WorldWideScience

Sample records for adolescent treatment sample

  1. The influence of cultural variables on treatment retention and engagement in a sample of Mexican American adolescent males with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow-Sánchez, Jason J; Meyers, Kimberly; Corrales, Carolina; Ortiz-Jensen, Cynthia

    2015-12-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a serious public health concern, and in response to this problem, a number of effective treatment approaches have been developed. Despite this, retaining and engaging adolescents in treatment are 2 major challenges continuously faced by practitioners and clinical researchers. Low retention and engagement rates are especially salient for ethnic minority adolescents because they are at high risk for underutilization of substance abuse treatment compared to their White peers. Latino adolescents, in particular, are part of the fastest growing ethnic minority group in the United States and experience high rates of substance use disorders. Heretofore, the empirical examination of cultural factors that influence treatment retention and engagement has been lacking in the literature. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of the cultural variables ethnic identity, familism, and acculturation on the retention and engagement of Latino adolescents participating in substance abuse treatment. This study used data collected from a sample of Latino adolescent males (N = 96), predominantly of Mexican descent, and largely recruited from the juvenile justice system. Analysis was conducted using generalized regression models for count variables. Results indicated that higher levels of exploration, a subfactor of ethnic identity, and familism were predictive of attendance and engagement. In contrast, higher levels of Anglo orientation, a subfactor of acculturation, were predictive of lower treatment attendance and engagement. Clinical implications for the variables of ethnic identity, acculturation, and familism as well as suggestions for future research are discussed.

  2. The Acceptability of Treatments for Depression to a Community Sample of Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporino, Nicole E.; Karver, Marc S.

    2012-01-01

    An efficacious treatment is diminished in value if consumers do not seek it out and adhere to it, making treatment acceptability an important predictor of the effectiveness of treatment. This study examined the acceptability of treatments for depression to 67 female high school students. All participants read a vignette describing a depressed…

  3. Reliability and Construct Validity of the Dutch Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version--Findings from a Sample of Male Adolescents in a Juvenile Justice Treatment Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jacqueline; de Ruiter, Corine; Doreleijers, Theo; Hillege, Sanne

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the reliability and construct validity of the Dutch version of the Psychopathy Check List: Youth Version (PCL:YV) in a sample of male adolescents admitted to a secure juvenile justice treatment institution (N = 98). Hare's four-factor model is used to examine reliability and validity of the separate dimensions of…

  4. Reliability and construct validity of the Dutch psychopathy checklist: youth version: findings from a sample of male adolescents in a juvenile justice treatment institution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, J.; Ruiter, de C.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Hillege, S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the reliability and construct validity of the Dutch version of the Psychopathy Check List: Youth Version (PCL:YV) in a sample of male adolescents admitted to a secure juvenile justice treatment institution (N = 98). Hare's four-factor model is used to examine reliability a

  5. Scores on the eysenck personality questionnaire for a sample of children and adolescents receiving psychological treatment in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrata, Jose Luis; Rosa, Abraham; Mendez, Viviana

    2003-08-01

    Personality questionnaire scores obtained by children and adolescents (n = 28) receiving psychological treatment at a health facility in Humacao, Puerto Rico were examined. The scores were compared with those of regular school children of the same age, of Gurabo, Puerto Rico, who were not in treatment (n = 30). The children in treatment obtained higher scores on Psychoticism, lower scores on Extraversion, and similar scores on Neuroticism and Dissimulation by comparison with regular students.

  6. Treatment of Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R.; Pratt, Helen D.; Greydanus, Donald E.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews research on the treatment of adolescents with anorexia nervosa, including the general approach, treatment setting, treatment of medical complications, nutritional management, psychopharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, treatment efficacy and outcome studies, comparison studies, and prevention programs. (EV)

  7. Treatment of borderline adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M R

    1983-01-01

    A recent revision of the proposed DSM III description of the borderline category is presented with reference to the work of Masterson (1972) and Grinker (1968). The contributions of Roger Shapiro et al. to a psychoanalytic formulation of the developmental and familial dynamics are summarized with reference to the genetic factors and the lack of validation to date of any general hypothesis. Treatment recommendations of Wolberg, Shapiro and Jacobson (1971) are described. Grinker's operational criteria were chosen for the pilot study: a defect in affectional relationships with no enduring close ties; child-like angry relationships with parental or authority figures, particularly in the dysphoric group; low self-esteem very poor sense of identity; a chronic depression characterized more by loneliness and boredom than by guilt or loss, and a pervading sense of anger or resentment. Cases are presented to illustrate treatment strategies. A brief differential diagnostic statement is made describing "borderline" as a separate category from other disorders manifesting oppositional, antisocial, and violent behavior.

  8. Causes and Treatment of Insomnia among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jack R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    As much as 13 percent of the adolescent population may suffer from chronic insomnia, which can impair the victim's daily existence and affect personal life, school performance, and school attendance. The prevalence of adolescent insomnia, and its cause, diagnosis, and treatment are examined. (Author/CB)

  9. The Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program: Adapting Behavioral Activation as a Treatment for Depression in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Elizabeth; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Schloredt, Kelly; Martell, Christopher; Rhew, Isaac; Hubley, Samuel; Dimidjian, Sona

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine implementation feasibility and initial treatment outcomes of a behavioral activation (BA) based treatment for adolescent depression, the Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program (A-BAP). A randomized, controlled trial was conducted with 60 clinically referred adolescents with a depressive disorder who were randomized to receive either 14 sessions of A-BAP or uncontrolled evidenced-based practice for depression. The urban sample was 64% female, predominantly Non-Hispanic White (67%), and had an average age of 14.9 years. Measures of depression, global functioning, activation, and avoidance were obtained through clinical interviews and/or through parent and adolescent self-report at preintervention and end of intervention. Intent-to-treat linear mixed effects modeling and logistic regression analysis revealed that both conditions produced statistically significant improvement from pretreatment to end of treatment in depression, global functioning, and activation and avoidance. There were no significant differences across treatment conditions. These findings provide the first step in establishing the efficacy of BA as a treatment for adolescent depression and support the need for ongoing research on BA as a way to enhance the strategies available for treatment of depression in this population.

  10. Malocclusion prevalence and orthodontic treatment need in central Anatolian adolescents compared to European and other nations' adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Fundagul Bilgic; Ibrahim Erhan Gelgor; Ahmet Arif Celebi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in a large sample of Central Anatolian adolescents and compare them with European-other nations' adolescents. Methods: The sample included 1125 boys and 1204 girls aged between 12 and 16 years with no previous orthodontic treatment history. Occlusal variables examined were molar relationship, overjet, overbite, crowding, midline diastema, posterior crossbite, and scissors bite. The dental health ...

  11. Listening Clearly: Alternative Treatments for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlasson, Terry D.

    2012-01-01

    For many years now, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and anti-depressant medications have been the primary treatments for adolescent depression. However, there are many youth today with mild to moderate depressive symptoms for whom these treatments are not necessary. This article briefly summarizes several alternative therapeutic approaches for…

  12. Heart rate variability biofeedback in adolescent substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurstone, Chris; Lajoie, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Strategies are needed to improve adolescent substance abuse treatment outcomes. For example, during outpatient substance abuse treatment, up to 80% of adolescents continue to use.(1),(2) Following residential substance abuse treatment, 88% of adolescents relapse within 6 months.(3.)

  13. Adolescent Drug Abuse: Etiological and Treatment Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Fariboz; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Issues involved in treating adolescent drug abusers and literature describing abuser personality traits are examined. The Youth Service at Langley Porter Institute and the problems encountered and solutions attempted there are discussed. The importance of residential as opposed to outpatient treatment and honesty in staff-patient relationships is…

  14. Adolescents with Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD): profiles and treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, María; Matalí, Josep Lluís; García-Sánchez, Sara; Pardo, Marta; Lleras, María; Castellano-Tejedor, Carmina

    2016-10-07

    Demand for treatment for problems related to the use of video games have increased significantly in adolescents. Most cases have a comorbid mental disorder that jeopardises both pathologies. The aim of this study is to describe profiles of adolescents with Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) according to comorbidity and analyze treatment response at 3 and 6 months. A sample of 86 patients which consulted in the Addictive Behavior Unit of a hospital was assessed with diagnostic criteria for IGD, the interview K-SADS-PL for mental disorders and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) to treatment progress. Of the initial sample, 68,6% (n = 59) met diagnostic criteria for IGD. Of these, the 45,76% matched an internalizing profile, presenting comorbidity with Mood Disorders (44,4%), Anxiety Disorders (44,4%) and Personality Disorders (11,1%). The externalizing profile would comprise 52,54% of the sample presenting Disruptive Behavior Disorder (48,4%=, ADHD (29%) and Disruptive Behavior Disorders not otherwise specified (22,6%). Unlike externalizing, the internalizing patients had a family history of psychiatric problems (63%), difficulties in social relationships (77,8%) and seemed to use video games preferably to escape discomfort (66,7%). After 3 months the externalizing profile showed improvements. Comorbid disorders allow the discrimination of two IGD profiles in adolescents and these could influence treatment response. Therefore, it is important to assess comorbidities to design a more accurate intervention focused on the specificities of each profile.

  15. CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHOPATHY: ASSESSMENT AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Halty

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout this article we aim to defend the presence of psychopathic traits in child and adolescent population. In psychology there are two fundamental theoretical contributions to the understanding of this disorder in childhood. One focuses on the aspects of antisocial behaviour (Lynam, 1997; and the other highlights the presence of a fundamental characteristic in identifying the disorder, known as the callous unemotional trait (CU, Frick, O'Brien, Wootton & McBurnett, 1994. We also present some of the instruments that are most used in the assessment of child and adolescent psychopathy, as well as some results in the treatment of this disease.

  16. Adolescent Psychopathy and the Big Five: Results from Two Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Raine, Adrian; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines the relation between psychopathy and the Big Five dimensions of personality in two samples of adolescents. Specifically, the study tests the hypothesis that the aspect of psychopathy representing selfishness, callousness, and interpersonal manipulation (Factor 1) is most strongly associated with low Agreeableness,…

  17. Treatment motivation among caregivers and adolescents with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, T; Earnshaw, V A; Menino, D; Bogart, L M; Levy, S

    2017-04-01

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) in adolescence have negative long-term health effects, which can be mitigated through successful treatment. Caregivers play a central role in adolescent treatment involvement; however, studies have not examined treatment motivation and pressures to enter treatment in caregiver/adolescent dyads. Research suggests that internally motivated treatment (in contrast to coerced treatment) tends to lead to better outcomes. We used Self-determination theory (SDT) to examine intersecting motivational narratives among caregivers and adolescents in SUD treatment. Relationships between motivation, interpretation of caregiver pressures, adolescent autonomy, and relatedness were also explored. Adolescents in SUD treatment and their caregivers (NDyads=15) were interviewed about treatment experiences. Interviews were coded for treatment motivation, including extrinsic (e.g., motivated by punishment), introjected (e.g., motivated by guilt), and identified/integrated motivation (e.g., seeing a behavior as integral to the self). Internalization of treatment motivation, autonomy support/competence (e.g., caregiver support for adolescent decisions), and relatedness (e.g., acceptance and support) were also coded. Four dyadic categories were identified: agreement that treatment was motivated by the adolescent (intrinsic); agreement that treatment was motivated by the caregiver (extrinsic); agreement that treatment was motivated by both, or a shift towards adolescent control (mixed/transitional); and disagreement (adolescents and caregivers each claimed they motivated treatment; conflicting). Autonomy support and relatedness were most prominent in intrinsic dyads, and least prominent in extrinsic dyads. The mixed/transitional group was also high in autonomy support and relatedness. The extrinsic group characterized caregiver rules as an unwelcome mechanism for behavioral control; caregivers in the other groups saw rules as a way to build adolescent competence

  18. An Experimental Test of a Craving Management Technique for Adolescents in Substance-Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florsheim, Paul; Heavin, Sarah; Tiffany, Stephen; Colvin, Peter; Hiraoka, Regina

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment designed to test an imagery-based craving management technique with a sample of adolescents diagnosed with substance-use disorders. Seventy adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 (41 males) were recruited through two substance-abuse treatment programs. The experimental procedure involved stimulating craving…

  19. Life values structure in a Spanish sample of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Tejerina-Arreal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined the structure of personal life values as a representation of underlying motivation, in a Spanish sample of children and adolescents 12 - 16 years old. In general, results showed that youth put higher priority on intrinsic life goals (meaningful relationships, being physically healthy, self-acceptance than extrinsic life goals (image, money, power. Gender differences were found in specific life goals. When comparing our results with another longitudinal American study using the same instrument and methodology, we found similar results, although Spanish youth value priorities goals related to support rather than striving as in American adolescents. Cultural and age trend in life priorities are discussed.

  20. Brace Treatment in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sehirlioglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS, the most common pediatric spine problem, is a structural lateral and rotatory curvature of the spine arising in otherwise normal children during puberty. It occurs before skeletal maturity. Although there is still no cause for AIS, the natural history of AIS has been established in the literature very well. The aim of nonoperative treatment is mainly an attempt to prevent progression of the curve. Bracing and surgery have been used for large and or progressive curves currently. Many conservative treatments are available for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Although there are numerous studies in literature that have tried to summarize the results of treatment, the evidence for their accepted use is still unclear. Many clinicians skeptical about the efficacy of conservative treatments. Because there is no consistency of both the inclusion criteria and the definitions of brace effectiveness. The definition of success or who should be included in the analysis have never been universally agreed upon. The Scoliosis Research Society established parameters for all future AIS bracing studies to be able to make comparison among studies more valid and reliable. These guidelines may standardize orthotic studies by recommending inclusion and assessment criteria and allow the promotion of the effectiveness of different braces and decrease the suspicion about their usefulness. Orthotic treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is used to control spinal curvatures while waiting for skeletal maturation.

  1. Substance Abuse Treatment for Children and Adolescents: Questions to Ask

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families Guide Substance Abuse Treatment For Children And Adolescents: Questions To Ask No. 41; Reviewed July 2013 Many children and adolescents use alcohol and other drugs. Some develop serious ...

  2. Psychiatric Disorders in a Sample of Saudi Arabian Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amr, Mostafa Abdel-Monhem; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Hablas, Hatem Refaat

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the magnitude of psychiatric disorders and to define socio-demographic and disease-related risk factors in a sample of adolescents with SCD in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 110 adolescents with SCD and a convenient sample of 202 adolescents without SCD as controls. Psychiatric…

  3. Herbst treatment in late adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, Merete; Paulsen, H U

    1989-01-01

    In an almost full-grown male of 17 years, functional and morphological changes were followed during Herbst treatment and subsequent control. Retrognathism of the mandible was overcorrected, and then normalized by reverse headgear to the maxilla. Partial relapse due to insufficient cooperation dur...

  4. An examination of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression in an outpatient sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, David A; Harrington, Donna; Silverman, Wendy K

    2010-07-01

    Anxiety and depressive disorders are the most common mental health problems for adolescents; understanding their etiology and course is necessary for developing effective prevention and treatment programs. The tripartite model of anxiety and depression was evaluated in a random, clinical sample of 185 adolescents, with an average age of 15.09 years (SD = 1.9), with 58.4% males (n = 108). Survey packets were mailed to participants (61% response rate). Two models were evaluated: (a) Model one fit adequately, however, modification indices and prior research and theory suggested adding paths between anxiety and depression. (b) Model two tested paths between anxiety and depression; this revised model fit the data well, suggesting a relationship from anxiety to depression. Further, physiological hyperarousal may be a distinct component for anxiety and negative affectivity may be a general risk factor for anxiety and depression in adolescents. The findings that different factors contribute to the cause of anxiety and depression have implications for practice.

  5. Self-esteem in a clinical sample of morbidly obese children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowicka, P; Höglund, P; Birgerstam, P

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To study self-esteem in clinical sample of obese children and adolescents. METHODS: Obese children and adolescents aged 8-19 years (n = 107, mean age 13.2 years, mean BMI 32.5 [range 22.3-50.6], mean BMI z-score 3.22 [range 2.19-4.79]; 50 boys and 57 girls) were referred for treatment...... of primary obesity. Self-esteem was measured with a validated psychological test with five subscales: physical characteristics, talents and skills, psychological well-being, relations with the family and relations with others. A linear mixed effect model used the factors gender and adolescence group......, and the continuous covariates: BMI z-scores, and BMI for the parents as fixed effects and subjects as random effects. RESULTS: Age and gender, but neither the child's BMI z-score nor the BMI of the parents were significant covariates. Self-esteem decreased (p

  6. Treatment Adherence among Latina Female Adolescent Suicide Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Piacentini, John; Van Rossem, Ronan; Graae, Flemming; Cantwell, Coleen; Castro-Blanco, David; Feldman, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Disenfranchised Latina adolescents (N=140) and their mothers presenting at a large urban emergency room after a suicide attempt by the adolescent were assessed to examine treatment adherence. Predictor variables for treatment adherence were established. Results are discussed in relation to treatment session attendance. Implications for the…

  7. Integrating translational neuroscience to improve drug abuse treatment for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Cheryl Anne; Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence is an exciting and challenging period of maturation, rapid brain development, and developmental changes in neurobiological, neurocognitive, and neurobehavioral processes. Although behavioral therapies available for adolescent substance abuse have increased, effectiveness research in this area lags considerably behind that of clinical research on treatment for drug-abusing adults. Behavioral treatment approaches show significant promise for treating drug-abusing adolescents, but many have not incorporated innovations in neuroscience on brain development, cognitive processes, and neuroimaging. Linking developmental neuroscience with behavioral treatments can create novel drug abuse interventions and increase the effectiveness of existing interventions for substance-abusing adolescents. Contemporary research on brain development, cognition, and neuroscience is ripe for translation to inform developmentally sensitive drug abuse treatments for adolescents. Neuroscientists and interventionists are challenged to build mutual collaborations for integration of neuroscience and drug abuse treatment for adolescents.

  8. Factor structure of the SOCRATES in a clinical sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisto, Stephen A; Chung, Tammy A; Cornelius, Jack R; Martin, Christopher S

    2003-06-01

    This study investigated the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES; W. R. Miller & J. S. Tonigan, 1996) in adolescents presenting for treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD). The participants were 80 males and 43 females (mean age = 16.8 years) who presented for AUD treatment (95.1% outpatient, 4.9% inpatient). Participants completed assessments at baseline and 1 year and provided information on alcohol use and related variables monthly between these 2 assessments. Principal-components and confirmatory factor analyses of the baseline SOCRATES identified 2 factors, Taking Steps and Recognition, which showed good internal consistency and concurrent and predictive evidence of validity. The results were interpreted as supporting the use of the SOCRATES with clinical samples of adolescents.

  9. Identifying the factor structure of the SOCRATES in a sample of Latino adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J

    2014-03-01

    The Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES) is a frequently used measure to assess client motivation to change an alcohol use problem. The factor structure of this measure has most extensively been studied in samples of adult clients with alcohol use disorders with very little research conducted with adolescents or ethnic minority participants. The purpose of the current study is to determine if the factor structure of the SOCRATES (Version 8A-Alcohol) found in prior research can be generalized to a sample of Latino adolescents with substance use disorders. Latino adolescents (N = 106) were administered the SOCRATES and assessed for alcohol use at a pretreatment baseline assessment as part of a larger study. Competing factor models were tested and results via confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a 14-item two factor model best fit the data for the Latino adolescents in this sample. In addition, scores on the Taking Steps factor predicted alcohol use variables. Implications for these results and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  10. Mental Health Service Utilization in a Community Sample of Rural Adolescents: The Role of Father–Offspring Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Katherine J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Children and adolescents living in rural communities may be at particular risk for psychiatric problems, yet factors associated with mental health service use in these populations are not clear. This study examined the role of father warmth in offspring psychological treatment utilization in community sample of rural families (n = 298). Methods Observer ratings of paternal warmth were examined as a predictor of adolescent treatment seeking and as a moderator of the longitudinal association between adolescent depressive symptoms and treatment seeking. Results Paternal warmth was a marginally significant predictor of adolescent mental health service use. The association between adolescent depressive symptoms and treatment seeking varied as a function of paternal behavior; adolescents were more likely to seek needed help in the context of a warm, supportive father. Conclusions These findings suggest that fathers can play an important role in the intrafamilial processes through which rural adolescents recognize and seek help for their psychological problems. PMID:21586425

  11. Does Smoking Intervention Influence Adolescent Substance Use Disorder Treatment Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Mark G.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2008-01-01

    Although tobacco use is reported by the majority of substance use disordered (SUD) youth, little work has examined tobacco focused interventions with this population. The present study is an initial investigation of the effect of a tobacco use intervention on adolescent SUD treatment outcomes. Participants were adolescents in SUD treatment taking…

  12. Anorexia Nervosa in Adolescence and Maudsley Family-Based Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Kim; Read, Shelly; Wallis, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a serious psychiatric disorder that usually occurs in adolescence. The course of the illness can be protracted. Current empirical evidence suggests that the Maudsley Family-Based Treatment (MFBT) is efficacious for adolescents. MFBT empowers parents as a crucial treatment resource to assist in their child's recovery. The…

  13. Adolescent Sex Offenders: Issues in Research and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otey, Emeline M., Ed.; Ryan, Gail D., Ed.

    This document contains an introduction by Richard D. Krugman and five papers from the Adolescent Sex Offender Work Group meeting, which provide an overview of the present status of treatment programs for adolescent sexual offenders, methodological and ethical issues in research on etiology and treatment, and perspectives on research from those…

  14. Internet addiction, adolescent depression, and the mediating role of life events: finding from a sample of Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linsheng; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Zhihua; Sun, Yehuan; Wu, Hongyan; Ye, Dongqing

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the mediating role of life events in the relation between Internet addiction and depression using an adolescent sample in China. A total of 3507 urban adolescent students were asked to complete the questionnaires including Young's Internet Addiction Scale, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales, and demographic characteristics. Path analyses demonstrated that life events fully mediated the relationship between Internet addiction and adolescent depression. Specificity for the mediating role of life events was demonstrated in comparison to alternative competing mediation models. The findings support our hypothesis that the effect of Internet addiction on adolescent depression is mediated by the life events. Further research is required to test the temporal relationship between Internet addiction and adolescent depression and explore mechanisms underlying the pathways leading to adolescent depression.

  15. Obsessive compulsive phenomenology in a sample of Egyptian adolescent population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Rady

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Obsessive symptoms among children and adolescent age groups are increasing, an observation made by mental health professionals working with this age group. Our epidemiological study targeted secondary school students to estimate the prevalence of obsessive symptoms, obsessive compulsive disorder and their different obsessive compulsive contents. Methods: The study is cross sectional carried on 1299 secondary school students, the sample size was chosen based on an estimated Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD prevalence of 2% in literature. Equal samples were recruited from the 3 educative zones in Alexandria Governorate. Obsessive compulsive symptoms were assessed by the Arabic version of Lyeton obsessive inventory child version LOI-CV. Students scoring above 35 were subjected to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children MINI-KID Arabic. OCD patient students detected by MINI-KID were assessed by psychiatric interview to confirm fulfilling criteria of OCD according to DSM IV-TR criteria. Different obsessive compulsive symptoms were assessed by a standardized questionnaire. Results: Among the studied sample (n = 1299, 201 students scored > 35 on LOI-CV i.e. 15.5% of the total sample have OCS. The prevalence of OCD among studied sample was 2.2% as 29 students from the OCS students were fulfilling diagnostic criteria for OCD according to DSM-IV TR. Common obsessive symptoms were of excessive conscience 65.5%, blasphemous 55.2%, repeated words 51.7% and sexual obsessions 48.2%. Conclusions: The prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms is high among adolescent age group. Cultural impact should be considered to better understand obsessive phenomenology, raising the importance of OCD study from a transcultural perspective.

  16. Violent and Prosocial Behavior by Adolescents toward Parents and Teachers in a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaureguizar, Joana; Ibabe, Izaskun; Straus, Murray A.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on violent and prosocial behaviors by adolescents toward parents and teachers, and the relation between such behaviors and adolescents' perceptions about the family and school environment. Gender differences in child-to-parent violence and student-to-teacher violence were also studied. The sample comprised 687 adolescents from…

  17. Prevalence and Correlates of Dating Violence in a National Sample of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Resnick, Heidi S.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the prevalence of serious forms of dating violence in adolescents from a nationally representative sample of adolescents. The results conclude that serious dating violence is highly prevalent among adolescents and a major health problem that needs to be tackled by early detection, prevention and intervention.

  18. Assessment of Psychopathic Traits in an Incarcerated Adolescent Sample: A Methodological Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Brandi C.; Tant, Adam S.; Tremba, Katherine; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of convergent validity and group assignment using self-report, caregiver-report and interview-based measures of adolescent psychopathy were conducted in a sample of 160 incarcerated adolescents. Results reveal significant convergent validity between caregiver-report measures of adolescent psychopathy, significant convergent validity…

  19. [Adolescent scoliosis : From deformity to treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, A; Schrading, S; Betsch, M; Quack, V; Tingart, M

    2015-11-01

    Scoliosis affects up to 6 % of the population. The resulting spine deformity, the increasing risk of back pain, cosmetic aspects, pulmonary disorders if the Cobb angle is > 80°, and the progress of the deformity to > 50° after the end of growth indicate non-operative or operative therapy. In daily clinical practice, the classifications of scoliosis allow the therapy to be adapted. Classifications consider deformity, topography of the scoliosis, and the age at diagnosis. This publication gives an overview of the relevant and most common classifications in the treatment of adolescent scoliosis. For evaluation, the deformity measurement on the coronary radiographic projection of the total spine (Cobb angle) is relevant to therapy. The classification of topography, form, and the sagittal profile of the deformity of the spine are useful for preoperative planning of the fusion level. Classifications that take into account the age at the time of the diagnosis of scoliosis differentiate among early onset scoliosis (younger than 10 years of age), adolescent scoliosis (up to the end of growth), and adult scoliosis. Early onset scoliosis is subdivided by age and etiology. Therapy is derived from the classification of clinical and radiological findings. Classifications that take into account clinical and radiological parameters are essential components of modern scoliosis therapy.

  20. Predictors of Physical Altercation among Adolescents in Residential Substance Abuse Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Crawley, Rachel D.; Becan, Jennifer Edwards; Knight, Danica Kalling; Joe, George W.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that basic social information-processing components represented by family conflict, peer aggression, and pro-aggression cognitive scripts are related to aggression and social problems among adolescents in substance abuse treatment. The sample consisted of 547 adolescents in two community-based residential facilities. Correlation results indicated that more peer aggression is related to more pro-aggression scripts; scripts, peer aggression, and family conflict ...

  1. Concussions and Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment: An Adolescent Case Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Iris; Wolf, Kimberly; Rakowsky, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Concussions commonly occur in adolescents. Although the majority of adolescent patients' symptoms resolve, about 11% continue to experience symptoms at 3 months. Standard treatment options for prolonged symptoms are not available, and the role of osteopathic manipulative treatment in the management of adolescent concussions is unclear. The authors describe a case of a 16-year-old girl with a history of 3 head injuries who presented with concussion symptoms. After 6 weekly osteopathic manipulative treatment sessions, the patient was able to return to her normal activities. Further research on the role of osteopathic manipulative treatment to manage concussions is needed.

  2. Parents Perceive Improvements in Socio-Emotional Functioning in Adolescents with ASD Following Social Skills Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordo, Danielle N.; Bertolin, Madison; Sudikoff, Eliana L.; Keith, Cierra; Braddock, Barbara; Kaufman, David A. S.

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the effectiveness of a social skills treatment (PEERS) for improving socio-emotional competencies in a sample of high-functioning adolescents with ASD. Neuropsychological and self- and parent-report measures assessing social, emotional, and behavioral functioning were administered before and after treatment. Following…

  3. Psychopathology among a sample of hearing impaired adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaku, Kolawole; Akinpelu, Victoria; Ogunniyi, Grace

    2015-12-01

    Hearing impairment is a recognized cause of emotional and psychological disturbances worldwide, however little is known about this condition in Nigeria. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of psychopathology between hearing impaired adolescents and healthy adolescents. Students attending two special schools for the hearing impaired were assessed for psychopathology with the help of a trained signer and their teacher, using the International Classification of Diseases Diagnostic Criteria (ICD 10). Fifty two hearing impaired students and 52 age and sex matched controls from the same school were also interviewed using the same instrument. The mean age of the hearing impaired students was 16 (sd=3.8), while for the controls the mean age was 16 (sd=2.5). Psychopathology was present in 10 (19%) of the hearing impaired adolescents compared to 2 (4%) among the control group, this difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=4.62 p=0.03). The most common diagnosis was generalized anxiety disorder 4 (8%), followed by depression 2 (4%). Years spent in school (t=4.81, p=0.001), primary guardian (χ(2)=18.3, p=0.001) and mean income of guardian (t=7.10, p=0.001) were all significantly different between the two groups. Psychopathology is relatively common in this population. Proper assessment and treatment should be made available for this population group. A limitation to this study is communication difficulty which made only a third party assessment possible; this may affect the generalizability of the findings.

  4. Internalizing and externalizing personality and subjective effects in a sample of adolescent cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Sara; Matalí, Josep Lluís; Martín-Fernández, María; Pardo, Marta; Lleras, Maria; Castellano-Tejedor, Carmina; Haro, Josep Maria

    2016-10-06

    Cannabis is the illicit substance most widely used by adolescents. Certain personality traits such as impulsivity and sensation seeking, and the subjective effects experienced after substance use (e.g. euphoria or relaxation) have been identified as some of the main etiological factors of consumption. This study aims to categorize a sample of adolescent cannabis users based on their most dominant personality traits (internalizing and externalizing profile). Then, to make a comparison of both profiles considering a set of variables related to consumption, clinical severity and subjective effects experienced. From a cross-sectional design, 173 adolescents (104 men and 69 women) aged 13 to 18 asking for treatment for cannabis use disorder in an Addictive Behavior Unit (UCAD) from the hospital were recruited. For the assessment, an ad hoc protocol was employed to register consumption, the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) and the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) 49-item short form were also administered. Factor analysis suggested a two-profile solution: Introverted, Inhibited, Doleful, Dramatizing (-), Egotistic (-), Self-demeaning and Borderline tendency scales composed the internalizing profile, and Submissive (-), Unruly, Forceful, Conforming (-) and Oppositional scales composed the externalizing profile. The comparative analysis showed that the internalizing profile has higher levels of clinical severity and more subjective effects reported than the externalizing profile. These results suggest the need to design specific intervention strategies for each profile.

  5. Medical Marijuana Use among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method: This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age…

  6. Substance Use and the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Spirito, Anthony; Emslie, Graham; Clarke, Greg; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Vitiello, Benedetto; Ryan, Neal; Birmaher, Boris; Mayes, Taryn; Onorato, Matthew; Zelazny, Jamie; Brent, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Despite the known association between substance use disorders and major depressive disorder (MDD) among adolescents, little is known regarding substance use among adolescents with MDD. Method: Youths with MDD who had not improved after an adequate selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor trial (N = 334) were enrolled in the Treatment of…

  7. The trajectories of adolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms over the course of a transdiagnostic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Alexander H; Barlow, David H; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

    2014-08-01

    Anxiety and depressive disorders commonly co-occur during adolescence, share multiple vulnerability factors, and respond to similar psychosocial and pharmacological interventions. However, anxiety and depression may also be considered distinct constructs and differ on some underlying properties. Prior research efforts on evidence-based treatments for youth have been unable to examine the concurrent trajectories of primary anxiety and depressive concerns across the course of treatment. The advent of transdiagnostic approaches for these emotional disorders in youth allows for such examination. The present study examined the separate trajectories of adolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms over the course of a transdiagnostic intervention, the Unified Protocol for the Treatment of Emotional Disorders in Adolescence (UP-A; Ehrenreich et al., 2008), as well as up to six months following treatment. The sample included 59 adolescents ages 12-17 years old (M=15.42, SD=1.71) who completed at least eight sessions of the UP-A as part of an open trial or randomized, controlled trial across two treatment sites. Piecewise latent growth curve analyses found adolescent self-rated anxiety and depressive symptoms showed similar rates of improvement during treatment, but while anxiety symptoms continued to improve during follow-up, depressive symptoms showed non-significant improvement after treatment. Parent-rated symptoms also showed similar rates of improvement for anxiety and depression during the UP-A to those observed for adolescent self-report, but little improvement after treatment across either anxiety or depressive symptoms. To a certain degree, the results mirror those observed among other evidence-based treatments for youth with anxiety and depression, though results hold implications for future iterations of transdiagnostic treatments regarding optimization of outcomes for adolescents with depressive symptoms.

  8. Determining adolescents' suitability for inpatient psychotherapy: utility of the clinician-rated Readiness for Inpatient Psychotherapy Scale with an adolescent inpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Greg; Siefert, Caleb; Stoycheva, Valentina; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Baity, Matthew; Zodan, Jennifer; Mehra, Ashwin; Chand, Vijay; Blais, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Growing economic pressure on inpatient services for adolescents has resulted in fewer clinicians to provide individual psychotherapy. As a result, inpatient treatment trends have favored group psychotherapy modalities and psychopharmacological interventions. Currently, no clinician-rated measures exist to assist clinicians in determining who would be able to better utilize individual psychotherapy on inpatient units. The current study sought to demonstrate the utility of the Readiness for Inpatient Psychotherapy Scale with an adolescent inpatient sample. This study also used the RIPS as it is intended to be used in everyday practice. Results from the authors' analyses reveal that the RIPS demonstrates good psychometrics and interrater reliability, as well as construct validity.

  9. Maladaptive schemas in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Reece, John; Reid, Sophie; Atkins, Linsey; Patton, George

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has highlighted the presence of Young's Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) in individuals with an eating disorder (ED). This study assessed the EMSs reported by adolescent females with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) compared with a community group. Thirty-six adolescent females diagnosed with AN or subthreshold AN and 111 female secondary school students completed a questionnaire that included the Young Schema Questionnaire, the Behavior Assessment System for Children Self-report of Personality, and the Eating Disorder Screen for Primary Care. Two independent AN subtypes and two community subtypes were derived from responses to the questionnaire, and significant differences between the four comparison groups were found. High Pathology AN participants reported the highest level of psychological maladjustment. Social Isolation and Emotional Inhibition appeared to be most characteristic of adolescent AN in this sample. The results suggest that EMSs may require attention in the treatment of AN in adolescent females, and that different AN subtypes may require individualized treatment approaches.

  10. A qualitative analysis of aspects of treatment that adolescents with anorexia identify as helpful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsoff, Shannon; Pullmer, Rachelle; Menna, Rosanne; Geller, Josie

    2016-04-30

    This study aimed to identify aspects of treatment that adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) believe are helpful or unhelpful. Adolescent females receiving treatment for AN or subthreshold AN (n=21) were prompted during semi-structured interviews to generate responses to open-ended questions on what they felt would be most helpful or unhelpful in treating adolescents with eating disorders. Eight codes were developed and the two most frequently endorsed categories were (1) Alliance, where the therapist demonstrates clinical expertise and also expresses interest in the patient (n=21, 100.0%), and (2) Client Involvement in treatment (n=16, 76.2%). These top two categories were shared by participants with AN versus subthreshold AN and participants with high versus low readiness to change their dietary restriction behaviours. Development of the coding scheme and sample participant responses will be discussed. The integration of identified factors into empirically supported treatments for adolescent AN, such as Family-based Treatment, will be considered. This study provides initial information regarding aspects of treatment that adolescents identify as most helpful or unhelpful in their treatment.

  11. Factorial Structure and Invariance of the Academic Expectations Stress Inventory across Hispanic and Chinese Adolescent Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Huan, Vivien S.; Braman, O. Randall

    2007-01-01

    Using confirmatory factor analysis, the current study provided further evidence for the two-factor structure of the Academic Expectations Stress Inventory [AESI; Ang RP, Huan VS (2006) Educ Psych Meas 66:522-539] using a sample of 191 US Hispanic adolescents and a sample of 211 Singapore Chinese adolescents. This study also examined the…

  12. Eating Disorders among a Community-Based Sample of Chilean Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granillo, M. Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder.…

  13. Therapist and client perspectives on the alliance in the treatment of traumatized adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silje M. Ormhaug

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Client ratings of the therapeutic alliance are an important predictor of outcome in the treatment of traumatized adolescents and adults, but less is known about the therapists’ perspective. The aim of this study was to investigate how therapists’ ratings relate to the adolescents’ perspective, how individual therapist and adolescent ratings relate to change in symptoms and treatment satisfaction, and whether discrepant alliance perspectives impact treatment outcome. Method: The sample consisted of 156 youth (mean age 15.1, range 10–18, randomized to trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy or treatment as usual, and alliance ratings from 62 therapists. Alliance was measured midtreatment with the Therapeutic Alliance Scale for Children, and the factor structure of the two scales was analyzed with exploratory factor analyses. A change in posttraumatic symptoms was assessed with the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS and the Clinicial-Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents (CAPS-CA. Results: Therapist and client perspectives on the alliance were significantly, but moderately, associated (intraclass correlations [ICC]=0.54, p<0.001. Both scales predicted adolescent treatment satisfaction but only the client scale was significantly related to change in symptoms. Factor analyses revealed differences in factor structure with therapist ratings organized around bond and task dimensions and adolescent ratings organized by item valence. Higher therapist ratings compared to adolescent ratings predicted higher residual PTS symptoms. Discussion: Although adolescent and therapist alliance ratings are moderately associated, results suggest that the ratings are differentially associated with outcomes. These findings, along with results indicating important differences in factor structure, imply that adolescent and therapist ratings are not interchangeable. Future studies should investigate how therapists can improve their

  14. Malocclusion prevalence and orthodontic treatment need in central Anatolian adolescents compared to European and other nations' adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fundagul Bilgic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in a large sample of Central Anatolian adolescents and compare them with European-other nations' adolescents. Methods: The sample included 1125 boys and 1204 girls aged between 12 and 16 years with no previous orthodontic treatment history. Occlusal variables examined were molar relationship, overjet, overbite, crowding, midline diastema, posterior crossbite, and scissors bite. The dental health (DHC and aesthetic components (AC of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN were used as an assessment measure of the need for orthodontic treatment for the total sample. Results: The results indicated a high prevalence of Class I (34.9% and Class II, Division 1 malocclusions (40.0%. Moreover, increased (18% and reduced bites (14.%, and increased (25.1% and reversed overjet (10.% were present in the sample. Conclusion: Using the DHC of the IOTN, the proportion of subjects estimated to have great and very great treatment need (grades 4 and 5 was 28.%. However, only 16.7% of individuals were in need (grades 8-10 of orthodontic treatment according to the AC.

  15. The impact of disruptive behavior disorder on substance use treatment outcome in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Stacy R; Stanger, Catherine; Thostenson, Jeff; Whitmore, Jennifer J; Budney, Alan J

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the impact of disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) on substance use outcomes in an adolescent sample. Sixty-eight adolescents and their caregivers were randomized to one of two fourteen-week, outpatient treatments: Motivational Enhancement Therapy/Cognitive Behavior Therapy (MET/CBT)+Parent Management Training+Contingency Management (CM; experimental) and MET/CBT+Parent Drug Education (attention control). This study assessed abstinence, substance use, externalizing behavior, and parenting outcomes over five assessment periods for youth with DBD (DBD(+)) and without DBD (DBD(-)). Results showed DBD(+)/experimental adolescents reported fewer days of marijuana use than DBD(+)/control adolescents. Results also showed that parents of DBD(-) adolescents in the experimental condition reported significantly better parenting outcomes compared to DBD(-)/control. Substance abuse treatment for adolescents with DBD which includes a component such as contingency management and parent training has the potential to contribute to substance use outcomes. Such treatment strategies, however, should include additional support for parents.

  16. Relapse Among Adolescent Drug Abusers Following Treatment: The Role of Probable ADHD Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, William W.; Ernst, Jenna; Hennessey, Jodi; Stinchfield, Randy D.; Winters, Ken C.

    2004-01-01

    This is a report on a sample of adolescent drug abusers in treatment (N = 220) to estimate the degree to which probable ADHD status increases the odds of posttreatment alcohol, marijuana, and other drug relapse during the initial 6 months following discharge. Drug abusing youth with probable ADHD status exhibited 2.5 times the risk of…

  17. Caries experience of Egyptian adolescents: does the atraumatic restorative treatment approach offer a solution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mobarak, E.H.; Shabayek, M.M.; Mulder, J.; Reda, A.H.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and severity of dental caries amongst Egyptian adolescents and the prevalence of carious lesions treatable through the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Using a convenient sample procedure, two secondary schools with a dental

  18. Effectiveness of the Treatment Readiness and Induction Program for increasing adolescent motivation for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becan, Jennifer E; Knight, Danica K; Crawley, Rachel D; Joe, George W; Flynn, Patrick M

    2015-03-01

    Success in substance abuse treatment is improved by problem recognition, desire to seek help, and readiness to engage in treatment, all of which are important aspects of motivation. Interventions that facilitate these at treatment induction for adolescents are especially needed. The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of TRIP (Treatment Readiness and Induction Program) in promoting treatment motivation. Data represent 519 adolescents from 6 residential programs who completed assessments at treatment intake (time 1) and 35 days after admission (time 2). The design consisted of a comparison sample (n=281) that had enrolled in treatment prior to implementation of TRIP (standard operating practice) and a sample of clients that had entered treatment after TRIP began and received standard operating practice enhanced by TRIP (n=238). Repeated measures ANCOVAs were conducted using each time 2 motivation scale as a dependent measure. Motivation scales were conceptualized as representing sequential stages of change. LISREL was used to test a structural model involving TRIP participation, gender, drug use severity, juvenile justice involvement, age, race-ethnicity, prior treatment, and urgency as predictors of the stages of treatment motivation. Compared to standard practice, adolescents receiving TRIP demonstrated greater gains in problem recognition, even after controlling for the other variables in the model. The model fit was adequate, with TRIP directly affecting problem recognition and indirectly affecting later stages of change (desire for help and treatment readiness). Future studies should examine which specific components of TRIP affect change in motivation.

  19. Prototypic Features of Loneliness in a Stratified Sample of Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasgaard, Mathias; Elklit, Ask

    2009-01-01

    Dominant theoretical approaches in loneliness research emphasize the value of personality characteristics in explaining loneliness. The present study examines whether dysfunctional social strategies and attributions in lonely adolescents can be explained by personality characteristics. A question......Dominant theoretical approaches in loneliness research emphasize the value of personality characteristics in explaining loneliness. The present study examines whether dysfunctional social strategies and attributions in lonely adolescents can be explained by personality characteristics...... loneliness independent of personality characteristics, demographics and social desirability. The study indicates that dysfunctional strategies and attributions in affiliative situations are directly related to loneliness in adolescence. These strategies and attributions may preclude lonely adolescents from...... guidance and intervention. Thus, professionals need to be knowledgeable about prototypic features of loneliness in addition to employing a pro-active approach when assisting adolescents who display prototypic features....

  20. Family therapy in the treatment of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matorin, S; Greenberg, L

    1992-06-01

    A family with an adolescent must transform itself from a predominantly nurturant unit to one that can tolerate and encourage the adolescent's need to separate. When an adolescent presents with symptoms that disrupt the developmental process, the clinician who is familiar with several models of family therapy is better able to select a therapeutic and cost-effective intervention. For family assessments, the authors recommend a biopsychosocial approach, which has replaced the outdated view that families cause psychiatric problems and which acknowledges the family as a potential source of healing. The authors describe several models of family therapy--Satir's communication model, the structural model of Minuchin, Bowen's cross-generational model, and psycho-education--and examine features of these approaches useful for working with adolescents. Illustrative vignettes and some guiding principles for matching model and problem are offered.

  1. Discontinuance of ADHD Treatment in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of ADHD drug discontinuance in adolescents and young adults was studied in the UK by using the General Practice Database for patients aged 15-21 years from 1999 to 2006.

  2. The experience of brace treatment in children/adolescents with scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafiri Vassiliki

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic scoliosis is a chronic illness with several different braces used for its treatment. Brace treatment during childhood/adolescence can produce stress. There are studies supporting that it can decrease body-image perception while other studies support that it has no such effect. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of brace treatment in children/adolescents with scoliosis. The aim was to investigate which feelings are created by the bracing experience in children/adolescents with scoliosis and what are the children/adolescents' with scoliosis opinions of the support provided to them by health-care professionals and by their families. Methods We conducted interviews with the help of a semi-structured interview guide in order to address the topic of the experience of brace treatment. A convenient sample of twelve children and adolescents with scoliosis was selected from patients attending follow-up appointments at the Outpatient Scoliosis Clinics of two Greek hospitals. The data was analysed using the method of content analysis. Results Patients in the sample were 10–16 years old and they were mainly females (71%. Almost all of the participants reported having to deal with stress, denial, fear, anger, and shame. They were satisfied with the information they received regarding their condition and therapy. However, the information was not accompanied by support from the health care professionals. They reported that they were receiving support mainly from their families, friends, and classmates. Conclusion The present study is contributing to the development of a better understanding of significant issues related to the experience of bracing therapy. It is clear that scoliosis children/adolescents have to be provided with support during the long period of bracing. It is apparent that those children/adolescents have unmet needs for care and health professionals and policy makers should try to find a

  3. Family functioning in two treatments for adolescent anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciao, Anna C.; Accurso, Erin C.; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Family functioning impairment is widely reported in the eating disorders literature, yet few studies have examined the role of family functioning in treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN). This study examined family functioning in two treatments for adolescent AN from multiple family members’ perspectives. Method Participants were 121 adolescents with AN ages 12–18 from a randomized-controlled trial comparing family-based treatment (FBT) to individual adolescent-focused therapy (AFT). Multiple clinical characteristics were assessed at baseline. Family functioning from the perspective of the adolescent and both parents was assessed at baseline and after one year of treatment. Full remission from AN was defined as achieving both weight restoration and normalized eating disorder psychopathology. Results In general, families dealing with AN reported some baseline impairment in family functioning, but average ratings were only slightly elevated compared to published impaired functioning cutoffs. Adolescents’ perspectives on family functioning were the most impaired and were generally associated with poorer psychosocial functioning and greater clinical severity. Regardless of initial level of family functioning, improvements in several family functioning domains were uniquely related to full remission at the end of treatment in both FBT and AFT. However, FBT had a more positive impact on several specific aspects of family functioning compared to AFT. Discussion Families seeking treatment for adolescent AN report some difficulties in family functioning, with adolescents reporting the greatest impairment. While FBT may be effective in improving some specific aspects of family dynamics, remission from AN was associated with improved family dynamics, regardless of treatment type. PMID:24902822

  4. Parent Involvement in CBT Treatment of Adolescent Depression: Experiences in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Karen C.; Albano, Anne Marie

    2005-01-01

    The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) evaluated the short- and long-term effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) alone, fluoxetine alone, and their combination, relative to pill placebo, and the 12-week treatment effects were recently published (TADS Team, 2004). Results showed that treatment that combined CBT with…

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Monique S

    2013-11-01

    Scoliosis is defined as a lateral curvature of the spine greater than 10 degrees on radiography that is typically associated with trunk rotation. The three major types of scoliosis are congenital, idiopathic, and neuromuscular. Idiopathic scoliosis is divided into three subcategories based on the age of onset. Infantile idiopathic scoliosis affects patients younger than 3 years, juvenile idiopathic scoliosis appears in children between 3 and 10 years, and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) occurs in skeletally immature patients older than 10 years. AIS is the most common form of idiopathic scoliosis. Approximately 2% to 4% of children aged 10 to 16 years have some degree of spinal curvature. Although some researchers view routine screening for AIS as controversial, well-child examinations and sports physicals are an optimal time to evaluate for AIS in the clinical setting. In 2008, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, the Scoliosis Research Society, the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America, and the American Academy of Pediatrics convened a task force to review the issues related to scoliosis screening and issued an information statement concluding that although screening has limitations, the potential benefits that patients with idiopathic scoliosis receive from early treatment can be substantial. Recommendations are now that females are screened twice, at age 10 and 12 years, and males once at age 13 or 14 years. Screening during routine well-child examinations and/or school-based evaluations will help identify patients who need ongoing monitoring. The evaluation of curvatures in conjunction with the level of skeletal maturity will help to guide the management of the curvature.

  6. Educational Differences in Adolescents' Sexual Health : A Pervasive Phenomenon in a National Dutch Sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graaf, Hanneke; Vanwesenbeeck, Wilhelmina; Meijer, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Educational level is strongly associated with age of first intercourse and risk of unintended pregnancies. This study examined these associations in a large representative sample of Dutch adolescents and also included associations of educational level with other sexual health aspects. Adolescents ag

  7. The Structure of The Extended Psychosis Phenotype in Early Adolescence-A Cross-sample Replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigman, Johanna T. W.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Iedema, Jurjen; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; van Os, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The extended psychosis phenotype, or the expression of nonclinical positive psychotic experiences, is already prevalent in adolescence and has a dose-response risk relationship with later psychotic disorder. In 2 large adolescent general population samples (n = 5422 and n = 2230), prevalence and str

  8. Cross-Cultural Invariance of the Academic Expectations Stress Inventory: Adolescent Samples from Canada and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Klassen, Robert M.; Chong, Wan Har; Huan, Vivien S.; Wong, Isabella Y. F.; Yeo, Lay See; Krawchuk, Lindsey L.

    2009-01-01

    We provide further evidence for the two-factor structure of the 9-item Academic Expectations Stress Inventory (AESI) using confirmatory factor analysis on a sample of 289 Canadian adolescents and 310 Singaporean adolescents. Examination of measurement invariance tests the assumption that the model underlying a set of scores is directly comparable…

  9. Food Insecurity and Mental Disorders in a National Sample of U.S. Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether food insecurity is associated with past-year "DSM-IV" mental disorders after controlling for standard indicators of family socioeconomic status (SES) in a U.S. national sample of adolescents. Method: Data were drawn from 6,483 adolescent-parent pairs who participated in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication…

  10. Myoclonus during prolonged treatment with sertraline in an adolescent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaziuddin, N; Iqbal, A; Khetarpal, S

    2001-01-01

    A 15-year-old female adolescent with depression developed myoclonus after uninterrupted treatment with sertraline over 6 years. She was also receiving methylphenidate. Withdrawal of sertraline and continuation of methylphenidate did not result in any improvement. Treatment with valproic acid resulted in improvement of the movement disorder. This report suggests that myoclonus may be a side effect of sertraline in some adolescents. Further, we hypothesized that extended treatment over several years, young age, and a compromised central nervous system due to underlying disorders may be risk factors for the development of this side effect.

  11. Personality construct of Sasang Personality Questionnaire in an adolescent sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chae

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: The validity of the SPQ construct was confirmed with adolescents. Further investigation on its personality construct would extend the clinical application of SPQ to young age groups including children.

  12. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woidneck, Michelle R; Morrison, Kate L; Twohig, Michael P

    2014-07-01

    The number of individuals who meet diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a small percentage of those exposed to trauma; many youth who do not meet criteria for PTSD continue to experience problematic posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptomology. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has shown preliminary effectiveness in the treatment of adult PTSD, but its effectiveness in treating PTS in youth is unknown. Using a multiple-baseline design, this study investigated the effectiveness of 10 weeks of ACT to treat PTS in youth. Four adolescents from a community sample and three adolescents from a residential sample participated. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents (CAPS-CA), Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS), and Comprehensive Quality of Life Scale were completed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up. Individuals reported baseline data for 7 to 66 days. Symptom and process measures were completed at each session. Results revealed a decrease in PTS symptomology across both samples with mean reductions in self-reported PTS symptomology at posttreatment of 69% and 81% for the community and residential samples, respectively, and an overall 68% and 84% respective reduction at follow-up. Reductions in clinician rated measures of PTSD were observed for all participants with mean reductions of 57% and 61% in the community and residential samples at posttreatment, and 71% and 60% at follow-up, respectively. Results provide preliminary support for ACT as a treatment for adolescent PTS. Empirical and clinical implications as well as limitations and future directions are discussed.

  13. [New aspects in the treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent anorexia nervosa often takes a chronic and disabling course associated with reduced health-related quality of life in adulthood. The aim of this short review is to introduce new aspects on the somatic and psychotherapeutic treatment of AN, such as nutritional rehabilitation, prophylaxis of osteoporosis as well as new findings on the effect of treatment settings and new psychotherapeutic methods.

  14. Adolescents and Learning Disability: An Approach to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabis, Roman

    A treatment approach to adolescents with learning disabilities which incorporates remediation and psychotherapy is explored through two case studies of two youngsters (ages 14 and 17). After a review of earlier studies, the author focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of a 17 year old boy with a ninth grade education. Once a diagnosis of dyslexia…

  15. Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment: Organizational Change and Quality of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieckmann, Traci; Fussell, Holly; Doyle, Kevin; Ford, Jay; Riley, Katherine J.; Henderson, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse treatment agencies serving youth face unique barriers to providing quality care. Interviews with 17 adolescent programs found that family engagement, community involvement, and gender and diversity issues affected treatment delivery. Programs report organizational change efforts with implications for future process improvement…

  16. Patient Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes for African American, Hispanic, and White Adolescents in DATOS-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds-Bryant, Jennifer L.; Staab, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Compared background, pre-treatment characteristics, and post-treatment outcomes of African American, Hispanic, and white adolescent substance abusers participating in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies for Adolescents (DATOS-A). Found that patients were similar with respect to basic pre-treatment demographics. Compared to white adolescents,…

  17. Dimensions of impulsive behavior and treatment outcomes for adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Millie; Penfold, Robert B; Hawkins, Ariane; Maccombs, Jared; Wallace, Bryan; Reynolds, Brady

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent cigarette smoking rates remain a significant public health concern, and as a result there is a continued need to understand factors that contribute to an adolescent's ability to reduce or quit smoking. Previous research suggests that impulsive behavior may be associated with treatment outcomes for smoking. The current research (N = 81) explored 3 dimensions of impulsive behavior as predictors of treatment response from a social-cognitive type program for adolescent smokers (i.e., Not On Tobacco; N-O-T). Measures included laboratory assessments of delay discounting, sustained attention, and behavioral disinhibition. A self-report measure of impulsivity was also included. Adolescent smokers who had better sustained attention were more likely to reduce or quit smoking by the end of treatment. No other measures of impulsivity were significantly associated with treatment response. From these findings, an adolescent smoker's ability to sustain attention appears to be an important behavioral attribute to consider when implementing smoking cessation programs such as N-O-T.

  18. Treatment of obesity-related hypertension in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbach, Susan M; Flynn, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    The obesity epidemic has become a common concern among pediatricians, with an estimated 32 % of US children and adolescents classified as overweight and 18 % as obese. Along with the increase in obesity, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that chronic diseases, such as Type 2 diabetes, primary hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, once thought to be confined solely to adulthood, are commonly seen among the obese in childhood. Following a brief summary of the diagnosis and evaluation of hypertension in obese children and adolescents, this review will highlight recent research on the treatment of obesity-related hypertension. Pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment will be discussed. Additionally, current and emerging therapies for the primary treatment of obesity in children and adolescents, which have been gaining in popularity, will be reviewed.

  19. The relationship between child maltreatment and substance abuse treatment outcomes among emerging adults and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D; Smith, Douglas C; Smith, Jane Ellen; Godley, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is the period of greatest risk for problematic substance use. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between a broad measure of child maltreatment and several key outcomes for a large clinical sample of emerging adults (n = 858) and adolescents (n = 2,697). The secondary aim was to examine the extent to which the relationship between child maltreatment and treatment outcomes differed between emerging adults and adolescents. Multilevel latent growth curve analyses revealed emerging adults and adolescents who experienced child maltreatment reported significantly greater reductions over time on several treatment outcomes (e.g., substance use, substance-related problems, and emotional problems). Overall, analyses did not support differential relationships between child maltreatment and changes over time in these substance use disorder treatment outcomes for emerging adults and adolescents. The one exception was that although emerging adults with child maltreatment did reduce their HIV risk over time, their improvements were not as great as were the improvements in HIV risk reported by adolescents who had experienced child maltreatment.

  20. Impact of Childhood Trauma on Treatment Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Nguyen, Lananh J.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Reid, Mark W.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The impact of childhood trauma was examined in 427 adolescents (54% girls, 74% Caucasian, mean = 14.6, SD = 1.5) with major depressive disorder participating in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: TADS compared the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), their combination (COMB),…

  1. Treatment Options for Primary Refractory/Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Primary Refractory/Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma in Children and Adolescents Primary refractory Hodgkin lymphoma is lymphoma that continues ... treated with an adult treatment regimen . Children and adolescents may have treatment-related side effects that appear ...

  2. Factorial Invariance of the Questionnaire about Interpersonal Difficulties for Adolescents across Spanish and Chinese Adolescent Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; Hidalgo, Maria D.; Zhou, Xinyue; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    The Questionnaire about Interpersonal Difficulties for Adolescents (QIDA) is a self-report instrument designed to measure adolescents' perceived interpersonal anxiety levels in a wide range of relationships with people of different ages, genders, levels of authority, and levels of intimacy and in several contexts: family, school, friends, opposite…

  3. Resilience in a sample of Mexican American adolescents with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow-Sánchez, Jason J; Corrales, Carolina; Ortiz Jensen, Cynthia; Meyers, Kimberly

    2014-09-01

    Resolving the many tasks of adolescent development requires resilience. However, understanding the role that resilience plays in adolescent development involves adequate measurement of the construct. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) is a widely used measure of resilience, but a stable latent factor structure has not been identified across studies. The measure has typically been examined in adult samples while little attention has been given to its use with adolescents in general and ethnic minority adolescents in particular. The primary purpose of the current study is to identify a latent factor structure of the CD-RISC in a sample of primarily Mexican American adolescents (N = 106). Two competing model structures were tested via confirmatory factor analysis and results supported a 7-item unidimensional factor model. Support was also found for the construct validity of the measure in relation to ethnic identity and depressive symptoms for adolescents in this sample. Implications of the study findings for adolescents and avenues of future research are discussed.

  4. Need for orthodontic treatment among Brazilian adolescents: evaluation based on public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Vieira de Freitas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and the severity of malocclusions and to analyze factors associated with the need for orthodontic treatment of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: This exploratory, cross-sectional study was carried out based on secondary data from the national epidemiological survey on oral health in Brazil (2002-2003. Socio-demographic conditions, self-perception, and the existence and degree of malocclusion, using the Dental Aesthetic Index, were evaluated in 16,833 adolescent Brazilians selected by probabilistic sample by conglomerates. The dependent variable need orthodontic treatment was estimated from the severity of malocclusion. The magnitude and direction of the association in bivariate and multivariate analyzes from a Robust Poisson regression was estimated. RESULTS: The majority of the adolescents needed orthodontic treatment (53.2%. In the multivariate analysis, the prevalence of the need for orthodontic treatment was larger among females, non-whites, those that perceived a need for treatment, and those that perceived their appearance as normal, bad, or very bad. The need for orthodontic treatment was smaller among those that lived in the Northeast and Central West macro-regions compared to those living in Southeast Brazil and it was also smaller among those that perceived their chewing to be normal or their oral health to be bad or very bad. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high prevalence of orthodontic treatment need among adolescents in Brazil and this need was associated with demographic and subjective issues. The high prevalence of orthodontic needs in adolescents is a challenge to the goals of Brazil's universal public health system.

  5. A Model Adolescent Substance-Abuse Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copans, Stuart

    1993-01-01

    Describes two adolescent substance abuse treatment programs in New England psychiatric center: Osgood Three, which is no longer in existence, and Tyler Three, which replaced it and is struggling to grow. Considers transition from Osgood Three to Tyler Three, process of change, and learning what can be preserved from past and what must be…

  6. Parental Marital Discord and Treatment Response in Depressed Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Meredith M.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that parental marital discord contributes to the development of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children and adolescents. Few studies, however, have examined the association between parental marital discord and youth's response to treatment. The present study examined the impact of interparental discord on treatment…

  7. Miniaturization in sample treatment for environmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, L; Ramos, J J; Brinkman, U A Th

    2005-01-01

    The increasing demand for faster, more cost-effective and environmentally friendly analytical methods is a major incentive to improve the classical procedures used for sample treatment in environmental analysis. In most classical procedures, the use of rapid and powerful instrumental techniques for the final separation and detection of the analytes contrasts with the time-consuming and usually manual methods used for sample preparation, which slows down the total analytical process. The efforts made in this field in the past ten years have led to the adaptation of existing methods and the development of new techniques to save time and chemicals, and improve overall performance. One route has been to develop at-line or on-line and, frequently, automated systems. In these approaches, miniaturization has been a key factor in designing integrated analytical systems to provide higher sample throughput and/or unattended operation. Selected examples of novel developments in the field of miniaturized sample preparation for environmental analysis are used to evaluate the merits of the various techniques on the basis of published data on real-life analyses of trace-level organic pollutants. Perspectives and trends are briefly discussed.

  8. Associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents in two samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlin, Sofia; Åslund, Cecilia; Hellström, Charlotta; Nilsson, Kent W

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents. Data from adolescents in the SALVe cohort, including adolescents in Västmanland who were born in 1997 and 1999 (N=1868; 1034 girls), and data from consecutive adolescent psychiatric outpatients in Västmanland (N=242; 169 girls) were analyzed. Adolescents self-rated on the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Adolescent version (ASRS-A), Depression Self-Rating Scale Adolescent version (DSRS-A), Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS), and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed, and adjusted for sex, age, study population, school bullying, family maltreatment, and interactions by sex, with two-way interactions between psychiatric measurements. Boys had higher self-rated problematic gaming in both samples, whereas girls self-rated higher in all psychiatric domains. Boys had more than eight times the probability, odds ratio (OR), of having problematic gaming. Symptoms of ADHD, depression and anxiety were associated with ORs of 2.43 (95% CI 1.44-4.11), 2.47 (95% CI 1.44-4.25), and 2.06 (95% CI 1.27-3.33), respectively, in relation to coexisting problematic gaming. Problematic gaming was associated with psychiatric symptoms in adolescents; when problematic gaming is considered, the probability of coexisting psychiatric symptoms should also be considered, and vice versa.

  9. Adolescents with personality disorders suffer from severe psychiatric stigma: evidence from a sample of 131 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catthoor K

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kirsten Catthoor,1,3 Dine J Feenstra,2 Joost Hutsebaut,2 Didier Schrijvers,3 Bernard Sabbe3 1Department of Psychiatry, Psychiatrisch Ziekenhuis Stuivenberg, ZNA Antwerpen, Antwerp, Belgium; 2Viersprong Institute for Studies on Personality Disorders, Halsteren, the Netherlands; 3Collaborative Antwerp Psychiatric Research Institute, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium Background: The aim of the study is to assess the severity of psychiatric stigma in a sample of personality disordered adolescents in order to evaluate whether differences in stigma can be found in adolescents with different types and severity of personality disorders (PDs. Not only adults but children and adolescents with mental health problems suffer from psychiatric stigma. In contrast to the abundance of research in adult psychiatric samples, stigma in children and adolescents has hardly been investigated. Personality disordered adolescents with fragile identities and self-esteem might be especially prone to feeling stigmatized, an experience which might further shape their identity throughout this critical developmental phase. Materials and methods: One hundred thirty-one adolescent patients underwent a standard assessment with Axis I and Axis II diagnostic interviews and two stigma instruments, Stigma Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ and Perceived Devaluation–Discrimination Questionnaire (PDDQ. Independent sample t-tests were used to investigate differences in the mean SCQ and PDDQ total scores for patients with and without a PD. Multiple regression main effect analyses were conducted to explore the impact of the different PDs on level of stigma, as well as comorbid Axis I disorders. Age and sex were also entered in the regression models. Results and conclusions: Adolescents with severe mental health problems experience a burden of stigma. Personality disordered patients experience more stigma than adolescents with other severe psychiatric Axis I disorders. Borderline PD

  10. Ewing sarcoma in adolescents and young adults: diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis LE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lara E Davis,1,2 Suman Malempati2 1Department of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA Abstract: Ewing sarcoma (ES is a rare tumor that most often occurs in adolescents and young adults. This review discusses the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of localized and metastatic ES, with an emphasis on the care of adolescent and young adult patients. The pathobiology is reviewed. Particular attention is given to recent and current clinical trials, and an introduction to future directions for therapy of ES is provided. Keywords: Ewing, sarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, PNET

  11. [Evaluation and treatment of adolescent girls with hirsutism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbuliene, Zana; Alisauskas, Jonas

    2009-05-01

    Clinical manifestations of androgen excess which are skin and hair related (hirsutism, acne, alopecia) are common and distressing symptoms for an adolescent girls. During puberty and at the time of the first menstruation cycles, physiological hyperandrogenism can be observed. The causes of hirsutism can be various, including familial, idiopathic, and those, caused by excess androgen secretion by the ovary (PCOS, tumors), or by adrenal glands (congenital adrenal hyperplasia, tumor), or exogenous pharmacologic sources of androgens. The diagnosis and treatment of hirsutism remains quite problematic due to innumerous endocrinologic aspects and unsatisfactory treatment results. Androgen excess during puberty must be appropriately recognized, clinically evaluated and treated. Pharmacologic and cosmetic treatments may have beneficial effect. Oral contraceptives and antiadrogens combinations may be recommended as the treatment of choice in adolescents.

  12. Problematic Social Media Use: Results from a Large-Scale Nationally Representative Adolescent Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bányai, Fanni; Zsila, Ágnes; Király, Orsolya; Maraz, Aniko; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Griffiths, Mark D; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2017-01-01

    Despite social media use being one of the most popular activities among adolescents, prevalence estimates among teenage samples of social media (problematic) use are lacking in the field. The present study surveyed a nationally representative Hungarian sample comprising 5,961 adolescents as part of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). Using the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS) and based on latent profile analysis, 4.5% of the adolescents belonged to the at-risk group, and reported low self-esteem, high level of depression symptoms, and elevated social media use. Results also demonstrated that BSMAS has appropriate psychometric properties. It is concluded that adolescents at-risk of problematic social media use should be targeted by school-based prevention and intervention programs.

  13. Problematic Social Media Use: Results from a Large-Scale Nationally Representative Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bányai, Fanni; Zsila, Ágnes; Király, Orsolya; Maraz, Aniko; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Griffiths, Mark D.; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou

    2017-01-01

    Despite social media use being one of the most popular activities among adolescents, prevalence estimates among teenage samples of social media (problematic) use are lacking in the field. The present study surveyed a nationally representative Hungarian sample comprising 5,961 adolescents as part of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). Using the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS) and based on latent profile analysis, 4.5% of the adolescents belonged to the at-risk group, and reported low self-esteem, high level of depression symptoms, and elevated social media use. Results also demonstrated that BSMAS has appropriate psychometric properties. It is concluded that adolescents at-risk of problematic social media use should be targeted by school-based prevention and intervention programs. PMID:28068404

  14. Factors associated with the desire for orthodontic treatment among Brazilian adolescents and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filogônio Cintia B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the period of adolescence physical appearance takes on significant importance in the construction of personal identity, including one's relationship with one's own body. A variety of social, cultural, psychological and personal factors influences the self-perception of dental appearance and the decision to undergo orthodontic treatment. Adolescents who seek orthodontic treatment are concerned with improving their appearance and social acceptance. The aim of the present study was to determine factors associated to the desire for orthodontic treatment among Brazilian adolescents and their parents. Methods The sample consisted of 403 subjects aged 14 to 18 years, selected randomly from a population of 182,291 schoolchildren in the same age group. The outcome variable "desire for orthodontic treatment" was assessed through a questionnaire. Self-perception of dental aesthetics was assessed using the Oral Aesthetic Subjective Impact Scale (OASIS and the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI was used for clinical assessment. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test as well as both simple and multiple logistic regression analyses. Results The majority (78% of the Brazilian adolescents desired orthodontic treatment and 69% of the parents reported that their children were not in orthodontic treatment due to the high costs involved. There was significant association (p ≤ 0.05 between the desire for orthodontic treatment and most types of malocclusion. However, there was no significant association between the desire for orthodontic treatment and the variables gender and age. Conclusions The following were considered factors associated to the desire for treatment: upper anterior crowding ≥ 2 mm and parents' perception of their child's need for treatment.

  15. Demographical and Psychological Determinants of Depression, Among a Sample of Iranian Male Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Fazlollah Ghofranipour; Mohsen Saffari; Mahmoud Mahmoudi; Ali Montazeri

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of depression especially among youths is increasingly high. The present study is aimed to identify some demographic and psychological factors such as self-efficacy and perceived stress that may be related to depression among male adolescents. Methods: Overall, 402 adolescent were selected for participation in the study using multistage sampling method. The participants completed a questionnaire including demographic, depression, self-efficacy, and perceived stre...

  16. Construct validity of the Social Physique Anxiety Scale in a French adolescent sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Eklund, Robert C; Monthuy-Blanc, Johana; Garbarino, Jean-Marie; Stephan, Yannick

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a series of studies to investigate the psychometric properties of the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS; Hart, Leary, & Rejeski, 1989) among a total sample of 1,563 nonclinical French adolescents. The, first study provided support for the item content of the preliminary version of the French SPAS for adolescents. Then, the second study supported the convergent validity of the English and French version of the SPAS. Finally, Studies 3 to 6 provided support for the factor validity, measurement invariance (across genders, age groups and samples), latent mean structure invariance (across age category and samples), reliability, convergent validity, and criterion-related validity of a 7-item version of the SPAS.

  17. The Effect of Drug Treatment on Criminal Behavior among Adolescents in DATOS-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabee, David; Shen, Haikang; Hser, Yih-Ing; Grella, Christine E.; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2001-01-01

    Examined criminal activity among 1,167 adolescents who participated in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies for Adolescents (DATOS-A). Found that among adolescents who had engaged in criminal activity 12 months prior to treatment entry, reduced alcohol or marijuana use were independently associated with significant reductions in the likelihood…

  18. Correlates of Coping Styles in an Adolescent Trauma Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Individuals generally use the same coping styles across situations. It is important to identify maladaptive cop- ing in adolescents as coping patterns may persist into adult- hood, and are associated with mental health. The present study used a cross-sectional design to investigate the c...... % of the variance in emotion-focused coping. The largest contributing variable for emotion-focused coping was neuroticism, possibly due to a confounding of emotion-focused coping with distress. Thus, other variables are needed to fully account for coping style choice....

  19. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Indications and efficacy of nonoperative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Canavese

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The strategy for the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis depends essentially upon the magnitude and pattern of the deformity, and its potential for progression. Treatment options include observation, bracing and/or surgery. During the past decade, several studies have demonstrated that the natural history of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis can be positively affected by nonoperative treatment, especially bracing. Other forms of conservative treatment, such as chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation, acupuncture, exercise or other manual treatments, or diet and nutrition, have not yet been proven to be effective in controlling spinal deformity progression, and those with a natural history that is favorable at the completion of growth. Observation is appropriate treatment for small curves, curves that are at low risk of progression, and those with a natural history that is favorable at the completion of growth. Indications for brace treatment are a growing child presenting with a curve of 25°-40° or a curve less than 25° with documented progression. Curves of 20°-25° in patients with pronounced skeletal immaturity should also be treated. The purpose of this review is to provide information about conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Indications for conservative treatment, hours daily wear and complications of brace treatment as well as brace types are discussed.

  20. The status of dental caries and related factors in a sample of Iranian adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakpour, Amir H.; Hidarnia, Alireza; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the status of dental caries in a sample of Iranian adolescents aged 14 to 18 years in Qazvin, and to identify caries-related factors affecting this group. Study design: Qazvin was divided into three zones according to socio-economic status. The sampling procedure used was a...

  1. Using Language Sample Analysis to Assess Spoken Language Production in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jon F.; Andriacchi, Karen; Nockerts, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This tutorial discusses the importance of language sample analysis and how Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT) software can be used to simplify the process and effectively assess the spoken language production of adolescents. Method: Over the past 30 years, thousands of language samples have been collected from typical…

  2. Maternal anxiety predicts favourable treatment outcomes in anxiety-disordered adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legerstee, J.S.; Huizink, A.C.; Gastel, W. van; Liber, J.M.; Treffers, P.D.A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Utens, E.M.W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the differential impact of maternal and paternal internalizing psychopathology on cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) outcome of anxiety-disordered children and adolescents. Method: Participants consisted of 127 children and 51 adolescents with a primary anxiety diagnosis.

  3. Mycotoxin Analysis: New Proposals for Sample Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Arroyo-Manzanares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by different fungi, with different chemical structures. Mycotoxins contaminate food, feed, or raw materials used in their production and cause diseases and disorders in humans and livestock. Because of their great variety of toxic effects and their extreme heat resistance, the presence of mycotoxins in food and feed is considered a high risk to human and animal health. In order to ensure food quality and health consumers, European legislation has set maximum contents of some mycotoxins in different matrices. However, there are still some food commodities susceptible to fungal contamination, which were not contemplated in this legislation. In this context, we have developed new analytical techniques for the multiclass determination of mycotoxins in a great variety of food commodities (some of them scarcely studied, such as cereals, pseudocereals, cereal syrups, nuts, edible seeds, and botanicals. Considering the latest technical developments, ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry has been chosen as an efficient, fast, and selective powerful analytical technique. In addition, alternative sample treatments based on emerging methodologies, such as dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and QuEChERS, have been developed, which allow an increased efficiency and sample throughput, as well as reducing contaminant waste.

  4. Physical therapy treatments for low back pain in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo-Muñoz Inmaculada

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP in adolescents is associated with LBP in later years. In recent years treatments have been administered to adolescents for LBP, but it is not known which physical therapy treatment is the most efficacious. By means of a meta-analysis, the current study investigated the effectiveness of the physical therapy treatments for LBP in children and adolescents. Methods Studies in English, Spanish, French, Italian and Portuguese, and carried out by March 2011, were selected by electronic and manual search. Two independent researchers coded the moderator variables of the studies, and performed the effect size calculations. The mean effect size index used was the standardized mean change between the pretest and posttest, and it was applied separately for each combination of outcome measures, (pain, disability, flexibility, endurance and mental health and measurement type (self-reports, and clinician assessments. Results Eight articles that met the selection criteria enabled us to define 11 treatment groups and 5 control groups using the group as the unit of analysis. The 16 groups involved a total sample of 334 subjects at the posttest (221 in the treatment groups and 113 in the control groups. For all outcome measures, the average effect size of the treatment groups was statistically and clinically significant, whereas the control groups had negative average effect sizes that were not statistically significant. Conclusions Of all the physical therapy treatments for LBP in children and adolescents, the combination of therapeutic physical conditioning and manual therapy is the most effective. The low number of studies and control groups, and the methodological limitations in this meta-analysis prevent us from drawing definitive conclusions in relation to the efficacy of physical therapy treatments in LBP.

  5. Assessment and treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehry, Anna M; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Hennelly, Meghann M; Connolly, Sucheta D; Strawn, Jeffrey R

    2015-07-01

    Recent advances in the developmental epidemiology, neurobiology, and treatment of pediatric anxiety disorders have increased our understanding of these conditions and herald improved outcomes for affected children and adolescents. This article reviews the current epidemiology, longitudinal trajectory, and neurobiology of anxiety disorders in youth. Additionally, we summarize the current evidence for both psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacologic treatments of fear-based anxiety disorders (e.g., generalized, social, and separation anxiety disorders) in children and adolescents. Current data suggest that these disorders begin in childhood and adolescence, exhibit homotypic continuity, and increase the risk of secondary anxiety and mood disorders. Psychopharmacologic trials involving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSNRIs) are effective in pediatric patients with anxiety disorders and have generally demonstrated moderate effect sizes. Additionally, current data support cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of these conditions in youth and suggest that the combination of psychotherapy + an SSRI may be associated with greater improvement than would be expected with either treatment as monotherapy.

  6. Risk of death among those awaiting treatment for HIV infection in Zimbabwe: adolescents are at particular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Shroufi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mortality among HIV-positive adults awaiting antiretroviral therapy (ART has previously been found to be high. Here, we compare adolescent pre-ART mortality to that of adults in a public sector HIV care programme in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we compared adolescent pre-ART outcomes with those of adults enrolled for HIV care in the same clinic. Adolescents were defined as those aged 10–19 at the time of registration. Comparisons of means and proportions were carried out using two-tailed sample t-tests and chi-square tests respectively, for normally distributed data, and the Mann–Whitney U-tests for non-normally distributed data. Loss to follow-up (LTFU was defined as missing a scheduled appointment by three or more months. Results: Between 2004 and 2010, 1382 of 1628 adolescents and 7557 of 11,106 adults who registered for HIV care met the eligibility criteria for ART. Adolescents registered at a more advanced disease stage than did adults (83% vs. 73% WHO stage III/IV, respectively, p<0.001, and the median time to ART initiation was longer for adolescents than for adults [21 (10–55 days vs. 15 (7–42 days, p<0.001]. Among the 138 adolescents and 942 adults who never commenced ART, 39 (28% of adolescents and 135 (14% of adults died, the remainder being LTFU. Mortality among treatment-eligible adolescents awaiting ART was significantly higher than among adults (3% vs. 1.8%, respectively, p=0.004. Conclusions: Adolescents present to ART services at a later clinical stage than adults and are at an increased risk of death prior to commencing ART. Improved and innovative HIV case-finding approaches and emphasis on prompt ART initiation in adolescents are urgently needed. Following registration, defaulter tracing should be used, whether or not ART has been commenced.

  7. Surgical staged treatment for moderate to severe adolescent cervical kyphosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Lei; ZHOU Xu-hui; LIU Yang; GAO Rui; CHEN Hua-jiang; YANG Li-li; SHI Sheng; YUAN Wen

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescent cervical kyphosis refers to manifestation characterized by loss of physiological cervical lordosis with involvement of multiple cervical vertebrae.There is no standard treatment strategy for this disease,especially in those patients who need surgical intervention.The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical staged treatment for moderate to severe adolescents cervical kyphosis.Methods A total of 26 adolescent with cervical kyphosis were retrospectively assigned into following two groups according to the magnitude of kyphosis:moderate group (n=17),the Cobb angle was 46.6°±4.8°.The surgical procedure was that skull traction was first carried out for 5-7 days and then the anterior fusion and instrumentation were performed.Severe group (n=9),the Cobb angle was 61.6°±4.8°.The treatment strategy was that the anterior release were first performed,followed by skull traction for 7-10 days,and then anterior fusion were performed.Radiographic evaluation was performed postoperatively.Results Three days after surgery,the X-ray examination showed that the Cobb angle was -8.9°±6.8° in the moderate group and -6.0°±6.3° in the severe group.The deformed appearance was obviously corrected,with neck pain and neurologic function improved significantly.Further magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicated the physiology curvature of the cervical spine had been reconstructed.Conclusion Surgical staged treatment may be an ideal therapeutic intervention for cervical kyphosis patients with a Cobb angle exceeding 35° in adolescents.

  8. Characteristics of Mexican and Mexican American adolescents in treatment for "cheese" heroin use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robrina; Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Adinoff, Bryon; Carmody, Thomas; Coton, Casey E; Tirado, Carlos F

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and cultural characteristics of Hispanic adolescent heroin users are not well described. The current exploratory study was conducted to describe a sample of in-treatment Hispanic adolescents with opioid dependence, specifically, cheese heroin. Mexican and Mexican American adolescents with heroin dependence (N = 72) in three treatment programs were interviewed and completed self-report measures. Participants reported, on average, first using cheese heroin at age 13.5 years and daily use at age 14.2 years. The majority (74%) reported a previous overdose. Adolescents being raised by caregivers other than both biological parents, who used drugs with relatives, and whose immediate family members have documentation to be in the United States fared worse on several indicators of drug use severity and other risky behaviors. The self-reported brief time period from first use to daily use strongly suggests the need for early prevention efforts. Additional research is needed to add to these preliminary results and inform prevention efforts.

  9. [Bariatric and plastic surgery in obese adolescents: an alternative treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubern, Béatrice; Tounian, Patrice

    2014-06-01

    The increased frequency of extreme forms of obesity in adolescents and the disappointing results of conventional treatments are now leading pediatricians to consider bariatric or cosmetic surgery as the only real long-term effective therapeutic alternative. The two main techniques currently used for bariatric surgery in adolescents are gastric bypass and adjustable gastric banding. Whatever the technique, weight loss is significant with improvement of comorbidities and quality of life. In addition, the complications are identical to those in adults and equally frequent. However, because of the particularities of this age, caution is still required. Adolescence is indeed characterized by specific nutritional needs, but also changes in body image in which surgery could have a negative effect. Currently, all obese teenagers making a request for bariatric surgery should have a comprehensive assessment with global care for at least 6 months. The indication is then discussed on a case-by-case basis by multidisciplinary teams and experts. To date, the type of surgery (gastric banding, gastric sleeve, or bypass) is still widely discussed. Based on experience with adults, we believe that gastric sleeve and bypass should be preferred. In addition, obesity in adolescents almost always involves psychosocial consequences, while somatic complications are rare. Thus, the care of adipo- or gynecomastia, abdominal fat excess, and concealed penis is essential and therefore justifies cosmetic surgery.

  10. Developing Treatment for Adolescents Who Stutter: A Phase I Trial of the Camperdown Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearne, Anna; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark; O'Brian, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate in detail how adolescents who stutter perform during treatment, with the aim of informing treatment development for this age group. Method: The Camperdown Program was conducted with 3 adolescents who stutter. Their performance during treatment was recorded in detail, and outcome measures were collected before treatment and…

  11. An Update on Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Eating Disorders in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, James

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are relatively common and serious disorders in adolescents. However, there are few controlled psychosocial intervention studies with this younger population. This review updates a previous Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology review published in 2008. The recommendations in this review were developed after searching the literature including PubMed/Medline and employing the relevant medical subject headings. In addition, the bibliographies of book chapters and treatment guideline articles were reviewed; last, colleagues were asked for suggested additional source materials. Psychosocial treatments examined include family therapy, individual therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, cognitive training, and dialectical behavior therapy. Using the most recent Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology methodological review criteria, family treatment-behavior (FT-B) is the only well-established treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Family treatment-systemic and insight oriented individual psychotherapy are probably efficacious treatments for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. There are no well-established treatments for adolescents with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or avoidant restrictive food intake disorder. Possibly efficacious psychosocial treatments for adolescent bulimia nervosa include FT-B and supportive individual therapy. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy is a possibly efficacious treatment for binge eating disorder. Experimental treatments for adolescent eating disorders include enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy, cognitive training, and interpersonal psychotherapy. FT-B is the only well-established treatment for adolescent eating disorders. Additional research examining treatment for eating disorders in youth is warranted.

  12. [Complementary treatment methods for depression in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolle, Kathrin; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Depressive disorders are among the more common mental illnesses around the world, about 1- 3% of prepubertal children and 6% of postpubertal children and adolescents are affected. They markedly impair psychosocial development and are associated with higher rate of morbidity and mortality throughout life. Many physicians are unsure about which treatment approaches are effective and how the treatment should be planned. A systematic literature search was carried out in electronic databases and study registries and as a manual search. More than 450 studies (mostly randomized controlled trials = RCTs) were identified and summarized in evidence tables. The ensuing recommendations were agreed upon in a consensus conference. The review summarizes the evidence of complementary treatment methods. The evidence for complementary treatment methods (art and music therapy, sleep deprivation, exercise, electroconvulsive therapy, massage, transcranial magnetic stimulation, relaxation, bibliotherapy, computer based therapy, light therapy, omega-3 treatment) is low or there is no evidence due to missing studies or studies of poor quality. For some methods, i. e. light therapy, relaxation and stress reduction and sleep deprivation there is limited indication for effectiveness without sufficient evidence for a practical guidance. There is an urgent need for adequately informative comparative studies on treatment of depression in children and adolescents considering also complementary methods.

  13. Multiple online victimization of Spanish adolescents: Results from a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Irene; Carbonell, Enrique; Pereda, Noemí

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about online victimization of Spanish adolescents. The present study aims to determine the past-year prevalence of online victimization in a community sample of Spanish adolescents. The final sample consisted of 3,897 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old (M=14.45, SD=1.59), 1,836 males and 2,049 females, recruited from 39 secondary schools in the east of Spain. The Cuestionario de victimización juvenil mediante internet y/o teléfono móvil (hereinafter, Juvenile Online Victimization Questionnaire, JOV-Q, Montiel & Carbonell, 2012) was applied for the assessment of eight types of online victimization grouped in two major domains: sexual (sexual coercion, sexual pressure, online grooming by an adult, unwanted exposure to sexual content and violation of privacy); and nonsexual victimization (online harassment, happy slapping, pressure to obtain personal information). Sixty-one percent of adolescents reported online victimization during the last year. Online sexual victimization was reported by 39.5% of adolescents and nonsexual victimization by 53.4% of them, whereas 31% of youth reported having experienced online victimization in both domains. The highest prevalence rates were recorded for online harassment (50%), unwanted exposure to sexual content (24.4%), pressure to obtain personal information (18.4%) and online grooming by an adult (17.2%), and the lowest for sexual coercion (6.7%) and happy slapping (2.2%). Thirty-five percent of the adolescents were considered online polyvictims and most of them experienced victimization in both sexual and nonsexual domains (88%). This study illustrates that Spanish adolescents experience high levels of online victimization and that multiple online victimization appears to be the norm among cybervictims.

  14. Early Therapeutic Alliance and Treatment Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Stambaugh, Leyla Faw; Cecero, John J.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of early therapeutic alliance was examined in 100 clients receiving either individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or family therapy for adolescent substance abuse. Observational ratings of adolescent alliance in CBT and adolescent and parent alliance in family therapy were used to predict treatment retention (in CBT only) and…

  15. Treatment of adolescent sexual offenders: theory-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermabeikian, P; Martinez, D

    1994-11-01

    The treatment of adolescent sexual offenders (ASO) has its theoretical underpinnings in social learning theory. Although social learning theory has been frequently cited in literature, a comprehensive application of this theory, as applied to practice, has not been mapped out. The social learning and social cognitive theories of Bandura appear to be particularly relevant to the group treatment of this population. The application of these theories to practice, as demonstrated in a program model, is discussed as a means of demonstrating how theory-driven practice methods can be developed.

  16. Gender Differences in Achievement in a Large, Nationally Representative Sample of Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, Caroline; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Hajovsky, Daniel B.; Kaufman, Alan S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate developmental gender differences in academic achievement areas, with the primary focus on writing, using the child and adolescent portion (ages 6-21 years) of the "Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Second Edition, Brief Form," norming sample (N = 1,574). Path analytic models with gender,…

  17. Multidimensional Perfectionism within Gifted Suburban Adolescents: An Exploration of Typology and Comparison of Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofield, Emily L.; Parker Peters, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Researchers explored the typology of perfectionism among 153 (46% male, 54% female; 88% White, 8% African American, 5% Asian American, 4% Hispanic, 1% Other) suburban gifted adolescents and compared perfectionism scores (using the Goals and Work Habits Survey, a modification of Frost's Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale [F-MPS]) to samples of…

  18. Prevalence, 20-month incidence and outcome of unipolar depressive disorders in a community sample of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, AJ; Wittchen, HU; Schuster, P

    1999-01-01

    Background. This article presents prospective longitudinal findings on prevalence, incidence, patterns of change and stability of depressive disorders in a community sample of 1228 adolescents. Methods. Data were collected at baseline and follow-up (20 months later) in a representative population sa

  19. School Anxiety Inventory: Reliability and Validity Evidence in a Sample of Slovenian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levpušcek, Melita Puklek; Inglés, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; García-Fernández, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the School Anxiety Inventory (SAI) using a sample of 646 Slovenian adolescents (48% boys), ranging in age from 12 to 19 years. Single confirmatory factor analyses replicated the correlated four-factor structure of scores on the SAI for anxiety-provoking school situations…

  20. Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of British Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Implications for Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Graeme

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the results of the administration of the Young Schema Questionnaire in a British sample of 54 sexually abusive adolescents. This questionnaire is a measurement of the 16 Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) as conceptualized by Young in his schema model of psychopathology. A clinical group of 40 was differentiated from a…

  1. Feasibility of Momentary Sampling Assessment of Cannabis Use in Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Shimrit K.; de Moor, Carl; Kendall, Ashley D.; Shrier, Lydia A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility of recruiting and retaining adolescents and young adults with frequent cannabis use for a 2-week momentary sampling study of cannabis use. Participants responded to random signals on a handheld computer with reports of their use. Participants also initiated reports pre- and post-cannabis use. Participants had…

  2. The meaning of Mindfulness in children and adolescents: Further validation of the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM) in two independent samples from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.I. de Bruin; B.J.H. Zijlstra; S.M. Bögels

    2013-01-01

    Factor structure, internal consistency, and construct validity of the Dutch version of the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM) were studied in two samples of school children and adolescents (n = 275, 10-12 years and n = 560, 13-16 years) from The Netherlands, using principle factor analy

  3. HIV Prevention Intervention Outcome among Minority Adolescents in Court Mandated Drug Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Devieux

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Delinquent adolescents with substance abuse disorders frequently engage in behaviors that elevate their risk of contracting HIV. Although effective risk reduction interventions are urgently needed, there is uncertainty about the nature of interventions required to produce change. Approach:This study evaluated whether Modified version of Becoming A Responsible Teen (M-BART produced greater reductions in drug use and sexual risk behaviors than an Anger Management (AM condition among a mixed gender, culturally diverse sample of adolescents in court-ordered substance dependence treatment. Results: No significant differences were found between M-BART (n = 70 and AM (n = 59 groups in degree of change between intake and outcome in HIV sex risk or drug use behaviors. However, across groups, meaningful reductions were found in total number of sex partners and in proportions of total unprotected sex acts, unprotected vaginal sex, unprotected oral giving sex acts and unprotected oral receiving sex acts from baseline to follow-up (all p’s Conclusion: Factors that accounted for meaningful changes across groups and no change between intervention outcomes were discussed. While the M-BART intervention impacted the adolescents directly by teaching skills about how to reduce risky sex, the AM intervention and also impacted higher order factor, impulsivity, linked to risky sex and drug use. Implications for HIV prevention among minority adolescents were discussed.

  4. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy and EMDR for Adolescents in Residential Treatment: A Practical and Theoretical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelle, Carole

    2005-01-01

    DBT and EMDR as primary treatment methods provide effective treatment for adolescents in the setting of group residential facilities. Regardless of the intensity of the pathology or the length of stay, these compatible treatment methods provide adolescents with significant decreases in the impact of traumatic memories and increased emotional…

  5. Integrating Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Pharmacotherapy in the Treatment of Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Albano, Anne Marie; Findling, Robert L.; Kratochvil, Christopher; Walkup, John

    2005-01-01

    Recent evidence from the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) suggests that combining cognitive behavioral and pharmacological treatments holds the most promise for ameliorating depression among adolescents. This article describes lessons learned during the TADS trial about how to integrate these two treatments in the care of…

  6. Testing For Measurement Invariance of Attachment Across Chinese and American Adolescent Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ling; Zhao, Jihong Solomon; He, Ni Phil; Marshall, Ineke Haen; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhao, Ruohui; Jin, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Adolescent attachment to formal and informal institutions has emerged as a major focus of criminological theories since the publication of Hirschi's work in 1969. This study attempts to examine the psychometric equivalence of the factorial structure of attachment measures across nations reflecting Western and Eastern cultures. Twelve manifest variables are used tapping the concepts of adolescent attachment to parents, school, and neighborhood. Confirmatory factor analysis is used to conduct invariance test across approximately 3,000 Chinese and U.S. adolescents. Results provide strong support for a three-factor model; the multigroup invariance tests reveal mixed results. While the family attachment measure appears invariant between the two samples, significant differences in the coefficients of the factor loadings are detected in the school attachment and neighborhood attachment measures. The results of regression analyses lend support to the predictive validity of three types of attachment. Finally, the limitations of the study are discussed.

  7. Depression and physical activity in a sample of nigerian adolescents: levels, relationships and predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okafor Nkechi C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is related to many morbidities but the evidence of its link with depression in adolescents needs further investigation in view of the existing conflicting reports. Methods The data for this cross-sectional study were collected from 1,100 Nigerian adolescents aged 12-17 years. Depressive symptomatology and physical activity were assessed using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI and the Physical Activity Questionnaire-Adolescent version (PAQ-A respectively. Independent t tests, Pearson's Moment Correlation and Multi-level logistic regression analyses for individual and school area influences were carried out on the data at p Results The mean age of the participants was 15.20 ± 1.435 years. The prevalence of mild to moderate depression was 23.8%, definite depression was 5.7% and low physical activity was 53.8%. More severe depressive symptoms were linked with lower levels of physical activity (r = -0.82, p Conclusions A sizable burden of depression and low physical activity existed among the studied adolescents and these were linked to both individual and school factors. Future studies should examine the effects of physical activity among clinical samples of adolescents with depression.

  8. Oral Health Behaviors in a Sample of Portuguese Adolescents: An Educational Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio J. Veiga

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral health behaviors among a sample of Portuguese adolescents and to evaluate the association with socio-demographic factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 447 adolescents aged 12-19 years, attending a public school in Sátão, Portugal. A self-administered questionnaire was applied for data collection. Results: The prevalence of tooth brushing (twice-a-day or more was 90.6%. About 6% of adolescents reported daily flossing, which was more frequent among female gender (female, OR=2.03, 95%CI= (1.35 to 3.05 and adolescents older than 15 years (>15years, OR=1.90, 95%CI= (1.24 to 2.92. Sixty-seven percent had at least one dental appointment in the previous twelve months. The prevalence of dental appointments was associated with the father´s professional situation (unemployed, OR=0.33, 95% CI= (0.17 to 0.65 and crowding index (>1, OR=0.4, 95%CI=(0.16 to 0.98. Thirty-two point nine percent of adolescents referred having at least one episode of dental pain during their lives. Conclusion: The results highlight the need for improvement of oral health community programs and primary preventive strategies to reduce the risk of oral diseases and develop better oral health behaviours.

  9. Systematic review of the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadstock, Marita; Doughty, Carolyn; Eggleston, Matt

    2007-07-01

    The variable expression of autism over the lifespan is likely to lead to different symptoms and support requirements, and to distinct responses to pharmacotherapy treatment, in older patients compared to children. This systematic review considers the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment in managing autism spectrum disorder in adolescents and adults. Following a comprehensive search of literature published in English from 1980, methodological criteria were applied to identify studies designed to reliably assess treatment effectiveness. Only five double-blind, randomized controlled trials were eligible for appraisal. All had small sample sizes (mean = 30) and brief treatment duration of no more than 12 weeks. The paucity of trials and their methodological limitations means that there is only preliminary evidence about the short-term effectiveness of a few drug treatments for this age group. There was also a lack of reliable data reported on drug safety profiles. Methodological challenges and directions for future research are discussed.

  10. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: natural history and long term treatment effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Marc A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a lifetime, probably systemic condition of unknown cause, resulting in a spinal curve or curves of ten degrees or more in about 2.5% of most populations. However, in only about 0.25% does the curve progress to the point that treatment is warranted. Untreated, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis does not increase mortality rate, even though on rare occasions it can progress to the >100° range and cause premature death. The rate of shortness of breath is not increased, although patients with 50° curves at maturity or 80° curves during adulthood are at increased risk of developing shortness of breath. Compared to non-scoliotic controls, most patients with untreated adolescent idiopathic scoliosis function at or near normal levels. They do have increased pain prevalence and may or may not have increased pain severity. Self-image is often decreased. Mental health is usually not affected. Social function, including marriage and childbearing may be affected, but only at the threshold of relatively larger curves. Non-operative treatment consists of bracing for curves of 25° to 35° or 40° in patients with one to two years or more of growth remaining. Curve progression of ≥ 6° is 20 to 40% more likely with observation than with bracing. Operative treatment consists of instrumentation and arthrodesis to realign and stabilize the most affected portion of the spine. Lasting curve improvement of approximately 40% is usually achieved. In the most completely studied series to date, at 20 to 28 years follow-up both braced and operated patients had similar, significant, and clinically meaningful reduced function and increased pain compared to non-scoliotic controls. However, their function and pain scores were much closer to normal than patient groups with other, more serious conditions. Risks associated with treatment include temporary decrease in self-image in braced patients. Operated patients face the usual

  11. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with a population based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangerud, Wenche Langfjord; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Lydersen, Stian; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use by diagnostic category in 566 adolescent psychiatric patients, comparing this sample with 8173 adolescents from the general population in Norway who completed the Young-HUNT 3 survey. Frequencies of current alcohol use were high in both samples but were lower among psychiatric patients. Compared with adolescents in the general population, adolescents in the clinical sample had a higher prevalence of current smoking and over four times higher odds of having tried illicit drugs. In the clinical sample, those with mood disorders reported the highest frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use, whereas those with autism spectrum disorders reported the lowest frequencies. Our results show an increased prevalence of risky health behaviors among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with the general population. The awareness of disorder-specific patterns of smoking and substance use may guide preventive measures.

  12. Parental Support, Mental Health, and Alcohol and Marijuana Use in National and High-Risk African-American Adolescent Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Sokol, Robert J.; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    African-American adolescents experience disproportionate rates of negative consequences of substance use despite using substances at average or below-average rates. Due to underrepresentation of African-American adolescents in etiological literature, risk and protective processes associated with their substance use require further study. This study examines the role of parental support in adolescents’ conduct problems (CPs), depressive symptoms (DSs), and alcohol and marijuana use in a national sample and a high-risk sample of African-American adolescents. In both samples, parental support was inversely related to adolescent CPs, DSs, and alcohol and marijuana use. CPs, but not DSs, partially mediated the relation of parental support to substance use. Results were consistent across the national and high-risk samples, suggesting that the protective effect of parental support applies to African-American adolescents from a range of demographic backgrounds. PMID:26843811

  13. Antipsychotic treatment for children and adolescents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, Anne Katrine; Tarp, Simon; Glintborg, D

    2014-01-01

    effectiveness studies in children and adolescents are limited in number and size, and only a few meta-analyses based on conventional methodologies have been conducted. METHODS AND ANALYSES: We will conduct a network meta-analysis of all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluate antipsychotic therapies...... for EOS to determine which compounds are efficacious, and to determine the relative efficacy and safety of these treatments when compared in a network meta-analysis. Unlike a contrast-based (standard) meta-analysis approach, an arm-based network meta-analysis enables statistical inference from combining...

  14. An open trial of Acceptance-based Separated Family Treatment (ASFT) for adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, C Alix; Zucker, Nancy L; Herbert, James D; Rodriguez, Daniel; Merwin, Rhonda M

    2015-06-01

    Family based-treatments have the most empirical support in the treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa; yet, a significant percentage of adolescents and their families do not respond to manualized family based treatment (FBT). The aim of this open trial was to conduct a preliminary evaluation of an innovative family-based approach to the treatment of anorexia: Acceptance-based Separated Family Treatment (ASFT). Treatment was grounded in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), delivered in a separated format, and included an ACT-informed skills program. Adolescents (ages 12-18) with anorexia or sub-threshold anorexia and their families received 20 treatment sessions over 24 weeks. Outcome indices included eating disorder symptomatology reported by the parent and adolescent, percentage of expected body weight achieved, and changes in psychological acceptance/avoidance. Half of the adolescents (48.0%) met criteria for full remission at the end of treatment, 29.8% met criteria for partial remission, and 21.3% did not improve. Overall, adolescents had a significant reduction in eating disorder symptoms and reached expected body weight. Treatment resulted in changes in psychological acceptance in the expected direction for both parents and adolescents. This open trial provides preliminary evidence for the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of ASFT for adolescents with anorexia. Directions for future research are discussed.

  15. Predictors and characteristics of anxiety among adolescent students: a Greek sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaratou, H; Anagnostopoulos, D C; Vlassopoulos, M; Charbilas, D; Rotsika, V; Tsakanikos, E; Tzavara, Ch; Dikeos, D

    2013-01-01

    In the Greek society, there is a strong cultural tendency to overestimate the value of University studies. So students are under high emotional pressure during the long lasting period of the preparation for the university entrance exams. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the level of anxiety in a general adolescent population of senior high school students in Athens, Greece. Also to examine the association between the anxiety's severity with various demographic and socio-cultural factors, as well as with academic performance, extracurricular activities, sleep duration and presence of somatic problems. The sample consisted of 696 adolescent students of three Senior High Schools (SHS) (391 girls and 305 boys). Two of the schools were general education institutions (GE1 and GE2, N=450), while the third was a technical one (TE, N=246). The school sample was selected to reflect the proportion between the two different types of SHSs in Athens as well as other major urban areas in Greece. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was administered and personal data were also collected. Statistical significance was set at pacademic achievement was poor for 233, good for 264, excellent for 196 students. Adolescents with extracurricular activities for more than 11 hours per week had lower scores, both on State and Trait scales. More hours in school-related activities were associated with greater levels of Trait anxiety. Adolescents whose father had a high educational level had lower scores on State anxiety compared to those whose father had a low educational level. Adolescents who reported the presence of somatic problems had a higher score in Trait anxiety. A significant negative correlation was found between sleep duration and both State (r=-0.14, pexam-related anxiety in our sample was not confirmed. There were no differences between school years and GE and TE schools. Also there was not an association of anxiety level with academic achievement and the number of parents

  16. Development and evaluation of a treatment fidelity instrument for family-based treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Sarah; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Darcy, Alison; Aspen, Vandana; Accurso, Erin C.; Bryson, Susan W.; Agras, Stewart; Arnow, Katherine D.; Grange, Daniel Le; Lock, James

    2015-01-01

    Objective The current study provides data on the psychometric properties of a newly developed measure of treatment fidelity in Family-Based Treatment (FBT) for adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN). The Family Therapy Fidelity and Adherence Check (FBT-FACT) was created to evaluate therapist adherence and competency on the core interventions in FBT. Methods Participants were 45 adolescents and their families sampled from three randomized clinical trials evaluating treatment for AN. Trained fidelity raters evaluated 19 therapists across 90 early session recordings using the FBT-FACT. They also rated an additional 15 session 1 recordings of an alternate form of family therapy – Systemic Family Therapy (SFT) for the purpose of evaluating discriminant validity of the FBT-FACT. The process of development and the psychometric properties of the FBT-FACT are presented. Results Overall fidelity ratings for each session demonstrated moderate to strong inter-rater agreement. Internal consistency of the measure was strong for sessions 1 and 2 and poor for session 3. Principal components analysis suggests sessions 1 and 2 are distinct interventions. Conclusion FBT-FACT demonstrates good reliability and validity as a measure of treatment fidelity in the early phase of FBT. PMID:25142619

  17. Loneliness in the Daily Lives of Adolescents: An Experience Sampling Study Examining the Effects of Social Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roekel, Eeske; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Goossens, Luc; Verhagen, Maaike

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine state levels of loneliness in adolescence. Both concurrent associations and temporal dynamics between social contexts and state levels of loneliness were examined. Data were collected from 286 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 14.19 years, 59% girls) by using the Experience Sampling Method. Results…

  18. Is Accuracy of Weight Perception Associated with Health Risk Behaviors in a Diverse Sample of Obese Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Clare M.; Daly, Brian P.; Eichen, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Current evidence is equivocal as to whether adolescent's perception of weight status is linked to both healthy and risky behaviors. This study examined the association between accurate and inaccurate perception of weight and self-reported health and risk behaviors among a diverse sample of obese, urban adolescents. Data were analyzed from 1,180…

  19. Assessing the Relationship between Family Mealtime Communication and Adolescent Emotional Well-Being Using the Experience Sampling Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offer, Shira

    2013-01-01

    While most prior research has focused on the frequency of family meals the issue of which elements of family mealtime are most salient for adolescents' well-being has remained overlooked. The current study used the experience sampling method, a unique form of time diary, and survey data drawn from the 500 Family Study (N = 237 adolescents with…

  20. The relationship between parental religiosity and mental health of pre-adolescents in a community sample: the TRAILS study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt-Jelsma, W. van der; Vries-Schot, M. de; Jong, R de; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Veenstra, R.; Swinkels, S.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between parental religiosity, parental harmony on the subject of religiosity, and the mental health of pre-adolescents. In a community-based sample of 2,230 pre-adolescents (10-12 years), mental health problems were assessed using self-report

  1. The relationship between parental religiosity and mental health of pre-adolescents in a community sample : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jagt-Jelsma, Willeke; de Vries-Schot, Margreet; de Jong, Rint; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; Swinkels, Sophie; Buitelaar, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between parental religiosity, parental harmony on the subject of religiosity, and the mental health of pre-adolescents. In a community-based sample of 2,230 pre-adolescents (10-12 years), mental health problems were assessed using self-report

  2. Psychiatric treatments for children and adolescents preferred by spanish psychiatrists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Toro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the prescription criteria of Spanish psychiatrists treating children and adolescents. Methods: a survey was designed to record their first choice and complementary preferences for pharmacological, psychotherapeutic and psychoeducational interventions in five disorders: autism, depression, separation anxiety, obsessive compulsive and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders. Results: One hundred and nine psychiatrists responded. No distinction was made between children and adolescents. Around 90% recommended all three types of intervention in the five disorders. Only 2-10% would use only one treatment. Antidepressants were the most frequently prescribed drugs (recommended by 58%, followed by anxiolytics (33%, antipsychotics (24%, stimulants (20%, beta-blockers (19%, mood stabilizers (10% and alpha-adrenergics (4%. Cognitive-behavioral therapy was the most popular approach, recommended by 66%; a third of the interviewees recommended family, support, interpersonal and dynamic psychotherapy. Interestingly, respondents quite frequently prescribe drugs, drug combinations and psychotherapies whose efficacy has not been demonstrated in the disorders in question. Conclusions: The majority of Spanish psychiatrists preferred the combined treatments in all disorders. There seems to be a tendency towards excessive generalization of therapeutic results obtained in adults.

  3. Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Research in etiology, neurobiology, genetics, clinical correlates, and evidence-based treatments in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder indicate a need for the revision of the Practice Parameters for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder first published a decade ago. The…

  4. Outpatient Marijuana Treatment for Adolescents: Economic Evaluation of a Multisite Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael T.; Roebuck, M. Christopher; Dennis, Michael L.; Godley, Susan H.; Liddle, Howard A.; Tims, Frank M.

    2003-01-01

    Conducted an economic evaluation of five outpatient adolescent treatment approaches (12 total site-by-conditions) to identify average economic costs to society. Results suggest that some types of substance-abuse intervention for adolescents can reduce social costs immediately after treatment. (SLD)

  5. Sumatriptan nasal spray in the acute treatment of migraine in adolescents and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callenbach, Petra M. C.; Pels, Lise P. M.; Mulder, Paul G. H.; Linssen, Wirn H. J. P.; Gooskens, Rob H. J. M.; van der Zwan, Jan L.; Brouwer, Oebele F.

    2007-01-01

    About 4-10% of children and adolescents suffer from migraine. in the last few years, several studies have been performed to assess the efficacy and safety of triptans for the acute treatment of migraine in children and adolescents. Only sumatriptan nasal spray has been approved for the treatment of

  6. The Role of Readiness to Change in Response to Treatment of Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Silva, Susan G.; Rohde, Paul; Small, David M.; Murakami, Jessica L.; High, Robin R.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of readiness to change on treatment outcome was examined among 332 adolescents (46% male, 74% Caucasian), ages 12 through 17 years (M = 14.6, SD = 1.5), with major depressive disorder who were participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS). TADS is a randomized clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of…

  7. Treatment Adherence, Competence, and Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Aaron; Henderson, Craig E.; Dauber, Sarah; Barajas, Priscilla C.; Fried, Adam; Liddle, Howard A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of treatment adherence and therapist competence on treatment outcome in a controlled trial of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for adolescent substance use and related behavior problems. Participants included 136 adolescents (62 CBT, 74 MDFT) assessed at intake,…

  8. Preliminary Examination of the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide in an Adolescent Clinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sarah E; Hughes, Jennifer L; King, Jessica D; Kennard, Betsy D; Westers, Nicholas J; Mayes, Taryn L; Stewart, Sunita M

    2016-08-01

    This study offers a preliminary examination of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS; Joiner 2005) in an adolescent clinical sample. The IPTS offers a nuanced framework that has many conceptual and practical merits. Although this theory has a growing base of evidence among adults, it has yet to be tested in adolescents using direct measures of its central constructs. Participants were 147 adolescents (76.2 % girls) on an inpatient psychiatric unit, who completed measures of key IPTS constructs of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, acquired capability for suicide, as well as depression severity, hopelessness, and severity of suicidal symptoms. Our findings were largely consistent with hypotheses derived from the IPTS: perceived burdensomeness, and at a marginal level, thwarted belongingness, were independently associated with current suicidal ideation. The thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness interaction marginally distinguished between adolescents with passive and active suicidal ideation. Acquired capability for suicide was associated with recent suicidal intent. Examination of all three IPTS constructs simultaneously revealed main effects of each construct (with a marginal effect of thwarted belongingness), and interaction effects for thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness, and thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness by acquired capability for suicide in association with suicidal symptom severity. Sex, age, depression severity, and hopelessness were controlled in all analyses. This study offers strong, albeit preliminary, support of the IPTS in a clinical adolescent sample. Assessment of IPTS constructs may be useful in determining persistent risk for suicide attempt. Prospective tests of the theory, and extensions to intervention and prevention should be considered in future IPTS research.

  9. Effects of media campaign messages targeting parents on adolescent sexual beliefs: a randomized controlled trial with a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palen, Lori-Ann; Ashley, Olivia Silber; Gard, Jennifer C; Kan, Marni L; Davis, Kevin C; Evans, W Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Using a randomized controlled trial, this study evaluated the effects of media messages targeting parents on the sexual beliefs of 404 adolescents. The messages aimed to increase parent-child communication about waiting to initiate sexual activity. Compared with children of unexposed parents, children of parents exposed to media messages were more likely to believe that teen sexual activity is psychologically harmful. However, effects varied by parent and adolescent gender; treatment effects were only significant among adolescents whose opposite-sex parent was exposed. Parent exposure strengthened beliefs that teen sexual activity is physically harmful only among adolescents with at least 1 sexually active friend.

  10. Use of the Internet to Obtain Drugs without a Prescription Among Treatment-involved Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Clements, Nicolle; Flynn, Anna B; Falco, Mathea; McLellan, A Thomas; Arria, Amelia M

    2016-01-01

    Nonmedical use of prescription drugs is common and poses risks such as injury, overdose, and development of abuse and dependence. Internet pharmacies offer prescription drugs without a prescription, creating a source of illicit drugs accessible to anyone with an Internet connection. We examined this issue in a convenience sample of 1,860 adolescents and young adults from 24 residential and outpatient treatment programs. Few individuals obtained drugs from the Internet (n = 26, 2.3%). Pain relievers were the most frequently purchased type of drug. The majority of adolescents and young adult online purchasers made the purchases from their own or a friend's house.

  11. Suicide Ideation and Peers Group: Analysis of a Venezuelan Adolescents Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Ramírez, Juan Antonio; Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela. Escuela de Criminología.; Oduber, Jesús Angel; Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela. Escuela de Criminología.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine a model of relationship in order to predict school-age adolescents suicide ideation. A model based on peers’ suicidal behavior, father and mother’s support, family violence and depression was proposed. A sample of 912 subjects was used. The results through path analysis suggest that teenagers with depression symptoms prefer relating with friends who show suicidal behavior. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar un modelo de relaciones para predec...

  12. Providence nighttime bracing, in treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simony, A.; Beuschau, Inge; Quisth, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Since 2008 the non-surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in the southern part of Denmark, went from full-time bracing with Boston brace, to Providence night-time bracing. Methods: Since 2008, skeletally immature patients diagnosed with AIS and a primary curve...... with apex at T7 or below, were treated with the Providence night-time brace. The patients were evaluated every 6 months, with standing x-rays. Compliance with the treatment was recorded during the study. Bracing was continued up to two years post menarche or, for males upon reaching the expected adult......, and the follow up was 12 months (8-37m). The SRS22r Function score was 4, 32, Mental Health 3, 81, SRS22r total 3, 9 and satisfaction with management 3, 90. The Pain domain was 3, 8. Conclusion: This study shows a good curve control with the Providence Night time brace and an acceptable 20 % curve progression...

  13. Severe hypertension in children and adolescents: pathophysiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Joseph T; Tullus, Kjell

    2009-06-01

    Severe, symptomatic hypertension occurs uncommonly in children, usually only in those with underlying congenital or acquired renal disease. If such hypertension has been long-standing, then rapid blood pressure reduction may be risky due to altered cerebral hemodynamics. While many drugs are available for the treatment of severe hypertension in adults, few have been studied in children. Despite the lack of scientific studies, some agents, particularly continuous intravenous infusions of nicardipine and labetalol, are preferred in many centers. These agents generally provide the ability to control the magnitude and rapidity of blood pressure reduction and should--in conjunction with careful patient monitoring--allow the safe reduction of blood pressure and the avoidance of complications. This review provides a summary of the underlying causes and pathophysiology of acute severe hypertension in childhood as well as a detailed discussion of drug treatment and the optimal clinical approach to managing children and adolescents with acute severe hypertension.

  14. Evaluation of the Environmental Supports Scale with a Community Sample of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risco, Cristina M; Collado, Anahi D; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Lejuez, Carl W; MacPherson, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Environmental sources of psychosocial support have been found to modulate or protect against the development of psychopathology and risk behavior among adolescents. Capturing sources of environmental support across multiple developmental contexts requires the availability of well-validated, concise assessments-of which there are few in the existing literature. In order to address this need, the current study explored the factor structure, concurrent and convergent validity of the Environmental Supports Scale (ESS; Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 117; 395-417, 1991) with a community sample of adolescents. An unconstrained exploratory factor analysis revealed a separate factor for home, school, and neighborhood settings. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated for each factor. Concurrent and predictive validity analyses revealed that the ESS was associated in the expected directions across a range of constructs relevant to adolescent development including internalizing symptoms, well-being, external influences, and engagement in risk behavior. Convergent validity for the neighborhood context was established with an assessment of neighborhood environmental adversity. A brief assessment of perceived environmental support across key developmental contexts provides an important tool for research on resilience processes during adolescence and may help illuminate key protective factors and inform intervention and prevention efforts.

  15. Money Lending Practices and Adolescent Dating Relationship Abuse: Results from a National Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Jennifer E; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Taylor, Bruce G

    2016-09-01

    Research on adult intimate partner violence has demonstrated that economic considerations and financial decision-making are associated with the use of violence in marital and cohabiting relationships. Yet limited work has examined whether financial behaviors influence the use of violence in adolescent dating relationships. We use data from the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV) (n = 728), a comprehensive national household survey dedicated specifically to the topic of adolescent relationship abuse, to examine associations between requests for money lending, economic control/influence, financial socialization and adolescent relationship abuse among a large, diverse sample of male and female adolescents [48 % female; 30 % non-White, including Black (10 %), Hispanic (2 %), and other (18 %)]. Findings suggest that requests for money lending are associated with heightened risk of moderate and serious threats/physical violence perpetration and victimization, net of traditional predictors. We discuss the implications of our findings for intervention and prevention efforts.

  16. Strategies to optimize treatment adherence in adolescent patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishay LC

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lara C Bishay, Gregory S Sawicki Division of Respiratory Diseases, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: While development of new treatments for cystic fibrosis (CF has led to a significant improvement in survival age, routine daily treatment for CF is complex, burdensome, and time intensive. Adolescence is a period of decline in pulmonary function in CF, and is also a time when adherence to prescribed treatment plans for CF tends to decrease. Challenges to adherence in adolescents with CF include decreased parental involvement, time management and significant treatment burden, and adolescent perceptions of the necessity and value of the treatments prescribed. Studies of interventions to improve adherence are limited and focus on education, without significant evidence of success. Smaller studies on behavioral techniques do not focus on adolescents. Other challenges for improving adherence in adolescents with CF include infection control practices limiting in-person interactions. This review focuses on the existing evidence base on adherence intervention in adolescents with CF. Future directions for efforts to optimize treatment adherence in adolescents with CF include reducing treatment burden, developing patient-driven technology to improve tracking, communication, and online support, and rethinking the CF health services model to include assessment of individualized adherence barriers. Keywords: compliance, adolescence, medication, self management, intervention

  17. The use of cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of resistant depression in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto-Hicks X

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Hamill-Skoch,1 Paul Hicks,2 Ximena Prieto-Hicks11Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Arizona, Tuscon, AZ, USAAbstract: Major depressive disorder often begins in adolescence, is chronic and recurrent, and heightens an individual's risk for major depressive disorder in adulthood. Treatment-resistant depression is a problem for a significant minority of adolescents. Few studies have examined treatments for treatment-resistant depression among adolescents, and even fewer have examined the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy as a monotherapy or in combination with pharmacological treatments. Mental health professionals have a strong interest in understanding what treatments are appropriate for adolescents who are treatment resistant. Preliminary evidence from current published trials indicates that the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy in combination with antidepressant medication yields the best outcome for treatment-resistant depression in adolescents. Secondary analyses also suggest that the utility of cognitive behavioral therapy can be increased by ensuring adolescents receive a therapeutic dose of treatment sessions (more than nine sessions and the inclusion of two treatment components: social skills and problem solving training. Guidelines for clinicians as well as areas for future research are discussed.Keywords: cognitive behavior therapy, treatment-resistant depression, adolescent depression

  18. Orthodontic treatment reduces the impact on children and adolescents' oral health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eluza Piassi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Malocclusions treatment reduces the impact on children and adolescents' OHRQoL based on evidence assessed in the literature. The level of evidence was moderate to high to detect changes in the impact after orthodontic treatment.

  19. Psychopathic traits and offender characteristics – a nationwide consecutive sample of homicidal male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putkonen Hanna

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Methods Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995–2004 were collected (n = 57. A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R by trained raters. Results No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle and 4 (antisocial. Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective and facets 1 (interpersonal and 2 (affective. The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide

  20. The interdependence of family functioning and problematic internet use in a representative quota sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartberg, Lutz; Kammerl, Rudolf; Rosenkranz, Moritz; Hirschhäuser, Lena; Hein, Sandra; Schwinge, Christiane; Petersen, Kay-Uwe; Rainer, Thomasius

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have been carried out investigating the interdependence of family structures or interactions and excessive adolescent Internet use. In this study, we surveyed a representative German quota sample of 1,744 adolescents aged between 14 and 17 years with standardized questionnaires. Adolescents assessed their perceived own functioning in the family with the Self-Rating Scale (FB-S) of the German version of the Family Assessment Measure III, and reported on problematic Internet use with the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS). To predict problematic Internet use (CIUS summary score), we conducted a multiple stepwise linear regression analysis with the seven FB-S scales, the FB-S overall index, and gender and age as explanatory variables. For the full sample, a model with only one predictor (FB-S overall index) that summarizes the quality of family functioning produced a corrected coefficient of determination of 0.239 and explained variance of nearly 24%. t Test results for unpaired samples showed significant differences in the mean values of the FB-S scales and the FB-S overall index for comparisons of both sexes, as well as of a lower age group and higher age group. The prediction of problematic Internet use between both sexes and both age groups showed comparable findings (males: corrected coefficient of determination=0.288; females: corrected coefficient of determination=0.183; lower age group: corrected coefficient of determination=0.231; higher age group: corrected coefficient of determination=0.251), each with a single predictor (FB-S overall index). The results emphasize the importance of family functioning for the occurrence of problematic Internet use in adolescents.

  1. Internalizing Symptoms and Safe Sex Intentions among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment: Personal Factors as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppa, Meredith C.; Rizzo, Christie J.; Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Dattadeen, Jodi-Ann; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about why some adolescents with internalizing symptoms engage in sexual behaviors that increase their risk for HIV. This study tested a mediation model of internalizing symptoms and safe sex intentions among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Self-efficacy for HIV prevention, HIV knowledge, and worry about HIV were hypothesized to mediate associations between internalizing symptoms and safe sex intentions among sexually active and non-active adolescents receiving mental health treatment (N = 893, M age = 14.9). Significant indirect effects from internalizing symptoms to safe sex intentions varied according sexual experience: for sexually non-active adolescents, HIV worry and knowledge mediated this link, whereas for sexually active adolescents, HIV self-efficacy was the significant mediator. Increasing both HIV knowledge and self-efficacy for HIV prevention are important targets for HIV prevention with adolescents with internalizing symptoms, and careful attention should be paid towards targeting these interventions to sexually experienced and inexperienced youth. PMID:25284921

  2. Parents' and Adolescents' Preferences for Intensified or Reduced Treatment in Randomized Lymphoblastic Leukemia Trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulstrup, Morten; Larsen, Hanne Baekgaard; Castor, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    .01). Younger children participated more frequently in only 6MP than in only ASP (14% vs. 5%), and adolescents vice versa (2% vs. 17%; P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Parents' and adolescents' divergent inclinations toward intensified or reduced therapy emphasize the necessity of actively involving adolescents......BACKGROUND: When offered participation in clinical trials, families of children with cancer face a delicate balance between cure and toxicity. Since parents and children may perceive this balance differently, this paper explores whether adolescent patients have different enrollment patterns...... prospectively registered by the treating physicians. RESULTS: Parents of young children favored treatment intensifications (Dx/VCR: 12% refusal; 6MP: 14%; ASP: 21%), whereas parents of adolescents favored treatment reductions (Dx/VCR: 52% refusal; 6MP: 30%; ASP: 8%). Adolescents were more likely to refuse...

  3. IMMUNOTHERAPY IN TREATMENT OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS IN ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Lvova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive examination of 62 adolescents, hospitalized for pulmonary tuberculosis, established high spread of clinical and laboratory markers of secondary immune deficiency: chronic diseases of ear, throat and nose (59,6%, recurrent infection caused by the herpes simplex viruses (SPGV (55,8% ; serological SPGV activation (90,4% and cytomegalovirus infection (CMV (94,2%; absolute lymphopenia (53,8%, low level and lack of interferon-alpha (28,9% and interferongamma (76,9%. Validity, effectiveness and safety of modern technology immunization with interferon -α-2b (VIFERON® 3 million IU and 1 million IU suppositories in 1 month course in the complex treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis was proved with a random research by a «case-control» method. Significant positive clinical and laboratory dynamics was registered: increase in body weight in 84,6 % of adolescents; reduction in the frequency of arrhythmias; increase absolute lymphocyte count (46,1%, decrease in serological SPGV activation (30,8% and CMV infection (61,5% increase in the amount of interferon-alpha (61,5%, and interferon-gamma (61,5% and absence of intolerance and 3 times less undesirable effects of chemotherapy.

  4. The Treatment of Adolescent Suicide Attempters Study (TASA): Predictors of Suicidal Events in an Open Treatment Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, David A.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Compton, Scott; Emslie, Graham; Wells, Karen; Walkup, John T.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Bukstein, Oscar; Stanley, Barbara; Posner, Kelly; Kennard, Betsy D.; Cwik, Mary F.; Wagner, Ann; Coffey, Barbara; March, John S.; Riddle, Mark; Goldstein, Tina; Curry, John; Barnett, Shannon; Capasso, Lisa; Zelazny, Jamie; Hughes, Jennifer; Shen, Sa; Gugga, S. Sonia; Turner, J. Blake

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify the predictors of suicidal events and attempts in adolescent suicide attempters with depression treated in an open treatment trial. Method: Adolescents who had made a recent suicide attempt and had unipolar depression (n =124) were either randomized (n = 22) or given a choice (n = 102) among three conditions. Two…

  5. Fobia social em uma amostra de adolescentes Social phobia in a sample of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo J. Fonseca D'El Rey

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo relata a prevalência e o impacto na escolaridade da fobia social em uma amostra de adolescentes da cidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. O Inventário de Fobia Social (SPIN foi administrado em 116 estudantes adolescentes de 5ª, 6ª, 7ª e 8ª séries de ambos os sexos. A prevalência da fobia social foi de 7,8% na amostra de adolescentes, com maior incidência entre estudantes do sexo feminino, com idade entre 12 e 15. O impacto negativo na escolaridade foi grande, aproximadamente 89% dos adolescentes com fobia social repetiram o ano na escola ao menos uma vez.This study reports the prevalence and the impact in the education of social phobia in a sample of adolescents of the city of São Paulo, SP, Brazil. The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN was administrated to 116 students of 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grades of both sexes. The prevalence of the social phobia was 7.8% in the sample of adolescents, with higher incidence among female students, between 12 and 15 years old. The negative impact on the education was great, approximately 89% of the adolescents with social phobia repeated the year in the school at least one time.

  6. Psychotropic Medication Treatment of Adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, Mark; He, Jian-ping; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the 12-month prevalence of psychotropic medication use among adolescents, and the match between mental disorder diagnoses and past-year antidepressant and stimulant use. Method: Data are from the National Comorbidity Survey--Adolescent Supplement (2002-2004), a nationally representative survey of 10,123 adolescents aged 13 to…

  7. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample

    OpenAIRE

    Karla Florián-Vargas; Marcos J. Carruitero Honores; Eduardo Bernabé; Carlos Flores-Mir

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample.MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively) from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Anal...

  8. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of active commuting to school in a nationwide representative sample of German adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Reimers, Anne Kerstin; Jekauc, Darko; Peterhans, Eliane; Wagner, Matthias O.; Woll, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of walking and cycling to school in a nationwide representative cross-sectional sample of German adolescents.Methods. A sample of 1828 German adolescents aged 11–17 years were examined between 2003 and 2006. Mode of commuting to school was assessed using a reliable self-report measure. Socioeconomic status, migration background and residential area were assessed as socio-demographic variables using a parent-report questionna...

  9. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care: An Alternative to Residential Treatment for High Risk Children and Adolescents*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Philip A.; Gilliam, Kathryn S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care program (MTFC), an evidence based approach for providing psychotherapeutic treatment for very troubled children and adolescents that is an alternative to residential care. Versions of the MTFC program have been developed and validated for young children with a history of maltreatment as well as for older children and adolescents who are involved with the youth justice system. In the paper we describe the development of the MTFC program and its foundations in the social learning model that originated at the Oregon Social Learning Center in the 1960’s and 70’s. We present information about program elements. We then review the research that has been conducted on MTFC.

  10. Association of aggression and non-suicidal self injury: a school-based sample of adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Tang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI in adolescent has drawn increasing attention because it is associated with subsequent depression, drug abuse, anxiety disorders, and suicide. In the present study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI in a school-based sample of Chinese adolescents and to explore the association between aggression and NSSI. METHODS: This study was part of a nationwide study on aggression among adolescents in urban areas of China. A sample of 2907 school students including 1436 boys and 1471 girls were randomly selected in Guangdong Province, with their age ranging from 10 to 18 years old. NSSI, aggression, emotional management and other factors were measured by self-administrated questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the association between aggression and NSSI, after adjustment for participants' emotional management, and other potential confounding variables. RESULTS: The one year self-reported prevalence of NSSI was 33.6%. Of them, 21.7% engaged in 'minor NSSI', 11.9% in 'moderate/severe NSSI'. 96.9% of self-injuries engaged in one to five different types of NSSI in the past year. Hostility, verbal and indirect aggression was significantly associated with self-reported NSSI after adjusting for other potential factors both in 'minor NSSI' and 'moderate/severe NSSI'. Hostility, verbal and indirect aggression was significantly associated with greater risk of 'minor NSSI' and 'moderate/severe NSSI' in those who had poor emotional management ability. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight a high prevalence of NSSI and indicate the importance of hostility, verbal and indirect aggression as potentially risk factor for NSSI among Chinese adolescents.

  11. [Pelvic chondroblastoma in an adolescent. New treatment approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Martínez, G; Linares-González, L; Delgado-Cedillo, E; Cerrada-Moreno, L; Clara-Altamirano, M; Pichardo-Bahena, R

    2011-01-01

    Surgical management of tumors located in the spine and the pelvis involves greater difficulty. Moreover, these tumors are usually very large and vascularized. Preoperative embolization of the internal iliac artery is a relatively safe procedure that may reduce the risk of bleeding and local recurrence in the case of benign tumors. Chondroblastoma is a tumor that is rarely located in the pelvis; its more frequent location is the triradiate cartilage. We describe a case of a chondroblastoma with a relapsing aneurysmal cystic component in the acetabulum of an adolescent patient. Treatment consisted of embolization of the internal iliac artery, fluid hyperthermia, hydrogen peroxide and bone marrow application. The patient was found to be asymptomatic at the 5-year postoperative follow-up. The technetium (99mTc) sestamibi scan was negative for tumor activity and found no lung metastases.

  12. [How do adolescents view non-suicidal self-injury? Differences between affected and non-affected adolescents in a school sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauber, Rachel; Weizenegger, Benedict; Schmeck, Klaus; Schmid, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing number of epidemiologic studies about the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), little knowledge exists regarding the way adolescents view NSSI, whether differences in the attitudes towards NSSI between affected and non-affected adolescents exist and whether the acquaintance with adolescents engaging in NSSI influence one's attitudes towards self-injury? In an epidemiological study of non-suicidal self-injury, we assessed the attitudes of 447 ninth grade students (age 15 years SD = 0.7, 52% male) NSSI using a self-constructed questionnaire with three factors. Sixty one (13.6%) pupils reported that they had intentionally injured themselves once in their life time. 43% (n = 179) indicated that they discuss the topic with others, though over half of these pupils 54% (n = 98) stated feeling burdened by discussions with friends affected by NSSI. Comparisons between affected and non-affected adolescents revealed that adolescents who had never exhibited NSSI tend to believe that NSSI is mostly interpersonally motivated. Moreover, the adolescents affected by NSSI assessed the emotional reaction as more appropriate than non-affected adolescents. This should be considered in the design and refinement of inpatient treatment concepts. Our results suggest focusing on intrapersonal motives in psychotherapeutic sessions and reducing interpersonal motives for self-injurious behaviour through the establishment of clear and transparent milieu therapeutic structural conditions.

  13. The influence of maternal vulnerability and parenting stress on chronic pain in adolescents in a general population sample : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darlington, A-S. E.; Verhulst, F. C.; De Winter, A. F.; Ormel, J.; Passchier, J.; Hunfeld, J. A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Investigating possible psychosocial predictors of unexplained chronic pain in adolescents is crucial in understanding its development and prevention. A general population sample of adolescents (n = 2230) from the TRAILS cohort study was investigated longitudinally to assess the influence of maternal

  14. Ego Identity of Adolescent Children of Alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Teichman, Meir

    2007-01-01

    The study examines the issue of ego identity among adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers. Forty-four adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers, age of 15-18, constituted the sample. They were drawn from public alcohol treatment center in Israel. The control group included 60 adolescents none of their parents is known as an alcoholic, sampled from…

  15. Strategies to optimize treatment adherence in adolescent patients with cystic fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishay, Lara C; Sawicki, Gregory S

    2016-01-01

    While development of new treatments for cystic fibrosis (CF) has led to a significant improvement in survival age, routine daily treatment for CF is complex, burdensome, and time intensive. Adolescence is a period of decline in pulmonary function in CF, and is also a time when adherence to prescribed treatment plans for CF tends to decrease. Challenges to adherence in adolescents with CF include decreased parental involvement, time management and significant treatment burden, and adolescent perceptions of the necessity and value of the treatments prescribed. Studies of interventions to improve adherence are limited and focus on education, without significant evidence of success. Smaller studies on behavioral techniques do not focus on adolescents. Other challenges for improving adherence in adolescents with CF include infection control practices limiting in-person interactions. This review focuses on the existing evidence base on adherence intervention in adolescents with CF. Future directions for efforts to optimize treatment adherence in adolescents with CF include reducing treatment burden, developing patient-driven technology to improve tracking, communication, and online support, and rethinking the CF health services model to include assessment of individualized adherence barriers. PMID:27799838

  16. Focus on anorexia nervosa: modern psychological treatment and guidelines for the adolescent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espie J

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan Espie,1 Ivan Eisler2 1Child and Adolescent Eating Disorders Service, Michael Rutter Centre, South London and Maudsley Hospital Foundation NHS Trust, 2Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, UK Abstract: Anorexia nervosa is a serious condition associated with high mortality. Incidence is highest for female adolescents, and prevalence data highlight a pressing unmet need for treatment. While there is evidence that adolescent-onset anorexia has relatively high rates of eventual recovery, the illness is often protracted, and even after recovery from the eating disorder there is an ongoing vulnerability to psychosocial problems in later life. Family therapy for anorexia in adolescence has evolved from a generic systemic treatment into an eating disorder-specific format (family therapy for anorexia nervosa, and this approach has been evidenced as an effective treatment. Individual treatments, including cognitive behavioral therapy, also have some evidence of effectiveness. Most adolescents can be effectively and safely managed as outpatients. Day-patient treatment holds promise as an alternative to inpatient treatment or as an intensive program following a brief medical admission. Evidence is emerging of advantages in detecting and treating adolescent anorexia nervosa in specialist community-based child and adolescent eating-disorder services accessible directly from primary care. Limitations and future directions for modern treatment are considered. Keywords: AN, evidence, family, therapy, FT-AN, inpatient, outpatient, day patient, specialist 

  17. Esthesioneuroblastoma in childhood and adolescence. Better prognosis with multimodal treatment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eich, H.T.; Mueller, R.P.; Kocher, M. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Micke, O. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Berthold, F.; Hero, B. [Dept. of Pediatric Oncology, Children' s Hospital, Univ. of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)

    2005-06-01

    Background and purpose: only 3% of all malignant intranasal tumors are esthesioneuroblastomas (ENB) and only 20% of these rare neuroectodermal tumors are diagnosed up to 20 years of age. Radiotherapy and surgery are established treatment modalities for these patients, but the role of chemotherapy, especially in a multimodal approach, is not well defined. To investigate the influence of radio- and chemotherapy, the treatment and course of the disease in children and adolescents with ENB were analyzed retrospectively. Patients and methods: 19 unselected patients (nine male and ten female) diagnosed with ENB {<=} 20 years of age were included in this analysis. Median age at diagnosis was 14.0 years (range, 5-20 years). The tumors were Kadish stage B in 4/19 patients and stage C in 15/19 patients. 17 patients underwent surgery, either without further therapy (n = 4), followed by radiotherapy (n = 1) or as part of multimodal regimens (n = 12). Two patients received radio- and chemotherapy without surgery. Complete resection (RO) was achieved in 15 out of 17 patients with surgery including all five patients with preoperative chemotherapy due to unresectable primary at diagnosis. Results: the 5-year overall survival (OS) for the whole group was 73% {+-} 12% and the 5-year event-free survival (EFS) 55% {+-} 13%. None of the four patients with stage B experienced tumor progression so far, whereas seven out of 15 patients with stage C did (5-year EFS 47% {+-} 14%; not significant). Patients with Kadish stage C and multimodal treatment strategies combing surgery, chemo- and radiotherapy had a significantly better outcome than patients with stage C and less than three treatment modalities (65% {+-} 17% vs. 20% {+-} 18%; p = 0.02). Conclusion: these data indicate a benefit of multimodal treatment regimens combining surgery, chemo- and radiotherapy for pediatric patients with ENB Kadish stage C. Chemotherapy appears to improve resectability, EFS, and OS. Radiotherapy is an

  18. Exploring stimulant treatment in ADHD: narratives of young adolescents and their parents

    OpenAIRE

    Charach, Alice; Yeung, Emanuela; Volpe, Tiziana; Goodale, Tara; dosReis, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background Young adolescents’ and their parents’ experiences with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its treatment were explored to investigate beliefs and attitudes regarding use of stimulant medication, and their influence on treatment decisions. Methods Using in-depth qualitative interviews, 12 adolescents with ADHD aged 12 – 15 years, and their parents described their experiences of ADHD and its treatment. Twenty four interviews, 12 with adolescents and 12 with their pare...

  19. Revised sampling campaigns to provide sludge for treatment process testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN, C.A.

    1999-02-18

    The purpose of this document is to review the impact to the sludge sampling campaigns planned for FY 1999 given the recent decision to delete any further sludge sampling in the K West Basin. Requirements for Sludge sample material for Sludge treatment process testing are reviewed. Options are discussed for obtaining the volume sample material required and an optimized plan for obtaining this sludge is summarized.

  20. Differential effects of online insomnia treatment on executive functions in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, E.J.; Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.; Oort, F.J.; Bögels, S.M.; Meijer, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of online Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Insomnia (CBTI) on adolescents' sleep and cognitive functioning. Methods: 32 adolescents (13-19 years, M = 15.9, SD = 1.6) with DSM-5 insomnia disorder, were randomly assigned to a treatment group (n = 18) or a waiting list (

  1. Differences in the pattern of drug use between male and female adolescents in treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giusti Jackeline S

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVES: The pattern of drug use among adolescents is not well known. Epidemiologic studies have reported no difference in the prevalence of drug use between genders. The present study wanted to assess the difference in drug use between genders in adolescents. The following variables were assessed: gender ratio of those looking for treatment; age they looked for treatment; age of the first drug use; substances used; with whom they first used drugs; pattern of drug use; possibly-related behavior (illegal acts, problems with the police and school delay. METHODS: Medical records of adolescents treated between 1993 and 2000 in a public medical center of the city São Paulo were analyzed. RESULTS: One-hundred and five medical records of adolescents aged 10 to 17 were reviewed. There were no differences between genders according to: age they looked for treatment; age of the first drug use; substances used; and illegal acts. There was a higher prevalence of male adolescents regarding to problems with the police and school delay. CONCLUSIONS: Data suggest that the behavioral consequences of drug use in female adolescents are less evident than in male adolescents, what could explain the lower frequency in which female adolescents had specialized treatment.

  2. Adolescents' Thoughts about Abstinence Curb the Return of Marijuana Use during and after Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kevin M.; Chung, Tammy; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite evidence showing that readiness to change substance use predicts reductions in substance use among treated adolescents, there is little research on changes in thoughts about abstinence and marijuana use during and after treatment. The current study tested whether time-varying changes in adolescents' motivation to abstain and perceived…

  3. Depressive Symptoms and Clinical Status during the Treatment of Adolescent Suicide Attempters (TASA) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Brent, David A.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Emslie, Graham; Wells, Karen; Walkup, John T.; Stanley, Barbara; Bukstein, Oscar; Kennard, Betsy D.; Compton, Scott; Coffey, Barbara; Cwik, Mary F.; Posner, Kelly; Wagner, Ann; March, John S.; Riddle, Mark; Goldstein, Tina; Curry, John; Capasso, Lisa; Mayes, Taryn; Shen, Sa; Gugga, S. Sonia; Turner, J. Blake; Barnett, Shannon; Zelazny, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the course of depression during the treatment of adolescents with depression who had recently attempted suicide. Method: Adolescents (N = 124), ages 12 to 18 years, with a 90-day history of suicide attempt, a current diagnosis of depressive disorder (96.0% had major depressive disorder), and a Children's Depression Rating…

  4. Onset of Alcohol or Substance Use Disorders Following Treatment for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, John; Silva, Susan; Rohde, Paul; Ginsburg, Golda; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher; Simons, Anne; Kirchner, Jerry; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Feeny, Norah; Albano, Anne Marie; Lavanier, Sarah; Reinecke, Mark; Jacobs, Rachel; Becker-Weidman, Emily; Weller, Elizabeth; Emslie, Graham; Walkup, John; Kastelic, Elizabeth; Burns, Barbara; Wells, Karen; March, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested whether positive response to short-term treatment for adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) would have the secondary benefit of preventing subsequent alcohol use disorders (AUD) or substance use disorders (SUD). Method: For 5 years, we followed 192 adolescents (56.2% female; 20.8% minority) who had participated in…

  5. Pilot Study: Fluvoxamine Treatment for Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothelf, Doron; Rubinstein, Maly; Shemesh, Eyal; Miller, Orit; Farbstein, Ilana; Klein, Anat; Weizman, Abraham; Apter, Alan; Yaniv, Isaac

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and benefit of fluvoxamine for the treatment of major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with cancer. Method: The study was conducted from 2001 to 2004 at a pediatric hematology-oncology center. Fifteen children and adolescents with cancer were treated with…

  6. Therapeutic Engagement as a Predictor of Retention in Adolescent Therapeutic Community Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Sami; Gunter, Whitney D.

    2014-01-01

    The adolescent drug problem places a huge toll on society and a heavy burden on the criminal justice system. Research regarding the benefits of therapeutic community (TC) treatment for adolescents has shown it to be effective. Despite the ability of therapeutic communities to lower drug relapse and reduce criminality, a great deal remains unknown…

  7. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents: A Review of Psychopharmacological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, J.; Erhart, F.; Steiner, H.

    2010-01-01

    PTSD in children and adolescents differs from the adult disease. Therapeutic approaches involve both psychotherapy and psychopharmacotherapy. Objectives: The current paper aims at reviewing studies on psychopharmacological treatment of childhood and adolescent PTSD. Additionally, developmental frameworks for PTSD diagnosis and research along with…

  8. Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippis, Melissa; Wagner, Karen Dineen

    2016-08-15

    Autism spectrum disorder is a diagnosis that includes significant social communication deficits/delays along with restricted patterns of interests and behaviors. The prevalence of this diagnosis has increased over the past few decades, and it is unclear whether this is solely attributable to the increased awareness of milder forms of the disorder among medical providers. The current treatment options for the core symptoms of autism are limited to psychosocial therapies, such as applied behavior analysis. Medications have been most effective in treating the associated behavioral symptoms of autism, though studies have examined potential benefits in some of the core symptoms of autism with certain medications, especially the repetitive behaviors often seen with this diagnosis. Risperidone and aripiprazole are currently the only medications FDA approved for symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorders, targeting the irritability often seen with this diagnosis. Children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder appear to be more susceptible to adverse effects with medications; therefore, initiation with low doses and titrating very slowly is recommended. Some complementary alternative treatments have been researched as possible treatments in autism, though evidence supporting many of these is very limited.

  9. Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippis, Melissa; Wagner, Karen Dineen

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a diagnosis that includes significant social communication deficits/delays along with restricted patterns of interests and behaviors. The prevalence of this diagnosis has increased over the past few decades, and it is unclear whether this is solely attributable to the increased awareness of milder forms of the disorder among medical providers. The current treatment options for the core symptoms of autism are limited to psychosocial therapies, such as applied behavior analysis. Medications have been most effective in treating the associated behavioral symptoms of autism, though studies have examined potential benefits in some of the core symptoms of autism with certain medications, especially the repetitive behaviors often seen with this diagnosis. Risperidone and aripiprazole are currently the only medications FDA approved for symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorders, targeting the irritability often seen with this diagnosis. Children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder appear to be more susceptible to adverse effects with medications; therefore, initiation with low doses and titrating very slowly is recommended. Some complementary alternative treatments have been researched as possible treatments in autism, though evidence supporting many of these is very limited. PMID:27738378

  10. Adherence rates to the Mediterranean diet are low in a representative sample of Greek children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kontogianni, Meropi D; Vidra, Nikoletta; Farmaki, Anastasia-Eleni; Koinaki, Stella; Belogianni, Katerina; Sofrona, Stavroula; Magkanari, Flora; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Data from studies in pediatric samples exploring adherence to the Mediterranean diet are scarce. The aim of the present work was to explore adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern in a representative sample of Greek children and adolescents. The study sample (n = 1305, 3-18 y) was representative o

  11. Preliminary Blood Pressure Screening in a Representative Sample of Extremely Obese Kuwaiti Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Abdul Razzak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between blood pressure (BP and obesity has been found in young adults, but no data are available for adolescents in Kuwait. 257 adolescent (11–19 years participants were categorized into two groups according to their BMI; 48 nonobese (21 males: 43.7% and 27 females: 56.3% with mean age of years and 209 obese (128 males: 61.25% and 81 females: 38.75% with mean age of years. The mean BMI was  kg/m2 for the nonobese group and  kg/m3 for the obese group. Most BP measures based on a single screening were significantly higher in the obese group. The prevalence of elevated BP was significantly higher in the obese subjects (nonobese: 13%; obese: 63%; . In the obese group, there was a significant positive correlation between total sample BMI and all BP measures except the pulse pressure. There was a similar rate of elevated blood pressure between males and females (64% versus 60%; . For both isolated systolic elevated BP and isolated diastolic elevated BP, the prevalences were comparable between the males (systolic: 42%; diastolic: 5% and females (systolic: 34%; diastolic: 14%. Only systolic BP was positively correlated with BMI in obese adolescent males (Spearman ; , with a significant correlation between BMI with diastolic (Spearman ; and mean BP (Spearman ; in females.

  12. Sexual Violence Experienced in the Sport Context by a Representative Sample of Quebec Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Sylvie; Lavoie, Francine; Thibodeau, Marie-Ève; Hébert, Martine; Blais, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study to report the prevalence of sexual violence perpetrated by a sport coach within a representative sample of the general population of adolescents aged between 14 and 17 years (N = 6 450). The questionnaire administered in high schools includes self-reported measures on a variety of dimensions relevant to the study of victimization, including sexual abuse, sexual contacts perceived as consensual, sexual harassment and involvement in an organized sport context. Descriptive and chi-square analyses were performed. The results show that 0.5% of adolescents experienced sexual abuse involving a coach. When considering all adolescents who experienced sexual abuse in their lifetime (10.2%), it appears that 5.3% of them were victims of sexual abuse by a coach. Participants also reported experiencing sexual harassment from a coach (0.4%) and consensual sexual contacts (1.2%) with a coach in the 12 months preceeding the study. Questions are raised on the overrepresentation of boys in situations of sexual victimization experiences in an organized sport context. PMID:25873593

  13. Clinical Correlates of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) in an Outpatient Sample of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Nieto, Rebeca; Carballo, Juan J; Díaz de Neira Hernando, Mónica; de León-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-García, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents is a major public health concern. The first goal of our study was to describe the characteristics and functions of NSSI and NSSI thoughts in an adolescent outpatient sample. The second goal was to examine which clinical factors discriminate between these two groups of patients. A group of 267 subjects was recruited from the Adolescent Outpatient Psychiatric Services, Jiménez Díaz Foundation (Madrid, Spain) from November 2011 to October 2012. All participants were administered the Spanish version of the Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview (SITBI). A total of 21.7% of patients reported having engaged in NSSI at least once in their lifetime. The most strongly endorsed function for NSSI was automatic negative reinforcement. In comparison with patients in the NSSI Thoughts group and the control group, patients in the NSSI group scored higher in Internalization of Anger and in all the scales comprising the Children's Depression Inventory. Our findings on the prevalence and functions of NSSI are consistent with the literature. NSSI was mainly performed for emotion regulation purposes; specifically, NSSI seems to be used to cope with anger and depression. In addition, internalization of anger might play a significant role in the maintenance of this behavior.

  14. Evidence Base Update: 50 Years of Research on Treatment for Child and Adolescent Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K; Francis, Sarah E; Rith-Najarian, Leslie; Chorpita, Bruce F

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health disorder among children and adolescents. We examined 111 treatment outcome studies testing 204 treatment conditions for child and adolescent anxiety published between 1967 and mid-2013. Studies were selected for inclusion in this review using the PracticeWise Evidence-Based Services database. Using guidelines identified by this journal (Southam-Gerow & Prinstein, 2014), studies were included if they were conducted with children and/or adolescents (ages 1-19) with anxiety and/or avoidance problems. In addition to reviewing the strength of the evidence, the review also examined indicators of effectiveness, common practices across treatment families, and mediators and moderators of treatment outcome. Six treatments reached well-established status for child and adolescent anxiety, 8 were identified as probably efficacious, 2 were identified as possibly efficacious, 6 treatments were deemed experimental, and 8 treatments of questionable efficacy emerged. Findings from this review suggest substantial support for cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as an effective and appropriate first-line treatment for youth with anxiety disorders. Several other treatment approaches emerged as probably efficacious that are not primarily CBT based, suggesting that there are alternative evidence-based treatments that practitioners can turn to for children and adolescents who do not respond well to CBT. The review concludes with a discussion of treatments that improve functioning in addition to reducing symptoms, common practices derived from evidence-based treatments, mediators and moderators of treatment outcomes, recommendations for best practice, and suggestions for future research.

  15. The mediating role of self-compassion in the relationship between victimization and psychological maladjustment in a sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Játiva, Raquel; Cerezo, M Angeles

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to analyze the relationship between victimization and psychological maladjustment in adolescents and the role of self-compassion as a mediator in this relationship. The sample was composed of 109 adolescents aged from 15 to 18 years old with poor school performance. The participants filled out a battery of questionnaires made up of: a socio-demographic data questionnaire; the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ); the Youth Self-Report (YSR); and the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). Results indicated that victimization was positively associated with psychological maladjustment. Moreover, adolescents reporting poly-victimization showed significantly higher level of psychological maladjustment and different types of victimization show different effects on adolescents' psychological maladjustment. Self-compassion partially mediated the relationship between victimization and psychological maladjustment and reduced negative consequences in adolescents who reported having been victimized. Adolescence is a time of development and search for identity in which strengthening personal protective factors could help overcome any traumas experienced. Therefore, developing self-compassion in adolescence could be a good way to help young people recover from bad experiences and protect themselves against future negative experiences. As self-compassion can be improved with practice it could be included in adolescent intervention and prevention programs.

  16. Factor structure of items from the personality Adjective Check List in a sample of normal adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tous, Josep M; Pont, Núria; Ruben, Muiños

    2006-11-01

    We present the results of a principal-components analysis of the Personality Adjective Check List (PACL) at the item level, rather than at the scale level. The PACL was constructed by Strack (1987) to evaluate the personality scales proposed by Millon (1981). Data were obtained from a sample of normal adolescents. A scree test was applied to determine the number of factors to be extracted, and the retained factors were then rotated using a varimax procedure. Using the data from this second analysis, congruence coefficients were calculated by correlating the factor weights from the two analyses of men and women. Results reveal the existence in the whole sample of five unipolar personality factors, which we have called: Aggressive, Conscientious, Inhibited, Impulsive and Gregarious. These are not similar to those obtained from a sample of normal adults.

  17. The role of parents in pre-adolescent and adolescent overweight and obesity treatment: a systematic review of clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrewsbury, V A; Steinbeck, K S; Torvaldsen, S; Baur, L A

    2011-10-01

    The study aims to describe clinical recommendations (i) on the role of parents in both pre-adolescent and adolescent overweight and obesity treatment; (ii) to health professionals on how to involve parents in paediatric overweight and obesity treatment and (iii) to identify deficiencies in the associated literature. A systematic literature review was conducted in March 2010 to identify clinical practice guidelines, position or consensus statements on clinical management of paediatric overweight or obesity, developed by a national or international health professional association or government agency, and endorsed for current use. Relevant clinical recommendations in these documents were identified via a screen for the words 'parent', 'family' and synonyms. Twenty documents were included. Most documents emphasized the importance of involving parents or the family in paediatric overweight and obesity treatment with approximately a third of documents providing separate recommendations on the role of parents/family for pre-adolescents and adolescents. The documents varied markedly with regard to the presence of recommendations on parent/family involvement in the various components of lifestyle interventions or bariatric surgery. Almost half of the documents contained recommendations to health professionals regarding interactions with parents. High-quality research is needed on age-specific techniques to optimize the involvement of parents and family members in paediatric overweight and obesity treatment.

  18. Parental Behavior and Adolescent Self-Esteem in Clinical and Nonclinical Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, David M.; Metha, Arlene

    1994-01-01

    Investigated relationships between self-esteem and adolescents' perceptions of parental behaviors using nonclinical (n=119) and clinical (n=30) adolescents. Nonclinical adolescents scored higher than clinical adolescents on all self-esteem dimensions. Males scored higher than females only on dimension of Self-Esteem Competence. Perceptions of…

  19. Association between depressive symptoms in adolescence and birth outcomes in early adulthood using a population-based sample

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Nkansah-Amankra; Grace Tettey

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescent female depressive symptomatology is an unrecognized mood disorder that impairs health in adolescence or adulthood. However, the long-term effects of pre-pregnancy depressive symptoms on birth outcomes in adulthood have not been given adequate empirical assessments. Method: In this study, we assessed the relationship between the life time duration of depressive symptoms over a 14-year period and birth outcomes (LBW and PTB) among a sample of 6023 female respondents wh...

  20. Treatment engagement in adolescents with severe psychiatric problems: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roedelof, A J M; Bongers, Ilja L; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2013-08-01

    Motivation is considered a pivotal factor in treatment, but a better understanding of this topic is needed. Drieschner et al. (Clin Psychol Rev 23:1115-1137, 2004) proposed to distinguish treatment motivation and treatment engagement. This study aimed to discover whether it is possible to identify classes of adolescents with severe psychiatric problems having comparable profiles of treatment engagement. To this end, professionals filled out the Treatment Engagement Rating Scale 5 times for 49 adolescents (mean age 18.3 years; SD = 1.6) during the first year of case management treatment. Using a longitudinal latent class analysis, the number of profiles of treatment engagement was investigated and described. Results identified three profiles: high (19 clients, 39%), medium (20 clients, 41%) and low (10 clients, 20%). Adolescents with a high engagement profile were at first equally, and later on more engaged in treatment than clients with a medium engagement profile. Adolescents with a low engagement profile made the least effort to engage, except after 30 weeks. Adolescents with a low engagement profile were often substance-dependent males with the lowest scores on the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale after a year. Only adolescents with a high engagement profile improved on global functioning. In conclusion, it is possible to identify different treatment engagement profiles by asking one question about level of global treatment engagement. Frequent assessment of engagement of the individual client as well as including a behavioural component into assessment and treatment may help to improve case management treatment for adolescents with medium and low engagement profiles.

  1. Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Dorsey, Shannon; Briggs, Ernestine C.; Woods, Briana A.

    2011-01-01

    A number of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) approaches are available for treating child and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Similar to other CBT treatments, particularly those for anxiety disorders, these treatments all include common elements (e.g., psychoeducation, relaxation and affective modulation skills, exposure). The goals of this review are to: 1) delineate common elements in CBT approaches for treating child and adolescent PTSD; 2) provide a detailed review of tw...

  2. Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, James; La Via, Maria C

    2015-05-01

    This Practice Parameter reviews evidence-based practices for the evaluation and treatment of eating disorders in children and adolescents. Where empirical support is limited, clinical consensus opinion is used to supplement systematic data review. The Parameter focuses on the phenomenology of eating disorders, comorbidity of eating disorders with other psychiatric and medical disorders, and treatment in children and adolescents. Because the database related to eating disorders in younger patients is limited, relevant literature drawn from adult studies is included in the discussion.

  3. The specialising or sampling debate: a retrospective analysis of adolescent sports participation in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Matthew W; Toms, Martin R

    2013-01-01

    Whether young people should specialise in one competitive sport at an early age, or pursue a wider range of sports during adolescence is a topic of some debate (Baker, Cobley, & Fraser-Thomas, 2009) and is fundamental within sports policy and coaching practice. The purpose of this retrospective recall study was to identify whether early specialisation or sporting diversification (sampling) throughout childhood and adolescence can influence performance levels prior to adulthood. An online questionnaire was used to collect the sport participation histories of 1006 UK sports people, which were then compared with the developmental framework provided by the Developmental Model of Sport Participation (DMSP, Côté & Fraser-Thomas, 2007). A significant association between the number of sports participated in at the ages of 11, 13, and 15 and the standard of competition between 16 and 18 years was found. Individuals who competed in three sports aged 11, 13, and 15 were significantly more likely to compete at a national compared with club standard between the ages of 16 and 18 than those who practised only one sport. The findings reported here provide some empirical support for the sampling performance pathway DMSP model in a UK context.

  4. Psychopathic traits and reactive-proactive aggression in a large community sample of Polish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perenc, Lidia; Radochonski, Mieczyslaw

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents results of the only large-scale study carried-out in Poland to date on the prevalence of psychopathic traits and their relationship with aggressive behaviour in mainstream adolescents. The sample consists of 9,415 students (4,808 boys, 4,607 girls) in the first to third grades at 142 public secondary schools. Psychopathic traits were measured by teacher-report ratings with the antisocial process screening device (APSD), while aggressive behaviours were assessed using the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire. Analysis of results revealed that boys scored much higher than girls in total APSD scale measuring psychopathic traits. Only 2.68% of assessed adolescents scored above the cut-off of 25 points. Results also showed significant correlations between psychopathic traits and both proactive and reactive aggression. The authors concluded that screening a large sample to identify children and youths with psychopathic traits has some important advantages but, on the other hand, it is a sensitive undertaking because of the label 'psychopath' can have negative consequences for the subjects.

  5. Six week open-label reboxetine treatment in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arabgol F

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a common psychiatric disorder among children and adolescents. This disorder causes difficulties in academic, behavioral, emotional, social and family performance. Stimulants show robust efficacy and a good safety profile in children with this disorder, but a significant percent of ADHD children do not respond adequately or cannot tolerate the associated adverse effects with stimulants. Such difficulties highlight the need for alternative safe and effective medications in the treatment of this disorder. This open-label study assessed the effectiveness of reboxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD."nMethods: Fifteen child and adolescent outpatients, aged 7 to 16 (Mean± SD=9.72±2.71 years, diagnosed with ADHD were enrolled in a six open-label study with reboxetine 4-6 mg/d. The principal measure of the outcome was the teacher and parent Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder Rating Scale (ADHD Rating Scale. Patients were assessed by a child psychiatrist at baseline, 2, 4 and 6 weeks of the medication started. Side effects questionnaire was used to detect side effects of reboxetine. Repeated measures Analysis of variance (ANOVA was done for comparison of Teacher and Parent ADHD Rating Scale scores during the intervention."nResults: Twelve of 15 (80% participants completed the treatment protocol. A significant decrease in ADHD symptoms on teacher (p=0.04 and parent (p=0.003 ADHD rating scale was noted. Adverse effects were mild to moderate in severity. The most common adverse effects were drowsiness/sedation and appetite decrease."nConclusion: The results of the current study suggest the effectiveness of reboxetine in the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents. Double-blind, placebo-controlled studies and larger sample size with long duration of intervention are indicated to rigorously

  6. Sexual fantasies of adolescent male sex offenders in residential treatment: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylwin, A Scott; Reddon, John R; Burke, Andrew R

    2005-04-01

    An attenuating sample of 87 male adolescent sexual offenders logged sexual fantasies during their entire time in therapy. These patients were attending residential treatment and kept a log recording all normal and deviant sexual fantasies which they experienced. Patients recorded which fantasies were interrupted and which fantasies were accompanied by masturbation. Typically, at the beginning of treatment, the reported rate of normal fantasies was maximal, the occurrence of deviant fantasies was minimal, and there was little effort to interrupt the deviant fantasies. The reported frequency of deviant fantasies increased substantially (about 380%) during the first 5 months of treatment and then steadily declined (approximately 47%) over the remaining months in therapy. Following an initial decline in the early months of treatment, an increase in the rates of normal fantasies was reported. Additionally, over the course of treatment, the frequency of deviant fantasies decreased relative to all fantasies. While deviant fantasies remained predominant to normal sexual fantasies and were more frequently paired with masturbation, patients reported substantial changes in the proportion of deviant fantasies that were interrupted (from about 20% to 70%). Implications of the results for juvenile sex offender treatment are discussed.

  7. Measuring Adolescent Life Satisfaction: Psychometric Properties of the Satisfaction With Life Scale in a Sample of Italian Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Gori, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure and the psychometric properties of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) in a sample of 1,515 Italian (females = 60.26%, males = 39.74%) adolescents and young adults (M[subscript age] = 17.6 years, SD = 1.21). Results confirmed the unidimensionality, good reliability, and concurrent validity of the…

  8. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Florián-Vargas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Results: Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. Conclusion: This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted.

  9. Does body satisfaction influence self-esteem in adolescents' daily lives? An experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Skouteris, Helen; Richardson, Ben; Nihill, Kristy; Watson, Brittany; Solomon, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    This study examined, within the context of the Contingencies of Self-Worth model, state-based associations between self-esteem and body satisfaction using the experience sampling method. One hundred and forty-four adolescent girls (mean age = 14.28 years) completed up to 6 assessments per day for one week using Palm Digital Assistants, in addition to baseline measures of trait body satisfaction and self-esteem. Results showed considerable variation in both state-based constructs within days, and evidence of effects of body satisfaction on self-esteem, but not vice versa. Although these state-based associations were small in size and weakened as the time lag between assessments increased for the sample as a whole, individual differences in the magnitude of these effects were observed and predicted by trait self-esteem and body satisfaction. Collectively, these findings offer support for key tenets of the Contingencies of Self-Worth model.

  10. Video games use patterns and parenteral supervision in a clinical sample of Hispanic adolescents 13-17 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-de Martí, Luz N; Rodríguez-Figueroa, Linnette; Nazario, Lelis L; Gutiérrez, Roberto; González, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Video games have become a popular entertainment among adolescents. Although some video games are educational, there are others with high content of violence and the potential for other harmful effects. Lack of appropriate supervision of video games use during adolescence, a crucial stage of development, may lead to serious behavioral consequences in some adolescents. There is also concern about time spent playing video games and the subsequent neglect of more developmentally appropriate activities, such as completing academic tasks. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess video game use patterns and parental supervision among 55 adolescent patients 13-17 years old (mean age 14.4 years; 56.4% males) and their parents. Parental supervision /monitoring of the adolescents video games use was not consistent and gender related differences were found regarding their video game use. Close to one third (32%) of the participants reported video game playing had interfered with their academic performance. Parents who understood video games rating system were more likely to prohibit their use due to rating. These findings underscore the need for clear and consistently enforced rules and monitoring of video games use by adolescents. Parents need to be educated about the relevance of their supervision, video games content and rating system; so they will decrease time playing and exposure to potentially harmful video games. It also supports the relevance of addressing supervision, gender-based parental supervisory styles, and patterns of video games use in the evaluation and treatment of adolescents.

  11. Inpatient Treatment for Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa: Clinical Significance and Predictors of Treatment Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegl, Sandra; Diedrich, Alice; Neumayr, Christina; Fumi, Markus; Naab, Silke; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the clinical significance as well as predictors of outcome for adolescents with severe anorexia nervosa (AN) treated in an inpatient setting. Body mass index (BMI), eating disorder (ED) symptoms [Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2)], general psychopathology and depression were assessed in 238 patients at admission and discharge. BMI increased from 14.8 + 1.2 to 17.3 + 1.4 kg/m(2). Almost a fourth (23.6%) of the patients showed reliable changes, and 44.7% showed clinically significant changes (EDI-2). BMI change did not significantly differ between those with reliable or clinically significant change or no reliable change in EDI-2. Length of stay, depression and body dissatisfaction were negative predictors of a clinically significant change. Inpatient treatment is effective in about two thirds of adolescents with AN and should be considered when outpatient treatment fails. About one third of patients showed significant weight gain, but did not improve regarding overall ED symptomatology. Future studies should focus on treatment strategies for non-responders.

  12. National Trends in Adolescent Substance Use Disorders and Treatment Availability: 2003-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mericle, Amy A.; Arria, Amelia M.; Meyers, Kathy; Cacciola, John; Winters, Ken C.; Kirby, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This study examines trends in adolescent substance use disorders (SUDs) and treatment utilization in the US using data from the National Household Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) and data from the National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS). Results indicate an overall decrease in the percent of adolescents meeting past year criteria for an alcohol or illicit drug disorder between 2003 and 2010, but the percent of adolescents meeting criteria who had not received any treatment in the past year was substantial and has remained stable since 2003. In 2010, less than 30% of facilities participating in the N-SSATS survey indicated that they offered special programming for adolescents, reflecting an overall decrease since 2003. PMID:26388683

  13. Preoperative analgesia for children and adolescents to reduce pain associated with dental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Catherine

    2017-03-01

    Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, LILACS, ISI Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform.Study selectionRandomised controlled clinical trials of analgesics given before dental treatment versus placebo or no analgesics in children and adolescents up to 17 years of age. Children and adolescents having dental treatment under sedation (including nitrous oxide/oxygen) or general anaesthesia were excluded.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers independently selected studies, abstracted data and assessed risk of bias. Standard Cochrane methodological approaches were used.ResultsFive trials involving 190 patients were included. None of the studies were at low risk of bias. Three trials involved dental treatment and two involved orthodontic treatment. Three of the included trials compared paracetamol with placebo. Meta-analysis of the two trials showed no evidence of a benefit in taking paracetamol preoperatively; (RR) for postoperative pain of 0.81 (95%CI; 0.53 to 1.22). Four trials compared ibuprofen with placebo. Pooled data from two studies showed a statistically significant mean difference in severity of postoperative pain of -13.44 (95%CI; -23.01 to -3.88) on a visual analogue scale (0 to 100), which indicated a probable benefit. Both trials were at high risk of bias and the quality of the evidence is low.ConclusionsFrom the available evidence, we cannot determine whether or not preoperative analgesics are of benefit in paediatric dentistry for procedures under local anaesthetic. There is probably a benefit in using preoperative analgesics prior to orthodontic separator placement. The quality of the evidence is low. Further randomised clinical trials should be completed with appropriate sample sizes and well defined outcome measures.

  14. Early Detection and Treatment of Psychosis: The Bern Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Schultze-Lutter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Commonly conceptualized as neurodevelopmental disorders of yet poorly understood aetiology, schizophrenia and other nonorganic psychoses remain one of the most debilitating illnesses with often poor outcome despite all progress in treatment of the manifest disorder. Drawing on the frequent poor outcome of psychosis and its association with the frequently extended periods of untreated first-episode psychosis (FEP including its prodrome, an early detection and treatment of both the FEP and the preceding at-risk mental state (ARMS have been increasingly studied. Thereby both approaches are confronted with different problems, for example, treatment engagement in FEP and predictive accuracy in ARMS. They share, however, the problems related to the lack of understanding of developmental, that is, age-related, peculiarities and of the presentation and natural course of their cardinal symptoms in the community. Most research on early detection and intervention in FEP and ARMS is still related to clinical psychiatric samples, and little is known about symptom presentation and burden and help-seeking in the general population related to these experiences. Furthermore, in particular in the early detection of an ARMS, studies often address adolescents and young adults alike without consideration of developmental characteristics, thereby applying risk criteria that have been developed predominately in adults. Combining our earlier experiences described in this paper in child and adolescent, and general psychiatry as well as in both lines of research, that is, on early psychosis and its treatment and on the early detection of psychosis, in particular in its very early states by subjective disturbances in terms of basic symptoms, age-related developmental and epidemiological aspects have therefore been made the focus of our current studies in Bern, thus making our line of research unique.

  15. Physical Activity in Adolescents following Treatment for Cancer: Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marilyn; Bryans, Angie; Gray, Kaylin; Skinner, Leah; Verhoeve, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels and influencing individual and environmental factors in a group of adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparison group. Methods. The study was conducted using a "mixed methods" design. Quantitative data was collected from 48 adolescent survivors of cancer and 48 comparison adolescents using the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Fatigue Scale-Adolescents, and the Amherst Health and Activity Study-Student Survey. Qualitative data was collected in individual semistructured interviews. Results. Reported leisure-time physical activity total scores were not significantly different between groups. Physical activity levels were positively correlated with adult social support factors in the group of adolescent survivors of cancer, but not in the comparison group. Time was the primary barrier to physical activity in both groups. Fatigue scores were higher for the comparison but were not associated with physical activity levels in either group. The qualitative data further supported these findings. Conclusions. Barriers to physical activity were common between adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparative group. Increased knowledge of the motivators and barriers to physical activity may help health care providers and families provide more effective health promotion strategies to adolescent survivors of pediatric cancer.

  16. Physical Activity in Adolescents following Treatment for Cancer: Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Wright

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels and influencing individual and environmental factors in a group of adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparison group. Methods. The study was conducted using a “mixed methods” design. Quantitative data was collected from 48 adolescent survivors of cancer and 48 comparison adolescents using the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Fatigue Scale—Adolescents, and the Amherst Health and Activity Study—Student Survey. Qualitative data was collected in individual semistructured interviews. Results. Reported leisure-time physical activity total scores were not significantly different between groups. Physical activity levels were positively correlated with adult social support factors in the group of adolescent survivors of cancer, but not in the comparison group. Time was the primary barrier to physical activity in both groups. Fatigue scores were higher for the comparison but were not associated with physical activity levels in either group. The qualitative data further supported these findings. Conclusions. Barriers to physical activity were common between adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparative group. Increased knowledge of the motivators and barriers to physical activity may help health care providers and families provide more effective health promotion strategies to adolescent survivors of pediatric cancer.

  17. Correlates of Sun Safety Practices in a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Sample of Adolescents: Implications for Skin Cancer Prevention Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Hawkins, Kirsten B; Tyc, Vida L; Atkins, Michael B; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2015-01-01

    To guide skin cancer preventive interventions, this study examined correlates of sun safety behaviors in a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 407 adolescents completing a self-report survey at the time of their pediatric wellness visit. Adolescents regularly practiced few sun safety behaviors, and greater interest in cancer prevention was associated with more sun safety behaviors, ever smoking cigarettes was associated with fewer sun safety behaviors, and nonwhite minority adolescents practiced fewer sun safety behaviors than non-Hispanic whites. Clinical preventive interventions to increase sun safety practices among adolescents of all racial and ethnic backgrounds could be integrated into general cancer prevention education, including combining skin cancer prevention with antismoking counseling.

  18. Correlates of sun safety practices in a racial/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents: Implications for skin cancer prevention interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Hawkins, Kirsten B.; Tyc, Vida L.; Atkins, Michael B.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2015-01-01

    To guide skin cancer preventive interventions, this study examined correlates of sun safety behaviors in a racial/ethnically diverse sample of 407 adolescents completing a self-report survey at the time of pediatric well-visits. Adolescents regularly practiced few sun safety behaviors, and greater interest in cancer prevention was associated with more sun safety behaviors, ever smoking cigarettes was associated with fewer sun safety behaviors, and non-white minority adolescents practiced fewer sun safety behaviors than non-Hispanic whites. Clinical preventive interventions to increase sun safety practices among adolescents of all racial/ethnic backgrounds could be integrated into general cancer prevention education, including combining skin cancer prevention and anti-smoking counseling. PMID:26269134

  19. Predictors and Moderators of Outcome in Family-Based Treatment for Adolescent Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, Daniel; Crosby, Ross D.; Lock, James

    2008-01-01

    The predictors and moderators of treatment outcome for adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN) are explored among those who participated in family based treatment or individual supportive psychotherapy. It is concluded that family-based treatment of BN may be most effective in those cases with low levels of eating disorder psychopathology.

  20. Prospective Risk Factors and Treatment Outcomes among Adolescents in DATOS-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaif, Elisha R.; Hser, Yih-Ing; Grella, Christine E.; Joshi, Vandana

    2001-01-01

    Relationships between risk factors and outcomes were examined for Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies for Adolescents participants. For outpatient drug-free participants, drug use severity predicted less treatment retention; family drug involvement predicted more alcohol use after treatment. For residential participants, family drug involvement…

  1. Effects of childhood trauma on personality in a sample of Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, XianBin; Wang, ZhiMin; Hou, YeZhi; Wang, Ying; Liu, JinTong; Wang, ChuanYue

    2014-04-01

    Childhood trauma is a major public health problem which has an impact on personality development, yet no studies have examined the association between exposure to trauma and personality in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Four hundred eighty-five students completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). The CTQ-SF cut-off scores for exposure were used to calculate the prevalence of trauma. The possible associations between specific types of trauma and the EPQ subscale scores were examined. The rates of emotional abuse (EA), physical abuse (PA), sexual abuse (SA), emotional neglect (EN), and physical neglect (PN) were 18.76%, 11.13%, 27.01%, 49.48%, and 68.66%, respectively. Individuals subjected to EA, PA, and SA had significantly higher neuroticism (EPQ-N) and psychoticism (EPQ-P) scores on the EPQ compared with those who had not experienced EA, PA, or SA (all p valueschildhood abuse and neglect. Exposure to childhood trauma is associated with personality development in Chinese adolescents.

  2. Socioeconomic health inequalities among a nationally representative sample of Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Lynch, J; Holstein, B;

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the role of different types of social relations in adolescent health inequalities.......To investigate the role of different types of social relations in adolescent health inequalities....

  3. Treatment utilisation and trauma characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Traut

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Few empirical studies have addressed the impact of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD on treatment utilisation and outcome in South African youth. This study was undertaken to document demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with PTSD. Design. A retrospective chart study of all patients presenting to a child and adolescent inpatient unit was conducted between 1994-1996. For children and adolescents diagnosed with PTSD; demographic, diagnostic and treatment variables, including trauma type, family history, and delays in treatment seeking, were documented. Setting. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatient Unit, Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town. Subjects. Children and adolescents (2 to 18 years presenting to an inpatient unit (n=737. Results. 10.3% (n=76 met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Gender differences were clearly evident: PTSD was six times more prevalent in girls (65 with PTSD were female and 11 were male; girls were most likely to have experienced rape or sexual abuse while boys were most likely to have witnessed a killing. Psychotherapy was the most common intervention for PTSD, followed by treatment with a tricyclic antidepressant. 97.4% of children and adolescents who were treated demonstrated significant improvement. Delays in seeking treatment and problems with the primary support group were highly prevalent. Conclusion. PTSD is a common disorder that is responsive to treatment with psychotherapy and/or tricyclic antidepressants in child and adolescent inpatients. These findings underscore the importance of early identification and treatment of childhood PTSD in mental health settings, in particular tertiary service institutions.

  4. Parent-adolescent report correspondence on adolescent substance abuse among teens in residential rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillicuddy, Neil B; Eliseo-Arras, Rebecca K

    2012-04-01

    Research on the correspondence between adolescent and parent reports of adolescent substance abuse has typically been conducted on adolescent outpatient treatment samples, or on non-treatment samples. In the current study, fifty adolescents receiving residential substance abuse treatment, and their parents were assessed separately regarding the teen's substance use (e.g., cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, other illicit drugs) during the 90 days preceding adolescent treatment entry. Correspondence between reporters was for the most part fair to excellent, with observed discrepancies generally due to parents providing lower estimates of use than did adolescents. Multiple regression analysis revealed that higher discrepancy between reporters occurred when the parent was younger, when the parent encountered fewer problems due to the teen's substance use, when the adolescent attended more probation or parole meetings, the fewer the number of days the adolescent was incarcerated, and the fewer days the adolescent lived at home prior to treatment. Results from exploratory analyses suggest that parents and adolescents are more discrepant when the assessment occurs later in the adolescent's treatment program. Overall, results suggest that in the absence of a cooperative teen, parental report of the adolescent's previous substance use could serve as a good proxy among families in which the adolescent is entering residential substance abuse treatment.

  5. Metasynthesis of the Views about Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa in Adolescents: Perspectives of Adolescents, Parents, and Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibeoni, Jordan; Orri, Massimiliano; Valentin, Marie; Podlipski, Marc-Antoine; Colin, Stephanie; Pradere, Jerome; Revah-Levy, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Background Anorexia nervosa in adolescents can be a difficult-to-treat disease. Because qualitative research is a well-established method for deepening our understanding of subjective experiences, such as eating disorders and their treatment, we sought to perform a systematic review of qualitative studies to synthesize the views of adolescents with this disease, their parents, and their healthcare providers about its treatment. Methods We performed a thematic synthesis to develop the central themes that summarize all of the topics raised in the articles included in our review. The quality of the articles was assessed by the Critical Appraisal Skills Program. Results We included 32 articles from seven different countries. Two central themes were inductively developed from the analysis: (1) the treatment targets (i.e., symptoms and patients in context), and (2) a therapeutic tool—a relationship, specifically the core concept of the therapeutic relationship. Conclusion Our results underline the difficulty in establishing a therapeutic alliance, the barriers to it, especially the risk that professionals, adolescents, and parents will not converse about treatment; although such a dialogue appears to be an essential component in the construction of a therapeutic alliance. PMID:28056106

  6. Attachment-based family therapy for suicidal lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents: a treatment development study and open trial with preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Gary M; Diamond, Guy S; Levy, Suzanne; Closs, Cynthia; Ladipo, Tonya; Siqueland, Lynne

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to adapt attachment-based family therapy (ABFT) for use with suicidal lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents and to obtain preliminary data on the feasibility and efficacy of the treatment with this population. In Phase I, a treatment development team modified ABFT to meet the unique needs of LGB suicidal youth. In Phase II, 10 suicidal LGB youth were offered 12 weeks of LGB sensitive ABFT. Adolescents' report of suicidal ideation, depressive symptoms, and maternal attachment-related anxiety and avoidance were gathered at pretreatment, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks (posttreatment). In Phase I, the treatment was adapted to: (a) include more individual time working with parents in order to process their disappointments, pain, anger, and fears related to their adolescent's minority sexual orientation; (b) address the meaning, implications, and process of acceptance; and (c) heighten parents' awareness of subtle yet potent invalidating responses to their adolescents' sexual orientation. Results of Phase II suggest this population can be recruited and successfully treated with a family based therapy, evidenced by high levels of treatment retention and significant decreases in suicidal ideation, depressive symptoms, and maternal attachment-related anxiety and avoidance. This is the first family-based treatment adapted and tested specifically for suicidal LGB adolescents. Though promising, the results are preliminary and more research on larger samples is warranted.

  7. Immigrant background and orthodontic treatment need. Quantitative and qualitative studies in Swedish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsson, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Need--Dental Health Component" (IOTN-DHC) grades 4 and 5, ranged from 30 to 40 per cent, without any inter-group differences. There were strong associations between subjects perceiving a need for orthodontic treatment and IOTN-DHC grades 4 and 5, anterior crossbite and avoiding smiling because they were self-conscious about their teeth. At the age of 18-19 years, the frequency of malocclusion was similar in all groups. Subjects of Asian origin had a higher self-perceived orthodontic treatment need than their Swedish counterparts and a higher frequency of headache than those of Eastern/Southeastern European origin. Psychological wellbeing was reduced in nearly one quarter of the sample, more frequently in girls than boys. No association was found between self-perceived orthodontic treatment need and psychological wellbeing. The theory "Being under the pressure of social norms" was generated in Paper V, and it can be applied to improve our understanding of young adults who have adjusted to living with poor dental aesthetics and also aid to identify those who are not as well-adjusted and would probably benefit from treatment. Undisclosed dental fear is an important barrier to acceptance of orthodontic treatment in early adolescence. Despite demographic changes due to immigration, no major change in the prevalence of malocclusion and normative orthodontic treatment need has been disclosed. This does not apply to adolescents and adults who immigrated at an older age.

  8. Reduced anterior cingulate gray matter volume in treatment-naïve clinically depressed adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Nienke Pannekoek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent depression is associated with increased risk for suicidality, social and educational impairment, smoking, substance use, obesity, and depression in adulthood. It is of relevance to further our insight in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this disorder in the developing brain, as this may be essential to optimize treatment and prevention of adolescent depression and its negative clinical trajectories. The equivocal findings of the limited number of studies on neural abnormalities in depressed youth stress the need for further neurobiological investigation of adolescent depression. We therefore performed a voxel-based morphometry study of the hippocampus, amygdala, superior temporal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in 26 treatment-naïve, clinically depressed adolescents and 26 pair-wise matched healthy controls. Additionally, an exploratory whole-brain analysis was performed. Clinically depressed adolescents showed a volume reduction of the bilateral dorsal ACC compared to healthy controls. However, no association was found between gray matter volume of the ACC and clinical severity scores for depression or anxiety. Our finding of a smaller ACC in clinically depressed adolescents is consistent with literature on depressed adults. Future research is needed to investigate if gray matter abnormalities precede or follow clinical depression in adolescents.

  9. Psychopathological factors associated with problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use in a sample of adolescents in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartberg, Lutz; Brunner, Romuald; Kriston, Levente; Durkee, Tony; Parzer, Peter; Fischer-Waldschmidt, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina W; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Danuta; Thomasius, Rainer; Kaess, Michael

    2016-06-30

    In Germany, high prevalence rates for problematic alcohol use and problematic Internet use in adolescents were reported. The objective of the present study was to identify psychopathological factors associated with these two behavior patterns. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation assessing psychopathological factors for both problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use in the same sample of adolescents. We surveyed a sample of 1444 adolescents in Germany regarding problematic alcohol use, problematic Internet use, psychopathology and psychological well-being. We conducted binary logistic regression analyses. 5.6% of the sample showed problematic alcohol use, 4.8% problematic Internet use, and 0.8% both problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use. Problematic alcohol use was higher in adolescents with problematic Internet use compared to those without problematic Internet use. Conduct problems and depressive symptoms were statistically significant associated with both problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use. Prosocial behavior was related to problematic Internet use. Male gender and less peer problems were associated with problematic alcohol use. For the first time associations between adolescent problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use due to common psychopathological factors were identified. However, in addition to shared factors, we found also specific psychopathological correlates associated with these two behavior patterns.

  10. Impact of Physical and Sexual Abuse on Treatment Response in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescent Study (TORDIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Clarke, Gregory; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Emslie, Graham; Iyengar, Satish; Ryan, Neal D.; McCracken, James T.; Porta, Giovanna; Mayes, Taryn; Brent, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We previously reported that a history of abuse was associated with a poorer response to combination treatment in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study (TORDIA). We now report on the nature and correlates of abuse that might explain these findings. Method: Youth who did not benefit from an adequate selective…

  11. The Bi-Directional Relationship between Parent-Child Conflict and Treatment Outcome in Treatment-Resistant Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengasamy, Manivel; Mansoor, Brandon M.; Hilton, Robert; Porta, Giovanna; He, Jiayan; Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn; Clarke, Gregory N.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Keller, Martin B.; Ryan, Neal D.; Birmaher, Boris; Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Brent, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the bidirectional relationship between parent-child discord and treatment outcome for adolescent treatment-resistant depression. Method: Depressed youth who had not responded to an adequate course of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) were randomized to either a switch to another SSRI or venlafaxine, with or…

  12. Investigation of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Autistic Traits in an Adolescent Sample with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postorino, Valentina; Scahill, Lawrence; De Peppo, Lavinia; Fatta, Laura Maria; Zanna, Valeria; Castiglioni, Maria Chiara; Gillespie, Scott; Vicari, Stefano; Mazzone, Luigi

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the presence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in a sample of female adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) during the acute phase of illness. We also compare the level of autistic traits, social perception skills and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in four groups: AN, ASD, and two gender- and age-matched control groups. Of the 30 AN participants, only three scored above the conventional ADOS-2 threshold for ASD. The AN participants were similar to their controls on autistic trait measures, and to the ASD group on obsessive-compulsive measures, and on theory of mind ability and affect recognition measures. Further longitudinal studies are needed in order to determine the association between these conditions.

  13. Testing the Index of Problematic Online Experiences (I-POE) with a national sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Jones, Lisa M; Wells, Melissa

    2013-12-01

    This article assesses the utility of the Index of Problematic Online Experiences (I-POE) in a national sample of adolescents in the United States. The study was based on a cross-sectional national telephone survey of 1560 Internet users, ages 10 through 17. Data were collected between August, 2010 and January, 2011. The I-POE is an 18-item binary response index which can be used to assess problematic internet use across multiple behaviors and activities. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a revised index with two factors: a 9-item "excessive use" scale and a 9-item "online social and communication problems" scale among this population. The I-POE showed favorable psychometric properties including adequate internal consistency for the overall scale and for the two subscales. Scores correlate with offline emotional and behavioral difficulties and the I-POE could have value for use as a part of broad mental health assessment procedures in clinical or school settings.

  14. Sex Differences in Severity, Social Functioning, Adherence to Treatment, and Cognition of Adolescents with Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have reported sex differences in the clinical presentation and outcome of adult patients with schizophrenia; the aim of present study was to compare the clinical characteristics, social functioning, adherence to treatment, and cognition of adolescents with this diagnosis in a six-month followup. Methods. A total of 87 adolescents with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANS...

  15. Treatment of Depression in Adolescents with Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Medications: A Commentary on the TADS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollon, Steven D.; Garber, Judy; Shelton, Richard C.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews and comments on the recent Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) that found that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) was less efficacious than fluoxetine alone and no more efficacious than pill placebo in the treatment of depression in adolescents. Adding CBT to fluoxetine, however, improved treatment response in…

  16. Differential behavioural and neurochemical outcomes from chronic paroxetine treatment in adolescent and adult rats: a model of adverse antidepressant effects in human adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanges, Emily; Li, Kong M; Motbey, Craig; Callaghan, Paul D; Katsifis, Andrew; McGregor, Iain S

    2011-05-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use is associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation in adolescent humans, yet the neuropharmacological basis of this phenomenon is unknown. Consequently, we examined the behavioural and neurochemical effects of chronic paroxetine (PRX) treatment in adult and adolescent rats. Rats received PRX in their drinking water (target dose 10 mg/kg) for 22 d, during which time they were assessed for depression- and anxiety-like behaviours. Subsequent ex-vivo analyses examined serum PRX concentrations, striatal neurotransmitter content, and regional serotonin and dopamine transporter (SERT, DAT) binding density. After 11-12 d treatment, PRX-treated adolescent rats showed a significant inhibition of social interaction while adults were unaffected. After 19-20 d treatment, adolescents failed to show an antidepressant-like effect of PRX treatment on the forced swim test (FST), while PRX-treated adults showed a typical decrease in immobility and increase in swimming. Two PRX-treated adolescents died unexpectedly after the FST suggesting a compromised response to physical stress. Despite their greater apparent adverse reaction to the drug, adolescents had significantly lower plasma PRX than adults at day 22 of treatment. Chronic PRX treatment had similar effects in adults and adolescents on striatal 5-HT (unchanged relative to controls) and 5-HIAA levels (decreased), while markers of dopaminergic function (DOPAC, HVA, DA turnover) were increased in adults only. SERT density was up-regulated in the amygdala in PRX-treated adolescents only while DAT density in the nucleus accumbens was down-regulated only in PRX-treated adults. These data suggest that the immature rat brain responds differently to PRX and that this might be of use in modelling the atypical response of human adolescents to antidepressants. The age-specific PRX-induced changes in dopaminergic markers and SERT and DAT binding provide clues as to the neural mechanisms

  17. Unfair treatment, discrimination, and ambulatory blood pressure in black and white adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Karen A; Salomon, Kristen; Kenyon, Karen; Zhou, Fan

    2005-05-01

    The authors tested the hypotheses that unfair treatment and its attribution to race, physical appearance, and peer group were related to elevated ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). During 2 school days, 207 Black and White adolescents wore an ABP monitor and answered questions about mood, posture, location, and activity level at the time of the ABP assessment. At a separate session, in-clinic resting blood pressure and perceptions of unfair treatment were measured. Multilevel mixed models showed that unfair treatment and its attribution to race were not associated with ABP. However, adolescents who indicated that the primary reason for unfair treatment was their physical appearance had elevated ABP. Feeling unfairly treated because of physical appearance may impact blood pressure uniquely during the adolescent transition.

  18. Genome-wide association study of behavioral disinhibition in a selected adolescent sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derringer, Jaime; Corley, Robin P.; Haberstick, Brett C.; Young, Susan E.; Demmitt, Brittany; Howrigan, Daniel P.; Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt; Keller, Matthew; Brown, Sandra; Tapert, Susan; Hopfer, Christian J.; Stallings, Michael C.; Crowley, Thomas J.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Krauter, Ken; Hewitt, John K.; McQueen, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral disinhibition (BD) is a quantitative measure designed to capture the heritable variation encompassing risky and impulsive behaviors. As a result, BD represents an ideal target for discovering genetic loci that predispose individuals to a wide range of antisocial behaviors and substance misuse that together represent a large cost to society as a whole. Published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have examined specific phenotypes that fall under the umbrella of BD (e.g. alcohol dependence, conduct disorder); however no GWAS has specifically examined the overall BD construct. We conducted a GWAS of BD using a sample of 1,901 adolescents over-selected for characteristics that define high BD, such as substance and antisocial behavior problems, finding no individual locus that surpassed genome-wide significance. Although no single SNP was significantly associated with BD, restricted maximum likelihood analysis estimated that 49.3% of the variance in BD within the Caucasian sub-sample was accounted for by the genotyped SNPs (p=0.06). Gene-based tests identified seven genes associated with BD (p≤2.0×10−6). Although the current study was unable to identify specific SNPs or pathways with replicable effects on BD, the substantial sample variance that could be explained by all genotyped SNPs suggests that larger studies could successfully identify common variants associated with BD. PMID:25637581

  19. [Changes in OPD-CA Axis Structure During Inpatient Psychodynamic Treatment of Adolescents Suffering from Comorbid Disorders of Conduct and Emotions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropp, Carola; Salzer, Simone; Streeck-Fischer, Annette

    2016-01-01

    In a randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) we evaluated an inpatient psychodynamic treatment for adolescents suffering from mixed disorders of conduct and emotions. The sample consisted of severely impaired adolescents with remarkable deficits regarding psychic structure. The current study wanted to examine if the manualized treatment did not only reduce symptoms but also enhance the structural level of the patients. The axis structure of the Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnostics in Childhood and Adolescence (OPD-CA) was used to assess the structural level of N = 46 adolescent inpatients. To examine differences between the patients‘ structural level at the beginning and at the end of inpatient treatment we conducted a repeated measures ANOVA. The overall score as well as the three subscores of the axis structure improved significantly during inpatient treatment. The corresponding effect sizes were large (η(2) = .29 to .47). The inpatient psychodynamic treatment led to significant improvements regarding symptomatology as well as psychic structure. However, further studies with larger sample size and control group data should be conducted to confirm these results.

  20. Treatment of adolescents with morbid obesity with bariatric procedures and anti-obesity pharmacological agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Um SS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Scott S Um1, Wendelin Slusser2, Daniel A DeUgarte11Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Adolescent obesity is a growing health concern that can have immense physical and psychological impact. Treatment of morbidly obese adolescents should include a multidisciplinary team to address medical comorbidities, diet, physical activity, mental health, and behavior modification. Anti-obesity pharmacologic agents have a limited role in the treatment of adolescents because of concerns with side effects, safety, and efficacy. Orlistat (GlaxoSmithKline, Moon Township, PA is the only approved medication for weight-loss in adolescents. However, it is associated with gastrointestinal side effects and its long-term efficacy is unknown. Bariatric surgery is the most effective therapy to treat morbid obesity. However, adolescents must meet rigorous criteria and have appropriate cognitive, psychological, and social clearance before being considered for surgical intervention. Gastric bypass remains the gold standard bariatric operation. The adjustable gastric band is not FDA-approved for use in patients under 18 years of age. Sleeve gastrectomy is a promising procedure for adolescents because it avoids an intestinal bypass and the implantation of a foreign body. Prospective longitudinal assessment of bariatric surgery procedures is required to determine long-term outcomes. In this manuscript, we review the treatment options, efficacy, and impact on quality of life for morbidly obese adolescents.Keywords: bariatric surgery, morbid obesity, weight loss, adolescent

  1. Symptoms of Depression Depend on Rigid Parenting Attitudes, Gender, and Race in an At-Risk Sample of Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Keri; Morales, Dawn A.; Harjes, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Trajectories of depressive symptoms were compared between European American and African American boys and girls from ages 8 to 14 in a longitudinal sample of 130 children born to adolescent mothers. Mixed-effects regression modeling was used to analyze individual and group differences in level of depressive symptoms and their changes over time.…

  2. The Short Version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Factor Structure in a Young Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Marianna

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the factor structure of the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995b) in a young adolescent sample. A group of 484 high school students ("Mean" age = 13.62 years, Min = 11.83, Max = 15.67 years, 52 % boys) completed the DASS-21. Several models were tested using Confirmatory Factor…

  3. Examination of the Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 in a Mixed-Gender Young-Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilksch, Simon M.; Wade, Tracey D.

    2012-01-01

    Thin-ideal (or media) internalization is an important eating disorder risk factor that has become a central target of many prevention programs. However, evidence for its valid assessment in young, mixed-gender, adolescent samples is limited, and the current study is the first to explore the psychometric properties of the 30-item Sociocultural…

  4. Relations among Perceived Control over Anxiety-Related Events, Worry, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder in a Sample of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frala, Jamie L.; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Barreto, Carolina C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations among perceived control over anxiety-related events, worry, and both symptoms and diagnoses of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The sample was comprised of 140 adolescents (60 girls) between the ages of 10 and 17 years (M[subscript age] = 14.6 years; SD = 2.25) recruited from the general community. Findings…

  5. Understanding the relationship between proactive and reactive aggression, and cyberbullying across United States and Singapore adolescent samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Florell, Dan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined cyberbullying among adolescents across United States and Singapore samples. Specifically, the purpose of the investigation was to study the differential associations between proactive and reactive aggression, and cyberbullying across two cultures. A total of 425 adolescents from the United States (M age = 13 years) and a total of 332 adolescents from Singapore (M age = 14.2 years) participated in the study. Results of the moderator analyses suggested that nationality was not a moderator of the relationship between proactive aggression and cyberbullying, and between reactive aggression and cyberbullying. As expected, findings showed proactive aggression to be positively associated with cyberbullying, after controlling for reactive aggression, across both samples. Likewise, as hypothesized, reactive aggression and cyberbullying was not found to be significant after controlling for proactive aggression across both samples. Implications of these findings were discussed: (a) Proactive aggression is a possible risk factor for both bullying and cyberbullying; (b) proactive and reactive aggression could be argued to be distinct as they have different correlates-only proactive aggression contributed to cyberbullying after controlling for reactive aggression; (c) this research extends previous work and contributes toward cross-cultural work using similar and comparable measures across different samples; and (d) prevention and intervention programs targeted at proactive aggressive adolescents could adopt a two-pronged approach by changing mind sets, and by understanding and adopting a set of rules for Internet etiquette.

  6. Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy: Associations with Alcohol Consumption in a Sample of Adolescents in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael T.; Sumnall, Harry R.; Cole, Jon C.; Percy, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have reported equivocal findings regarding the association between self-esteem, self-efficacy and adolescent alcohol use. Data were collected from a sample of 11-16-year olds in Northern Ireland (n = 4088) over two consecutive academic years measuring global self-esteem, academic, social and emotional…

  7. Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Pharmacological Treatments for Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadstock, Marita; Doughty, Carolyn; Eggleston, Matt

    2007-01-01

    The variable expression of autism over the lifespan is likely to lead to different symptoms and support requirements, and to distinct responses to pharmacotherapy treatment, in older patients compared to children. This systematic review considers the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment in managing autism spectrum disorder in adolescents and…

  8. Psychopharmacological Treatment Options for Global Child and Adolescent Mental Health: The WHO Essential Medicines Lists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutcher, Stan; Murphy, Andrea; Gardner, David

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines (EML) and suggests modification for appropriate psychopharmacological treatment of child- and adolescent-onset mental disorders. The EML enlists few of the psychotropic medicines that are useful for the treatment of young people thereby limiting the…

  9. Concordance between Measures of Anxiety and Physiological Arousal Following Treatment of Panic Disorder in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacow, Terri Landon; May, Jill Ehrenreich; Choate-Summers, Molly; Pincus, Donna B.; Mattis, Sara G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the concordance (or synchrony/desynchrony) between adolescents' self-reports of anxiety and physiological measures of arousal (heart rate) both prior to and after treatment for panic disorder. Results indicated a decline in reported subjective units of distress (SUDS) for the treatment group only at the post-treatment…

  10. The Application of Traditional Martial Arts Practice and Theory to the Treatment of Violent Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twemlow, Stuart W.; Sacco, Frank C.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews treatment programs, the complex problems posed by youth gangs, and the use of martial arts in the treatment of violence and proposes a program for violent adolescents. The program philosophy is committed to respect and self-control; emphasis is on leadership and community service. Provides clinical examples. (Author/EMK)

  11. Social Network Characteristics of Urban Adolescents in Brief Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the social network characteristics of 102 urban adolescents in brief substance abuse treatment are described and analyzed longitudinally to examine risk and protective mechanisms. The treatment intervention had one session devoted to social support and networks. Social networks were conceptualized and measured along two dimensions…

  12. The Impact of Correcting Cognitive Distortions in Reducing Depression and the Sense of Insecurity among a Sample of Female Refugee Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaidat, Fatin; ALharbi, Bassam H. M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the level of depression and sense of insecurity among a sample of female refugee adolescents, and the impact of an indicative program for reducing cognitive distortions in reducing depression and their sense of insecurity. The study sample consisted of 220 female refugee adolescents, 7th to 1st secondary stage, at…

  13. Sociometric status and the attribution of intentions in a sample of adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Anne-Pier; Tessier, Réjean; Nadeau, Line

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To examine how cerebral palsy (CP) and sociometric status at age 10 explain the development of a cognitive bias across two groups of adolescents aged 15. Method Children with CP (N = 60) and without CP (N = 57) are part of a follow-up study. Three categories of sociometric status (popular, average, rejected) were obtained by conducting a class-wide interview in the class of the target children at age 10. At 15 years old, the same children (CP and non-CP) were asked to complete the Home Interview With Child questionnaire measuring a cognitive bias (hostile attribution of intentions (AI)). Results Children with CP, especially girls, were significantly more rejected and less popular than controls at age 10. At age 15, among all participants, sociometric rejected and popular children tended to have a higher percentage of hostile AI than sociometric average children. Conclusions There were no significant results for the combined effect of CP and sociometric status on the development of hostile AI at age 15. However, knowing the risk incurred by children with CP of being socially rejected, attention should be paid in the rehabilitation process to opportunities for social participation to facilitate the development of social competence. Implications for Rehabilitation Level I or II cerebral palsy (CP) is a condition that affects not only motor abilities but also social competence in children. Sociometric status in a group tends to affect the development of the ability to interprete intentions of others during adolescence. Sociometric measures in the class of children with CP could be a useful tool in the rehabilitation process in order to better define social participation opportunities. To improve social participation attempts, rehabilitation interventions should target social initiating skills, flexibility in interpreting peers' behaviours, and ability to react effectively to negative peer treatment.

  14. Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidel, Steve P.

    2006-05-26

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities.

  15. Identity: empirical contribution. Changes in the identity integration of adolescents in treatment for personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Dine J; Hutsebaut, Joost; Verheul, Roel; van Limbeek, Jacques

    2014-02-01

    A renewed interest in identity as one of the core markers of personality disorders has been introduced by the DSM-5 Level of Personality Functioning Scale. However, little is known about the utility of the construct of identity in children and adolescents. This study aimed to broaden the knowledge of identity integration as a core component of personality functioning in adolescents. The authors investigated levels of identity integration, as measured by the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118; Verheul et al., 2008), in adolescents in both normal (n = 406) and clinical populations (n = 285). Furthermore, changes in levels of identity integration during treatment were investigated in a clinical subsample (n = 76). Levels of identity integration were not associated with age. They were, however, associated with the absence or presence of personality pathology. Most adolescents receiving inpatient psychotherapy gradually changed toward more healthy levels of identity integration; a significant number, however, remained at maladaptive levels of identity functioning after intensive psychotherapy.

  16. Anxiety in adolescents: Update on its diagnosis and treatment for primary care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegel RS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca S Siegel, Daniel P DicksteinPediatric Mood, Imaging, and NeuroDevelopment Program, EP Bradley Hospital, East Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental health concern facing adolescents today, yet they are largely undertreated. This is especially concerning given that there are fairly good data to support an evidence-based approach to the diagnosis and treatment of anxiety, and also that untreated, these problems can continue into adulthood, growing in severity. Thus, knowing how to recognize and respond to anxiety in adolescents is of the utmost importance in primary care settings. To that end, this article provides an up-to-date review of the diagnosis and treatment of anxiety disorders geared towards professionals in primary care settings. Topics covered include subtypes, clinical presentation, the etiology and biology, effective screening instruments, evidence-based treatments (both medication and therapy, and the long-term prognosis for adolescents with anxiety. Importantly, we focus on the most common types of anxiety disorders, often known as phobias, which include generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety/social phobia, separation anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and specific phobias. In summary, anxiety is a common psychiatric problem for adolescents, but armed with the right tools, primary care providers can make a major impact.Keywords: anxiety disorders, adolescents, presentation, etiology, assessment, treatment, primary care

  17. Temperament and Eating Attitudes in an Adolescent Community Sample: A Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Marzola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Temperament traits like high harm avoidance (HA have been proposed as putative risk factors for the development of eating disorders (EDs. We aimed at studying the relationship between temperament and eating attitudes on a large community sample of adolescents. Method. We recruited 992 high school students aged 14–18. In addition to measuring body mass index (BMI, participants were asked to complete the temperament and character inventory and the food frequency questionnaire. Results. Sixty-two percent of the sample reported overeating, 22.8% reported normal eating, and 15.2% reported under eating. Under and normal eaters had higher BMI than that of over eaters. Harm avoidance was found to be significantly higher in those participants with lower eating intakes whilst novelty seeking was found to be higher in over eaters. Conclusion. An interesting association between temperament (high HA and food approach (under eating emerged. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate whether these traits represent a risk factor for the development of EDs.

  18. Ethnic differences in asthma treatment among Swedish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantarero-Arévalo, Lourdes; Perez Vicente, Raquel; Juarez, Sol Pia;

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Adolescents with immigrant or ethnic minority background suffering from asthma receive on average less appropriate anti-asthmatic medication (AAM) than the majority population. However, those findings are based on analyses of differences between group averages which prevents our understandi...

  19. Brief report: The impact of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on academic performance in an adolescent community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchwood, James; Daley, Dave

    2012-02-01

    Less is understood about the relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in adolescents than the relationship in younger children. As such, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prospective relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in a community adolescent sample. Three hundred and twenty-four participants, aged 15 and 16, in their final year of compulsory education, completed measures of ADHD, anxiety, depression, and motivation, and a test of general cognitive ability. Participants were also asked for permission for their academic grades to be viewed on a later occasion (approximately 6 months later). In regression analyses, ADHD symptoms were the most significant independent psychopathological predictor of academic performance, and were almost as significant as motivation and cognitive ability. The results suggest that adolescents with more ADHD symptoms are likely to encounter greater academic difficulties.

  20. An opacity-sampled treatment of water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David R.; Augason, Gordon C.; Johnson, Hollis R.

    1989-01-01

    Although the bands of H2O are strong in the spectra of cool stars and calculations have repeatedly demonstrated their significance as opacity sources, only approximate opacities are currently available, due both to the difficulty of accounting for the millions of lines involved and to the inadequacy of laboratory and theoretical data. To overcome these obstacles, a new treatment is presented, based upon a statistical representation of the water vapor spectrum derived from available laboratory data. This statistical spectrum of water vapor employs an exponential distribution of line strengths and random positions of lines whose overall properties are forced to reproduce the mean opacities observed in the laboratory. The resultant data set is then treated by the opacity-sampling method exactly as are all other lines, both molecular and atomic. Significant differences are found between the results of this improved treatment and the results obtained with previous treatments of water-vapor opacity.

  1. The Role of Transport Use in Adolescent Wilderness Treatment: Its Relationship to Readiness to Change and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Anita R.; Bettmann, Joanna E.; Norton, Christine L.; Comart, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering the sensitive ethical issues related to involuntary treatment of adolescents, research investigating youth transport practices and treatment outcomes is clearly needed. Youth transport is common practice in many private pay programs, including wilderness therapy programs. Objective: This study of 350 adolescents in…

  2. Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale Perfectionism: A Predictor and Partial Mediator of Acute Treatment Outcome among Clinically Depressed Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Rachel H.; Silva, Susan G.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Curry, John F.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of perfectionism on acute treatment outcomes was explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents (12-17 years of age) enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) who received cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), fluoxetine, a combination of CBT and FLX, or pill placebo. Measures…

  3. Perception of weight and psychological variables in a sample of Spanish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera1,2, Patricia Bolaños-Ríos2, María José Santiago-Fernández2, Olivia Garrido-Casals2, Elsa Sánchez31Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, Seville, Spain; 3Professional Schools Sagrada Familia, Écija, Seville, SpainBackground: This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI and weight perception, self-esteem, positive body image, food beliefs, and mental health status, along with any gender differences in weight perception, in a sample of adolescents in Spain.Methods: The sample comprised 85 students (53 females and 32 males, mean age 17.4 ± 5.5 years with no psychiatric history who were recruited from a high school in Écija, Seville. Weight and height were recorded for all participants, who were then classified according to whether they perceived themselves as slightly overweight, very overweight, very underweight, slightly underweight, or about the right weight, using the question “How do you think of yourself in terms of weight?”. Finally, a series of questionnaires were administered, including the Irrational Food Beliefs Scale, Body Appreciation Scale, Self Esteem Scale, and General Health Questionnaire.Results: Overall, 23.5% of participants misperceived their weight. Taking into account only those with a normal BMI (percentile 5–85, there was a significant gender difference with respect to those who perceived themselves as overweight (slightly overweight and very overweight; 13.9% of females and 7.9% of males perceived themselves as overweight (χ2 = 3.957, P < 0.05. There was a significant difference for age, with participants who perceived their weight adequately being of mean age 16.34 ± 3.17 years and those who misperceived their weight being of mean age 18.50 ± 4.02 years (F = 3.112, P < 0.05.Conclusion: Misperception of overweight seems to be more frequent in female adolescents, and mainly among

  4. Cardiovascular complications following chronic treatment with cocaine and testosterone in adolescent rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A Engi

    Full Text Available Concomitant use of anabolic androgenic steroids and cocaine has increased in the last years. However, the effects of chronic exposure to these substances during adolescence on cardiovascular function are unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of treatment for 10 consecutive days with testosterone and cocaine alone or in combination on basal cardiovascular parameters, baroreflex activity, hemodynamic responses to vasoactive agents, and cardiac morphology in adolescent rats. Administration of testosterone alone increased arterial pressure, reduced heart rate (HR, and exacerbated the tachycardiac baroreflex response. Cocaine-treated animals showed resting bradycardia without changes in arterial pressure and baroreflex activity. Combined treatment with testosterone and cocaine did not affect baseline arterial pressure and HR, but reduced baroreflex-mediated tachycardia. None of the treatments affected arterial pressure response to either vasoconstrictor or vasodilator agents. Also, heart to body ratio and left and right ventricular wall thickness were not modified by drug treatments. However, histological analysis of left ventricular sections of animals subjected to treatment with testosterone and cocaine alone and combined showed a greater spacing between cardiac muscle fibers, dilated blood vessels, and fibrosis. These data show important cardiovascular changes following treatment with testosterone in adolescent rats. However, the results suggest that exposure to cocaine alone or combined with testosterone during adolescence minimally affect cardiovascular function.

  5. Evidence update on the treatment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Myra; Wilfley, Denise E

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased medical and psychosocial consequences and mortality and effective interventions are urgently needed. Effective interventions are urgently needed. This article reviews the evidence for psychological treatments of overweight and obesity in child and adolescent populations. Studies were identified through searches of online databases and reference sections of relevant review articles and meta-analyses. Treatment efficacy was assessed using established criteria, and treatments were categorized as well-established, probably efficacious, possibly efficacious, experimental, or of questionable efficacy. Well-established treatments included family-based behavioral treatment (FBT) and Parent-Only Behavioral Treatment for children. Possibly efficacious treatments include Parent-Only Behavioral Treatment for adolescents, FBT-Guided Self-Help for children, and Behavioral Weight Loss treatment with family involvement for toddlers, children, and adolescents. Appetite awareness training and regulation of cues treatments are considered experimental. No treatments are considered probably efficacious, or of questionable efficacy. All treatments considered efficacious are multicomponent interventions that include dietary and physical activity modifications and utilize behavioral strategies. Treatment is optimized if family members are specifically targeted in treatment. Research supports the use of multicomponent lifestyle interventions, with FBT and Parent-Only Behavioral Treatment being the most widely supported treatment types. Additional research is needed to test a stepped care model for treatment and to establish the ideal dosage (i.e., number and length of sessions), duration, and intensity of treatments for long-term sustainability of healthy weight management. To improve access to care, the optimal methods to enhance the scalability and implementability of treatments into community and clinical settings need to be established.

  6. Evidence for Conservative Treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis - Update 2015 (Mini-Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Ng; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette; Moramarco, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis predominantly afflicts adolescents. Adolescents with mild curvatures do not generally have any symptoms. However spinal fusion is indicated when the deformity exceeds 45°. Treatment is thus necessary to prevent and/or reduce the progression of curvatures to that below which surgery is indicated. Conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis includes observation, scoliosis-specific exercises (SSE) and bracing. There is increasing evidence suggesting that SSE and brace treatment can significantly limit the progression of spinal curvatures. In growing adolescents with curvatures more than 20°, bracing is indicated and should be used in conjunction with SSE. The effectiveness of bracing varies according to the type of brace applied to the patient. In general rigid braces are preferable to soft flexible braces, as the latter falls short of halting curvatures progression. Also, preliminary evidence suggests that asymmetric braces which enable over-correction provide more correction when compared with symmetrical braces. Recently it has also been reported that high quality bracing can also reduce curvatures exceeding 45° in over 70% of growing adolescents. This new knowledge might possibly increase the threshold of surgical indications to beyond 50° or above in the near future.

  7. Co-occurring disorders in the adolescent mental health and substance abuse treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Win C; Muck, Randolph D; Muck, Rebekah J; Stephens, Robert L; Sukumar, Bhuvana

    2004-12-01

    This article explores the rates of co-occurring disorders in two large federally-funded programs that target youth. In the mental health treatment system, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS) supports the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program. SAMHSA's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) supports a number of grant programs providing substance abuse treatment for adolescents. The data from these programs underscores the need for the use of systematic, validated, biopsychosocial assessment instruments for all youth entering either the substance abuse or mental health treatment systems. The current evidence base for models of co-occurring treatment for youth is discussed and recommendations made for future activity related to adolescent co-occurring treatment.

  8. Treatment of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-Resistant Depression in Adolescents: Predictors and Moderators of Treatment Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Emslie, Graham; Clarke, Greg; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Spirito, Anthony; Vitiello, Benedetto; Iyengar, Satish; Shamseddeen, Wael; Ritz, Louise; Birmaher, Boris; Ryan, Neal; Kennard, Betsy; Mayes, Taryn; DeBar, Lynn; McCracken, James; Strober, Michael; Suddath, Robert; Leonard, Henrietta; Porta, Giovanna; Keller, Martin; Brent, David

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents who did not improve with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) were provided an alternative SSRI plus cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). The superiority of the CBT/combined treatment as compared to medication alone is more evident in youths who had more comorbid disorders, no abuse history, and lower hopelessness.

  9. Characteristics of Marijuana Acquisition among a National Sample of Adolescent Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Merianos, Ashley L.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Because marijuana is becoming more accessible and perceived norms of use are becoming increasingly more favorable, research is needed to understand characteristics of marijuana acquisition among adolescents. Purpose: The study purpose was to examine whether sources and locations where adolescent users obtain and use marijuana differed…

  10. Referral Pattern and Special Interests in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome: A Turkish Referred Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanidir, Canan; Mukaddes, Nahit M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the most frequent reasons for referral, the most common special interests, age at first referral to a mental health service, and the age of diagnosis in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome living in Turkey. Methods: This study includes 61 children and adolescents diagnosed with Asperger syndrome using…

  11. Gender differences in adolescent coping behaviors and suicidal ideation: findings from a sample of 73,238 adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Mi; Han, Doug Hyun; Trksak, George H; Lee, Young Sik

    2014-01-01

    Suicide among adolescents is an emerging global public health problem as well as a socioeconomic problem. Stress-coping strategies have been shown to be associated with suicidal ideation. We examined coping behaviors related to suicidal ideation and gender differences in adolescents using the data from the 2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ages 12-19 years; N = 73,238). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between suicidal ideation and specific coping behaviors while controlling for potentially confounding variables. In both male and female groups, the coping behavior "drinking alcoholic beverages" and "smoking cigarettes" were positively associated with suicidal ideation. "Watching TV," "playing online/mobile games," and "sleeping" were negatively associated with suicidal ideation in both groups. In males, "engaging in sports" was negatively related to suicidal ideation. In females, "venting by talking to others" and "eating" were negatively related to suicidal ideation. The results indicate that there are gender differences in the effects of coping behaviors on adolescent suicidal ideation, and that developing adaptive coping strategies may function to reduce suicidality. Future studies are needed to examine whether improving coping skills can reduce suicidal ideation in a gender-specific manner.

  12. Cultural/interpersonal values and smoking in an ethnically diverse sample of Southern California adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jennifer B; Shakib, Sohaila; Gallaher, Peggy; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Mouttapa, Michele; Palmer, Paula H; Johnson, C Anderson

    2006-01-01

    In ethnically diverse school contexts, values from multiple cultures might influence adolescents' attitudes and behaviors. This study developed scales to assess cultural values among Southern California 6'-grade adolescents (N=2281) and evaluated the associations between values and smoking. The scales assessed values salient in many Hispanic and Asian cultures: Respect for Adults (e.g., filial piety, respeto), Interpersonal Harmony (e.g., saving face, simpatia), and Differentiated Gender Roles (e.g., machismo). In cross-sectional and one-year longitudinal models, Respect for Adults and Interpersonal Harmony were associated with a lower risk of lifetime smoking. The associations were significant even after controlling for demographic characteristics, friends' smoking, and parents' smoking, indicating that values influence adolescents' behavior over and above the effects of modeling and peer influence. Increased understanding of adolescents' values could inform the creation of smoking prevention programs for ethnically diverse adolescents.

  13. [Treatment of eating disorders in adolescents--the view of a child and adolescence psychiatric hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Ernst; Hansen, Berit; Korte, Alexander; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike

    2005-04-01

    The paper presents--in the sense of clinical guidelines--reality of clinical care in a child and adolescence university hospital specialised on eating disorders. Need of a multimodal therapeutic approach is emphasized, including normalisation of weight and eating behaviour, nursing and pedagogical measures, individual, group and family therapy, completed by body therapy, art and music therapy and in case psychopharmacotherapy. Recommendations for overcoming weak spots are made.

  14. Adolescent Sexual Debut and Initiation into New-Type Drug Use among a Sample of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yingying; He, Na; Detels, Roger

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between adolescent sexual debut and age at new-type drug initiation among a sample of young adult new-type drug users. A total of 276 participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in Shanghai, China. The analyses were restricted to a total of 201 participants aged between 18 and 30 years. The average age at sexual debut and age at first new-type drug use were 18.8 and 20.9 years, respectively. About 94% of participants reported having sexual experience (n=188); of those, 137 (72.9%) had sexual debut before they first used new-type drugs, while 32 (17.0%) initiated both events at the same age. After adjustment for age, income, education, and sexual orientation, adolescent sexual debut was independently associated with younger age at new-type drug initiation. Adolescent sexual debut is associated with early onset of new-type drug use. Our findings underscore the importance of implementing sex-education programs for adolescents in schools in China.

  15. Family therapy within an adolescent addiction treatment service “In search of solutions"

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murray, Denis

    2016-08-01

    Issues and trends in relation to substance misuse normally develop in the transitional phase of adolescence, as young people begin looking towards their peers for direction and are less subject to parental authority. In relation to substance misuse it is observed that risk and protection factors exist in equal measure within different contexts, including within the individual, family, peer group, school and community settings. In response to problems relating to illicit drug use in Ireland the first adult treatment service was established in Dublin in 1969. As an approach to meeting the complex needs of an adolescent drug using population two designated out-patient treatment adolescent services were established in Dublin during the mid-1990s. Working closely with families, carers and significant others improves communication and mobilises resources in ways that enhances protection for young people especially in circumstances where there are a number of family members engaging in substance misuse.

  16. Reliability and validity of rorschach aggression variables with a sample of adjudicated adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebman, Samuel J; Porcerelli, John; Abell, Steven C

    2005-08-01

    In this investigation, we assessed the reliability and validity of 5 Rorschach aggression variables (AG, A1, A2, AgC, and AgPast) in a sample of adjudicated, mostly conduct-disordered adolescents (N = 150). More specifically, we assessed the interrelationships of Rorschach aggression variables using correlational analyses and factor analysis and assessed the relationships between Rorschach variables and a measure of aggressive potential (the Manifest Aggression scale from the Jesness Inventory; Jesness, 1996) as well as a measure of real-world aggression/violence (the Violence Rating Scale-Revised [VRS-R]; Young, Justice, & Erdberg, 1997). Two of Gacono and Meloy's (1994) Rorschach aggression variables were dropped from the study (AgPot and SM) due to a low frequency of occurrence. All 5 of the remaining Rorschach aggression variables and the VRS-R were rated reliably, and factor analysis of the Rorschach variables revealed 2 distinct factors accounting for 71% of the total variance. Only the AgC variable concurrently predicted aggressive potential and aggressive/violent behavior. Results lend further support for the inclusion of AgC in the Comprehensive System's (Exner, 1993) list of Special Scores.

  17. The relationship between breastfeeding and weight status in a national sample of Australian children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Jane A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding has been shown consistently in observational studies to be protective of overweight and obesity in later life. This study aimed to investigate the association between breastfeeding duration and weight status in a national sample of Australian children and adolescents. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey data involving 2066, males and females aged 9 to 16 years from all Australian states and territories. The effect of breastfeeding duration on weight status was estimated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Compared to those who were never breastfed, children breastfed for ≥6 months were significantly less likely to be overweight (adjusted odds ratio: 0.64, 95%CI: 0.45, 0.91 or obese (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51, 95%CI: 0.29, 0.90 in later childhood, after adjustment for maternal characteristics (age, education and ethnicity and children's age, gender, mean energy intake, level of moderate and vigorous physical activity, screen time and sleep duration. Conclusions Breastfeeding for 6 or more months appears to be protective against later overweight and obesity in this population of Australian children. The beneficial short-term health outcomes of breastfeeding for the infant are well recognised and this study provides further observational evidence of a potential long-term health outcome and additional justification for the continued support and promotion of breastfeeding to six months and beyond.

  18. Cyberbullying: The Discriminant Factors Among Cyberbullies, Cybervictims, and Cyberbully-Victims in a Czech Adolescent Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktar, Fatih; Machackova, Hana; Dedkova, Lenka; Cerna, Alena; Ševčíková, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Although the research on cyberbullying has increased dramatically in recent years, still little is known about how cyberbullying participant groups (i.e., cyberbullies, cybervictims, and cyberbully-victims) differ from one another. This study aims to discriminate between these groups at an individual and relational level by controlling for age and gender. Self-control, offline aggression, and self-esteem are analyzed as individual-level variables. Parental attachment and peer rejection are involved as relational-level variables. A total of 2,092 Czech adolescents aged 12 to 18 were enrolled from a random sample of 34 primary and secondary schools located in the South Moravian region of the Czech Republic. Discriminant function analyses indicated that the participant groups are discriminated by two functions. The first function increases the separation between cyberbullies and cyberbully-victims from cybervictims, indicating that cyberbullies and cyberbully-victims are similar to each other in terms of low self-control, offline aggression, and gender, and have higher scores on measures of low self-esteem and offline aggression. However, cyberbully-victims had the highest scores on these measures. The second function discriminates between all three groups, which indicates that those variables included in the second function (i.e., parental attachment, peer rejection, self-esteem, and age) distinguish all three involved groups.

  19. Early Weight Gain Predicts Outcome in Two Treatments for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, Daniel; Accurso, Erin C.; Lock, James; Agras, Stewart; Bryson, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Determine whether early weight gain predicts full remission at end-of-treatment (EOT) and follow-up in two different treatments for adolescent anorexia nervosa, and to track the rate of weight gain throughout treatment and follow-up. Method Participants were 121 adolescents with AN (mean age = 14.4 years, SD = 1.6), from a two-site (Chicago and Stanford) randomized controlled trial. Adolescents were randomly assigned to family-based treatment (FBT) (n=61) or individual adolescent supportive psychotherapy (AFT) (n=60). Treatment response was assessed using percent of expected body weight (EBW) and the global score on the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE). Full remission was defined as having achieved ≥95% EBW and within one standard deviation of the community norms of the EDE. Full remission was assessed at EOT as well as 12-month follow-up. Results Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that the earliest predictor of remission at EOT was a gain of 5.8 pounds (2.65 kg) by session 3 in FBT (AUC = .670; p=.043), and a gain of 7.1 pounds (3.20 kg) by session 4 in AFT (AUC=0.754, p=.014). Early weight gain did not predict remission at follow-up for either treatment. A survival analysis showed that weight was marginally superior in FBT as opposed to AFT (Wald chi-square=3.692, df=1, p=.055). Conclusion Adolescents with AN who receive either FBT or AFT, and show early weight gain, are likely to remit at EOT. However, FBT is superior to AFT in terms of weight gain throughout treatment and follow-up. PMID:24190844

  20. A typology of adolescent delinquency: sex differences and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalsma, Matthew C.; Lapsley, Daniel K.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper presents a test of Moffitt's theory (1990, 1993a) regarding offending trajectories as it applies to a population of adolescent offenders. This study is novel since few studies have empirically explored Moffitt's theory (1990, 1993a) with adolescent populations. METHOD: Data were collected retrospectively on 174 adolescents (101 males and 73 females), aged 13 to 18. Three groups of offenders were identified based on a two-step cluster analysis: well adjusted, internalizing and externalizing groups. RESULTS: Consistent with Moffitt's theory, a sub-sample of offenders (externalizing group) engaged in more problem behaviours than the other offending groups. Additionally, female offenders in the internalizing group evidenced more psychopathology than males in this offending group as well as females in the other offending groups. Offending rates, in terms of offending frequency and variety of criminal offences, were not distinguished between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide evidence for Moffitt's theory (1990, 1993) regarding trajectories in adolescent offending. This study also provides support for the theory developed by Silverthorn and Frick (1999) regarding female offending. This was particularly evident in the rates of psychopathology evidenced by a sub-sample of adolescent females in the internalizing group.

  1. Trajectories of change across outcomes in intensive treatment for adolescent panic disorder and agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Kaitlin P; Cooper-Vince, Christine E; Hardway, Christina L; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S

    2014-01-01

    Much remains to be learned about typical and individual growth trajectories across treatment for adolescent panic disorder with and without agoraphobia and about critical treatment points associated with key changes. The present study examined the rate and shape of change across an 8-day intensive cognitive behavioral therapy for adolescent panic disorder with and without agoraphobia (N = 56). Participants ranged in age from 12 to 17 (M = 15.14, SD = 1.70; 58.9% female, 78.6% Caucasian). Multilevel modeling evaluated within-treatment linear and nonlinear changes across three treatment outcomes: panic severity, fear, and avoidance. Overall panic severity showed linear change, decreasing throughout treatment. In contrast, fear and avoidance ratings both showed cubic change, peaking slightly at the first session of treatment, starting to decrease at the second session of treatment, and with large gains continuing then plateauing at the fourth session. Findings are considered with regard to the extent to which they may elucidate critical treatment components and sessions for adolescents with panic disorder with and without agoraphobia.

  2. Crave, Like, Eat: Determinants of Food Intake in a Sample of Children and Adolescents with a Wide Range in Body Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Johannes; Meule, Adrian; Reichenberger, Julia; Weghuber, Daniel; Ardelt-Gattinger, Elisabeth; Blechert, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous condition with obese individuals displaying different eating patterns. Growing evidence suggests that there is a subgroup of obese adults that is marked by frequent and intense food cravings and addiction-like consumption of high-calorie foods. Little is known, however, about such a subgroup of obese individuals in childhood and adolescence. In the present study, a sample of children and adolescents with a wide range in body mass was investigated and trait food craving, liking for and intake of high- and low-calorie foods was measured. One-hundred and forty-two children and adolescents (51.4% female, n = 73; Mage = 13.7 years, SD = 2.25; MBMI-SDS = 1.26, SD = 1.50) completed the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait, then viewed pictures of high- and low-calorie foods and rated their liking for them, and subsequently consumed some of these foods in a bogus taste test. Contrary to expectations, higher body mass was associated with lower consumption of high-calorie foods. However, there was an interaction between body mass and trait food craving when predicting food consumption: in obese participants, higher trait food craving was associated with higher consumption of high-calorie foods and this association was not found in normal-weight participants. The relationship between trait food craving and high-calorie food consumption within obese individuals was mediated by higher liking for high-calorie foods (but not by liking for low-calorie foods). Thus, similar to adults, a subgroup of obese children and adolescents – characterized by high trait food craving – seems to exist, calling for specific targeted treatment strategies.

  3. Crave, like, eat: determinants of food intake in a sample of children and adolescents with a wide range in body mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Hofmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is heterogeneous condition with obese individuals displaying different eating patterns. Growing evidence suggests that there is a subgroup of obese adults that is marked by frequent and intense food cravings and addiction-like consumption of high-calorie foods. Little is known, however, about such a subgroup of obese individuals in childhood and adolescence. In the present study, a sample of children and adolescents with a wide range in body mass was investigated and trait food craving, liking for and intake of high- and low-calorie foods was measured. One-hundred and forty-two children and adolescents (51.4% female, n = 73; Mage = 13.7 years, SD = 2.25; MBMI-SDS = 1.26, SD = 1.50 completed the Food Cravings Questionnaire - Trait, then viewed pictures of high- and low-calorie foods and rated their liking for them, and subsequently consumed some of these foods in a bogus taste test. Contrary to expectations, higher body mass was associated with lower consumption of high-calorie foods. However, there was an interaction between body mass and trait food craving when predicting food consumption: in obese participants, higher trait food craving was associated with higher consumption of high-calorie foods and this association was not found in normal-weight participants. The relationship between trait food craving and high-calorie food consumption within obese individuals was mediated by higher liking for high-calorie foods (but not by liking for low-calorie foods. Thus, similar to adults, a subgroup of obese children and adolescents - characterized by high trait food craving - seems to exist, calling for specific targeted treatment strategies.

  4. Crave, Like, Eat: Determinants of Food Intake in a Sample of Children and Adolescents with a Wide Range in Body Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Johannes; Meule, Adrian; Reichenberger, Julia; Weghuber, Daniel; Ardelt-Gattinger, Elisabeth; Blechert, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous condition with obese individuals displaying different eating patterns. Growing evidence suggests that there is a subgroup of obese adults that is marked by frequent and intense food cravings and addiction-like consumption of high-calorie foods. Little is known, however, about such a subgroup of obese individuals in childhood and adolescence. In the present study, a sample of children and adolescents with a wide range in body mass was investigated and trait food craving, liking for and intake of high- and low-calorie foods was measured. One-hundred and forty-two children and adolescents (51.4% female, n = 73; Mage = 13.7 years, SD = 2.25; MBMI-SDS = 1.26, SD = 1.50) completed the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait, then viewed pictures of high- and low-calorie foods and rated their liking for them, and subsequently consumed some of these foods in a bogus taste test. Contrary to expectations, higher body mass was associated with lower consumption of high-calorie foods. However, there was an interaction between body mass and trait food craving when predicting food consumption: in obese participants, higher trait food craving was associated with higher consumption of high-calorie foods and this association was not found in normal-weight participants. The relationship between trait food craving and high-calorie food consumption within obese individuals was mediated by higher liking for high-calorie foods (but not by liking for low-calorie foods). Thus, similar to adults, a subgroup of obese children and adolescents - characterized by high trait food craving - seems to exist, calling for specific targeted treatment strategies.

  5. Psychic Symptomatology as Predictor to Outcome of Treatment for Adolescent Drug Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Alfred S.; Terras, Arlene

    1996-01-01

    Study of 176 adolescent drug abusers found that greater psychopathology at pretreatment was not found to be related to less improvement in drug treatment. For the male subsample, greater paranoid trends predicted to less reduction in substance use/abuse. Borderline psychotic symptomatology predicted to more improvement. (RJM)

  6. The Effects of Single versus Mixed Gender Treatment for Adolescent Girls with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinski, Dara E.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Ross, J. Megan; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the social behavior of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in single and mixed gender treatment settings. We collected ratings of social behavior (i.e., prosocial peer interactions, assertiveness, self-management, compliance, physical aggression, relational aggression) during single and mixed…

  7. The views of young adults and their parents on hormone treatment for short stature in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser-van Balen, Hanneke; Geenen, Rinie; Looij, Janneke; Huisman, Jaap; Wit, Jan M.; Sinnema, Gerben

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To examine the view of young adults and their parents on growth hormone (GH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) treatment in adolescence for idiopathic short stature (ISS) or short stature born small for gestational age (SGA). Methods: Thirty young adults with ISS or SGA (18 tre

  8. Parents May Hold the Keys to Success in Immersion Treatment of Adolescent Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Katharine A.; Kirschenbaum, Daniel S.; Pecora, Kristina M.; Germann, Julie N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the potential impact of parents on the long-term results of an immersion program for the treatment of adolescent obesity. Teenagers participated in a 4- to 8-week therapeutic camp. Those who continued losing weight 8- to 12-months postcamp were identified as "Losers"; those who regained weight were considered…

  9. Using Mindfulness in the Treatment of Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Contributing Common Factor or a Primary Modality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Apsche, Jack A.; Blossom, Paige; Bayles, Corliss

    2013-01-01

    Although mindfulness has become a mainstream methodology in mental health treatment, it is a relatively new approach with adolescents, and perhaps especially youth with sexual behavior problems. Nevertheless, clinical experience and several empirical studies are available to show the effectiveness of a systematic mindfulness- based methodology for…

  10. Striving for Effectiveness in the Treatment of Adolescent Depression: Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Multisite Community Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, John F.; Wells, Karen C.

    2005-01-01

    The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) was designed to compare the relative and combined effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and fluoxetine, each of which had demonstrated efficacy in carefully controlled single-site studies. Models of CBT from these efficacy studies served as the foundation for the TADS…

  11. Suicidal Risk in Adolescent Residential Treatment: Being Female Is More Important than a Depression Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Danice L.; Jewell, Jeremy D.; Stevens, Amy L.; Crawford, Jessica D.; Thompson, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between gender and clinician diagnosis of a depressive disorder at intake on variables reflecting depression among adolescents in residential treatment. It was hypothesized that females diagnosed with a depressive disorder would have the highest scores on measures of suicide risk, the number of symptoms of a major…

  12. The effect of subchronic fluoxetine treatment on learning and memory in adolescent rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sass, Amdi; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2012-01-01

    Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors are increasingly used for the treatment of adolescents with behavioural disorders. However, the effect of this class of drugs during this sensitive period of brain development has not been extensively investigated. In this study we examine the effect of su...

  13. Minority Adolescents in Ethnically Diverse Schools: Perceptions of Equal Treatment Buffer Threat Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysu, Gülseli; Celeste, Laura; Brown, Rupert; Verschueren, Karine; Phalet, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Can perceptions of equal treatment buffer the negative effects of threat on the school success of minority students? Focusing on minority adolescents from Turkish and Moroccan heritage in Belgium (M[subscript age] = 14.5; N = 735 in 47 ethnically diverse schools), multilevel mediated moderation analyses showed: (a) perceived discrimination at…

  14. A Unified, Transdiagnostic Treatment for Adolescents with Chronic Pain and Comorbid Anxiety and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Laura B.; Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Seidman, Laura C.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain disorders represent a significant public health concern, particularly for children and adolescents. High rates of comorbid anxiety and unipolar mood disorders often complicate psychological interventions for chronic pain. Unified treatment approaches, based on emotion regulation skills, are applicable to a broad range of emotional…

  15. Approaches to improvement of treatment results of malignant tumors in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Rumyantsev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of clinical and biological features of most common malignant tumors in adolescents and young adults. The most effective pediatric and oncological treatment approaches to described diseases based on own experience are summarized.

  16. Markers of Marijuana Use Outcomes within Adolescent Substance Abuse Group Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Brett; Macgowan, Mark J.; Wagner, Eric F.; Amrhein, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Despite their popularity, little is known about what distinguishes effective from ineffective or even iatrogenic adolescent group interventions. Methods: Audio recordings and transcripts from 19, 8-10 session, school-based treatment groups comprised of 108, substance abusing 10- to 19-year olds were analyzed. "Group leader empathy" was…

  17. Treatment of Childhood and Adolescent Obesity: An Integrative Review of Recent Recommendations from Five Expert Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschenbaum, Daniel S.; Gierut, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare and contrast 5 sets of expert recommendations about the treatment of childhood and adolescent obesity. Method: We reviewed 5 sets of recent expert recommendations: 2007 health care organizations' four stage model, 2007 Canadian clinical practice guidelines, 2008 Endocrine Society recommendations, 2009 seven step model, and…

  18. Family-Based Treatment for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: A Promising Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Despite the fact that anorexia nervosa is a debilitating disorder with serious psychological and medical sequelae, few psychological treatments have been studied. Of these, interventions that involve the parents of the adolescent have proved to be most promising. This is especially true for those cases with a short duration of illness (less than 3…

  19. Changes of Pain Perception, Autonomic Function, and Endocrine Parameters during Treatment of Anorectic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Karl-Jurgen; Boettger, Silke; Wagner, Gerd; Wilsdorf, Christine; Gerhard, Uwe Jens; Boettger, Michael K.; Blanz, Bernhard; Sauer, Heinrich

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The underlying mechanisms of reduced pain perception in anorexia nervosa (AN) are unknown. To gain more insight into the pathology, the authors investigated pain perception, autonomic function, and endocrine parameters before and during successful treatment of adolescent AN patients. Method: Heat pain perception was assessed in 15…

  20. Escitalopram in the Treatment of Adolescent Depression: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Multisite Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, Graham J.; Ventura, Daniel; Korotzer, Andrew; Tourkodimitris, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that involves 312 male and female patients aged 12-17 reveal the effectiveness of escitalopram in the treatment of depressed adolescents. Eighty-three percent of the participants or 259 participants completed the 8 weeks therapy period.

  1. Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury: A cross-national study of community samples from Italy, the Netherlands and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giletta, M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Ciairano, S.; Prinstein, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined rates and correlates of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) across three non-clinical adolescent samples from different countries. Surveys were administered to 1862 adolescents (M (age) = 15.69, S.D. = 0.87) from Italy (n = 827), the Netherlands (n = 675), and United States (n = 360)

  2. Socioeconomic health inequalities among a nationally representative sample of Danish adolescents: the role of different types of social relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Lynch, J; Holstein, B

    2003-01-01

    40% increased odds for multiple physical symptoms among less advantaged girls, to 90% increased odds of multiple psychological symptoms for less advantaged boys. Relationships with friends or teachers showed small social class differences, while strong and consistent social class differences were......STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of different types of social relations in adolescent health inequalities. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. Measures included family social class, indices of social relations to parents, friends, teachers, and school. SETTING: Random sample of 55 schools...... in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Nationally representative sample of 5205 students from grades 5, 7, and 9. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self reported physical and psychological symptoms. RESULTS: Adolescents from families of lower socioeconomic position reported more physical and psychological symptoms. This ranged from...

  3. Evidence Base Update for Psychosocial Treatments for Children and Adolescents Exposed to Traumatic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Shannon; McLaughlin, Katie A; Kerns, Suzanne E U; Harrison, Julie P; Lambert, Hilary K; Briggs, Ernestine C; Cox, Julia Revillion; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa

    2016-10-19

    Child and adolescent trauma exposure is prevalent, with trauma exposure-related symptoms, including posttraumatic stress, depressive, and anxiety symptoms often causing substantial impairment. This article updates the evidence base on psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent trauma exposure completed for this journal by Silverman et al. (2008). For this review, we focus on 37 studies conducted during the seven years since the last review. Treatments are grouped by overall treatment family (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy), treatment modality (e.g., individual vs. group), and treatment participants (e.g., child only vs. child and parent). All studies were evaluated for methodological rigor according to Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology evidence-based treatment evaluation criteria (Southam-Gerow & Prinstein, 2014), with cumulative designations for level of support for each treatment family. Individual CBT with parent involvement, individual CBT, and group CBT were deemed well-established; group CBT with parent involvement and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) were deemed probably efficacious; individual integrated therapy for complex trauma and group mind-body skills were deemed possibly efficacious; individual client-centered play therapy, individual mind-body skills, and individual psychoanalysis were deemed experimental; and group creative expressive + CBT was deemed questionable efficacy. Advances in the evidence base, with comparisons to the state of the science at the time of the Silverman et al. (2008) review, are discussed. Finally, we present dissemination and implementation challenges and areas for future research.

  4. Validation of a subjective well-being inventory with youth and adolescents Argentinean, Mexican, and Brazilian Samples

    OpenAIRE

    del Pino Peña, Roberto; Almeida Da Silva Junior, Sergio Henrique; Aguiar de Souza, Marcos; Paris,Laura; Omar,Alicia

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to adapt the Well-Being Inventory of Nacpal & Shell for using with Latinamerican youth and adolescents. The conceptual, semantic and operational equivalence of inventory prototype version was analized. The final version was administered to a sample of 1,891 students (730 Mexicans, 664 Argentines and 497 Brazilians) who also filled a set of recognized instruments developed to explore resilience, coping, sense of humor, emotional intelligence and cultural values. The e...

  5. Is body shame a significant mediator of the relationship between mindfulness skills and the quality of life of treatment-seeking children and adolescents with overweight and obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Helena; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to examine (a) whether mindfulness skills were associated with higher quality of life through lower body shame for treatment-seeking children/adolescents with overweight and obesity and (b) whether this indirect effect was moderated by children/adolescents' age and gender. The sample included 153 children/adolescents with overweight/obesity followed in individual nutrition consultations. Participants completed self-report measures of mindfulness, body shame, and quality of life. Moderated mediation analyses showed that higher levels of mindfulness were associated with better perceived quality of life through lower body shame, but only among girls. For boys, higher levels of body shame did not translate into a poorer perception of quality of life, and the indirect effect of mindfulness on quality of life via lower body shame was not significant. These results suggest that body shame is an important mechanism to explain why mindfulness may help girls with overweight/obesity perceive a better quality of life.

  6. Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Adolescent and Young Adult Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guldane Cengiz Seval

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this review were to discuss standard and investigational treatment strategies for adolescent and young adult with acute myeloid leukemia, excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML in adolescent and young adult patients (AYAs may need a different type of therapy than those currently used in children and older patients. As soon as AML is diagnosed, AYA patient should be offered to participate in well-designed clinical trials. The standard treatment approach for AYAs with AML is remission induction chemotherapy with an anthracycline/cytarabine combination, followed by either consolidation chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation, depending on the ability of the patient to tolerate intensive treatment and cytogenetic features. Presently, continuing progress of novel drugs targeting specific pathways in acute leukemia may bring AML treatment into a new era.

  7. Problematic internet use and problematic online gaming are not the same: findings from a large nationally representative adolescent sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, Orsolya; Griffiths, Mark D; Urbán, Róbert; Farkas, Judit; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2014-12-01

    There is an ongoing debate in the literature whether problematic Internet use (PIU) and problematic online gaming (POG) are two distinct conceptual and nosological entities or whether they are the same. The present study contributes to this question by examining the interrelationship and the overlap between PIU and POG in terms of sex, school achievement, time spent using the Internet and/or online gaming, psychological well-being, and preferred online activities. Questionnaires assessing these variables were administered to a nationally representative sample of adolescent gamers (N=2,073; Mage=16.4 years, SD=0.87; 68.4% male). Data showed that Internet use was a common activity among adolescents, while online gaming was engaged in by a considerably smaller group. Similarly, more adolescents met the criteria for PIU than for POG, and a small group of adolescents showed symptoms of both problem behaviors. The most notable difference between the two problem behaviors was in terms of sex. POG was much more strongly associated with being male. Self-esteem had low effect sizes on both behaviors, while depressive symptoms were associated with both PIU and POG, affecting PIU slightly more. In terms of preferred online activities, PIU was positively associated with online gaming, online chatting, and social networking, while POG was only associated with online gaming. Based on our findings, POG appears to be a conceptually different behavior from PIU, and therefore the data support the notion that Internet Addiction Disorder and Internet Gaming Disorder are separate nosological entities.

  8. Qualitative Treatment-Subgroup Interactions in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Treatments for Adolescents with ADHD: Exploring What Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment Works for Whom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Prins, Pier J. M.; Van Mechelen, Iven; Van der Oord, Saskia

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study explored qualitative treatment-subgroup interactions within data of a RCT with two cognitive behavioral treatments (CBT) for adolescents with ADHD: a planning-focused (PML) and a solution-focused CBT (SFT). Qualitative interactions imply that which treatment is best differs across subgroups of patients, and are therefore most relevant for personalized medicine. Methods Adolescents with ADHD (N = 159) received either PML or SFT. Pre-, post- and three-month follow-up data were gathered on parent-rated ADHD symptoms and planning problems. Pretreatment characteristics were explored as potential qualitative moderators of pretest to follow-up treatment effects, using an innovative analyses technique (QUINT; Dusseldorp & Van Mechelen, 2014). In addition, qualitative treatment-subgroup interactions for the therapeutic changes from pre- to posttest and from post- to follow-up test were investigated. Results For the entire time span from pretest to follow-up only a quantitative interaction was found, while from posttest to follow-up qualitative interactions were found: Adolescents with less depressive symptoms but more anxiety symptoms showed more improvement when receiving PML than SFT, while for other adolescents the effects of PML and SFT were comparable. Discussion Whereas subgroups in both treatments followed different trajectories, no subgroup was found for which SFT outperformed PML in terms of the global change in symptoms from pretest to three months after treatment. This implies that, based on this exploratory study, there is no need for personalized treatment allocation with regard to the CBTs under study for adolescents with ADHD. However, for a subgroup with comorbid anxiety symptoms but low depression PML clearly appears the treatment of preference. Trial Registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR2142 PMID:26977602

  9. Importance of balanced diet and physical activity during and after cancer treatment in adolescent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnes MJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Margaux J Barnes,1 Wendy Demark-Wahnefried21Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 2University of Alabama at Birmingham Comprehensive Cancer Center, Birmingham, Alabama, USAAbstract: Adolescents diagnosed with cancer are at increased risk for current and future health problems and premature death. As such, it is important to foster the development of health-promoting behaviors that may ameliorate some of this risk. Specific attention has been given to diet and physical activity, as these are behaviors that can be directly controlled and modified by the survivor. Despite the importance of adequate nutrition and physical activity, a large proportion of adolescents with a history of cancer do not meet recommended guidelines for these health behaviors. The current review summarizes the beneficial effects of diet and physical activity in adolescent cancer patients both during and after treatment, evaluates interventions that have been developed to address these behaviors, and provides recommendations for future strategies on how to improve these behaviors in this population. A structured literature review identified ten empirical articles examining diet and/or physical activity interventions in adolescents with a history of cancer. While several interventions aimed at increasing diet and physical activity in this population have been successful, more research is needed to evaluate long-term maintenance of health behaviors, as well as the impact these behavioral changes have on adolescents as they continue into adulthood. Future interventions should incorporate key elements of adolescent development including individualized and specific intervention components and the incorporation of both peer and family support to increase saliency and long-term commitment.Keywords: oncology, adolescence, health-promoting behaviors

  10. Yoga for Children and Adolescents After Completing Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Mary C; Gilchrist, Laura; Foster, Laurie; Langevin, Mary; Lee, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer may experience persistent symptoms, including fatigue, sleep disturbance, and balance impairment. Yoga is a complementary therapy that improves fatigue, sleep, and quality of life in adult cancer survivors. Using a one group, repeated measures design, we evaluated the feasibility of a yoga program and assessed if cancer survivor participants ages 10 to 17 years (n = 13) had significantly less fatigue and anxiety, and better balance and sleep, after a 6-week yoga intervention compared with a 6-week pre-intervention wait period. Study recruitment was challenging with a 32% enrollment rate; yoga attendance was 90%. None of the scores for anxiety, fatigue, sleep, and balance had significant changes during the wait period. After the 6-week yoga program, children (n = 7) had a significant decrease in anxiety score (P = .04) while adolescent scores (n = 7) showed a decreasing trend (P = .10). Scores for fatigue, sleep, and balance remained stable post-intervention. Fatigue and balance scores were below norms for health children/adolescents while sleep and anxiety scores were similar to healthy peers.

  11. Interpretation Bias Modification for Youth and their Parents: A Novel Treatment for Early Adolescent Social Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Reuland, Meg M.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety is the most prevalent anxiety disorder of late adolescence, yet current treatments reach only a minority of youth with the disorder. Effective and easy-to-disseminate treatments are needed. This study pilot tested the efficacy of a novel, online cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) intervention for socially anxious youth and their parents. The CBM-I intervention targeted cognitive biases associated with early adolescents’ maladaptive beliefs regarding social s...

  12. Treatment-resistant depression in adolescents: is the addition of cognitive behavioral therapy of benefit?

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Sarah E Hetrick1, Georgina R Cox1, Sally N Merry21Orygen Youth Health Research Centre, Centre for Youth Mental Health, Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; 2Werry Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Department of Psychological Medicine, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandBackground: Many young people with major depression fail first-line treatments. Treatment resistant depression has various definitions in the literature but typically assumes nonrespons...

  13. Chronic care treatment of obese children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens-Christian; Gamborg, Michael; Bille, Dorthe S

    2011-01-01

    Clinically-relevant protocols for the treatment of childhood obesity are lacking. This study report results for a clinic-based structured treatment program for chronic childhood obesity.......Clinically-relevant protocols for the treatment of childhood obesity are lacking. This study report results for a clinic-based structured treatment program for chronic childhood obesity....

  14. The Relationship between Motor Skills, Perceived Social Support, and Internalizing Problems in a Community Adolescent Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Oreste Mancini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills has an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. Methods: This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12-16 years. Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other, depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables.Results: Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required.

  15. Orthodontic Treatment Need and Complexity among Nigerian Adolescents in Rivers State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfleda Angelina Aikins

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The assessment of orthodontic treatment need and complexity are necessary for informed planning of orthodontic services. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess these parameters using the Index of Complexity, Outcome, and Need (ICON in a Nigerian adolescent population in a region where orthodontic services are just being established. Methods. Six hundred and twelve randomly selected Nigerian adolescents aged 12 to 18 years were examined using the ICON in their school compounds. Descriptive statistics were employed in the data analysis. Results. Out of a total of 38.1% of the population found to need orthodontic treatment, there were more males and older adolescents. The overall mean ICON score for the population was 39.7±25.3 SD with males having statistically higher mean ICON score. The grades of complexity of the population were 21.6% for very difficult and difficult, 7.5% moderate, and 70.9% mild/easy. Conclusions. Although just over a third of the adolescents were found to have a need for treatment, about a quarter of them were found to have difficult and very difficult complexity grades indicating a need for specialist care. The authors recommend the training of more specialist orthodontists in this region.

  16. Interpretation bias modification for youth and their parents: a novel treatment for early adolescent social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuland, Meg M; Teachman, Bethany A

    2014-12-01

    Social anxiety is the most prevalent anxiety disorder of late adolescence, yet current treatments reach only a minority of youth with the disorder. Effective and easy-to-disseminate treatments are needed. This study pilot tested the efficacy of a novel, online cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) intervention for socially anxious youth and their parents. The CBM-I intervention targeted cognitive biases associated with early adolescents' maladaptive beliefs regarding social situations, and with parents' intrusive behavior, both of which have been theoretically linked with the maintenance of social anxiety in youth. To investigate the efficacy of intervening with parents and/or children, clinically diagnosed early adolescents (ages 10-15; N=18) and their mothers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: the first targeted early adolescents' cognitive biases related to social anxiety (Child-only condition); the second targeted parents' biases associated with intrusive behavior (Parent-only condition); and the third targeted both youth and parents' biases in tandem (Combo condition). The use of a multiple baseline design allowed for the efficient assessment of causal links between the intervention and reduction in social anxiety symptoms in youth. Results provided converging evidence indicating modest support for the efficacy of CBM-I, with no reliable differences across conditions. Taken together, results suggest that online CBM-I with anxious youth and/or their parents holds promise as an effective and easily administered component of treatment for child social anxiety that deserves further evaluation in a larger trial.

  17. The Moderating Effect of State Anger on Treatment Outcome in Female Adolescents With PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczkurkin, Antonia N; Asnaani, Anu; Zhong, Jody; Foa, Edna B

    2016-08-01

    Trauma experienced in childhood and adolescence negatively affects the development of adaptive regulation of emotions and is associated with greater symptoms of anger. Prior research has suggested that high levels of anger may impede the outcome of treatment in adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study investigated whether high levels of anger resulted in poorer treatment outcomes in adolescent girls with PTSD. Participants included 61 female adolescent survivors of sexual abuse or assault who were randomized to either prolonged exposure for adolescents (PE-A) or client-centered therapy (CCT) for traumatized children for 8-14 weekly sessions. Participants were followed for 12 months posttreatment. High levels of state anger at baseline were associated with less improvement in PTSD symptoms in the CCT group than the PE-A group (d = 0.62). The moderating effects of state anger on improvement in PTSD symptoms was significant with emotion regulation difficulties, which may underlie anger symptoms (d = 0.58) in the model. The results of this study suggessted that high state anger was less of an impediment to treatment of PTSD for those receiving PE-A than those receiving less differentiated approaches such as CCT.

  18. Father Involvement, Dating Violence, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among a National Sample of Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T; Quinn, Camille R; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman's life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection.

  19. Early signaling, referral, and treatment of adolescent chronic pain: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voerman Jessica S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic pain is prevalent among young people and negatively influences their quality of life. Furthermore, chronic pain in adolescence may persist into adulthood. Therefore, it is important early on to promote the self-management skills of adolescents with chronic pain by improving signaling, referral, and treatment of these youngsters. In this study protocol we describe the designs of two complementary studies: a signaling study and an intervention study. Methods and design The signaling study evaluates the Pain Barometer, a self-assessed signaling instrument for chronic pain in adolescents. To evaluate the feasibility of the Pain Barometer, the experiences of youth-health care nurses will be evaluated in semi-structured interviews. Also, we will explore the frequencies of referral per health-care provider. The intervention study evaluates Move It Now, a guided self-help intervention via the Internet for teenagers with chronic pain. This intervention uses cognitive behavioural techniques, including relaxation exercises and positive thinking. The objective of the intervention is to improve the ability of adolescents to cope with pain. The efficacy of Move It Now will be examined in a randomized controlled trial, in which 60 adolescents will be randomly assigned to an experimental condition or a waiting list control condition. Discussion If the Pain Barometer is proven to be feasible and Move It Now appears to be efficacious, a health care pathway can be created to provide the best tailored treatment promptly to adolescents with chronic pain. Move It Now can be easily implemented throughout the Netherlands, as the intervention is Internet based. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR1926

  20. Mental Health Service and Drug Treatment Utilization: Adolescents with Substance Use/Mental Disorders and Dual Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tyrone C.; Lo, Celia C.

    2010-01-01

    This research is a secondary data analysis of the impact of adolescents' mental/substance-use disorders and dual diagnosis on their utilization of drug treatment and mental health services. By analyzing the same teenagers who participated in the NIMH Methods for the Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders (MECA) study, logistic…

  1. Suicide Attempts and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents: Findings from the TORDIA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Porta, Giovanna; Spirito, Anthony; Emslie, Graham; Clarke, Greg; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Vitiello, Benedetto; Keller, Martin; Birmaher, Boris; McCracken, James; Mayes, Taryn; Berk, Michelle; Brent, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical and prognostic significance of suicide attempts (SAs) and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents with treatment-resistant depression. Method: Depressed adolescents who did not improve with an adequate SSRI trial (N = 334) were randomized to a medication switch (SSRI or venlafaxine), with or without…

  2. Health and Nutrition Literacy and Adherence to Treatment in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults With Chronic Kidney Disease and Hypertension, North Carolina, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Nikita; Ferris, Maria; Rak, Eniko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adherence to treatment and dietary restrictions is important for health outcomes of patients with chronic/end-stage kidney disease and hypertension. The relationship of adherence with nutritional and health literacy in children, adolescents, and young adults is not well understood. The current study examined the relationship of health literacy, nutrition knowledge, nutrition knowledge–behavior concordance, and medication adherence in a sample of children and young people with chr...

  3. Toxoplasmosis Titers and past Suicide Attempts Among Older Adolescents Initiating SSRI Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coryell, William; Yolken, Robert; Butcher, Brandon; Burns, Trudy; Dindo, Lilian; Schlechte, Janet; Calarge, Chadi

    2016-01-01

    Latent infection with toxoplasmosis is a prevalent condition that has been linked in animal studies to high-risk behaviors, and in humans, to suicide and suicide attempts. This analysis investigated a relationship between suicide attempt history and toxoplasmosis titers in a group of older adolescents who had recently begun treatment with an SSRI. Of 108 participants, 17 (15.7 %) had a lifetime history of at least one suicide attempt. All were given structured and unstructured diagnostic interviews and provided blood samples. Two individuals (11.9%) with a past suicide attempt, and two (2.1%) without this history, had toxoplasmosis titers ≥ 10 IU/ml (p = 0.166). Those with a past suicide attempt had mean toxoplasmosis titers that were significantly different (p = 0.018) from those of patients who lacked this history. An ROC analysis suggested a lower optimal threshold for distinguishing patients with and without suicide attempts (3.6 IU/ml) than that customarily used to identify seropositivity. Toxoplasmosis titers may quantify a proneness to suicidal behavior in younger individuals being treated with antidepressants.

  4. Clinicians' views on parental involvement in the treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, Debbie; Williams, Lauren T; Wood, Cath

    2016-01-01

    A questionnaire and in-depth interviews with 20 allied health clinicians generated data on key aspects of family-based treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa that enhance recovery, processes that engage parents in treatment, and how and why clinicians modify or adapt the manualized Maudsley Family Based Treatment model. Findings indicate that clinicians support key principles in the Maudsley model, but that the approach is not implemented in the full, manualized form. Rather, aspects are integrated with clinicians' own clinical judgements based on assessment of the needs and capacities of families, cultural appropriateness, impact on family dynamics, and gains during early treatment.

  5. Tibia Shaft Fractures in Adolescents: How and When Can They be Managed Successfully With Cast Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Christine A

    2016-06-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of operative treatment in adolescent tibia fractures, casting remains a viable first-line treatment. Because the selection bias in published reports does not allow direct comparison between casting and flexible nail treatment of closed pediatric tibia fractures, it is unclear whether flexible nailing offers any advantages over casting. This overview discusses parameters of acceptable alignment, indications, techniques for successful reduction and casting, subsequent inpatient and outpatient management including wedging of casted tibia fractures, expected outcomes, and comparison of casting with flexible nailing. As with any orthopaedic procedure, careful attention to patient selection, indications, and detail facilitates successful cast treatment in this older pediatric population.

  6. The safe and effective use of methylphenidate in the psychiatric treatment of an adolescent with Epidermolysis Bullosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozalp Ekinci

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis Bullosa is a group of inherited dermatological disorder with severe clinical symptoms. Children and adolescents with epidermolysis bullosa have been reported to experience psychosocial problems in addition to the symptoms associated with epidermolysis bullosa. Although children and adolescents with epidermolysis bullosa commonly have psychiatric symptoms, limited research has been conducted on the psychiatric treatment options. In this case report, psychiatric treatment and the safe and effective use of methylphenidate in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in an adolescent with epidermolysis bullosa will be discussed. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 487-491

  7. [Asperger syndrome in adolescence: The problem and appropriate treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Keizo

    2007-03-01

    I have described the corresponding method for bullying, independence and interpersonal relationships of company/opposite sex, thinking disorders caused by suffering damage or victimization and withdrawal and violence in the family among the problems in and in response to Asperger syndrome in adolescent cases. Psychotherapy is used for bullying and interpersonal relationship problems. Cognitive therapy and protective correspondence are more effective in bullying than the exposure method. It seems to be more effective to teach and instruct the corresponding principle as well as supportive response because interpersonal relationships are likely to involve failures. Pharmacological therapy was valid in feelings of paranoia and violence. Since the disorder has been recently conceptualized in pervasive developmental disorder, the scope of the subject has increased whereas Asperger syndrome used to be diagnosed in compliance with its classic examples. Therefore, it needs to clarify diagnostic examples based on new concepts, accumulate subject examples and verify the corresponding method with evidence.

  8. [Review of psychopharmacological treatments in adolescents and adults with autistic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadli, A; Gonnier, V; Aussilloux, C

    2002-01-01

    Autism is an early developmental disorder. It leads to severe and durable disturbances. Given this problem, no treatment can be excluded a priori. Thus, many approaches are used to deal with autistic disorders. In France, pharmacological treatments are, for instance, largely and mostly used in adults. In the USA, these treatments concern 50% of persons with autism of any age. Nevertheless, they are rarely based on controlled studies. At the present, however, prescriptions and expected effects appear to be hard to localize. Furthermore, only few controlled studies validate their use. Aim - We offer a review of studies about medical treatments used in adolescents and adults with autism. They are classified in 3 categories: the first (category I) includes drugs used for their neurochemical effects focusing on autistic signs. The second (category II) covers drugs used for treatment of behavioural disorders frequently associated with autism. The third (category III) corresponds to a wide range of drugs or vitamins for wich only few case studies exist reporting irregular positive effects. The main hypothesis of this review is that autism involves a dysfunction of the neuromediation systems. This hypothesis opens new perspectives in the research of medical treatments in autism by focusing on molecules, which are supposed to have an effect on neuromediation systems. Method - Our review is based on studies, which have been published during the past twenty years. For many studies, data are limited to adolescents and adults. So we expanded our review to data available in children. The data bases that we have used are medline and psyclit. Keywords have been chosen according to: pharmacological considerations (psychotropic, psychoactive drugs, psychopharmacology) and clinical symptoms (autism, automutilations, aggressive behavior, and hyperactivity). Hypothesis of a dysfunction in the neuromediation systems in autism - Many studies exist about biochemical abnormalities in

  9. Pharmacological Treatment of Obesity in Children and Adolescents: Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Iughetti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing in children and adolescents worldwide raising the question on the approach to this condition because of the potential morbidity, mortality, and economic tolls. Dietetic and behavioral treatments alone have only limited success; consequently, discussion on strategies for treating childhood and adolescent obesity has been promoted. Considering that our knowledge on the physiological systems regulating food intake and body weight is considerably increased, many studies have underlined the scientific and clinical relevance of potential treatments based on management of peripheral or central neuropeptides signals by drugs. In this paper, we analyze the data on the currently approved obesity pharmacological treatment suggesting the new potential drugs.

  10. Outcome of heroin-dependent adolescents presenting for opiate substitution treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smyth, Bobby P

    2012-01-01

    Because the outcome of methadone and buprenorphine substitution treatment in adolescents is unclear, we completed a retrospective cohort study of 100 consecutive heroin-dependent adolescents who sought these treatments over an 8-year recruitment period. The participants\\' average age was 16.6 years, and 54 were female. Half of the patient group remained in treatment for over 1 year. Among those still in treatment at 12 months, 39% demonstrated abstinence from heroin. The final route of departure from the treatment program was via planned detox for 22%, dropout for 32%, and imprisonment for 8%. The remaining 39% were transferred elsewhere for ongoing opiate substitution treatment after a median period of 23 months of treatment. Males were more likely to exit via imprisonment (p < .05), but other outcomes were not predicted by gender. There were no deaths during treatment among these 100 patients who had a cumulative period of 129 person years at risk. Our findings suggest that this treatment delivers reductions in heroin use and that one fifth of patients will exit treatment following detox completion within a 1- to 2-year time frame.

  11. Psychometric properties and Confirmatory structure of the Strengths and difficulties questionnaire in a sample of adolescents in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpa, Onoja M; Afolabi, Rotimi F; Fowobaje, Kayode R

    Though the SDQ has been used in selected studies in Nigeria, its theoretical structure has not been fully and appropriately investigated in the setting. The present study employs Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to investigate the theoretical structure of the self-reported version of the SDQ in a sample of adolescents in Benue state, Nigeria. A total of 1,244 adolescents from different categories of secondary schools in Makurdi and Vandekya Local government areas of Benue state participated in the study. Preliminary data analyses were performed using descriptive statistics while the theoretical structure of the SDQ was assessed using EFA and CFA. Model fits were assessed using Chi-square test and other fit indices at 5% significance level. Participants were 14.19±2.45 (Vandekya) and 14.19±2.45 (Makurdi) years old. Results of the EFA and CFA revealed a 3-factor oblique model as the best model for the sample of adolescents studied (χ(2)/df =2.20, p<0.001) with all fit indices yielding better results. A correlated 3-factor model fits the present data better than the 5-factor theoretical model of the SDQ. The use of the original 5-factor model of the SDQ in the present setting should be interpreted with caution.

  12. Intensive Treatment of Specific Phobias in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thompson E., III; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Ost, Lars-Goran

    2009-01-01

    One-session treatment (OST), a variant of cognitive-behavioral therapy, combines graduated in vivo exposure, participant modeling, reinforcement, psychoeducation, cognitive challenges, and skills training in an intensive treatment model. Treatment is maximized to one 3-hour session. In this paper, we review the application of OST for specific…

  13. PERCEPTION OF Er-YAG LASER DENTAL CARIES TREATMENT IN ADOLESCENTS - A CLINICAL EVALUATION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galia G. Zhegova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate adolescents’ acceptance and pain perception of Er-YAG laser preparation in comparison to conventional mechanical preparation. Material and methods: Forty four adolescents between the age of 16 and 18 years with bilateral matched pairs of carious permanent molars participated in this study. In each patient one of the 2 cavities was prepared conventionally, the other with the Er-YAG laser. All cavities were restored with light-cured composite resin following the application of acid etch and a bonding agent. The patients were instructed to rate pain (sensitivity during treatment according to visual analogue scale and to decide which method they would prefer for their future caries treatment. Results: The patients rated lower pain perception during laser treatment. It was found that 86.36 % of the adolescents indicated that they would prefer the Er:YAG laser preparation for further caries treatment. Conclusion: The application of the Er-YAG laser for carious tissue removal, compared to conventional mechanical preparation, is perceived as more comfortable and the adolescents prefer it for a future treatment.

  14. Suicidal ideation among adolescents with alcohol use disorders during treatment and aftercare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminer, Yifrah; Burleson, Joseph A; Goldston, David B; Burke, Rebecca H

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to assess the magnitude and course of suicidal ideation during outpatient treatment and aftercare for adolescents with alcohol use disorders (AUD). One hundred seventy-seven adolescents meeting eligibility criteria, including no past 30-day suicidal behavior, participated in 9 weeks of outpatient cognitive-behavioral group therapy. Treatment completers were randomized into: (1) No-Active, (2) In-Person, or (3) Telephone aftercare conditions for a period of 12 weeks. No specific intervention for suicidal behavior was provided during the study. The Suicide Ideation Questionnaire (SIQ-JR, Reynolds, 1988) was administered at baseline, end of treatment, and end of aftercare. The results are as follows, a higher baseline suicidal ideation was associated with higher retention at the end of treatment and through aftercare. The In-Person Aftercare condition showed a significant decrease in suicidal ideation, relative to the No-Active Aftercare condition. There was a trend for similarly reduced severity of suicidal ideation in the Telephone Aftercare condition. In conclusion, the type of aftercare and resulting decrease in AUD may play a role in the reduction in suicidal ideation. The mechanism of change by which suicidal ideation is reduced in adolescents in treatment for AUD needs to be further explored.

  15. Early detection of psychotic disorders in adolescents: specificity of basic symptoms in psychiatric patient samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, F; Koch, E; Möhler, E; Parzer, P; Brunner, R

    2002-01-01

    Based on the results of adult studies that have shown a subgroup of basic symptoms to have a predictive value for later schizophrenic disorder, a cross-sectional study on 36 schizophrenic and 75 nonschizophrenic adolescent psychiatric inpatients was performed to elucidate the specificity of prodromal signs in early age groups. The occurrence of any single basic symptom does not show schizophrenic specificity in adolescents, but the number of basic symptoms in the categories of the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms is increased in schizophrenic patients compared with subjects with other diagnoses. The interrelation between minus symptoms and cognitive symptoms exerts a higher amount of cognitive disturbances given a certain level of irritation in schizophrenic adolescents. With the help of odds ratios, the seven most discriminating cognitive items could be elucidated including perception, information processing and action tendency.

  16. Determinants of Multimethod Contraceptive Use in a Sample of Adolescent Women Diagnosed with Psychological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia L. Lang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Despite recommendations for concurrent use of contraceptives and condoms to prevent unintended pregnancy and STIs, multimethod contraceptive use among women is poor. This study examined individual-, interpersonal-, and environmental-level factors that predict multimethod use among sexually active adolescent women diagnosed with psychological disorders. Methods. This multisite study analyzed data from 288 sexually active adolescent women who provided sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral data related to birth control and condom use. Results. 34.7% of the participants reported multimethod use in the past three months. Controlling for empirically and theoretically relevant covariates, a multivariable logistic regression identified self-efficacy, multiple partners, pregnancy history, parental communication, parental norms about sex, and neighborhood cohesion as significant predictors of multimethod use. Conclusions. While continued targeted messages about multi-method contraceptive use are imperative at the individual level, an uptake in messages targeting interpersonal- and environmental-level factors such as adolescents' parents and the broader community is urgently needed.

  17. Clinical and neuropsychological assessment of attention and ADHD comorbidity in a sample of children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Regina Carvalho Machado da Costa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Children with epilepsy present significant problems concerning attention and comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Objective To determine the prevalence of attention complaints, ADHD diagnosis and attention profile in a sample of children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy. Method 36 children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy and 37 genre and age matched healthy controls underwent several procedures to diagnose their neuropsychological profile and comorbidity with ADHD. Results The prevalence of ADHD was higher in patients with epilepsy [χ2= 4.1, p = 0.043, 6 (16.7% vs 1 (2.7%], with worse results in attention related WISC items and factors in patients with epilepsy comparing to the controls, but not between patients with and without ADHD. Clinical characteristics did not influence those results. Conclusion This study found a greater prevalence of problems wih attention in pediatric patients with idiopathic epilepsy, but not a distinct profile between those with or without ADHD.

  18. Crack and Cocaine Use among Adolescents in Psychiatric Treatment: Associations with HIV Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolou-Shams, Marina; Ewing, Sarah W. Feldstein; Tarantino, Nicholas; Brown, Larry K.

    2011-01-01

    Crack and cocaine use among adults has been associated with co-occurring psychiatric disorders as well as other drug use and unprotected sex. However, this issue is relatively unstudied in adolescents. This study collected data from 282 adolescents (mean age=14.9 years) treated in intensive psychiatric treatment settings to understand the relationship between crack/cocaine use and HIV risk. Thirteen percent of youth reported ever using crack or cocaine. Use was not associated with age, gender, race/ethnicity or SES. After controlling for known factors that influence unprotected sex, the odds that those with a history of crack/cocaine use engaged in inconsistent condom use was six times greater than that for those youth who did not ever use. Thus, crack/cocaine use is prevalent even among younger adolescents with psychiatric disorders who are not in drug treatment. Its use is associated with high rates of sexual and other risk behaviors. A history of use should alert clinicians to a wide variety of possible behavioral risks. These results can also inform future adolescent HIV prevention intervention development. PMID:22224066

  19. Antiretroviral treatment, management challenges and outcomes in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison L Agwu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Three decades into the HIV/AIDS epidemic there is a growing cohort of perinatally HIV-infected adolescents globally. Their survival into adolescence and beyond represent one of the major successes in the battle against the disease that has claimed the lives of millions of children. This population is diverse and there are unique issues related to antiretroviral treatment and management. Drawing from the literature and experience, this paper discusses several broad areas related to antiretroviral management, including: 1 diverse presentation of HIV, (2 use of combination antiretroviral therapy including in the setting of co-morbidities and rapid growth and development, (3 challenges of cART, including nonadherence, resistance, and management of the highly treatment-experienced adolescent patient, (4 additional unique concerns and management issues related to PHIV-infected adolescents, including the consequences of longterm inflammation, risk of transmission, and transitions to adult care. In each section, the experience in both resource-rich and limited settings are discussed with the aim of highlighting the differences and importantly the similarities, to share lessons learnt and provide insight into the multi-faceted approaches that may be needed to address the challenges faced by this unique and resilient population.

  20. Antiretroviral treatment, management challenges and outcomes in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agwu, Allison L; Fairlie, Lee

    2013-06-18

    Three decades into the HIV/AIDS epidemic there is a growing cohort of perinatally HIV-infected adolescents globally. Their survival into adolescence and beyond represent one of the major successes in the battle against the disease that has claimed the lives of millions of children. This population is diverse and there are unique issues related to antiretroviral treatment and management. Drawing from the literature and experience, this paper discusses several broad areas related to antiretroviral management, including: 1) diverse presentation of HIV, (2) use of combination antiretroviral therapy including in the setting of co-morbidities and rapid growth and development, (3) challenges of cART, including nonadherence, resistance, and management of the highly treatment-experienced adolescent patient, (4) additional unique concerns and management issues related to PHIV-infected adolescents, including the consequences of longterm inflammation, risk of transmission, and transitions to adult care. In each section, the experience in both resource-rich and limited settings are discussed with the aim of highlighting the differences and importantly the similarities, to share lessons learnt and provide insight into the multi-faceted approaches that may be needed to address the challenges faced by this unique and resilient population.

  1. Efficacy and tolerability of fixed-combination acne treatment in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Linda Stein

    2013-03-01

    Acne is common among adolescents and can be difficult to manage. Providing an effective treatment method that offers an early onset of action and a favorable tolerability profile may lead to improved adherence, increased satisfaction, and improved clinical outcomes in this patient population. A post hoc analysis was conducted of 1755 adolescents (age range, 12 to BPO) 2.5% gel, CP 1.2%, BPO 2.5%, or vehicle once daily for 12 weeks. Significantly superior reductions in inflammatory, noninflammatory, and total lesion counts were observed in the CP 1.2%-BPO 2.5% gel group versus the other 3 groups (P BPO 2.5% gel was statistically superior to CP 1.2% (P = .004), BPO 2.5% (P = .031), and vehicle (P BPO 2.5% gel treatment as early as week 2, with 31.4% of participants reporting their skin was clear, almost clear, or showed marked improvement. Clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-BPO 2.5% gel was associated with a low incidence of treatment-related adverse events (AEs) and a favorable cutaneous tolerability profile. Clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-BPO 2.5% gel is an effective, safe, and well-tolerated treatment in adolescents with moderate to severe acne. The once-daily regimen, early signs of improvement, favorable cutaneous tolerability profile, and participant satisfaction may lead to increased adherence and improved clinical outcomes.

  2. Review of risperidone for the treatment of pediatric and adolescent bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Bishop

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey R Bishop1,2, Mani N Pavuluri21Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Pediatric Mood Disorders Program and Center for Cognitive Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Risperidone is a commonly used medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents. It has been studied as a monotherapy treatment in early onset schizophrenia and as both monotherapy and combination therapy for pediatric bipolar disorder. Studies to date indicate that risperidone is an effective treatment for positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and mania symptoms of bipolar disorder. In young patient populations, side effects such as weight gain, extrapyramidal side effects, and prolactin elevation require consideration when evaluating the risk benefit ratio for individual patients. Here we review published studies of risperidone for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents to provide practitioners with an overview of published data on the efficacy and safety of risperidone in these patient populations.Keywords: risperidone, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, children, adolescents

  3. Managing appearance changes resulting from cancer treatment: resilience in adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Melissa L; Harcourt, Diana; Rumsey, Nichola; Foot, Annabel

    2007-11-01

    Typically, adolescence is marked by cognitive and physical developments impacting on self-esteem, independence and sexual awareness, often resulting in increased appearance awareness and dissatisfaction. Adolescents with cancer have the additional burden of illness, treatments and resultant appearance changes. This study aimed to explore the impact of these changes on adolescents who have had cancer. In depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with six females between 14 and 19 years who had completed treatment within the previous two years, and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Concerns around an altered appearance were significant during treatment, serving as a constant reminder of 'difference' and a marker of illness. However, since treatment, participants expressed an apparent shift in views and expectations of their appearance, as well as the value placed on it -- expressing increased satisfaction with their own appearance and a decrease in its importance. While important to acknowledge the distress and challenges experienced by participants, results highlight the need for research and care to focus on positive experiences of patients, rather than simply maladjustment. Explanations for the findings are explored, including the temporary nature of many appearance changes and the life-threatening nature of cancer.

  4. Health-related quality of life in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after treatment: Short-term effects after brace or surgical treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bunge (Eveline); R.E. Juttmann (Rikard); M. de Kleuver (Marinus); F.C. van Biezen (Frans); H.J. de Koning (Harry); H.D. Been (Henk); L.N.J.E.M. Coene (Luc); H. Creemers (Huub); A.J. de Gruijter; A.A.J.M. Hazebroek-Kampschreur (Alice); P.H.J. Klop (Patrick); H.J.A. Kruls; P.J.M. van Loon (Piet); L.C.F. Luttmer; F. de Nies (Frank); J.E.H. Pruijs; L.W. van Rhijn (Lodewijk); M.P. Teeuwen (Marcel); P.A. Wiegersma (Auke)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractFor treatment of teenagers with progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in an early stage, two options are generally considered: treatment with a brace or observation followed by surgery if necessary. Many doctors and patients prefer conservative treatment (i.e. brace treatment) to s

  5. Detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus in urine samples from unvaccinated male and female adolescents in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena Rosanna; Panatto, Donatella; Martinelli, Marianna; Amicizia, Daniela; Zotti, Carla Maria; Martinese, Morena; Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara; Coppola, Rosa Cristina; Masia, Giuseppina; Meloni, Angelo; Castiglia, Paolo; Piana, Andrea; Gasparini, Roberto; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in adolescent girls in 2006 has focused virological surveillance on this age group. As few studies have evaluated HPV infections in young populations, further data are needed in order to improve and extend prophylactic policy and to monitor epidemiological changes. The present study aimed at evaluating overall and type-specific HPV prevalence in both female and male adolescents in Italy. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed on urine samples collected from 870 unvaccinated adolescents (369 females, 501 males, 11-18 years of age) in five cities in Italy. Following DNA extraction by means of a commercial kit (NucliSENS(®)-miniMAG(®), bioMérieux), the L1 gene fragment was PCR amplified and genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. HPV DNA was detected in 1.5% of all samples, and in 3% and 0.4% of samples from females and males, respectively. In approximately 70% of HPV DNA positive adolescents, the infection was due to a single genotype, with 88.9% of genotypes belonging to the HR-clade. The only two HPV-positive boys (14 and 18 years old) had HPV-70 genotype. Only one of the 11 HPV-infected girls was in the 11-14 age-group. HPV prevalence was 4.2% in girls aged 15-18 years and 60% of infections were due to vaccine types HPV-16 or HPV-6/-11. This is one of the few studies, the first conducted in Italy, on HPV infection in adolescents. Urine testing is the easier way of detecting HPV infection in younger populations. Our data revealed a very low HPV prevalence, and no infections were observed in the 12-year-old vaccine target population. The majority of infections were seen in females aged 15-18 years. Overall, more than 50% and 30% of the potentially persistent HPV infections detected in this group could have been prevented by the quadrivalent and the bivalent vaccines, respectively.

  6. Detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus in urine samples from unvaccinated male and female adolescents in Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bianchi

    Full Text Available The introduction of vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV in adolescent girls in 2006 has focused virological surveillance on this age group. As few studies have evaluated HPV infections in young populations, further data are needed in order to improve and extend prophylactic policy and to monitor epidemiological changes. The present study aimed at evaluating overall and type-specific HPV prevalence in both female and male adolescents in Italy. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed on urine samples collected from 870 unvaccinated adolescents (369 females, 501 males, 11-18 years of age in five cities in Italy. Following DNA extraction by means of a commercial kit (NucliSENS(®-miniMAG(®, bioMérieux, the L1 gene fragment was PCR amplified and genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. HPV DNA was detected in 1.5% of all samples, and in 3% and 0.4% of samples from females and males, respectively. In approximately 70% of HPV DNA positive adolescents, the infection was due to a single genotype, with 88.9% of genotypes belonging to the HR-clade. The only two HPV-positive boys (14 and 18 years old had HPV-70 genotype. Only one of the 11 HPV-infected girls was in the 11-14 age-group. HPV prevalence was 4.2% in girls aged 15-18 years and 60% of infections were due to vaccine types HPV-16 or HPV-6/-11. This is one of the few studies, the first conducted in Italy, on HPV infection in adolescents. Urine testing is the easier way of detecting HPV infection in younger populations. Our data revealed a very low HPV prevalence, and no infections were observed in the 12-year-old vaccine target population. The majority of infections were seen in females aged 15-18 years. Overall, more than 50% and 30% of the potentially persistent HPV infections detected in this group could have been prevented by the quadrivalent and the bivalent vaccines, respectively.

  7. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in a population-based sample of Norwegian children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Kolle, Elin; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The objective of the study was to describe the distribution of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and to evaluate the extent of clustering of CVD risk factors in Norwegian children and adolescents. Material and methods. A randomly selected cohort of 9-year-olds and 15-year...

  8. Predictors of Obesity in a US Sample of High School Adolescents with and without Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Mia A.; Trabulsi, Jillian C.; Axe, Michelle; Rimmer, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is a major public health concern. Children with disabilities have a higher prevalence of obesity. Objective: We examined factors associated with obesity within a cross-sectional study of US adolescents with and without disabilities. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Logistic…

  9. Relation between Exposure to and Consequences of Aggression: U.S. National Sample of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisak, Marie S.; Wichorek, Michele George; Tisak, John

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents, 12 to 18 years (N = 962), were asked how often they worried about, heard about, witnessed, were victimized by, and committed aggression at or near their schools. Social, moderate physical, and violent aggression were assessed. Females heard, worried, and witnessed more social aggression than males, but both were victims and/or…

  10. Adolescents' Physical Aggression toward Parents in a Clinic-Referred Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxer, Paul; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Mahoney, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Physical aggression directed toward parents by their adolescents is a serious issue both practically and scientifically. In contrast to the extensive literature on other forms of aggression within families (e.g., marital violence, child physical abuse) as well as youth aggression construed broadly, a major gap exists in our knowledge of…

  11. Condom and Other Contraceptive Use among a Random Sample of Female Adolescents: A Snapshot in Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimley, Diane M.; Lee, Patricia A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the sexual practices of 235 females aged 15 to 19 years and their readiness to use specific contraceptive methods. Results indicate that, despite the availability of newer contraceptive methods, most sexually active adolescents were least resistant to using condoms, perceiving the male condom as an acceptable preventative both for…

  12. Correlations between the BDI and CES-D in a Sample of Adolescent Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Holly; Field, Tiffany; Prodromidis, Margarita; Scafidi, Frank

    1998-01-01

    The adequacy of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) as screening instruments for adolescent depression is examined. Both are correlated with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, a clinical measure. BDI correlates more highly with Major Depression subscale, CES-D to Dysthymia…

  13. Social Development from Infancy to Adolescence: Longitudinal and Concurrent Factors in an Adoption Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffari-Bimmel, Nicole; Juffer, Femmie; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Mooijaart, Ab

    2006-01-01

    In the present longitudinal study, early adopted children (N = 160) were followed from infancy to adolescence to assess the influence of previous and concurrent factors on the children's social development. This study allowed for more conclusive evidence of the influence of early and concurrent rearing experiences and temperament on…

  14. Suicidal Ideation, Depression, and Conduct Disorder in a Sample of Adolescent and Young Adult Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Julie; Gillespie, Nathan A.; Maes, Hermine; Eaves, Lindon; Silberg, Judy L.

    2012-01-01

    The co-occurrence of suicidal ideation, depression, and conduct disturbance is likely explained in part by correlated genetic and environmental risk factors. Little is known about the specific nature of these associations. Structured interviews on 2,814 twins from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD) and Young…

  15. Predictors of "New Economy" Career Orientation in an Australian Sample of Late Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Peter; Macpherson, Jennifer; Hood, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The authors surveyed 207 late adolescents on measures of new economy career orientation (protean and boundaryless career orientation), career adaptability (planning, self-exploration, environmental exploration, decision making, and self-regulation), disposition (proactive disposition), and environmental support (social support) and hypothesized…

  16. Demographical and psychological determinants of depression, among a sample of iranian male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlollah Ghofranipour

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Self-efficacy and perceived stress can be related to depression but the role of stress and self-efficacy in the etiology and forming of depression in adolescent are discussed. Therefore, more studies for approval of these associations should be considered.

  17. DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 eating disorders in adolescents: prevalence, stability, and psychosocial correlates in a population-based sample of male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Karina L; Byrne, Susan M; Oddy, Wendy H; Crosby, Ross D

    2013-08-01

    The current study aimed to compare the prevalence, stability, and psychosocial correlates of DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 eating disorders, in a population-based sample of male and female adolescents followed prospectively from 14 to 20 years of age. Participants (N = 1,383; 49% male) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a prospective, population-based cohort study that has followed participants from prebirth to young adulthood. Detailed self-report questionnaires were used to assess eating disorder symptoms when participants were aged 14, 17, and 20 years. Comparisons between DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 were conducted using McNemar chi-square tests and Fisher's exact tests. Changes in eating disorder prevalence over time were considered using generalized estimating equations. Eating disorder prevalence rates were significantly greater when using DSM-5 than DSM-IV-TR criteria, at all time points for females and at age 17 only for males. "Unspecified"/"other" eating disorder diagnoses were significantly less common when applying DSM-5 than DSM-IV-TR criteria, but still formed 15% to 30% of the DSM-5 cases. Diagnostic stability was low for all disorders, and DSM-5 binge eating disorder or purging disorder in early adolescence predicted DSM-5 bulimia nervosa in later adolescence. Cross-over from binge eating disorder to bulimia nervosa was particularly high. Regardless of the diagnostic classification system used, all eating disorder diagnoses were associated with depressive symptoms and poor mental health quality of life. These results provide further support for the clinical utility of DSM-5 eating disorder criteria, and for the significance of binge eating disorder and purging disorder.

  18. Neuropsychiatric Manifestation of Hashimoto's Encephalopathy in an Adolescent and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransing, Ramdas Sarjerao; Mishra, Kshirod Kumar; Sarkar, Dipayan

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto's encephalopathy is usually underdiagnosed and untreated because of complex neuropsychiatric manifestation. We report a case of an adolescent female with Hashimoto's encephalopathy who responded well to a combination of aspirin and levothyroxine. A 16-year-old girl presented at psychiatric emergency services with a depressive episode, menstrual irregularities, and a 5-month past history of thyroid swelling. On clinical examination, she was in a euthyroid state with insignificant neurological history. However, her previous investigation revealed a hypothyroid state. Her magnetic resonance imaging findings demonstrated infarcts in the bilateral gangliocapsular region and left frontal periventricular deep white matter lesion. Ultrasonography of the thyroid and fine needle aspiration cytology confirmed lymphocytic thyroiditis. Anti-thyroid peroxidase (289 IU/ml) antibody titer was elevated (289 IU/mL). Her depressive symptoms responded well to antidepressants, mood stabilizers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and levothyroxine. She remained in the euthyroid state and then in the euthymic state for 3 years. Hashimoto's encephalopathy is steroid-responsive encephalopathy. Most researchers have observed a dramatic response to steroids with or without levothyroxine. A clinician may consider aspirin as an alternative to a steroid in long-term management to avoid steroid-related side effects and contraindications.

  19. Neuropsychiatric manifestation of Hashimoto's encephalopathy in an adolescent and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramdas Sarjerao Ransing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hashimoto's encephalopathy is usually underdiagnosed and untreated because of complex neuropsychiatric manifestation. We report a case of an adolescent female with Hashimoto's encephalopathy who responded well to a combination of aspirin and levothyroxine. A 16-year-old girl presented at psychiatric emergency services with a depressive episode, menstrual irregularities, and a 5-month past history of thyroid swelling. On clinical examination, she was in a euthyroid state with insignificant neurological history. However, her previous investigation revealed a hypothyroid state. Her magnetic resonance imaging findings demonstrated infarcts in the bilateral gangliocapsular region and left frontal periventricular deep white matter lesion. Ultrasonography of the thyroid and fine needle aspiration cytology confirmed lymphocytic thyroiditis. Anti-thyroid peroxidase (289 IU/ml antibody titer was elevated (289 IU/mL. Her depressive symptoms responded well to antidepressants, mood stabilizers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and levothyroxine. She remained in the euthyroid state and then in the euthymic state for 3 years. Hashimoto's encephalopathy is steroid-responsive encephalopathy. Most researchers have observed a dramatic response to steroids with or without levothyroxine. A clinician may consider aspirin as an alternative to a steroid in long-term management to avoid steroid-related side effects and contraindications.

  20. Neuropsychiatric Manifestation of Hashimoto's Encephalopathy in an Adolescent and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransing, Ramdas Sarjerao; Mishra, Kshirod Kumar; Sarkar, Dipayan

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto's encephalopathy is usually underdiagnosed and untreated because of complex neuropsychiatric manifestation. We report a case of an adolescent female with Hashimoto's encephalopathy who responded well to a combination of aspirin and levothyroxine. A 16-year-old girl presented at psychiatric emergency services with a depressive episode, menstrual irregularities, and a 5-month past history of thyroid swelling. On clinical examination, she was in a euthyroid state with insignificant neurological history. However, her previous investigation revealed a hypothyroid state. Her magnetic resonance imaging findings demonstrated infarcts in the bilateral gangliocapsular region and left frontal periventricular deep white matter lesion. Ultrasonography of the thyroid and fine needle aspiration cytology confirmed lymphocytic thyroiditis. Anti-thyroid peroxidase (289 IU/ml) antibody titer was elevated (289 IU/mL). Her depressive symptoms responded well to antidepressants, mood stabilizers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and levothyroxine. She remained in the euthyroid state and then in the euthymic state for 3 years. Hashimoto's encephalopathy is steroid-responsive encephalopathy. Most researchers have observed a dramatic response to steroids with or without levothyroxine. A clinician may consider aspirin as an alternative to a steroid in long-term management to avoid steroid-related side effects and contraindications. PMID:27570351

  1. Fertility treatment and risk of childhood and adolescent mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Hvidtjørn, Dorte;

    2013-01-01

    To assess the mental health of children born after fertility treatment by comparing their risk of mental disorders with that of spontaneously conceived children.......To assess the mental health of children born after fertility treatment by comparing their risk of mental disorders with that of spontaneously conceived children....

  2. Pre-Pregnancy Dating Violence and Birth Outcomes Among Adolescent Mothers in a National Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong; Harville, Emily W

    2014-07-01

    Although infants born to adolescent mothers are at increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, little is known about contributors to birth outcomes in this group. Given past research linking partner abuse to adverse birth outcomes among adult mothers, we explored associations between pre-pregnancy verbal and physical dating violence and the birth weight and gestational age of infants born to adolescent mothers. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Waves I (1995/1996), II (1996), and IV (2007/2008) were analyzed. Girls whose first singleton live births occurred after Wave II interview and before age 20 (N = 558) self-reported infants' birth weight and gestational age at Wave IV. Dating violence victimization (verbal and physical) in the 18 months prior to Wave II interview was self-reported. Controls included Wave I age, parent education, age at pregnancy, time between reporting abuse and birth, and childhood physical and sexual abuse. Weighted multivariable regression models were performed separately by race (Black/non-Black).On average, births occurred 2 years after Wave II interview. Almost one in four mothers reported verbal dating violence victimization (23.6%), and 10.1% reported physical victimization. Birth weight and prevalence of verbal dating violence victimization were significantly lower in Black compared with non-Black teen mothers. In multivariable analyses, negative associations between physical dating abuse and birth outcomes became stronger as time increased for Black mothers. For example, pre-pregnancy physical dating abuse was associated with 0.79 kilograms lower birth weight (p< .001) and 4.72 fewer weeks gestational age (p< .01) for Black mothers who gave birth 2 years post-reporting abuse. Physical dating abuse was unassociated with birth outcomes among non-Black mothers, and verbal abuse was unassociated with birth outcomes for all mothers. Reducing physical dating violence in adolescent relationships prior to

  3. Application of Research Domain Criteria to childhood and adolescent impulsive and addictive disorders: Implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Sarah W; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-11-09

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative provides a large-scale, dimensional framework for the integration of research findings across traditional diagnoses, with the long-term aim of improving existing psychiatric treatments. A neurodevelopmental perspective is essential to this endeavor. However, few papers synthesizing research findings across childhood and adolescent disorders exist. Here, we discuss how the RDoC framework may be applied to the study of childhood and adolescent impulsive and addictive disorders in order to improve neurodevelopmental understanding and to enhance treatment development. Given the large scope of RDoC, we focus on a single construct highly relevant to addictive and impulsive disorders - initial responsiveness to reward attainment. Findings from genetic, molecular, neuroimaging and other translational research methodologies are highlighted.

  4. Microfracture for treatment of knee cartilage defects in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salzmann, Gian M; Sah, Bert-Ram; Schmal, Hagen;

    2012-01-01

    Even though operative microfracture is the most frequent method for treatment of limited knee joint cartilage lesions among adults, data about ouctome in children and adolescents are rare. We performed a retrospective chart review and telephone interview to analyze for the clinical outcome...... analysis did not reveal a significant impact of patient or defect characteristics on clinical outcome. Arthroscopic microfracturing for treatment of limited size symptomatic knee joint cartilage defects among children and adolescents is considered a reasonable surgical option. However, long-term outcome...... following knee joint cartilage defect microfracturing among 10 children. Mean postoperative Lysholm was 92.1±9.9 and Tegner was 7.0±1.9. Clinical outcome differed across knee joint regions, as well as in dependence of varying pre-operative symptom duration, although this was not significant. Regression...

  5. Effectiveness of vitamin E as treatment of primary dysmenorrhea in pubertal adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Primary dysmenorrhea is a common complaint among adolescents. Absenteeism from work and school are associated with the severity of symptoms. Vitamin E is an alternative treatment for primary dysmenorrhea. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of vitamin E as a treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial from August to October 2009. We included female adolescents with primary dysmenorrhea in this study. Subjects were divided into 2 groups by simple randomization. Each group received either 200 units of vitamin E or a placebo twice daily, beginning two days before menstruation and continuing until the third day of menstruation. Treatment was repeated for three menstrual cycles. Subjects recorded the severity and duration of pain in a daily diary. Data was analyzed using Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U-test, and independent t-test. Results One hundred-sixteen primary dysmenorrhea subjects enrolled in our study. By simple randomization, they were divided into two groups of 58 subjects each. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in the severity and duration of pain before the start of treatment and after 1 month of treatment. After treatment for 2 months and 3 months, there were statistically significant differences in pain severity (P=0.013, 95%CI -0.54 to -0.11; and P=0.0001, 95%CI -0.67 to -0.26, respectively and pain duration (P=0.025, 95%CI -0.65 to -0.07 and P=0.007, 95%CI -0.75 to -0.12, respectively between the 2 groups. Conclusion Vitamin E was effective in treatment of primary dysmenorrhea in pubertal adolescents after 2 and 3 months of treatment. [Paediatr Indones. 2011;51:41-6].

  6. Associations of Neuroticism and Impulsivity with Binge Eating in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Winn, Angela E; Townsend, Lisa; Reinblatt, Shauna P; Mendelson, Tamar

    2016-02-01

    Binge eating behavior is a public health concern with serious physical and mental health consequences. Certain personality traits have been found to contribute to the development of eating disorders in clinical samples of youth, but little is known about associations between personality traits and binge eating in the general adolescent population. We examined the associations of neuroticism and impulsivity-both independently and in combination-with lifetime prevalence of binge eating, using nationally representative, cross-sectional data from the National Comorbidity Survey: Adolescent Supplement (n=437). Neuroticism and impulsivity were each significantly associated with lifetime prevalence of binge eating (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]=1.11, confidence interval [CI]=1.07, 1.15, p<0.001; aPR=1.06, CI=1.04, 1.09, p<0.001, respectively). The combination of high neuroticism and high impulsivity was associated with higher lifetime binge eating than the combination of low neuroticism and low impulsivity (aPR=3.72, CI=2.45, 5.65, p<0.001), and this association was stronger for female than male adolescents (females: aPR=5.37, CI=3.24, 8.91, p<0.001 vs. males: aPR=2.45, CI=1.43, 4.22, p=0.002). Our findings have implications for informing theories of etiology and interventions to target binge eating behaviors.

  7. Medical treatment of the adolescent drug abuser. An opportunity for rehabilitative intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberg, S K

    1976-03-01

    Illnesses related to both the pharmacologic properties of abused substances and their methods of administration often bring the teenager to medical attention and may provide sufficient motivation for the adolescent to seek help beyond the acute problem. Successful treatment of an overdose reaction, an abstinence syndrome, or any other medical complication of drug abuse may give the physician a unique opportunity to begine further evalution for future care.

  8. Pharmacological treatment options for autism spectrum disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskovec, Thomas J; Rowles, Brieana M; Findling, Robert L

    2008-01-01

    Autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) are frequently associated with dysfunctional behaviors and are characterized by deficits in socialization, communication, and behavioral rigidity. Despite the absence of a pharmacological cure for PDDs, many of the dysfunctional, coinciding behaviors may be treated pharmacologically. This article reviews what is known about the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacological interventions for the treatment of children and adolescents suffering from autistic spectrum disorders.

  9. Focus on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Spagnolo, Amedeo; Giussani, Marco; Ambruzzi, Amalia Maria; Bianchetti, Mario; Maringhini, Silvio; Matteucci, Maria Chiara; Menghetti, Ettore; Salice, Patrizia; Simionato, Loredana; Strambi, Mirella; Virdis, Raffaele; Genovesi, Simonetta

    2013-01-01

    The European Society of Hypertension has recently published its recommendations on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Taking this contribution as a starting point the Study Group of Hypertension of the Italian Society of Pediatrics together with the Italian Society of Hypertension has conducted a reappraisal of the most recent literature on this subject. The present review does not claim to be an exhaustive description of hypertension in th...

  10. Mentalization-based treatment in groups for adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) or subthreshold BPD versus treatment as usual (M-GAB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Emma; Bo, Sune; Gondan, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    in diagnosing adolescent BPD, there is a lack of cost-effective evidence-based treatment programs for adolescents. Mentalization-based treatment is an evidence-based program for BPD, originally developed for adults. Methods/Design Aims/hypotheses: We will investigate whether a specifically designed......Background Evidence-based outpatient psychotherapeutic programs are first-line treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Early and effective treatment of BPD is crucial to the prevention of its individual, psychosocial, and economic consequences. However, in spite of recent advantages...... mentalization-based treatment in groups is an efficacious treatment for adolescents with BPD or subthreshold BPD compared to treatment as usual. The trial is a four-center, two-armed, parallel-group, assessor-blinded randomized clinical superiority trial. One hundred twelve patients aged 14 to 17 referred...

  11. Optimizing Treatment of Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luirink, Ilse K; Hutten, Barbara A; Wiegman, Albert

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the most prominent cause of death and morbidity in the world, and one of the major risk factors for developing CVD is hypercholesterolemia. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a dominantly inherited disorder characterized by markedly elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and premature coronary heart disease. Currently, several treatment options are available for children with FH. Lifestyle adjustments are the first step in treatment. If this is not sufficient, statins are the preferred initial pharmacological therapy and they have been proven effective and safe. However, treatment goals are often not achieved and, hence, there is a need for novel treatment options. Currently, several options are being studied in adults and first results are promising. However, studies in children are still to be awaited.

  12. Social Ecological Correlates of Polyvictimization among a National Sample of Transgender, Genderqueer, and Cisgender Sexual Minority Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzing, Paul R; Ratliff, G Allen; Gartner, Rachel E; McGeough, Briana L; Johnson, Kelly C

    2017-02-18

    Polyvictimization is a common experience for youth in the United States, with 20% nationally experiencing five or more different forms of victimization in the last year. Utilizing a large, national convenience sample of sexual and gender minority adolescents (N = 1177, 14-19 years old), the current study aimed to (a) generate the first estimates of last year polyvictimization (including nine victimization subtypes) for transgender, genderqueer, and cisgender (i.e., assigned birth sex aligns with gender identity) sexual minority adolescents and (b) identify social ecological correlates of last year polyvictimization. The study utilized an online survey advertised through Facebook and community organizations across the United States. Approximately, 40% of participants experienced ten or more different forms of victimization in the last year and were classified as polyvictims. A significantly higher percentage of transgender female (63.4%), transgender male (48.9%), genderqueer assigned male at birth (71.5%) and genderqueer assigned female at birth (49.5%) were polyvictimized in comparison to cisgender sexual minority males (33.0%). Polyvictimization rates for cisgender sexual minority females (35.1%) were not significantly different from male counterparts (33.0%). Several significant risk factors for polyvictimization were identified: genderqueer identity for participants assigned male at birth and higher-levels of posttraumatic stress, family-level microaggressions, and peer rejection. The manuscript concludes with recommendations for future research including the exploration of factors (e.g., lack of community support, gender-role policing) associated with higher polyvictimization rates for genderqueer adolescents. Additionally, professionals (e.g., foster care, homeless shelters, schools) require new tools to assess for polyvictimization among sexual and gender minority adolescents.

  13. Optimizing Treatment of Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Luirink, Ilse K.; Hutten, Barbara A; Wiegman, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the most prominent cause of death and morbidity in the world, and one of the major risk factors for developing CVD is hypercholesterolemia. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a dominantly inherited disorder characterized by markedly elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and premature coronary heart disease. Currently, several treatment options are available for children with FH. Lifestyle adjustments are the first step in treatment. If th...

  14. Predicting success or failure of brace treatment for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Eric; Westover, Lindsey; Jacob, Johith; Donauer, Andreas; Zhao, Vicky H; Parent, Eric C; Moreau, Marc J; Mahood, James K; Hedden, Douglas M; Lou, Edmond H M

    2015-10-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a three-dimensional spinal deformity. Brace treatment is a common non-surgical treatment, intended to prevent progression (worsening) of the condition during adolescence. Estimating a braced patient's risk of progression is an essential part of planning treatment, so method for predicting this risk would be a useful decision support tool for practitioners. This work attempts to discover whether failure of brace treatment (progression) can be predicted at the start of treatment. Records were obtained for 62 AIS patients who had completed brace treatment. Subjects were labeled as "progressive" if their condition had progressed despite brace treatment and "non-progressive" otherwise. Wrapper-based feature selection selected two useful predictor variables from a list of 14 clinical measurements taken from the records. A logistic regression model was trained to classify patients as "progressive" or "non-progressive" using these two variables. The logistic regression model's simplicity and interpretability should facilitate its clinical acceptance. The model was tested on data from an additional 28 patients and found to be 75 % accurate. This accuracy is sufficient to make the predictions clinically useful. It can be used online: http://www.ece.ualberta.ca/~dchalmer/SimpleBracePredictor.html .

  15. Serotonin transporter genotype linked to adolescent substance use treatment outcome through externalizing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy eChung

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses suggest that the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR short (S allele, relative to the long (L allele, is associated with risk for alcohol dependence, particularly among individuals with early onset antisocial alcoholism. Youth in substance use treatment tend to show antisocial or externalizing behaviors, such as conduct problems, which predict worse treatment outcome. This study examined a pathway in which 5-HTTLPR genotype is associated with externalizing behavior, and the intermediate phenotype of externalizing behavior serves as a link between 5-HTTLPR genotype and substance use treatment outcome in youth. Adolescents (n=142 who were recruited from addictions treatment were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms (S and LG carriers vs. LALA, assessed for externalizing and internalizing behaviors shortly after starting treatment, and followed over 6-months. 5-HTTLPR genotype was not associated with internalizing behaviors, and was not directly associated with 6-month substance use outcomes. However, 5-HTTLPR genotype was associated with externalizing behaviors (S and LG > LALA, and externalizing behaviors predicted alcohol and marijuana problem severity at 6-month follow-up. Results indicated an indirect (p<.05 and non-specific (i.e., both alcohol and marijuana severity effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype on youth substance use treatment outcomes, with externalizing behaviors as an important linking factor. Adolescents in substance use treatment with low expressing (S and LG 5-HTTLPR alleles and externalizing behavior might benefit from intervention that addresses serotonergic functioning, externalizing behaviors, and substance use to improve outcomes.

  16. Optimizing drugs to reach treatment targets for children and adolescents living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Penazzato

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As the global community makes progress towards the 90-90-90 targets by 2020, a key challenge is ensuring that antiretroviral drugs for children and adolescents are suitable to the context of resource-limited settings. Drug optimization aims to support the expanded use of more simplified, less toxic drug regimens with high barriers to drug resistance that require minimal clinical monitoring while maintaining therapeutic efficacy. This manuscript summarizes the progress made and outlines further critical steps required to ensure that the right drugs are available to start children and adolescents on treatment and to keep them virologically suppressed. Discussion: Building upon previous work in drug optimization, several important steps were taken in 2014 to ensure alignment between WHO dosing recommendations and the requirements of regulatory bodies, to accelerate drug development, to reduce intellectual property barriers to generic production of combined formulations and rationalize drug selection in countries. The priority for the future is to improve access to antiretroviral therapy (ART at the two ends of the paediatric age spectrum – infants and adolescents – where the treatment gap is greatest, and optimize drug sequencing with better use of available medicines for second- and third-line ART. Future efforts in this area will require continuous collaboration and coordination, and the promotion of innovative approaches to accelerate access to new drugs and formulations. Conclusions: While significant progress has been made, additional efforts are needed to ensure that treatment targets are reached by 2020.

  17. Listening to youth: Adolescents' reasons for substance use as a unique predictor of treatment response and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Sarah J; Kelly, John F

    2013-12-01

    National efforts have focused on improving adolescent substance use disorder (SUD) treatment outcomes, yet improvements remain modest. Because adolescents are noteworthy for heterogeneity in their clinical profiles, treatment might be enhanced by the identification of clinical subgroups for which interventions could be more effectively tailored. Some of these subgroups, such as those based on abstinence motivation, substance involvement, and psychiatric status are promising candidates. This study examined the unique predictive utility of adolescents' primary reason for alcohol and other drug use. Adolescent outpatients (N = 109; 27% female, aged 14-19) were assessed at treatment intake on their reason for substance use, as well as demographic, substance use, and clinical variables, and reassessed at 3, 6, and 12 months. Reason for use fell into two broad domains: using to enhance a positive state (positive reinforcement [PR]; 47% of youth) and using to cope with a negative state (negative reinforcement [NR]; 53% of youth). Compared with PR patients, NR patients were significantly more substance involved, reported more psychological distress, and had a more extensive treatment history. It is important to note that NR patients showed a significant treatment response, whereas PR patients showed no improvement. PR-NR status also uniquely predicted treatment response and outcome independent of a variety of other predictors, including abstinence motivation, self-efficacy, coping, and prior treatment. Adolescents' primary reason for substance use may provide unique clinical information that could inform treatment planning and patient-treatment matching.

  18. [Efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Daniel

    2006-09-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been used increasingly since the early 1990s to treat anxiety disorders and depression in children and adolescents. Several recent reports, however, cast doubt on their efficacy and especially raise questions about their role in serious adverse effects (increase in suicidal ideation and suicide attempts as well as reactions involving irritability, hostility, self-harm and self-destructive actions). The efficacy of SSRIs (fluoxetine, sertraline, fluvoxamine, paroxetine) in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorders in this population is clear today, although their effects are globally relatively modest. SSRIs remain notably less effective than clomipramine for this indication, although a variety of factors (age, family history, and psychiatric comorbidity) are also likely to influence response to treatment. Only several placebo-controlled studies suggest that the SSRIs (fluoxetine, sertraline and fluvoxamine) may have some utility in the treatment of anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, social phobias) in children and teens. The additional benefits from SSRIs for this indication nonetheless require confirmation. Imipramine and related tricyclic antidepressants are ineffective in the treatment of depressive disorders in children and adolescents. Among the SSRIs, only fluoxetine has proven its efficacy for this indication, although its effect here too appears relatively modest. The efficacy of sertraline and paroxetine cannot be considered more than probable, requiring confirmation, and that of citalopram has not been demonstrated. Moreover, because of the risk of suicidal behavior observed in some studies, SSRIs are inadvisable for the treatment of depressive disorders in this population. Overall, although the currently available data show SSRIs to be moderately effective and useful in treating anxiety disorders and depression in children and adolescents, future studies must focus on

  19. Predicting airway hyperreactivity to mannitol using exhaled nitric oxide in an unselected sample of adolescents and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrild, A; Malinovschi, A; Porsbjerg, C;

    2013-01-01

    the diagnostic accuracy of FeNO using absolute and normalized values to predict the presence of AHR to inhaled mannitol in an unselected population. Levels of FeNO and AHR to inhaled, dry-powder mannitol was measured in 180 unselected, steroid-naïve, non-smoking adolescents and young adults. The area under...... and specific tool for predicting the response to inhaled mannitol in an unselected sample of non-smoking, steroid-naïve subjects, and a low FeNO indicates that extra diagnostic work-up using inhaled mannitol will add very little extra information....

  20. How does self-injury feel? Examining automatic positive reinforcement in adolescent self-injurers with experience sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Edward A; Nock, Matthew K; Kranzler, Amy

    2014-02-28

    One of the most frequently reported, yet understudied, motivations for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) involves automatic positive reinforcement (APR), wherein sensations arising from NSSI reinforce and promote the behavior. The current study used experience sampling methodology with a clinical sample of self-injuring adolescents (N=30) over a 2-week period during which the adolescents reported NSSI behaviors, and rated if an APR motivation was present, and if so whether that motivation pertained to feeling "pain," "stimulation," or "satisfaction." Over 50% of the sample reported at least one instance of NSSI for APR reasons. No significant differences were found on demographic factors or psychiatric comorbidity for those with and without an APR motivation. However, those with an APR motivation reported elevated NSSI thoughts, longer duration of those thoughts, and more NSSI behaviors. They also reported more alcohol use thoughts, alcohol use, impulsive spending, and binge eating. The most commonly reported sensation following NSSI for APR was "satisfaction." However those endorsing feeling pain reported the most NSSI behaviors. These findings provide new information about the APR motivations for NSSI and shed light on the different sensations felt.

  1. Negative life events and non-suicidal self-injury in an adolescent inpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richard T; Frazier, Elisabeth A; Cataldo, Andrea M; Simon, Valerie A; Spirito, Anthony; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-01-01

    Although life stressors have been implicated in the aetiology of various forms of psychopathology related to non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), particularly depression and suicidal behavior, they have rarely been examined in relation with NSSI. The objective of the current study was to assess the association between life stressors and NSSI in adolescent inpatients. Adolescent inpatients (n = 110) completed measures of life events, NSSI, and depressive symptoms at 3 time-points over a 9-month period. Higher rates of life stressors were significantly associated with greater NSSI. This finding held even after covarying concurrent depressive symptoms and gender. Life stressors may have a unique role in the pathogenesis of NSSI. Directions for future research and clinical implications are discussed.

  2. Personality and Eating Disorders: A Longitudinal Study on a Non-Clinical Sample of Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    De Caro, Elide Francesca; Di Blas, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The present longitudinal study is aimed at analyzing how adolescents change their dysfunctional attitudes towards their body and eating behaviors in relation to personality characteristics across a six-month time span. Via multiple regression analyses we investigated whether MMPI-A Obsessiveness, Low Self-Esteem, Depression, Family Problems and Concern for health are temporal antecedents of EDI-2 eating disorders, and vice versa. Our main findings revealed a bidirectio...

  3. Do Family and Parenting Factors in Adolescence Influence Condom Use in Early Adulthood in a Multiethnic Sample of Young Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Haas, Steven A.; Kopak, Albert M.; Robillard, Alyssa G.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that positive family factors help protect adolescents from engaging in risky sexual activities, but do they continue to protect adolescents as they transition to late adolescence/early adulthood? Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined whether family support, parent-child closeness, parental…

  4. Psychological Treatments for Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutermann, Jana; Schreiber, Franziska; Matulis, Simone; Schwartzkopff, Laura; Deppe, Julia; Steil, Regina

    2016-06-01

    Meta-analyses of the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in childhood and adolescence are restricted to specific trauma, selected interventions, and methodologically rigorous studies. This large meta-analysis quantifies the effects of psychological treatments for PTSD symptoms in children and adolescents. An extensive literature search yielded a total of 13,040 articles; 135 studies with 150 treatment conditions (N = 9562 participants) met the inclusion criteria (psychological interventions with children and/or adolescents with PTSD symptoms that report quantitative measures of symptom change). The mean effect sizes (ESs) for PTSD symptoms ranged from large to small, depending on the control condition. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) yielded the highest ESs. Age and caretaker involvement were identified as moderators. CBT, especially when conducted in individual treatment with the inclusion of parents, is a highly effective treatment for trauma symptoms. Psychological treatments need to be modified to address younger patients' specific needs.

  5. Social Anxiety and Peer Helping in Adolescent Addiction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Maria E.; Wang, Alexandra R.; Rowles, Brieana M.; Lee, Matthew T.; Johnson, Byron R.

    2015-01-01

    The developmental need to fit in may lead to higher alcohol and other drug use among socially anxious youths which exacerbates the drink/trouble cycle. In treatment, youths with social anxiety disorder (SAD) may avoid participating in therapeutic activities with risk of negative peer appraisal. Peer-helping is a low-intensity, social activity in…

  6. Gender Differences among Israeli Adolescents in Residential Drug Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Aims: The use of licit and illicit drugs is considered to be primarily a male problem. Numerous studies, however, question the extent of gender differences. This article reports on last 30 day drug use and related problem behaviour among male and female youth prior to residential treatment. Methods: Self-report data were collected from 95 male and…

  7. Sex-dependent effects of maternal deprivation and adolescent cannabinoid treatment on adult rat behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Berzal, Alvaro; Fuentes, Sílvia; Gagliano, Humberto; López-Gallardo, Meritxell; Armario, Antonio; Viveros, María-Paz; Nadal, Roser

    2011-10-01

    Early life experiences such as maternal deprivation (MD) exert long-lasting changes in adult behaviour and reactivity to stressors. Adolescent exposure to cannabinoids is a predisposing factor in developing certain psychiatric disorders. Therefore, the combination of the two factors could exacerbate the negative consequences of each factor when evaluated at adulthood. The objective of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of early MD [24 hours at postnatal day (PND) 9] and/or an adolescent chronic treatment with the cannabinoid agonist CP-55,940 (0.4 mg/kg, PND 28-42) on diverse behavioural and physiological responses of adult male and female Wistar rats. We tested them in the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response and analysed their exploratory activity (holeboard) and anxiety (elevated plus maze, EPM). In addition, we evaluated their adrenocortical reactivity in response to stress and plasma leptin levels. Maternal behaviour was measured before and after deprivation. MD induced a transient increase of maternal behaviour on reuniting. In adulthood, maternally deprived males showed anxiolytic-like behaviour (or increased risk-taking behaviour) in the EPM. Adolescent exposure to the cannabinoid agonist induced an impairment of the PPI in females and increased adrenocortical responsiveness to the PPI test in males. Both, MD and adolescent cannabinoid exposure also induced sex-dependent changes in plasma leptin levels and body weights. The present results indicate that early MD and adolescent cannabinoid exposure exerted distinct sex-dependent long-term behavioural and physiological modifications that could predispose to the development of certain neuropsychiatric disorders, though no synergistic effects were found.

  8. Crave, like, eat: determinants of food intake in a sample of children and adolescents with a wide range in body mass

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Hofmann; Adrian Meule; Julia Reichenberger; Daniel Weghuber; Elisabeth Ardelt-Gattinger; Jens Blechert

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is heterogeneous condition with obese individuals displaying different eating patterns. Growing evidence suggests that there is a subgroup of obese adults that is marked by frequent and intense food cravings and addiction-like consumption of high-calorie foods. Little is known, however, about such a subgroup of obese individuals in childhood and adolescence. In the present study, a sample of children and adolescents with a wide range in body mass was investigated and trait food cravin...

  9. Crave, Like, Eat: Determinants of Food Intake in a Sample of Children and Adolescents with a Wide Range in Body Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Johannes; Meule, Adrian; Reichenberger, Julia; Weghuber, Daniel; Ardelt-Gattinger, Elisabeth; Blechert, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous condition with obese individuals displaying different eating patterns. Growing evidence suggests that there is a subgroup of obese adults that is marked by frequent and intense food cravings and addiction-like consumption of high-calorie foods. Little is known, however, about such a subgroup of obese individuals in childhood and adolescence. In the present study, a sample of children and adolescents with a wide range in body mass was investigated and trait food crav...

  10. Psychometric assessment of the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory in a sample of low-income single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutenbacher, M

    2001-01-01

    The Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) is a 32-item inventory widely used to identify adolescents and adults at risk for inadequate parenting behaviors. It includes four subscales representing the most frequent patterns associated with abusive parenting: (a) Inappropriate Expectations; (b) Lack of Empathy; (c) Parental Value of Corporal Punishment; and (d) Parent-Child Role Reversal. Although it has been used in a variety of samples, the psychometric properties of the AAPI have not been examined in low-income single mothers. The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the reliability and validity of the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) in a sample of 206 low-income single mothers; (b) assess the mother's risk for inadequate parenting by comparing their AAPI subscale scores with normative subscale scores on the AAPI; (c) assess the construct validity of the AAPI by testing the hypothesis that mothers with lower AAPI scores have a higher level of depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem in comparison to mothers with higher AAPI scores; and (d) determine whether the 4-factor structure proposed by Bavolek (1984) could be replicated. AAPI scores indicated these mothers were at high risk for child abuse when compared with normative data for parents with no known history of abuse. Higher risk for abusive parenting was associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms, less education, and unemployment. The subscales, Inappropriate Expectations and Parental Value of Corporal Punishment demonstrated poor internal consistency with Cronbach's alphas of .40 and .54, respectively. Hypothesis testing supported the construct validity of the AAPI. Bavolek's 4-factor structure was not supported. A 19-item modified version of the AAPI with three dimensions was identified. This modified version of the AAPI may provide a more efficacious tool for use with low-income single mothers.

  11. Food addiction in overweight and obese adolescents seeking weight-loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Hermann, Tina; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Some forms of overeating closely resemble addictive behaviour. The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) was developed to measure such addiction-like eating in humans and has been employed in numerous studies for examining food addiction in adults. Yet, little is known about food addiction in children and adolescents. Fifty adolescents were recruited at the beginning of treatment in a weight-loss hospital and completed the YFAS among other questionnaires. Nineteen participants (38%) received a YFAS diagnosis, who did not differ in age, body mass and gender distribution from those not receiving a diagnosis. However, those with food addiction reported more binge days, more frequent food cravings, higher eating, weight and shape concerns, more symptoms of depression and higher attentional and motor impulsivity. Eating restraint and nonplanning impulsivity did not differ between groups. Results replicate findings from studies in obese adults such that food addiction is not related to age, gender, body mass or eating restraint, but to higher eating pathology, more symptoms of depression and higher impulsivity. Furthermore, results highlight that particularly attentional impulsivity is related to 'food addiction'. Addiction-like eating appears to be a valid phenotype in a substantial subset of treatment-seeking, obese adolescents.

  12. Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    DeFilippis, Melissa; Wagner, Karen Dineen

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a diagnosis that includes significant social communication deficits/delays along with restricted patterns of interests and behaviors. The prevalence of this diagnosis has increased over the past few decades, and it is unclear whether this is solely attributable to the increased awareness of milder forms of the disorder among medical providers. The current treatment options for the core symptoms of autism are limited to psychosocial therapies, such as applied behavi...

  13. Assessment and treatment of eating disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairs, Rebecca; Nicholls, Dasha

    2016-12-01

    Feeding and eating disorders (FEDs) are serious mental health disorders that cause impairments in physical health, development, cognition and psychosocial function and can go undetected for months or years. They are characterised by disturbed eating behaviour associated with concerns about weight and shape or by disinterest in food, phobic avoidance or avoidance due to sensory aspects of food. Restrictive forms of FEDs lead to significant weight loss requiring intervention. Without specific knowledge of these conditions, they can evade detection, delaying time to diagnosis and treatment and potentially influencing outcome. This review article focuses on the key factors involved in the psychiatric assessment and treatment of four feeding or eating disorders (EDs): anorexia nervosa, avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. They have been chosen for discussion as they are most likely to be encountered in both a psychiatric and paediatric setting. It emphasises the importance of a family-focused, developmentally appropriate and multidisciplinary approach to care. It does not address aspects of medical assessment and treatment. Other feeding or EDs not included in this article are pica, rumination disorder, other specified feeding and eating disorder and unspecified feeding and eating disorder.

  14. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily F. Rothman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72, and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16–17 years old. More than half (51% had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15, and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth is common, and may be associated with ADA victimization.

  15. Post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents: epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Craig L; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric condition in childhood and adolescence. Rates vary widely depending upon the type of trauma exposure. Interpersonal traumas, such as rape or physical abuse, are more likely to result in PTSD than exposure to natural or technological disaster. Clinical presentations are exceedingly complex and children with PTSD are at increased risk of having comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. Because of its complexity and frequent occurrence with other disorders, assessment of PTSD necessitates a broad-based evaluation utilizing multiple informations and structured instruments specific to the symptoms of PTSD in youth. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the treatment of first choice. Pharmacological agents for PTSD treatment have received little empirical investigation in childhood. Pharmacological treatment is used to target disabling symptoms of the disorder, which limit psychotherapy or life functioning, by helping children to tolerate working through distressful material in therapy and life. Pharmacological treatment should be based on a stepwise approach utilizing broad spectrum medications such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors as first-line agents. Comorbid conditions should be identified and treated with appropriate medication or psychosocial interventions. Treatment algorithms are provided to guide rational medication strategies for children and adolescents with PTSD, subsyndromal PTSD, and in PTSD that is comorbid with other psychiatric conditions of childhood. Reduction in even one debilitating symptom of PTSD can improve a child's overall functioning across multiple domains.

  16. Efficacy of three treatment protocols for adolescents with social anxiety disorder: a 5-year follow-up assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Lopez, Luis-Joaquin; Olivares, Jose; Beidel, Deborah; Albano, Anne-Marie; Turner, Samuel; Rosa, Ana I

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have reported long-term follow-up data in adults and even fewer in adolescents. The purpose of this work is to report on the longest follow-up assessment in the literature on treatments for adolescents with social phobia. A 5-year follow-up assessment was conducted with subjects who originally received either Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents (CBGT-A), Social Effectiveness Therapy for Adolescents--Spanish version (SET-Asv), or Intervención en Adolescentes con Fobia Social--Treatment for Adolescents with Social Phobia (IAFS) in a controlled clinical trial. Twenty-three subjects completing the treatment conditions were available for the 5-year follow-up. Results demonstrate that subjects treated either with CBGT-A, SET-Asv and IAFS continued to maintain their gains after treatments were terminated. Either the CBGT-A, SET-Asv and IAFS can provide lasting effects to the majority of adolescents with social anxiety. Issues that may contribute to future research and clinical implications are discussed.

  17. Profile of aripiprazole in the treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirino E

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Eiji Kirino1–3 1Department of Psychiatry, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, 3Juntendo Institute of Mental Health, Shizuoka, Japan Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a pernicious illness. Compared with the later-onset form, early onset bipolar disorder is associated with worse psychosocial outcomes, and is characterized by rapid cycling and increased risks of substance abuse and suicide attempts. Controlling mood episodes and preventing relapse in this group of pediatric patients requires careful treatment. Here, we review the effectiveness of aripiprazole for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, with discussion of this drug's unique pharmacological profile and various clinical study outcomes. Aripiprazole acts as a serotonin 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, as well as a partial agonist of the serotonin 5-HT1A and dopamine D2 receptors. It can be safely used in children and adolescents, as it is highly tolerated and shows lower rates of the side effects typically observed with other antipsychotic drugs, including sedation, weight gain, hyperprolactinemia, and extrapyramidal syndrome. The presently reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs and non-RCTs generally reported aripiprazole to be effective and well-tolerated in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. However, due to the limited number of RCTs, the present conclusions must be evaluated cautiously. Furthermore, aripiprazole cannot yet be considered a preferred treatment for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder, as there is not yet evidence that aripiprazole shows greater efficacy compared to other second-generation antipsychotics. Additional data are needed from future head-to-head comparison studies. Keywords: child, mania, mixed state

  18. Adolescent pre-treatment with oxytocin protects against adult methamphetamine-seeking behavior in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Callum; Cornish, Jennifer L; Baracz, Sarah J; Suraev, Anastasia; McGregor, Iain S

    2016-03-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), given acutely, reduces self-administration of the psychostimulant drug methamphetamine (METH). Additionally, chronic OT administration to adolescent rats reduces levels of alcohol consumption in adulthood, suggesting developmental neuroplasticity in the OT system relevant to addiction-related behaviors. Here, we examined whether OT exposure during adolescence might subsequently inhibit METH self-administration in adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered vehicle or OT (1 mg/kg, i.p.) once daily from postnatal days (PND) 28 to 37 (adolescence). At PND 62 (adulthood), rats were trained to self-administer METH (intravenous, i.v.) in daily 2-hour sessions for 10 days under a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) reinforcement schedule, followed by determination of dose-response functions (0.01-0.3 mg/kg/infusion, i.v.) under both FR1 and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. Responding was then extinguished, and relapse to METH-seeking behavior assessed following priming doses of non-contingent METH (0.1-1 mg/kg, i.p.). Finally, plasma was collected to determine pre-treatment effects on OT and corticosterone levels. Results showed that OT pre-treatment did not significantly inhibit the acquisition of METH self-administration or FR1 responding. However, rats pre-treated with OT responded significantly less for METH under a PR reinforcement schedule, and showed reduced METH-primed reinstatement with the 1 mg/kg prime. Plasma OT levels were also significantly higher in OT pre-treated rats. These results confirm earlier observations that adolescent OT exposure can subtly, yet significantly, inhibit addiction-relevant behaviors in adulthood.

  19. On-line sample treatment - Capillary gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosens, EC; de Jong, D; de Jong, GJ; Brinkman, UAT

    1998-01-01

    Sample pretreatment is often the bottleneck of a trace level analytical procedure. In order to increase performance, increasing attention is therefore being devoted to combining sample pretreatment on-line with the separation technique that has to be used. In the present review, a variety of procedu

  20. Evidence for use of mood stabilizers and anticonvulsants in the treatment of nonaffective disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaladoss, Alfred; Roberts, Nasreen; Amaladoss, Franklin

    2010-01-01

    Mood stabilizers and anticonvulsants have been frequently used to control behaviors in children and adolescent with nonaffective disorders. The purpose of this study was to review the literature to evaluate the evidence of these agents as treatment options in this subset of patients. We reviewed all the literature between 1949 and 2009 on the use of anticonvulsants and mood stabilizers in controlling severe behavior dysregulation and aggression in child and adolescent who do not meet the criteria for any mood disorder. The review revealed a total of 19 studies. Of the different mood stabilizers/anticonvulsants, both lithium and divalproex showed some promise in treating children and adolescents with nonmood disorders. Larger studies are nevertheless needed to support the ongoing use of these current anticonvulsants and mood stabilizers in children and adolescents with nonmood disorders. Also, further investigation to the potential use in the long term would need to be established, bearing in mind the balance of side effects and treatment benefit.

  1. “Gateway hypothesis” and early drug use: Additional findings from tracking a population-based sample of adolescents to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Nkansah-Amankra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the consistency of the relationship between early drug use in adolescence and illegal drug use in adulthood as proposed in the “gateway theory” and to determine whether pre-existing depressive symptoms modifies this relationship. We used contractual data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult health data spanning a 14 year period. We assessed the relationship between gateway drugs at baseline (age 11–20 years and drug use in adulthood using generalized estimating equation (GEE regression models. Gateways drugs used in early adolescence were significantly associated with marijuana use, illegal drugs and cocaine in older adolescence, but over time these relationships were not consistent in adulthood. Changes in the pattern of psychoactive drug use were important predictors of drug use in adulthood. A history of higher depressive symptoms was associated with higher frequencies of psychoactive drug use over time. Users of mental health services in adolescence were less likely to use drugs in older adolescence and in adulthood. Relationships between early drug use and later drug use in adulthood cannot be solely explained by the gateway hypothesis. Collectively, adolescent drug prevention and treatment programs should apply theory-based and evidence-proven multisectoral intervention strategies rather than providing a brief counseling on individual's behaviors. This evidence should include understanding that changes in behavior should involve broader analyses of the underlying social context for drug use and in particular the role of the community social norms in driving a group's behaviors.

  2. Deviant behavior variety scale: development and validation with a sample of Portuguese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sanches

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study presents the development and analysis of the psychometric properties of the Deviant Behavior Variety Scale (DBVS. Participants were 861 Portuguese adolescents (54 % female, aged between 12 and 19 years old. Two alternative models were tested using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Although both models showed good fit indexes, the two-factor model didn’t presented discriminant validity. Further results provided evidence for the factorial and the convergent validity of the single-factor structure of the DVBS, which has also shown good internal consistency. Criterion validity was evaluated through the association with related variables, such as age and school failure, as well as the scale’s ability to capture group differences, namely between genders and school retentions, and finally by comparing a sub-group of convicted adolescents with a group of non-convicted ones regarding their engagement in delinquent activities. Overall, the scale presented good psychometric properties, with results supporting that the DBVS is a valid and reliable self-reported measure to evaluate adolescents’ involvement in deviance.

  3. [Orthopedic and surgical treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in childhood and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialle, Raphaël

    2006-01-31

    Any evolutive scoliosis must be treated actively. The orthopaedic treatment by brace makes it possible to slow down the spinal deformity evolution. In many cases, physiotherapy could be of great help during the conservative treatment phase. Thus, it is possible to contain the scoliosis progression during the rapid growth phase of the spine, in adolescence. In some patients, spinal deformity can remain moderate, making it possible to keep a satisfying function and balance of the spine in adulthood. Sometimes, the orthopaedic treatment alone is not sufficient and surgery is necessary to provide a well-balanced spine with an acceptable residual spinal deformity. The aims of surgical treatment are to correct spinal deformity by means of vertebral osteosynthesis and to stabilize the final correction by means of bone grafting. These surgical procedures made according to strict rules, give excellent functional results and make it possible to carry out a strictly normal adult life.

  4. Tic Disorders and Tourette Syndrome: Current Concepts of Etiology and Treatment in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagwerker Gloor, Friederike; Walitza, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    Tic disorders (TD), including chronic/persistent TD (CTD) and Tourette syndrome, have been described and studied for many years. Within the last two decades, intensified study efforts led to more specific assumptions about genesis and influences of both hereditary and environmental factors. TD in children and adolescents are very often accompanied by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) as comorbid disorders. Comorbidities are aggravating factors concerning prognosis and treatment opportunities. Therefore, etiological considerations and treatment strategies have to take associated psychiatric disorders into account. Treatment approaches are symptom targeted and include behavioral treatments and/or medication and show positive outcomes concerning tic symptomatology, global functioning, and associated psychopathology. This review presents an update of the research, definitions, and classification according to ICD-10 and DSM-5 and summarizes the diagnostic procedures and most effective clinical strategies.

  5. Temporomandibular disorders and orthodontic treatment need in orthodontically untreated children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špalj, Stjepan; Šlaj, Martina; Athanasiou, Athanasios E; Žak, Irena; Šimunović, Martina; Šlaj, Mladen

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and orthodontic treatment need in orthodontically untreated children and adolescents. One thousand five hundred and ninety-seven subjects aged 11-19 years, without previous orthodontic history, from sixteen randomly selected public schools in Zagreb, Croatia, were examined. Malocclusion characteristics were assessed by using the criteria proposed by Bjork et al., the Dental Aesthetic Index, and the Aesthetic Component of Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Data on TMD signs/symptoms and parafunctional behaviour were obtained by means of questionnaire and clinical examination, respectively. Multiple logistic regression models were used for analysis. Twenty-two percent of children and young adolescents had one or more signs of TMD, ranging from 17% in age of 11 years up to 24% in age of 19. There was poor correlation between presence of TMD and orthodontic treatment need. Multiple logistic regression models showed that Class III, crowding and spacing were related to mandibular deflection on opening. Ectopic eruption was related to TMJ clicking, and severely tipped teeth with reduced mouth opening. Headaches presented a positive relationship with reverse overjet and severe rotations, and tooth wear with crowding, spacing and lateral openbite. Age, female gender and parafunctional habits were related to several TMD signs. Although logistic regression models were statistically significant (p TMD signs/symptoms. TMD signs and symptoms seemed to be poorly related to malocclusions or treatment needs.

  6. Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury: a cross-national study of community samples from Italy, the Netherlands and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giletta, Matteo; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Ciairano, Silvia; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2012-05-15

    This study examined rates and correlates of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) across three non-clinical adolescent samples from different countries. Surveys were administered to 1862 adolescents (M(age)=15.69, S.D.=0.87) from Italy (n=827), the Netherlands (n=675), and United States (n=360), including measures of NSSI, substance use, internal (i.e., depressive symptoms, loneliness), and interpersonal factors (i.e., peer victimization, peer preference). After controlling for socio-demographic differences, similar prevalence of NSSI was found across the three samples, with approximately 24% of the adolescents reporting at least one NSSI episode within the last year. Multivariate logistic regressions showed that adolescents' victimization and higher levels of depressive symptoms and family-related loneliness were associated concurrently with NSSI comparably in all three samples. However, multi-group analyses indicated that the association between NSSI and substance use varied significantly across samples, indicating that NSSI related more strongly to substance use (i.e., cigarette smoking and frequent marijuana use) in the sample from the United States rather than the samples from the Netherlands and Italy. Findings provide evidence of NSSI and suggest high similarities in rates and correlates across samples from different countries. Future research should further explore NSSI cross-nationally.

  7. Early arthritis in children and adolescents — immune status of patients and perspectives of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V A Keltsev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study state of immune status in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA at early stages of the disease development and perspectives of their treatment. Materials and methods. 286 children and adolescents with olygo- and polyarticular variants of JIA aged 3 to 18 years were included. Examination of CD4, CD8, CD16, CD95 lymphocyte markers, IgA, IgG, IgM rheumatoid factor, interleukin 1(3, 4, 6, 8, 10, tumor necrosis factor a as well as lymphocyte morphometry was performed. Results. High blood levels of CD4, CD8, CD 16, CD95, pro- and anti- inflammatory interleukins were revealed at active stage of JIA particularly in pts with polyarthritis and extended olygoarthritis. Changes of mean lymphocyte morphometric measures linearly inversely correlated with relative lymphocyte markers level what proves relationship of processes of proliferation, cytotoxicity and elevation of circulating apoptotic cell count in blood. However increase of “programmed death cells" may reflect not only proliferation but also capability of cells to induce cell death program in presence of provocative factors. In pts with very high humoral level of lymphocyte markers and cytokines appropriate therapy more often induces clinico-laboratory remission than in pts with lower values. Conclusion. Immune and cytokine status in children and adolescents with JIA determines evolution of arthritis. Early administration of disease modifying drugs more often induces of clinico-laboratory remission in pts with high levels of lymphocyte markers and antiinflammatory cytokines.

  8. PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF THE THREE PATHWAYS TO WELL-BEING SCALE IN A LARGE SAMPLE OF ARGENTINEAN ADOLESCENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góngora, Vanesa C; Castro Solano, Alejandro

    2015-08-01

    The Authentic Happiness Theory considers that well-being can be reached by three main pathways: a pleasant life, an engaged life, or a meaningful life. This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Three Pathways to Well-being scale in Argentinean adolescents and compares that to prior results for Argentinean adults. A sample of 255 Argentinean adolescent students (110 boys, 145 girls) aged between 13 and 18 years (M age = 15.5, SD = 1.6) was used in this study. The participants completed the Spanish versions of the Three Pathways to Well-being scale, the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the Personal Wellbeing Index. Confirmatory factor analyses verified the three-factor structure of the test, accounting for 46% of the variance. The internal consistencies were α = .76 for the pleasant life, α = .80 for the engaged life, and α = .70 for the meaningful life. Concurrent validity was examined with the Satisfaction With Life Scale, the Personal Wellbeing Index, and the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, and the engaged life was the pathway most strongly associated with the positive related measures.

  9. A descriptive social and health profile of a community sample of adults and adolescents with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantam Digby

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the health and social profile of adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome (AS living in the community. We conducted a study to describe the living, employment and psycho-social situation of a community sample of forty two adults and adolescents with AS, and to describe these indivdiuals' experiences of accessing health services and taking medication. Findings Most respondents (including those over eighteen years of age lived at home with their parents. Most had trouble reading and responding to other people's feelings, and coping with unexpected changes. Difficulties with life skills, such as cleaning, washing and hygiene were prevalent. The majority of respondents were socially isolated and a large minority had been sexually or financially exploited. Almost all respondents had been bullied. Mental health problems such as anxiety or depression were common. 30% of respondents said that they regularly became violent and hit other people and 15% had attempted suicide. More positively, the majority of respondents felt that they could access health services if they had a health problem. Conclusions The results of this study suggest a relatively poor social and health profile for many people with Asperger syndrome living in the community, with high levels of social problems and social exclusion, and difficulties managing day to day tasks such as washing and cleaning; these findings support the results of other studies that have examined psycho-social functioning in this group.

  10. Continuity, psychosocial correlates, and outcome of problematic substance use from adolescence to young adulthood in a community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metzke Christa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of the continuity, psychosocial correlates, and prediction of problematic substance use (PSU across time from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods Substance use was studied in a cohort of N = 593 subjects who had been assessed at three times between adolescence and young adulthood within the Zurich Psychology and Psychopathology Study (ZAPPS. Based on the frequency of tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis consumption, groups with PSU were defined at each of the three measurement points in time and compared to the rest of the sample. Comparisons included questionnaire data regarding emotional and behavioural problems, life events, coping style, self-related cognitions, perceived parenting style, perceived school environment, and size and efficiency of the social network. Results The size of the groups with PSU increased continuously across time. The cross-sectional correlates of PSU were characterized by a similar pattern that included higher scores for externalizing behaviour, and both number and negative impact of life events across all three times. At time 1 and 2 subjects with PSU also experienced less favourable parenting styles and school environments. Longitudinally, PSU in young adulthood was predicted most strongly and persistently by previous risk status, externalizing problems and male gender. Conclusion Problematic substance use is a major problem in youth. Its contributing pattern of associated and predictive psychosocial variables can be identified in the community.

  11. The Relationship between Multiple Substance Use, Perceived Academic Achievements, and Selected Socio-Demographic Factors in a Polish Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Joanna; Tabak, Izabela; Dzielska, Anna; Wąż, Krzysztof; Oblacińska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Predictors of high-risk patterns of substance use are often analysed in relation to demographic and school-related factors. The interaction between these factors and the additional impact of family wealth are still new areas of research. The aim of this study was to find determinants of the most common patterns of psychoactive substance use in mid-adolescence, compared to non-users. A sample of 1202 Polish students (46.1% boys, mean age of 15.6 years) was surveyed in 2013/2014. Four patterns of psychoactive substance use were defined using cluster analysis: non-users—71.9%, mainly tobacco and alcohol users—13.7%, high alcohol and cannabis users—7.2%, poly-users—7.2%. The final model contained the main effects of gender and age, and one three-way (perceived academic achievement × gender × family affluence) interaction. Girls with poor perception of school performance (as compared to girls with better achievements) were at significantly higher risk of being poly-users, in both less and more affluent families (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 5.55 and OR = 3.60, respectively). The impact of family affluence was revealed only in interaction with other factors. Patterns of substance use in mid-adolescence are strongly related to perceived academic achievements, and these interact with selected socio-demographic factors. PMID:28009806

  12. The Relationship between Multiple Substance Use, Perceived Academic Achievements, and Selected Socio-Demographic Factors in a Polish Adolescent Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Mazur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Predictors of high-risk patterns of substance use are often analysed in relation to demographic and school-related factors. The interaction between these factors and the additional impact of family wealth are still new areas of research. The aim of this study was to find determinants of the most common patterns of psychoactive substance use in mid-adolescence, compared to non-users. A sample of 1202 Polish students (46.1% boys, mean age of 15.6 years was surveyed in 2013/2014. Four patterns of psychoactive substance use were defined using cluster analysis: non-users—71.9%, mainly tobacco and alcohol users—13.7%, high alcohol and cannabis users—7.2%, poly-users—7.2%. The final model contained the main effects of gender and age, and one three-way (perceived academic achievement × gender × family affluence interaction. Girls with poor perception of school performance (as compared to girls with better achievements were at significantly higher risk of being poly-users, in both less and more affluent families (adjusted odds ratio (OR = 5.55 and OR = 3.60, respectively. The impact of family affluence was revealed only in interaction with other factors. Patterns of substance use in mid-adolescence are strongly related to perceived academic achievements, and these interact with selected socio-demographic factors.

  13. Developmental dyscalculia in children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsies in a Brazilian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomé, Ursula; Paixão Alves, Sandra Regina da; Guerreiro, Sabrina Mendonça; Machado da Costa, Célia Regina Carvalho; Souza Moreira, Fernanda de; Bandeira Lima, Andrea; Ferreira Tavares, Maria Rita; Souza Maia Filho, Heber

    2014-04-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent chronic disorders of childhood which can threaten child development and mental health. Among cognitive disorders, dyscalculia is one of the most important. In this study, 39 children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessment to determine the intellectual level, math skills, reading and writing performance and neuropsychological profile. It was observed that the mathematical ability was below schooling expectations in a higher frequency than expected. There were no significant differences in mathematical performance among groups divided by number of antiepileptic drugs used, duration of disease and types and frequency of seizures. There was a positive correlation with intelligence quotient and attentional and reading level. These results suggest the existence not only of dyscalculia, but the concurrence of attentional and reading problems for the poor mathematical performance in this population.

  14. Developmental dyscalculia in children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsies in a Brazilian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Thomé

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent chronic disorders of childhood which can threaten child development and mental health. Among cognitive disorders, dyscalculia is one of the most important. In this study, 39 children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessment to determine the intellectual level, math skills, reading and writing performance and neuropsychological profile. It was observed that the mathematical ability was below schooling expectations in a higher frequency than expected. There were no significant differences in mathematical performance among groups divided by number of antiepileptic drugs used, duration of disease and types and frequency of seizures. There was a positive correlation with intelligence quotient and attentional and reading level. These results suggest the existence not only of dyscalculia, but the concurrence of attentional and reading problems for the poor mathematical performance in this population.

  15. Maintenance treatment of adolescent bipolar disorder: open study of the effectiveness and tolerability of quetiapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Robert

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness and tolerability of quetiapine as a maintenance treatment preventing against relapse or recurrence of acute mood episodes in adolescent patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Methods Consenting patients meeting DSM-IV lifetime criteria for a bipolar disorder and clinically appropriate for maintenance treatment were enrolled in a 48-week open prospective study. After being acutely stabilized (CGI-S ≤ 3 for 4 consecutive weeks, patients were started or continued on quetiapine and other medications were weaned off over an 8-week period. Quetiapine monotherapy was continued for 40-weeks and other mood stabilizers or antidepressants were added if clinically indicated. A neurocognitive test battery assessing the most reliable findings in adult patients was administered at fixed time points throughout the study to patients and matched controls. Results Of the 21 enrolled patients, 18 completed the 48-week study. Thirteen patients were able to be maintained without relapse or recurrence in good quality remission on quetiapine monotherapy, while 5 patients required additional medication to treat impairing residual depressive and/or anxiety symptoms. According to symptom ratings and global functioning scores, the quality of remission for all patients was very good. Neurocognitive test performance over treatment was equivalent to that of a matched control group of never ill adolescents. Quetiapine was generally well tolerated with no serious adverse effects. Conclusion This study suggests that a proportion of adolescent patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder can be successfully maintained on quetiapine monotherapy. The good quality of clinical remission and preserved neurocognitive functioning underscores the importance of early diagnosis and effective stabilization. Clinical Trials Registry D1441L00024

  16. Manual therapy as a conservative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrini Stefano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is contingent upon many variables. Simple observation is enough for less serious curvatures, but for very serious cases surgical intervention could be proposed. Between these there is a wide range of different treatments. Manual therapy is commonly used: the aim of this paper is to verify the data existing in the literature on the efficacy of this approach. Methods A systematic review of the scientific literature published internationally has been performed. We have included in the term manual therapy all the manipulative and generally passive techniques performed by an external operator. In a more specific meaning, osteopathic, chiropractic and massage techniques have been considered as manipulative therapeutic methods. We performed our systematic research in Medline, Embase, Cinhal, Cochrane Library, Pedro with the following terms: idiopathic scoliosis combined with chiropractic; manipulation; mobilization; manual therapy; massage; osteopathy; and therapeutic manipulation. The criteria for inclusion were as follows: Any kind of research; diagnosis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; patients treated exclusively by one of the procedures established as a standard for this review (chiropractic manipulation, osteopathic techniques, massage; and outcome in Cobb degrees. Results We founded 145 texts, but only three papers were relevant to our study. However, no one of the three satisfied all the required inclusion criteria because they were characterized by a combination of manual techniques and other therapeutic approaches. Conclusion The lack of any kind of serious scientific data does not allow us to draw any conclusion on the efficacy of manual therapy as an efficacious technique for the treatment of Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

  17. Asthma treatment in children and adolescents in an urban area in southern Brazil: popular myths and features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Roncada

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the frequency of popular myths about and features of asthma treatment in children and adolescents in an urban area in southern Brazil. Methods: The parents or legal guardians of public school students (8-16 years of age completed a specific questionnaire regarding their understanding of asthma, asthma control, and treatment characteristics. The sample included parents or legal guardians of students with asthma (n = 127 and healthy controls (n = 124. Results: The study involved 251 parents or legal guardians, of whom 127 (68.5% were the mothers and 130 (51.8% were White. The mean age of these participants was 38.47 ± 12.07 years. Of the participants in the asthma and control groups, 37 (29.1% and 26 (21.0%, respectively, reported being afraid of using asthma medications, whereas 61 (48% and 56 (45.2%, respectively, believed that using a metered dose inhaler can lead to drug dependence. However, only 17 (13.4% and 17 (13.7% of the participants in the asthma and control groups, respectively, reported being afraid of using oral corticosteroids. In the asthma group, 55 students (43.3% were diagnosed with uncontrolled asthma, only 41 (32.3% had a prescription or written treatment plan, and 38 (29.9% used asthma medications regularly. Conclusions: Popular myths about asthma treatment were common in our sample, as were uncontrolled asthma and inappropriate asthma management. Further studies in this field should be conducted in other developing countries, as should evaluations of pediatric asthma treatment programs in public health systems.

  18. Prevalence of the Pathological Internet Use in a Sample of Turkish School Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Canbaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The Internet addiction, also described as pathological Internet use (PIU, is conceptualized by an individual's in­ability to control his or her use of the Internet, which eventually causes marked distress and/or functional impairment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of the PIU among adolescence, in relation to different Internet ac­tivities, and to excessive use of the Internet in Samsun, Turkey."nMethods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 1 and 31, 2005 in Samsun, Turkey. In total, 1315 high school students (760 male, 555 female; mean age, 15.2±1.1 years were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire and Young's Internet Addiction Scale (IAS was applied to the participants."nResults: Although only 506 (38.5% of the participants have a computer at their home, total 1054 (80.2% used a computer at home or public, such as an internet cafe. Eight hundred and ten (76.9% of the participants, used a computer, to access to the Internet. Of the internet users, 10(1.2%, 161 (19.9% and 639 (78.9% were Internet addicts (IAs, possible Internet ad­dicts (PAs, and nonaddicts (NAs, respectively. It is found that males were more likely than females to be pathological us­ers in this study (P< 0.05."nConclusion: Our results still demonstrate that the Internet plays an important role in the lives of Turkish adolescents.

  19. PROBLEMATIC INTERNET USE AMONG INDIAN ADOLESCENTS: FINDING FROM A SAMPLE OF UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneesh Bhat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND There is paucity of data related excessive or problematic internet use among young adults in India. METHOD The sample consisted of 1763 undergraduate students of various faculties across the city of Mangalore, Karnataka. The study was approved by Nitte University Institutional Ethics Committee and permission was sought from the concerned colleges. Students were cross-sectionally assessed with a specially constructed semi-structured proforma, SRQ-20 (WHO and The Internet Addiction Test (IAT; Young, 1998, which was self-administered by the students after giving them brief instructions. Subjects were classified into mild users, moderate users, and addicts for comparison. RESULTS Of the 1763 participants who took part in the study, 64.4% (n=1136 were female and 35.6% (n=627 were males. The mean age of participants was 19.73±1.4 years. About 54.56% of total participants were using internet for more than 4 years. As per the Young’s original criteria, about 10.4% were moderate problematic user and 0.8% was found to severe problematic user. However, 35.5% of participant felt that they are addicted to internet. 54.8% used it for multiple times in a day. 63.8% were using mobile phone internet. Significant correlation between IAT scores and SRQ scores indicates that higher the internet use higher is the physical and psychological problems. CONCLUSION Our result shows that problematic internet user among young adults is prevalent and this population might be at risk of addiction. It indicates that there higher need to design an intervention and treatments for this susceptible group.

  20. Computerised Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for the Prevention and Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Thomas; Stallard, Paul; Velleman, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT) can be effective in the treatment of depression and anxiety in adults, although the outcomes with children and adolescents are unclear. The aim of the study is to systematically review the literature on the effectiveness of cCBT for the prevention and treatment of depression…

  1. Brief Strategic Family Therapy versus Treatment as Usual: Results of a Multisite Randomized Trial for Substance Using Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Michael S.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Horigian, Viviana E.; Rohrbaugh, Michael; Shoham, Varda; Bachrach, Ken; Miller, Michael; Burlew, Kathleen A.; Hodgkins, Candy; Carrion, Ibis; Vandermark, Nancy; Schindler, Eric; Werstlein, Robert; Szapocznik, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of brief strategic family therapy (BSFT; an evidence-based family therapy) compared to treatment as usual (TAU) as provided in community-based adolescent outpatient drug abuse programs. Method: A randomized effectiveness trial in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network compared BSFT to…

  2. Clinical and biochemical correlates of successful semen collection for cryopreservation from 12-18-year-old patients: a single-center study of 86 adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagenäs, Isabella; Jørgensen, Niels; Rechnitzer, Catherine;

    2010-01-01

    Cryopreservation of semen should be offered to adults before gonadotoxic treatment. However, the experience with semen collection in adolescents is still limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential correlates of successful semen sampling in adolescents....

  3. [The consequences of closed traumatic brain injury and piracetam efficacy in their treatment in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadenko, N N; Guzilova, L S

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of piracetam in the treatment of the consequences of moderate and severe closed traumatic brain injury was assessed in 42 patients, aged 12-18 years, who suffered traumatic disorders 1,5-5 years before this study. Adolescents from the main group (20 patients) received piracetam in dosage of 40-50 mg/kg (or 1600-2400 mg daily) during one month. 22 patients of the second group were examined as controls. The positive therapeutic effects of piracetam on cognitive (memory, attention, executive functions) and motor (coordination) functions as well as the speed of cognitive and motor performance were demonstrated in this study.

  4. The use of antipsychotic medication in child and adolescent psychiatric treatment in Denmark. A cross-sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deurell, Maria; Weischer, Merete; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine;

    2008-01-01

    for patients in antipsychotic treatment were: schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, autism spectrum disorders and personality disorders. Monotherapy was used in 87% of cases. Sixty-four per cent of patients treated with antipsychotics, received a second-generation antipsychotic as the main treatment. All 244...... patients received one or more additional treatment modalities other than medication. Antipsychotic medication has a definite role in the treatment of children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Second-generation antipsychotics used as monotherapy prevail....

  5. Family Influences on Alcohol Abuse and Other Problem Behaviors among Black and White Adolescents in a General Population Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Grace M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    An ongoing longitudinal study of 699 adolescents and their parents, begun when the adolescents were ages 13 to 16, found that, although black families had more single-parent households and lower family incomes than white families, black adolescents had higher abstention rates and lower rates of alcohol abuse and other deviance than white…

  6. Mental Health Literacy and Eating-Disordered Behavior: Beliefs of Adolescent Girls Concerning the Treatment of and Treatment-Seeking for Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mond, J. M.; Marks, P.; Hay, P. J.; Rodgers, B.; Kelly, C.; Owen, C.; Paxton, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    This research examined the "mental health literacy" of adolescents concerning eating-disordered behavior. A vignette describing a fictional 16-year old female meeting diagnostic criteria for bulimia nervosa was presented to 522 female high school students, followed by a series of questions concerning treatment of and treatment-seeking…

  7. A Review of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) and the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) with an Emphasis on Juvenile Justice Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Linda J.; Archer, Robert P.; Forbey, Johnathan D.; Handel, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) and Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) are frequently used objective personality self-report measures. Given their widespread use, the purpose of the current study was to examine and compare the literature base for the two instruments. A comprehensive review of the…

  8. Malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among adolescents in Nellore District of Andhra pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar Kaipa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malocclusion is misalignment of teeth and /or incorrect relation between the teeth of the dental arches. It leads to various unfavorable psychological and social sequelae. The concept of early diagnosis of malocclusion plays a very important role in identifying the disease and performing the treatment. Objectives: To assess the prevalence and severity of malocclusion and to determine orthodontic treatment needs among 13-15 year old school children inNellore district of Andhra Pradesh. Materials & Method: A descriptive cross sectional study was undertaken among a total of 2126 school children aged 13-15 years. Dental Aesthetic Index was used to assess malocclusion. Results: About 50.8% of them had dental appearance for whom orthodontic treatment need was ′slight′ or ′not indicated and one third of them (31% needed elective treatment. The rest of the children had dental appearance varying from severe to handicapping malocclusion for whom treatment was highly desirable (10.2% or mandatory (8%. Conclusions: Forty nine percent of adolescents from Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh were in need of orthodontic treatment for dental health reasons. Among the components of Dental Aesthetic Index, incisal segment crowding was mainly responsible for allocating subjects into the group of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need. The importance in having this data is in influencing policy makers and government officials to design health education programs and preventive orthodontic treatment programs.

  9. PTSD among a treatment sample of repeat DUI offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, Allyson J; Najavits, Lisa M; Nelson, Sarah E; LaBrie, Richard A; Shaffer, Howard J

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies indicate that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the most common psychiatric comorbidities among driving-under-the-influence (DUI) offenders in treatment. Investigation of DUI offenders' PTSD and clinical characteristics could have important implications for prevention and treatment. This prospective study examined the demographic and clinical characteristics of repeat DUI offenders with PTSD symptoms at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Seven hundred twenty-nine DUI offenders admitted to a 2-week inpatient program participated in the study. Participants with PTSD evidenced more severe psychiatric comorbidity and reported a higher DUI recidivism rate at 1-year than those without PTSD. This study suggests a need to address PTSD among DUI offenders, as well as to further develop methodologies for accurately reporting DUI recidivism.

  10. The unmet orthodontic treatment need of adolescents and influencing factors for not seeking orthodontic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalj, Stjepan; Slaj, Martina; Athanasiou, Athanasios E; Govorko, Danijela Kalibović; Slaj, Mladen

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate unmet orthodontic treatment needs of adolescents in Zagreb, Croatia, compare normative and self-perceived need and investigate factors influencing the reason why untreated subjects with severe malocclusions have not been treated before. One thousand and forty-two non-orthodontically treated subjects in age groups of 12 and 18 years, from sixteen randomly selected public schools in Zagreb, Croatia were examined. The Dental Aesthetic Index, Aesthetic Component of Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need and a questionnaire concerning self-perceived orthodontic treatment need, perception of aesthetics, function, behaviors and socioeconomic status were used. Around one third of untreated adolescent population had an objective need, less than 20 percent had aesthetic need, and self-perceived need was reported in one third of population. Associations and agreements between objective, aesthetic and self-perceived need were weak (r = 0.27-0.48; p 0.05) to 0.32 (p malocclusion were better related in persons with no treatment need or minor need (r = 0.53-0.59) than in those with major need (r = 0.31-0.40). Multiple logistic regression analyses confirmed that objective, aesthetic and self-perceived needs were better related between themselves than to socio-economic status of subjects, function, activities of daily living and oral health-related behaviors. It appears that self-perceived treatment need has low role in predicting objective need, but relation between satisfaction and awareness of malocclusion could be one of basic factors in process of making decision to go for treatment and maybe could serve in predicting patient's compliance.

  11. Methylphenidate treatment beyond adolescence maintains increased cocaine self-administration in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat model of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Baskin, Britahny M.; Linda P. Dwoskin; Kantak, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Past research with the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) model of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder showed that adolescent methylphenidate treatment enhanced cocaine abuse risk in SHR during adulthood. Acquisition of cocaine self-administration was faster, and cocaine dose-response functions were shifted upward under fixed-ratio and progressive ratio schedules compared to adult SHR that received adolescent vehicle treatment or to control strains that received adolescent methylphenid...

  12. The development of an RDoC-based treatment program for adolescent depression: “Training for Awareness, Resilience, and Action” (TARA)

    OpenAIRE

    Eva eHenje Blom; Duncan, Larissa G.; Tiffany Cheing Ho; Colm Gerard Connolly; LeWinn, Kaja Z.; Margaret eChesney; Hecht, Frederick M.; Yang, Tony T.

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the current leading causes of disability worldwide. Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the onset of depression, with MDD affecting 8–20% of all youth. Traditional treatment methods have not been sufficiently effective to slow the increasing prevalence of adolescent depression. We therefore propose a new model for the treatment of adolescent depression – Training for Awareness, Resilience, and Action (TARA) – that is based on current understanding ...

  13. Perpetration, revictimization, and self-injury: traumatic reenactments of child sexual abuse in a nonclinical sample of South African adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, Susan L; Collings, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for traumatic reenactments of child sexual abuse experiences (perpetration, revictimization, and self-injury) were examined in a sample of 718 South African secondary school adolescents. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the most consistent predictors of reenactments were a history of child sexual abuse (rape and/or indecent assault) and respondents' gender, with males being significantly more likely than females to report perpetration (OR = 13.5) and females being more likely to report revictimization (OR = 3.2) and self-injury (OR = 2.5). An analysis restricted to respondents with a history of child sexual abuse indicated that negative abuse-related cognitions were the most consistent predictor of all forms of traumatic reenactment.

  14. Relationships between depressive symptoms and perceived social support, self-esteem, & optimism in a sample of rural adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Scott; Puskar, Kathryn Rose; Ren, Dianxu

    2010-09-01

    Stress, developmental changes and social adjustment problems can be significant in rural teens. Screening for psychosocial problems by teachers and other school personnel is infrequent but can be a useful health promotion strategy. We used a cross-sectional survey descriptive design to examine the inter-relationships between depressive symptoms and perceived social support, self-esteem, and optimism in a sample of rural school-based adolescents. Depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with peer social support, family social support, self-esteem, and optimism. Findings underscore the importance for teachers and other school staff to provide health education. Results can be used as the basis for education to improve optimism, self-esteem, social supports and, thus, depression symptoms of teens.

  15. Validation of a subjective well-being inventory with youth and adolescents Argentinean, Mexican, and Brazilian Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Pino Peña, Roberto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to adapt the Well-Being Inventory of Nacpal & Shell for using with Latinamerican youth and adolescents. The conceptual, semantic and operational equivalence of inventory prototype version was analized. The final version was administered to a sample of 1,891 students (730 Mexicans, 664 Argentines and 497 Brazilians who also filled a set of recognized instruments developed to explore resilience, coping, sense of humor, emotional intelligence and cultural values. The exploration of factorial validity showed six orthogonal factors which explained almost 59% of total variance. Construct validity was demostrated through positive and significant correlations between subjective well-being and most of the variables considered. Reliability of the adapted instrument reached satisfactory levels. In light of the results some suggestions for future research in the area are made

  16. Validation of the Marijuana Effect Expectancies Questionnaire (MEEQ in a Non-Clinical French-Speaking Adolescent Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Schmits

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Teenagers commonly use cannabis. Expectancies related to the effects of cannabis play an important role in its consumption and are frequently measured with the Marijuana Effect Expectancies Questionnaire (MEEQ. This study aims to assess the psychometric properties (factor structure, internal consistency reliability, criterion validity of the French MEEQ. A sample of 1,343 non-clinical teenagers (14–18 years were recruited to answer a self-report questionnaire; 877 of them responded twice (one-year interval. A four-factor structure was obtained: Cognitive Impairment and Negative, Relaxation and Social Facilitation, Perceptual Enhancement and Craving and Negative Behavioral Effect Expectancies. It is concluded that the French MEEQ constitutes an appropriate tool to measure cannabis effect expectancies among adolescents.

  17. The development of an RDoC based treatment program for adolescent depression Training for Awareness, Resilience, and Action (TARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eHenje Blom

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is one of the current leading causes of disability worldwide. Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the onset of depression, with MDD affecting 8-20% of all youth. Traditional treatment methods have not been sufficiently effective to slow the increasing prevalence of adolescent depression. We therefore propose a new model for the treatment of adolescent depression – Training for Awareness, Resilience, and Action (TARA – that is based on current understanding of developmental and depression neurobiology. The TARA model is aligned with the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC of the National Institute of Mental Health. In this article, we first address the relevance of RDoC to adolescent depression. Second, we identify the major RDoC domains of function involved in adolescent depression and organize them in a way that gives priority to domains thought to be driving the psychopathology. Third, we select therapeutic training strategies for TARA based on current scientific evidence of efficacy for the prioritized domains of function in a manner that maximizes time, resources, and feasibility. The TARA model takes into consideration the developmental limitation in top-down cognitive control in adolescence and promotes bottom-up strategies such as vagal afference to decrease limbic hyperactivation and its secondary effects. The program has been informed by mindfulness-based therapy and yoga, as well as modern psychotherapeutic techniques. The treatment program is semi-manualized, progressive, and applied in a module-based approach designed for a group setting that is to be conducted one session per week for 12 weeks. We hope that this work may form the basis for a novel and more effective treatment strategy for adolescent depression, as well as broaden the discussion on how to address this challenge.

  18. The development of an RDoC-based treatment program for adolescent depression: "Training for Awareness, Resilience, and Action" (TARA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henje Blom, Eva; Duncan, Larissa G; Ho, Tiffany C; Connolly, Colm G; LeWinn, Kaja Z; Chesney, Margaret; Hecht, Frederick M; Yang, Tony T

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the current leading causes of disability worldwide. Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the onset of depression, with MDD affecting 8-20% of all youth. Traditional treatment methods have not been sufficiently effective to slow the increasing prevalence of adolescent depression. We therefore propose a new model for the treatment of adolescent depression - Training for Awareness, Resilience, and Action (TARA) - that is based on current understanding of developmental and depression neurobiology. The TARA model is aligned with the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) of the National Institute of Mental Health. In this article, we first address the relevance of RDoC to adolescent depression. Second, we identify the major RDoC domains of function involved in adolescent depression and organize them in a way that gives priority to domains thought to be driving the psychopathology. Third, we select therapeutic training strategies for TARA based on current scientific evidence of efficacy for the prioritized domains of function in a manner that maximizes time, resources, and feasibility. The TARA model takes into consideration the developmental limitation in top-down cognitive control in adolescence and promotes bottom-up strategies such as vagal afference to decrease limbic hyperactivation and its secondary effects. The program has been informed by mindfulness-based therapy and yoga, as well as modern psychotherapeutic techniques. The treatment program is semi-manualized, progressive, and applied in a module-based approach designed for a group setting that is to be conducted one session per week for 12 weeks. We hope that this work may form the basis for a novel and more effective treatment strategy for adolescent depression, as well as broaden the discussion on how to address this challenge.

  19. Barriers to depression treatment in low-income, unmarried, adolescent mothers in a southern, urban area of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logsdon, M Cynthia; Hines-Martin, Vicki; Rakestraw, Vivian

    2009-07-01

    This study explored barriers to depression treatment in low-income, unmarried, adolescent mothers in a southern, urban area of the United States. The authors utilized a phenomenological approach and focus group methodology. Participants (n = 9) were enrolled in a teen parent program, an option of the public school system. The metaphor of a merry-go-round emerged from the data and represented the ups and downs that the adolescent mothers experience as they struggle to adjust to the role of mother. Their knowledge of postpartum depression and depression treatment occurred in the context of their demographics and their desire to create a family for their baby, their fears, and surprise at the reality of mothering. Childbirth education for adolescent mothers should include information on depression and the process of depression treatment.

  20. Frequency of aggressive behaviors in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Sadinejad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to explore the frequency of aggressive behaviors among a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Methods: This nationwide study was performed on a multi-stage sample of 6-18 years students, living in 30 provinces in Iran. Students were asked to confidentially report the frequency of aggressive behaviors including physical fighting, bullying and being bullied in the previous 12 months, using the questionnaire of the World Health Organization Global School Health Survey. Results: In this cross-sectional study, 13,486 students completed the study (90.6% participation rate; they consisted of 49.2% girls and 75.6% urban residents. The mean age of participants was 12.47 years (95% confidence interval: 12.29, 12.65. In total, physical fight was more prevalent among boys than girls (48% vs. 31%, P < 0.001. Higher rates of involvement in two other behaviors namely being bullied and bulling to other classmates had a higher frequency among boys compared to girls (29% vs. 25%, P < 0.001 for being bullied and (20% vs. 14%, P < 0.001 for bulling to others. Physical fighting was more prevalent among rural residents (40% vs. 39%, respectively, P = 0.61, while being bullied was more common among urban students (27% vs. 26%, respectively, P = 0.69. Conclusions: Although in this study the frequency of aggressive behaviors was lower than many other populations, still these findings emphasize on the importance of designing preventive interventions that target the students, especially in early adolescence, and to increase their awareness toward aggressive behaviors. Implications for future research and aggression prevention programming are recommended.

  1. Associations Among Excess Weight Status and Tobacco, Alcohol, and Illicit Drug Use in a Large National Sample of Early Adolescent Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Meg H; Becnel, Jennifer; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Peugh, James; Wu, Yelena P

    2016-05-01

    Adolescent substance use and overweight/obesity each are public health priorities, with unique prevalences based on race/ethnicity. Whether these biobehavioral risks are linked in today's youth is unknown, leaving critical gaps in prevention science. Utilizing a national epidemiological sample of 10th grade students (N = 19,678; M age = 16.09 years; 69.5 % White, 14.5 % Black, 16.0 % Hispanic; 2008-2009 Monitoring the Future), we examined adolescent substance use behaviors (current use, grade of first use, polysubstance use) for adolescents of overweight (OV), obese (OB), or severely obese (SO) status compared to adolescents of healthy weight (HW) for each race/ethnicity group. We also examined how engagement in smoking behaviors (current, early grade at first use) was linked to other substance use behaviors for youth of varying degrees of excess weight. Relative to HW youth, White youth of excess weight, particularly SO, had higher odds of early (youth. These findings suggest adolescent health risk behaviors co-occur uniquely for White youth, in particular those who are SO and by early adolescence. Understanding the downstream public health consequences and how risk pathways of excess weight, tobacco, and other substance use may uniquely unfold for each race/ethnicity group is imperative.

  2. Evidence of association between Val66Met polymorphism at BDNF gene and anxiety disorders in a community sample of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocchetto, Andréa; Salum, Giovanni A; Blaya, Carolina; Teche, Stefania; Isolan, Luciano; Bortoluzzi, Andressa; Rebelo E Silva, Rafael; Becker, Juliana A; Bianchin, Marino M; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Manfro, Gisele G

    2011-09-20

    Different lines of evidence support BDNF as a candidate gene in mood and anxiety modulation. More recently, the Met allele of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism has been implicated in anxiety in animal models and anxiety-traits in humans. The aim of this study is to evaluate the a priori hypothesis that the association between anxiety disorders and Val66Met polymorphism at the BDNF gene would be replicated in a community sample of children and adolescents. 240 subjects from a total sample of 2457 children and adolescents aged 10-17 years from the public schools in the catchment area of the primary care unit of a university hospital participated in this case-control study and were assessed for psychopathology using the K-SADS-PL. A sample of saliva was collected for DNA analysis of Val66Met polymorphism. BDNF was the single gene evaluated in this sample. We found a significant association between carrying one copy of the Met allele and higher chance of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. The association remained positive even after the adjustment for potential confounders (228 subjects; OR=3.53 (CI95% 1.77-7.06; p<0.001)). Our results support the a priori hypothesis of an association between anxiety and the polymorphism Val66Met. To our knowledge, this is the first study documenting a potential role of this polymorphism in a community sample of anxious children and adolescents.

  3. Treatment-resistant depression in adolescents: is the addition of cognitive behavioral therapy of benefit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetrick SE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Sarah E Hetrick1, Georgina R Cox1, Sally N Merry21Orygen Youth Health Research Centre, Centre for Youth Mental Health, Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; 2Werry Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Department of Psychological Medicine, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandBackground: Many young people with major depression fail first-line treatments. Treatment resistant depression has various definitions in the literature but typically assumes nonresponse to medication. In young people, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT is the recommended firstline intervention, thus the definition of treatment resistance should be expanded. Therefore, our aim was to synthesize the existing evidence of any interventions for treatment-resistant depression, broadly defined, in children and adolescents and to investigate the effectiveness of CBT in this context. Methods: We used Cochrane Collaboration methodology, with electronic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Depression Anxiety and Neurosis Group trials registers. Only randomized controlled trials were included, and were assessed for risk of bias. Meta-analysis was undertaken where possible and appropriate.Results: Of 953 articles retrieved, four trials were eligible for inclusion. For one study, only the trial registration document was available, because the study was never completed. All other studies were well conducted with a low risk of bias, although one study had a high dropout rate. Two studies assessed the effect of adding CBT to medication. While an assertive trial of antidepressants does appear to lead to benefit, when compared with placebo, there was no significant advantage, in either study, or in a meta-analysis of data from these trials, that clearly demonstrated an additional benefit of CBT. The third trial showed little advantage of a tricyclic antidepressant over placebo in the context of an inpatient admission. Conclusion: Few randomized

  4. Adolescent methylphenidate treatment differentially alters adult impulsivity and hyperactivity in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat model of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkuwar, S S; Kantak, K M; Bardo, M T; Dwoskin, L P

    2016-02-01

    Impulsivity and hyperactivity are two facets of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Impulsivity is expressed as reduced response inhibition capacity, an executive control mechanism that prevents premature execution of an intermittently reinforced behavior. During methylphenidate treatment, impulsivity and hyperactivity are decreased in adolescents with ADHD, but there is little information concerning levels of impulsivity and hyperactivity in adulthood after adolescent methylphenidate treatment is discontinued. The current study evaluated impulsivity, hyperactivity as well as cocaine sensitization during adulthood after adolescent methylphenidate treatment was discontinued in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) model of ADHD. Treatments consisted of oral methylphenidate (1.5mg/kg) or water vehicle provided Monday-Friday from postnatal days 28-55. During adulthood, impulsivity was measured in SHR and control strains (Wistar Kyoto and Wistar rats) using differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL) schedules. Locomotor activity and cocaine sensitization were measured using the open-field assay. Adult SHR exhibited decreased efficiency of reinforcement under the DRL30 schedule and greater levels of locomotor activity and cocaine sensitization compared to control strains. Compared to vehicle, methylphenidate treatment during adolescence reduced hyperactivity in adult SHR, maintained the lower efficiency of reinforcement, and increased burst responding under DRL30. Cocaine sensitization was not altered following adolescent methylphenidate in adult SHR. In conclusion, adolescent treatment with methylphenidate followed by discontinuation in adulthood had a positive benefit by reducing hyperactivity in adult SHR rats; however, increased burst responding under DRL compared to SHR given vehicle, i.e., elevated impulsivity, constituted an adverse consequence associated with increased risk for cocaine abuse liability.

  5. Support after the completion of cancer treatment: perspectives of Australian adolescents and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, C E; McLoone, J; Butow, P; Lenthen, K; Cohn, R J

    2013-07-01

    Young people recovering from cancer may lack adequate support post-treatment, yet little is known about the types of support and information young Australians and their families need. This study investigated adolescent/young adult cancer survivors' and their families' perceptions of care and support needs after completing cancer treatment. Seventy semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 survivors (mean age 16.1 years), 21 mothers, 15 fathers and 15 siblings. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using the conceptual framework of Miles and Huberman. Post-treatment, participants regarded medical staff positively but were reluctant to ask for their help fearing it may deflect resources away from patients still receiving treatment. Appraisals of social workers' and psychologists' support post-treatment were mixed. Formal emotional support was rarely accessed and participants reported that any additional funds should be directed to greater psychological support in this period. Participants also reported the need for additional financial support post-treatment. Clinicians need to be aware that while young people and their families may not demand support post-treatment, they may 'suffer in silence' or burden family members and friends with the responsibility of providing emotional support, though they may be experiencing distress also.

  6. Effectiveness of reboxetine in treatment of outpatient children and adolescents with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder with comorbid anxiety disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Riahi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Some previous studies have reported that ADHD is often comorbid with anxiety disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of reboxetine in treating outpatient children and adolescents with ADHD and comorbid anxiety disorders.In this open-label study, 25 outpatient children and adolescents, aged 6-16 years were selected by convenient sampling and underwent treatment with 4mg reboxetine for four weeks. Data were collected at baseline, two weeks and four weeks after the start of the medication using Conners' Parent Questionnaire, Hamilton's Rating Scale for Anxiety, Clinical Global Assessment Scale, Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale and Side Effects Form. Data were analyzed using repeated measure, analyses of variance (ANOVA, Tukey post hoc test and paired t-test.There were significant reduction in the total score of ADHD (F = 31.441; P <0.001 at the end of the treatment compared to baseline (Table 1. The differences between T0 and T2 in the subscales of attention deficit, hyperactivity and confrontation (F = 20.691; P <0.001, F = 28.810; P < 0.001, and F = 17.463; P <0.001, respectively were also significant. Findings also indicated significant differences between T0 and T1 (P<0.01 and T1 and T2 (P<0.01 in all of the subscales except for confrontation. A significant improvement was observed in the severity of ADHD and anxiety disorders during different courses of the treatment (p<0.001. No significant changes were observed in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse and weight of the patients during the study. The most common complications were headache and anorexia.The short-term treatment with reboxetine was effective in improving ADHD with comorbid anxiety disorders. Therefore, reboxetine could be used as a treatment option for ADHD in those children who experience comorbid anxiety disorders or in those who are non-responsive or intolerant to methylphenidate.

  7. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in African American Children and Adolescents: Risks, Resiliency, and Barriers to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Monnica T; Jahn, Matthew E

    2016-05-30

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a serious condition that remains understudied in ethnoracial minority populations. The presence of OCD and the individual, familial, and cultural factors that influence this condition can interfere with healthy development and cause lifelong disability. To date, there has not been a single published research article focused on OCD in African American youth. Ethnic and racial minorities with OCD are underrepresented or altogether absent from treatment centers and research studies, although evidence suggests that OCD may be particularly persistent in these populations. This article reviews risk factors, protective factors, and barriers to treatment in African American children and adolescents with OCD. This review conceptualizes cultural differences in symptomology, low income, reduced access to care, racism, and mental health stigma, as risk factors. Also discussed are the roles of family factors in the development and maintenance of the disorder, including family accommodations, conflictual family communication, and parenting styles. Potential protective factors are also examined, including a positive ethnic identity, social support, present-centered time orientation, and religious communities. Implications of findings are discussed. There is an urgent need for research to understand the needs of African American children and adolescents with OCD. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Multidisciplinary approach of organic catatonia in children and adolescents may improve treatment decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahutte, Bertrand; Cornic, Françoise; Bonnot, Olivier; Consoli, Angèle; An-Gourfinkel, Isabelle; Amoura, Zahir; Sedel, Frédéric; Cohen, David

    2008-08-01

    Catatonia is an infrequent but severe condition in young people. Organic diseases may be associated and need to be investigated though no specific recommendations and guidelines are available. We extensively reviewed the literature of all the cases of organic catatonia in children and adolescents from January 1969 to June 2007. We screened socio-demographic characteristics, organic diagnosis, clinical characteristics and treatment. We found 38 cases of children and adolescents with catatonia due to an organic condition. The catatonic syndrome occurred in 21 (57%) females and 16 (43%) males. The mean age of patients was 14.5 years (+/-3.39) [range=7-18 years], and three died from their condition. The organic conditions included infectious diseases (N=10), neurological conditions (N=10), toxic induced states (N=12) and genetic conditions including inborn errors of metabolism (N=6). The onset was dominantly acute, and the clinical presentation most frequently stuporous. Although benzodiazepines were recommended as primary symptomatic treatment, they were rarely prescribed. In several cases, therapeutic approach was related to organic cause (e.g., plasma exchange in lupus erythematosus; copper chelators in Wilson's disease). Based on this review and on our own experience of catatonia in youth, we proposed a consensual and multidisciplinary diagnostic strategy to help practitioners to identify underlying organic diseases.

  9. Risperidone treatment for ADHD in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Biederman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Biederman, Paul Hammerness, Robert Doyle, Gagan Joshi, Megan Aleardi, Eric MickPediatric Psychopharmacology Research Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USAObjective: Children and adolescents with bipolar disorder are also at high risk of having comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The objective of this study was to estimate improvement in ADHD symptoms in children with bipolar disorder.Methods: This was an open-label, study of risperidone monotherapy for the treatment of pediatric bipolar disorder. Thirty-one children and adolescents 4–15 years of age (7.2 ± 2.8 years of both sexes (71%, N = 22 male with pediatric bipolar disorder (YMRS score = 32.9 ± 8.8 and ADHD (ADHD-RS score = 37.9 ± 8.9 were included in these analyses.Results: Improvement in ADHD symptoms was contingent on improvement in manic symptoms. Although both hyperactive/impulsive (−7.5 ± 5.5.6, p < 0.05 and inattentive (−6.8 ± 5.0, p < 0.05 ADHD symptoms were significantly improved with risperidone, improvement was modest, and only 29% of subjects (N = 6 showed a 30% reduction in ADHD rating scale scores and had a CGI-I ≤ 2.Conclusions: These results suggest that that treatment with risperidone is associated with tangible but generally modest improvement of symptoms of ADHD in children with bipolar disorder.Keywords: ADHD, bipolar disorder, children, risperidone

  10. Clozapine Treatment and Cannabis Use in Adolescents with Psychotic Disorders – A Retrospective Cohort Chart Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sephora M.; Ansarian, Aylar; Courtney, Darren B.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between clozapine treatment and frequency of cannabis use in adolescents with co-occurring psychotic and cannabis use disorder in a retrospective cohort chart review. Method We conducted a retrospective cohort chart review of patients diagnosed with a psychotic disorder and concurrent cannabis use disorder admitted to a tertiary care youth inpatient unit from 2010–2012. Longitudinal exposure and outcome data was coded month-by-month. Frequency of cannabis use was measured using a 7-point ordinal scale. Severity of psychosis was measured on a 3-point ordinal scale. Mixed effects regression modeling was used to describe the relationship between exposure and outcome variables. Results Thirteen patients had exposure to clozapine and fourteen had no exposure to clozapine. Cannabis use decreased in patients treated with clozapine, compared to patients treated with other antipsychotics (OR 2.8; 95% CI 0.97–7.9). Compared to no medication, clozapine exposure was associated with significantly less cannabis use (OR 7.1; 95% CI 2.3–22.3). Relative to treatment with other antipsychotics, clozapine exposure was significantly associated with lower severity of psychotic symptoms (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.2–11.8). Conclusions Clozapine may lead to decreased cannabis use and psychotic symptoms in adolescents with concurrent psychosis and substance use. Clinical trials are warranted. PMID:28331504

  11. Treatment outcomes in HIV-infected adolescents attending a community-based antiretroviral therapy clinic in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nglazi Mweete D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very few data are available on treatment outcomes of adolescents living with HIV infection (whether perinatally acquired or sexually acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study therefore compared the treatment outcomes in adolescents with those of young adults at a public sector community-based ART programme in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods Treatment outcomes of adolescents (9-19 years were compared with those of young adults (20-28 years, enrolled in a prospective cohort between September 2002 and June 2009. Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess outcomes and determine associations with age, while adjusting for potential confounders. The treatment outcomes were mortality, loss to follow-up (LTFU, immunological response, virological suppression and virological failure. Results 883 patients, including 65 adolescents (47 perinatally infected and 17 sexually infected and 818 young adults, received ART. There was no difference in median baseline CD4 cell count between adolescents and young adults (133.5 vs 116 cells/μL; p = 0.31. Overall mortality rates in adolescents and young adults were 1.2 (0.3-4.8 and 3.1 (2.4-3.9 deaths per 100 person-years, respectively. Adolescents had lower rates of virological suppression (p p = 0.0001. Treatment failure rates were 8.2 (4.6-14.4 and 5.0 (4.1-6.1 per 100 person-years in the two groups. In multivariate analyses, there was no significant difference in LTFU and mortality between age groups but increased risk in virological failure [AHR 2.06 (95% CI 1.11-3.81; p = 0.002] in adolescents. Conclusions Despite lower virological suppression rates and higher rates of virological failure, immunological responses were nevertheless greater in adolescents than young adults whereas rates of mortality and LTFU were similar. Further studies to determine the reasons for poorer virological outcomes are needed.

  12. Orthodontic treatment need for adolescents in the Campania region: the malocclusion impact on self-concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perillo L

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Letizia Perillo,1 Maria Esposito,2 Alberto Caprioglio,3 Stefania Attanasio,1 Annamaria Chiara Santini,2 Marco Carotenuto2 1Department of Orthodontics, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 3Department of Orthodontics, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy Background: Dental malocclusions can be considered not only as an oral health problem, because they are linked to quality of life perception. Many factors related to malocclusion have strong influences on the perception of facial esthetics (eg, anterior tooth alignment, tooth shape and position, lip thickness, symmetric gingival or tooth contour, lip profile, and overjet. Many reports have shown that the perception of facial esthetics can influence psychological development from early childhood to adulthood. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of dental malocclusion on self-esteem in a sample of adolescents. Materials and methods: The study population was composed of 516 orthodontically untreated subjects (256 males mean ages 13.75±1.977 years recruited from schools in the Campania region of Italy between January 2011 and July 2011. To evaluate the self-esteem grade in our population, all subjects filled out the Multidimensional Self Concept Scale questionnaire and attended an orthodontic clinical evaluation to estimate dental occlusal aspects. Results: Pearson's analysis shows the relationship in our sample between some occlusal characteristics (crossbite and dental crowding and aspects of self-concept evaluation (social, competence, academic, physical, and global score of the Multidimensional Self Concept Scale questionnaire. Moreover, logistic regression analysis shows the potential role of dental crowding (odds ratio 5.359; 95% confidence interval 3.492–8.225 and crossbite (odds ratio 6.153; 95% confidence

  13. Reliability, factor structure, and validity of the German version of the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children in a sample of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Matulis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSC-C is the most widely used self-report scale to assess trauma-related symptoms in children and adolescents on six clinical scales. The purpose of the present study was to develop a German version of the TSC-C and to investigate its psychometric properties, such as factor structure, reliability, and validity, in a sample of German adolescents. Method: A normative sample of N=583 and a clinical sample of N=41 adolescents with a history of physical or sexual abuse aged between 13 and 21 years participated in the study. Results: The Confirmatory Factor Analysis on the six-factor model (anger, anxiety, depression, dissociation, posttraumatic stress, and sexual concerns with the subdimensions preoccupation and distress revealed acceptable to good fit statistics in the normative sample. One item had to be excluded from the German version of the TSC-C because the factor loading was too low. All clinical scales presented acceptable to good reliability, with Cronbach's α's ranging from .80 to .86 in the normative sample and from .72 to .87 in the clinical sample. Concurrent validity was also demonstrated by the high correlations between the TSC-C scales and instruments measuring similar psychopathology. TSC-C scores reliably differentiated between adolescents with trauma history and those without trauma history, indicating discriminative validity. Conclusions: In conclusion, the German version of the TSC-C is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing trauma-related symptoms on six different scales in adolescents aged between 13 and 21 years.

  14. [Biologicals for children and adolescents in the treatment of rheumatic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, H-I

    2012-09-01

    Following pharmacolegal measures several biologic agents have been tested in children and adolescents with rheumatic diseases, mainly juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), in controlled trials and have been introduced into treatment algorithms. This was achieved by international research cooperation and after introduction of well-defined criteria for disease entities, disease activity, improvement and deterioration. Etanercept, adalimumab, abatacept, tocilizumab and canakinumab have obtained limited licenses. Etanercept is the longest available biologic agent. Etanercept or adalimumab are the treatment of choice when methotrexate is not sufficient or toxic in children with polyarthritis. Tocilizumab is given to patients with systemic JIA when glucocorticoids fail or become toxic. These and other biologic agents including anakinra and rituximab are effectively applied also off label; however, there is a lack of long-term studies. These drugs should be prescribed only by pediatric rheumatologists.

  15. Development of adaptable and flexible treatment manuals for externalizing and internalizing disorders in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauermeister José J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the process used to develop treatment manuals for internalizing and externalizing disorders in children and adolescents. These manuals were developed to offer health care providers and others working in child mental health a flexible intervention that could be adapted to different countries and localities based on: 1 the amount of health care and school resources that are available; 2 the nature and severity of the types of problems children have; and 3 the preferences and cultural factors that are important within these communities. We also discuss the experiences and cultural issues faced by sites in Egypt, Lebanon, Israel, and Brazil who volunteered to implement the manualized treatment programs. The feedback received from these sites indicates that the manuals can be implemented to help children with internalizing and externalizing problems.

  16. The Structure of Self-Serving Cognitive Distortions: A Validation of the "How I Think" Questionnaire in a Sample of Italian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchini, Dario; De Angelis, Grazia; Affuso, Gaetana; Brugman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the structure of self-serving cognitive distortions (CD), evaluating the psychometric properties of the How I Think Questionnaire in a sample of Italian adolescents. A confirmatory factor analysis supported the distinction between four categories of CD and the use of a single second-order dimension of CD. Reliability…

  17. Illicit Drug Use, Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviour among a Sample of High School Adolescents in the Pietersburg Area of the Northern Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…

  18. Effectiveness of a School-Based Yoga Program on Adolescent Mental Health, Stress Coping Strategies, and Attitudes toward Violence: Findings from a High-Risk Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jennifer L.; Bose, Bidyut; Schrobenhauser-Clonan, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a universal yoga-based social-emotional wellness promotion program, Transformative Life Skills, on indicators of adolescent emotional distress, prosocial behavior, and attitudes toward violence in a high-risk sample. Participants included 49 students attending an alternative education school in an…

  19. Toward Effective Evaluation of Environmental Education: Validity of the Children's Environmental Attitudes and Knowledge Scale Using Data from a Sample of Irish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh-Daneshmandi, Anne; MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    Evaluation of environmental education (EE) interventions is at an early stage of development. Within a quantitative paradigm, the authors examined the psychometric properties of the Children's Environmental Attitudes and Knowledge Scale (CHEAKS) with data from a sample of Irish adolescents (N = 338) participating in a repeated measures design.…

  20. A Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Physical Activity in an Overweight/Obese Population Sample of Adolescents from Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lubans, David R.; Costigan, Sarah A.; McCargar, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for explaining physical activity (PA) intention and behavior among a large population sample of overweight and obese adolescents (Alberta, Canada), using a web-based survey. Secondary objectives were to examine the mediating effects of the TPB constructs and moderating effects…

  1. Profiles of Personal Resiliency for Normative and Clinical Samples of Youth Assessed by the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents[TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince-Embury, Sandra; Steer, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Cluster analyses with the three global scores of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents[TM] (RSCA) were used to determine personal resiliency profiles within normative (641) and outpatient clinical (285) samples of youth aged 9 to 18 years. Normative and clinical profiles were compared with each other and the clinical profiles were…

  2. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury as a Time-Invariant Predictor of Adolescent Suicide Ideation and Attempts in a Diverse Community Sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, K.; Fox, K.R.; Prinstein, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Longitudinal data on adolescent self-injury are rare. Little is known regarding the associations between various forms of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors over time, particularly within community samples that are most relevant for prevention efforts. This study examined nonsuicidal s

  3. Working memory capacity and psychotic-like experiences in a general population sample of adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eZiermans

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM impairment is a common feature in individuals with schizophrenia and high-risk for psychosis and a promising target for early intervention strategies. However, it is unclear to what extent WM impairment parallels specific behavioral symptoms along the psychosis continuum. To address this issue, the current study investigated the relation of WM capacity with psychotic-like experiences (PLEs in a large Swedish population sample (N = 1012 of adolescents and young adults (M = 24.4 years, range 12-35. WM was assessed with two online computer tasks: A task where participants had to identify and remember the location of an odd shape and a task of remembering and following instructions. PLE scores were derived from a translated symptom questionnaire (Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences; CAPE, which includes positive, negative and depressive symptom scales. Positive and negative symptom scales were further subdivided into symptom clusters based on factor analyses. The results showed that low WM capacity was modestly associated with increased reports of bizarre experiences and depressive symptoms, after controlling for age, gender, and global symptom scores. Interestingly, when analyses were repeated for separate age groups, low WM was exclusively associated with a higher frequency of bizarre experiences for young adults (20 - 27 years and with depressive symptoms for older adults (28 - 35 years. These findings suggest that specific PLEs can be indicative of reduced WM capacity in early adulthood, which in turn may reflect an increased risk for psychosis and a greater need for targeted intervention. In contrast, during adolescence individual differences in cognitive development may influence the strength of the relationships and thereby mask potential vulnerabilities for psychopathology.

  4. The effect of reboxetine in the treatment of depression in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashakori A.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depressive disorders in children and adolescents are chronic and highly morbid. Few studies are carried out on antidepressant drugs for depressed youths, especially specific noradrenergic agents. Reboxetine is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of reboxetine in childhood and adolescent depression. Methods: Twenty patients of both genders, aged 7-17 years old, with major depressive or dysthymic disorders, as classified by the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, participated in an 8-week clinical trial before-after study of reboxetine. Clinical semistructured interviews, based on the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS, were carried out. Reboxtine was initiated at a dose of 1 mg/day and increased up to 6 mg/day. Patients were assessed for changes in: depressive symptoms using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI and global functioning by the Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS. Side effect questionnaire was also administered. Results: There was a significant decrease in the ineffectiveness subscale (C factor of CDI (p=0.006. Although the CDI scores decreased by 32.69%, this change was not significant (p=0.39. No significant change in C-GAS (p=0.2 was observed. Adverse effects were relatively mild to moderate and transient. The most common adverse effects were decreased appetite and sedation. Conclusions: Reboxetine is relatively well tolerated and improves feelings of ineffectiveness among depressed children and adolescents; however it does not improve all depressive symptoms. Double-blind, placebo and active comparator controlled studies and larger sample sizes are indicated.

  5. Transactional effects among maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and child conduct problems from early childhood through adolescence: A tale of two low-income samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel S; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Reuben, Julia; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

    2016-08-01

    The current study sought to advance our understanding of transactional processes among maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and child conduct problems (CP) using two samples of low-income families assessed repeatedly from early childhood to early adolescence. After accounting for initial levels of negative parenting, independent and reciprocal effects between maternal depressive symptoms and child CP were evident across both samples, beginning in early childhood and continuing through middle childhood and adolescence. In addition, neighborhood effects were consistently found in both samples after children reached age 5, with earlier neighborhood effects on child CP and maternal depression found in the one exclusively urban sample of families with male children. The results confirm prior research on the independent contribution of maternal depression and child CP to the maintenance of both problem behaviors. The findings also have implications for designing preventative and clinical interventions to address child CP for families living in high-risk neighborhoods.

  6. Oncogenic HPV Types Infection in Adolescents and University Women from North Portugal: From Self-Sampling to Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the HPV infection status in adolescents and young university women in Portugal. The distribution of HPV genotypes was evaluated by PCR DNA genotyping after self-sampling collection from 435 women of exfoliated cervical cells using a commercial kit. We observed an overall frequency of HPV infection of 11.5%. Furthermore, HPV DNA prevalence was 16.6% in those young women that self-declared as sexually active. The more frequently detected HPV types were 31, 16, 53, and 61. Statistical analysis identified median age (OR=3.56; P=0.001, the number of lifetime sexual partners (OR=4.50; P<0.001, and years of sexual activity (OR=2.36; P=0.008 as risk factors for HPV acquisition. Hence, our study revealed that oncogenic HPV infection is common in young asymptomatic women Portuguese women, with a history of 2–5 sexual partners and over 2 year of sexual activity. Moreover, these results demonstrate that HPV detection performed in self-collected samples may be important to appraise better preventive strategies and to monitorize the influence of vaccination programmes within different populations.

  7. The effects of positive and negative parenting practices on adolescent mental health outcomes in a multicultural sample of rural youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Bacallao, Martica L; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R

    2015-06-01

    The quality of parent-child relationships has a significant impact on adolescent developmental outcomes, especially mental health. Given the lack of research on rural adolescent mental health in general and rural parent-child relationships in particular, the current longitudinal study explores how rural adolescents' (N = 2,617) perceptions of parenting practices effect their mental health (i.e., anxiety, depression, aggression, self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction) over a 1 year period. Regression models showed that current parenting practices (i.e., in Year 2) were strongly associated with current adolescent mental health outcomes. Negative current parenting, manifesting in parent-adolescent conflict, was related to higher adolescent anxiety, depression, and aggression and lower self-esteem, and school satisfaction. Past parent-adolescent conflict (i.e., in Year 1) also positively predicted adolescent aggression in the present. Current positive parenting (i.e., parent support, parent-child future orientation, and parent education support) was significantly associated with less depression and higher self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction. Past parent education support was also related to current adolescent future optimism. Implications for practice and limitations were discussed.

  8. Social Recovery Model: An 8-Year Investigation of Adolescent 12-step Group Involvement following Inpatient Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John F.; Brown, Sandra A.; Abrantes, Ana; Kahler, Christopher; Myers, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite widespread use of 12-step treatment approaches and referrals to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) by youth providers, little is known about the significance of these organizations in youth addiction recovery. Furthermore, existing evidence is based mostly on short-term follow-up and is limited methodologically. Methods Adolescent inpatients (N = 160; M age = 16, 40% female) were followed at 6-months, and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 years post-treatment. Time-lagged, generalized estimating equations (GEE) modeled treatment outcome in relation to AA/NA attendance controlling for static and time-varying covariates. Robust regression (LOWESS) explored dose-response thresholds of AA/NA attendance on outcome. Results AA/NA attendance was common and intensive early post-treatment, but declined sharply and steadily over the 8-year period. Patients with greater addiction severity and those who believed they could not use substances in moderation were more likely to attend. Despite declining attendance, the effects related to AA/NA remained significant and consistent. Greater early participation was associated with better long-term outcomes. Conclusions Even though many youth discontinue AA/NA over time, attendees appear to benefit, and more severely substance-involved youth attend most. Successful early post-treatment engagement of youth in abstinence-supportive social contexts, such as AA/NA, may have long-term implications for alcohol and drug involvement into young adulthood. PMID:18557829

  9. Adolescent Depression and Externalizing Problems: Testing Two Models of Comorbidity in an Inpatient Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Allison Schettini; Frank, Susan J.

    2004-01-01

    Differentiating between additive (quantitative) and interactive (qualitative) effects of comorbidity has important treatment implications. This study illustrates the heuristic superiority of a multifactorial approach over simple group comparisons in testing quantitative versus qualitative models of comorbidity. Analysis of variance was used to…

  10. Poor outcomes in a cohort of HIV-infected adolescents undergoing treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Mumbai, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Isaakidis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB in HIV-co-infected adolescents. This study aimed to present the intermediate outcomes of HIV-infected adolescents aged 10-19 years receiving second-line anti-TB treatment in a Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF project in Mumbai, India. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records of 11 adolescents enrolled between July 2007 and January 2013 was undertaken. Patients were initiated on either empirical or individualized second-line ambulatory anti-TB treatment under direct observation. RESULTS: The median age was 16 (IQR 14-18 years and 54% were female. Five (46% adolescents had pulmonary TB (PTB, two (18% extrapulmonary disease (EPTB and four (36% had both. Median CD4 count at the time of MDR-TB diagnosis was 162.7 cells/µl (IQR: 84.8-250.5. By January 2013, eight patients had final and 3 had interim outcomes. Favourable results were seen in four (36.5% patients: one was cured and three were still on treatment with negative culture results. Seven patients (64% had poor outcomes: four (36.5% died and three (27% defaulted. Three of the patients who died never started on antiretroviral and/or TB treatment and one died 16 days after treatment initiation. Two of the defaulted died soon after default. All patients (100% on-treatment experienced adverse events (AEs: two required permanent discontinuation of the culprit drug and two were hospitalized due to AEs. No patient required permanent discontinuation of the entire second-line TB or antiretroviral regimens. CONCLUSIONS: Early mortality and mortality after default were the most common reasons for poor outcomes in this study. Early mortality suggests the need for rapid diagnosis and prompt treatment initiation, and adolescents might benefit from active contact-tracing and immediate referral. Default occurred at different times, suggesting the need for continuous, intensified and individualized psychosocial

  11. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  12. Does Scoliosis-Specific Exercise Treatment in Adolescence Alter Adult Quality of Life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Płaszewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Health-related quality of life in adults, who in adolescence participated in a scoliosis-specific exercise program, was not previously studied. Design. Cross-sectional study, with retrospective data collection. Material and Methods. Homogenous groups of 68 persons (43 women aged 30.10 (25–39 years, with mild or moderate scoliosis, and 76 (38 women able-bodied persons, aged 30.11 (24–38 years, who 16.5 (12–26 years earlier had completed scoliosis-specific exercise or observation regimes, participated. Their respiratory characteristics did not differ from predicted values. The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, and pain scale (VAS were applied. Results. The transformed WHOQOL-BREF scores ranged from 54.6 ± 11.19 in the physical domain in the mild scoliotic subgroup to 77.1 ± 16.05 in the social domain in the able-bodied subgroup. The ODQ values did not generally exceed 5.3 ± 7.53. Inter- and intragroup differences were nonsignificant. Age, marital status, education, and gender were significantly associated with the ODQ scores. Significant association between the ODQ and WHOQOL-BREF social relationships domain scores with the participation in exercise treatment was found. Conclusions. Participants with the history of exercise treatment generally did not differ significantly from their peers who were only under observation. This study cannot conclude that scoliosis-specific exercise treatment in adolescence alters quality of life in adulthood.

  13. Factors influencing the perceived orthodontic treatment need and its relationship with awareness of malocclusion among college adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha P Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The orthodontic need assessment is of interest for dental public health programs. The major factors determining a patient′s perceived need for orthodontic treatment may be aesthetic, functional, financial, or social. Adolescents seeking orthodontic treatment have been found to have poorer aesthetics than their peers, but whether poor aesthetics alone generates greater treatment demand has not been determined in the Indian context. Objective: The aim was to study the factors determining perceived orthodontic treatment need among college adolescents. Materials and Methods: A total of 448 adolescents between 17 and 19 years of age were selected randomly from the colleges. Data were collected on pretested and standardized questionnaire. Perceived need for orthodontic treatment was assessed by asking question to the participants. Dental Esthetic Index (DAI was used to assess the severity of malocclusion. Results: The prevalence of malocclusion was 21.6% as per DAI. The perceived need for orthodontic treatment was 11.2%, though the level of dissatisfaction with dental appearance was 19.2%. No agreement was seen between the treatment need assessed objectively by DAI and that perceived by the patient. The determinants for perceived and normative orthodontic treatment need were socioeconomic status (SES, awareness of malocclusion, dissatisfaction with dental appearance and avoided smile due to dental appearance. The positive correlation between perceived and normative need was statistically significant. Conclusion: The uptake of orthodontic care may be influenced by SES, awareness of malocclusion; dissatisfaction with dental appearance, perceived need and DAI score.

  14. Sensitization and cross-sensitization after chronic treatment with methylphenidate in adolescent Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvassori, Samira S; Frey, Benício N; Martins, Márcio R; Réus, Gislaine Z; Schimidtz, Filipe; Inácio, Cecília G; Kapczinski, Flávio; Quevedo, João

    2007-05-01

    An increasing debate exists about the potential of early exposure to methylphenidate to increase the risk for drug abuse. In addition, little is known about the neurobiological effects of early exposure to methylphenidate. This study was designed to investigate whether chronic treatment with methylphenidate induces behavioral sensitization to subsequent methylphenidate and D-amphetamine challenge in adolescent Wistar rats. Young Wistar rats (P25) were treated with either methylphenidate (1, 2, or 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or saline for 28 days. After 14 days of washout, animals were challenged with methylphenidate 2.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally or D-amphetamine 2 mg/kg intraperitoneally (P67). Locomotor behavior was assessed using the open field test. Rats chronically treated with methylphenidate in the adolescent period showed augmented locomotor sensitization to D-amphetamine but not to methylphenidate in the adult phase. These findings suggest that early exposure do methylphenidate might increase the risk for subsequent D-amphetamine abuse. Further studies focusing on the neurobiological effects of early exposure to methylphenidate are warranted.

  15. Challenges faced in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levine SR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Selena R Levine,1 Jennifer L McNeer,2 Michael S Isakoff1 1Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Connecticut Children’s Medical Center and University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Hartford, CT, 2Section of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago Comer Children's Hospital, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: The survival rate for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL has dramatically improved over the last 50 years. However, for those in the adolescent and young adult (AYA age-group of 15–30 years with ALL, there has not been the same degree of improvement. Historically, pediatric and adult providers have utilized different treatment approaches based on clinical trials. However, studies that have compared the outcome of AYA patients with ALL treated on pediatric or adult clinical trials have generally shown substantially better outcomes for this patient population treated with the pediatric trials. Additionally, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been considered as part of intensified therapy for AYA patients with ALL. Herein, we review the outcomes with chemotherapy alone and with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and explore the challenges faced in determining the ideal therapy for the AYA population of patients. Keywords: adolescent young adult oncology, leukemia, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

  16. Long-Term Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence in HIV-Infected Adolescents and Adults in Uganda: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzaule, Seth C.; Hamers, Raph L.; Kityo, Cissy; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Roura, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-term success of HIV antiretroviral therapy requires near-perfect adherence, maintained throughout one’s lifetime. However, perceptions towards ART and patterns of adherence may change during the life course. We assessed challenges to long-term adherence in adolescents and adults in three regional HIV treatment centers in Uganda. Methods We conducted 24 in-depth interviews and 2 focus group discussions with a total of 33 health-care providers and expert clients (HIV patients on long-term ART who assist with adherence support of fellow patients). Interview topics included experiences with patients on long-term treatment with either declining adherence or persistent poor adherence. Transcribed texts were coded and analyzed based on the social-ecological framework highlighting differences and commonalities between adolescents and adults. Results The overarching themes in adolescents were unstructured treatment holidays, delays in disclosure of HIV status by caretakers, stigma, which was mainly experienced in boarding schools, and diminishing or lack of clinical support. In particular, there was minimal support for early and gradual disclosure for caretakers to the infected children, diminishing clinical support for young adults during transition to adult-based care and declining peer-to-peer support group activities. The predominating theme in adults was challenges with treatment access among temporary economic migrants. Common themes to adults and adolescents were challenges with disclosure in intimate relationships, treatment related factors including side effects, supply of single tablets in place of fixed-dose combined drugs, supply of drug brands with unfavorable taste and missed opportunities for counseling due to shortage of staff. Conclusion Adherence counseling and support should be adapted differently for adolescents and adults and to the emerging life course challenges in long-term treated patients. Programs should also address constraints

  17. Predictive Properties of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test within Samples from Two Treatment Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, Madhabi

    The predictive properties of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test (GSRT) were examined, taking into account the stated purposes of the test and the context of test use. Two samples were used: (1) a control sample of 55 students (21 males and 34 females) whose GSRT scores were not used for placement or tracking; and (2) a treatment sample of…

  18. INCANT: A transnational randomized trial of Multidimensional Family Therapy versus treatment as usual for adolescents with cannabis use disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Rigter (Henk); I. Pelc (Isidore); P. Tossmann (Peter); O. Phan (Olivier); E. Grichting (Esther); V. Hendriks (Vincent); C. Rowe (Cindy)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In 2003, the governments of Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland agreed that there was a need in Europe for a treatment programme for adolescents with cannabis use disorders and other behavioural problems. Based on an exhaustive literature review of evide

  19. The Contribution of Background Variables, Internal and External Resources to Life Satisfaction among Adolescents in Residential Treatment Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschitz-Elhawi, Racheli; Itzhaky, Haya; Michal, Hefetz

    2008-01-01

    The article deals with the contribution of background variables (gender, years of residence in a treatment center, and family status), internal resource (self-esteem), and external resources (peer, family and significant other support, sense of belonging to the community) to life satisfaction among adolescents living in residential treatment…

  20. Bone mineral density in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and disruptive behavior disorder with or without antipsychotic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Y.; Harten, P.N. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Tenback, D.E.; Quekel, L.G.; Rijke, Y.B. de; Boot, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term effects of antipsychotic (AP) treatment and AP-induced hyperprolactinemia on bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). DESIGN: Physically healthy 10- to

  1. Bone mineral density in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and disruptive behavior disorder with or without antipsychotic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Roke (Yvette); P.N. van Harten (Peter); J.K. Buitelaar (Jan); D.E. Tenback (Diederik); L.G.B.A. Quekel (Lorentz G. B.); Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda); A.M. Boot (Annemieke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To investigate the long-term effects of antipsychotic (AP) treatment and AP-induced hyperprolactinemia on bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). Design: Physically hea

  2. Bone mineral density in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and disruptive behavior disorder with or without antipsychotic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; van Harten, Peter N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Tenback, Diederik E.; Quekel, Lorentz G. B. A.; de Rijke, Yolanda B.; Boot, Annemieke M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the long-term effects of antipsychotic (AP) treatment and AP-induced hyperprolactinemia on bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). Design: Physically healthy 10- to

  3. Long-term oral methylphenidate treatment in adolescent and adult rats: differential effects on brain morphology and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marel, K. van der; Klomp, A.; Meerhoff, G.F.; Schipper, P.; Lucassen, P.J.; Homberg, J.R.; Dijkhuizen, R.M.; Reneman, L.

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate is a widely prescribed psychostimulant for treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents, which raises questions regarding its potential interference with the developing brain. In the present study, we investigated effects of 3 weeks oral me

  4. Fluoxetine Treatment for Prevention of Relapse of Depression in Children and Adolescents: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, Graham J.; Heiligenstein, John H.; Hoog, Sharon L.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Findling, Robert L.; McCracken, James T.; Nilsson, Mary E.; Jacobson, Jennie G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare fluoxetine 20 to 60 mg/day with placebo for prevention of relapse of major depressive disorder in children and adolescents who had achieved Children's Depression Rating Scale, Revised scores of [less than or equal to]28 during treatment with fluoxetine 20 to 60 mg. Method: In this 32-week relapse-prevention phase of a…

  5. Self-perception and quality of life in adolescents during treatment for a primary malignant bone tumour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riel, C.A.H.P. van; Meijer-van den Bergh, E.M.; Kemps, H.L.; Feuth, T.; Schreuder, H.W.B.; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.; Groot, I.J.M. de; Mavinkurve-Groothuis, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Adolescents experience physical and psychosocial changes as part of their normal development. It can be hypothesized that they have lower scores on Quality of Life (QoL) and self-perception when additional changes occur due to cancer treatment. The purpose of our study was to assess self-pe

  6. Antisocial Behavior and Psychoactive Substance Involvement among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Caucasian Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David G.; Brown, Sandra A.; Myers, Mark G.

    1997-01-01

    Compared conduct disorder behaviors and substance involvement of Hispanic (n=34) and non-Hispanic Caucasian (n=34) adolescents so as to determine pre-treatment problem behavior. Results indicate that non-Hispanic Caucasian youth were three times as likely to be diagnosed with conduct disorder prior to substance involvement than were their Hispanic…

  7. Adolescent experiences of violence and relation to violence perpetration beyond young adulthood among an urban sample of Black and African American males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Lawrence, Danielle A; Santana, M C; Welles, C Seth L; Horsburgh, C Robert; Silverman, Jay G; Rich, John A; Raj, Anita

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if experiences of physical violence during early and late adolescence (12-21 years) places urban Black males at increased risk for interpersonal violence perpetration beyond young adulthood (30 years and older). Participants of this cross-sectional study were Black and African American men (N = 455) between the ages of 30 and 65 years, recruited from four urban clinical sites in the Northeast. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the relation of adolescent experiences of violence to: (1) past 6 month street violence involvement and (2) past year intimate partner violence perpetration. Ten percent of the sample reported that they experienced adolescent victimization. Men reporting adolescent victimization were significantly more likely to report past 6-month street violence involvement (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 3.2, 95 % CI = 1.7-6.3) and past 6 month intimate partner violence perpetration (AOR = 2.8, 95 % CI = 1.8-5.4) compared to men who did not report such victimization. Study findings suggest that in order to prevent adulthood perpetration of violence, more work is needed to address experiences of victimization among young Black males, particularly violence experienced during adolescence.

  8. Video Games Exposure and Sexism in a Representative Sample of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bègue, Laurent; Sarda, Elisa; Gentile, Douglas A.; Bry, Clementine; Roché, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Research has indicated that many video games are saturated with stereotypes of women and that these contents may cultivate sexism. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between video game exposure and sexism for the first time in a large and representative sample. Our aim was also to measure the strength of this association when two other significant and well-studied sources of sexism, television exposure and religiosity, were also included in a multivariate model. A representative sample of 13520 French youth aged 11–19 years completed a survey measuring weekly video game and television exposure, religiosity, and sexist attitudes toward women. Controlling for gender and socioeconomic level, results showed that video game exposure and religiosity were both related to sexism. Implications of these results for future research on sexism in video games are discussed.

  9. Treatment of 56 Cases of Women with Post-adolescent Acne by Auricular Point Sticking Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Min; JIANG Ya-qiu; CUI Xue-jun

    2008-01-01

    @@ Acne is a common disorder in adolescence. However, more and more patients are over 25 years old. This type of acne is recurrent, so it is called post-adolescence acne. The author treated 56 cases of women with post-adolescence acne by auricular point sticking method, and obtained excellent results. It is reported as follows.

  10. Mania Symptoms and HIV-Risk Behavior among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Angela J.; Theodore-Oklota, Christina; Hadley, Wendy; Brown, Larry K.; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether adolescents with elevated symptoms of mania (ESM+) engage in more HIV risk behaviors than those with other psychiatric disorders and examined factors associated with HIV risk behavior among ESM+ adolescents. Eight hundred forty adolescents (56% female, 58% African American, "M" age = 14.9 years) who received mental…

  11. Joint Association of Screen Time and Physical Activity with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in a National Sample of Iranian Adolescents: The CASPIANIII Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Heshmat

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS and its contributing factors are considered important health problems in the pediatric age group. This study was designed to assess the joint association of ST and PA with cardiometabolic risk factors among Iranian adolescents. A representative sample of 5625 (50.2% boys school students with a mean age of 14.73 (SD: 2.41 were selected through multistage random cluster sampling method from urban and rural areas of 27 provinces in Iran. ST and PA were assessed by self-administered validated questionnaires. Anthropometric measures (height, weight and waist circumference (WC and MetS components (abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure (BP, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, elevated triglycerides (TG and high fasting blood sugar (FBG were measured according to standardized protocols. MetS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria modified for the pediatric age group. Moreover, elevated total cholesterol (TC, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and generalized obesity were considered as other cardiometabolic risk factors. Students with high ST levels had significantly higher body mass index z-score (BMI z-score, WC, TG, LDL-C, and BP as well as lower HDL-C level; whereas those with high PA levels had significantly higher HDL-C levels as well as lower BMI z-score, TC, and BP. Adolescents with low PA/ high ST levels had significantly higher BMI, WC, LDL-C levels, as well as higher SBP and DBP compared to their other counterparts. In Multivariate model, joint effect of low PA/ high ST (compared to the high PA/low ST group increased the odds of overweight, abdominal obesity and low HDL-C and decreased the odds of elevated TC. The findings of this study showed that joint association of high ST and low PA have direct association with abdominal obesity, overweight and low HDL-C and indirect association with elevated TC.

  12. Behavioural activation for the treatment of low-income, African American adolescents with major depressive disorder: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Maryann; Keeley, Mary L; Ritschel, Lorie; Craighead, W Edward

    2013-01-01

    Behavioural activation (BA) is a psychosocial treatment that has shown promise in the treatment of adults suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent studies have shown that BA may also be effective for treating depressed adolescents. There are no studies that have reported on the BA treatment of depressed and low-income African American adolescents; thus, the current study reports on the effectiveness of a version of BA adapted for the treatment of African American adolescents who were diagnosed with MDD (n = 3). Participants were allowed to attend a maximum of 17 sessions of weekly psychotherapy. Based on results taken from structured interviews, two of the three participants no longer met criteria for MDD at the end of treatment, and the severity of clinician-rated depressive symptoms and impairment decreased for all participants at post-treatment assessment. Additionally, all participants and their caregivers reported satisfaction with treatment. Implications of these findings, study limitations and suggestions for future directions are discussed.

  13. Generalized Anxiety Symptoms and Identity Processes in Cross-Cultural Samples of Adolescents from the General Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Hale, William W.; Dimitrova, Radosveta; Abubakar, Amina; Gao, Cheng Hai; Pesigan, Ivan Jacob Agaloos

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately 20 % of adolescents around the world experience mental health problems, most commonly depression or anxiety. High levels of anxiety disorder symptoms can hinder adolescent development, persist into adulthood, and predict negative mental outcomes, such as suicidal ideation a

  14. Revising the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale: A Test of the Four-Factor Structure in a Chinese Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongfei; Hong, Chaoqin; Tao, Xiaodan; Zhu, Lingyi

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the structure, reliability, and validity of the revised Chinese version of the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (N = 933). The results confirmed the four-factor structure of the Chinese version of the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided.

  15. Body mass index and smoking: cross-sectional study of a representative sample of adolescents in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhariwal, Mukesh; Rasmussen, Mette; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2010-01-01

    To quantify the association between body mass index (BMI) and smoking (at all and daily smoking) stratified by gender, family social class, and ethnicity among adolescents aged between 13 and 15.......To quantify the association between body mass index (BMI) and smoking (at all and daily smoking) stratified by gender, family social class, and ethnicity among adolescents aged between 13 and 15....

  16. Parental communication appears not to be an effective strategy to reduce smoking in a sample of Dutch Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harakeh, Z.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Exter Blokland, E.A.W. den; Scholte, R.H.J.; Vermulst, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the reciprocal effects of the frequency of parent-adolescent communication on tobacco-related issues (smoking-specific communication), and adolescents' smoking. Participants were 428 Dutch older and younger siblings between 13 and 16 years old. Smoking-specific commu

  17. Generalized Anxiety Symptoms and Identity Processes in Cross-Cultural Samples of Adolescents from the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Hale, William W., III.; Dimitrova, Radosveta; Abubakar, Amina; Gao, Cheng-Hai; Agaloos Pesigan, Ivan Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately 20% of adolescents around the world experience mental health problems, most commonly depression or anxiety. High levels of anxiety disorder symptoms can hinder adolescent development, persist into adulthood, and predict negative mental outcomes, such as suicidal ideation and attempts. Objectives: We analyzed generalized…

  18. Stimulant treatment in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder moderates adolescent academic outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Robyn L; Marks, David J; Miller, Carlin J; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2008-10-01

    Treatment with psychostimulant medication has been shown to improve scholastic functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the extent to which long-term academic gains are apparent in those having received such treatment remains elusive. This study examined prospectively the relationship of childhood stimulant treatment to academic functioning during adolescence. Children (n = 169) were initially recruited and diagnosed with ADHD when they were 7-11 years old. A subsample of those with childhood ADHD (n = 90) was reevaluated on average 9.13 (SD = 1.5) years later. Probands who did and did not receive treatment with stimulant medication were compared to each other and to a never-ADHD comparison group (n = 80) on three subtests from the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II (WIAT-II), as well as high school grade point average (GPA) and number of retentions in school as derived from school records. Analyses of covariance controlling for severity of childhood ADHD symptoms indicated that probands treated with psychostimulant medication achieved better academic outcomes, as measured by WIAT-II subtests and high school GPA, than those not treated with psychostimulants (p academic performance, although the extent of improvement is likely to vary as a function of multiple factors.

  19. [Factors influencing the course and duration of inpatient child and adolescent psychiatric treatment: between empiricism and clinical reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branik, Emil

    2003-09-01

    In the last two decades considerable changes influenced the scope of inpatient treatment in child and adolescent psychiatry. Proceeding from a literature review dilemmas between available research data and clinical practice will be pointed out. Proposals will be made to take into account the complex developmental processes, the individuality and the social context by psychic impaired children and adolescents requiring hospitalisation. This could improve the transfer of research findings into the clinical practice. It will be argued against a confusion of economical interests with research findings.

  20. Quality of life improves in children and adolescents during a community-based overweight and obesity treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Pernille M; Nielsen, Tenna R H; Bøjsøe, Christine

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The quality of life is compromised in children and adolescents with overweight or obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the quality of life improves during a community-based overweight and obesity treatment, and whether improvements depend on reductions in the degree...... of obesity. METHODS: Quality of life was assessed using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 4.0 in children and adolescents aged 3-18 years with overweight or obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥85th percentile] upon entry into a community-based chronic care overweight and obesity treatment based...... upon The Children's Obesity Clinic's Treatment protocol, and upon follow-up after 10-30 months of treatment. Height and weight were measured at each consultation and converted into a BMI standard deviation score (SDS). RESULTS: Upon entry, 477 children (212 boys) completed a PedsQL, and 317 (143 boys...