression was used as the test for significance. Results: Out of the total 2154 children, 328 (15.2% were found to be at risk of psychosocial problems. Statistically significant difference was observed as per type of management, medium of education, location of the school, age group, class of the student, total members in the family and socioeconomic status. No significant difference was observed as per gender or the type of the family. However after the application of multinomial logistic regression, significant statistical difference was observed only for the type of management running the schools with significantly more number of proportions of psychological disorders seen in students studying in government run schools. Conclusions: Our study clearly brings out the role of management in psychosocial impairment. The psychosocial impairment is about 15.2% with more impairment seen amongst government schools.

  18. Body Weight Concerns among Urban Adolescent Girls: A Microlevel Study

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    Susmita Mukhopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing consciousness about ideal body image leads to dietary modifications and consequent eating disorders among girls in developing countries like India. The present study aims to (i assess the prevalence of body weight consciousness and related behaviours among a group of adolescent girls; (ii assess the sociodemographic correlates of weight related behaviours; and (iii compare weight related behaviours of the girls of two religious groups residing in Howrah. The study is the outcome of a cross-sectional school based survey involving 280 (159 Hindu and 121 Muslim girls from standards 8 to 11. Significant differences exist between two religious groups with respect to their family size, socioeconomic profile, and media exposures (in terms of watching television. Consciousness about body weight among girls shows significant difference with respect to religion, family size (χ2=64.77, father’s occupation (χ2=60.28, level of education of both the parents, and media exposure (P<0.05. Consciousness about body weight drives them to adopt several behavioural measures like calorie restriction, food avoidance, and dieting. Sociodemographic correlates of all these behaviours have been analyzed. The study documents that concern over body image and weight loss is quite important among these urban girls.

  19. Cannabis Use in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Review of Findings from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Carolyn; Patton, George C

    2016-06-01

    The Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VAHCS) is a long-term Australian cohort study that has documented cannabis use in young Australians from the mid-teens to the mid-30s. The study findings have described the natural history of early cannabis use, remission, and escalation and the social and mental health consequences of different patterns of use. The adverse consequences of cannabis use are most clear-cut in heavy early adolescent users. These consequences include educational failure, persisting mental health problems, and progression to other substance use. For later onset and occasional users, the risks are lower and appear to entail modest elevations in risk for other drug use compared with never users. With growing evidence of health consequences, there is a strong case for actions around early heavy adolescent users. Prevention of early use, identification and treatment of early heavy users, and harm reduction through diversion of early heavy users away from the custodial justice system into health care are all priority responses. PMID:27254840

  20. "Let's talk about sex": a qualitative study of Rwandan adolescents' views on sex and HIV.

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    Jennifer Ilo Van Nuil

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This qualitative study explored the views and experiences of adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV in Kigali, Rwanda, regarding sex, love, marriage, children and hope for the future. DESIGN: The study enrolled 42 adolescents who had received combination antiretroviral therapy for at least 12 months, and a selection of their primary caregivers. Study methods included 3 multiple day workshops consisting of role-playing and focus group discussions (FGDs with adolescents, 8 in-depth interviews with adolescents, and one FGD with caregivers. RESULTS: The adolescents reported experiencing similar sexual needs and dilemmas as most other adolescents, but with an added layer of complexity due to fears related to HIV transmission and/or rejection by partners. They desired more advice from their parents/caregivers on these topics. Although they struggled with aspects of sex, love, marriage and having children, most agreed that they would find love, be married and have children in the future. The two most discussed HIV-related anxieties were how and when to disclose to a (potential sex/marriage partner and whether to have children. However, most adolescents felt that they had a right to love and be loved, and were aware of prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT options in Rwanda. Adolescents generally spoke about their future role in society in a positive manner. CONCLUSION: Strengthening the life skills of HIV-positive adolescents, especially around HIV disclosure and reduction of HIV transmission, as well as the support skills of parents/caregivers, may not only reduce onward HIV transmission but also improve quality of life by reducing anxiety.

  1. Social correlates of cigarette smoking among Icelandic adolescents: A population-based cross-sectional study

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    Allegrante John P

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that between 80 and 90 percent of adult smokers report having started smoking before 18 years of age. Several studies have revealed that multiple social factors influence the likelihood of smoking during adolescence, the period during which the onset of smoking usually occurs. To better understand the social mechanisms that influence adolescent smoking, we analyzed the relationship and relative importance of a broad spectrum of social variables in adolescent smoking in Iceland, a Nordic country with high per-capita income. Methods We used cross-sectional data from 7,430 14- to 16 year-old students (approximately 81% of all Icelanders in these age cohorts in the 2006 Youth in Iceland study. The Youth in Iceland studies are designed to investigate the role of several cognitive, behavioral, and social factors in the lives of adolescents, and the data collected are used to inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of substance use prevention programs that are being developed by Icelandic social scientists, policy makers, and practitioners. Results Our analysis revealed that friends' smoking behavior and attitude toward smoking were strongly associated with adolescent smoking and other tobacco use, as well as alcohol consumption during the previous 30 days. Main protective factors were parent's perceived attitude toward smoking, the quantity of time spent with parents, absence of serious verbal conflict between parents and adolescents, and participation in physical activity. Family structure was related to adolescent smoking to a small extent, but other background factors were not. Conclusion We conclude that multiple social factors are related to adolescent smoking. Parents and other primary preventive agents need to be informed about the complicated nature of the adolescent social world in order to maximize their impact.

  2. [Perceptions of cannabis effects a qualitative study among adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrol, H; Roura, C; Kallmeyer, A

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare perceptions of cannabis use effects and risks of tolerance effect, withdrawal syndrome, dependence and repercussions on school, social, and familial functioning among adolescent cannabis users and non users. Subjects were 210 adolescents (121 boys, 89 girls; mean age=16.3 1.3) from the department of Pyrénées-Orientales, France. Subjects completed a questionnaire assessing the frequency of cannabis use, the method of using cannabis, and including open-ended questions (What are the different methods of cannabis use? What are their pleasant and unpleasant or negative effects? What are their risks? Do you think that cannabis effects decrease in intensity when you are used to it? When someone is used to cannabis and stop using it (or has no more of it), does she experience craving for cannabis and withdrawal symptoms? What do you think of cannabis use?). Among the subjects, 118 (56.2%) were cannabis users and 92 (43.8%) were non-users. Among users, 27% used cannabis once a Month or less than once a Month, 21%, more than once a Month; 24%, more than once a weeks; 6%, every day; 20%, more than once a day. The methods of using cannabis were joints (76%), bong (40%), pipe (23%), and ingestion (18%). Knowledge of methods of using cannabis was higher in users than non-users: joint (87% vs 64%, ppipe (38% vs 7%, pjoints. The effects of bong class cannabis as a hard drug. Physical negative effects or risk were reported by 35% of users versus 30% of non-users (p=0.44). Bong users described specific physical risks such as respiratory problems and fainting. No subjects reported the risk of road accidents. Most users and non-users considered that cannabis use causes dependence (60% vs 74%, p=0.03), tolerance (68% vs 60%, p=0.23), and withdrawal symptoms (76% vs 52%, p<0.001). A minority of users and non-users reported that cannabis use causes a deterioration in school functioning (42% vs 20%, p=0.69), in social activities (23% vs 14%, p=0

  3. A qualitative study of the views of adolescents on their caries risk and prevention behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Hall-Scullin, Emma; Goldthorpe, Joanna; Milsom, Keith; Tickle, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes and beliefs of adolescents towards dental caries and their use or non-use of caries prevention regimens. Methods Adolescents aged 16 years from four state-funded secondary schools in North West of England (n = 19). Purposive sampling strategically selected participants with characteristics to inform the study aims (gender, ethnicity, and caries status). Semi-structured interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a f...

  4. Fluid intake patterns: an epidemiological study among children and adolescents in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Feferbaum Rubens; de Abreu Luiz; Leone Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Energy from liquids is one of the most important factors that could impact on the high prevalence of children and adolescents obesity around the world. There are few data on the liquid consumption in Brazil. The aim of this study is to evaluate the volume and quality of liquids consumed by Brazilian children and adolescents and to determine the proportion of their daily energy intake composed of liquids. Methods A multicenter study was conducted in five Brazilian cities; t...

  5. Clinical features of adolescents with deliberate self-harm: A case control study in Lisbon, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo F Guerreiro; Neves, Ema L; Rita Navarro; et al, ...

    2009-01-01

    Diogo F Guerreiro, Ema L Neves, Rita Navarro, Raquel Mendes, Ana Prioste, Diana Ribeiro, Tiago Lila, António Neves, Mónica Salgado, Nazaré Santos, Daniel SampaioYouth Suicide Study Group (NES), The Hospital Santa Maria, Psychiatry Department, Lisbon Faculty of Medicine, PortugalAbstract: Deliberate self-harm (DSH) among adolescents is a high-risk condition for suicide. The aim of the present study is to describe the characteristic clinical features of adolesce...

  6. Iranian Female Adolescent's Views on Unhealthy Snacks Consumption: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    R Majdzadeh; A Rashidian; Bazargan, M.; N. Omidvar; Karimi-Shahanjarini, A; Shojaeizadeh, D.

    2010-01-01

    "nBackground: Given the increasing prevalence of obesity among Iranian adolescents and the role of consumption of un­healthy snacks in this issue, interventions that focus on factors influencing food choice are needed.  This study was designed to delineate factors associated with unhealthy snack use among female Iranian adolescents."nMethods: The theory of Planned Behavior served as the framework of the study.  Qualitative data were collected via nine fo­cus group discussion...

  7. The prevalence of triggers in paediatric migraine: a questionnaire study in 102 children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Neut, Dorothée; Fily, Antoine; Cuvellier, Jean-Christophe; Vallée, Louis

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence and characterization of migraine triggers have not been rigorously studied in children and adolescents. Using a questionnaire, we retrospectively studied the prevalence of 15 predefined trigger factors in a clinic-based population. In 102 children and adolescents fulfilling the Second Edition of The International Headache Classification criteria for paediatric migraine, at least one migraine trigger was reported by the patient and/or was the parents’ interpretation in 100% of p...

  8. Factors Affecting Unhappiness at School among Japanese Adolescents: An Epidemiological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Morioka, Hisayoshi; Itani, Osamu; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Iwasa, Hajime; Ikeda, Maki; Yamamoto, Ryuichiro; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kanda, Hideyuki; Nakagome, Sachi; Ohida,Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Background Unhappiness at school is one of the main reasons for truancy among adolescents. In order to assess this problem more thoroughly in the context of Japanese adolescents, the present study examined the associations between feelings of unhappiness at school and lifestyle habits, school life realities, and mental health status. Method This study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. A self-administered questionnaire was provided to students enrolled in randomly selected junior and s...

  9. Prevalence of psychopathology and pathways to care in adolescents with intellectual disabilities: A population study.

    OpenAIRE

    Hassiotis, A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) and mental health problems are a distinct group with particular difficulties, which need to be addressed. Despite the many studies available on the prevalence of mental health problems in children with intellectual disabilities, very few studies have investigated the prevalence of such disorders in adolescents with ID. Furthermore, there is little information about service provision for this specific age group. Aim: To investigate the ...

  10. BMI changes in children and adolescents attending a specialized childhood obesity center: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Maggio, Albane Bertha; Saunders, Catherine Tamsin; Gal-Duding, Claudine; Beghetti, Maurice; Martin, Xavier; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie; Chamay-weber, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidisciplinary group therapies for obese children and adolescents are effective but difficult to implement. There is a crucial need to evaluate simpler management programs that target the obese child and his family. This study aimed to determine changes in body mass indexes (BMI) after individual family-based obesity intervention with a pediatrician in a specialized obesity center for child and adolescent. Methods This cohort study included 283 patients (3.3 to 17.1 years, mean ...

  11. Orofacial Pathologic Lesions in Children and Adolescents: A Clinicopathological Study in Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafari Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Ahmadi Sheshdeh, Zahra; Kamali, Fereshteh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Oral and maxillofacial lesions vary regarding their clinical presentation in different populations. Until now, oral and maxillofacial lesions in Iranian children and adolescents have not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the type and distribution of biopsied oral lesions among children and adolescents in Southern Iran. Methods: All the patients referred to the pathology department of Shiraz Faculty of Dentistry from 1991-2009 were enrolled in this retrospective, ...

  12. Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time during Childhood, Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Porcel, Francisco B.; Konstabel, K.; Pasquali, E; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Hurtig-Wennl??f, A.; M??estu, J.; L??f, M.; Harro, J; Bellocco, R.; Labayen, Idoia; Veidebaum, T; Sj??str??m, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background To know how moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time change across lifespan periods is needed for designing successful lifestyle interventions. We aimed to study changes in objectively measured (accelerometry) MVPA and sedentary time from childhood to adolescence and from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods Estonian and Swedish participants from the European Youth Heart Study aged 9 and 15 years at baseline (N = 2312) were asked to participat...

  13. Early determinants of physical activity in adolescence: prospective birth cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Hallal, P. C.; Wells, J. C.; Reichert, F. F.; Anselmi, L; Victora, C G

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of early social, anthropometric, and behavioural variables on physical activity in adolescence. DESIGN: Prospective birth cohort study. SETTING: Pelotas, southern Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 4453 adolescents aged 10-12 years participating in the Pelotas 1993 birth cohort study (follow-up rate 87.5%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sedentary lifestyle (< 300 minutes of physical activity per week) and median physical activity score (minutes per week). RESULTS: The prevalence...

  14. A study of anemia among adolescent girls in eastern part of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Piush Kanodia; Mukesh Bhatta; Rupa Rajbhandari Singh; Bhatta, Nisha K.; Gauri Shankar Shah

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Anemia is a global health problem. About 40% of the world's population suffers from anemia and adolescence is one of the most vulnerable age group. Hence the objective of the study was to determine prevalence and distribution of anemia among adolescent girls in eastern part of Nepal.Materials & Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in a Government School of Dharan over a period of one year. There were total 433 participants, whose clinical and demo...

  15. Adolescent Perceptions of Parenting Styles in Sweden, Italy and Greece: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Giulia Olivari; Elisabeth Hertfelt Wahn; Katerina Maridaki-Kassotaki; Katerina Antonopoulou; Emanuela Confalonieri

    2015-01-01

    Comparative research on parenting styles among Nordic and Mediterranean countries is still missing, despite the increasing number of studies on parenting styles in adolescence. This study explores similarities and differences in adolescents’ retrospective perceptions of parenting styles, for both parents, in Sweden, Italy and Greece, using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. In particular, it examines the relation between parental role, adolescent gender, country of origin, SES...

  16. A cognitive-behavioural program for adolescents with chronic pain - A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Merlijn, Vivian; Hunfeld, Joke; Wouden, Hans; Hazebroek-Kampschreur, Alice; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette; Koes, Bart; Passchier, Jan

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this pilot study is to evaluate the feasibility of a cognitive-behavioural training program for adolescents with chronic pain irrespective of pain localisation. A secondary aim was to give an impression of the effect of the program on pain and quality of life. Eight adolescents (14-18 years) with chronic non-organic pain recruited from the general population (and their parents) participated in this pilot study. The intervention included five group meetings alternate...

  17. STUDY OF DEPRESSION AMONG ADOLESCENT STUDENTS OF RURAL MAHARASHTRA AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Shelke Umesh S, Kunkulol Rahul R, Phalke Vaishali D, Narwane Sandeep P, Patel Prashant C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder that appears in adolescents. It has an adverse effect on physical as well as mental health. Many adolescents remain undiagnosed due to no accessibility to clinics. Objectives: To study demographic factors and their association with depression among adolescents of rural Maharashtra. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 300 students (30 of either sex from 8th to 12th class). 6 item KADS (Kutcher Adolescent Depression ...

  18. Cognitive Risk and Protective Factors for Suicidal Ideation: A Two Year Longitudinal Study in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Taylor A; Connolly, Samantha L; Hamilton, Jessica L; Stange, Jonathan P; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-08-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period associated with heightened risk for both the onset and escalation of suicidal ideation (SI). Given that SI is a potent predictor of suicidal behavior, it is important to develop models of vulnerability for and protection against SI, particularly among young adolescents. This study examined the relative impact of several cognitive vulnerabilities, as well as protective factors, for SI among young adolescents over a 2-year interval encompassing their transition to mid-adolescence. At baseline, 324 adolescents (M = 12.39 years; SD = 0.63; 52.5 % female) completed measures of depressive symptoms, self-referent information processing biases, negative inferential style, and responses to negative affect. Further, the adolescents and their mothers were administered a diagnostic interview to assess current and past depressive disorders and SI. Over follow-up, adolescents and their mothers were administered the diagnostic interview every 12 months and adolescents completed a self-report measure inquiring about SI every 6 months to assess interviewer-rated and self-reported SI. Logistic regressions indicated that preferential endorsement of negative adjectives as self-referent (only among girls), rumination in response to negative affect, and a negative inferential style prospectively predicted SI. Additionally, young adolescents' tendency to respond to negative affect with distraction and problem-solving buffered against their risk for exhibiting SI. When these factors were entered simultaneously, preferential endorsement of negative adjectives as self-referent and the use of distraction and problem-solving skills remained the only significant prospective predictors of SI. No previous studies have examined these variables as predictors of SI, thereby highlighting their potential utility in improving the predictive validity of extant models of suicide risk and resilience. PMID:26597963

  19. Personal values and involvement in problem behaviors among Bahamian early adolescents: a cross-sectional study

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    Li Xiaoming

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies, particularly in developing countries, have explored the relationship between adolescents and parental values with adolescent problem behaviors. The objectives of the study are to (1 describe adolescents' personal values, their problem behaviors, and the relationships thereof according to gender and (2 examine the relationship between parental values, adolescent values, and adolescents' problem behaviors among sixth-grade students and one of their parents. Methods The data used in these analyses were from the baseline assessment of a school-based HIV risk reduction intervention being conducted and evaluated among sixth grade students and one of their parents across 9 elementary schools in The Bahamas. Personal values were measured by the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ. Seven reported problem behaviors were queried from the students, which included physical fight with a friend, drank alcohol, beer, or wine, smoked a cigarette, pushed or carried any drugs, carried a gun, knife, screwdriver or cutlass to use as a weapon, had sex and used marijuana or other illicit drugs over the past 6 months. Multilevel modeling for binary data was performed to estimate the associations between adolescent and parental values and adolescent problem behaviors. Results Among 785 students, 47% of the students reported at least one problem behavior. More boys (54% reported having one or more problem behaviors than girls (41%, p Conclusion In designing interventions for reducing adolescents' problem behaviors, it may be important to understand the values associated with specific problem behaviors. Further exploration regarding lack of association between adolescent and parental values and problem behaviors is needed.

  20. Qualitative Iranian study of parents' roles in adolescent girls' physical activity habit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyyed Vahide; Anoosheh, Monireh; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ehsani, Mohammad

    2013-06-01

    Parents are likely to be key influences on children's physical activity behaviors, although it is not clear how. This study was designed to explore parents' roles in Iranian adolescent girls' physical activity habit development. A qualitative study was conducted by means of semistructured one-to-one interviews with 25 participants, including 16 adolescent girls (10-19 years of age), seven mothers, and two fathers. Content analysis was applied. Two main themes emerged as parental role in adolescent girls' physical activity behavior: developing interest in physical activity (making children familiar with physical activity, discovering talents, and role modeling) and providing support to adolescents for physical activity (material and immaterial). This study provided a better understanding of how Iranian parents influence their children's physical activity behavior. This will enable nurses to design more effective family-based interventions. PMID:23302074

  1. Quality of life of Portuguese and Spanish adolescents. A comparative study between natives and immigrants

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    Cristina Nunes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse differences in quality of life (QOL between Spanish and Portuguese immigrant and native adolescents. In total, 475 native and immigrant adolescents (52% boys from Algarve (Portugal and Huelva (Spain, aged between 12 and 17 years old, were assessed with the KIDSCREEN-52. QOL dimensions were not related to most academic variables, with the exception of number of school failures, Financial Resources and Social Support from Peers. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was used to examine statistical differences in adolescents QOL. Age differences in QOL levels were not found. Girls reported worse QOL levels on Physical Wellbeing than boys (F = 10.32, p = .001, η2 =.02. Immigrant Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Mood (F = 17.57, p = .000, η2 =.11, and native Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Social Acceptance (F = 4.87, p = .002, η2=.033. Immigrant and native adolescents had similar levels of perceived QOL. Overall, it seems that in both countries, the living contexts for immigrant and native adolescents are fairly homogeneous.

  2. Quality of life of Portuguese and Spanish adolescents. A comparative study between natives and immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cristina; Hernando, Ángel; Lemos, Ida; Ayala-Nunes, Lara; Oliva, Cristina Romero; Coronado, Cecilia Montilla

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse differences in quality of life (QOL) between Spanish and Portuguese immigrant and native adolescents. In total, 475 native and immigrant adolescents (52% boys) from Algarve (Portugal) and Huelva (Spain), aged between 12 and 17 years old, were assessed with the KIDSCREEN-52. QOL dimensions were not related to most academic variables, with the exception of number of school failures, Financial Resources and Social Support from Peers. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to examine statistical differences in adolescents QOL. Age differences in QOL levels were not found. Girls reported worse QOL levels on Physical Wellbeing than boys (F = 10.32, p = .001, η2 =.02). Immigrant Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Mood (F = 17.57, p = .000, η2 =.11), and native Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Social Acceptance (F = 4.87, p = .002, η2=.033). Immigrant and native adolescents had similar levels of perceived QOL. Overall, it seems that in both countries, the living contexts for immigrant and native adolescents are fairly homogeneous. PMID:27076012

  3. Comparing patterns of sexual risk among adolescent and young women in a mixed-method study in Tanzania: implications for adolescent participation in HIV prevention trials

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    Elizabeth E Tolley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the disproportionate impact of HIV on women, and adolescents in particular, those below age 18 years are underrepresented in HIV prevention trials due to ethical, safety and logistical concerns. This study examined and compared the sexual risk contexts of adolescent women aged 15–17 to young adult women aged 18–21 to determine whether adolescents exhibited similar risk profiles and the implications for their inclusion in future trials. Methods: We conducted a two-phase, mixed-method study to assess the opportunities and challenges of recruiting and retaining adolescents (aged 15–17 versus young women (18–21 in Tanzania. Phase I, community formative research (CFR, used serial in-depth interviews with 11 adolescent and 12 young adult women from a range of sexual risk contexts in preparation for a mock clinical trial (MCT. For Phase II, 135 HIV-negative, non-pregnant adolescents and young women were enrolled into a six-month MCT to assess and compare differences in sexual and reproductive health (SRH outcomes, including risky sexual behaviour, incident pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs, reproductive tract infections (RTIs and HIV. Results: In both research phases, adolescents appeared to be at similar, if not higher, risk than their young adult counterparts. Adolescents reported earlier sexual debut, and similar numbers of lifetime partners, pregnancy and STI/RTI rates, yet had lower perceived risk. Married women in the CFR appeared at particular risk but were less represented in the MCT. In addition, adolescents were less likely than their older counterparts to have accessed HIV testing, obtained gynaecological exams or used protective technologies. Conclusions: Adolescent women under 18 are at risk of multiple negative SRH outcomes and they underuse preventive services. Their access to new technologies such as vaginal microbicides or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP may similarly be compromised unless

  4. Medical device design for adolescent adherence and developmental goals: a case study of a cystic fibrosis physiotherapy device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang AR

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra R Lang,1 Jennifer L Martin,2 Sarah Sharples,1 John A Crowe3 1Human Factors Research Group, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 2Mindtech Healthcare Technology Cooperative (Htc, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institute of Mental Health, Nottingham, UK; 3Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, UK Purpose: This study investigates the psychosocial aspects of adolescent medical device use and the impact on adolescent adherence and goals for the transitional years between child and adulthood. Patients and methods: Interviews were carried out with 20 adolescents with cystic fibrosis, investigating adolescent medical device use and experiences in relation to their personal and social lives and development through the adolescent years. The qualitative dataset was thematically examined using a content analysis method. Results: The results show that adolescent users of medical technologies want their independence and capabilities to be respected. Adolescent adherence to medical device use was associated with short- and long-term motivations, where older adolescents were able to comprehend the longer-term benefits of use against short-term inconvenience more acutely than younger adolescents. It was suggested that medical devices could provide a tool for communication with families and clinicians and could support adolescents as they take responsibility for managing their condition. Themes of “fitting into teenage life” and “use in the community” were associated with adolescents' needs to form their own identity and have autonomy. Conclusion: This study shows that adolescent needs regarding medical device use are complex. It provides evidence to suggest that devices designed inclusively for adolescents may lead to improved adherence and also facilitate transition through the adolescent years and achievement of adolescent goals. Keywords: young people, teenagers

  5. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

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    Danny Salazar-Pousada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10 and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS, respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P<.05. Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06–4.0, P=.03 and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43–6.55, P=.004 related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged.

  6. Periodontal status among adolescents in Georgia. A pathfinder study

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    Liran Levin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the present pathfinder study was to screen and map the periodontal status of Georgian population in accordance with the guidelines of the World Health Organization for population based surveys. Methods. During 2012, a pathfinder study was conducted to collect this data. For the periodontal portion of the study, 15-year-old school children were examined in the capital city of Tbilisi as well as in two other large cities and 4 smaller villages. All participants were examined by a trained dental team in a classroom using a dental mirror and a periodontal probe. Periodontal examination included plaque scores, calculus scores, probing depth measurements and bleeding on probing. These measurements were recorded for the Ramfjord index teeth. Results. A total of 397 15-year-old participants were examined in this pathfinder study. There were 240 females (60.45% and 157 males (39.55%. Of the total participants 196 (49.37% were urban adolescents while 201 (50.63% were from rural communities. Mean probing depth was 3.34 ± 0.57 mm with a range of 1 to 10 mm; a relatively high proportion (34.26% of these subjects presented with at least one site with pockets of 5 mm or deeper. Males presented with greater plaque, calculus and probing depths than females. When urban and rural populations were compared, urban participants presented with more plaque, probing depths and bleeding on probing. Greater pocket depths were found to be related to the presence of plaque calculus and bleeding on probing. Conclusions. Overall, rather high incidences of periodontal pockets ≥ 5 mm were detected in this population. This data should serve to prepare further more detailed epidemiological studies that will serve to plan and implement prevent and treat strategies for periodontal diseases in Georgia and also help make manpower decisions.

  7. Chiropractic manipulation in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoline Michael R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS remains the most common deforming orthopedic condition in children. Increasingly, both adults and children are seeking complementary and alternative therapy, including chiropractic treatment, for a wide variety of health concerns. The scientific evidence supporting the use chiropractic intervention is inadequate. The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot study and explore issues of safety, patient recruitment and compliance, treatment standardization, sham treatment refinement, inter-professional cooperation, quality assurance, and outcome measure selection. Methods Six patients participated in this 6-month study, 5 of whom were female. One female was braced. The mean age of these patients was 14 years, and the mean Cobb angle was 22.2 degrees. The study design was a randomized controlled clinical trial with two independent and blinded observers. Three patients were treated by standard medical care (observation or brace treatment, two were treated with standard medical care plus chiropractic manipulation, and one was treated with standard medical care plus sham manipulation. The primary outcome measure was Cobb, and the psychosocial measure was Scoliosis Quality of Life Index. Results Orthopedic surgeons and chiropractors were easily recruited and worked cooperatively throughout the trial. Patient recruitment and compliance was good. Chiropractic treatments were safely employed, and research protocols were successful. Conclusion Overall, our pilot study showed the viability for a larger randomized trial. This pilot confirms the strength of existing protocols with amendments for use in a full randomized controlled trial. Trial registration This trial has been assigned an international standard randomized controlled trial number by Current Controlled Trials, Ltd. http://www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn/. The number is ISRCTN41221647.

  8. Effects of parenting quality on adolescents' personality resemblance to their parents. The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Komdeur, Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the development of resemblance between 741 adolescents and their biological parents, across six NEO-PI-R personality traits known to be important in psychological problems: anger-hostility, impulsiveness, vulnerability, assertiveness, excitement-seeking, and self-discipline. We modelled the association between perceived parental warmth and rejection at age eleven and personality resemblance to parents at about age sixteen. Parenting experienced during early adolescence was related to the degree and direction in which adolescents resembled their parents five years later in life. Rejection, especially from fathers, significantly predicted a smaller resemblance to both the parents. Girls were more strongly affected by parental quality than boys, and there was some indication that adolescents responded in opposite ways to parenting from mothers and fathers. This study is a first step in uncovering the complex interplay between parenting, gender, and the current generation's ability to develop personality traits independent from the previous generation. PMID:27400032

  9. Diagnosis of depression among adolescents – a clinical validation study of key questions and questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirpal Manjit K

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the study is to improve general practitioners' diagnoses of adolescent depression. Major depression is ranked fourth in the worldwide disability impact. Method/Design Validation of 1 three key questions, 2 SCL-dep6, 3 SCL-10, 4 9 other SCL questions and 5 WHO-5 in a clinical study among adolescents. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI is to be used as the gold standard interview. The project is a GP multicenter study to be conducted in both Norway and Denmark. Inclusion criteria are age (14–16 and fluency in the Norwegian and Danish language. A number of GPs will be recruited from both countries and at least 162 adolescents will be enrolled in the study from the patient lists of the GPs in each country, giving a total of at least 323 adolescent participants. Discussion The proportion of adolescents suffering from depressive disorders also seems to be increasing worldwide. Early interventions are known to reduce this illness. The earlier depression can be identified in adolescents, the greater the advantage. Therefore, we hope to find a suitable questionnaire that could be recommended for GPs.

  10. Motivational and control mechanisms underlying adolescent cannabis use disorders: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Cousijn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis use disorders (CUDs are the most prevalent substance use disorders among adolescents in treatment. Yet, little is known about the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying adolescent CUDs. Studies in adult cannabis users suggest a significant role for cognitive control and cannabis-oriented motivational processes, such as attentional bias, approach bias, and craving in CUDs. The current 6-month prospective study investigated the relationships between attentional bias, approach bias, craving, cognitive control, and cannabis use in adolescent patients in treatment for a primary or secondary CUD. Moreover, we investigated if these motivational processes and cognitive control could predict treatment progression after 6 months. Adolescents with a CUD had an attentional but no approach bias towards cannabis. In contrast to adult findings on the role of attentional bias, approach bias and cognitive control, only cannabis craving significantly correlated with current cannabis use and predicted cannabis use-related problems and abstinence from cannabis 6 months later. These findings identify craving as a predictor of treatment outcome, thereby supporting an important role for craving in the course of adolescent cannabis use and dependence. This prospective study is among the first to investigate neuropsychological mechanisms underlying adolescent CUDs, warranting future longitudinal studies.

  11. Correlates of physical activity in adolescence: a study from a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behjat Shokrvash

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity is important for adolescent health. The current study aimed to explore factors that predict physical activity among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of physical activity among a sample of adolescents in Tabriz, Iran. Information on physical activity was collected using a modified version of the Adolescent Physical Activity and Recall Questionnaire (APARQ. In addition, a self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic characteristics, perceived family support, and self-efficacy. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between physical activity and independent variables including gender and psychosocial predictors. Results: In all, 402 students were studied. The mean age of adolescents was 12.93 (SD=0.49 years; 51.5% were female. The mean time of moderate and vigorous physical activity for all adolescents was 44.64 (SD=23.24 Metabolic Equivalent (MET min per day. This figure for female adolescents was 38.77 (SD=19.94 MET min per day and for males it was 50.87 (SD=24.88 (P<0.001. The results obtained from multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that female gender (OR=2.59, 95% CI=1.46–4.57, P=0.001 and poor family support (OR=1.10, 95% CI=1.03–1.20, P=0.038 were the most significant contributing factors to low level physical activity in adolescents. Other variables studied did not show any significant results. Conclusion: The findings from the current study indicated that female adolescents were at risk of lower level of physical activity. In addition, it was found that the lack of family support represented an increased risk for low-level physical activity. It seems that family support should be an integrated part of any health education/promotion programs for improving physical activity among young adolescents in general and for female adolescents in particular.

  12. The Outcome of Adolescent-Onset Anorexia Nervosa: A Study of 144 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Solenn Kermarrec; Bernard Kabuth; Anne-Christine Rat; Michel Vidailhet; Colette Vidailhet

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the long-term outcome of adolescents with anorexia nervosa and attempt to define prognostic factors for outcome. Methods: Transversal, descriptive epidemiological study with a strict methodology: minimum interval of 4 years since first admission, evaluation using clearly defined diagnostic criteria (EAT-40 self-evaluation, HSCL, global patient-driven self-evaluation and hetero evaluation: clinical interview and LECE). The 198 subjects are former adolescent anorexics tr...

  13. Exploring Stress and Coping Among Urban African American Adolescents: The Shifting the Lens Study

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Chandra, DrPH; Ameena Batada, DrPH

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Stress can have a significant effect on an adolescent's long-term physical and mental well-being. An understanding of the role of unmanaged stress during early adolescence is critical for the prevention of chronic diseases such as depression. The purpose of the Shifting the Lens study was to explore perceptions of stress, sources of social support, and use of coping strategies among urban African American ninth graders. Methods A youth-driven, mixed-method approach was used ...

  14. Qualitative study exploring healthy eating practices and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sedibe, Heather M; Kahn, Kathleen; Edin, Kerstin; Gitau, Tabitha; Ivarsson, Anneli; Norris, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dietary behaviours and physical activity are modifiable risk factors to address increasing levels of obesity among children and adolescents, and consequently to reduce later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. This paper explores perceptions, attitudes, barriers, and facilitators related to healthy eating and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted in the rural Agincourt subdistrict, covered by a health and socio...

  15. Study of prevalence of depression in adolescent students of a public school

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Bansal; Sunil Goyal; Kalpana Srivastava

    2009-01-01

    Background: Three to nine per cent of teenagers meet the criteria for depression at any one time, and at the end of adolescence, as many as 20% of teenagers report a lifetime prevalence of depression. Usual care by primary care physicians fails to recognize 30-50% of depressed patients. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional one-time observational study using simple screening instruments for detecting early symptoms of depression in adolescents. Two psychological instruments were used: GHQ-1...

  16. The Relationship Between Early Sexual Debut and Psychosocial Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study of Dutch Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Udell, W.; Sandfort, T; Reitz, E.; Bos, H.; Dekovic, M.

    2010-01-01

    In a longitudinal dataset of 470 Dutch adolescents, the current study examined the ways in which early sexual initiation was related to subsequent attachment, self-perception, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. For male adolescents, analyses revealed general attachment to mother and externalizing problems at Wave 1 to predict to early transition at Wave 2. However, there was no differential change in these psychosocial factors over time for early initiators of sexual intercou...

  17. Influences on eating: a qualitative study of adolescents in a periurban area in Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Banna, Jinan C; Buchthal, Opal Vanessa; Delormier, Treena; Hilary M Creed-Kanashiro; Penny, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Peruvian adolescents are at high nutritional risk, facing issues such as overweight and obesity, anemia, and pregnancy during a period of development. Research seeking to understand contextual factors that influence eating habits to inform the development of public health interventions is lacking in this population. This study aimed to understand socio-cultural influences on eating among adolescents in periurban Lima, Peru using qualitative methods. Methods Semi-structured intervie...

  18. A Double-Blind Randomized Pilot Study Comparing Quetiapine and Divalproex for Adolescent Mania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbello, Melissa P.; Kowatch, Robert A.; Adler, Caleb M.; Stanford, Kevin E.; Welge, Jeffrey A.; Barzman, Drew H.; Nelson, Erik; Strakowski, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the comparative efficacy of quetiapine and divalproex for the treatment of adolescent mania. Method: Fifty adolescents (ages 12-18 years) with bipolar I disorder, manic or mixed episode, were randomized to quetiapine (400-600 mg/day) or divalproex (serum level 80-120 [micro]g/mL) for 28 days for this double-blind study,…

  19. Severe hypertensive syndrome – descriptive study with adolescents attended at a maternity school

    OpenAIRE

    Andreia Gregório Lima; Isabella Beatriz Barbosa Oliveira; Maria Lúcia Neto de Menezes; Rachel Caroline Alves Leite

    2012-01-01

    This is an exploratory and descriptive study with the objective of analyzing the clinical and obstetric data related to the severe hypertensive disorders in adolescents assisted at a maternity school of Recife. The population was consisted of 186 pregnant adolescents with severe preeclampsia and/or eclampsia between 2003 and 2008. The age ranged between 15 and 19 years; they were black, single and had low education. Most of them were primiparas but the pregnancy recurrence was configured at 1...

  20. Sexual risk behavior and pregnancy in detained adolescent females: a study in Dutch detention centers

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen Lucres MC; Vermeiren Robert; Cohen-Kettenis Peggy T; Hamerlynck Sannie MJJ; Bezemer Pieter D; Doreleijers Theo AH

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of teenage pregnancy in the histories of detained adolescent females and to examine the relationship between teenage pregnancy on the one hand and mental health and sexuality related characteristics on the other. Methods Of 256 admitted detained adolescent females aged 12–18 years, a representative sample (N = 212, 83%) was examined in the first month of detention. Instruments included a semi-structured i...

  1. Factors associated with low fitness in adolescents – A mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Charlton, Richard; Gravenor, Michael B; Rees, Anwen; Knox, Gareth; Hill, Rebecca; Rahman, Muhammad A.; Jones, Kerina; Christian, Danielle; Julien S Baker; Stratton, Gareth; Brophy, Sinead

    2014-01-01

    Background Fitness and physical activity are important for cardiovascular and mental health but activity and fitness levels are declining especially in adolescents and among girls. This study examines clustering of factors associated with low fitness in adolescents in order to best target public health interventions for young people. Methods 1147 children were assessed for fitness, had blood samples, anthropometric measures and all data were linked with routine electronic data to examine educ...

  2. Culture and gender issues in adolescence: evidence from studies on emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Singh-Manoux, A

    2000-01-01

    The effect of gender on the emotional processes of social sharing and mental rumination was examined in two intercultural studies (N = 555 & 251) on adolescents with a focus on the way in which gender differences operate in different cultures. Adolescents came from three cultures, Indian, immigrant Indian and the English culture. Female respondents were found to initiate sharing more, share feelings more and realise the relational benefits of sharing more. Females also reported higher emotion...

  3. A Study of the Correlation between Computer Games and Adolescent Behavioral Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Solmaz; Khezri-Moghadam, Noshiravan; Javanmard, Zeinab; Sarmadi-Ansar, Hassan; Aminaee, Mehran; Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Majid; Zivari-Rahman, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Background Today, due to developing communicative technologies, computer games and other audio-visual media as social phenomena, are very attractive and have a great effect on children and adolescents. The increasing popularity of these games among children and adolescents results in the public uncertainties about plausible harmful effects of these games. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between computer games and behavioral problems on male guidance school students. Methods Th...

  4. An analytical cross-sectional study of peer pressure on adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Anisha Khan; Manisha Jain; Chhaya Budhwani

    2015-01-01

    Background: Friendships constitute an integral part of adolescent growth and development. As the teens explore their identity towards functional independence, teen peer relationship acquires an important role. Contrary to prevailing beliefs, peer pressure can have both a positive and negative impact on youths. Methods: A school based cross sectional study carried out on adolescents falling between the age group of 11 to 19 years using a pre-designed written questionnaire. The data obtained...

  5. Exploring the Associations between Sleep Problems and Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain in Adolescents: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Lee; Wilson, Sue; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of musculoskeletal chronic pain in adolescents is estimated to be approximately 4% to 40%. The development of musculoskeletal pain during teenage years could have a marked impact on physical, psychological and social well-being. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether sleep problems during adolescence are associated with musculoskeletal pain, particularly chronic regional pain and chronic widespread pain. METHODS: Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Children, the r...

  6. Is soft drink consumption associated with body composition?: A cross-sectional study in Spanish adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    S. Gómez-Martínez; Martín, A.; Romeo, J.; M. Castillo; Mesena, M.; J. C. Baraza; Jiménez-Pavón, D.; Redondo, C; S. Zamora; Marcos, A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Published data about the association between the consumption of sweetened soft-drinks (SSD) and obesity in childhood are controversial and still inconsistent. In addition, data are lacking in the Spanish population. The purpose of this study was therefore, to explore the cross-sectional association between body composition-related parameters and SSD consumption in Spanish adolescents. Subjects and methods: A representative sample of 1,523 adolescents (768 boys and 755 girls), with...

  7. A Comparative Study of the Taste Choice of Adolescents in Terms of Gender and BMI

    OpenAIRE

    Saime Kucukkmurler

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the attitudes and choices of taste of adolescents, the conditions that affect these choices, and its variations with respect to BMI and gender. METHODS: 385 adolescents between the ages of 11 and 14, in Ankara, Turkey, participated in the research. In order to determine taste choices and attitudes towards taste, a Likert-type questionnaire was applied. Independent Samples t-test and correlational analysis were conducted. RESULTS: Boys prefe...

  8. Explaining gender differences in non-fatal suicidal behaviour among adolescents: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Roos Jeanette; Steen Rainer; Haffner Johann; Parzer Peter; Kaess Michael; Klett Martin; Brunner Romuald; Resch Franz

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background While suicide is the second leading cause of death among young people in most industrial countries, non-fatal suicidal behaviour is also a very important public health concern among adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in prevalence and emotional and behavioural correlates of suicidal behaviour in a representative school-based sample of adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional design was used to assess suicidal behaviour and various areas ...

  9. Development of eating behavior: the way from infancy to adolescence. Review of foreign studies

    OpenAIRE

    Durneva M.U.

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining development of eating behavior in different age groups are reviewed. Determinants of disordered eating attitudes from infancy to adolescent are particularly examined. Family environment and social context are general factors. Knowledge, attitudes and food preferences are individual factors. Eating habits in infancy, early childhood and preschool period related to parent’s eating attitudes; peers and social context are dominant in school period and adolescents. The most effec...

  10. Socioeconomic position and overweight among adolescents: data from birth cohort studies in Brazil and the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes Ana; Barros Fernando C.; Golding Jean; Victora Cesar G; Matijasevich Alicia; Araujo Cora L; Smith George

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Developed and developing countries are facing rapid increases in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The patterns of overweight/obesity differ by age, sex, rural or urban residence and socioeconomic position (SEP) and vary between and within countries. Methods We investigated patterns of SEP – overweight status association among adolescents from the UK (ALSPAC) and Brazil (the 1982 and 1993 Pelotas birth cohort studies). All analyses were performed separ...

  11. Alcohol use in adolescence : A longitudinal study of its effect on cognitive functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Boelema, Sarai

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the adolescent brain is particularly vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol because significant maturation of brain structure and corresponding cognitive control function takes place over the course of adolescence. However, research on this subject has remained inconclusive thus far due to numerous methodological pitfalls. Therefore, there is a need for a large longitudinal study on the precursors and outcomes of alcohol use related to cognitive and behavio...

  12. A cross-sectional study of factors associated with adolescent sexual activity

    OpenAIRE

    Shashikumar, R.; R C Das; Prabhu, H. R. A.; K Srivastava; Bhat, P.S.; Prakash, J.; Seema, P.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Adolescents constitute about 20% of our population and increasingly more of them are initiating sexual activity at an early age. Several behaviors associated with adolescence like masturbation, expression of masculinity/femininity, lifestyle habits like attending late night parties, and consumption of alcohol have been variously implicated in initiating sexual activities. Sexual abuse can also lead to premature sexualization. In view of few worthwhile studies from India that have dea...

  13. The role of national policies intended to regulate adolescent smoking in explaining the prevalence of daily smoking: a study of adolescents from 27 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Christina W; Kreiner, Svend; Rasmussen, Mette;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: This study seeks to examine whether contextual factors influence adolescents' daily smoking. A focus was placed on three modifiable policies operating at a national level, non-smoking policy at educational facilities, price and minimum age for buying tobacco. DESIGN: This study is based on a...... bans in schools were associated with lower odds ratios of daily smoking, which was the one positive association in the study. The study found no association between cigarette prices and adolescent daily smoking prevalence, and also the somewhat unexpected finding that having an age limit for allowing...... voluntary bans. If this association is causal, introducing mandatory bans may reduce adolescent smoking prevalence. The findings that price was unrelated to smoking prevalence undermine findings elsewhere that adolescent smokers are more price-sensitive than adult smokers, but longitudinal studies are...

  14. A cognitive-behavioural program for adolescents with chronic pain-a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlijn, Vivian P B M; Hunfeld, Joke A M; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Hazebroek-Kampschreur, Alice A J M; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette W A; Koes, Bart W; Passchier, Jan

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this pilot study is to evaluate the feasibility of a cognitive-behavioural training program for adolescents with chronic pain irrespective of pain localisation. A secondary aim was to give an impression of the effect of the program on pain and quality of life. Eight adolescents (14-18 years) with chronic non-organic pain recruited from the general population (and their parents) participated in this pilot study. The intervention included five group meetings alternated with four telephone contacts (during the self-management weeks) over a period of 9 weeks. The training aimed to change pain behaviour through pain education, relaxation strategies, problem-solving techniques, assertiveness training, cognitive restructuring and by stimulating the adolescent's physical activity level. The training further addresses the social context of pain by inviting parents to attend two meetings for the parents only, and by asking the adolescents to bring a peer to one of the meetings. Adolescents and their parents were positive about the program. Adolescents felt they were more in control of their pain and parents valued the support they experienced in helping their children to master the pain. The training was considered to be feasible in daily life. Further, the preliminary data showed an effect on pain and quality of life in the expected direction. The results underline the need for a definitive study with a larger sample size and a random controlled design. PMID:16257616

  15. Zinc status and its association with the health of adolescents: a review of studies in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Kawade

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc is important in adolescence because of its role in growth and sexual maturation. Adolescents from developing countries such as India may be at high risk of zinc deficiency because of unwholesome food habits and poor bioavailability of zinc from plant-based diets. Objectives: (1 to study zinc status and its association with profile of other micronutrients, (2 to construct a simple tool in the form of Adolescent Micronutrient Quality Index (AMQI to assess quality of diets of the girls and (3 to examine the effect of zinc supplement on health of adolescent girls. Methods: Girls (10–16 years from two secondary schools of Pune, Maharashtra state, in Western India were enrolled in a cross-sectional study (n = 630. Data were collected on dietary intake, cognitive performance, taste acuity, haemoglobin, erythrocyte zinc and plasma levels of zinc, vitamin C, β-carotene and retinol. AMQI was developed using age–sex-specific Indian dietary guidelines and healthy foods and habits described in the recent US dietary guidelines. Zinc-rich recipes were developed considering habitual diets of the girls and vegetarian sources of zinc. An intervention trial (n = 180 was conducted to assess the effect of zinc-rich dietary supplements and ayurvedic zinc (Jasad supplementation. Results: Prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies was high in these girls. Poor cognitive performance was seen in half of the girls, and salt taste perception was affected in 45%. AMQI was correlated with nutrient intakes and blood micronutrient levels (p < 0.01, indicating the potential of AMQI to measure micronutrient quality of diets of adolescent girls. Results of the intervention trial indicated that supplementation of zinc-rich recipes vis-a-vis ayurvedic Jasad zinc has the potential to improve plasma zinc status, cognitive performance and taste acuity in adolescent girls. Conclusion: Review of the studies on Indian adolescent girls demonstrates the necessity of

  16. Mining treatment termination data in an adolescent mental health service: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabito, D M

    2001-01-01

    This study utilizes available clinical information from client records to explore patterns of termination from mental health treatment among adolescents at an urban outpatient mental health center. The analysis focuses on how and why adolescents terminate from treatment and identifies variables associated with "acknowledged" and "unacknowledged" terminations. Findings indicate that termination was acknowledged infrequently, often a brief process that occurred almost as frequently by telephone as in the context of treatment. Contrary to "practice wisdom" concerning treatment termination, adolescents who "dropped out" without a "clinical process" reported considerably more engagement in treatment than those who acknowledged the termination of treatment. Recommendations for a more "open door" policy and a more flexible practice with adolescents are discussed. PMID:11837364

  17. Neurophysiological Mechanisms of Auditory Information Processing in Adolescence: A Study on Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, Sarolta; Töllner, Thomas; Trinkl, Monika; Landes, Iris; Bartling, Jürgen; Grossheinrich, Nicola; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Greimel, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    To date, little is known about sex differences in the neurophysiological correlates underlying auditory information processing. In the present study, auditory evoked potentials were evoked in typically developing male (n = 15) and female (n = 14) adolescents (13-18 years) during an auditory oddball task. Girls compared to boys displayed lower N100 and P300 amplitudes to targets. Larger N100 amplitudes in adolescent boys might indicate higher neural sensitivity to changes of incoming auditory information. The P300 findings point toward sex differences in auditory working memory and might suggest that adolescent boys might allocate more attentional resources when processing relevant auditory stimuli than adolescent girls. PMID:27379950

  18. Frontal preparatory neural oscillations associated with cognitive control: A developmental study comparing young adults and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kai; Ghuman, Avniel S; Manoach, Dara S; Jones, Stephanie R; Luna, Beatriz

    2016-08-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest that age-related changes in the frontal cortex may underlie developmental improvements in cognitive control. In the present study we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to identify frontal oscillatory neurodynamics that support age-related improvements in cognitive control during adolescence. We characterized the differences in neural oscillations in adolescents and adults during the preparation to suppress a prepotent saccade (antisaccade trials-AS) compared to preparing to generate a more automatic saccade (prosaccade trials-PS). We found that for adults, AS were associated with increased beta-band (16-38Hz) power in the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), enhanced alpha- to low beta-band (10-18Hz) power in the frontal eye field (FEF) that predicted performance, and increased cross-frequency alpha-beta (10-26Hz) amplitude coupling between the DLPFC and the FEF. Developmental comparisons between adults and adolescents revealed similar engagement of DLPFC beta-band power but weaker FEF alpha-band power, and lower cross-frequency coupling between the DLPFC and the FEF in adolescents. These results suggest that lateral prefrontal neural activity associated with cognitive control is adult-like by adolescence; the development of cognitive control from adolescence to adulthood is instead associated with increases in frontal connectivity and strengthening of inhibition signaling for suppressing task-incompatible processes. PMID:27173759

  19. The Impact on Family Functioning of Social Media Use by Depressed Adolescents: A Qualitative Analysis of the Family Options Study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew J. Lewis; Knight, Tess; Germanov, Galit; Benstead, Michelle Lisa; Joseph, Claire Ingrid; Poole, Lucinda

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent depression is a prevalent mental health problem, which can have a major impact on family cohesion. In such circumstances, excessive use of the Internet by adolescents may exacerbate family conflict and lack of cohesion. The current study aims to explore these patterns within an intervention study for depressed adolescents. Method The current study draws upon data collected from parents within the family options randomized controlled trial that examined family ...

  20. The impact on family functioning of social media use by depressed adolescents: a qualitative analysis of the Family Options Study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew James Lewis; Tess eKnight; Galit eGermanov; Michelle Lisa Benstead; Claire Ingrid Joseph; Lucinda ePoole

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescent depression is a prevalent mental health problem, which can have a major impact on family cohesion. In such circumstances, excessive use of the Internet by adolescents may exacerbate family conflict and lack of cohesion. The current study aims to explore these patterns within an intervention study for depressed adolescents.Method: The current study draws upon data collected within the Family Options randomized controlled trial that examined family-based interventions for...

  1. Body Mass Index, Dietary Habits and Physical Exercise among School going Adolescent: A Cross Sectional Study in Ahmedabad

    OpenAIRE

    Tejas A Shah, Rajshree J Bhatt, Mitesh Patel, Pritesh G Patel

    2013-01-01

    Background: The high prevalence of obesity in adolescence is serious public health concern. Longitudinal studies confirm that health consequences of obesity during adolescence track into adulthood and it can be reduced by successfully decreasing body fat among adolescents. Objectives: “The objectives of the study were to assess Body Mass Index of study participants and also to explore their lifestyle like physical exercise, television viewing etc.” Methodology: A cross- sectional stud...

  2. Prevalence of atopic dermatitis, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and hand and contact dermatitis in adolescents. The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study on Atopic Diseases and Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Lauritsen, J M; Bindslev-Jensen, C;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases are common in children and adolescents. However, epidemiological knowledge is sparse for hand eczema and allergic contact dermatitis in this age group. Furthermore, no population-based studies have evaluated the prevalence of atopic diseases and hand and contact...... dermatitis in the same group of adolescents. OBJECTIVES: To assess prevalence measures of atopic dermatitis (AD), asthma, allergic rhinitis and hand and contact dermatitis in adolescents in Odense municipality, Denmark. METHODS: The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study among 1501 eighth grade...... associated. A considerable number of adolescents still suffers from AD, and a considerable sex difference was noted for hand eczema and allergic contact dermatitis. Nickel allergy and perfume allergy were the major contact allergies. In the future this cohort of eighth grade school children will be followed...

  3. The study design and methodology for the ARCHER study - adolescent rural cohort study of hormones, health, education, environments and relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinbeck Katharine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is characterized by marked psychosocial, behavioural and biological changes and represents a critical life transition through which adult health and well-being are established. Substantial research confirms the role of psycho-social and environmental influences on this transition, but objective research examining the role of puberty hormones, testosterone in males and oestradiol in females (as biomarkers of puberty on adolescent events is lacking. Neither has the tempo of puberty, the time from onset to completion of puberty within an individual been studied, nor the interaction between age of onset and tempo. This study has been designed to provide evidence on the relationship between reproductive hormones and the tempo of their rise to adult levels, and adolescent behaviour, health and wellbeing. Methods/Design The ARCHER study is a multidisciplinary, prospective, longitudinal cohort study in 400 adolescents to be conducted in two centres in regional Australia in the State of New South Wales. The overall aim is to determine how changes over time in puberty hormones independently affect the study endpoints which describe universal and risk behaviours, mental health and physical status in adolescents. Recruitment will commence in school grades 5, 6 and 7 (10–12 years of age. Data collection includes participant and parent questionnaires, anthropometry, blood and urine collection and geocoding. Data analysis will include testing the reliability and validity of the chosen measures of puberty for subsequent statistical modeling to assess the impact over time of tempo and onset of puberty (and their interaction and mean-level repeated measures analyses to explore for significant upward and downward shifts on target outcomes as a function of main effects. Discussion The strengths of this study include enrollment starting in the earliest stages of puberty, the use of frequent urine samples in addition to annual

  4. Risk indicators of anxiety throughout adolescence : The trails study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, F. V. A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F. C.; Huizink, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim was to identify risk indicators from preadolescence (age period 10-12) that significantly predict unfavorable deviations from normal anxiety development throughout adolescence (age period 10-17 years). Methods: Anxiety symptoms were assessed in a community sample of 2,220 boys an

  5. Walking Behaviours among Adolescent Girls in Scotland: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Joanna; Inchley, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The wide ranging physical and mental health benefits of physical activity during adolescence are well established and walking has been identified as one of only two forms of physical activity not to show a significant decrease in participation levels across the primary/secondary years. The aim of this paper is to explore the broader…

  6. Kinaesthetic acuity in adolescent boys : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.; Geuze, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    The Kinaesthetic Sensitivity Test (KST) was used to measure the development of kinaesthetic acuity in adolescent boys. Thirty boys were tested longitudinally, at intervals of 6 months, between the ages of 11 1/2 and 14 years. A second group of 20 boys was tested at the ages of 14 and 16 1/2 years. T

  7. Risk indicators of anxiety throughout adolescence: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.V.A. van Oort; K. Greaves-Lord; J. Ormel; F.C. Verhulst; A.C. Huizink

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim was to identify risk indicators from preadolescence (age period 10-12) that significantly predict unfavorable deviations from normal anxiety development throughout adolescence (age period 10-17 years). Methods: Anxiety symptoms were assessed in a community sample of 2,220 boys an

  8. Active gaming in Dutch adolescents: a descriptive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; Bernaards, C.; Slinger, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Adequate levels of physical activity are part of a healthy lifestyle and in this way linked to better health outcomes. For children and adolescents, the physical activity guideline recommends at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity every day. However, many adolescen

  9. Psychiatric Diagnostic Interviews for Children and Adolescents: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angold, Adrian; Erkanli, Alaattin; Copeland, William; Goodman, Robert; Fisher, Prudence W.; Costello, E. Jane

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare examples of three styles of psychiatric interviews for youth: the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) ("respondent-based"), the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA) ("interviewer-based"), and the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) ("expert judgment"). Method: Roughly equal numbers of…

  10. Psychiatric Problems among Adolescent Southeast Asian Refugees: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Carolyn L.; Westermeyer, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    Presenting complaints and problems of 28 Southeast Asian adolescent refugees who were seen by therapists at a U.S. hospital psychiatry department are described. Journal Availability: Subscription Department, The Williams Wilkins Co., 428 East Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202. (SEW)

  11. Contributions of Anthropology to the Study of Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Alice; Hewlett, Bonnie L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence researchers can turn to anthropology to learn the methods of ethnography and cultural comparisons, and they can mine its large database of information on cultures worldwide. But anthropology's single most important contribution is the concept of culture, the mosaic of a group's learned and shared, or at least understood, beliefs,…

  12. Identifying Health-Seeking Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell-Withrow, Cora

    1986-01-01

    Sought to determine how adolescents' (N=156) health-seeking behaviors, which include self-management and information-seeking behaviors, differ according to age, race, socioeconomic status, gender, and religion. Findings confirmed gender as a differentiating variable for performance of information-seeking behavior and found positive health…

  13. A study on the normal heart volume of Korean adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac volume mensuration by the roentgenological method was carried out in healthy 220 Korean adolescent, 116 males and 104 females. Predicted heart volume (PHV) and relative heart volume (RHV) were obtained from the following formulae: PHV = K X Broad diameter X Long diameter X Greatest horizontal depth RHV = PHV (total volume in ml)/body surface area (meter squared) The constant, K, represents the product of an ellipsoid area factor and a correction factor for magnification of the cardiac image. Therefore, K value used in this study is 0.42 for 200 cm and 150 cm of the focal-film distance in posterior-anterior and lateral views, respectively. The broad diameter was measured from the junction of the right atrium and the diaphragm to the junction of the pulmonary artery and left atrial appendage. The long diameter was taken from the junction of the superior vena cava and right atrium to the cardiac apex. The greatest horizontal depth of the heart was measured on lateral view. Body surface area was obtained by use of the Du Bolis nomogram. The results were as follows: 1. Predicted roentgenological heart volumes at 16 years to 20 years of age was 449 ± 11.1 ml in makes and 418 ± 7.7 ml in females. It increased with advantage age and height, but was not significantly influenced by changes in body weight in both sexes. 2. Relative heart volume at 16 years to 20 years was 275 ± 5.6 ml/m2 in males, 327 ± 4.1 ml/m2 in females. It increased with advantage age and height, but was not significantly influenced by changes in body weight in both sexes. 3. Roentgenological mensuration was a simple and reliable method in determining the cardiac volume.

  14. Sleep Promotion Program for Improving Sleep Behaviors in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Bindu; Bellipady, Sumanth Shetty; Bhat, Shrinivasa Undaru

    2016-01-01

    Aims. The purpose of this pilot trial was to determine the efficacy of sleep promotion program to adapt it for the use of adolescents studying in various schools of Mangalore, India, and evaluate the feasibility issues before conducting a randomized controlled trial in a larger sample of adolescents. Methods. A randomized controlled trial design with stratified random sampling method was used. Fifty-eight adolescents were selected (mean age: 14.02 ± 2.15 years; intervention group, n = 34; control group, n = 24). Self-report questionnaires, including sociodemographic questionnaire with some additional questions on sleep and activities, Sleep Hygiene Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, The Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire, and PedsQL™ Present Functioning Visual Analogue Scale, were used. Results. Insufficient weekday-weekend sleep duration with increasing age of adolescents was observed. The program revealed a significant effect in the experimental group over the control group in overall sleep quality, sleep onset latency, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and emotional and overall distress. No significant effect was observed in sleep hygiene and other sleep parameters. All target variables showed significant correlations with each other. Conclusion. The intervention holds a promise for improving the sleep behaviors in healthy adolescents. However, the effect of the sleep promotion program treatment has yet to be proven through a future research. This trial is registered with ISRCTN13083118. PMID:27088040

  15. Sleep Promotion Program for Improving Sleep Behaviors in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

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    Bindu John

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The purpose of this pilot trial was to determine the efficacy of sleep promotion program to adapt it for the use of adolescents studying in various schools of Mangalore, India, and evaluate the feasibility issues before conducting a randomized controlled trial in a larger sample of adolescents. Methods. A randomized controlled trial design with stratified random sampling method was used. Fifty-eight adolescents were selected (mean age: 14.02 ± 2.15 years; intervention group, n=34; control group, n=24. Self-report questionnaires, including sociodemographic questionnaire with some additional questions on sleep and activities, Sleep Hygiene Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, The Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire, and PedsQL™ Present Functioning Visual Analogue Scale, were used. Results. Insufficient weekday-weekend sleep duration with increasing age of adolescents was observed. The program revealed a significant effect in the experimental group over the control group in overall sleep quality, sleep onset latency, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and emotional and overall distress. No significant effect was observed in sleep hygiene and other sleep parameters. All target variables showed significant correlations with each other. Conclusion. The intervention holds a promise for improving the sleep behaviors in healthy adolescents. However, the effect of the sleep promotion program treatment has yet to be proven through a future research. This trial is registered with ISRCTN13083118.

  16. Maintenance and decline of physical activity during adolescence: insights from a qualitative study

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    Filion Annie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Better knowledge on why some individuals succeed in maintaining participation in physical activity throughout adolescence is needed to guide the development of effective interventions to increase and then maintain physical activity levels. Despite allowing an in-depth understanding, qualitative designs have infrequently been used to study physical activity maintenance. We explored factors contributing to the maintenance and the decline of physical activity during adolescence. Methods Questionnaires were administered to 515 grade 10-12 students. The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents was used to determine physical activity level at the end of adolescence. An adapted version of this questionnaire was used to estimate physical activity in early adolescence. Among both genders, we identified participants who maintained a high level of physical activity since grade 7 and some whose activity level declined. For each category, groups of 10 students were randomly selected to take part in focus group discussions. Results Seven focus groups with 5 to 8 participants in each were held. Both maintainers and decliners associated physical activity with positive health outcomes. Maintenance of physical activity was associated with supportive social environments and heightened feelings of competence and attractiveness. A decline in physical activity was associated with negative social validation, poor social support and barriers related to access. Conclusions Although maintainers and decliners associate physical activity with similar themes, the experiences of both groups differ substantially with regards to those themes. Taking both perspectives in consideration could help improve interventions to increase and maintain physical activity levels of adolescents.

  17. Drinking patterns of adolescents who develop alcohol use disorders: results from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Craig A.; Romaniuk, Helena; Salinger, Jodi; Staiger, Petra K; Bonomo, Yvonne; Hulbert, Carol; Patton, George C

    2016-01-01

    Objective We identify drinking styles that place teens at greatest risk of later alcohol use disorders (AUD). Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Victoria, Australia. Participants A representative sample of 1943 adolescents living in Victoria in 1992. Outcome measures Teen drinking was assessed at 6 monthly intervals (5 waves) between mean ages 14.9 and 17.4 years and summarised across waves as none, one, or two or more waves of: (1) frequent drinking (3+ days in the past week), (2)...

  18. The prevalence and correlates of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health among Southern Brazil adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa Filho Valter; de Campos Wagner; Bozza Rodrigo; Lopes Adair da

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The adoption of health-related behaviors is an important part of adolescence. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of the isolated and simultaneous presence of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health (BRFCH) among adolescents in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,628 adolescents (aged 11-17.9 years, 52.5% males) that were randomly selected from 44 public schools. Self-report instruments were used to assess...

  19. Gingival proliferative lesions in children and adolescents in Brazil: A 15-year-period cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Caroline daSilva; Cleto Mariosvaldo Piazzetta; Cassius Carvalho Torres-Pereira; Juliana Lucena Schussel; José Miguel Amenábar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of oral lesions in children and adolescents, particularly in gingiva are scarce in the literature. The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of gingival proliferative lesions based on clinical and histopathological diagnoses in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A review of clinical charts of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years old, admitted to the Oral Medicine Outpatient Unit, of Universidade Federal do ...

  20. Characteristics of Self-Injury in Young Adolescents: Findings from Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Studies in Swedish Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Bjärehed, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Self-injury in adolescents (e.g. when individuals cut, burn, hit or otherwise deliberately cause themselves direct injury), has gained recognition as a potentially important mental health problem during the past decade. Relatively little has been known about the scope and characteristics of this behavior in Swedish adolescents. This thesis consists of three studies that in different ways explore the characteristics of self-injury among adolescents in the general community. In Study 1 a co...

  1. A study on knowledge and practices regarding menstrual hygiene among rural and urban adolescent girls in Udupi Taluk, Manipal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kamath R; Ghosh D; Lena A; Chandrasekaran V

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescent girls often lack knowledge regarding reproductive health including menstruation hygiene which can be due to socio-cultural barriers in which they grow up. Objectives: To explore the knowledge, practices and sources of information regarding menstruation and hygiene among adolescent girls in Udupi taluk, India. Methods: An epidemiologic study was undertaken using cross-sectional study method among 550 school-going adolescent girls aged13-16 years. A total of 270 were fro...

  2. Clinical characteristics of depression among adolescent females: a cross-sectional study

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    Abdou Tarek A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents rarely seek psychiatric help; they even hesitate to disclose their feelings to their parents. However; the adolescents especially the females experience depressive symptoms more frequently than general population. Do they experience classic depressive symptoms? Are there symptoms specific to this subpopulation? Aim of the study Through this study, the authors aimed to estimate the prevalence of depressive disorders in Egyptian adolescent female students. They also expected a characteristic profile of symptoms for the adolescent females. However available literature provides no guidance in the description of this profile of symptoms. Methods A number of 602 adolescent females were interviewed, and subjected to General Health Questionnaire (GHQ; Children Depression Inventory (CDI, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders (SCID-I, then Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Ham-D. Results were analyzed by the use of SPSS-15. Results The study revealed the prevalence of depression in the sample of the study to be 15.3% (measured by CDI, and 13.3% (measured by SCID-I. Fatigue was the most common presenting depressive symptom (81.3%, in addition to other emotional, cognitive and physiological symptoms. Suicidal ideations were the most common suicidal symptoms in depressed adolescent females (20%, with 2.5% serious suicidal attempts. Conclusions The somatic symptoms were by far the most common presenting symptom for female adolescents suffering from depressive disorders. Depressive phenomena including unexplained fatigue, decreased energy, psychomotor changes, lack of concentration, weight changes and suicidal ideations may be the presenting complaints instead of the classic sad mood.

  3. Clinical features of adolescents with deliberate self-harm: A case control study in Lisbon, Portugal

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    Diogo F Guerreiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Diogo F Guerreiro, Ema L Neves, Rita Navarro, Raquel Mendes, Ana Prioste, Diana Ribeiro, Tiago Lila, António Neves, Mónica Salgado, Nazaré Santos, Daniel SampaioYouth Suicide Study Group (NES, The Hospital Santa Maria, Psychiatry Department, Lisbon Faculty of Medicine, PortugalAbstract: Deliberate self-harm (DSH among adolescents is a high-risk condition for suicide. The aim of the present study is to describe the characteristic clinical features of adolescents with DSH according to our local context (Lisbon, Portugal, using easily available information from clinical settings. A case control study was constructed from a sample of 100 adolescents (aged 12 to 21 years. The sample was divided into two groups: adolescents with and without DSH. Case files were examined and data was completed by clinical interviews. Demographic, psychosocial, and psychopathological data were assessed and compared. Ninety-eight subjects completed the protocol. The DSH group was associated with the following: suicidal ideation or suicidal behavior as consultation motive, emergency room referral, previous follow-up attempts, suicidal ideation, psychosocial difficulties, or lack of therapeutic goals. There was a nonsignificant trend towards diagnosis of depression in the DSH group. These results reflect our clinical practice with adolescents and add data about teenagers who self-harm to the literature. Prevention and early recognition of DSH (and frequently associated depression in adolescents are essential and could be life-saving measures. An integrated approach, which takes into account psychosocial difficulties, family dysfunction, and negative expectations, seems to be of great importance.Keywords: deliberate self-harm, suicide, adolescents, suicide risk, case control

  4. Clustering patterns of physical activity, sedentary and dietary behavior among European adolescents: The HELENA study

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    Manios Yannis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. A better insight in the clustering of those behaviors, could help to identify groups who are at risk in developing chronic diseases. This study examines the prevalence and clustering of physical activity, sedentary and dietary patterns among European adolescents and investigates if the identified clusters could be characterized by socio-demographic factors. Methods The study comprised a total of 2084 adolescents (45.6% male, from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured using self-reported questionnaires and diet quality was assessed based on dietary recall. Based on the results of those three indices, cluster analyses were performed. To identify gender differences and associations with socio-demographic variables, chi-square tests were executed. Results Five stable and meaningful clusters were found. Only 18% of the adolescents showed healthy and 21% unhealthy scores on all three included indices. Males were highly presented in the cluster with high levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA and low quality diets. The clusters with low levels of MVPA and high quality diets comprised more female adolescents. Adolescents with low educated parents had diets of lower quality and spent more time in sedentary activities. In addition, the clusters with high levels of MVPA comprised more adolescents of the younger age category. Conclusion In order to develop effective primary prevention strategies, it would be important to consider multiple health indices when identifying high risk groups.

  5. Adolescent health and high school dropout: a prospective cohort study of 9000 Norwegian adolescents (the Young-HUNT.

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    Karin A A De Ridder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High school dropout is of major concern in the western world. Our aims were to estimate the risk of school dropout in adolescents following chronic somatic disease, somatic symptoms, psychological distress, concentration difficulties, insomnia or overweight and to assess to which extent the family contributes to the association between health and school dropout. METHODS: A population of 8950 school-attending adolescents (13-21 years rated their health in the Young-HUNT 1 Study (90% response rate in 1995-1997. High school dropout or completion, was defined with the Norwegian National Education Database in the calendar year the participant turned 24 years old. Parental socioeconomic status was defined by using linkages to the National Education Database, the National Insurance Administration and the HUNT2 Survey. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and risk differences of high school dropout, both in the whole population and among siblings within families differentially exposed to health problems. RESULTS: All explored health dimensions were strongly associated with high school dropout. In models adjusted for parental socioeconomic status, the risk differences of school dropout according to health exposures varied between 3.6% (95% CI 1.7 to 5.5 for having ≥ 1 somatic disease versus none and 11.7% (6.3 to 17.0 for being obese versus normal weight. The results from the analyses comparing differentially exposed siblings, confirmed these results with the exception of weaker associations for somatic diseases and psychological distress. School dropout was strongly clustered within families (family level conditional intraclass correlation 0.42. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent health problems are markers for high school dropout, independent of parental socioeconomic status. Although school dropout it strongly related to family-level factors, also siblings with poor health have reduced opportunity to complete high school compared to

  6. Study of various gynaecological problems and reproductive health awareness amongst adolescents at a rural setup in central India

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    Snehal Samarth

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent problems are increasing over the years and need special consideration. We, as health care providers, need to focus on young people as investing in their health today will reap rich rewards tomorrow. Methods: All the adolescents presenting with various gynaecological problems were evaluated by detailed history taking and thorough clinical examination after taking an informed consent and explaining them our objective. After examination, adolescent girls were given education by means of slide show about menstruation, care during menses, nutritional diet and prevention of anaemia. Results: Majority of adolescents had regular menstrual pattern. Oligomenorrhoea was the most prevalent abnormality of menstrual pattern in these adolescents. 15.58% adolescents had presented with breast problems like mastalgia, lump in breast, etc. Majority of adolescents studied were aware of the physical signs of puberty (77.25% and HIV (74.14%. But very few adolescents were aware of the physiology involved in menstruation. Around half of all the adolescents were seen to follow proper menstrual hygiene. Conclusions: Healthy adolescence, the need of the hour. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 1010-1014

  7. Developmental changes in conflict resolution styles in parent-adolescent relationships: a four-wave longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doorn, Muriel D; Branje, Susan J T; Meeus, Wim H J

    2011-01-01

    In this study, changes in three conflict resolution styles in parent-adolescent relationships were investigated: positive problem solving, conflict engagement, and withdrawal. Questionnaires about these conflict resolution styles were completed by 314 early adolescents (M = 13.3 years; 50.6% girls) and both parents for four consecutive years. Adolescents' reported use of positive problem solving increased with mothers, but did not change with fathers. Fathers reported an increase of positive problem solving with adolescents, whereas mothers reported no change. Adolescents' use of conflict engagement was found to temporarily increase with mothers, but showed no change with fathers. Mothers and fathers reported a decrease in conflict engagement with adolescents. Adolescents' use of withdrawal with parents increased, although this increase was temporarily with mothers. Mothers reported no change in withdrawal, whereas fathers' use of withdrawal increased. Generally, we found that both adolescents and their parents changed in their use of conflict resolution from early to middle adolescence. These results show that conflict resolution in parent-adolescent relationships gradually change in favor of a more horizontal relationship. PMID:20177961

  8. A Case Study Examining the Impact of Adventure Based Counseling on High School Adolescent Self-Esteem, Empathy, and Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of Adventure Based Counseling upon high school adolescents. The goals of this study were to (a) explore the effectiveness of ABC Counseling in increasing levels of self-esteem and empathy among adolescents; (b) study the efficacy of ABC counseling in reducing perceived racial discrimination, racist…

  9. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Eating Disorders: Is There a Relation? Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Vismara, Luca; Capodaglio, Paolo; Neri, Laura; Negrini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    A recent study suggests a correlation between idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence and eating disorders. However, this does not correspond with our clinical experience in the same population. The aim of this study was to verify the correlation between scoliosis and eating disorders in adolescence. A cross-sectional study was designed including 187…

  10. Metabolic risk factors, physical activity and physical fitness in azorean adolescents: a cross-sectional study

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    Soares-Miranda Luísa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has increased over the last few decades in adolescents and has become an important health challenge worldwide. This study analyzed the relationships between metabolic risk factors (MRF and physical activity (PA and physical fitness (PF in a sample of Azorean adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted on 417 adolescents (243 girls aged 15-18 from the Azorean Islands, Portugal. Height, weight, waist circumference, fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure were measured. A sum of MRF was computed, and adolescents were classified into three groups: no MRF, one MRF and two or more MRF. PA was assessed by a sealed pedometer. PF was assessed using five tests from the Fitnessgram Test Battery. Dietary intake was obtained using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results Mean daily steps for girls and boys were 7427 ± 2725 and 7916 ± 3936, respectively. Fifty-nine percent of the adolescents showed at least one MRF and 57.6% were under the healthy zone in the 20 m Shuttle Run Test. Ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusting for sex, body mass index, socio-economic status and adherence to a Mediterranean diet, adolescents who were in the highest quartile of the pedometer step/counts (≥9423 steps/day and those who achieved the healthy zone in five tests were less likely to have one or more MRF (OR = 0.56;95%CI:0.33-0.95; OR = 0.55;95%CI:0.31-0.98, respectively. Conclusions Daily step counts and PF levels were negatively associated with having one or more MRF among Azorean adolescents. Our findings emphasize the importance of promoting and increasing regular PA and PF to reduce the public health burden of chronic diseases associated with a sedentary lifestyle.

  11. El neonato de madre adolescente: estudio comparativo Adolescent mothers' neonates: a comparison study

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    José E. Caicedo R.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los hijos de 25 adolescentes extremas (13-15 años, 77 intermedias (16-17 años, 88 limítrofes (18-19 años y 100 controles mayores (20-30 años. Los hijos de las extremas tuvieron mayores porcentajes de morbilidad, lo mismo que los hijos de todas las adolescentes en comparación con los de las controles (p < 0.05. Entre la morbilidad resaltó el mayor grado de asfixia perinatal en los hijos de las adolescentes extremas y las limítrofes. El peso, la talla, el perímetro cefálico y el índice de Rohrer fueron similares en los cuatro grupos. No se detectó asociación entre la morbilidad de los niños y las siguientes variables maternas: El estado civil, la morbilidad y el rechazo al embarazo. La mortalidad global de los hijos de las adolescentes fue significativamente mayor que la de los controles, pero a costa de los hijos de las intermedias (p < 0.05. En conclusión, tanto la morbilidad general como la mortalidad son superiores entre los hijos de las adolescentes más jóvenes. Morbidity was studied in neonate infants of 25 young adolescent mothers (13 to 15 year-old, 77 mid adolescent mothers (16 to 17 year old, 88 borderline adolescent mothers (18 to 19 year-old and 100 post adolescent ones (20 to 30 year old. Young adolescents' children as well as children from all adolescent mothers showed higher morbidity rates as compared to those of controls (p < 0.05. A higher frequency of perinatal asphyxia in neonates of both young and borderline adolescents was evident. Weight, height, cephalic perimeter and Rohrer index were similar in the four groups. No correlation was observed between neonates' morbidity and the following maternal variables: marital status, morbidity and pregnancy rejection. Overall mortality of adolescents' children, particularly of those of mid adolescent mothers, was significantly higher than that of controls (p < 0.05}. In conclusion, and inverse correlation was found between neonates' overall morbidity and

  12. Occupational Therapy and Sexual and Reproductive Health Promotion in Adolescence: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontijo, Daniela Tavares; de Sena e Vasconcelos, Anna Carolina; Monteiro, Rosana Juliet Silva; Facundes, Vera Lúcia Dutra; Trajano, Maria de Fátima Cordeiro; de Lima, Luciane Soares

    2016-03-01

    Occupational therapy can contribute to sexual and reproductive health through health education. The purpose of this study was to describe an occupational therapy intervention aimed at sexual and reproductive health promotion in adolescents. Fifty-eight adolescents were involved in the study, before, during and after the interventions. Educative activities such as puzzles, storytelling, mime and board games were used, which occupational therapy faculty and students had constructed. The games were employed as mediators for gaining knowledge in sexual and reproductive health. Outcome was measured using a questionnaire, audio recordings and field diaries. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics and thematic content analysis. The results showed the adolescents' increased knowledge of sexual and reproductive health information immediately after the intervention. The thematic analysis was grouped into three categories: the adolescents' initial expectations regarding the project, reflections on the process experienced during the interventions and use of educational games by occupational therapists. The importance of rapport and dialogue was highlighted in the construction of interventions based on participatory methods. The absence of a longitudinal follow-up is a limitation in this study. Further research is important to systematically assess sexual health promotion strategies in adolescence. PMID:26174484

  13. Anthropometric Characteristics of Underprivileged Adolescents: A Study from Urban Slums of India

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    Sushama A. Khopkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The anthropometric status and growth of adolescents living in challenging conditions such as slums are insufficiently studied. The purpose here was to describe anthropometric characteristics and nutritional status of adolescents from urban slums of India and to study the factors affecting it. Methods. Anthropometric, socioeconomic and dietary habit data were collected using structured questionnaires of six hundred adolescents aged 10–19 years by house-to-house survey conducted in two randomly selected slums of Nashik, Western India. The growth of adolescents was compared using WHO and Indian reference populations. Mixed effects logistic regression models were used to examine associations between anthropometric measures and income, mother’s education, household size, and dietary intake. Results. Prevalences of stunting and thinness were lower using the Indian reference population compared to that of WHO. Stunting was more prevalent than thinness in the study subjects, and boys suffered more than girls. The effect of age on stunting was different among boys than girls. A mother’s education was highly significantly associated with both stunting and thinness in both sexes. Household size and income were significantly associated with the nutritional status of girls. Conclusions. Educating mothers about the nutritional needs of adolescents may help to improve adolescents’ anthropometric profile and future health.

  14. The Cognitive Processes underlying Affective Decision-making Predicting Adolescent Smoking Behaviors in a Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eXiao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th grade to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1, we tested these adolescents’ decision-making using the Iowa Gambling Task and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the one-year follow-up (Time 2. The Expectancy-Valence (EV Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains versus losses; (ii a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes versus past experiences; and (iii a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population.

  15. [Nursing needs of renal transplanted adolescents, a descriptive cross sectional study in a Swiss hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinknecht, Michael; Neuhaus, Thomas J; Landolt, Markus A

    2009-06-01

    Various studies have demonstrated that the five-year graft survival of adolescents after renal transplantation is significantly lower than in children. This may be due to poor adherence to the post-transplant regime in adolescents. It has been shown that nurses can provide support to renal transplanted adolescents with positive effects on their adherence. The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to gain knowledge about important topics of nurses' support to adolescent renal transplant patients. Twenty-seven adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years were interviewed and given a questionnaire based on a focus group discussion. Each of the provided 43 topics was rated on its importance. Results showed that responses corresponding to the judgment "very important" ranged from 20 % to 100 %. Information about illness and therapy was given highest priority, followed by the provision of support services as well as information and the support of planning and managing the personal way of living. These topics can be seen as a set of relevant variables that may be used for focused assessment, and for planning of nursing interventions. With regard to clinical practice it is necessary to develop nursing strategies and patient and family education programs based on the results of this study. PMID:19496030

  16. Sleep and academic performance in later adolescence: results from a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysing, Mari; Harvey, Allison G; Linton, Steven J; Askeland, Kristin G; Sivertsen, Børge

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the association between sleep duration and sleep patterns and academic performance in 16-19 year-old adolescents using registry-based academic grades. A large population-based study from Norway conducted in 2012, the youth@hordaland-survey, surveyed 7798 adolescents aged 16-19 years (53.5% girls). The survey was linked with objective outcome data on school performance. Self-reported sleep measures provided information on sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep deficit and bedtime differences between weekday and weekend. School performance [grade point average (GPA)] was obtained from official administrative registries. Most sleep parameters were associated with increased risk for poor school performance. After adjusting for sociodemographic information, short sleep duration and sleep deficit were the sleep measures with the highest odds of poor GPA (lowest quartile). Weekday bedtime was associated significantly with GPA, with adolescents going to bed between 22:00 and 23:00 hours having the best GPA. Also, delayed sleep schedule during weekends was associated with poor academic performance. The associations were somewhat reduced after additional adjustment for non-attendance at school, but remained significant in the fully adjusted models. In conclusion, the demonstrated relationship between sleep problems and poor academic performance suggests that careful assessment of sleep is warranted when adolescents are underperforming at school. Future studies are needed on the association between impaired sleep in adolescence and later functioning in adulthood. PMID:26825591

  17. Iranian Female Adolescent's Views on Unhealthy Snacks Consumption: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Majdzadeh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Given the increasing prevalence of obesity among Iranian adolescents and the role of consumption of un­healthy snacks in this issue, interventions that focus on factors influencing food choice are needed.  This study was designed to delineate factors associated with unhealthy snack use among female Iranian adolescents."nMethods: The theory of Planned Behavior served as the framework of the study.  Qualitative data were collected via nine fo­cus group discussions in two middle schools (6th to 8th grades in a socio-economically diverse district in the city of Tehran in spring 2008. The study sample included 90 female adolescents aged 12-15 years. The sampling strategy was purposive method. Data analyzed using the "framework" method."nResults: Major factors identified by the respondents were taste, peer pressure, parental influence, easy access to unhealthy snacks, limited availability of healthy snacks, appeal of snacks, habit, high price of healthy snacks, and media advertise­ments. Nutritional value and healthiness was not one of the first priorities when buying snacks, as adolescents thought it was too early for them to worry about illness and adverse consequences of eating junk foods."nConclusions: For developing culturally sensitive evidence-based interventions that can motivate adolescents to choose healthy snacks, a broad range of factors should be taken into account.

  18. Accuracy of self-reported versus measured weight over adolescence and young adulthood: findings from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health, 1996-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philippa; Sastry, Narayan; Duffy, Denise; Ailshire, Jennifer

    2014-07-15

    Many studies rely on self-reports to capture population trends and trajectories in weight gain over adulthood, but the validity of self-reports is often considered a limitation. The purpose of this work was to examine long-term trajectories of self-reporting bias in a national sample of American youth. With 3 waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1996-2008), we used growth curve models to examine self-reporting bias in trajectories of weight gain across adolescence and early adulthood (ages 13-32 years). We investigated whether self-reporting bias is constant over time, or whether adolescents become more accurate in reporting their weight as they move into young adulthood, and we examined differences in self-reporting bias by sex, race/ethnicity, and attained education. Adolescent girls underreported their weight by 0.86 kg on average, and this rate of underreporting increased over early adulthood. In contrast, we found no evidence that boys underreported their weight either in adolescence or over the early adult years. For young men, self-reports of weight were unbiased estimates of measured weight among all racial/ethnic and educational subpopulations over adolescence and early adulthood. PMID:24944288

  19. Excellent gamer, excellent driver? The impact of adolescents' video game playing on driving behavior: A two-wave panel study

    OpenAIRE

    Beullens, Kathleen; Roe, Keith; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the impact of adolescents' playing of racing and drive'em up games on their risky driving behavior. Participants were 354 adolescent boys and girls who took part in a longitudinal panel survey on video game playing and risk taking attitudes, intentions and behaviors. In line with cultivation theory and theory of planned behavior the results showed that (even after controlling for aggression and sensation seeking) video game playing during adolescence succeeded in predictin...

  20. Childhood Internalizing and Externalizing Problems Predict the Onset of Clinical Panic Attacks over Adolescence: The TRAILS Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mathyssek, Christina M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oort, Floor V. A.

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Panic attacks are a source of individual suffering and are an independent risk factor for later psychopathology. However, much less is known about risk factors for the development of panic attacks, particularly during adolescence when the incidence of panic attacks increases dramatically. We examined whether internalizing and externalizing problems in childhood predict the onset of panic attacks in adolescence. Method: This study is part of the TRacking Adolescents' In...

  1. Greater screen time is associated with adolescent obesity: a longitudinal study of the BMI distribution from ages 14 to 18

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Jonathan A.; Rodriguez, Daniel; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Audrain-Mcgovern, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has examined the association between screen time and average changes in adolescent body mass index (BMI). Until now, no study has evaluated the longitudinal relationship between screen time and changes in the BMI distribution across mid to late adolescence. Participants (n=1,336) were adolescents who were followed from age 14 to age 18 and surveyed every six months. Time spent watching television/videos and playing video games was self-reported (

  2. Identifying the sociodemographic determinants of subjective health complaints in a cross-sectional study of Greek adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Petanidou Dimitra; Giannakopoulos George; Tzavara Chara; Dimitrakaki Christine; Ravens-Sieberer Ulricke; Kolaitis Gerasimos; Tountas Yannis

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Experience of common health symptoms without a clear physical or psychological cause, such as headache or dizziness, is often reported in adolescence. The present study attempted to investigate associations of self-reported subjective health complaints (SHC) with a number of sociodemographic factors of Greek adolescents. Methods Questionnaires were administered to a Greek nationwide random school-based sample of adolescents aged 12 to 18 years and their parents in 2003. Da...

  3. Adolescent sexuality in the limelight. Study and predictability of condom use through the theory of planned behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Eufrosini Barmpagianni; Sofia Zyga

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents' sexual behavior is the focus of attention since increased levels of unintended pregnancy, abortions and sexually transmitted diseases are detected. Psychological, family and social factors contribute to the above mentioned situations. The aim of the present research was to examine the intention of condom use in adolescents of both sexes using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Material- Method: The study population consisted of 378 adolescents, aged 15 to 18. Data was collected by t...

  4. The delicate balance between parental protection, unsupervised wandering, and adolescents' autonomy and its relation with antisocial behavior: The TRAILS study

    OpenAIRE

    Sentse, M.; Dijkstra, J.K.; Lindenberg, S.; Ormel, J.; Veenstra, R.

    2010-01-01

    In a large sample of early adolescents (T2: N = 1023; M age = 13.51; 55.5% girls), the impact of parental protection and unsupervised wandering on adolescents' antisocial behavior 2.5 years later was tested in this TRAILS study; gender and parental knowledge were controlled for. In addition, the level of biological maturation and having antisocial friends were included as possible moderators for the associations of parental protection and unsupervised wandering with adolescent antisocial beha...

  5. A Study on Sibling Relationships, Life Satisfaction and Loneliness Level of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysal, F. Selda Öz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between sibling relationships, life satisfaction, and the loneliness level of adolescents with regard to gender, order of birth, and sibling dyads. The study group consisted of 382 (209 female, 173 male) students in total, who were studying at high schools (regular high school, vocational high…

  6. Family and Psychosocial Risk Factors in a Longitudinal Epidemiological Study of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffe, Steven P.; McKeown, Robert E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Garrison, Carol Z.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of family and social risk factors with psychopathology in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Method: From 1986 to 1988, 3,419 seventh through ninth graders were screened with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The top decile scorers and a random sample of the remainder were interviewed…

  7. The Skinny on Body Dissatisfaction: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Girls and Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Sarah Kate; Presnell, Katherine; Martinez, Erin; Stice, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The present study tested whether theoretically derived risk factors predicted increases in body dissatisfaction and whether gender moderated these relations with data from a longitudinal study of 428 adolescent girls and boys because few prospective studies have examined these aims, despite evidence that body dissatisfaction increases risk for…

  8. Toward an integrative model of doping use: an empirical study with adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazuras, Lambros; Barkoukis, Vassileios; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2015-02-01

    The present study assessed adolescent athletes' intentions toward doping by using an integrative theoretical model. Overall, 650 adolescent athletes from team and individual sports completed an anonymous structured questionnaire including demographic information, social desirability, achievement goals, motivational regulations, sportspersonship orientations, social cognitive variables, and anticipated regret. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the integrative model predicted 57.2% of the variance in doping intentions. Social cognitive variables and anticipated regret directly predicted doping intentions. Anticipated regret added 3% incremental variance on top of other predictors. Multiple mediation analyses showed that the effects of achievement goals on intentions were mediated by self-efficacy beliefs, whereas the effects of sportspersonship were mediated by attitudes and anticipated regret. The present study confirmed the dual structure of an integrative model of doping intentions and further highlighted the role of anticipated regret in the study of adolescent doping use. PMID:25730890

  9. Early signaling, referral, and treatment of adolescent chronic pain: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voerman Jessica S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic pain is prevalent among young people and negatively influences their quality of life. Furthermore, chronic pain in adolescence may persist into adulthood. Therefore, it is important early on to promote the self-management skills of adolescents with chronic pain by improving signaling, referral, and treatment of these youngsters. In this study protocol we describe the designs of two complementary studies: a signaling study and an intervention study. Methods and design The signaling study evaluates the Pain Barometer, a self-assessed signaling instrument for chronic pain in adolescents. To evaluate the feasibility of the Pain Barometer, the experiences of youth-health care nurses will be evaluated in semi-structured interviews. Also, we will explore the frequencies of referral per health-care provider. The intervention study evaluates Move It Now, a guided self-help intervention via the Internet for teenagers with chronic pain. This intervention uses cognitive behavioural techniques, including relaxation exercises and positive thinking. The objective of the intervention is to improve the ability of adolescents to cope with pain. The efficacy of Move It Now will be examined in a randomized controlled trial, in which 60 adolescents will be randomly assigned to an experimental condition or a waiting list control condition. Discussion If the Pain Barometer is proven to be feasible and Move It Now appears to be efficacious, a health care pathway can be created to provide the best tailored treatment promptly to adolescents with chronic pain. Move It Now can be easily implemented throughout the Netherlands, as the intervention is Internet based. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR1926

  10. Positive parenting predicts the development of adolescent brain structure: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Whittle

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Little work has been conducted that examines the effects of positive environmental experiences on brain development to date. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the effects of positive (warm and supportive maternal behavior on structural brain development during adolescence, using longitudinal structural MRI. Participants were 188 (92 female adolescents, who were part of a longitudinal adolescent development study that involved mother–adolescent interactions and MRI scans at approximately 12 years old, and follow-up MRI scans approximately 4 years later. FreeSurfer software was used to estimate the volume of limbic-striatal regions (amygdala, hippocampus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens and the thickness of prefrontal regions (anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices across both time points. Higher frequency of positive maternal behavior during the interactions predicted attenuated volumetric growth in the right amygdala, and accelerated cortical thinning in the right anterior cingulate (males only and left and right orbitofrontal cortices, between baseline and follow up. These results have implications for understanding the biological mediators of risk and protective factors for mental disorders that have onset during adolescence.

  11. Prognostic significance of functional somatic symptoms in adolescence: a 15-year community-based follow-up study of adolescents with depression compared with healthy peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohman Hannes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of population-based long-term longitudinal research on mental health status and functional physical/somatic symptoms. Little is known about the long-term mental health outcomes associated with somatic symptoms or the temporal relationship between depression and such symptoms. This 15-year study followed up adolescents with depression and matched controls, screened from a population-based sample, who reported different numbers of somatic symptoms. Methods The total population of 16–17-year-olds in Uppsala, Sweden, was screened for depression in 1991–1993. Adolescents who screened positive and an equal number of healthy controls took part in a semi-structured diagnostic interview. In addition, 21 different self-rated somatic symptoms were assessed. Sixty-four percent of those adolescents participated in a follow-up structured interview 15 years later. Results Somatic symptoms in adolescence predicted depression and other adult mental disorders regardless of the presence of adolescent depression. In adolescents with depression, the number of functional somatic symptoms predicted, in a dose response relationship, suicidal behavior, bipolar episodes, and psychotic episodes as well as chronic and recurrent depression. Contrary to expectations, the somatic symptoms of abdominal pain and perspiration without exertion better predicted depression than all DSM-IV depressive symptoms. Abdominal pain persisted as an independent strong predictor of depression and anxiety, even after controlling for other important confounders. Conclusions Somatic symptoms in adolescence can predict severe adult mental health disorders. The number of somatic symptoms concurrent with adolescent depression is, in a stepwise manner, linked to suicidal attempts, bipolar disorders, psychotic disorders, and recurrent and chronic depression. These findings can be useful in developing treatment guidelines for patients with somatic symptoms.

  12. Family Health Climate and Adolescents' Physical Activity and Healthy Eating: A Cross-Sectional Study with Mother-Father-Adolescent Triads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Y N Niermann

    Full Text Available The importance of the family environment for children's and adolescents' health behavior has been demonstrated, the underlying mechanisms of this influence remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between family environmental and individual determinants. It was hypothesized that the Family Health Climate (FHC is associated with adolescents' physical activity and dietary behavior and that intrinsic motivation mediates this association.Cross-sectional data were collected from 198 families (mother, father, and child using questionnaires. Perceptions of FHC of mothers, fathers, and their children were assessed using the FHC-scales for physical activity (FHC-PA and nutrition (FHC-NU. The adolescents also rated their intrinsic motivation for exercise and healthy eating, their physical activity and consumption of healthful food. A structural equation model was analyzed and a bootstrapping procedure was used to test direct and indirect effects.The FHC-PA was related to the amount of weekly physical activity and the FHC-NU to the consumption of fruit, vegetables and salad. These effects were mediated by adolescents' intrinsic motivation; the indirect effects were significant for both behaviors.These results emphasize the importance of the FHC in shaping adolescents' physical activity and dietary behavior. Individual motivational factors are potential mediators of family and parental influences. Considering family-level variables and their interaction with individual factors contributes to the understanding of adolescents' health behavior.

  13. A Qualitative Study of the Perceived Relationship between Media Use and Adolescents' Academic Performance and Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korie, Daniel O.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored media usage among adolescents and its relations to academic performance and aggressive behavior from a qualitative research perspective. This study represents the first of its kind by utilizing a phenomenological methodology to gain insights about lived experiences of adolescents' media use relative to their academic…

  14. An Open-Label Study of Lamotrigine Adjunct or Monotherapy for the Treatment of Adolescents with Bipolar Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kiki; Saxena, Kirti; Howe, Meghan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The treatment of pediatric bipolar depression has not been well studied. The authors wished to prospectively study the efficacy of lamotrigine as adjunctive or monotherapy in adolescents with bipolar disorder who were experiencing a depressive episode. Method: This was an 8-week open-label trial of lamotrigine with 20 adolescents ages…

  15. Efficacy of internet and group-administered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in adolescents: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. de Bruin; F.J. Oort; S.M. Bögels; A.M. Meijer

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that adolescents are at risk for insomnia, but are reluctant to seek help. Treatment of insomnia has been extensively examined in adults, but studies with adolescents are sparse. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess feasibility and efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy

  16. Implicit Self-Esteem Decreases in Adolescence: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Huajian; Wu, Mingzheng; Yu L L Luo; Yang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Implicit self-esteem has remained an active research topic in both the areas of implicit social cognition and self-esteem in recent decades. The purpose of this study is to explore the development of implicit self-esteem in adolescents. A total of 599 adolescents from junior and senior high schools in East China participated in the study. They ranged in age from 11 to 18 years with a mean age of 14.10 (SD = 2.16). The degree of implicit self-esteem was assessed using the Implicit Association ...

  17. Implicit Self-Esteem Decreases in Adolescence: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Huajian Cai; Mingzheng Wu; Yu L L Luo; Jing Yang

    2014-01-01

    Implicit self-esteem has remained an active research topic in both the areas of implicit social cognition and self-esteem in recent decades. The purpose of this study is to explore the development of implicit self-esteem in adolescents. A total of 599 adolescents from junior and senior high schools in East China participated in the study. They ranged in age from 11 to 18 years with a mean age of 14.10 (SD = 2.16). The degree of implicit self-esteem was assessed using the Implicit Association ...

  18. Self-Medication Among Adolescents Aged 18 Years: The 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Camargo, Aline Lins; Silveira, Marysabel Pinto Telis; Ana M. B. Menezes; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Gonçalves, Helen; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the point prevalence of self-medication among adolescents aged 18 years and to evaluate the type of drugs used (either over-the-counter or prescription drugs) and socioeconomic, health-related, and behavioral correlates of self-medication. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. Data were obtained through the administration of a questionnaire to adolescents aged 18 years. The outcome variables were point prevalence of...

  19. Oral health conditions in an Albanian adolescent population: an epidemiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Laganà, Giuseppina; Abazi, Yllka; Beshiri Nastasi, Evisi; Vinjolli, Françesca; Fabi, Francesco; Divizia, Maurizio; Cozza, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the oral health conditions of an adolescent population of Tirana. Methods A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out in a sample (n = 1885), aged 16-19, mean age 17.4 (SD = 1.0), attending public schools in Tirana and province; 1200 adolescents were included into the analysis. A clinical observation without radiographs was conducted in the medical room of the schools during the 2012-2013 school year. Results Very severe and severe...

  20. Peer Pressure and Adaptive Behavior Learning: A Study of Adolescents in Gujrat City

    OpenAIRE

    Asma Yunus; Shahzad Khaver Mushtaq; Sobia Qaiser

    2012-01-01

    The study aims at discovering the influences of Peer Pressure on adaptive behavior learning in the adolescents. For the purpose two scales, Adaptive behavior scale (ABS) and Peer Pressure Scale (PPS) were developed to measure both variables. The Sample of the study was purposive in nature and comprised of late adolescents (n=120) i.e. 60 males and 60 females, from Gujrat city. Cronbach alpha was calculated and found to be significant for Peer Pressure Scale(PPS) and its subscales i.e. Belongi...

  1. Interpersonal relationships, coping strategies and problematic internet use in adolescence: an italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Luca; Osualdella, Dania; Di Blasio, Paola

    2009-01-01

    In a few years the Internet has become one of the most relevant means of socialization and entertainment for Italian adolescents. Studies have established a correlation between poor interpersonal relationship, poor cognitive coping strategies and Problematic Internet Use. The aim of the research was to study the characteristics and correlates of Problematic Internet Use in an Italian sample of adolescents. 98 Italian adolescents aged 14-19 were administered checklists assessing Problematic Internet Use, quality of interpersonal relationships, and cognitive-driven coping strategies. Of the participants, 36.7% are characterized by Problematic Internet Use. This subsample showed poorer interpersonal relationships and cognitive coping strategies compared to the non-problematic subsample. Overall quality of interpersonal relationships and cognitive coping strategies were found to be predictors of the level of Internet Problematic Use. PMID:19592733

  2. Excellent gamer, excellent driver? The impact of adolescents' video game playing on driving behavior: a two-wave panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beullens, Kathleen; Roe, Keith; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the impact of adolescents' playing of racing and drive'em up games on their risky driving behavior. Participants were 354 adolescent boys and girls who took part in a longitudinal panel survey on video game playing and risk taking attitudes, intentions and behaviors. In line with cultivation theory and theory of planned behavior the results showed that (even after controlling for aggression and sensation seeking) video game playing during adolescence succeeded in predicting later risky driving behavior through adolescents' attitudes and intentions to exhibit this behavior in the future. The results suggest that this relationship may in part be explained by the game content. PMID:21094297

  3. Juggling and struggling: a preliminary work-life study of mothers with adolescents who have developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Susan L

    2006-12-01

    A focus group study was conducted to develop an understanding of the experiences of mothers who are trying to balance employment with caring for an adolescent with developmental disabilities. Mothers reported facing considerable difficulties balancing work and caregiving responsibilities because support services rapidly declined when their child reached adolescence. Service cuts were related to the fact that adolescents are expected to be able to care for themselves, despite the fact that for many adolescents with disabilities, this is not possible. The mothers also reported that the preponderance of the responsibility for arranging care for their children was theirs and was not shouldered by their partners. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:17132034

  4. Implicit Theories of Intelligence Predict Achievement across an Adolescent Transition: A Longitudinal Study and an Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Lisa S.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Dweck, Carol Sorich

    2007-01-01

    Two studies explored the role of implicit theories of intelligence in adolescents' mathematics achievement. In Study 1 with 373 7th graders, the belief that intelligence is malleable (incremental theory) predicted an upward trajectory in grades over the two years of junior high school, while a belief that intelligence is fixed (entity theory)…

  5. Obesity development during adolescence in a biracial cohort : The NHLBI growth and health study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimm, SYS; Barton, BA; Obarzanek, E; McMahon, RP; Kronsberg, SS; Waclawiw, MA; Morrison, JA; Schreiber, GB; Sabry, ZI; Daniels, [No Value

    2002-01-01

    Objective. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS) is a 10-year study to investigate the development of obesity in black and white girls during adolescence and its environmental and psychosocial correlates. The purpose of this report was to examine changes in the

  6. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsitsika, A.; Janikian, M.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Tzavela, E.C.; Olafsson, K.; Wojcik, S.; Macarie, G.F.; Tzavara, C.

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N= 13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8 – 0.7) of 14–17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Interne

  7. A Longitudinal Study of the Association between Violent Video Game Play and Aggression among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Teena; Adachi, Paul J. C.; Good, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In the past 2 decades, correlational and experimental studies have found a positive association between violent video game play and aggression. There is less evidence, however, to support a long-term relation between these behaviors. This study examined sustained violent video game play and adolescent aggressive behavior across the high school…

  8. A Cross-Lagged Longitudinal Study of Relations between Academic Achievement and Korean Adolescent Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies have shown that academic achievement has a significant effect on juvenile delinquency, with the reverse reported as well. This study, therefore, examined the reciprocal causal relationships between academic achievement and juvenile delinquency. Methods: The participants were 3449 Korean adolescents (mean age 13.2 years,…

  9. Peer-Directed, Brief Mindfulness Training with Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Samuel J.; Jennings, Jerry L.

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study studied the impact of brief mindfulness meditation training with adolescents. Whereas adult mindfulness training programs typically entail weekly 2.5 hour sessions over an eight week period, this program delivered four 50-minute sessions within a three week period. Each session was comprised of two mindfulness exercises delivered…

  10. Trait Anger, Anger Expression, and Suicide Attempts among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Stephanie S.; Goldston, David B.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Franklin, Joseph C.; Mayfield, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of the relationship between anger, anger expression, and suicidal behavior have been largely cross-sectional and have yielded mixed findings. In a prospective, naturalistic study, we examined how trait anger and anger expression influenced the likelihood of suicide attempts among 180 adolescents followed for up to 13.3 years after…

  11. The Role of Attachment Style in Predicting Repetition of Adolescent Self-Harm: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazebrook, Katie; Townsend, Ellen; Sayal, Kapil

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated whether insecure attachment is associated with poorer outcomes at 6-month follow-up in adolescents who self-harm. At baseline the Child Attachment Interview was administered to 52 adolescents (13-17 years) referred to specialist child and adolescent mental health services and with a recent history of self-harm. Participants also completed self-report measures of self-harm, peer attachment, anxiety, and depression and were administered the means end problem-solving task. Self-harm behavior and problem-solving skills were assessed again at 6-month follow-up. At baseline, 14 (27%) were securely attached to their mothers. In the 49 (94%) adolescents followed-up, those with insecure maternal attachment and insecure peer attachment were more likely to have repeated self-harm. In addition, securely attached adolescents showed greater improvement in problem-solving skills. These findings indicate that secure maternal and peer attachments may help recovery from self-harm, possibly by supporting the acquisition of problem-solving skills, and highlights the importance of social connections and attachments for youth with a history of self-harm. PMID:25845416

  12. Young adolescents' perceptions, patterns, and contexts of energy drink use. A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Beth M; Hayley, Alexa; Miller, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Caffeinated energy drinks (EDs) are purported to increase energy and improve performance, but have been associated with adverse health effects and death. EDs are popular among adolescents and young adults, yet little is known about their use among young adolescents. This study explored perceptions, patterns, and contexts of ED use in six focus groups with 40 adolescents aged 12-15 years from two regional Australian schools. A thematic analysis of the data was used to investigate knowledge about ED brands and content, ED use, reasons for ED use, physiological effects, and influences on ED use. Participants were familiar with EDs and most had used them at least once but had limited knowledge of ED ingredients, and some had difficulty differentiating them from soft and sports drinks. EDs were used as an alternative to other drinks, to provide energy, and in social contexts, and their use was associated with short-term physiological symptoms. Parents and advertising influenced participants' perceptions and use of EDs. These findings suggest young adolescents use EDs without knowing what they are drinking and how they are contributing to their personal risk of harm. The advertising, appeal, and use of EDs by adolescents appear to share similarities with alcohol and tobacco. Further research is needed to replicate and extend the current findings, informed by the lessons learned in alcohol research. PMID:24852220

  13. Sharing and giving across adolescence: An experimental study examining the development of prosocial behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna eGüroğlu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we use economic exchange games to examine the development of prosocial behavior in the form of sharing and giving in social interactions with peers across adolescence. Participants from four age groups (9-, 12-, 15-, and 18-year-olds, total N=119 played three types of distribution games and the Trust game with four different interaction partners: friends, antagonists, neutral classmates, and anonymous peers. Nine- and 12-year-olds showed similar levels of prosocial behavior to all interaction partners, whereas older adolescents showed increasing differentiation in prosocial behavior depending on the relation with peers, with most prosocial behavior towards friends. The age related increase in non-costly prosocial behavior towards friends was mediated by self-reported perspective-taking skills. Current findings extend existing evidence on the developmental patterns of fairness considerations from childhood into late adolescence. Together, we show that adolescents are increasingly better at incorporating social context into decision-making. Our findings further highlight the role of friendships as a significant social context for the development of prosocial behavior in early adolescence.

  14. Nutritional Status of Adolescent Girls in Rural Area of Kolar District -A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarithareddy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the nutritional status of adolescent girls in selected villages of the Kolar district. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of two months. 230 adolescent girls of age 10–19 years were selected randomly. Data was collected by interviewing the adolescent girls using predesigned and pre tested Proforma. Various statistical applications like percentiles, mean, standard deviation and proportions were used for analysis of the data. Results: The prevalence of wasting and stunting was 54.79% and 32.17% respectively as per water lows classification and the trend of wasting and stunting declines with the age. The prevalence of thinness was found to be 73.5% as per Indian standards. Prevalence of Anemia was 34.8% percent and it was more among menstruating girls than compared to non-menstruating girls. Anemia prevalence was less among adolescent girls using footwear during defecation than girls not using foot wear. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is a high prevalence of under nutrition among adolescent girls in the rural area of the selected villages. Health education and nutrition interventions are needed on priority basis.

  15. Characteristics of Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Marijuana Use: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Arria, Amelia M; English, Diana; Metzger, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B

    2016-02-01

    There has been increasing acceptance of marijuana use in the United States in recent years, and rates among adolescents have risen. At the same time, marijuana use during adolescence has been linked to an array of health and social problems. Maltreated children are at risk for marijuana use, but the relationships among characteristics of maltreatment and marijuana use are unclear. In this article, we examine how the type and the extent of maltreatment are related to the level of adolescent marijuana use. Data analyses were conducted on a subsample of maltreated adolescents (n = 702) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect project. Approximately half the sample had used marijuana, and maltreatment was associated with its use. Multivariate regression models showed that being male, extensive maltreatment, and peer marijuana use were associated with heavy use of marijuana. These findings suggest the importance of comprehensively assessing children's maltreatment experiences and their peers' drug use to help prevent or address possible marijuana use in these high-risk adolescents. PMID:26715532

  16. The parent–child relationship and adolescent alcohol use: a systematic review of longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visser Leenke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol use among adolescents has become a major public health problem in the past decade and has large short- and long-term consequences on their health. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of longitudinal cohort studies that have analyzed the association between the parent–child relationship (PCR and change in alcohol use during adolescence. Methods A search of the literature from 1985 to July 2011 was conducted in Medline, PsycINFO, and EMBASE in order to identify longitudinal, general population studies regarding the influence of the PCR on alcohol use during adolescence. The studies were screened, and the quality of the relevant studies was assessed. A best-evidence synthesis was used to summarize the results. Results Twenty-eight relevant studies were identified. Five studies found that a negative PCR was associated with higher levels of alcohol use. Another seven papers only found this association for certain subgroups such as boys or girls, or a specific age group. The remaining sixteen studies did not find any association. Conclusions We found weak evidence for a prospective association between the PCR and adolescent alcohol use. Further research to the association of the PCR with several types of alcohol use (e.g., initiation or abuse and to the potential reversed causality of the PCR and alcohol use is required.

  17. Risperidone in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder: A Single-Center, Open-Label Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Eyüp Sabri; Kutlu, Ayşe; Çıkoğlu, Sibel; Veznedaroğlu, Baybars; Erermiş, Serpil; Varan, Azmi

    2003-01-01

    Background: Risperidone is one of the most commonly used atypical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of children and adolescents. However, the data about its use in children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) are limited. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and tolerability of risperidone in controlling major symptoms of CD in children and adolescents diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and severe CD. Methods: Children and adolescents were eligible for this single-center, open-label study if they met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for ADHD and ODD and also were diagnosed with severe CD. The patients were treated with risperidone in an open-label fashion for 8 weeks, starting at a daily dosage of 0.25 mg or 0.5 mg (depending on their body weight) in 2 divided doses. Results: The study population comprised 21 children and adolescents (17 boys, 4 girls) with a mean (SD) age of 10.8 (3.6) years. The mean (SD) dosage of risperidone at the end of 8 weeks of treatment was 1.27 (0.42) mg/d (range, 0.75–2.0 mg/d). On the basis of the global improvement subscale of the Clinical Global Impression scale, 16 of 20 patients (80%) were classified as responders. Significant improvements were observed after risperidone treatment in the inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, ODD, and CD subscales of the Turgay DSM-IV–Based Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (parent and teacher forms). No severe adverse events were reported. Conclusions: The results of this study are consistent with previous findings and suggest that risperidone may be an effective and well-tolerated atypical antipsychotic drug for the treatment of children and adolescents with CD. However, further studies, particularly placebo-controlled and double-blinded, are needed to better define the clinical use

  18. Development of Adolescent Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Goede, I.H.A. de

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation on “Development of Adolescent Relationships” addresses relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners in adolescence from a developmental perspective. By studying both parent-adolescent relationships and peer relationships at the same time, as well as interrelations between these types of relationships, this dissertation provides more information on the processes taking place in relationships during adolescence. Findings indicate that parent-adolescent relationsh...

  19. Teacher autonomy support reduces adolescent anxiety and depression: An 18-month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chengfu; Li, Xian; Wang, Shujun; Zhang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Grounded in stage-environment fit theory, this study adopts a longitudinal design to examine the contribution of autonomy support from teachers to reducing adolescent anxiety and depression. A total of 236 Chinese adolescents (57.38% females, Mage = 14.34) completed questionnaires on teacher autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, school engagement, anxiety, and depression in the fall and spring semesters of their 7th and 8th grade years. The results showed that teacher autonomy support in the fall of 7th grade boosted basic psychological needs satisfaction in the spring of 7th grade; this, in turn, increased school engagement in the fall of 8th grade, which subsequently decreased anxiety and depression in the spring of 8th grade. These findings demonstrated the significant effect of teacher autonomy support on reducing adolescent anxiety and depression; furthermore, it highlighted the mediating roles of basic psychological needs satisfaction and school engagement in this relationship. PMID:27042976

  20. Identifying key topics for a description of sexual behavior among Danish adolescents: A qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Olesen, Frede;

    Background: Surveying sexual behavior in the general population serves to identify critical points, monitor the effects, and interpret changes in the spread of sexually transmitted infection. Aim: The aim of this qualitative study was to identify points of particular importance to adolescents......’ sexual behavior in order to initiate and design a behavior surveillance programme in Denmark. Methods: We conducted four semi-structured focus group interviews with a total of 19 sexually experienced adolescents aged 18 to 23. Boys and girls were interviewed separately. Each group contained pupils from......’s personal boundaries, thus resulting in promiscuous sexual behavior and Increased sexual experience is associated with lack of condom use. Conclusion: Danish adolescents identified four key elements that could lead to unsafe sex. These results differed slightly from our expectations and will be included...

  1. Insights into Facebook Pages: an early adolescent health research study page targeted at parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Krestina L; Paxton, Karen; Klineberg, Emily; Riley, Lisa; Hawke, Catherine; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2016-02-01

    Facebook has been used in health research, but there is a lack of literature regarding how Facebook may be used to recruit younger adolescents. A Facebook Page was created for an adolescent cohort study on the effects of puberty hormones on well-being and behaviour in early adolescence. Used as a communication tool with existing participants, it also aimed to alert potential participants to the study. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed description of the development of the study Facebook Page and present the fan response to the types of posts made on the Page using the Facebook-generated Insights data. Two types of posts were made on the study Facebook Page. The first type was study-related update posts and events. The second was relevant adolescent and family research and current news posts. Observations on the use of and response to the Page were made over 1 year across three phases (phase 1, very low Facebook use; phase 2, high Facebook use; phase 3, low Facebook use). Most Page fans were female (88.6%), with the largest group of fans aged between 35 and 44 years. Study-related update posts with photographs were the most popular. This paper provides a model on which other researchers could base Facebook communication and potential recruitment in the absence of established guidelines. PMID:25781667

  2. Development of eating behavior: the way from infancy to adolescence. Review of foreign studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durneva M.U.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies examining development of eating behavior in different age groups are reviewed. Determinants of disordered eating attitudes from infancy to adolescent are particularly examined. Family environment and social context are general factors. Knowledge, attitudes and food preferences are individual factors. Eating habits in infancy, early childhood and preschool period related to parent’s eating attitudes; peers and social context are dominant in school period and adolescents. The most effective strategy is to prevent disordered eating attitudes in early childhood. Restriction and pressure are not effective strategies in developing healthy eating.

  3. Association between Obesity Indices and Insulin Resistance among Healthy Korean Adolescents: The JS High School Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Sun Min; Choi, Dong Phil; Rhee, Yumie; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether indices of obesity are associated with insulin resistance in Korean adolescents. Methods This study was conducted as a cross-sectional analysis of 817 healthy adolescents aged 15–16 years without diabetes. Percentiles group of weight-for-height, body mass index (BMI)-for-age, waist circumference (WC)-for-age, and skin fold thickness (SFT)-for-age were based on the 2007 Korean National Growth Charts. Percentiles of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height rati...

  4. A conceptual framework for healthy eating behavior in ecuadorian adolescents: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosmarijn Verstraeten

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify factors influencing eating behavior of Ecuadorian adolescents - from the perspective of parents, school staff and adolescents - to develop a conceptual framework for adolescents' eating behavior. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty focus groups (N=144 participants were conducted separately with adolescents aged 11-15 y (n (focus groups=12, N (participants=80, parents (n=4, N=32 and school staff (n=4, N=32 in rural and urban Ecuador. A semi-structured questioning route was developed based on the 'Attitude, Social influences and Self-efficacy' model and the socio-ecological model to assess the relevance of behavioral and environmental factors in low- and middle-income countries. Two researchers independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for emerging themes, using deductive thematic content analysis. Data were analyzed using NVivo 8. RESULTS: All groups recognized the importance of eating healthily and key individual factors in Ecuadorian adolescents' food choices were: financial autonomy, food safety perceptions, lack of self-control, habit strength, taste preferences and perceived peer norms. Environmental factors included the poor nutritional quality of food and its easy access at school. In their home and family environment, time and convenience completed the picture as barriers to eating healthily. Participants acknowledged the impact of the changing socio-cultural environment on adolescents' eating patterns. Availability of healthy food at home and financial constraints differed between settings and socio-economic groups. CONCLUSION: Our findings endorse the importance of investigating behavioral and environmental factors that influence and mediate healthy dietary behavior prior to intervention development. Several culture-specific factors emerged that were incorporated into a conceptual framework for developing health promotion interventions in Ecuador.

  5. Study of blood pressure and blood sugar levels in adolescence and comparison with body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Borade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing and its consequences prompted the WHO to designate obesity as a global epidemic in 2002. Being overweight is a risk factor for significant illness, especially diabetes and hypertension in adult life. Objectives : To study the blood pressure and blood sugar levels and lifestyle parameters in adolescence and comparison with body mass index. Materials and Methods: In a prospective case control study, out of the 1000 screened, a total of 200 adolescents were considered out of which 100 were with high body mass index (BMI and the other 100 were with normal BMI. Height, weight, BMI, waist hip ratio (WHR, blood pressure (BP, BSL, and associated risk factors like physical activity, fast food consumption, and computer/television watching were measured and screened. Results and Observations: 109 (54.5% males and 91 (45.5% females were included. Maximum number [90 (45%] of adolescents screened were in the age group of 17-19 years, while 54 (27% and 56 (28% adolescents were in the age group of 10-13 years and 14-16 years, respectively. According to CDC charts 2000, prevalence of overweight was 24% which was double when compared to WHO charts 2007. There was significant difference in prevalence of obesity; according to CDC chart it was 26%, whereas according to WHO chart it was 39%. The difference in blood pressures between cases and controls as per both CDC and WHO charts was found to be statistically significant (P 0.05 with BMI. Conclusion: The adolescents seem to have become heavier owing to environmental influences on growth patterns. So, a consideration should be given to shift the cut-offs for overweight and obesity to higher BMI percentiles if recent growth charts are to be followed. Adolescents with a BMI above the 95 >th percentile (obese are most likely to have obesity-related health risks.

  6. Severity of malocclusion in adolescents: populational-based study in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Freire, Rafael Silveira; Nepomuceno, Marcela Oliveira; Martins, Andrea Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Marcopito, Luiz Francisco

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion in a population of adolescents. METHODS In this cross-sectional population-based study, the sample size (n = 761) was calculated considering a prevalence of malocclusion of 50.0%, with a 95% confidence level and a 5.0% precision level. The study adopted correction for the effect of delineation (deff = 2), and a 20.0% increase to offset losses and refusals. Multistage probability cluster sampling was adopted. Trained and calibrated professionals performed the intraoral examinations and interviews in households. The dependent variable (severity of malocclusion) was assessed using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). The independent variables were grouped into five blocks: demographic characteristics, socioeconomic condition, use of dental services, health-related behavior and oral health subjective conditions. The ordinal logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion. RESULTS We interviewed and examined 736 adolescents (91.5% response rate), 69.9% of whom showed no abnormalities or slight malocclusion. Defined malocclusion was observed in 17.8% of the adolescents, being severe or very severe in 12.6%, with pressing or essential need of orthodontic treatment. The probabilities of greater severity of malocclusion were higher among adolescents who self-reported as black, indigenous, pardo or yellow, with lower per capita income, having harmful oral habits, negative perception of their appearance and perception of social relationship affected by oral health. CONCLUSIONS Severe or very severe malocclusion was more prevalent among socially disadvantaged adolescents, with reported harmful habits and perception of compromised esthetics and social relationships. Given that malocclusion can interfere with the self-esteem of adolescents, it is essential to improve public policy for the inclusion of orthodontic treatment among health care provided to this

  7. Severity of malocclusion in adolescents: populational-based study in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise Fagundes Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion in a population of adolescents. METHODS In this cross-sectional population-based study, the sample size (n = 761 was calculated considering a prevalence of malocclusion of 50.0%, with a 95% confidence level and a 5.0% precision level. The study adopted correction for the effect of delineation (deff = 2, and a 20.0% increase to offset losses and refusals. Multistage probability cluster sampling was adopted. Trained and calibrated professionals performed the intraoral examinations and interviews in households. The dependent variable (severity of malocclusion was assessed using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI. The independent variables were grouped into five blocks: demographic characteristics, socioeconomic condition, use of dental services, health-related behavior and oral health subjective conditions. The ordinal logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion. RESULTS We interviewed and examined 736 adolescents (91.5% response rate, 69.9% of whom showed no abnormalities or slight malocclusion. Defined malocclusion was observed in 17.8% of the adolescents, being severe or very severe in 12.6%, with pressing or essential need of orthodontic treatment. The probabilities of greater severity of malocclusion were higher among adolescents who self-reported as black, indigenous, pardo or yellow, with lower per capita income, having harmful oral habits, negative perception of their appearance and perception of social relationship affected by oral health. CONCLUSIONS Severe or very severe malocclusion was more prevalent among socially disadvantaged adolescents, with reported harmful habits and perception of compromised esthetics and social relationships. Given that malocclusion can interfere with the self-esteem of adolescents, it is essential to improve public policy for the inclusion of orthodontic treatment among

  8. Severity of malocclusion in adolescents: populational-based study in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Freire, Rafael Silveira; Nepomuceno, Marcela Oliveira; Martins, Andrea Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Marcopito, Luiz Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion in a population of adolescents. METHODS In this cross-sectional population-based study, the sample size (n = 761) was calculated considering a prevalence of malocclusion of 50.0%, with a 95% confidence level and a 5.0% precision level. The study adopted correction for the effect of delineation (deff = 2), and a 20.0% increase to offset losses and refusals. Multistage probability cluster sampling was adopted. Trained and calibrated professionals performed the intraoral examinations and interviews in households. The dependent variable (severity of malocclusion) was assessed using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). The independent variables were grouped into five blocks: demographic characteristics, socioeconomic condition, use of dental services, health-related behavior and oral health subjective conditions. The ordinal logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion. RESULTS We interviewed and examined 736 adolescents (91.5% response rate), 69.9% of whom showed no abnormalities or slight malocclusion. Defined malocclusion was observed in 17.8% of the adolescents, being severe or very severe in 12.6%, with pressing or essential need of orthodontic treatment. The probabilities of greater severity of malocclusion were higher among adolescents who self-reported as black, indigenous, pardo or yellow, with lower per capita income, having harmful oral habits, negative perception of their appearance and perception of social relationship affected by oral health. CONCLUSIONS Severe or very severe malocclusion was more prevalent among socially disadvantaged adolescents, with reported harmful habits and perception of compromised esthetics and social relationships. Given that malocclusion can interfere with the self-esteem of adolescents, it is essential to improve public policy for the inclusion of orthodontic treatment among health care

  9. Prevalence of Dysmenorrhea among Adolescent Girls (14-19 Yrs) of Kadapa District and its Impact on Quality of Life: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh K. Kumbhar, Mrudula Reddy, Sujana B., Roja Reddy K., Divya Bhargavi K., C. Balkrishna

    2011-01-01

    Background: After menarche many adolescent girls faces problems of irregular menstruation, excessive bleeding, and dysmenorrhea. Of these, dysmenorrhea is one of the common problems experienced by most of the adolescent girls. This study conducted to assess the prevalence of dysmenorrhea and its impact on adolescent girls (14 – 19 yrs) Objectives: This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of dysmenorrhea among adolescent girls (14-19yrs) and also to study the various symptoms of dys...

  10. Adapting an evidence-based model to retain adolescent study participants in longitudinal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Erin; Demby, Hilary; Jenner, Lynne Woodward; Gregory, Alethia; Broussard, Marsha

    2016-02-01

    Maintaining contact with and collecting outcome data from adolescent study participants can present a significant challenge for researchers conducting longitudinal studies. Establishing an organized and effective protocol for participant follow-up is crucial to reduce attrition and maintain high retention rates. This paper describes our methods in using and adapting the evidence-based Engagement, Verification, Maintenance, and Confirmation (EVMC) model to follow up with adolescents 6 and 12 months after implementation of a health program. It extends previous research by focusing on two key modifications to the model: (1) the central role of cell phones and texting to maintain contact with study participants throughout the EVMC process and, (2) use of responsive two-way communication between staff and participants and flexible administration modes and methods in the confirmation phase to ensure that busy teens not only respond to contacts, but also complete data collection. These strategies have resulted in high overall retention rates (87-91%) with adolescent study participants at each follow-up data collection point without the utilization of other, more involved tracking measures. The methods and findings presented may be valuable for other researchers with limited resources planning for or engaged in collecting follow-up outcome data from adolescents enrolled in longitudinal studies. PMID:26539953

  11. Prescription Opioid Abuse, Prescription Opioid Addiction, and Heroin Abuse among Adolescents in a Recovery High School: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Eaton, Thomas A.; Sokolowska, Marta; Osgood, Eric D.; Ashworth, Judy B.; Trudeau, Jeremiah J.; Muffett-Lipinski, Michelle; Katz, Nathaniel P.

    2016-01-01

    The progression from prescription opioid (RXO) abuse to RXO addiction is not well understood in adolescents, nor is the progression from RXO addiction to heroin abuse. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the development of RXO drug abuse, RXO drug addiction, and heroin abuse in a small cohort of adolescents recovering from opioid…

  12. Brief Report: A Family Risk Study Exploring Bipolar Spectrum Problems and Cognitive Biases in Adolescent Children of Bipolar Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espie, Jonathan; Jones, Steven H.; Vance, Yvonne H.; Tai, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Children of parents with bipolar disorder are at increased risk of bipolar spectrum diagnoses. This cross-sectional study explores cognitive factors in the prediction of vulnerability to bipolar disorder. Adolescents at high-risk (with a parent with bipolar disorder; n = 23) and age and gender matched adolescents (n = 24) were recruited. Parent…

  13. Mental health problems and educational attainment in adolescence: 9-Year follow-up of the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Veldman (Karin); U. Bültmann (Ute); R.E. Stewart (Roy); J. Ormel (Johan Hans); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); S.A. Reijneveld (Sijmen)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: This study examines if mental health problems at age 11 and changes in mental health problems between age 11 and 16 predict educational attainment of adolescents at age 19, overall and stratified by gender. Methods: Data from 1711 adolescents (76.8% from initial cohort) of th

  14. Mental health problems and educational attainment in adolescence : 9-year follow-up of the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Karin; Bultmann, Ute; Stewart, Roy E.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examines if mental health problems at age 11 and changes in mental health problems between age 11 and 16 predict educational attainment of adolescents at age 19, overall and stratified by gender. Methods: Data from 1711 adolescents (76.8% from initial cohort) of the Tracking A

  15. Childhood family instability and mental ealth problems during late adolescence : a test of two mediation models-The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Martin P.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether childhood family instability is associated with mental health problems during adolescence through continued family instability and/or through a preadolescent onset of mental health problems. This test use data from a prospective population cohort of 2,230 Dutch adolescents

  16. Does a competitive voucher program for adolescents improve the quality of reproductive health care? A simulated patient study in Nicaragua.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, L.E.; Gorter, A.C.; Kester, A.D.M.; Knottnerus, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how sexual and reproductive (SRH) health can be made accessible and appropriate to adolescents. This study evaluates the impact and sustainability of a competitive voucher program on the quality of SRH care for poor and underserved female adolescents and the usefuln

  17. Improving the Mental Health, Healthy Lifestyle Choices, and Physical Health of Hispanic Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie; O'Haver, Judith; Small, Leigh; Mays, Mary Z.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity and mental health disorders are 2 major public health problems in American adolescents, with prevalence even higher in Hispanic teens. Despite the rapidly increasing incidence and adverse health outcomes associated with overweight and mental health problems, very few intervention studies have been conducted with adolescents to…

  18. Developmental Changes in Conflict Resolution Styles in Parent-Adolescent Relationships: A Four-Wave Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doorn, Muriel D.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, changes in three conflict resolution styles in parent-adolescent relationships were investigated: positive problem solving, conflict engagement, and withdrawal. Questionnaires about these conflict resolution styles were completed by 314 early adolescents (M = 13.3 years; 50.6% girls) and both parents for four consecutive years.…

  19. The Impact of Protective Factors in Desistance from Violent Reoffending: A Study in Three Samples of Adolescent Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodewijks, Henny P. B.; de Ruiter, Corine; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of protective factors, assessed by means of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), on desistance from violent reoffending in adolescents. Three samples included male adolescents in different stages of the judicial process: pre-trial (n = 111); during residential treatment (n = 66); and after…

  20. Motivation and Social Relations in School Following a CBT Course for Adolescents with Depressive Symptoms: An Effectiveness Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvik, Margit; Idsoe, Thormod; Bru, Edvin

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate changes in school functioning, including motivation, intentions to quit school and social relations in school, following an early group based CBT intervention implemented for depressed adolescents. The "Adolescent Coping with Depression Course" (ACDC) is such an early group intervention. The primary…

  1. Violence, Bullying and Academic Achievement: A Study of 15-Year-Old Adolescents and Their School Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Ida Frugard; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated academic achievement among adolescents exposed to violence, sexual abuse and bullying. Moreover, we sought to determine the individual and contextual influence of the adolescents' school environment in terms of bullying, classmate relationships and teacher support on academic achievement. Finally, we wished to…

  2. Class Average Score for Teacher Support and Relief of Depression in Adolescents: A Population Study in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, Akiko; Noda, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Mieko; Tatsumi, Asami; Ojima, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Factors contributing to the relief of depression among adolescents have not been sufficiently revealed. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of teacher support on depression in adolescent students. Methods: We conducted a self-rating questionnaire survey among 2862 junior high school students and 93 homeroom teachers in…

  3. An Exploratory Study of Psychosocial Risk Behaviors of Adolescents Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Comparisons and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Kenneth M.; Cutler, Martin M.; Thobro, Patti; Haas, Robin; Powell, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The study compared psychosocial risk behaviors of adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing with those of their hearing peers in a residential treatment facility. Statistically significant differences emerged between groups. The adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing demonstrated clinically higher scores than those of their hearing peers…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of the Associations among Adolescent Conflict Resolution Styles, Depressive Symptoms, and Romantic Relationship Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Thao; Overbeek, Geertjan; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether adolescents' conflict resolution styles mediated between depressive symptoms and relationship longevity. Data were used from a sample of 80 couples aged 13-19 years old (Mage = 15.48, SD = 1.16). At Time 1 adolescents reported their depressive symptoms and conflict resolution styles. Additionally, time until…

  5. Childhood Family Instability and Mental Health Problems during Late Adolescence: A Test of Two Mediation Models--The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Martin P.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether childhood family instability is associated with mental health problems during adolescence through continued family instability and/or through a preadolescent onset of mental health problems. This test use data from a prospective population cohort of 2,230 Dutch adolescents ("M" age = 11.09, "SD" = 0.56 at the initial…

  6. Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents: A Study of Ethnic Identity, Emotional and Behavioral Functioning, Child Characteristics, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieger, Karin; Renk, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relationships among the ethnic identity, behavior problems, self-esteem, and social support of 166 ethnically diverse pregnant and parenting adolescents, the majority of whom were African American and Hispanic American, and their infants. Results indicated that pregnant and parenting adolescent females were experiencing…

  7. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Executive Functions in Children and Adolescents: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Study of Cortical Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamnes, Christian K.; Ostby, Ylva; Walhovd, Kristine B.; Westlye, Lars T.; Due-Tonnessen, Paulina; Fjell, Anders M.

    2010-01-01

    A range of cognitive abilities improves in childhood and adolescence. It has been proposed that the protracted development of executive functions is related to the relatively late maturation of the prefrontal cortex. However, this has rarely been directly investigated. In this cross-sectional study, 98 healthy children and adolescents (8-19 years…

  8. Are Body Dissatisfaction, Eating Disturbance, and Body Mass Index Predictors of Suicidal Behavior in Adolescents? A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Scott; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    Disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, and obesity have been associated cross sectionally with suicidal behavior in adolescents. To determine the extent to which these variables predicted suicidal ideation and attempts, the authors examined these relationships in a longitudinal design. The study population included 2,516 older adolescents and…

  9. A Pilot Study of the Development of a Measure Assessing Adolescent Reactions to Parents in the Context of Emotion Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Gilbert R.; Olsen, James P.; Buckholdt, Kelly E.; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; Davis, Genevieve L.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a pilot study of the initial development of a self-report measure assessing how adolescents react when parents respond in a helpful manner to their sad emotional experiences. Participants were late adolescents (ages 18-20) attending a large, racially diverse urban university (N = 86; 75% women; 46% racial/ethnic minority). A broad…

  10. The Delicate Balance between Parental Protection, Unsupervised Wandering, and Adolescents' Autonomy and Its Relation with Antisocial Behavior: The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene

    2010-01-01

    In a large sample of early adolescents (T2: N = 1023; M age = 13.51; 55.5% girls), the impact of parental protection and unsupervised wandering on adolescents' antisocial behavior 2.5 years later was tested in this TRAILS study; gender and parental knowledge were controlled for. In addition, the level of biological maturation and having antisocial…

  11. Relationship between self-reported dietary intake and physical activity levels among adolescents: The HELENA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Donne Cinzia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. Therefore it is important to investigate associations between dietary and physical activity behavior, the two most important lifestyle behaviors influencing our energy balance and body composition. The objective of the present study is to describe the relationship between energy, nutrient and food intake and the physical activity level among a large group of European adolescents. Methods The study comprised a total of 2176 adolescents (46.2% male from ten European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using validated 24-h dietary recalls and self-reported questionnaires respectively. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were used to compare the energy and nutrient intake and the food consumption between groups of adolescents with different physical activity levels (1st to 3rd tertile. Results In both sexes no differences were found in energy intake between the levels of physical activity. The most active males showed a higher intake of polysaccharides, protein, water and vitamin C and a lower intake of saccharides compared to less active males. Females with the highest physical activity level consumed more polysaccharides compared to their least active peers. Male and female adolescents with the highest physical activity levels, consumed more fruit and milk products and less cheese compared to the least active adolescents. The most active males showed higher intakes of vegetables and meat, fish, eggs, meat substitutes and vegetarian products compared to the least active ones. The least active males reported the highest consumption of grain products and potatoes. Within the female group, significantly lower intakes of bread and cereal products and spreads were found for those reporting to

  12. Perception regarding pubertal changes among rural adolescent boys of Haryana: A school based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Chayal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a transition phase through which a child matures into an adult. The physical changes in the human body are from infant to child to adolescence to adult to old age.  All phases of life behave like a coin with both good and bad facets attached to each phase of life. Aims & Objectives:  1. To study perception and awareness regarding pubertal changes among school going adolescent boys. 2. To study the association between education and perceived pubertal problems among study subjects. Material & Methods: The study was conducted among male students of senior secondary schools of community development block Beri in one year. The study universe comprised of students in middle and late adolescence (aged 14-18 years studying in 9th to 12th classes of the senior secondary schools in the area. A total of 1000 male students were selected from these schools which were more than the required sample size of 891. Results: The study found that 42.66% students and a half (50% of students of class 9th & 10th and class 11th & 12th respectively considered that pubertal changes as a normal phenomenon. The majority of students admitted practicing masturbation and felt shy and guilty for practicing masturbation, also students felt fatigued after night emission. Conclusions: The study concludes that adolescent’s sexuality which often causes controversy and concern among adults is least discussed with them during adolescence. The reasons for this may be many, including moral grounds or because of concomitant health risks and threats to wellbeing.

  13. The developmental course of anxiety symptoms during adolescence: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, F.V.A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the development of anxiety symptoms from late childhood to late adolescence. The present study determined developmental trajectories of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoPh), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and

  14. Associations between Teacher Emotional Support and Depressive Symptoms in Australian Adolescents: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pössel, Patrick; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Sawyer, Michael G.; Spence, Susan H.; Bjerg, Annie C.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 1/5 of adolescents develop depressive symptoms. Given that youths spend a good deal of their lives at school, it seems plausible that supportive relationships with teachers could benefit their emotional well-being. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the association between emotionally supportive teacher relationships and…

  15. The developmental course of anxiety symptoms during adolescence: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.V. van Oort; K. Greaves-Lord; F.C. Verhulst; J. Ormel; A.C. Huizink

    2009-01-01

    Background:  Little is known about the development of anxiety symptoms from late childhood to late adolescence. The present study determined developmental trajectories of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoPh), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and

  16. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety…

  17. Anhedonia and depressed mood in adolescence : course, stability, and reciprocal relation in the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennik, Elise C.; Nederhof, Esther; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is marked by increases in the incidence of major depression (MDD), a disorder recognized as one of the leading causes of disability. Anhedonia and depressed mood predict both onset and chronicity of major depression (MDD), but have never been studied together longitudinally in the genera

  18. The developmental course of anxiety symptoms during adolescence : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, F. V. A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the development of anxiety symptoms from late childhood to late adolescence. The present study determined developmental trajectories of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoPh), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and

  19. Altered White Matter Microstructure in Adolescents with Major Depression: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Kathryn R.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Muetzel, Ryan; Mueller, Bryon A.; Camchong, Jazmin; Houri, Alaa; Kurma, Sanjiv; Lim, Kelvin O.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Major depressive disorder (MDD) occurs frequently in adolescents, but the neurobiology of depression in youth is poorly understood. Structural neuroimaging studies in both adult and pediatric populations have implicated frontolimbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which measures white…

  20. Creativity Development in Adolescence: Insight from Behavior, Brain, and Training Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2016-01-01

    Creativity is a multifaceted construct that recruits different cognitive processes. Here, we summarize studies that show that creativity develops considerably during adolescence with different developmental trajectories for insight, verbal divergent thinking, and visuospatial divergent thinking. Next, these developmental time courses are mapped to…

  1. Digital divide across borders: A cross-national study of adolescents use of digital technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.J.W.R.; Peter, J.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we analyse digital divides in terms of social inequality in digital access and use patterns from a hierarchical perspective. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 in 30 nations, we focus on social cleavages in mid-adolescents access and use of

  2. Who Seeks Career Counselling? A Prospective Study of Personality and Career Variables among Swiss Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balin, Elif; Hirschi, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether career adaptability, personality, attitude towards career counselling and some demographic variables predict the help seeking behaviour in career counselling among 330 Swiss adolescents in eighth grade. The results indicated that boys were less likely to seek help and that career related variables and attitude but…

  3. The multidisciplinary depression guideline for children and adolescents : an implementation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, Marleen L M; Oud, Matthijs; Sinnema, Henny; Nauta, Maaike H; Stikkelbroek, Yvonne; van Duin, Daniëlle; Wensing, Michel

    2015-01-01

    It is important that depressed patients receive adequate and safe care as described in clinical guidelines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the Dutch depression guideline for children and adolescents, and to identify factors that were associated with the uptake of the gui

  4. Effects of attractiveness and social status on dating desire in heterosexual adolescents: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ha, P.T.; Overbeek, G.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined to what extent adolescent dating desire is based on attractiveness and social status of a potential short-term partner. Further, we tested whether self-perceived mate value moderated the relationship between dating desire and attractiveness of a potential partner. Data wer

  5. Adolescents' exposure to sexually explicit internet material and sexual satisfaction: A Longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Peter; P.M. Valkenburg

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, within a social comparison framework, the causal relationship between adolescents’ use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) and their sexual satisfaction. In addition, we tested which adolescents were most susceptible to a potential influence of SEI

  6. Nutrition in adolescence. A longitudinal study in dietary patterns from teenager to adult.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports the longitudinal changes in dietary intake of a group of Dutch adolescents, 103 girls and 97 boys from about 12 to 21 years of age (part of 'The Amsterdam Growth and Health Study'). The subjects were pupils of a secondary school, and measured five times. A dietary history method

  7. Adolescent Problem Behavior in Navi Mumbai: An Exploratory Study of Psychosocial Risk and Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, R. J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: A conceptual framework about protective factors (models protection, controls protection, support protection) and risk factors (models risk, opportunity risk, vulnerability risk) was employed to articulate the content of five psychosocial contexts of adolescent life--individual, family, peers, school, and neighborhood--in a study of…

  8. Technological Thinking and Practice in the Social Studies: Transcending the Tumultuous Adolescence of Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Michael J.; Balyta, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The authors reflect on the evolving role of technology in the field of social studies and compare the tumultuous adolescence of technology integration with future trends in teaching and learning. The discourse contrasts the past developments with ongoing innovation and efforts to promote the diffusion of emerging applications in the social…

  9. A Case Study of the Suicide of a Gifted Female Adolescent: Implications for Prediction and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    In this case study focusing on a gifted adolescent female who took her life at the age of 18 using a firearm, the researcher investigated the personal, environmental, and cultural variables that may have contributed to her suicide. Data were collected from interviews, documents, and other artifacts, including a videotape that was a compilation of…

  10. Adolescent Risk Behaviors: Studying Typical and Atypical Individuals via Multidimensional Scaling Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yang; Ding, Cody

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of problem behavior theory, the purpose of this study was to examine risk behavior profiles of typical and atypical adolescents and the differential outcomes of well-beings for these individuals in the United States. Based on the data from the survey of Health Behavior of School-Aged Children by World Health Organization,…

  11. Emotional Psychopathology and Increased Adiposity: Follow-Up Study in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Estefania; Canals, Josefa; Voltas, Nuria; Hernandez-Martinez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Based on data from a three-year longitudinal study, we assess the effect, according to gender, of emotional psychopathology in preadolescence on anthropometric and body composition parameters in adolescence (N = 229). Psychopathology was assessed using the "Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders, the Children's Depression…

  12. Prenatal Smoking and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Children Studied from Childhood to Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Janka; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Timmermans, Maartje; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate whether prenatal smoking was only related to externalizing or both internalizing and externalizing problems in children from childhood to early adolescence. Results indicated that maternal smoking during pregnancy is an accurate predictor of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology among children.

  13. Physical activity, cognitive performance, and academic achievement: an observational study in Dutch adolescents using accelerometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Savelberg, Hans; Van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Van Dijk, M. L., De Groot, R. H. M., Savelberg, H. C. M., Van Acker, F. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, 7 November). Physical activity, cognitive performance, and academic achievement: an observational study in Dutch adolescents using accelerometers. Paper presentation at ICO National Fall School 2

  14. Physical activity, cognitive performance, and academic achievement: an observational study in Dutch adolescents using accelerometers

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Savelberg, Hans; Van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Van Dijk, M. L., De Groot, R. H. M., Savelberg, H. C. M., Van Acker, F. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, 7 November). Physical activity, cognitive performance, and academic achievement: an observational study in Dutch adolescents using accelerometers. Paper presentation at ICO National Fall School 2013, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

  15. Objectively measured physical activity is negatively associated with academic achievement in adolescents: The GOALS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Van Acker, Frederik; Savelberg, Hans; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Van Dijk, M. L., De Groot, R. H. M., Van Acker, F. H. M., Savelberg, H. C. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 7 November). Objectively measured physical activity is negatively associated with academic achievement in adolescents: The GOALS Study. Roundtable presentation at ICO Fall School 2012, Girona, Sp

  16. Objectively measured physical activity is negatively associated with academic achievement in adolescents: The GOALS Study

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Van Acker, Frederik; Savelberg, Hans; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Van Dijk, M. L., De Groot, R. H. M., Van Acker, F. H. M., Savelberg, H. C. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 7 November). Objectively measured physical activity is negatively associated with academic achievement in adolescents: The GOALS Study. Roundtable presentation at ICO Fall School 2012, Girona, Spain.

  17. Associations between physical activity, cognitive performance, and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents: The GOALS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Savelberg, Hans; Van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Van Dijk, M. L., De Groot, R. H. M., Van Acker, F., Savelberg, H. C. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, 12 November). Associations between physical activity, cognitive performance, and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents: The GOALS Study. Presentation at the Learning and Cognition plenary, Heerlen,

  18. Associations between physical activity, cognitive performance, and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents: The GOALS Study

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Savelberg, Hans; Van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Van Dijk, M. L., De Groot, R. H. M., Van Acker, F., Savelberg, H. C. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, 12 November). Associations between physical activity, cognitive performance, and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents: The GOALS Study. Presentation at the Learning and Cognition plenary, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  19. The Relation of Emotional Maltreatment to Early Adolescent Competence: Developmental Processes in a Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Anne; Yates, Tuppett M.; Egeland, Byron R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This investigation examined developmental pathways between childhood emotional maltreatment and adaptational outcomes in early adolescence. This study utilized a developmental psychopathology perspective in adopting a multidimensional approach to the assessment of different forms of emotional maltreatment and later adjustment outcomes.…

  20. A Qualitative Study of Educator and Counselor Interdisciplinary Collaboration Regarding Adolescent Substance Abusers' Academic Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henegar, LaTrica Y.

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive qualitative study explored the lived perceptions and views of middle school teachers, school counselors, and Licensed Professional Counselors (LPCs) within central Alabama's middle school system. The problem explored is adolescent substance abuse students whose academic attainment may be affected by their drug abuse.…

  1. A Study of Firesetting and Animal Cruelty in Children: Family Influences and Adolescent Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kimberly D.; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Herrera, Veronica M.; McCloskey, Laura A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate relationships among family risk factors, childhood firesetting and animal cruelty, and adolescent delinquency. Method: In 1990, mothers and children participating in a 10-year prospective study provided information about family risk factors and childhood problem behavior. Subsequent interviews with 86% of the sample in…

  2. Stressed out? Associations between perceived and physiological stress responses in adolescents : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Bosch, Nienke M.; Bouma, Esther M. C.; Van Roon, Arie M.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Riese, Harriette

    2011-01-01

    Studies regarding the interrelation of perceived and physiological stress indices have shown diverging results. Using a population sample of adolescents (N=715, 50.9% girls, mean age 16.11 years, SD=0.59), we tested three hypotheses: (1) perceived responses during social stress covary with concurren

  3. Adolescents' Perspectives on the Barriers and Facilitators of Physical Activity: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, João; Marques, Adilson; Sarmento, Hugo; Carreiro da Costa, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This article examined qualitative studies of adolescents' perspectives about the facilitators and barriers of physical activity, published from 2007 to 2014. A systematic review of "Web of Science", "EBSCO", "Psychinfo" and "ERIC" databases was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic…

  4. Effects of Group Therapy on Female Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thun, Debra; Sims, Patricia L.; Adams, Mary Ann; Webb, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Explores treatment interventions for female sexual abuse survivors through a pilot study examining the relationship between group treatment and adolescent self-image. Results revealed that participants who received group therapy increased in levels of impulse control and that the experimental group had a decrease in self-reliance whereas the…

  5. An Acoustic and Perceptual Study of Final Stops Produced by Profoundly Hearing Impaired Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouw, Edward; Ciocca, Valter

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated formant frequencies for their role as acoustic and perceptual correlates to the place of articulation of Cantonese final stops produced by profoundly hearing impaired speakers. Method: Speakers were 10 Cantonese adolescents (mean age = 13;5 [years;months]) who were profoundly hearing impaired (HI). Control speakers…

  6. An Acoustic and Perceptual Study of Initial Stops Produced by Profoundly Hearing Impaired Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouw, Edward; Ciocca, Valter

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the role of Voice Onset Time (VOT) as perceptual cue to the aspiration contrast of Cantonese initial stops produced by adolescent profoundly hearing impaired speakers. Speakers with normal hearing signalled the aspiration contrast through VOT differences. Hearing impaired speakers produced initial stops with no significant…

  7. Motives for Risk-Taking in Adolescence: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloep, M.; Guney, N.; Cok, F.; Simsek, O. F.

    2009-01-01

    Most research on adolescent risk-taking has been conducted in Western societies, but it is as yet unknown whether motives to engage in risk behaviours show cultural variety. This study sets out to investigate differences in perceived motives to engage in perceived risks in Turkish and Welsh samples of young people (N = 922) between 14 and 20 years…

  8. Predictors and Health-Related Outcomes of Positive Body Image in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential…

  9. Antidepressant Use and Body Mass Index Change in Overweight Adolescents: A Historical Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cockerill, Richard G.; Biggs, Bridget K.; Oesterle, Tyler S.; Croarkin, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Given the limited empirical data on antidepressant use and weight change in children, we performed a historical cohort study to assess change in age- and sex-standardized body mass index associated with antidepressant use among overweight adolescents diagnosed with a depressive disorder.

  10. Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borremans, Erwin; Rintala, Pauli; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    While physical activity is beneficial for youth with developmental disabilities, little is known about those individuals' fitness profile and levels of activity. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the physical fitness profile and physical activity level of 30 adolescents with and without Asperger syndrome (AS). Evaluations were…

  11. "I Feel So Confused": A Longitudinal Study of Young Adolescents' Change in Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the growth of early adolescent self-esteem and self-concept as students progress through the middle level years (sixth through eighth grade). Based on mixed method longitudinal research conducted from 2004 to 2007, the study's findings suggest that this sample of 104 urban students' self-esteem changed most significantly…

  12. An Empirical Study Examining the Impact of Gambling Advertisements on Adolescent Gambling Attitudes and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevensky, Jeffrey; Sklar, Alissa; Gupta, Rina; Messerlian, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Based upon a previous qualitative study a questionnaire ascertaining adolescents' awareness of gambling advertisements and their impact upon their behavior was developed and administered to 1,147 youth between the ages of 12 and 19. The findings suggest that almost all youth report being exposed to advertising with many individuals indicating…

  13. Acculturation, Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese American Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda P.; Cookston, Jeffrey T.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on the perceptions of discrimination for Chinese American adolescents: how perceptions changed over time, how generational status and acculturation were related to these changes, and whether earlier discrimination experiences were related to subsequent depressive symptomatology. The sample included 309 Chinese American…

  14. Creating a Future: A Study of Resilience in Suicidal Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everall, Robin D.; Altrows, K. Jessica; Paulson, Barbara L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors designed this study to understand how adolescents overcome suicidality from the subjective perspective of 13 previously suicidal female participants. A resilience framework was used to conceptualize the process. Data analysis using basic interpretive qualitative inquiry revealed 4 domains of resilience: social processes, emotional…

  15. Parental Monitoring, Peer Activities and Alcohol Use: A Study Based on Data on Swedish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Daniel; Hagquist, Curt; Starrin, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study investigates the association between two types of social relations during leisure time (to parents and peers) and the frequency of alcohol use among Swedish adolescents, taking possible interaction effects into account. Methods: The data were collected during the 1995-2005 time period by using a questionnaire handed out in the…

  16. The Importance of Emotional Insight in Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Anorexia Nervosa: An Adolescent Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupa, Megha; Girimaji, Satish; Muthuswamy, Selvi; Jacob, Preeti; Ravi, Malavika

    2013-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a rare but sever psychiatric disorder in adolescence, with chronicity and death being the most feared consequence. Emotional Insight into one's problem is considered a key determinant of success in therapy. The following case study of a 14-year-old client, describes the process of therapy as it unfolded across 45 sessions. An…

  17. The Developmental Course of Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence: The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oort, F. V. A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the development of anxiety symptoms from late childhood to late adolescence. The present study determined developmental trajectories of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoPh), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a large…

  18. Children of the Land: Adversity and Success in Rural America. Studies on Successful Adolescent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Glen H., Jr.; Conger, Rand D.

    Based on the rural life experiences of Iowa children who grew up during the great farm crisis of the 1980s, this book focuses on successful adolescent development and its links to the social resources of families with ties to the land. In 1989, the Iowa Youth and Families Project began a panel study of 451 two-parent families in north central…

  19. A cognitive-behavioural program for adolescents with chronic pain - A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.P.B.M. Merlijn (Vivian); J.A.M. Hunfeld (Joke); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans); A.A.J.M. Hazebroek-Kampschreur (Alice); L.W.A. van Suijlekom-Smit (Lisette); B.W. Koes (Bart); J. Passchier (Jan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this pilot study is to evaluate the feasibility of a cognitive-behavioural training program for adolescents with chronic pain irrespective of pain localisation. A secondary aim was to give an impression of the effect of the program on pain and quality of life. Eight adoles

  20. Correlates of Adolescent Pregnancy in La Paz, Bolivia: Findings from a Quantitative-Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovsek, Varja; Karim, Ali Mehryar; Gutierrez, Emily Zielinski; Magnani, Robert J.; Gomez, Maria del Carmen Castro

    2002-01-01

    Study explores why some female adolescents in La Paz, Bolivia, become pregnant while others in similar circumstances avoid early pregnancy. Results reveal that girls who had experienced a pregnancy were less likely to have reported affectionate and supportive parents, more likely to have reported fighting in their home, and exhibited lower levels…

  1. EFFECT OF CONVENTIONAL TENS VERSUS SPINAL MOBILIZATION IN PRIMARY DYSMENORRHEA IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Mistry

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary dysmenorrhea is a common disabilitating factor in most of the adolescent girls. It is a major cause of inability to concentrate on their work or studies, class or school absenteeism, inability to perform in their academic activities. This study conducted to assess the effect of non-invasive treatments for pain relief during dysmenorrhea. Aim and Objectives: To study the effect of Conventional TENS and Spinal mobilization on pain in Primary Dysmenorrhea in adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: Fifty adolescent girls aged between 14-18 years were selected for the study that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Quasi experimental study was done to compare the effect of TENS and Maitland’s spinal mobilisation in Adolscent girls suffering from primary dysmenorrhea. They were randomly divided in two groups: Group A for TENS (n= 24 and Group B for spinal mobilisation (n= 26 and participant’s menstrual history was recorded. Girls with severe dysmenorrhea, pelvic pathology and spinal pathology were excluded from this study. Treatment was given on 1st and 2nd day of menstruation period. Adolescent girls marked the Short form Mc gill Pain Questionnaire (SFMPQ which includes PPI and VAS before and just after the treatment. Total scores were noted and subjected to statistical analysis. Result: Data was analyzed using Mann Whitney U test which compared data between groups; results were not statistically significant (p> 0.05 for SFMPQ, PPI and VAS. Pain relief was approximately the same for the two groups. Conclusion: The study concludes that TENS and mobilisation both are effective reducing pain among adolescent girls who suffer from primary dysmenorrhea.

  2. Spatiotemporal dipole source localization of face processing ERPs in adolescents: a preliminary study

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    McAlonan Grainne

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite extensive investigation of the neural systems for face perception and emotion recognition in adults and young children in the past, the precise temporal activation of brain sources specific to the processing of emotional facial expressions in older children and adolescents is not well known. This preliminary study aims to trace the spatiotemporal dynamics of facial emotion processing during adolescence and provide a basis for future developmental studies and comparisons with patient populations that have social-emotional deficits such as autism. Methods We presented pictures showing happy, angry, fearful, or neutral facial expressions to healthy adolescents (aged 10–16 years and recorded 128-channel event-related potentials (ERPs while they performed an emotion discrimination task. ERP components were analyzed for effects of age and emotion on amplitude and latency. The underlying cortical sources of scalp ERP activity were modeled as multiple equivalent current dipoles using Brain Electrical Source Analysis (BESA. Results Initial global/holistic processing of faces (P1 took place in the visual association cortex (lingual gyrus around 120 ms post-stimulus. Next, structural encoding of facial features (N170 occurred between 160–200 ms in the inferior temporal/fusiform region, and perhaps early emotion processing (Vertex Positive Potential or VPP in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex. Finally, cognitive analysis of facial expressions (P2 in the prefrontal cortex and emotional reactions in somatosensory areas were observed from about 230 ms onwards. The temporal sequence of cortical source activation in response to facial emotion processing was occipital, prefrontal, fusiform, parietal for young adolescents and occipital, limbic, inferior temporal, and prefrontal for older adolescents. Conclusion This is a first report of high-density ERP dipole source analysis in healthy adolescents which traces the sequence of

  3. Why Missing Data Matter in the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Development: Using the 4-H Study to Understand the Uses of Different Missing Data Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelicic, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    The study of adolescent development rests on methodologically appropriate collection and interpretation of longitudinal data. While all longitudinal studies of adolescent development involve missing data, the methods to treat missingness that have been recommended most often focus on missing data from cross-sectional studies. The problems of…

  4. Epidemiologic Studies in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: A Review of Methodology

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    Onur Burak Dursun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood psychiatric disorders are estimated to influence about 9 to 21% of relevant age group and interest in this disorders are increasing all over the world. The growing need to child and adolescent mental health leads the task of establishing proposals and policies in this field to become a priority for governments. The first step of such proposals should be determination of prevalence of child and adolescent mental disorders in that country. However, several major methodological problems make it hard to provide accurate prevalence estimates from epidemiological studies. Most common problems are within the fields of sampling, case definition, case ascertainment and data analyses. Such issues increases the costs of studies and hinder to reach large sample sizes. To minimize these problems, investigators have to be careful on choosing the appropriate methodology and diagnostic tools in their studies. Although there are many interviews and questionnaires for screening and diagnosing in child and adolescent psychiatry, only a few of them are suitable for epidemiological research. In parallel with the improvement in all fields of child and adolescent mental health in our country, some of the major screening and diagnosing tools used in prevalence studies in literature have already been translated and validated in Turkish. Most important of this tools for screening purposes are Child Behavior Checklist and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and for diagnosing purposes are Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version and Development and Well-Being Assessment. The aims of this article are to review the methodological problems of epidemiologic studies in child and adolescent psychiatry and to briefly discuss suitable diagnostic tools for extended sampled epidemiologic studies in our country.

  5. Health problem behaviors in Iranian adolescents: A study of cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Eslami

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Iranian versions of the personality and behavior system scales (49 items of the AHDQ (The Adolescent Health and Development Questionnaire and interrelations among them based on Jessor′s PBT (Problem Behavior Theory. Methods: A multi-staged approach was employed. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the internationally recommended methodology, using the following guidelines: translation, back-translation, revision by a committee, and pretest. After modifying and identifying of the best items, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of Persian version using calibration and validation samples of adolescents. Also 113 of them completed it again two weeks later for stability. Results: The findings of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor solution with low self concept, emotional distress, general delinquency, cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and hard drugs use provided a better fitting model. The a range for these identified factors was 0.69 to 0.94, the ICC range was 0.73 to 0.93, and there was a significant difference in mean scores for these instruments in compare between the male normative and detention adolescents. The first and second-order measurement models testing found good model fit for the 7-factor model. Conclusions: Factor analyses provided support of existence internalizing and externalizing problem behavior syndrome. With those qualifications, this model can be applied for studies among Persian adolescents.

  6. ICQ (I seek you) and adolescents: a quantitative study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuk, W S; Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2007-02-01

    The Hong Kong Government and the education sector encourage the whole population-from toddlers to senior citizens-to utilize information technology, and many do. Yet there are no studies exploring the patterns of adolescents using ICQ (I seek you) in Asian countries. This study was done in Hong Kong, which has the greatest number of ICQ users. A quantitative approach was adopted by administering self-constructed questionnaires to the students of one high school. One hundred and forty-seven adolescents volunteered to participate. The key findings of the study are (1) most of the adolescents have been using ICQ for 1-4 years; (2) most fit one of two patterns of use: either 2 or 3 days per week, or more than 5 days per week; (3) they spend less than 3 h per day on ICQ; (4) the main reasons for using ICQ are entertainment, relaxation, and socializing; and (5) parents are concerned about possible negative impacts on their children's academic performance because of using ICQ. Two main implications are drawn: proper use of ICQ can minimize parental distress and encourage adolescents to be less sedentary. PMID:17305456

  7. Family relations, stressful events and internalizing symptoms in adolescence: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Adriana Raquel Binsfeld; Teodoro, Maycoln Leoni Martins; Falcke, Denise

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine how emotional and behavioral problems of parents and children and the characteristics of family relationships can be predictors of internalizing symptoms manifested by children after one year. This was a quantitative research study, of the longitudinal type, with a one year interval between the first and second evaluation. Participants were 139 adolescents, and their parents, with ages ranged from 11 to 16 years (M age = 12.90, SD = 1.07). The instruments used were: a Socio-Demographic Data Sheet, Youth Self-Report of 11 to 18 years old (YSR), Adult Self-Report of 18 to 59 years old (ASR), Familiogram (FG), the Family Climate Inventory (FCI) and Inventory of Stressful Events in Adolescence (ISEA). Results indicated that family relationships did not have a significant explanatory power in relation to internalizing symptoms of the adolescent after a year. Based on this study, it is possible to think that during adolescence, the power of the family to influence becomes more restricted in comparison with social and peer influence. PMID:24230920

  8. A Cross Sectional Study to Assess Socio Economic Complications of Adolescent Pregnancy in a Metropolitan City of Central India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Dubey, Sanjay Dixit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available "Background: Teenage pregnancy is not new to this century which is pregnancy in a female under the age of 20 (when the pregnancy ends. Half of all the teenage births occur in just 7 countries, namely Bangladesh, Brazil, Congo, Ethiopia, Nigeria, India and USA. Present study assessed the prevalence of adolescent pregnancies and correlate with their social background, also to study the possible socio-economic problems specific to pregnant adolescents. Methods: The cross sectional study is conducted at Hukumchand hospital, District hospital and MGM medical college from 1st October 2011 to 1st September 2012. The delivered mothers were visited daily and detailed history was taken in a pre-designed, semi-open pro-forma. Study Group include Adolescent mothers (Study group 14-20 years & Mothers 20-28 years (Control group. Result: 12.05% of the total deliveries were teenage pregnancy. 31.74% were adolescent deliveries out of the total primi-gravida. 77 (43.75% adolescent mothers were found in the age group of 17-19 years. In non-adolescent mothers 68 (38.64% beneficiaries were in 21-23 years. Mean age of delivery in adolescent age was 18.45 years as compared to 22.28 years in control group. Only 41 (11.65% beneficiaries were graduates and above. Most beneficiaries were in the Socio Economic Status Class III and IV. 101 (57.39% adolescent mothers had alcoholic/addict fathers as compared to 54 (30.68% in non-adolescent mothers. Conclusion: Most of adolescent mothers had low education, rural background and belonged to low socioeconomic status with history of both pre and post marital sex discrimination."

  9. Study Habits And Academic Achievement 
Of Kashmiri & Ladakhi Adolescent Girls: A Comparative Study


    OpenAIRE

    N. A. NADEEM; Javeed Ahamd PUJA; BHAT, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to study the Study Habits and Academic Achievement of Adolescents girls in Jammu and Kashmir. 400 sample subjects were selected randomly from two ethnic groups’ viz. Kashmiri and Ladakhi. The investigators used Palsane & Sharma’s study habits inventory (PSSHI) to collect data from the field. Certain statistical techniques like percentage, S. D., Mean and t-value were used to analyze the data. The result confirms Significant mean difference were found betwee...

  10. Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and generalised anxiety disorder in adolescents after a natural disaster: a study of comorbidity

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    Bastia Binaya

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on mental health sequel in adolescents following natural disasters from developing countries is scant. Method Around one year after a super-cyclone, proportion of adolescents exhibiting post-traumatic psychiatric symptoms, prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, major depression and generalized anxiety disorder, comorbidity and impairment of performance in school were studied in Orissa, India. Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents was used for evaluation and diagnosis. The criteria for diagnoses were based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – IV. Results Post-disaster psychiatric presentation in adolescents was a conglomeration of PTSD, depression and anxiety symptoms. The prevalences of PTSD, major depressive disorder and generalised anxiety disorder were 26.9%, 17.6% and 12.0% respectively. Proportion of adolescents with any diagnosis was 37.9%. Comorbidity was found in 39.0% of adolescents with a psychiatric diagnosis. Adolescents from middle socioeconomic status were more affected. There were gender differences in the presentation of the symptoms rather than on the prevalence of diagnoses. Prolonged periods of helplessness and lack of adequate post-disaster psychological support were perceived as probable influencing factors, as well as the severity of the disaster. Conclusion The findings of the study highlight the continuing need for identification and intervention for post-disaster psychiatric morbidities in adolescent victims in developing countries.

  11. Reach Out and Read is Feasible and Effective for Adolescent Mothers: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Maya M; Cowan, Henry R; Erdman, Lauren; Kaufman, Miriam; Hick, Katherine M

    2016-03-01

    Objectives The Reach Out and Read program (ROaR) is associated with increased parent-child book reading and improved language development in children. Though children of adolescent parents may have an elevated risk of language delay, ROaR has never been specifically studied among adolescent-headed families. This pilot evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of ROaR among adolescent mothers and their children. Methods This randomized controlled pilot followed thirty adolescent mothers with children aged 6-20 months in a teen-tot clinic in downtown Toronto. At each of three consecutive well child checkups, intervention families received a new children's book, reading-related anticipatory guidance customized to the mother's developmental stage, counselling from a librarian, and a public library card. Control families received routine care. At baseline and study completion, all mothers completed a survey on family reading patterns and the Beck Depression Inventory-Revised (BDI-IA). Results Though regression models were not statistically significant, bivariate analyses at study completion revealed that intervention mothers were significantly more likely than controls to report reading as one of the child's favorite activities (29 vs 0 %) and had significantly lower maternal depression scores (7.0 vs 12.5; ≥10 = clinically significant depression). Trends for all other variables, including time spent reading together and maternal enjoyment of reading, were also in the direction of benefit. This program was implemented at minimal cost and adopted permanently following study completion. Conclusions This feasible and developmentally appropriate intervention shows promise in promoting shared book reading and reducing maternal depression within adolescent-headed families, warranting investigation with larger trials. PMID:26520158

  12. Video Game Playing Effects on Obesity in an Adolescent with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahan, Brandy E.; Elder, Jennifer H.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has tripled in the past two decades, and adolescents with disabilities, specifically autism spectrum disorders (ASD), may be at greater risk for obesity due to the behavioral, physical, and psychosocial complications related to their disorder. This case study reports the effects of video game playing on an obese adolescent with ASD and illustrates the use of a multiple baseline single subject design. Over 12 weeks, the participant played inactive (6 weeks) and active video games (6 weeks) on the Wii console. Physiological data were evaluated weekly at home. Stress and anxiety were measured via the Stress Survey Schedule for Individuals with Autism and Other Pervasive Non-Developmental Disorders (SSS) and the Behavior Assessment System for Children Second Edition (BASC-2) pre- and postintervention. The Therapy Attitude Inventory (TAI) was used to determine parental perception of video game playing as a socially valid intervention to reduce stress and anxiety. Results demonstrated that active video game playing slowed and/or reduced weight and BMI with minimal changes to waist-to-hip ratios, triceps skinfolds, and stress and anxiety. This study demonstrates how alternative methods for physical activity may be used to improve health outcomes of overweight/obese adolescents with ASD and suggests directions for future research. PMID:26783457

  13. Fluid intake in Spanish children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Fenández-Alvira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some studies demonstrated that dehydration process is prevalent among young populations and subsequently, a cause of concern. However, the evaluation of the fluid consumption pattern of children and adolescent populations has not been widely assessed. Objective: To evaluate the total fluid intake from different types of beverages in Spanish children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 238 children and adolescents aged 3-17 years were randomly recruited from all Spanish regions. The information about the quantity and quality of daily fluid intake from different types of beverages was collected using a 24 h fluid-specific diary over 7 consecutive days. Results: Fluid intake was < 80% of the EFSA recommendations in 87% of the study population. In our sample, water was the main contributor to fluid intake, followed by milk and derivates and sweet regular beverages. No differences in consumption patterns were found according to gender. Consumption of hot beverages as well as sweet regular and sweet light beverages increased with age, while milk and milk derivates consumption decreased. Conclusion: The large majority of our young population did not meet the EFSA recommendations for total water intake. Therefore, an increase in plain water consumption in children and adolescents should be promoted in order to fulfill the fluid needs without increasing calorie intake.

  14. Implicit self-esteem decreases in adolescence: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huajian; Wu, Mingzheng; Luo, Yu L L; Yang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Implicit self-esteem has remained an active research topic in both the areas of implicit social cognition and self-esteem in recent decades. The purpose of this study is to explore the development of implicit self-esteem in adolescents. A total of 599 adolescents from junior and senior high schools in East China participated in the study. They ranged in age from 11 to 18 years with a mean age of 14.10 (SD = 2.16). The degree of implicit self-esteem was assessed using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) with the improved D score as the index. Participants also completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (α = 0.77). For all surveyed ages, implicit self-esteem was positively biased, all ts>8.59, all psself-esteem and age was significant, r =  -.25, p = 1. 10(-10). A regression with implicit self-esteem as the criterion variable, and age, gender, and age × gender interaction as predictors further revealed the significant negative linear relationship between age and implicit self-esteem, β = -0.19, t = -3.20, p = 0.001. However, explicit self-esteem manifested a reverse "U" shape throughout adolescence. Implicit self-esteem in adolescence manifests a declining trend with increasing age, suggesting that it is sensitive to developmental or age-related changes. This finding enriches our understanding of the development of implicit social cognition. PMID:24587169

  15. Video Game Playing Effects on Obesity in an Adolescent with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahan, Brandy E; Elder, Jennifer H

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has tripled in the past two decades, and adolescents with disabilities, specifically autism spectrum disorders (ASD), may be at greater risk for obesity due to the behavioral, physical, and psychosocial complications related to their disorder. This case study reports the effects of video game playing on an obese adolescent with ASD and illustrates the use of a multiple baseline single subject design. Over 12 weeks, the participant played inactive (6 weeks) and active video games (6 weeks) on the Wii console. Physiological data were evaluated weekly at home. Stress and anxiety were measured via the Stress Survey Schedule for Individuals with Autism and Other Pervasive Non-Developmental Disorders (SSS) and the Behavior Assessment System for Children Second Edition (BASC-2) pre- and postintervention. The Therapy Attitude Inventory (TAI) was used to determine parental perception of video game playing as a socially valid intervention to reduce stress and anxiety. Results demonstrated that active video game playing slowed and/or reduced weight and BMI with minimal changes to waist-to-hip ratios, triceps skinfolds, and stress and anxiety. This study demonstrates how alternative methods for physical activity may be used to improve health outcomes of overweight/obese adolescents with ASD and suggests directions for future research. PMID:26783457

  16. Video Game Playing Effects on Obesity in an Adolescent with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandy E. Strahan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity has tripled in the past two decades, and adolescents with disabilities, specifically autism spectrum disorders (ASD, may be at greater risk for obesity due to the behavioral, physical, and psychosocial complications related to their disorder. This case study reports the effects of video game playing on an obese adolescent with ASD and illustrates the use of a multiple baseline single subject design. Over 12 weeks, the participant played inactive (6 weeks and active video games (6 weeks on the Wii console. Physiological data were evaluated weekly at home. Stress and anxiety were measured via the Stress Survey Schedule for Individuals with Autism and Other Pervasive Non-Developmental Disorders (SSS and the Behavior Assessment System for Children Second Edition (BASC-2 pre- and postintervention. The Therapy Attitude Inventory (TAI was used to determine parental perception of video game playing as a socially valid intervention to reduce stress and anxiety. Results demonstrated that active video game playing slowed and/or reduced weight and BMI with minimal changes to waist-to-hip ratios, triceps skinfolds, and stress and anxiety. This study demonstrates how alternative methods for physical activity may be used to improve health outcomes of overweight/obese adolescents with ASD and suggests directions for future research.

  17. A Study of Nutritional Status of Adolescent Girls in Rural Area of Bhopal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheloj M Joshi, Swarna Likhar, Sanjay S Agarwal, Mahesh Kumar Mishra, Umashankar Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Majority of rural adolescent girls were under nourished. There was significant association between socio-economic status (SES and nutritional status of adolescent girls. Nutritional status has profound effect on health and school performance of adolescent girls.

  18. Does socioeconomic status in adolescence predict low back pain in adulthood? A repeated cross-sectional study of 4,771 Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Korsholm, Lars; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte;

    2008-01-01

    years later. Socioeconomic data of the parents (education, income, social class and long-term illness, all for both mother and father) were collected in 1994. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between each parameter of parental SES in adolescence and LBP at baseline as......Social and economic disadvantage is associated with general poor physical health. This relationship has been recognised for centuries, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic factors have a specific influence on low back pain (LBP). Furthermore, it is unknown how social and economic disadvantages...... in youth affect adult health. Therefore, the specific objectives of this study are to explore (1) the cross-sectional association between socioeconomic status (SES) and LBP in adolescence and (2) the longitudinal association between SES in adolescence and LBP in early adulthood. A database containing...

  19. Short-term outcomes of community-based adolescent weight management: The Loozit® Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohn Michael R

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Loozit® Study is a randomised controlled trial investigating extended support in a 24 month community-based weight management program for overweight to moderately obese, but otherwise healthy, 13 to 16 year olds. Methods This pre-post study examines the two month outcomes of the initial Loozit® group intervention received by both study arms. Adolescents (n = 151; 48% male and their parents separately attended seven weekly group sessions focused on lifestyle modification. At baseline and two months, adolescents' anthropometry, blood pressure, and fasted blood sample were assessed. Primary outcomes were two month changes in body mass index (BMI z-score and waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR. Secondary outcomes included changes in metabolic profile, self-reported dietary intake/patterns, physical and sedentary activities, psychological characteristics and social status. Changes in outcome measures were assessed using paired samples t-tests for continuous variables or McNemar's test for dichotomous categorical variables. Results Of the 151 adolescents who enrolled, 130 (86% completed the two month program. Among these 130 adolescents (47% male, there was a statistically significant (P 2 [0.41, 0.13], BMI z-score (0.05 [0.06, 0.03], WHtR (0.02 [0.03, 0.01], total cholesterol (0.14 mmol/L [0.24, 0.05] and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.12 mmol/L [0.21, 0.04]. There were improvements in all psychological measures, the majority of the dietary intake measures, and some physical activities (P Conclusions The Loozit® program may be a promising option for stabilizing overweight and improving various metabolic factors, psychological functioning and lifestyle behaviors in overweight adolescents in a community setting. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRNO12606000175572

  20. Study of prevalence of depression in adolescent students of a public school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Bansal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Three to nine per cent of teenagers meet the criteria for depression at any one time, and at the end of adolescence, as many as 20% of teenagers report a lifetime prevalence of depression. Usual care by primary care physicians fails to recognize 30-50% of depressed patients. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional one-time observational study using simple screening instruments for detecting early symptoms of depression in adolescents. Two psychological instruments were used: GHQ-12 and BDI. Also socio-demographic data (e.g. academic performance, marital harmony of parents, bullying in school, etc was collected in a separate semi-structured performa. Statistical analysis was done with Fisher′s Exact Test using SPSS17. Results: 15.2% of school-going adolescents were found to be having evidence of distress (GHQ-12 score e"14; 18.4% were depressed (BDI score e"12; 5.6% students were detected to have positive scores on both the instruments. Certain factors like parental fights, beating at home and inability to cope up with studies were found to be significantly (P < 0.05 associated with higher GHQ-12 scores, indicating evidence of distress. Economic difficulty, physical punishment at school, teasing at school and parental fights were significantly (P < 0.05 associated with higher BDI scores, indicating depression. Conclusion: The study highlights the common but ignored problem of depression in adolescence. We recommend that teachers and parents be made aware of this problem with the help of school counselors so that the depressed adolescent can be identified and helped rather than suffer silently.

  1. Fluid intake patterns: an epidemiological study among children and adolescents in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feferbaum Rubens

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Energy from liquids is one of the most important factors that could impact on the high prevalence of children and adolescents obesity around the world. There are few data on the liquid consumption in Brazil. The aim of this study is to evaluate the volume and quality of liquids consumed by Brazilian children and adolescents and to determine the proportion of their daily energy intake composed of liquids. Methods A multicenter study was conducted in five Brazilian cities; the study included 831 participants between 3 and 17 years of age. A four-day dietary record specific to fluids was completed for each individual, and the volume of and Kcal from liquid intake were evaluated. The average number of Kcal in each beverage was determined based on label information, and the daily energy intake data from liquids were compared with the recommendations of the National Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária– ANVISA, the Brazilian food regulation authority, according to each subject’s age. Results As the children aged, the volume of carbonated beverages that they consumed increased significantly, and their milk intake decreased significantly. For children between the ages of 3 and 10, milk and dairy products contributed the greatest daily number of Kcal from liquids. Sugar sweetened beverages which included carbonated beverages, nectars and artificial beverages, accounted for 37% and 45% of the total Kcal from liquid intake in the 3- to 6-year-old and 7- to 10- year-old groups, respectively. Among adolescents (participants 11- to 17- years old, most of the energy intake from liquids came from carbonated beverages, which accounted for an average of 207 kcal/day in this group (42% of their total energy intake from liquids. Health professionals should be attentive to the excessive consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in children and adolescents. The movement toward healthier dietary patterns at the

  2. Predictors of binge drinking in adolescents: ultimate and distal factors - a representative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donath Carolin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As epidemiological surveys have shown, binge drinking is a constant and wide-spread problem behavior in adolescents. It is not rare to find that more than half of all adolescents engage in this behavior when assessing only the last 4 weeks of time independent of the urbanity of the region they live in. There have been several reviews on predictors of substance consumption in adolescents in general, but there has been less high quality research on predictors of binge drinking, and most studies have not been theoretically based. The current study aimed to analyze the ultimate and distal factors predicting substance consumption according to Petraitis' theory of triadic influence. We assessed the predictive value of these factors with respect to binge drinking in German adolescents, including the identification of influence direction. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th grade of different school types in Germany was carried out (net sample. The return rate of questionnaires was 88% regarding all students whose teachers or school directors had agreed to participate in the study. In this survey, prevalence of binge drinking was investigated as well as potential predictors from the social/interpersonal, the attitudinal/environmental, and the intrapersonal fields (3 factors of Petraitis. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, these variables were included after testing for multicollinearity in order to assess their ability to predict binge drinking. Results Prevalence of binge drinking in the last 30 days was 52.3% for the surveyed adolescents with a higher prevalence for boys (56.9% than for girls (47.5%. The two most influential factors found to protect against binge drinking with p p Conclusions Whereas some of the risk and protective factors for binge drinking are not surprising since they are known for substance abuse in general, there are two points that

  3. Short-term outcomes of community-based adolescent weight management: The Loozit® Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shrewsbury, Vanessa A; Nguyen, Binh; O'Connor, Janice; Steinbeck, Katharine S.; Lee, Anthea; Hill, Andrew J.; Shah, Smita; Kohn, Michael R; Torvaldsen, Siranda; Baur, Louise A

    2011-01-01

    Background The Loozit® Study is a randomised controlled trial investigating extended support in a 24 month community-based weight management program for overweight to moderately obese, but otherwise healthy, 13 to 16 year olds. Methods This pre-post study examines the two month outcomes of the initial Loozit® group intervention received by both study arms. Adolescents (n = 151; 48% male) and their parents separately attended seven weekly group sessions focused on lifestyle modification. At ba...

  4. Short-term outcomes of community-based adolescent weight management: The Loozit® Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kohn Michael R; Shah Smita; Hill Andrew J; Lee Anthea; Steinbeck Katharine S; O'Connor Janice; Nguyen Binh; Shrewsbury Vanessa A; Torvaldsen Siranda; Baur Louise A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The Loozit® Study is a randomised controlled trial investigating extended support in a 24 month community-based weight management program for overweight to moderately obese, but otherwise healthy, 13 to 16 year olds. Methods This pre-post study examines the two month outcomes of the initial Loozit® group intervention received by both study arms. Adolescents (n = 151; 48% male) and their parents separately attended seven weekly group sessions focused on lifestyle modificati...

  5. A review of oral biopsies in children and adolescents: a clinicopathological study of a case series

    OpenAIRE

    Vale, Edivânia Barbosa do; Ramos Perez, Flávia Maria de Moraes; Rodrigues, Gabryelle Linhares Correa; Carvalho, Elaine Judite de Amorim; Castro, Jurema Freire Lisboa de; Perez, Danyel Elias da Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological features of oral lesions in children and adolescents diagnosed in an Oral Pathology Laboratory. Study design: Between 2000 and 2010, all oral lesions diagnosed in patients younger than 18 years old, from the Oral Pathology Laboratory, Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil, were selected for the study. The clinical data were obtained from the patient charts filed in the Laboratory. All cases were microscopically review...

  6. The Skinny on Body Dissatisfaction: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Girls and Boys

    OpenAIRE

    Bearman, Sarah Kate; Martinez, Erin; Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    The present study tested whether theoretically derived risk factors predicted increases in body dissatisfaction and whether gender moderated these relations with data from a longitudinal study of 428 adolescent girls and boys because few prospective studies have examined these aims, despite evidence that body dissatisfaction increases risk for various psychiatric disturbances. Body dissatisfaction showed significant increases for girls and significant decreases for boys during early adolescen...

  7. Cancer Risk in Children and Adolescents with Birth Defects: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Botto, Lorenzo D.; Flood, Timothy; Little, Julian; Fluchel, Mark N.; Krikov, Sergey; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Wu, Yuan; Goedken, Rhinda; Puzhankara, Soman; Romitti, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Birth defects are an increasing health priority worldwide, and the subject of a major 2010 World Health Assembly Resolution. Excess cancer risk may be an added burden in this vulnerable group of children, but studies to date have provided inconsistent findings. This study assessed the risk for cancer in children and young adolescents with major birth defects. Methods and Findings This retrospective, statewide, population-based, cohort study was conducted in three US states (Utah, Ar...

  8. Coping strategies and subjective wellness in adolescents undergoing a school-based drug rehabilitation program : a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, In-wai; 楊妍慧

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined stress coping and some extents of wellbeing in adolescents using drugs, however, not many have assessed changes in these constructs in adolescents undergoing drug rehabilitation. The present study aims to (1) examine changes in coping and domains of subjective wellbeing, and (2) explore potential causal relationship between changes in coping and subjective wellbeing in 111 students currently studying at Christian Zheng Sheng College (ZS). The present study was o...

  9. Neck circumference as a new anthropometric indicator for prediction of insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cleliani de Cassia da Silva; Mariana Porto Zambon; Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Rodrigues, Ana Maria de B.; Daniella Fernandes Camilo; Maria Ângela R.G.M Antonio; Roberta Soares L. Cassani; Bruno Geloneze

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between neck circumference and insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents with different adiposity levels and pubertal stages, as well as to determine the usefulness of neck circumference to predict insulin resistance in adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 388 adolescents of both genders from ten to 19 years old. The adolescents underwent anthropometric and body composition assessment, including neck and waist cir...

  10. Menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls of West Bengal, India: A school based comparative study

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    Adrija Datta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are often less informed, less experienced, and less comfortable accessing reproductive health information and services than adults. In many developing countries, a culture of silence surrounds the topic of menstruation and related issues; as a result many young girls lack appropriate and sufficient information regarding menstrual hygiene. This may result in incorrect and unhealthy behaviour during their menstrual period. Objectives: To assess and compare knowledge, belief, ideas, source of knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene between school-going adolescents in an urban and a rural school of West Bengal, India. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among adolescent female students of Howrah district of West Bengal, India in the year 2011. Data was collected by pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured self administered questionnaire. Results: The mean age at menarche was 12.1 years among urban and 12.2 years among the rural participants. More than 80% participants had some restrictions imposed during menstruation. Significantly higher number of urban girls had pre-menarchal knowledge on menstruation and used sanitary napkins. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. For improvement of menstrual hygiene, sanitary napkins should be made universally available and affordable.

  11. Clustering of Dietary Patterns, Lifestyles, and Overweight among Spanish Children and Adolescents in the ANIBES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Weight gain has been associated with behaviors related to diet, sedentary lifestyle, and physical activity. We investigated dietary patterns and possible meaningful clustering of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep time in Spanish children and adolescents and whether the identified clusters could be associated with overweight. Analysis was based on a subsample (n = 415) of the cross-sectional ANIBES study in Spain. We performed exploratory factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis of dietary patterns, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep time. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between the cluster solutions and overweight. Factor analysis identified four dietary patterns, one reflecting a profile closer to the traditional Mediterranean diet. Dietary patterns, physical activity behaviors, sedentary behaviors and sleep time on weekdays in Spanish children and adolescents clustered into two different groups. A low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern, which included a higher proportion of girls, and a high physical activity, low sedentary behavior, longer sleep duration, healthier diet lifestyle pattern. Although increased risk of being overweight was not significant, the Prevalence Ratios (PRs) for the low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern were >1 in children and in adolescents. The healthier lifestyle pattern included lower proportions of children and adolescents from low socioeconomic status backgrounds. PMID:26729155

  12. Depressive symptoms and the sexual orientation among adolescent students: a cross-sectional study

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    Adalberto Campo-Arias

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Researches in otherpopulations report a strong association between sexual orientationand depressive symptoms, that is, bisexual, gay, lesbian and unsureabout sexual orientation adolescents refer more depressive symptomsthan heterosexual students. Objective: To determine the associationbetween the sexual orientation and depressive symptomsin adolescent students of a public school at the city of Cartagena, Colombia.Method: A cross-sectional study was designed. This surveyincluded students aged 13-17 year-olds. These students completedin the classroom a questionnaire about health behaviors and theZung´s self-rating depression. Logistic regression was computed forcontrolling confounding variables. Results: A total of 432 students,219 boys and 213 girls, completed successfully the survey. The meanage was 14,6 (SD=1,3, and the mean scholarship was 8,4 (1,5. Atotal of 21,1% of girls and 19,2% of boys considered themselvesbisexuals, gays, lesbians or insure about sexual orientation. Depressivesymptoms were related to sexual orientation exclusivally amonggirls (OR=1,10, 95%CI 1,01-1,18, after controlling confounding factors.Conclusions: Among these adolescent students, depressivesymptoms were associated with the sexual orientation only amonggirls. It is likely that this association could be explained better by the gender than the sexual orientation. Futher investigations are needed in Colombian adolescents students.

  13. Developing a Personal and Social Identity With Type 1 Diabetes During Adolescence: A Hypothesis Generative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commissariat, Persis V; Kenowitz, Joslyn R; Trast, Jeniece; Heptulla, Rubina A; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S

    2016-04-01

    This study explored the incorporation of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) into self-identity among adolescents. Guided interviews explored 40 adolescents' views of T1DM in relation to their sense of self and relationships with others. Responses were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results revealed that the entire sample described T1DM as a significant burden; many described how T1DM made them feel less "normal." Adolescents described both positive and negative aspects of self-management in social relationships, though most reported benefits in sharing T1DM with friends. Females were more likely to share information about T1DM and to describe positive changes in self-perception as a result of T1DM. The psychosocial processes related to integration of T1DM into self-identity described in these qualitative data provide hypothesis-generating findings that can guide future quantitative research examining incorporation of T1DM into adolescent self-identity in relation to measures of self-esteem, peer orientation, self-management, and glycemic control. PMID:26893304

  14. Clustering of Dietary Patterns, Lifestyles, and Overweight among Spanish Children and Adolescents in the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pérez-Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Weight gain has been associated with behaviors related to diet, sedentary lifestyle, and physical activity. We investigated dietary patterns and possible meaningful clustering of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep time in Spanish children and adolescents and whether the identified clusters could be associated with overweight. Analysis was based on a subsample (n = 415 of the cross-sectional ANIBES study in Spain. We performed exploratory factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis of dietary patterns, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep time. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between the cluster solutions and overweight. Factor analysis identified four dietary patterns, one reflecting a profile closer to the traditional Mediterranean diet. Dietary patterns, physical activity behaviors, sedentary behaviors and sleep time on weekdays in Spanish children and adolescents clustered into two different groups. A low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern, which included a higher proportion of girls, and a high physical activity, low sedentary behavior, longer sleep duration, healthier diet lifestyle pattern. Although increased risk of being overweight was not significant, the Prevalence Ratios (PRs for the low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern were >1 in children and in adolescents. The healthier lifestyle pattern included lower proportions of children and adolescents from low socioeconomic status backgrounds.

  15. KAP STUDY OF MENSTRUAL PROBLEMS IN ADOLESCENT FEMALES IN AN URBAN AREA OF MEERUT

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    Kalpana Katiyar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation is an important milestone that results in development of sexual and reproductive capacity of girls. Adolescent girls do not have adequate knowledge about the abnormalities and healthy practices to be followed during menstruation. Objective:To find out the knowledge, attitude, practices regarding menstruation and treatment seeking behaviour for menstrual problems in adolescent females.Material & methods: The present cross sectional study was carried out in an urban field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, LLRM Medical College, Meerut on adolescent girls. A sample of 384 was derived and girls were selected by systematic random sampling technique. Detailed information was collected on a predesigned and pretested questionnaire. Results:38.5% girls were aware of menstruation prior to its onset out of which 66.9% learned from their mother. Only 14.6% of the menstruating girls were aware of at least one menstrual disorder. Dysmenorrhoea was found to be the most frequently occurring problem (58.4%, followed by oligomenorrhoea (16.2%, menorrhagia (13.9%, premenstrual tension (13.6%, infrequent menstruation (12.3% and polymenorrhoea (12.2%. Out of the 226(72.7% girls having menstrual problems 77.9% did not seek any treatment for their problems. 55.2% of the menstruating girls were using sanitary pads during menstruation. Conclusion: The adolescent girls are not well prepared and do not have adequate information regarding menstruation which is an important event of life.

  16. A STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH STATUS OF ADOLESCENT GIRLS (10-19 YEARS IN JAIPUR CITY

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    Savita

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available : Adolescence is a time when the body prepares itself for the nutritional demands of pregnancy, lactation and heavy workloads that girls will soon experience. Good nutrition is essential for good health, physical growth and development, body composition and mental development In recent years, the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and childbirth is increasing due to the early onset of puberty, the declining age of menarche and early sexual activity. They need to earn to cope with the future demands of life. Nutritional needs during adolescence are increased because of the increased growth rate and changes in the body composition associated with puberty. The dramatic increase in energy and nutrient requirements coincides with other factors that may affect adolescents’ food choices and nutrient intake and thus nutritional status. National and population based surveys have found that adolescents often fail to meet dietary recommendations for over all nutritional status and for specific nutrient intakes. Nutritional requirements in relation to body size are more during adolescence. In a country like India with varying social customs and common beliefs against females there is a high prevalence of malnutrition amongst girls. Adolescents are tomorrow’s adult population and their health and well-being are crucial. Yet, interest in adolescents’ health is relatively recent and a focus on nutrition is even more recent. Nutrition influences growth and development throughout infancy, childhood and adolescence; it is, however, during the period of adolescence that nutrient needs are the greatest. A questionnaire-based study was undertaken in Jaipur city of Rajasthan with 500 respondents divided equally between government schools and private schools populations. Adolescent girl is subjected to more physical and mental challenges on a day –to-day basis due to ever increasing pressure of modernization. Hence they have to work hard physically as well as

  17. Association of Family Structure to Later Criminality: A Population-Based Follow-Up Study of Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients in Northern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikaheimo, Olli; Laukkanen, Matti; Hakko, Helina; Rasanen, Pirkko

    2013-01-01

    The influence of family structure on criminality in adolescents is well acknowledged in population based studies of delinquents, but not regarding adolescent psychiatric inpatients. The association of family structure to criminality was examined among 508 adolescents receiving psychiatric inpatient treatment between 2001 and 2006. Family structure…

  18. Parents' School Satisfaction and Academic Socialization Predict Adolescents' Autonomous Motivation: A Mixed-Method Study of Low-Income Ethnic Minority Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Jackson, Karen Moran; Pahlke, Erin; McClain, Shannon; Marroquin, Yesenia; Blondeau, Lauren A.; Hong, KyongJoo

    2016-01-01

    In this mixed-methods study, we used an explanatory sequential design to investigate the processes through which parental involvement influences adolescents' achievement motivation. One hundred twenty low-income urban parents and their sixth-grade adolescents completed questionnaires, and a subsample of 11 mothers and 11 adolescents were…

  19. The Role of Attachment to Family, School, and Peers in Adolescents' Use of Alcohol: A Longitudinal Study of Within-Person and Between-Persons Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kimberly L.; Oetting, Eugene R.; Slater, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    A great deal of time and money has been spent to understand why adolescents abuse alcohol. Some of the most fruitful work considers the social context navigated by adolescents, including family, school, and peer contexts. However, most of this work focuses on differences between adolescents in these contexts. The present study adds to the…

  20. Childhood and adolescent predictors of leisure time physical activity during the transition from adolescence to adulthood: a population based cohort study

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    McKercher Charlotte

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated factors that influence physical activity behavior during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. This study explores the associations of sociodemographic, behavioral, sociocultural, attitudinal and physical factors measured in childhood and adolescence with physical activity behavior during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Methods Childhood and adolescent data (at ages 7-15 years were collected as part of the 1985 Australian Health and Fitness Survey and subdivided into sociodemographics (socioeconomic status, parental education, behavioral (smoking, alcohol, sports diversity, outside school sports, sociocultural (active father, active mother, any older siblings, any younger siblings, language spoken at home, attitudinal (sports/recreational competency, self-rated health, enjoyment physical education/physical activity, not enjoying school sports and physical (BMI, time taken to run 1.6 km, long jump factors. Physical activity between the ages 15 and 29 years was reported retrospectively using the Historical Leisure Activity Questionnaire at follow-up in 2004-2006 by 2,048 participants in the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study (CDAH. Australia's physical activity recommendations for children and adults were used to categorize participants as persistently active, variably active or persistently inactive during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Results For females, perceived sports competency in childhood and adolescence was significantly associated with being persistently active (RR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.39, 2.55. Smoking (RR = 0.31 CI = 0.12, 0.82 and having younger siblings (RR = 0.69 CI = 0.52, 0.93 were inversely associated with being persistently active after taking physical and attitudinal factors into account. For males, playing sport outside school (RR = 1.47 CI = 1.05, 2.08, having active fathers (RR = 1.25 CI = 1.01, 1.54 and not enjoying school sport

  1. Parental alcohol use and adolescent school adjustment in the general population: Results from the HUNT study

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    Røysamb Espen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigates the relationship between parental drinking and school adjustment in a total population sample of adolescents, with independent reports from mothers, fathers, and adolescents. As a group, children of alcohol abusers have previously been found to exhibit lowered academic achievement. However, few studies address which parts of school adjustment that may be impaired. Both a genetic approach and social strains predict elevated problem scores in these children. Previous research has had limitations such as only recruiting cases from clinics, relying on single responders for all measures, or incomplete control for comorbid psychopathology. The specific effects of maternal and paternal alcohol use are also understudied. Methods In a Norwegian county, 88% of the population aged 13-19 years participated in a health survey (N = 8984. Among other variables, adolescents reported on four dimensions of school adjustment, while mothers and fathers reported their own drinking behaviour. Mental distress and other control variables were adjusted for. Multivariate analysis including generalized estimation equations was applied to investigate associations. Results Compared to children of light drinkers, children of alcohol abusers had moderately elevated attention and conduct problem scores. Maternal alcohol abuse was particularly predictive of such problems. Children of abstainers did significantly better than children of light drinkers. Controlling for adolescent mental distress reduced the association between maternal abuse and attention problems. The associations between parental reported drinking and school adjustment were further reduced when controlling for the children's report of seeing their parents drunk, which itself predicted school adjustment. Controlling for parental mental distress did not reduce the associations. Conclusions Parental alcohol abuse is an independent risk factor for attention and conduct

  2. Trends in diet quality among adolescents, adults and older adults: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Samantha Caesar de; Previdelli, Ágatha Nogueira; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to monitor diet quality and associated factors in adolescents, adults and older adults from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study involving 2376 individuals surveyed in 2003, and 1662 individuals in 2008 (Health Survey of São Paulo, ISA-Capital). Participants were of both sexes and aged 12 to 19 years old (adolescents), 20 to 59 years old (adults) and 60 years old or over (older adults). Food intake was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method while diet quality was determined by the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R). The prevalence of descriptive variables for 2003 and 2008 was compared adopting a confidence interval of 95%. The means of total BHEI-R score and its components for 2003 and 2008 were compared for each age group. Associations between the BHEI-R and independent variables were evaluated for each survey year using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the mean BHEI-R increased (54.9 vs. 56.4 points) over the five-year period. However, the age group evaluation showed a deterioration in diet quality of adolescents, influenced by a decrease in scores for dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, total grains, oils and SoFAAS (solid fat, alcohol and added sugar) components. In the 2008 survey, adults had a higher BHEI-R score, by 6.1 points on average, compared to adolescents. Compared to older adults, this difference was 10.7 points. The diet quality remains a concern, especially among adolescents, that had the worst results compared to the other age groups. PMID:27547722

  3. A study on assessment of scholastic dropout and its determinants in adolescents residing in Raipur city of Chhattisgarh state

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    Anmol Madhur Minz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, adolescents (10-19 years constitute one fifth of the total population providing promising pillar for our nation's future. Being a sensitive and key transitional period of life adolescents living environment (Family, school, Peers etc. can present new challenges for these adolescents and symptoms of dysfunction may occur. Schooling constitutes major part of adolescent's life, moulding them for bright future but problem like scholastic dropout deprive them and can play as major factor determining their future perspective with regard to personal and social achievements. With this background, the present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of Scholastic dropout problems in adolescents, and its determinants in Raipur city (C.G. India Methods: Cross-sectional community based study was done, using multi stage simple random sampling 32 study (urban and slum areas was selected. 643 adolescents were interviewed with prior consent by house to house survey. Results: Problem of scholastic dropout was 10.89%. Major determinants contributing were socioeconomic status, mother's education, family violence, poor academic performance, Substance abuse. Conclusions: Scholastic dropout seems to be small yet a prevalent problem in our society inspite of many government initiatives and as found in the study problem is multipronged indicating adoption of a holistic approach to alleviate whole environment in which adolescents live in. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(6.000: 1372-1377

  4. Study of blood pressure and blood sugar levels in adolescence and comparison with body mass index

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin Borade; Gauri Shashank Kadam; Gayatri Bhide; Ram Dhongade

    2011-01-01

    Background: Worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing and its consequences prompted the WHO to designate obesity as a global epidemic in 2002. Being overweight is a risk factor for significant illness, especially diabetes and hypertension in adult life. Objectives : To study the blood pressure and blood sugar levels and lifestyle parameters in adolescence and comparison with body mass index. Materials and Methods: In a prospective case control study, out of the 1000 screene...

  5. NON-VERBAL INTELLIGENCE AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AMONG ADOLESCENT STUDENTS:A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Mishra; Amool Ranjan Singh

    2014-01-01

    Objective of the study was to examine the non-verbal intelligence of the adolescent school going students. Hypothesis: There is no significant difference among the school going students with respect to their non-verbal intelligence. Sample: For the present study, total 300 students were taken. All the participants were divided into three groups; 100 high academic achievement group (Mean & SD 13.78±.85), 100 average academic achievement group (13.95±.81) & 100 low academic ...

  6. Association of Overweight and Obesity with Mental Distress in Iranian Adolescents: The CASPIAN-III Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Jari; Mostafa Qorbani; Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh; Ramin Heshmat; Gelayol Ardalan; Roya Kelishadi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Excess weight may be associated with mental distress and this relationship varies according to the socio-cultural background of different populations. This study aims to assess the relationship of overweight and obesity with some psychological disorders in a nationally representative sample of Iranian adolescents. Methods: This nationwide study was conducted in 2009-2010 among 5570 students, aged 10-18 years, living in 27 provinces in Iran. Data were collected by using the tra...

  7. Peer Victimization During Adolescence and Risk for Anxiety Disorders in Adulthood: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stapinski, Lexine A; Bowes, Lucy; Wolke, Dieter; Pearson, Rebecca M.; Mahedy, Liam; Button, Katherine S; Lewis, Glyn; Araya, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Background Peer victimization is ubiquitous across schools and cultures, and has been suggested as one developmental pathway to anxiety disorders. However, there is a dearth of prospective studies examining this relationship. The purpose of this cohort study was to examine the association between peer victimization during adolescence and subsequent anxiety diagnoses in adulthood. A secondary aim was to investigate whether victimization increases risk for severe anxiety presentations involving...

  8. Severity of malocclusion in adolescents: populational-based study in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marise Fagundes Silveira; Rafael Silveira Freire; Marcela Oliveira Nepomuceno; Andrea Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima Martins; Luiz Francisco Marcopito

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion in a population of adolescents. METHODS In this cross-sectional population-based study, the sample size (n = 761) was calculated considering a prevalence of malocclusion of 50.0%, with a 95% confidence level and a 5.0% precision level. The study adopted correction for the effect of delineation (deff = 2), and a 20.0% increase to offset losses and refusals. Multistage probability cluster sampling was adopte...

  9. Phenotypes of severe asthma among children and adolescents in Brazil: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Wenderson Clay Correia de; Lasmar, Laura Maria de Lima Belizário Facury; Ricci, Cristiane de Abreu Tonelli; Camargos, Paulo Augusto Moreira; Álvaro A Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Background The morbidity associated with severe uncontrolled asthma is disproportionately higher in low- and middle-income countries than in high-income countries. The aim of this study was to describe the phenotypic characteristics of difficult-to-treat severe asthma and treatment-resistant severe asthma in a sample of children and adolescents in Brazil. Methods This was a prospective study, conducted between 2010 and 2014, following 61 patients (6–18 years of age) who had been diagnosed wit...

  10. Reading and writing development - A longitudinal study from pre-school to adolescence: status report

    OpenAIRE

    Nauclér, Kerstin; Magnusson, Eva

    1999-01-01

    During the last two decades there has been an increasing tendency to regard reading and writing as linguistic activities. In numerous studies, pre-school children’s linguistic and metalinguistic abilities have been related to their emerging reading and writing skills during the first school years. However, the frequency of such studies tends to decrease as the children grow older, and there are very few investigations of reading and spelling skills of adolescents.

  11. Positive associations between consumerism and tobacco and alcohol use in early adolescence: cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeting, H.N.; Bhaskar, A.; Hunt, K

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is concern about the negative impact of modern consumer culture on young people's mental health, but very few studies have investigated associations with substance use. In those which have, positive associations have been attributed to attempts to satisfy the unmet needs of more materialistic individuals. Objectives: This study examines associations between different dimensions of consumerism and tobacco and alcohol use among Scottish early adolescents. Design: Cross...

  12. The heritability of insomnia from childhood to adolescence: results from a longitudinal twin study

    OpenAIRE

    Barclay, Nicola L; Gehrman, P R; Gregory, Alice M.; Eaves, L. J.; Silberg, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine prevalence and heritability of insomnia during middle/late childhood and adolescence; examine longitudinal associations in insomnia over time; and assess the extent to which genetic and environmental factors on insomnia remain stable, or whether new factors come into play, across this developmental period. Design: Longitudinal twin study. Setting: Academic medical center. Patients or Participants: There were 739 complete monozygotic twin pairs (52%) ...

  13. A study on the prevalence of internet addiction and its association with psychopathology in Indian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Deepak; Subramanyam, Alka; Kamath, Ravindra

    2013-01-01

    Background: There has been an explosive growth of internet use not only in India but also worldwide in the last decade. There is a growing concern about whether this is excessive and, if so, whether it amounts to an addiction. Aim: To study the prevalence of internet addiction and associated existing psychopathology in adolescent age group. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study sample comprising of 987 students of various faculties across the city of Mumbai was conducted after obtain...

  14. Treatment of Child/Adolescent Obesity Using the Addiction Model: A Smartphone App Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pretlow, Robert A.; Stock, Carol M.; Allison, Stephen; Roeger, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to test a weight loss program for young people based on an addiction treatment approach. Methods: A pilot study (n=43) was conducted of a 20-week child/adolescent obesity intervention based on an addiction treatment model (staged, incremental withdrawal from problem foods, snacking/grazing, and excessive amounts at meals) and implemented by a server-integrated smartphone app with health professional support. The primary outcome was standardized %...

  15. Active treatment for idiopathic adolescent scoliosis (ACTIvATeS): a feasibility study.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, MA; Heine, PJ; Williamson, EM; Toye, F; Dritsaki, M; Petrou, S; Crossman, R; Lall, R; Barker, KL; Fairbank, J; Harding, I.; Gardner, A.; Slowther, AM; Coulson, N; Lamb, SE

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of conducting a definitive randomised controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of scoliosis-specific exercises (SSEs) for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is uncertain.The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of conducting a large, multicentre trial of SSE treatment for patients with AIS, in comparison with standard care, and to refine elements of the study design. The objectives were to (1) update a systematic review ...

  16. An exploratory study of predisposing factors for eating disorders in adolescent girls

    OpenAIRE

    Mokbel, Carine

    1988-01-01

    Research efforts in the area of eating disorders have been numerous and varied. However, few studies have investigated the existence of specific predisposing factors that could render a young female adolescent more susceptible to developing an eating disorder. The present study was attempted in an effort to fill this knowledge gap. One hundred and fifty nine, 12 to 14 year old female students not known as having an eating disorder, were surveyed at a public school in Roanoke County, Virginia....

  17. Psycho-social study of adolescent girls of rural Konkan region (Maharashtra)

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna S. Pevekar; Suvarna N. Patil; Ashwini J. Chavan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Konkan area in Maharashtra, India is rich in Biodiversity and known for its Natural Beauty. At the same time geographical difficulties, poor socio-economical status, superstitial and religious beliefs are some important factors contributing to more Psycho-social problems in this area including Physical Health. We focused in this Study to find out Psychological Problems, Health issues and planning future activities for School going adolescent girls. Methods: The Study was carrie...

  18. The ROOTS study: a 10-year review of findings on adolescent depression, and recommendations for future longitudinal research

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Gemma; Jones, Peter B.; Goodyer, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to review longitudinal findings on adolescent mental health from the ‘ROOTS study’, and provide directions and recommendations for future longitudinal research. To do this, we discuss relevant findings from the ROOTS study, and review its strengths and limitations. Methods We examined all publications from the ROOTS study up to July 2015, selected those examining adolescent mental health, and classified them as investigating (a) childhood risk factors for ...

  19. Bullying and Victimization in Overweight and Obese Outpatient Children and Adolescents: An Italian Multicentric Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Bacchini

    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is one of the most common reasons that children and adolescents are teased at school. We carried out a study in order to investigate: i the relation between weight status and school bullying and ii the relation between weight status categories and types of victimization and bullying in an outpatient sample of Italian children and adolescents with different degrees of overweight from minimal overweight up to severe obesity.Nine-hundred-forty-seven outpatient children and adolescents (age range 6.0-14.0 years were recruited in 14 hospitals distributed over the country of Italy. The participants were classified as normal-weight (N = 129, overweight (N = 126, moderately obese (N = 568, and severely obese (N = 124. The nature and extent of verbal, physical and relational bullying and victimization were assessed with an adapted version of the revised Olweus bully-victim questionnaire. Each participant was coded as bully, victim, bully-victim, or not involved.Normal-weight and overweight participants were less involved in bullying than obese participants; severely obese males were more involved in the double role of bully and victim. Severely obese children and adolescents suffered not only from verbal victimization but also from physical victimization and exclusion from group activities. Weight status categories were not directly related to bullying behaviour; however severely obese males perpetrated more bullying behaviour compared to severely obese females.Obesity and bullying among children and adolescents are of ongoing concern worldwide and may be closely related. Common strategies of intervention are needed to cope with these two social health challenges.

  20. Bullying and Victimization in Overweight and Obese Outpatient Children and Adolescents: An Italian Multicentric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrasi, Alessandra; Corciulo, Nicola; Driul, Daniela; Tanas, Rita; Fiumani, Perla Maria; Di Pietro, Elena; Pesce, Sabino; Crinò, Antonino; Maltoni, Giulio; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Sartorio, Alessandro; Deiana, Manuela; Lombardi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Objective Being overweight or obese is one of the most common reasons that children and adolescents are teased at school. We carried out a study in order to investigate: i) the relation between weight status and school bullying and ii) the relation between weight status categories and types of victimization and bullying in an outpatient sample of Italian children and adolescents with different degrees of overweight from minimal overweight up to severe obesity. Participants/Methods Nine-hundred-forty-seven outpatient children and adolescents (age range 6.0–14.0 years) were recruited in 14 hospitals distributed over the country of Italy. The participants were classified as normal-weight (N = 129), overweight (N = 126), moderately obese (N = 568), and severely obese (N = 124). The nature and extent of verbal, physical and relational bullying and victimization were assessed with an adapted version of the revised Olweus bully-victim questionnaire. Each participant was coded as bully, victim, bully-victim, or not involved. Results Normal-weight and overweight participants were less involved in bullying than obese participants; severely obese males were more involved in the double role of bully and victim. Severely obese children and adolescents suffered not only from verbal victimization but also from physical victimization and exclusion from group activities. Weight status categories were not directly related to bullying behaviour; however severely obese males perpetrated more bullying behaviour compared to severely obese females. Conclusions Obesity and bullying among children and adolescents are of ongoing concern worldwide and may be closely related. Common strategies of intervention are needed to cope with these two social health challenges. PMID:26606393